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Sample records for risk sensation seeking

  1. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Guszkowska

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.

  2. Sensation seeking in males involved in recreational high risk sports

    OpenAIRE

    M Guszkowska; A Bołdak

    2010-01-01

    The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98); wakeboarding (n=30); snowboarding (n=30);...

  3. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event

  4. Varied definitions of risk related to sensation seeking trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1999-12-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event.

  5. Sensation seeking related to varied definition of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dastol, O.U.; Drottz-Sjoberg, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    This pilot study is based on the assumption that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. It has been shown in previous risk perception studies that some people report their definition or normal use of the concept of risk as e.g. mainly probability, a combination of probability and consequences, mainly consequences, or due to the nature of the event (Drottz-Sjoeberg, 1991). Another field of research has developed measures for personality traits, i.e. facets of Sensation Seeking; Disinhibition, Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, and Boredom Susceptibility (Zuckerman, 1994). The design of the present study involved three independent groups of first year psychology students (N=93). They were presented with one of three response formats regarding their normal use of the word risk, i.e. an open-ended format, separate ratings of four items suggesting a definition of risk on five-point scales, and one single five-point scale with the extremes labelled probability and consequences, and with their combination as the scale mid-point. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was 'danger', but among the responses were also 'chance', and 'outcome'. Another finding was that people who defined risk as 'outcome' and 'chance', using the open-ended format tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale than those who defined risk as 'danger'. In addition, subjects who defined risk as the 'combination' of probability and consequences, using other response formats, also tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), especially as compared to those defining risk as the 'probability' of an event. (authors)

  6. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Sensation seeking as risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S

    2012-12-20

    High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  9. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested.

  10. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  11. Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

  12. Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D; Husain, Masud

    2013-08-07

    Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling.

  13. Personality correlates of caffeine dependence: the role of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Heather A; Lejuez, C W

    2005-08-01

    The consumption of caffeine has become a growing concern, partially because of the withdrawal properties of the drug. The current study examined personality correlates of caffeine consumption and dependence in 60 university students. Self-report and behavioral measures of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and risk taking were administered to 2 groups, identified as caffeine dependent-high consuming or caffeine nondependent-low consuming. Scores on self-report measures of sensation seeking and impulsivity were related to group status, and only sensation seeking evidenced a significant relationship with group status when both variables were considered in a regression analysis. Implications of these findings and future directions are discussed. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour among adults with tattoos and piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Hyo Young

    2017-12-13

    Background: In recent years, increasing numbers of adults and adolescents have opted to undergo tattoo and piercing procedures. Studies among adolescents with tattoo and piercing have usually explored the relationship between one factor and the decision to have tattoos and/or piercings. The aim of this study was to determine relationships between body cosmetic procedures and selfesteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviours among adults. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e. , those with (n=429) and those without tattoos/piercings (n=237), and self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour were compared between the two groups using self-report questionnaires. To analyse differences in self-esteem and the propensity for sensation seeking, general characteristics were statistically adjusted. In addition, general characteristics, self-esteem, and propensity for sensation seeking were statistically adjusted to determine differences in the propensity for risk behaviour between the two groups. Results: Significant differences were observed in age, marital status, income level, occupation, values or sensitivity to fashion, and educational level between the group with and that without tattoos/ piercings. There was no significant difference in self-esteem, whereas there were significant differences in the propensity for sensation seeking and risk behaviour between the two groups. Conclusions: Continuous attention to, and interest in, the increased incidence of tattooing and piercing are necessary, especially in terms of public interventions for health education and health promotion, as these forms of self-adornment are associated with behaviours that pose a risk to health.

  15. Self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour among adults with tattoos and piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Kyung Hong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, increasing numbers of adults and adolescents have opted to undergo tattoo and piercing procedures. Studies among adolescents with tattoo and piercing have usually explored the relationship between one factor and the decision to have tattoos and/or piercings. The aim of this study was to determine relationships between body cosmetic procedures and selfesteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviours among adults. Materials and Methods: The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e., those with (n=429 and those without tattoos/piercings (n=237, and self-esteem, propensity for sensation seeking, and risk behaviour were compared between the two groups using self-report questionnaires. To analyse differences in self-esteem and the propensity for sensation seeking, general characteristics were statistically adjusted. In addition, general characteristics, self-esteem, and propensity for sensation seeking were statistically adjusted to determine differences in the propensity for risk behaviour between the two groups. Results: Significant differences were observed in age, marital status, income level, occupation, values or sensitivity to fashion, and educational level between the group with and that without tattoos/ piercings. There was no significant difference in self-esteem, whereas there were significant differences in the propensity for sensation seeking and risk behaviour between the two groups. Conclusions: Continuous attention to, and interest in, the increased incidence of tattooing and piercing are necessary, especially in terms of public interventions for health education and health promotion, as these forms of self-adornment are associated with behaviours that pose a risk to health.

  16. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  17. The Influence of Sensation-Seeking and Parental and Peer Influences in Early Adolescence on Risk Involvement through Middle Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in Grade 6, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over 3 years. Youth sensation-seeking in Grade 6 contributed to risk…

  18. Impulsivity but not sensation seeking is associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Elise N; Rosen, Kristen D; Gutierrez, Antonio; Eckmann, Maxim; Ramamurthy, Somayaji; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe

    2013-05-01

    Impulsivity and sensation seeking have been associated with substance use disorders, including opioid use disorders. This pilot study sought to examine whether impulsivity and sensation seeking, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), were associated with opioid analgesic misuse risk in chronic, low-back pain patients prescribed opioid analgesics. Participants were 42 chronic, low-back pain patients enrolled in a larger study examining problematic opioid analgesic use. Impulsivity was assessed using the BIS, sensation seeking was measured using the SSS, and opioid analgesic misuse risk was assessed using the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM). Significant bivariate associations were found between the COMM and the following predictor variables: age and the three BIS subscales: Attentional Impulsiveness, Non-planning Impulsiveness, and Motor Impulsiveness. Using a multivariate linear regression, after controlling for age, the BIS subscales accounted for 29.0% of the variance in the COMM. Attentional Impulsiveness was the only significant BIS subscale. These results suggest a potential relationship between impulsivity, but not sensation seeking, and risk for opioid analgesic misuse. Impulsivity is not a prominent trait observed in chronic pain patients; however, it may be an important risk factor for opioid analgesic misuse for a subset of individuals with chronic pain. As such, these findings suggest that additional exploration of this potential risk factor is warranted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A longitudinal examination of the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and STI-related risk factors among African American females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R; Tan, Kevin; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with STI-related risk factors in numerous cross sectional studies. However, no current studies have examined whether sexual sensation seeking is longitudinally related to a broad spectrum of STI-related factors such as consistent condom use, number of sexual partners, frequency of partner sexual communication, self-efficacy to refuse sex, and fear of condom negotiation. We explored these relationships over a 12-month period among a sample of 715 African American females attending three STI clinics in Georgia that were recruited into a larger randomized clinic intervention study. Utilizing A-CASI technology to assess all self-reported measures and employing general estimation equations while controlling for age, peer norms, school enrollment and employment, major results indicated that higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower percent of condom use in the last 14 and 60 days, lower consistent condom use and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. Additionally, higher sexual sensation seeking predicted lower partner sexual communication, diminished self-efficacy to refuse sex, and a higher fear of condom negotiation. Findings suggest that STI/HIV prevention/intervention programs should assess for and target sexual sensation seeking behaviors in such efforts.

  20. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

  1. Sensation Seeking: A Potential Factor Influencing Perceived Risk and Perceived Competence in an Introductory Scuba Diving Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Cass

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the sensation-seeking personality trait to changes in perceived risk and perceived competence during an adventure experience. Participants (n = 57) were enrolled in a 14-week introductory scuba diving course offered at a university in eastern North Carolina in 2006. The data was analyzed using a…

  2. Preadolescent sensation seeking and early adolescent stress relate to at-risk adolescents' substance use by age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E; Mathias, Charles W; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M

    2017-06-01

    Substance use during adolescence can lead to the development of substance use disorders and other psychosocial problems. These negative outcomes are especially likely for individuals who use substances at earlier ages and those who engage in heavier use during adolescence, behaviors which are both more common among youth at higher risk for developing a substance use disorder, such as those with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+). Factors such as increased sensation seeking and greater exposure to stressors among FH+ youth may influence these associations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relative and unique contributions of sensation seeking during preadolescence and exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence to cumulative substance use by mid-adolescence among FH+ youth. A total of 167 mostly Hispanic FH+ youth (ages 12-15) who were participating in an ongoing longitudinal study were included in these analyses. Participants' data from biennial waves covering approximately 2.5years were used. Self-reported sensation seeking, exposure to stressors, and substance use were compared. Higher sensation seeking during preadolescence and greater exposure to stressors during early to mid-adolescence were both associated with substance use by age 15. These factors differentiated Substance Users from Non-Users, and also related to level of substance use. Elevated sensation seeking and exposure to stressors are both associated with substance use by age 15 among high-risk youth. Additionally, these factors can distinguish youth who develop heavier substance use during this important developmental period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities.

  4. Sensation Seeking and Risk-Taking Propensity as Mediators in the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and HIV-Related Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Gwadz, Marya A.; Kahler, Christopher; Aklin, W. M.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Although a wealth of literature suggests that childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse are related to later-life HIV-related risk behaviors, few studies have explored disinhibition (e.g., impulsivity, risk-taking propensity, and sensation-seeking) as a risk factor in this relationship. Method: This cross-sectional study examined…

  5. Sensation Seeking Predicting Growth in Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R.; Swann, Greg; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13-18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  6. Sensation seeking in opium abusers compared to normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows that it is possible to identify people at risk of substance abuse using some personality variables. Identification of these people might help social planners to deal with these people specifically in their prevention attempts. The aim of this study was to compare the sensation seeking of opium addicted and non-addicted people using the sensation seeking scale. Such a comparison might help to identify personality variables that are effective in turning toward substance abuse. In order to measure the sensation seeking of subjects “Sensation Seeking Scale” (SSS were used. 31 opium abusers were matched to 31 normal controls according to the following variables: age, education, father and mother education. Results showed that opium abusers obtain higher scores on the total sensation seeking score ,“variety seeking” and “experience seeking” subscales.

  7. Circadian typology and sensation seeking in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The relationship of circadian typology with personality has been largely studied in adults, but there are few studies exploring such relationship in adolescents. Adolescence has been associated with a greater tendency to eveningness preference, sleeping problems, poorer academic achievement, earlier substance use, or risky behaviors, and it is suggested that this association might be mediated by personality factors. Given the relevance of identifying the behavioral outcomes of young evening types to detect and prevent health problems, the present study aimed to explore, for the first time, the relationship between sensation seeking and circadian typology in an adolescent sample of 688 students (51.45% boys) from 12 to 16 yrs old. They answered the Spanish versions of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Junior Sensation Seeking Scale (J-SSS), which includes four subscales measuring Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. Analyses showed that boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls on J-SSS total score and all subscales except Boredom Susceptibility, whereas evening-type adolescents of both sexes scored significantly higher than neither types and than morning types on J-SSS total score. These results indicate that evening-type adolescents show a greater desire for varied, new, complex, and intense sensations, and they are ready for experiencing more risks than morning types. The implications of this study suggest the need of being aware of individual differences in the SS trait in evening-type adolescents, as well as taking into account the wide variety of behaviors associated with it, either prosocial or antisocial, to design better preventive health and academic programs.

  8. Dual Trajectories of Reactive and Proactive Aggression from Mid-childhood to Early Adolescence: Relations to Sensation Seeking, Risk Taking, and Moral Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Colasante, Tyler; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis; Eisner, Manuel P

    2016-05-01

    We examined the roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the development of reactive and proactive aggression. Data were drawn from a multiethnic, longitudinal study of children from Switzerland (N = 1571; 52 % male; assessed annually over 6 years; 7-years-old at Time 1). At all 6 time points, teachers reported children's reactive and proactive aggression via questionnaire. Children's sensation seeking (at Time 1) and risk taking (at Time 2) were assessed with two interactive computer tasks and their moral reasoning was assessed at Time 2 in response to four hypothetical vignettes depicting moral transgressions. Parallel process Latent Class Growth Analysis (PP-LCGA) identified six dual trajectories of reactive and proactive aggression. Children with either childhood-limited or adolescent-onset aggression showed high sensation seeking. Children with persistent, high levels of both reactive and proactive aggression across time showed high levels of sensation seeking and risk taking, as well as low levels of moral reasoning. Children with only high risk taking were more likely to display moderate levels of aggression across time. These findings highlight the shared and differential roles of sensation seeking, risk taking, and moral reasoning in the dual development of reactive and proactive aggression from mid-childhood to early adolescence. We discuss implications for common and tailored strategies to combat these aggression subtypes.

  9. Mediating influences of negative affect and risk perception on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; Sanders, Patricia E; Bekman, Nicole M; Worley, Matthew J; Monreal, Teresa K; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A

    2011-06-01

    A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p perception. These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect.

  10. Can Personality Account for Differences in Drinking between College Athletes and Non-Athletes? Explaining the Role of Sensation Seeking, Risk-Taking, and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Scaglione, Nichole; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Collegiate athletes are an at-risk population for high risk drinking and related consequences when compared to the general college student population. However, little is known about how aspects of an individual's personality contribute to this relationship, making intervention efforts challenging. The current study examined sensation seeking,…

  11. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities. PMID:27030784

  12. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydary, Koosha; Mahin Torabi, Somayeh; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Noori, Mehri; Noroozi, Alireza; Ameri, Sara; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker) and former (abstinent) heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS). Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS), experience seeking (ES), disinhibition (DIS), and boredom susceptibility (BS), there was a borderline difference in DIS (P = 0.08) as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB). In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI) (P = 0.03) and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI) (P = 0.05) in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P = 0.015). IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people. PMID:27051528

  13. Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and Risk-Taking Behaviors among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Heroin Dependent Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koosha Paydary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to compare impulsivity and risky decision making among HIV-positive and negative heroin dependent persons. Methods. We compared different dimensions of impulsivity and risky decision making in two groups of 60 HIV-positive and 60 HIV-negative male heroin dependent persons. Each group was comprised of equal numbers of current (treatment seeker and former (abstinent heroin addicts. Data collection tools included Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART, Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS, and Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS. Results. In SSS, comprised of four subscales including thrill and adventure seeking (TAS, experience seeking (ES, disinhibition (DIS, and boredom susceptibility (BS, there was a borderline difference in DIS (P=0.08 as HIV-positive group scored higher than HIV-negative group. Also, ES and total score were significantly higher among HIV-positive patients. In BART, HIV-positive subjects scored higher in risk taking than HIV-negative subjects as reflected in higher Average Number of puffs in Successful Balloons (ANSB. In BIS, HIV-positive group scored significantly higher in cognitive impulsivity (CI (P=0.03 and nonplanning impulsivity (NPI (P=0.05 in comparison to HIV-negative group. Also, current heroin addicts scored significantly higher in NPI compared to former addict HIV-negative participants (P=0.015. IGT did not show any significant difference between groups. Conclusion. Higher levels of impulsivity and risk taking behaviors among HIV-positive heroin addicts will increase serious concerns regarding HIV transmission from this group to other opiate dependents and healthy people.

  14. Sexual sensation seeking, co-occurring sex and alcohol use, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents in treatment for substance use problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Saavedra, Lissette M; Csizmadia, Annamaria

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated relations between sexual sensation seeking, co-occurring sex and alcohol use, and sexual risk behaviors (eg, unprotected intercourse and multiple sex partners) among adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse problems. The ethnically diverse sample included 394 adolescents recruited from outpatient treatment (280 males; Mage  = 16.33 years, SDage  = 1.15). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect paths between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk behaviors via the frequency of co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Conditional indirect effects by gender were also tested. Analyses identified significant effects of sexual sensation seeking on co-occurring sex and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. The path from co-occurring sex and alcohol use to unprotected intercourse was significantly stronger among adolescent girls, suggesting a mediation effect moderated by gender. No gender difference was found for the indirect path from sexual sensation seeking and number of past year sexual partners via co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Selected prevention efforts are needed to promote HIV risk reduction among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The documented conditional indirect effect for unprotected intercourse suggests that HIV prevention programs should pay special attention to gender-specific patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior when tailoring program content. (Am J Addict 2013; 22:197-205). Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. The relationships between anglers' risk perception, sensation-seeking, and fishing site choice along the northeast and Yilan Coast Scenic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang

    2009-01-01

    The northeastern coast is one of the best fishing areas in Taiwan, but the terrain, weather, and tides can create a dangerous and even deadly environment. This study examines the relationships between anglers' risk perceptions, sensation seeking, and fishing site choices. Results from a survey conducted at Long-Don in 2005 were analyzed for four dimensions of...

  16. Presence seeking and sensation seeking as motives for international travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, G

    1994-12-01

    Although independent research has identified presence seeking and sensation seeking as important motives for a variety of activities, there is sufficient conceptual overlap to suggest the concepts describe in part the same motive or are related. The possible relationship was examined in motives of students for international travel. Nonsignificant correlations suggest that, at least for this activity, they are differentiable.

  17. Examining Risk-Taking Behavior and Sensation Seeking Requirement in Extreme Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agilonu, Ali; Bastug, Gulsum; Mutlu, Tonguc Osman; Pala, Adem

    2017-01-01

    Extreme sports are sport branches which include actions, adventures, risks and difficulties more rather than other sports. Special materials are used in sport branches such as surfing, kite surfing, sailing, snowboarding, paragliding, diving, mountaineering, motor sports and adrenaline release is more rather than in other sport branches. On the…

  18. Sensation seeking as a common factor in opioid dependent subjects and high risk sport practicing subjects. A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franques, P; Auriacombe, M; Piquemal, E; Verger, M; Brisseau-Gimenez, S; Grabot, D; Tignol, J

    2003-03-01

    Animal research has outlined a vulnerability trait to drug dependence like behavior. The behavioral characteristic of this vulnerability is hyperactivity in response to a novel environment of which sensation seeking (SS) has been suggested as a possible equivalent in humans. If this is the case, SS should be more frequent in drug dependent and risky sports practicing subjects then controls. The objective of this study was to determine if opioid dependent subjects (ODS) and regular paragliders (RP) would be more SS then normal controls. Cross sectional study. Three groups of 34 individuals (total 102) matched for age and sex were selected from ODS seeking treatment, a paragliding club, and a college staff. Global and sub-scores of the Zuckerman sensation seeking scale (SSS). Non parametric statistics (Kruskal Wallis and Wilcoxon 2-Sample Tests) were used given the non-normal distribution of SSS scores in the ODS and RP groups. Significant differences were found across the three groups for the Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) (P = 0.001), dishinibition (Dis) (P = 0.0003) and total score (P = 0.001). ODS and RP scored significantly higher than controls on two (Dis and the TAS scales). RP also scored significantly higher on the Boredom Susceptibility (BS) scale (P = 0.04). Our results show that RP and ODS differ from controls and have some similarities based on the SSS. In this study, the ODS and the RP could express different forms of a general tendency to seek intense and abrupt sensations through various behaviors. Our results in humans are in favor of the hypothesis that the behavioral trait of vulnerability to drug dependence behavior is expressed through SS. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  19. The association of hand preference and sensation seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuderer, Sonja; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    Although the human body shows a superficial symmetry, the disparate functions and skills of both body halves lead to an asymmetrical use. As a result, lateral preferences are detectable, which also include the favoured use of one hand ('handedness'). The collection of questionnaire data on sensation seeking and the conduction of behavioral handedness tasks by 55 research participants enabled the investigation of the interaction of handedness and sensation seeking. For this procedure the age-homogeneous study population is divided according to the Handedness-Index (HI) - a calculated value, indicating the practical hand preference. The results reveal a stronger lateralization in right-handed participants as well as a difference in the mean value of hand use in the three handedness groups. Sensation seeking behavior shows significant negative correlations with age as well as with the HI. Higher scores of left-handers in Experience Seeking (ES), Sensation Seeking (SS) as well as in Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TAS) indicate a larger risk investment in this handedness group. Hence, the results of this study suggest that handedness is a strong indicator of risk behavior.

  20. Motivations and sensation seeking characteristics of recreational storm chasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuangyu Xu; Sonja Wilhelm Stanis; Carla Barbieri; Jiawen. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about recreational storm chasing, a type of risk recreation that has increased in popularity since the 1990s. This study was conducted to understand factors associated with participation in recreational storm chasing in the United States. Particularly, this study assessed the motivations and sensation seeking attributes of recreational storm chasers, as...

  1. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral measures of risk tasking, sensation seeking and sensitivity to reward may reflect different motivations for spicy food liking and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Nadia K; Hayes, John E

    2016-08-01

    Based on work a quarter century ago, it is widely accepted personality traits like sensation seeking are related to the enjoyment and intake of spicy foods; however, data supporting this belief is actually quite limited. Recently, we reported strong to moderate correlations between remembered spicy food liking and two personality traits measured with validated questionnaires. Here, participants consumed capsaicin-containing strawberry jelly to generate acute estimates of spicy food liking. Additionally, we used a laboratory-based behavioral measure of risk taking (the mobile Balloon Analogue Risk Task; mBART) to complement a range of validated self-report measures of risk-related personality traits. Present data confirm Sensation Seeking correlates with overall spicy meal liking and liking of the burn of a spicy meal, and extends prior findings by showing novel correlations with the liking of sampled stimuli. Other personality measures, including Sensitivity to Punishment (SP), Sensitivity to Reward (SR), and the Impulsivity and Risk Taking subscales of the DSM5 Personality Inventory (PID-5) did not show significant relationships with liking of spicy foods, either sampled or remembered. Our behavioral risk taking measure, the mBART, also failed to show a relationship with remembered or sampled liking. However, significant relationships were observed between reported intake of spicy foods and Sensitivity to Reward, and the Risk Taking subscale of the PID-5 (PID5-RT). Based on the observed patterns among various personality measures, and spicy food liking and intake, we propose that personality measures may exert their influence on intake of spicy food via different mechanisms. We also speculate that Sensation Seeking may reflect motivations for consuming spicy foods that are more intrinsic, while the motivations for eating spicy foods measured by SR and PID5-RT may be more extrinsic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensation seeking moderates the effects of alcohol and drug use prior to sex on sexual risk in young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Clerkin, Elise M; Mustanski, Brian

    2011-04-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in the United States each year, and young MSM (ages 13-24) have the highest increases in new infections. Identifying which young MSM engage in sexual risk-taking in which contexts is critical in developing effective behavioral intervention strategies for this population. While studies have consistently found positive associations between the use of certain drugs and sexual risk, research on alcohol use as a predictor of risk has been less consistent. Participants included 114 young MSM from a longitudinal study of LGBT youth (ages 16-20 at baseline). Participants reported number of unprotected sex acts with up to nine partners across three waves of data collection spanning a reporting window of 18 months, for a total of 406 sexual partners. Sensation seeking was evaluated as a moderator of the effects of both alcohol and drug use prior to sex on sexual risk. Higher levels of sensation seeking were found to significantly increase the positive associations between frequency of unprotected sex and frequency of both alcohol use and drug use with partners. Follow-up analysis found that average rates of alcohol use moderated the association between alcohol use prior to sex and sexual risk, such that decreases in average alcohol use increased the positive association between these variables. Results suggest that while drug use with partners increased sexual risk for all young MSM, the effects of alcohol use prior to sex were limited in low sensation-seeking young MSM as well as those who are high alcohol consumers on average. Implications for future research and behavioral interventions are discussed.

  4. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  5. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Thomson

    Full Text Available Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4 influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599 that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  6. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  7. The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

  8. Person × Environment Interactions on Adolescent Delinquency: Sensation Seeking, Peer Deviance and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Harden, K Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2015-04-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is robustly correlated with delinquent behavior in adolescence. The current study tested specific contextual factors hypothesized to facilitate, exacerbate or attenuate this risk factor for adolescent delinquency. Individual differences in sensation seeking, peer deviance, parental monitoring and self-reported delinquent behavior were assessed in a sample of 470 adolescents. Peer deviance partially mediated the effects of sensation seeking and parental monitoring on adolescent delinquency. We also found evidence for a three-way interaction between sensation seeking, peer deviance and parental monitoring, such that the highest rates of delinquency occurred from the concurrence of high sensation seeking, high peer deviance, and low levels of parental monitoring. Results highlight the importance of considering peer- and family-level processes when evaluating personality risk and problematic adolescent behavior.

  9. Altered Developmental Trajectories for Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking among Adolescent Substance Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Nora E.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Mathias, Charles W.; Acheson, Ashley; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have associated impulsivity and sensation seeking with level of substance use and risk for developing a substance use disorder. These relationships may be particularly apparent during adolescence, when developmental changes in impulsivity and sensation seeking occur at the same time as increased opportunities for substance use. To examine this, the current study measured impulsivity and sensation seeking from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence in a sample of youth, the majority of whom were identified as being at risk for developing a substance use disorder based on their family history of substance use disorders. Youth were separated into those who did (n = 117) and did not (n = 269) initiate substance use by mid-adolescence. Results showed that substance users were more impulsive and more sensation seeking during pre-adolescence, prior to any significant substance use, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence was related to heavier substance use by mid-adolescence. In addition, developmental trajectories for substance-using youth showed a greater increase in sensation seeking but a more modest decrease in impulsivity from pre-adolescence to mid-adolescence. Taken together, these results indicate that increased impulsivity and sensation seeking is apparent in adolescent substance users as early as pre-adolescence, that the difference between substance users and non-users becomes larger across early adolescence as their developmental trajectories diverge, and that greater sensation seeking in pre-adolescence may predict increased substance use by mid-adolescence. PMID:27174219

  10. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  11. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

  12. Neighborhood Moderation of Sensation Seeking Effects on Adolescent Substance Use Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michaeline; Chassin, Laurie; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-09-01

    Adolescent substance use carries a considerable public health burden, and early initiation into use is especially problematic. Research has shown that trait sensation seeking increases risk for substance use initiation, but less is known about contextual factors that can potentially unmask this risk. This study utilized a diverse longitudinal subsample of youth (N = 454) from a larger study of familial alcoholism (53.1% female, 61% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27.8% Hispanic, 11.2% other ethnicity). Study questions examined sensation seeking in early adolescence (mean age = 12.16) and its relations with later substance use initiation (mean age = 15.69), and tested whether neighborhood disadvantage moderated sensation seeking's effects on initiation of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. Neighborhood disadvantage significantly moderated the relation between sensation seeking and all three forms of substance use. For the most part, sensation seeking effects were weakened as neighborhood disadvantage increased, with the most advantaged neighborhoods exhibiting the strongest link between sensation seeking and substance use initiation. These results highlight the importance of focusing on relatively advantaged areas as potentially risky environments for the sensation seeking pathway to substance use.

  13. Physical Self Perception and Sensation seeking tendency in gym gores

    OpenAIRE

    Schlegel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Annotation: The work deals with the relationship between physical self-concept and experience of the search terms sensation seeking. It contains theoretical research of these areas, their position in the discourse of fitness and also presents a starting points for comparison. The research was conducted on a group of gym-goers and analyzed the relationship of concepts Physical Self Perception Profile and Sensation Seeking Scale version V including individual subscales. Comparison showed a weak...

  14. Variants in the Dopamine-4-Receptor Gene Promoter Are Not Associated with Sensation Seeking in Skiers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Cynthia J.; Rajala, Amelia K.; Carlson, Scott R.; Rupert, Jim L.

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regio...

  15. Differences in risk experience between sensation avoiders and sensation seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S

    The prime purpose of our study was to find out whether the need for stimulation has a systematic influence on perceived risk. While driving on a motorway, 21 male sensation avoiders and 21 male sensation seekers had to follow another car, once at a free following distance chosen by the subject

  16. Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents' perceptions of cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, K C; Kelly, K J; Comello, M L

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents' brand perceptions. High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as "cherry", while in the traditional descriptor condition the cigarette brands were described with common phrases found on tobacco packages such as "domestic blend." Following exposure to each package participants' hedonic beliefs, brand attitudes and trial intentions were assessed. Sensation seeking was also measured, and participants were categorised as lower or higher sensation seekers. Across hedonic belief, brand attitude and trial intention measures, there were interactions between package descriptor condition and sensation seeking. These interactions revealed that among high (but not low) sensation seekers, exposure to cigarette packages including sweet flavour descriptors led to more favourable brand impressions than did exposure to packages with traditional descriptors. Among high sensation seeking youths, the appeal of cigarette brands is enhanced through the use of flavours and associated descriptions on product packaging.

  17. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  18. Premeditation moderates the relation between sensation seeking and risky substance use among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Connor J; Louie, Kristine A; King, Kevin M

    2015-09-01

    Young adulthood is a peak period for externalizing behaviors such as substance abuse and antisocial conduct. Evidence from developmental neuroscience suggests that externalizing conduct within this time period may be associated with a "developmental asymmetry" characterized by an early peak in sensation seeking combined with a relatively immature impulse control system. Trait measures of impulsivity-sensation seeking and premeditation-are psychological manifestations of these respective systems, and multiple prior studies suggest that high sensation seeking and low premeditation independently confer risk for distinct forms of externalizing behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this developmental asymmetry hypothesis, examining whether trait premeditation moderates the effect of sensation seeking on substance use and problems, aggression, and rule-breaking behavior. Using a cross-sectional sample of college-enrolled adults (n = 491), we applied zero-inflated modeling strategies to examine the likelihood and level of risky externalizing behaviors. Results indicated that lower premeditation enhanced the effect of higher sensation seeking on higher levels of positive and negative alcohol consequences, more frequent drug use, and more problematic drug use, but was unrelated to individual differences in antisocial behaviors. Our findings indicate that the developmental asymmetry between sensation seeking and a lack of premeditation is a risk factor for individual differences in problematic substance use among young adults, and may be less applicable for antisocial behaviors among high functioning individuals. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Sensation seeking and smoking behaviors among adolescents in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heejin; Park, Sunhee

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between the four components of sensation seeking (i.e., disinhibition, thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, and boredom susceptibility) and three types of smoking behavior (i.e., non-smoking, experimental smoking, and current smoking) among high school students in the Republic of Korea. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed using two models. In Model 1, the four subscales of sensation seeking were used as covariates, and in Model 2, other control factors (i.e., characteristics related to demographics, individuals, family, school, and friends) were added to Model 1 in order to adjust for their effects. In Model 1, the impact of disinhibition on experimental smoking and current smoking was statistically significant. In Model 2, the influence of disinhibition on both of these smoking behaviors remained statistically significant after controlling for all the other covariates. Also, the effect of thrill and adventure seeking on experimental smoking was statistically significant. The two statistically significant subscales of sensation seeking were positively associated with the risk of smoking behaviors. According to extant literature and current research, sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition, is strongly associated with smoking among youth. Therefore, sensation seeking should be measured among adolescents to identify those who are at greater risk of smoking and to develop more effective intervention strategies in order to curb the smoking epidemic among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2015-04-09

    Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance-like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a vulnerability factor. © The Author 2015. Published by

  1. Individual Differences in Cognitive Control Circuit Anatomy Link Sensation Seeking, Impulsivity, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinshead, Marisa O.; Roffman, Joshua L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals vary widely in their tendency to seek stimulation and act impulsively, early developing traits with genetic origins. Failures to regulate these behaviors increase risk for maladaptive outcomes including substance abuse. Here, we explored the neuroanatomical correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus (n = 1015). These associations generalized to self-reported motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group (n = 219), and correlated with heightened alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine use. Critically, the relations between sensation seeking and brain structure were evident in participants without a history of alcohol or tobacco use, suggesting that observed associations with anatomy are not solely a consequence of substance use. These results demonstrate that individual differences in the tendency to seek stimulation, act on impulse, and engage in substance use are correlated with the anatomical structure of cognitive control circuitry. Our findings suggest that, in healthy populations, covariation across these complex multidimensional behaviors may in part originate from a common underlying biology. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Impaired cognitive control may result in a tendency to seek stimulation impulsively and an increased risk for maladaptive outcomes, including substance abuse. Here, we examined the structural correlates of sensation seeking and impulsivity in a large cohort of healthy young adults. Our analyses revealed links between sensation seeking and reduced cortical thickness that were preferentially localized to regions implicated in cognitive control, including anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus. The observed associations generalized to motor impulsivity, replicated in an independent group

  2. Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Alcohol Use: Exploring the Mediating Role of Unstructured Socializing With Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznitman, Sharon; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2017-05-01

    Researchers have theorized that adolescents high in sensation seeking are particularly sensitive to positive reinforcement and the rewarding outcomes of alcohol use, and thus that the personality vulnerability is a direct causal risk factor for alcohol use. In contrast, the routine activity perspective theorizes that part of the effect of sensation seeking on alcohol use goes through the propensity that sensation seekers have towards unstructured socializing with peers. The study tests a model with indirect and direct paths from sensation seeking and participation in unstructured peer socialization to adolescent alcohol use. Cross-sectional data were collected from 360 students in a state-secular Jewish high school (10th to 12th grade) in the center region of Israel. The sample was equally divided between boys (51.9%) and girls (48.1%), respondents' age ranged from 15 to 17 years (mean = 16.02 ± 0.85). Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect paths. While sensation seeking had a significant direct path to adolescent alcohol use, part of the association was mediated by unstructured socializing with peers. The mediated paths were similar for boys and girls alike. Sensation seeking is primarily biologically determined and prevention efforts are unlikely to modify this personality vulnerability. The results of this study suggest that a promising prevention avenue is to modify extracurricular participation patterns of vulnerable adolescents. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

  4. Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We…

  5. Sensation seeking, gender and programme preferences in televised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport has emerged as one of the major media events of our time of such magnitude that it is no more possible to distinguish between the phenomena of television and sport. The purpose of this study is to determine the relations between sensation seeking, gender and preferences in viewing televised sport. The reason ...

  6. Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

  7. Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D.; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A.; Grotzinger, Andrew D.; Patterson, Megan W.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Strathan, Dixie B.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2017-01-01

    Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB. PMID:28824215

  8. Baseline heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression in young adult women: a two-sample examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Although substantial literature discusses sensation seeking as playing a role in the relationship between baseline heart rate and aggression, few published studies have tested the relationships among these variables. Furthermore, most prior studies have focused on risk factors of aggression in men and have largely ignored this issue in women. Two samples (n = 104; n = 99) of young adult women completed measures of resting heart rate, sensation seeking, and aggression. Across the two samples of females there was no evidence for the relationships of baseline heart rate with sensation seeking or with aggression that has been consistently shown in males. Boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales of sensation seeking were consistently significantly correlated with aggression. The lack of significance and the small effect sizes indicate that other mechanisms are also at work in affecting aggression in young adult women. Finally, it is important to consider the type of sensation seeking in relation to aggression, as only boredom susceptibility and disinhibition were consistently replicated across samples. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sensation seeking and impulsive traits as personality endophenotypes for antisocial behavior: Evidence from two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Engelhardt, Laura; Briley, Daniel A; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Patterson, Megan W; Tackett, Jennifer L; Strathan, Dixie B; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael; Slutske, Wendy; Martin, Nicholas G; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2017-01-15

    Sensation seeking and impulsivity are personality traits that are correlated with risk for antisocial behavior (ASB). This paper uses two independent samples of twins to (a) test the extent to which sensation seeking and impulsivity statistically mediate genetic influence on ASB, and (b) compare this to genetic influences accounted for by other personality traits. In Sample 1, delinquent behavior, as well as impulsivity, sensation seeking and Big Five personality traits, were measured in adolescent twins from the Texas Twin Project. In Sample 2, adult twins from the Australian Twin Registry responded to questionnaires that assessed individual differences in Eysenck's and Cloninger's personality dimensions, and a structured telephone interview that asked participants to retrospectively report DSM-defined symptoms of conduct disorder. Bivariate quantitative genetic models were used to identify genetic overlap between personality traits and ASB. Across both samples, novelty/sensation seeking and impulsive traits accounted for larger portions of genetic variance in ASB than other personality traits. We discuss whether sensation seeking and impulsive personality are causal endophenotypes for ASB, or merely index genetic liability for ASB.

  10. Association of Smoking Onset With R-Rated Movie Restrictions and Adolescent Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Tanski, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10–14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were nationally representative of the US population. Subjects were monitored for 2 years and queried about their smoking status, their sensation-seeking propensity, and how often they were allowed to watch R-rated movies. A cross-lagged model combined with survival analysis was used to assess the relationships between parental R-rated movie restrictions, sensation-seeking propensity, and risk for smoking onset. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that 32% of the US adolescents reported being completely restricted from watching R-rated movies by their parents. Model findings revealed that adolescents' sensation seeking was related to greater risk for smoking onset not only directly but also indirectly through their parents becoming more permissive of R-rated movie viewing. Parental R-rated movie restrictions were found to decrease the risk of smoking onset directly and indirectly by changing children's sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that, beyond direct influences, the relationship between adolescents' sensation seeking and parental R-rated movie restrictions in explaining smoking onset is bidirectional in nature. Finally, these findings highlight the relevance of motivating and supporting parents in limiting access to R-rated movies. PMID:21135004

  11. Body Image And Sensation Seeking In Gym-Goers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Petr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to explore a relation between Body image (PSPP and Sensation Seeking (SSS-V and to determine gym-goers based on these entities. The research file (N = 182 consisted of gym-goers aged between 24 – 45. The comparison of the tests showed a weak relation (0.25 between PSPP and SST tests and also among the individual subscales. The comparison of men and women did not come up with any significant differences. In terms of Body image, the file showed above-average results, in the case of Sensation Seeking, its score was average. The outcome of our findings is that there is no marked relation between PSPP and SST and the same goes for men and women.

  12. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  13. Sensation seeking, peer deviance, and genetic influences on adolescent delinquency: Evidence for person-environment correlation and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Frank D; Patterson, Megan W; Grotzinger, Andrew D; Kretsch, Natalie; Tackett, Jennifer L; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M; Harden, K Paige

    2016-07-01

    Both sensation seeking and affiliation with deviant peer groups are risk factors for delinquency in adolescence. In this study, we use a sample of adolescent twins (n = 549), 13 to 20 years old (M age = 15.8 years), in order to test the interactive effects of peer deviance and sensation seeking on delinquency in a genetically informative design. Consistent with a socialization effect, affiliation with deviant peers was associated with higher delinquency even after controlling for selection effects using a co-twin-control comparison. At the same time, there was evidence for person-environment correlation; adolescents with genetic dispositions toward higher sensation seeking were more likely to report having deviant peer groups. Genetic influences on sensation seeking substantially overlapped with genetic influences on adolescent delinquency. Finally, the environmentally mediated effect of peer deviance on adolescent delinquency was moderated by individual differences in sensation seeking. Adolescents reporting high levels of sensation seeking were more susceptible to deviant peers, a Person × Environment interaction. These results are consistent with both selection and socialization processes in adolescent peer relationships, and they highlight the role of sensation seeking as an intermediary phenotype for genetic risk for delinquency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use for college-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Todd; Conner, Bradley T

    2015-03-01

    Substance use has been identified as a major problem on college campuses across the country, with excessive use often leading to unintended and unwanted negative health outcomes. Sensation seeking has been shown to be a consistent predictor of engagement in various health risk behaviors, including substance use. Religiosity has been shown to negatively predict substance use. However, there is mixed evidence on the relations among these risk and protective factors. This may be due to the operational definitions of religiosity in previous research. The current study investigated religiosity as a moderator of the relation between sensation seeking and substance use using robust measures of religiosity. The primary hypotheses were (a) sensation seeking would be positively associated with higher levels of heavy episodic drinking and marijuana use; (b) religiosity would be negatively associated with higher levels of substance use; and (c) religiosity would moderate the relation between sensation seeking and substance use such that, when religiosity was high, there would be no association between sensation seeking and substance use, but at low and moderate levels of religiosity, there would be a positive association between them. Religiosity was a significant moderator of the relation between risk seeking and marijuana use (p sensation seeking and heavy episodic drinking. Religiosity appears to have a stronger buffering effect for illegal drug use compared with alcohol use, perhaps in part because of the relative acceptance of alcohol consumption across major U.S. religious orientations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto-Rican Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Wall, Melanie M.; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation-seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Method Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (three assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation-seeking levels were characterized. Then, age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models (GMM). Results On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5–10) and increased during adolescence (ages 11–17). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico and among males vs. females. Four classes of sensation-seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation-seeking trajectories following the average for their age (“normative,” 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age (“low” sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an “accelerated” sensation-seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected, while a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation-seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation-seeking scores (“stabilizers”). Site (South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation-seeking trajectory. Conclusion It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26598479

  16. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  17. Influence of sensation seeking on response to alcohol versus placebo: implications for the acquired preparedness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Caitlin; Corbin, William R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified several aspects of behavioral undercontrol that are associated with heavy drinking and problems. Further, research on the acquired preparedness model (Smith and Anderson, 2001) has identified biased learning as a potential mechanism of these effects. Traits like sensation seeking have been linked to stronger positive and weaker negative expectancies, which, in turn, contribute to increased risk for heavy drinking and problems. Although expectancies are thought to represent potentially biased expectations about drinking outcomes, they may also reflect individual differences in alcohol response. The present study examined the strength of associations between sensation seeking and both expectancies (response to placebo) and subjective response under alcohol. Using a between-subjects design, young adult social drinkers (N = 236) were randomly assigned to receive alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration of .08%) or placebo, after which they reported on subjective experiences of stimulation and sedation. Sensation seeking was significantly related to stimulant response, and the strength of this association did not differ by beverage condition (alcohol vs. placebo). The findings argue against a pharmacological explanation for results of prior studies of the acquired preparedness model and support a biased learning interpretation of relations between sensation seeking and positive expectancies. Results also extend the findings on the acquired preparedness model to an implicit measure of positive alcohol expectancies (subjective response to placebo). Future studies using additional measures of implicit expectancies (e.g., Implicit Association Test) would be helpful in determining the relative strength of implicit and explicit expectancies as mediators within the acquired preparedness model.

  18. Sensation Seeking as one of the Motivating Factors for Performing Skydiving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bołdak Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For some time, the issue of participating in high-risk sports, including skydiving, has been linked to the trait of sensation seeking, but skydivers do not constitute a homogeneous group in terms of this factor. The aim of the study was to determine the role of the need for sensation in performing skydiving and to examine whether the importance of this factor differs depending on gender. Material and methods. The study included a total of 143 skydivers (98 men and 45 women aged from 17 to 49 years with different levels of expertise in skydiving. In total, 73 respondents were categorised as novices, and 70 were considered experts. Novice skydivers were defined as having completed no more than 10 jumps in their lives. Expert skydivers were persons who had made at least 100 jumps in their lives and had a licence to perform skydiving independently, without instructor supervision. The need for stimulation was measured using the Sensation Seeking Scale IV by Zuckerman, in its Polish version by Oleszkiewicz-Zsurzs. Results. Since a high proportion of individuals with a strong need for sensation was found among both men and women, it can be concluded that it is an important factor in primary selection in skydiving (when the sport is undertaken, regardless of gender. Conclusions. The significance of sensation seeking as a factor in secondary selection in skydiving (when the sport is being performed differs depending on the particular dimension of sensation seeking and gender. Susceptibility to boredom is probably a significant factor in secondary selection in women.

  19. Sensation seeking and visual selective attention in adults with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David J; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H; Levine, Andrew J; Lam, Mona N

    2008-11-01

    The association between sensation seeking and visual selective attention was examined in 31 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Sensation seeking was measured with Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V). Selective attention was assessed with a perceptual span task, where a target letter-character must be identified in a quickly presented array of nontarget letter-characters. As predicted, sensation seeking was strongly associated (R(2) = .229) with perceptual span performance in the array size 12 condition, where selective attention demands were greatest, but not in the easier conditions. The Disinhibition, Boredom Susceptibility, and Experience Seeking subscales of the SSS-V were associated with span performance. It is argued that personality factors such as sensation seeking may play a significant role in selective attention and related cognitive abilities in HIV positive adults. Furthermore, sensation seeking differences might explain certain inconsistencies in the HIV neuropsychology literature.

  20. Sex differences in the developmental trajectories of impulse control and sensation-seeking from early adolescence to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Harden, K Paige; Chein, Jason M; Steinberg, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that high rates of risk-taking in adolescence are partly attributable to patterns of neurobiological development that promote an increase in sensation-seeking tendencies at a time when impulse control is still developing. It is not known, however, whether this pattern is the same for males and females. The present study investigates sex differences in the developmental trajectories of self-reported impulse control and sensation-seeking between the ages of 10 and 25 using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Child and Young Adult Survey (N = 8,270; 49% female; 33% Black, 22% Hispanic, 45% Non-Black, Non-Hispanic). Prior work has found that, consistent with the dual-systems model of adolescent neurobiological development, sensation-seeking rises and falls across this age span, whereas impulse control increases into the 20s. In the present study, we find that this same general pattern holds for both males and females, but with some key differences. As expected, males exhibit higher levels of sensation-seeking and lower levels of impulse control than females. Differences also emerged in the shapes of the developmental trajectories. Females reach peak levels of sensation-seeking earlier than males (consistent with the idea that sensation-seeking is linked to pubertal development) and decline in sensation-seeking more rapidly thereafter. Also, males increase in impulse control more gradually than females. Consequently, sex differences in both impulse control and sensation-seeking increase with age. The findings suggest that the window of heightened vulnerability to risk-taking during adolescence may be greater in magnitude and more protracted for males than for females.

  1. Relationship between ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Lidia; Gómez, Ma José; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Donaire, Rocío; Sabariego, Marta; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Cañete, Antoni; Blázquez, Gloria; Papini, Mauricio R; Torres, Carmen

    2014-06-22

    High- and low-avoidance Roman inbred rat strains (RHA-I, RLA-I) were selected for extreme differences in two-way active avoidance. RHA-I rats also express less anxiety than RLA-I rats. This study compared male Roman rats in ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking. Rats were first exposed in counterbalanced order to the hole-board test (forced exposure to novelty) and the Y-maze and emergence tests (free choice between novel and familiar locations). Then, rats were tested in 24-h, two-bottle preference tests with water in one bottle and ethanol (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% in successive days). Compared to RLA-I rats, RHA-I rats showed (1) higher frequency and time in head dipping, (2) higher activity, and (3) lower frequency of rearing and grooming in the hole-board test, and (4) remained in the novel arm longer in the Y-maze test. No strain differences were observed in the emergence test. RHA-I rats exhibited higher preference for and consumed more ethanol than RLA-I rats at all concentrations. However, both strains preferred ethanol over water for 2-4% concentrations, but water over ethanol for 6-10% concentrations. Factorial analysis with all the rats pooled identified a two-factor solution, one grouping preferred ethanol concentrations (2-4%) with head dipping and grooming in the hole board, and another factor grouping the nonpreferred ethanol concentrations (6-10%) with activity in the hole board and novel-arm time in the Y-maze test. These results show that preference for ethanol is associated with different aspects of behavior measured in sensation/novelty-seeking tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Authoritative parenting and sensation seeking as predictors of adolescent cigarette and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T; Helme, Donald W

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that prevent or buffer sensation seeking remain unexplored. This study fills this gap in extant research by examining the role of authoritative parenting as a protective factor that prevents or buffers cigarette and marijuana use by adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies. Data from 1461 adolescents attending 6th through 8th grades in central Colorado were gathered during a semester-long classroom-based intervention to prevent the onset or further use of cigarettes. Results indicate that authoritative parenting moderated the effect of sensation seeking on adolescent marijuana attitudes, intentions, and peer influence but not behaviors. Further, authoritative parenting was a stronger influence than sensation seeking on cigarette-related outcomes with just the opposite effect observed for marijuana-related outcomes.

  3. Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sensation Seeking or Empathy? Physically Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Antisocial Behaviors (ASBs Amongst University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Eman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has linked anti-social behavior (ASB to subtypes of empathy and also to sensation seeking, but there is limited research on the relative roles of empathy subtypes and sensation seeking traits in predicting ASB subtypes. The current study therefore investigated the relationship between sensation seeking, the three subtypes of empathy (emotional reactivity, cognitive empathy and social skills and the two subtypes of ASB (physically aggressive and non-aggressive. An online survey consisting of Demographic Variables Questionnaire, Brief Sensation Seeking Scale, Empathy Quotient and the Antisocial Behavior Measure was sent to student volunteers, leading to a total of 537 respondents. Empathy alone accounted for a relatively modest proportion of the total variance in the ASBs, with emotional reactivity being the only significant predictor. Adding sensation seeking to the regression led to a marked improvement in prediction for non-aggressive ASB and a slight but significant improvement for physically aggressive ASB. Sensation seeking, emotional reactivity and social skills (but not cognitive empathy contributed unique variance for both ASB subtypes. The greatest variance for physically aggressive and non-aggressive ASB were accounted for by emotional reactivity and sensation seeking, respectively. The results indicate that both sensation seeking and sub-types of empathy are important in predicting ASBs. This has theoretical implications for different personality models and has practical implications for the development of preventive measures to avoid such behaviors.

  5. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  6. The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

  7. Aggressive behavior: an alternative model of resting heart rate and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Low resting heart rate is a well-replicated biological correlate of aggression, and sensation seeking is frequently cited as the underlying causal explanation. However, little empirical evidence supports this mediating relationship. Furthermore, the biosocial model of violence and social push theory suggest sensation seeking may moderate the relationship between heart rate and aggression. In a sample of 128 college students (82.0% White; 73.4% female), the current study tested a moderation model as an alternative relationship between resting heart rate and sensation seeking in regard to aggression. Overall, the findings partially supported an interaction effect, whereby the relationship between heart rate and aggression was moderated by sensation seeking. Specifically, the oft-noted relationship between low resting heart rate and increased aggression was found, but only for individuals with low levels of sensation seeking. If replication supports this finding, the results may better inform prevention and intervention work. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Sensation seeking and alcohol use by college students: examining multiple pathways of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovitzky, Itzhak

    2006-01-01

    This study tests the proposition that peer influence mediates the effect of sensation seeking, a personality trait, on alcohol use among college students. Cross-sectional data to test this proposition were collected from a representative sample of college students at a large public northeastern university (N = 427). Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, sensation seeking influenced personal alcohol use both directly and indirectly, through its impact on students' frequency of association with alcohol-using peers and the size of their drinking norm misperception. The findings suggest that interventions that seek to limit the frequency in which high sensation seekers associate with peers whose alcohol use is extreme or, alternatively, seek to facilitate social interactions of high sensation seekers with normative peers, may supplement efforts to influence sensation seekers' alcohol and other drug use through tailored mass media advertisements.

  9. Relationship between oscillatory neuronal activity during reward processing and trait impulsivity and sensation seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Leicht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The processing of reward and punishment stimuli in humans appears to involve brain oscillatory activity of several frequencies, probably each with a distinct function. The exact nature of associations of these electrophysiological measures with impulsive or risk-seeking personality traits is not completely clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate event-related oscillatory activity during reward processing across a wide spectrum of frequencies, and its associations with impulsivity and sensation seeking in healthy subjects. METHODS: During recording of a 32-channel EEG 22 healthy volunteers were characterized with the Barratt Impulsiveness and the Sensation Seeking Scale and performed a computerized two-choice gambling task comprising different feedback options with positive vs. negative valence (gain or loss and high or low magnitude (5 vs. 25 points. RESULTS: We observed greater increases of amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity and of activity in the theta, alpha and low-beta frequency range following loss feedback and, in contrast, greater increase of activity in the high-beta frequency range following gain feedback. Significant magnitude effects were observed for theta and delta oscillations, indicating greater amplitudes upon feedback concerning large stakes. The theta amplitude changes during loss were negatively correlated with motor impulsivity scores, whereas alpha and low-beta increase upon loss and high-beta increase upon gain were positively correlated with various dimensions of sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the processing of feedback information involves several distinct processes, which are subserved by oscillations of different frequencies and are associated with different personality traits.

  10. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  11. The Effects of Sensation Seeking, Physical Attractiveness of Stimuli, and Exposure Frequency on Liking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Joann

    1976-01-01

    Males (N=54) and 46 females who scored high or low on a sensation seeking scale were exposed to slides of physically attractive or unattractive person stimuli. High sensation seekers both liked and expected to recognize the physically attractive persons in the future more than the physically unattractive persons. (Author)

  12. Neurocognitive determinants of novelty and sensation-seeking in individuals with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noël, Xavier; Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Le Bon, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Sober alcoholic abusers exhibit personality traits such as novelty-seeking (NS) and sensation-seeking, which overlap to a limited extent. In parallel, they also show impaired executive and decision-making processes. However, little is known about the specific and common cognitive processes associated with NS and sensation-seeking personality traits in detoxified sober alcoholic abusers. In these present studies, we have investigated the relationships between executive functioning/central executive of working memory (pre-potent response inhibition, manipulation stored in working memory), and decision-making under uncertainty and NS/sensation-seeking traits in such alcoholics. Compared with healthy controls (n = 30, mean age = 40.2), and in agreement with previous studies, alcoholics (n = 30, mean age = 40.4) showed higher levels of both NS and sensation-seeking traits. Alcoholics were also disadvantaged with respect to (a) gambling tasks, as reported previously, and (b) a poor ability to manipulate information stored in working memory and inhibit pre-potent responses. Most importantly, regression analyses and mediation analyses measures showed that poor response inhibition and decision-making were associated with high NS behaviour. In addition, impaired decision-making and manipulation of stored information in working memory were associated with a high sensation-seeking trait. Overall, these results support the existence of specific links between cognitive executive functioning, decision-making under uncertainty and NS/sensation-seeking personality traits in individuals with alcoholism.

  13. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity as predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Carmen Pérez Fuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive and types of expression (physical/relational. A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain aged 13 to 18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism. This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct.

  14. Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Molero Jurado, Maria del Mar; Carrión Martínez, José J.; Mercader Rubio, Isabel; Gázquez, José J.

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13–18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct. PMID:27729883

  15. Inverted-U-shaped correlation between dopamine receptor availability in striatum and sensation seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Kumakura, Yoshitaka; Cumming, Paul

    2010-01-01

    to dopamine concentrations. Higher dopamine occupancy and dopamine concentrations explain the motivation that drives afflicted individuals to seek sensations, in agreement with reduced protection against addictive behavior that is characteristic of individuals with low binding potentials....

  16. Attachment, Social Value Orientation, Sensation Seeking, and Bullying in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco; Parolin, Laura; Tagini, Angela; Santona, Alessandra; Bosco, Andrea; De Carli, Pietro; Palmisano, Giovanni L.; Pergola, Filippo; Sarracino, Diego

    2018-01-01

    In this study, bullying is examined in light of the “prosocial security hypothesis”— i.e., the hypothesis that insecure attachment, with temperamental dispositions such as sensation seeking, may foster individualistic, competitive value orientations and problem behaviors. A group of 375 Italian students (53% female; Mean age = 12.58, SD = 1.08) completed anonymous questionnaires regarding attachment security, social values, sensation seeking, and bullying behaviors. Path analysis showed that attachment to mother was negatively associated with bullying of others, both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values, while attachment to father was directly associated with victimization. Sensation seeking predicted bullying of others and victimization both directly and through the mediating role of conservative socially oriented values. Adolescents’ gender affected how attachment moderated the relationship between sensation seeking and problem behavior. PMID:29535668

  17. Development of a brief substance use sensation seeking scale: validation and prediction of injection-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Richardson, Chris; Buxton, Jane; Shoveller, Jeannie; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Sensation seeking, a personality trait, has been shown to predict engagement in high-risk behaviors. However, little is known regarding the impact of sensation seeking on substance use among street youth. We therefore sought to modify a sensation seeking scale (SSS) for use among this population. Street youth from the Vancouver-based At-Risk Youth Study (n = 226) completed the modified SSS. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (EFA/CFA) were undertaken to establish the scale's dimensionality and internal validity. The association between SSS score and injection-related behaviors was tested using generalized estimating equation analysis. EFA results indicated scale unidimensionality. The comparative fit index (CFI) suggested acceptable fit (CFI = 0.914). In multivariate analysis, sensation seeking was independently associated with injection drug use, crystal methamphetamine use, polysubstance use, and binge drug use (all p < 0.05). Our findings provide preliminary support for the use of the modified SSS among street youth.

  18. Online and live regular poker players: Do they differ in impulsive sensation seeking and gambling practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrault, Servane; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Online gambling appears to have special features, such as anonymity, speed of play and permanent availability, which may contribute to the facilitation and increase in gambling practice, potentially leading to problem gambling. The aims of this study were to assess sociodemographic characteristics, gambling practice and impulsive sensation seeking among a population of regular poker players with different levels of gambling intensity and to compare online and live players. Methods 245 regular poker players (180 online players and 65 live players) completed online self-report scales assessing sociodemographic data, pathological gambling (SOGS), gambling practice (poker questionnaire) and impulsive sensation seeking (ImpSS). We used SOGS scores to rank players according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-pathological gamblers, problem gamblers and pathological gamblers). Results All poker players displayed a particular sociodemographic profile: they were more likely to be young men, executives or students, mostly single and working full-time. Online players played significantly more often whereas live players reported significantly longer gambling sessions. Sensation seeking was high across all groups, whereas impulsivity significantly distinguished players according to the intensity of gambling. Discussion Our results show the specific profile of poker players. Both impulsivity and sensation seeking seem to be involved in pathological gambling, but playing different roles. Sensation seeking may determine interest in poker whereas impulsivity may be involved in pathological gambling development and maintenance. Conclusions This study opens up new research perspectives and insights into preventive and treatment actions for pathological poker players. PMID:28092187

  19. Depression, Sensation Seeking, and Maternal Smoking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy van de Venne

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine maternal and adolescent depression, maternal and teen sensation seeking, and maternal smoking, and their associations with adolescent smoking. Data were collected from a sample of 47 male and 66 female adolescents (ages 11—18 years and their mothers from three different health clinics. The findings indicated that maternal sensation seeking was linked indirectly with adolescent smoking through teen sensation seeking, both of which were significantly associated with teen smoking (β = 0.29, p < 0.001 and β = 0.32, p < 0.001, respectively. Teen depression was associated positively with teen smoking (β = 0.24, p < 0.01 when controlling for sensation seeking behaviors. Maternal smoking was also directly linked to adolescent smoking (β = 0.20, p < 0.05. These findings underscore a potentially important role of sensation seeking in the origins of adolescent smoking, and clarify pathways of influence with regard to maternal attitudes and behaviors in subsequent teenage nicotine use.

  20. Sensation seeking predicts brain responses in the old-new task: converging multimodal neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Adam L; Liu, Xun; Joseph, Jane; Vagnini, Victoria L; Kelly, Thomas H; Jiang, Yang

    2012-06-01

    Novel images and message content enhance visual attention and memory for high sensation seekers, but the neural mechanisms associated with this effect are unclear. To investigate the individual differences in brain responses to new and old (studied) visual stimuli, we utilized event-related potentials (ERP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measures to examine brain reactivity among high and low sensation seekers during a classic old-new memory recognition task. Twenty low and 20 high sensation seekers completed separate, but parallel, ERP and fMRI sessions. For each session, participants initially studied drawings of common images, and then performed an old-new recognition task during scanning. High sensation seekers showed greater ERP responses to new objects at the frontal N2 ERP component, compared to low sensation seekers. The ERP Novelty-N2 responses were correlated with fMRI responses in the orbitofrontal gyrus. Sensation seeking status also modulated the FN400 ERP component indexing familiarity and conceptual learning, along with fMRI responses in the caudate nucleus, which correlated with FN400 activity. No group differences were found in the late ERP positive components indexing classic old-new amplitude effects. Our combined ERP and fMRI results suggest that sensation-seeking personality affects the early brain responses to visual processing, but not the later stage of memory recognition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships among parental monitoring and sensation seeking on the development of substance use disorder among college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Övgü; Meyers, Kathleen; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use disorder is a serious health problem that tends to manifest in late adolescence. Attempting to influence targetable risk and protective factors holds promise for prevention and treatment. Survey data from 1,253 college students (48.5% male, 26.9% non-White) were used to investigate the independent and combined effects of two prominent factors, sensation seeking and parental monitoring, on the probability of alcohol and/or cannabis dependence during the first year of college. In multivariate analyses that controlled for high school use, gender, race, mother’s education, and importance of religion, retrospective reports by the student of parental behavior during the last year of high school indicated that higher levels of parental monitoring had a direct effect on reducing risk for alcohol dependence during the first year of college, but not on cannabis dependence. High levels of sensation seeking were associated with increased risk for both alcohol and cannabis dependence. No interaction effects were found. The results extend prior findings by highlighting influences of pre-college parental monitoring and sensation seeking on the probability of alcohol and/or cannabis dependence during the first year of college. The findings also suggest that these two factors are useful in identifying college students at high risk for alcohol and/or cannabis dependence. PMID:23017733

  2. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  3. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Marie Bustin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue… can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  4. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. Afr...

  5. Ecstasy use and self-reported depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Win, Maartje M. L.; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Vervaeke, Hylke; Jager, Gerry; Dijkink, Sarah; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Although there are indications that ecstasy users have higher levels of depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking, it is unknown whether these are consequences of ecstasy use or predisposing factors for starting ecstasy use. We prospectively assessed the predictive value of depression,

  6. Drug Abuse Patterns, Personality Characteristics, and Relationships with Sex, Race, and Sensation Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined interrelationships among sex, race, drug-use patterns, and personality variables in chronic users of illicit drugs. Blacks were characterized by lower levels of sensation seeking, less psychopathology, use of fewer drug categories, and later drug use than Whites. Use and personality patterns among women differed little from men.…

  7. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  8. When red means go : non-normative effects of red under sensation seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, R.; Demmers, J.; van Dolen, W.M.; Weinberg, C.B.

    Although previous research has identified red as the color of compliance, the current work proposes that this effect of red may not hold under high sensation-seeking propensity conditions. It is argued that the color red has the capability to induce arousal, which in turn has been shown to enhance a

  9. Individual differences in embracing negatively valenced art: The roles of openness and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayn, Kirill; Kuppens, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We elaborate on the role of individual differences in the processing mechanisms outlined by the Distancing-Embracing model. The role of openness is apparent in appreciating meaning-making art that elicits interest, feeling moved, and mixed emotions. The influence of sensation seeking is likely to manifest in thrill-chasing art that draws on the arousing interplay of positive and negative emotions.

  10. Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

  11. Moderating Effect of Personality Type on the Relation between Sensation Seeking and Illegal Substance Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marcus; Liebe, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of big-five based personality types on the relation between sensation seeking and three adolescent marijuana use outcomes (lifetime use, current use, attraction to marijuana use). 1,236 German adolescents, aged 14 to 16 years, participated in the current study. The results show that sensation seeking is…

  12. Sensation seeking moderates television's cultivation of alcohol and tobacco beliefs: Evidence from a national study of French adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Russell, Dale W

    2018-05-01

    Television (TV) is a key socialization agent, especially amongst youth. According to cultivation theory, youth heavily exposed to TV content, where positive images of smoking and drinking abound, should hold more positive beliefs concerning drinking and smoking outcomes. This research investigates the role of the sensation-seeking personality trait in moderating this TV cultivation effect. A French national research company contacted its panel members with children aged 13-17. Parents completed a short survey and were asked for consent for their child to participate in a study. The children were then contacted, informed, and asked for assent. Assenters completed a survey that included measures of TV exposure, personality traits, drinking and smoking behaviors, and beliefs about the outcomes associated with drinking and smoking (expectancies). Parental drinking, smoking, and strictness were included as controls. Survey data from 1040 adolescents (54.2% males) and their parents reveal that the relationship between cumulative TV exposure and drinking and smoking behavior, mediated through expectancies, is strongest amongst high sensation seeking adolescents. The moderated mediation analysis shows that sensation seeking trait moderates the relationship between TV exposure and the beliefs adolescents hold about the consequences of alcohol and tobacco use, which themselves are related to greater likelihood to engage in substance use. Key personality traits and TV exposure levels must be accounted for to identify youth at risk of using substances at a time when many lifelong maladaptive behaviors and beliefs form. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sexual sensation seeking and Internet sex-seeking of Middle Eastern men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarelli, Steven A

    2013-10-01

    Despite recent evidence of stabilization in many developed nations, new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections remain a public health concern globally. Efforts remain fragile in a number of world regions due to incomplete or inconsistent social policies concerning HIV, criminalization of same-sex encounters, social stigma, and religious doctrine. Middle Eastern men who have sex with men (MSM) remain one of the most hidden and stigmatized of all HIV risk groups. High-risk sexual bridging networks from these men to low prevalence populations (e.g., to spouse to offspring) are emerging HIV transmission pathways throughout the region. This cross-sectional, exploratory study investigated Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSSS) scores to predict numbers of recent MSM sexual activities and to predict any recent unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) activities in 86 Middle Eastern MSM who resided in the Middle East and who used the Internet to sex-seek. In a multivariate hierarchical regression, higher SSSS scores predicted higher numbers of recent MSM sexual activities (p = .028) and URAI (p = .022). In a logistic regression, higher SSSS scores increased the likelihood of engaging in URAI activities threefold (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.15-7.85, p = .025). Age and drug/alcohol use during sexual activities served as covariates in the regression models and were not significant in any analyses. Despite numerous hurdles, adopting Internet-based, non-restricted HIV education and prevention public health programs in the Middle East could instrumentally enhance efforts toward reducing the likelihood of new HIV transmissions in MSM and their sexual partners, ultimately contributing to an improved quality of life.

  14. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V and Its Use in Latin American Adolescents: Alcohol Consumption Pattern as an External Criterion for Its Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensation Seeking is a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense situations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, and financial risks for the sake of such experience. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V is the most widely used measure to assess this construct. In previous studies a variety of psychometric limitations were found when using the SSS-V with Latin American population. The purpose of this study is to present additional psychometric properties for its use with Latin American adolescents. It was applied to a 506 adolescent sample (from 12 to 20 years. The result is a scale of 22 items that cover four factors. It seems that sensation seeking among Latin American adolescents can be described in terms of four factors, but with some slightly content differences from what is usually found in adult samples from other countries. Future lines of research are proposed.

  15. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V) and Its Use in Latin American Adolescents: Alcohol Consumption Pattern as an External Criterion for Its Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanina; Molina, María Fernanda; Raimundi, María Julia

    2017-11-01

    Sensation Seeking is a trait defined by the seeking of varied, novel, complex, and intense situations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical, social, and financial risks for the sake of such experience. The Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V) is the most widely used measure to assess this construct. In previous studies a variety of psychometric limitations were found when using the SSS-V with Latin American population. The purpose of this study is to present additional psychometric properties for its use with Latin American adolescents. It was applied to a 506 adolescent sample (from 12 to 20 years). The result is a scale of 22 items that cover four factors. It seems that sensation seeking among Latin American adolescents can be described in terms of four factors, but with some slightly content differences from what is usually found in adult samples from other countries. Future lines of research are proposed.

  16. The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Erica E.

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed. PMID:19943092

  17. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed.

  18. Associations between sexual sensation seeking and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among young men who have sex with men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengting; Xiao, Chenchang; Cao, Yue; Yu, Bin; Li, Shiyue; Yan, Hong

    2017-06-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have become high risk groups for HIV infection in China. Recent researches suggest that sexual sensation seeking is significantly associated with AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, but the relationship is not clear in the field of YMSM in China. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sexual sensation seeking and AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among YMSM in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wuhan, China from May to November 2013. 403 YMSM were recruited and 373 of them completed the questionnaire. Regression analyses indicated that YMSM with high sexual sensation seeking score are more likely to have low awareness of knowledge and negative attitude about condom use, as well as more risky sexual behaviors.

  19. Impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and part-time job status in relation to substance use and gambling in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Robert F; Hoff, Rani A; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-04-01

    Although impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and part-time employment have each been linked to risky behaviors in adolescents, their inter-relationships are less well-understood. We examined data from adolescents to assess the following predictions: (1) sensation-seeking would relate closely to substance use and gambling; (2) impulsivity would relate closely to alcohol, drug, and gambling problems; and (3) these relationships would be particularly strong among those holding part-time jobs. High-school students (N = 3,106) were surveyed to provide data on impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and part-time job status. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships with gambling, substance use (i.e., alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana) and related problems. Both impulsivity and sensation-seeking related significantly to substance use and impulsivity to gambling. Impulsivity had stronger associations with drug and gambling problems than sensation-seeking did. Students with paid part-time jobs were more likely to drink alcohol, binge drink, and use marijuana. Sensation-seeking had a particularly strong relationship to heavy cigarette smoking among students with part-time jobs. Conversely, there was little relationship between part-time job status and smoking among low sensation-seekers. These findings further support the relevance of sensation-seeking, impulsivity, and part-time job status to risky behaviors among adolescents. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity had unique relationships to risky behaviors, in accordance with theory and prior evidence. Impulsive adolescents may be in particular need for interventions to reduce drug use and gambling. Although part-time jobs can be beneficial, parents and caregivers should be mindful of potential negative ramifications of paid work outside the home. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Premeditation and Sensation Seeking Moderate the Reasoned Action and Social Reaction Pathways in the Prototype/Willingness Model of Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Matthew Gregory; King, Kevin M

    2016-05-11

    Drinking can occur because of expectations to drink (reasoned pathway) or because of willingness to drink under certain circumstances (reactive pathway). These pathways are thought to be influenced by different cognitions such as alcohol-related attitudes, norms, or drinking prototypes (Gerrard et al., 2008). Impulsive traits reflect individual differences in the influence of reasoned or reactive factors, however little research has investigated whether impulsivity moderates the effects of cognitive factors predicting alcohol use. We tested whether differences in three impulsivity traits (premeditation, sensation seeking and negative urgency) moderated associations of reasoned (risk/disapproval attitudes and social norms) and reactive (prototype) pathway variables on expectation/willingness to drink and recent alcohol use. We collected data from n = 409 college students; the sample was 67% female, 43% Asian American, with Mdnage = 19. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression. Premeditation and sensation seeking moderated reasoned variable effects on expectation and drinking. Among those low on premeditation, risk attitudes were most associated with drinking expectation, with alcohol prototypes most related to recent drinking. These effects declined at higher premeditation levels. Among those high on sensation seeking, risk attitudes were most associated with expectation and drinking, declining at lower sensation seeking levels. There was little evidence of moderation predicting drinking willingness. Findings imply personality differences may explain association strength between reasoned but not reactive risk behavior pathways with alcohol outcomes. They have ramifications for personalized prevention programs to reduce drinking through cognition change, as alcohol-related cognition influence may differ depending on personality characteristics.

  1. Sensation seeking amongst healthy volunteers participating in phase I clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, M; Lamas, X; Camí, J

    1995-01-01

    1. Phase I clinical trials are usually carried out in healthy volunteers. In addition to economic gain, factors that may influence willingness to participate include scientific interest, curiosity and choice for risky activities. 2. We assessed the relationship between personality variables and volunteering for clinical pharmacology research. Two personality questionnaires, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS, form V) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), were administered to 48 male healthy university students who volunteered to participate in a phase I clinical trial and to 43 male university students who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials. General norm data were also used for the comparison of results. 3. When healthy volunteers were compared with unwilling subjects, significant differences were found in thrill-and-adventure seeking (7.9 vs 6.7, P = 0.0034), experience seeking (6.4 vs 5.2, P = 0.0012), disinhibition (6.2 vs 4.3, P personality profile of healthy volunteers was characterized by a higher sensation seeking trait and extraversion as compared with individuals who were not willing to participate in phase I clinical trials and general norm data. PMID:7640147

  2. ALIENATION, SENSATION SEEKING AND MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE PROFILE IN MEN BEING TREATED FOR ALCOHOL AND/OR OPIOID DEPENDENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, Surendra K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Singh, Ram Avatar; Khurana, Hitesh; Kaur, Rajinder; Sharma, Suresh K.

    2001-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty men, being treated for ICD-10 diagnosed dependence on alcohol, opioids or both, were studied 2-4 weeks after the last use of alcohol or opioids. Alienation Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and Muliphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and selected sociodemographic and family history data were studied. All three groups showed high alienation (more in opioid cases), high sensation seeking (more in alcohol cases, more for boredom susceptibility), and a disturbed MPQ profile. The dual dependence group was similar to opioid group for age, but closer to alcohol group in terms of personality profile. Only alcohol cases showed a significantly positive correlation between alienation and sensation seeking- in terms of total scale, and boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales only. Thus, substance specificity was not reflected prominently in the inter-relationships between alienation, sensation seeking and MPQ scores, and sociodemographic variables. PMID:21407879

  3. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    OpenAIRE

    Feij, Jan A,; Taris, Toon W.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same fa...

  4. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Zhen, Shuangju; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a) and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007) of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator) and when (impulsivity as a moderator) did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85) from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction.

  5. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity

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    Jianping Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007 of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator and when (impulsivity as a moderator did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85 from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction.

  6. Sensation Seeking and Online Gaming Addiction in Adolescents: A Moderated Mediation Model of Positive Affective Associations and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianping; Zhen, Shuangju; Yu, Chengfu; Zhang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Based on the Dual Systems Model (Somerville et al., 2010; Steinberg, 2010a) and the biosocial-affect model (Romer and Hennessy, 2007) of adolescent sensation seeking and problem behaviors, the present study examined how (affective associations with online games as a mediator) and when (impulsivity as a moderator) did sensation seeking influence online gaming addiction in adolescence. A total of 375 Chinese male adolescents (mean age = 16.02 years, SD = 0.85) from southern China completed anonymous questionnaires regarding sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games, impulsivity, and online gaming addiction. Our findings revealed that sensation seeking, positive affective associations with online games and impulsivity were each significantly and positively associated with online gaming addiction in adolescents. Positive affective associations mediated the relationship between sensation seeking and online gaming addiction. Further, impulsivity moderated the relationship between positive affective associations and online gaming addiction, such that the association between positive affective association and online gaming addiction was stronger for high than for low impulsivity adolescents. These findings underscore the importance of integrating the biosocial-affect model and the Dual Systems Model to understand how and when sensation seeking impacts adolescent online gaming addiction. PMID:28529494

  7. Internet Dependence and Sensation Seeking in Youth With Moderate Cerebral Palsy

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    Saeed Rezayi

    2017-06-01

    Discussion: It seems that internet applications direct or indirectly motive users to be online for more hours than necessary. This is true for CP patients given their motor impairment. Based on this research result, it seems that persons with CP because of lack of physical activities, motive by internal stimulus and seeking their sensation from external stimulus like internet application as well as for person with CP surfing in internet world and spent too much time on the internet is leisure time not activity time.

  8. The role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in female and male adolescents who binge eat.

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    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Pompili, Sara; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Although different personality traits have been associated with the onset and maintenance of binge eating, the role of sensation seeking is still not well documented. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of sensation seeking and motivations for eating in male and female adolescents who binge eat. 336 adolescents (196 boys and 140 girls, mean age 17.48) completed a survey composed of Binge Eating Scale, Motivation for Eating Scale, and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale. Our results showed that for female adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), Environmental and Emotional Eating. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that BMI was a significant positive predictor of binge eating; Emotional and Physical Eating accounted for 34% of the variance. For male adolescents, binge eating was significantly correlated with age, BMI, Boredom susceptibility, Experience seeking, environmental, Social and Emotional Eating. The most significant variables that contribute to binge symptoms, were age and BMI (that accounted for 16% of the variance), Experience seeking and Boredom susceptibility (11%) and emotional eating (18%). Our results provided support for emotional motivations as significant triggers for binge eating behavior in both male and female adolescents. Although two sensation seeking dimensions were significant predictors of binge eating in males, sensation seeking was not associated to binge eating in the female subsample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes on risky driving behaviour among post-graduate university students in Durban, South Africa.

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    Bachoo, Shaneel; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) constitute a serious global health risk, and evidence suggests that young drivers are significantly overrepresented among those injured or killed in RTAs. This study explores the role of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes as correlates for risky driving practices among drivers, drawing comparisons between age and gender. The study used a cross-sectional survey design, with a sample of 306 post-graduate university students from two universities in Durban, South Africa, who completed the self-administered questionnaire. The results indicate that drivers with higher driver anger, sensation seeking, urgency, and with a lack of premeditation and perseverance in daily activities were statistically more likely to report riskier driving acts. Males reported significantly more acts of risky driving behaviour (RDB) than females. Driver attitudes significantly predicted self-reported acts of RDB on most indicators. Older drivers (25 years and older) had safer driver attitudes and a lower sense of sensation seeking and urgency in life. Interventions targeting young drivers, which focus on impeding the manifestation of anger, impulsivity and sensation seeking are recommended. Also, the empirical support for the attitude-behaviour hypothesis evidenced in this study vindicates the development or continuation of interventions that focus on this dynamic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Metacognitive Beliefs and the Amount the Sensation Seeking in

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    Tayebe Kashefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metacognitive theory refers to beliefs and theories which people experience in according to their familiarities and their excitements, such beliefs can involve other kinds of treatments toward paying attention to specific types of thoughts, about other acquintive events. Materials and Methods: In this correlational descriptive study, the subjects were consisted 264 people. The samples for addicted subjects were chosen amongst those who had registered their names in addiction centers. These people were chosen by simple sample method Torbat-e-Heydariyeh in 2010-11. The witness cluster was also consisted with, socio-individualistic characteristics. To gather the outcoming data properly, the Metacognitive beliefs questionnaire (MCQ-30 and Zuckerman sensation seeking using. SPSS-16 software, descriptive statistical indices used to analyze data. Results: There were significant differences of scores between two group in metacognitive beliefs and sensation seeking (p<0.01. Conclusion: The current survey is equivalent with basic hypothesies of metacognitive model and psychological status of addicts.

  11. A Study On The Psychometric Features Of The Turkish Version Of The Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (Bsss-8 For Young Adults And The Relation Between Sensation Seeking And Life Satisfaction

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    Eyup Celik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to adapt the sensation seeking scale for young adults into Turkish and to investigate if the life satisfaction of university students differ significantly in terms of sensation seeking. In addition, it was investigated whether the life satisfaction levels of university students differ significantly in terms of gender. The data for this research was collected from 570 university students. The original form of BSSS-8 consist of 8 items and 4 factors. The scale was subjected to CFA in order to determine the structural validity of its Turkish version and it was found that this version had a single factor structure. The results of the CFA suggested acceptable levels of fit indices (χ2/df = 4.46, RMSEA = .07, GFI =96, CFI = .94, IFI = .94, NFI = .93, AGFI = .93, and NNFI = .91. The reliability coefficient of the scale was found at a level of .79. Furthermore, corrected item total correlation were found to be in a range between .22 and .59. The results suggest that the single factor structure of the scale produces valid and reliable results. In addition, it was found that the life satisfaction levels of university students differ significantly in terms of sensation seeking level, but life satisfaction levels of university students do not differ significantly in terms of gender. The results showed that the life satisfaction levels of students with lower sensation seeking are higher than of students with higher sensation seeking

  12. The Relationship of Self-Efficacy, Sensation Seeking and Coping Sterategies with Aptitude of Substance Use in University Students

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    Azar Kiamarsi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the research was to determine relationship of coping sterategies, self-efficacy and sensation seeking with aptitude of substance use in the students. Method: The population of the study included students of Islamic Azad University Ardabil Branch. The research sample consisted of 313 students who were studying in Islamic Azad University Ardabil Branch. To collect the data Coping Sterategies scale, Sensation Seeking scale, Self-Efficacy inventory and Substance Use Aptitude scale were used. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses. Findings: The result of Pearson correlation coefficients showed that self-efficacy, sensation seeking, emotin coping sterategies and problem solving coping sterategies related to aptitude substance use in students. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that self-efficacy, sensation seeking and coping sterategies explained 43 percent of variance of aptitude of substance use in students. Conclusion: The results indicated that self-efficacy, sensation seeking and coping sterategies are significant predictors in predicting of aptitude of substance use in adolescents. Clinicians can be used these results for prevention of substance abuse by training of effective coping strategies and promotion of self efficacy.

  13. Sensation seeking in a community sample of French gamblers: Comparison between strategic and non-strategic gamblers.

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    Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and gambling disorder (GD) in a community sample of gamblers (when controlling for the effect of substance use, gender and age) and see whether sensation seeking scores depend on the gambling activity when comparing strategic and non-strategic gamblers. A total of 380 gamblers was recruited. First, pathological gamblers (PGs) (n =143) were compared to non-pathological gamblers (NPGs) (n =237). Second, strategic gamblers (n =93) were compared to non-strategic gamblers (n =110). Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (SOGS, DSM-IV), tobacco and alcohol use (CAGE), and sensation seeking (SSS) were evaluated. PGs have higher boredom susceptibility scores than NPGs and this factor is associated with GD. Nevertheless, the relationship between sensation seeking and GD depends on the gambling activity. In fact, sensation seeking is associated with GD in strategic gamblers only. PGs playing strategic games display different profiles from non-strategic PGs. Thus, factors associated with GD differ when the gambling activity is taken into account. These findings are consistent with the idea of it being essential to identify clinically distinct subgroups of PGs in the treatment of GD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

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    Marco Scalese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females. Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: “thrill and adventure seeking,” within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; “boredom susceptibility” is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  15. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalese, Marco; Curzio, Olivia; Cutrupi, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Gori, Mercedes; Denoth, Francesca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15-19 years. Multivariate logistic analyses were performed. Findings. The prevalence of users was 27.3% (34.2% males; 21.6% females). Single-parent and reconstructed families were related to the greatest likelihood of substance use. A medium financial status and, for females, a satisfying relationship with father were protective factors. Probability of engaging in risk-taking behavior increased when parental knowledge decreased. Exploring deeper how parental monitoring could modify the relation between different traits of sensation seeking and substances use revealed the following: "thrill and adventure seeking," within the case of a good monitoring, can help against the use of substances; "boredom susceptibility" is not associated with drug use, except when parental monitoring is weak. Conclusions. Specific subdimensions, associated with substance use, may be more amenable to prevention than general interventions on sensation-seeking personality. Family is the context that could promote health education.

  16. Beyond the genetic basis of sensation seeking: The influence of birth order, family size and parenting styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feij, Jan A,

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses of sensation seeking have shown fairly high heritabilities for measures of this trait. However, 40 to 60% of the variance remains unexplained by genetic factors. This longitudinal study examines the influence of characteristics of the family environment -- birth order, family size, socio-economic status and parenting styles -- on two dimensions of sensation seeking: disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Previous research has shown that these dimensions load on the same factor, are related to biologically based impulsive disorders, and have a common genetic basis. Questionnaire and biographical data obtained from 532 female and 479 male young adults (age between 18 and 30 years were analyzed using structural modeling. The results show that participants who experienced little parental care and much control were more likely to have high scores on disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. It appears that these family factors may partly explain the previously reported effects of birth order and family size on sensation seeking.

  17. Links between Psychotropic Substance Use and Sensation Seeking in a Prevalence Study: The Role of Some Features of Parenting Style in a Large Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Scalese, Marco; Curzio, Olivia; Cutrupi, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Gori, Mercedes; Denoth, Francesca; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The objectives of the study were to (a) investigate the prevalence risk of current drug users and (b) explore the association between parental monitoring, adolescent-parent relationship, family structure, financial status, and sensation-seeking and psychotropic substance use. Methods. Data were drawn from the 2002 Italian student population survey of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs. The sample size was 10,790 adolescents, aged 15–19 years. Multivariate logi...

  18. Who is open to a narcissistic romantic partner? : The roles of sensation seeking, trait anxiety, and similarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grosz, M.; Dufner, M.; Back, M.D.; Denissen, J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    The current research investigates the short- and long-term mate appeal of narcissists and the characteristics of people that are open to a narcissistic romantic partners. In a vignette study (Study 1; N = 1347), raters’ level of sensation seeking and narcissistic admiration were positively

  19. Alienation, Aggression, and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Use of Violent Film, Computer, and Website Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines predictors of various types of self-reported use of violent media content by eighth graders. Indicates that gender, sensation-seeking, aggression, and frequency of Internet use had relatively strong contributions to explaining the use of violent media content. Notes that alienation from school and family also appeared to partially mediate…

  20. The Association between Sensation Seeking and E-Cigarette Use in Texas Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen R.; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Springer, Andrew E.; Pérez, Adriana; Creamer, MeLisa R.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between sensation seeking and ever and current e-cigarette use in Texas young adults (18-29 years old). Current cigarette use was examined as a potential effect modifier of the associations. Participants: Participants included college students enrolled in four-year and two-year colleges in four metropolitan…

  1. Alcohol Use among Italian University Students: The Role of Sensation Seeking, Peer Group Norms and Self-Efficacy

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    Cicognani, Elvira; Zani, Bruna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sensation seeking, peer group drinking and self-efficacy in refusing to drink alcohol in influencing alcohol consumption of a sample of 588 Italian university students. Results confirmed that heavy drinkers are typically males living in university residences. Alcohol use is more frequent among students with…

  2. Individual Differences in the Development of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity during Adolescence: Further Evidence for a Dual Systems Model

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    Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with social neuroscience perspectives on adolescent development, previous cross-sectional research has found diverging mean age-related trends for sensation seeking and impulsivity during adolescence. The present study uses longitudinal data on 7,640 youth from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth Children and Young Adults, a…

  3. The Role of Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Coping, and Year of Study in Student Gambling: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Luke A.; Norman, Christine; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Students are among the most prevalent gamblers with the highest incidence of problem gambling. Furthermore, research into gambling has noted certain personality traits and coping mechanisms to be highly predictive of gambling in student populations. The present study examined the role of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping strategies, and year…

  4. Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control in University Students in the Context of Regular Exercise Participation and Gender

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    Tekin, Ali; Tekin, Gülcan; Çalisir, Melih

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the locus of control (LC) and sensation seeking (SS) levels of university female students according to regular exercise participation (REP) and gender (G). This descriptive study was initiated in 2016 and finished in 2017. A total of 623 students, 306 females and 317 males, from different academic departments…

  5. Are there common mechanisms in sensation seeking and reality distortion in schizophrenia? A study using memory event-related potentials.

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    Guillem, François; Pampoulova, Tania; Stip, Emmanuel; Todorov, Christo; Lalonde, Pierre

    2005-05-15

    A growing literature suggests that the characteristics of sensation seeking and reality distortion expressed in schizophrenia share several mechanisms. In a previous study, the comparison of patients with high vs. low reality distortion using event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in a recognition memory task for unfamiliar faces identified neural and cognitive anomalies specifically related to the expression of these symptoms. As a follow-up, this study investigated the ERP correlates of sensation seeking in schizophrenia using the same recognition memory protocol. ERPs have been recorded in controls (N=21) and schizophrenia patients separated into high (HSS; N=13) and low (LSS; N=17) scorers according to Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale. The results show a reduced P2a that was found unrelated to reality distortion in the previous study of reality distortion. It identifies interference inhibition impairment as being specifically related to sensation seeking. On the other hand, HSS scorers display enhanced fronto-central and normal P600 effects also found in high reality distortion patients. These results indicate inappropriate context processing and mnemonic binding common to sensation seeking and reality distortion. LSS scorers also display a reduced temporal N300 similar to that found in low reality distortion patients. This anomaly could reflect the lower reactivity to emotionally significant stimuli that underlies anhedonia symptoms. Finally, the N400 effect and a late frontal effect are found in both HSS and LSS. Since they were unrelated to reality distortion, these indices have been related to basic aspects of schizophrenia, e.g., deficient knowledge integration, or other mechanisms, e.g. anxiety or impulsivity. In summary, the present study examines the strategy of investigating variables, such as temperamental characteristics, in addition to symptoms, to show how discrete impairments may contribute to the expression of the illness.

  6. Can fantasizing while listening to music play a protective role against the influences of sensation seeking and peers on adolescents' substance use?

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    Miranda, Dave; Gaudreau, Patrick; Morizot, Julien; Fallu, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    "The combination of music and drugs proved to be potent, and scientific research has yet to explain it" (Levitin, 2008, p. 74; The World in Six Songs). This study examined if fantasizing while listening to music could represent a potential protective factor against adolescent substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and cannabis). The first hypothesis was that fantasizing while listening to music would moderate (buffer) the link between sensation-seeking and substance use. The second hypothesis was that fantasizing while listening to music would also moderate (buffer) the link between peer substance use and individual substance use. The sample comprised 429 adolescent boys and girls who answered a self-report questionnaire in 2003. They were regular students attending a public high school in Montreal, Canada. The results revealed that fantasizing while listening to music came short of buffering the link between sensation-seeking and substance use among highly musically involved adolescents. Still, fantasizing while listening to music significantly attenuated the relationship between peer substance use and individual substance use (thereby, showing a protective effect) among highly musically involved adolescents. Fantasizing while listening to music did not buffer the relation between either risk factor (sensation-seeking or peer substance use) and substance use among moderately musically involved adolescents.

  7. Brief Sensation Seeking Scale: Latent structure of 8-item and 4-item versions in Peruvian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Soto, Cesar; Salas Blas, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    This research intended to validate two brief scales of sensations seeking with Peruvian adolescents: the eight item scale (BSSS8; Hoyle, Stephenson, Palmgreen, Lorch, y Donohew, 2002) and the four item scale (BSSS4; Stephenson, Hoyle, Slater, y Palmgreen, 2003). Questionnaires were administered to 618 voluntary participants, with an average age of 13.6 years, from different levels of high school, state and private school in a district in the south of Lima. It analyzed the internal structure of both short versions using three models: a) unidimensional (M1), b) oblique or related dimensions (M2), and c) the bifactor model (M3). Results show that both instruments have a single dimension which best represents the variability of the items; a fact that can be explained both by the complexity of the concept and by the small number of items representing each factor, which is more noticeable in the BSSS4. Reliability is within levels found by previous studies: alpha: .745 = BSSS8 and BSSS4 =. 643; omega coefficient: .747 in BSSS8 and .651 in BSSS4. These are considered suitable for the type of instruments studied. Based on the correlation between the two instruments, it was found that there are satisfactory levels of equivalence between the BSSS8 and BSSS4. However, it is recommended that the BSSS4 is mainly used for research and for the purpose of describing populations.

  8. The role of sensation seeking, perceived peer pressure, and harmful alcohol use in riding with an alcohol-impaired driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hong; Kim, Kwang Sik

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol-related motor vehicle collisions have been the top of policy agenda for more than three decades in Korea. Despite implementation of various traffic safety measures, some drivers' alcohol use and abuse has resulted in a high number of alcohol-impaired traffic fatalities every year. This paper presents the association of theoretical factors with behavior of riding with an alcohol-impaired driver (RAID) among all age groups in the Korean adult sample. The theoretical factors of the drivers are personality factor, socio-psychological factor, and alcohol-related behavioral risk factor. We utilized national survey data from 1007 respondents consisting of 703 males and 304 females aged 20-66 collected by Korean Institute of Criminology (KIC) to test our theorized model. Our results indicated that there were three major predictors of RAID involvement: sensation seeking propensity, perceived peer pressure, and frequent harmful drinking. Overall, prediction of RAID behavior by gender was mediated entirely through these predictors. The issue of males' higher risk of RAID involvements was addressed for effective communication strategies such as campaigns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.

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    Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.

  10. Is Sensation Seeking a correlate of excessive behaviors and behavioral addictions? A detailed examination of patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Dreier, M; Beutel, M E; Wölfling, K

    2016-08-30

    Sensation Seeking has repeatedly been related to substance use. Also, its role as a correlate of Gambling Disorder has been discussed although research has led to heterogeneous results. Likewise, first studies on Internet Addiction have indicated increased Sensation Seeking, to some extent contradicting clinical impression of patients suffering from internet addiction. We assessed Sensation Seeking in a clinical sample of n=251 patients with Gambling Disorder, n=243 patients with internet addiction, n=103 clients with excessive but not addictive internet use, and n=142 healthy controls. The clinical groups were further sub-divided according to the preferred type of addictive behavior (slot-machine gambling vs. high arousal gambling activities and internet gaming disorder vs. other internet-related addictive behaviors). Decreased scores in some subscales of Sensation Seeking were found among male patients compared to healthy controls with no differences between patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction. The type of preferred gambling or online activity was not related to differences in Sensation Seeking. Previous findings indicating only small associations between Sensation Seeking and Gambling Disorder were confirmed. Regarding Internet Addiction our results contradict findings from non-clinical samples. Sensation Seeking might be relevant in initiating contact to the health care system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are ...

  12. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety and trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Mehroof, M; Griffiths, MD

    2010-01-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an ...

  13. [A study of relationships among solvent inhalation, personality and expectancy; especially on affinity to hallucination, sensation seeking and neurotic tendency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, N; Satoh, S; Oda, S; Tomita, H; Shoji, M; Seno, E; Abe, K; Konishi, T

    1994-10-01

    94 delinquents in two homes for resocialization were surveyed to elucidate the relationship among the status of volatile solvent inhalation, expectancy and personality. The subjects were classified into solvent-inhalation group and non-solvent-inhalation group, and the former was divided into solvent dependence group and abuse group according to DSM-III-R. Each group was given personality tests; general health questionnaire (GHQ), sensation seeking scale (SSS), the vividness of visual imagery (VVIQ), test of visual imagery control (TVIC) and Yatabe-Guilford test (YG). In addition we investigated expectancy and mental symptoms caused by inhalation in it. The results are summarized as follows; 1. Inhalation group scored higher on SSS than non-inhalation group. 2. Compared with abuse group, dependence group presented with 1) higher GHQ score meaning neurotic tendency; 2) higher TVIC score meaning imagery-control-ability; 3) a higher incidence of day-dream and hallucination, especially egosyntonic type; 4) higher expectancy of "enhancement of positive affection", "reduction of negative affection" and "hallucination seeking"; 5) lower expectancy of "association with friends". 3. Higher scored inhalers on TVIC showed visual hallucinations, especially egosyntonic type more frequently than lower ones. 4. Significant correlations were recognized between GHQ score and expectancy of "reduction of negative affection", and between lack of objectiveness score of YG subscale and "hallucination seeking" expectancy. These results suggested that 1) beginning of inhalation is associated with sensation seeking trait, 2) progression to solvent dependence is correlated with three expectancies, i.e., seeking egosyntonic hallucinations paralleling high imagery-control-ability and subjectivity, reducing negative affection paralleling neurotic tendency, and enhancing positive affection. According to the findings, indulgence to drug induced positive imagery led delinquents into splitting of

  14. Sensation Seeking Predicts Brain Responses in the Old-New Task: Converging Multimodal Neuroimaging Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Adam L.; Liu, Xun; Joseph, Jane; Vagnini, Victoria L.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Novel images and message content enhance visual attention and memory for high sensation seekers, but the neural mechanisms associated with this effect are unclear. To investigate the individual differences in brain responses to new and old (studied) visual stimuli, we utilized Event-related Potentials (ERP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measures to examine brain reactivity among high and low sensation seekers during a classic old-new memory recognition task. Twenty low and ...

  15. The mediating role of social skills and sensation seeking in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Elika; Zarani, Fariba; Fathabadi, Jalil

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 400 female high school students in Tehran, Iran, the present study examines the mediating role of social skills and sensation seeking in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment in adolescent girls. Statistical analysis revealed positive correlations between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment; trait emotional intelligence and social skills; and social skills and school adjustment. The study also revealed a negative correlation between trait emotional intelligence and sensation seeking, as well as sensation seeking and school adjustment. In addition, the data provided a good fit to the hypothesized model of the mediating role of social skills and sensation seeking in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and school adjustment. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship Between Psychomotor Efficiency and Sensation Seeking of People Exposed to Noise and Low Frequency Vibration Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchut, Aleksander; Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Romanska – Zapała, Anna; Stypula, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    At the workplace of the machine operator, low frequency whole body and hand- arm vibrations are observed. They occur together with noise. Whole body vibration in the range of 3-25 Hz are detrimental to the human body due to the location of the resonant frequency of large organs of the human body in this range. It can be assumed that for this reason people working every day in such conditions can have reduced working efficiency. The influence of low frequency vibration and noise on the human body leads to both physiological and functional changes. The result of the impact of noise and vibration stimuli depends largely on the specific characteristics of the objects, which include among other personality traits, temperament and emotional factor. The pilot study conducted in the laboratory was attended by 30 young men. The aim of the study was to look for correlations between the need for stimulation of the objects and their psychomotor efficiency in case of vibration exposure and vibration together with noise exposure in variable conditions task. The need for stimulation of the objects as defined in the study is based on theoretical assumptions of one dimensional model of temperament developed by Marvin Zuckerman. This theory defines the need for stimulation as the search for different, new, complex and intense sensations, as well as the willingness to take risks. The aim of research was to verify if from four factors such as: the search for adventure and horror, sensation seeking, disinhibition and susceptibility to boredom, we can choose the ones that in conjunction with varying operating conditions, may significantly determine the efficiency of the task situation. The objects performed the test evaluation of their motor skills which consisted in keeping the cursor controlled by a joystick through the path. The number of exceeds of the cursor beyond the path and its maximum deviation was recorded. The collected data were used to determine the correlation between the

  17. The relationships between sensation seeking and a spectrum of e-cigarette use behaviors: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses specific to Texas adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen R; Harrell, Melissa B; Pérez, Adriana; Loukas, Alexandra; Wilkinson, Anna V; Springer, Andrew E; Creamer, MeLisa R; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-10-01

    Sensation seeking is strongly associated with cigarette use in adolescents. However, few studies have investigated its relationship with adolescent e-cigarette use. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sensation seeking and a variety of e-cigarette use behaviors among Texas adolescents. This study utilized two waves of data collected 6months apart through the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) in 2014-2015 (n=2,488/N=461,069). TATAMS employs a complex probability-sampling design and is representative of students in 6th, 8th and 10th grades from five counties surrounding the four largest cities in Texas (Houston, Dallas/Ft. Worth, San Antonio, Austin). Weighted multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sensation seeking and susceptibility to e-cigarette use, ever e-cigarette use, and current (past 30day) e-cigarette use. In the cross-sectional analyses, higher mean sensation seeking scores were associated with higher odds of both susceptibility to e-cigarette use and ever e-cigarette use (AOR=1.25, 95% CI=1.07, 1.47; AOR=1.24, 95% CI=1.08, 1.43, respectively). For the longitudinal analyses, only the association between higher mean sensation seeking scores and transition to ever e-cigarette use remained statistically significant (AOR=1.45, 95% CI=1.01, 2.08). There were no significant associations between sensation seeking and current e-cigarette use in either the cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Higher sensation seeking scores were consistently and significantly related to experimentation with e-cigarette use among Texas adolescents. Future interventions (e.g., communication campaigns) should target high sensation seeking adolescents to reduce initiation of e-cigarette use among this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Competitiveness facets and sensation seeking as predictors of problem gambling among a sample of university student gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11% of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed.

  19. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  20. Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sanbonmatsu

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants' perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation--high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking--reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control--low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity--tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity.

  1. Who Multi-Tasks and Why? Multi-Tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-Tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M.; Strayer, David L.; Medeiros-Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that people often engage in multi-tasking because they are less able to block out distractions and focus on a singular task. Participants with less executive control - low scorers on the Operation Span task and persons high in impulsivity - tended to report higher levels of multi-tasking activity. PMID:23372720

  2. Family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents: The mediating role of negative emotional symptoms and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Ángela; Obando, Diana; Trujillo, Carlos A

    2016-11-01

    The literature indicates a close relationship between family dynamics and psychoactive substance use among adolescents, and multi-causality among substance use-related problems, including personal adolescent characteristics as potential influential aspects in this relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of emotional symptoms and sensation seeking as mediators in the relationship between family dynamics and alcohol and marijuana use among adolescents. The sample consisted of 571 high school students with a mean age of 14.63, who completed the Communities That Care Youth Survey in its Spanish version. We propose and test a mediation-in-serial model to identify the relationships between the study variables. The results of the mediation models indicate that, in most cases, the relationship between family dynamics and the substance use variables is meaningfully carried through the proposed mediators, first through negative emotional symptoms, and then through sensation seeking. The meaning of the mediation varies as a function of the facet of family dynamics (conflict or attachment) and the use aspect (age of onset, frequency of use, and use intention). We discuss the implications of these findings for intervention and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [The Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS): a French-speaking validation and psychometric examination in young students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, N; Paquette, L

    2010-10-01

    In French-speaking countries, the concept of sensation seeking has been most widely assessed using the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale form V (SSS), since this instrument was validated (in French) more than 15 years ago. This instrument has received several criticisms which limit the internal and external consistencies. Indeed, five limitations of conception and form could reduce the fact that many researchers have found the SSSV to be valid and useful and, more importantly, the conclusions that can be drawn from studies in which it has been used (e.g; tautological relationships, a forced-choice format, language of some items is out-of-date). Arnett thus developed a new measurement (Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking, AISS) based on a new conceptualization of sensation seeking, which is characterized by the need for novelty and intensity of stimulation, whereas sensation seeking, as developed by Zuckerman, is marked by a need for novelty and complexity of stimulation. The AISS has been translated and validated in Spanish and in German. Both studies found support for the bi-dimensional structure of the instrument. Currently, there is no French-speaking version of the AISS, and because of the cultural differences between English- and French-speaking populations, we cannot simply translate the instrument without examining the reliability and the factorial validity. Hence, we followed the seven steps of the cross-cultural validation methodology for psychological questionnaires presented by Vallerand. Questionnaires were distributed to 782 young adults. Out of these questionnaires, 737 (94%) were returned. One hundred and sixteen questionnaires were removed because of missing data. Thus, a total of 621 young adults were included in the study. They were aged from 18 to 28 years (M=23.32, SD=2.79). They completed the SSS and the AISS. We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on the data set, using Amos 6.0, to assess the validity of the bi

  4. General habit propensity relates to the sensation seeking subdomain of impulsivity but not obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dietrich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available According to dual-system theory, instrumental learning and performance depend on the balance between goal-directed and habitual action control. Overreliance on habits has been argued to characterize clinical conditions such as drug addiction or obsessive-compulsive disorder as well as obesity and excessive impulsivity. A tendency towards habitual action control in obesity has already been indicated in the food domain. However, impairments might not be restricted to eating behavior. This has been suggested by domain-general obesity-associated disturbances in executive function as well as alterations in corticostriatal circuits underlying the goal-directed and habitual systems. In this study we examined the balance of goal-directed and habitual action control in a sample of normal-weight, overweight, and obese participants (n=105 using the slips-of-action test in a non-food context. We tested for continuous or group-based associations between body weight status (BMI and the devaluation sensitivity index (DSI, a parameter representing the balance of the goal-directed and habitual systems in action control. As personality differences in the domain of impulsivity might affect this relationship, we also examined whether the interaction between BMI and self-reported impulsivity, based on the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, was related to the DSI. In addition to that, we tested for direct, i.e., weight status independent, relationships between UPPS subdomains of impulsivity and the DSI. We failed to find evidence for a relationship between weight status and sensitivity to devaluation as indexed by the DSI. However, independent of weight status, we observed lower sensitivity to devaluation in sensation seekers, a subtype of impulsivity. To conclude, behavioral flexibility in the sense of disturbances in the balance between the habitual and goal-directed systems seems to be unaffected by weight status in a non-food context. Consequently, stimuli and

  5. Revisiting the association between pornography use and risky sexual behaviors: the role of early exposure to pornography and sexual sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinković, Matija; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Božić, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Among the suggested problems and harms associated with widespread pornography use among young people, risky sexual behaviors have been frequently mentioned. To further explore this public health concern, this article analyzed sexual sensation seeking (SSS) as a potential confounder of the association between pornography use and sexual risks using data collected in 2010 from a population-based sample of young Croatian adults aged 18 to 25 (n = 1,005). Significant, but small, correlations were found between the indicators of pornography use (age at first exposure, frequency of use in the past 12 months, and personal importance of pornography) and sexual risk taking. However, in a multivariate analysis, only age at first exposure to pornography remained a significant, albeit weak, predictor of sexual risk taking among both women and men. SSS, defined as the dispositional tendency toward the impulsive pursuit of sexual arousal and stimulation, neither confounded nor moderated this association. Overall, the findings do not support the notion that pornography use is substantially associated with sexual risk taking among young adults, but suggest that early exposure to sexually explicit material and high SSS are additive risk factors for sexual risk taking.

  6. The influence of sensitivity to reward and punishment, propensity for sensation seeking, depression, and anxiety on the risky behaviour of novice drivers: a path model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K

    2012-05-01

    Young novice drivers are significantly more likely to be killed or injured in car crashes than older, experienced drivers. Graduated driver licensing (GDL), which allows the novice to gain driving experience under less-risky circumstances, has resulted in reduced crash incidence; however, the driver's psychological traits are ignored. This paper explores the relationships between gender, age, anxiety, depression, sensitivity to reward and punishment, sensation-seeking propensity, and risky driving. Participants were 761 young drivers aged 17-24 (M=19.00, SD=1.56) with a Provisional (intermediate) driver's licence who completed an online survey comprising socio-demographic questions, the Impulsive Sensation Seeking Scale, Kessler's Psychological Distress Scale, the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, and the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale. Path analysis revealed depression, reward sensitivity, and sensation-seeking propensity predicted the self-reported risky behaviour of the young novice drivers. Gender was a moderator; and the anxiety level of female drivers also influenced their risky driving. Interventions do not directly consider the role of rewards and sensation seeking, or the young person's mental health. An approach that does take these variables into account may contribute to improved road safety outcomes for both young and older road users. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The Relative Influence of Sensation Seeking and Normal Narcissism on Academic Cheating in Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanek, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous research studies reveal that cheating is a significant problem on the campuses of American colleges and universities. Traditional college-aged students (aged 18-25) fall within a time-frame of the life-span that has been labeled emerging adulthood, a time in which risk-taking behavior is common. The present study conceptualized academic…

  8. Early Adolescent Sexual Debut: The Mediating Role of Working Memory Ability, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[subscript baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart,…

  9. Early Adolescent Sexual Debut: The Mediating Role of Working Memory Ability, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsivity

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana, Atika; Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Hurt, Hallam

    2012-01-01

    Although deficits in working memory ability have been implicated in suboptimal decision making and risk taking among adolescents, its influence on early sexual initiation has so far not been examined. Analyzing 2 waves of panel data from a community sample of adolescents (N = 347; Mean age[baseline] = 13.4 years), assessed 1 year apart, the present study tested the hypothesis that weak working memory ability predicts early sexual initiation and explored whether this relationship is mediated b...

  10. Individual differences in personality as a function of degree of handedness: consistent-handers are less sensation seeking, more authoritarian, and more sensitive to disgust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Prior research indicates that consistent-handedness is associated with decreased access to right hemisphere processing and consequent decreased cognitive flexibility. Handedness differences on three dimensions of personality related to cognitive flexibility were investigated. Experiment 1 found that consistent-handedness was associated with decreased sensation seeking. Experiment 2 found that consistent-handedness was associated with increased Right Wing Authoritarianism. Experiment 3 found that consistent-handedness was associated with increased sensitivity to disgust. Prior research has shown associations between decreased sensation seeking, increased authoritarianism, and increased disgust sensitivity, and consistent-handedness appears to underlie all of these associations. Personality researchers are encouraged to include handedness as a factor in analyses, as failure to do so can lead to systematic mis-estimation of sex differences due to the over-representation of females among consistent-handers.

  11. Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sansone, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Urban-rural differences in adolescent self-esteem, leisure boredom, and sensation-seeking as predictors of leisure-time usage and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W R; Caltabiano, M L

    1996-01-01

    Australia's "sporting nation" image has been challenged by adolescents' decreasing involvement in active leisure pursuits. A significant number of adolescents experience leisure boredom and dissatisfaction, which have been implicated in drug use and delinquency. Researchers have largely ignored the multivariate nature of adolescent leisure experiences. This North Queensland, Australian adolescent leisure study explored the extent to which adolescent leisure experiences were mediated by individual and situational variables. Seventy-five Cairns and 65 Atherton high school students (66 males and 74 females) were surveyed from grades 8, 10, and 12 (ages 12 to 19), during normal class periods. The Self-Rating Scale (SPS) measure of self-esteem, Sensation-Seeking Scale Form II (SSS), Leisure Boredom Scale (LBS), and a time-use inventory yielded quantitative data. Urban adolescents reported less leisure satisfaction. Participation was highest for passive leisure and lowest for active leisure. Urban adolescents reported higher social leisure, while rural adolescents engaged in more passive leisure. For both Cairns and Atherton, the heaviest substance users were those who scored low on self-esteem and high on sensation-seeking. Atherton adolescents who scored low on self-esteem but high on sensation-seeking, reported the most crime involvement. Methodological issues and implications are discussed and suggestions made for future research.

  13. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions.

  14. Validation of the Chinese-language brief sensation seeking scale: implications for risky riding behaviors of parental motorcyclists and their child passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hsiu-Ping; Lin, Mau-Roung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Huang, Ping-Wen; Chiang, Yung-Hsiao; Chiu, Wen-Ta

    2014-12-01

    Motorcycles are the leading cause of road traffic deaths in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia, where Mandarin Chinese is the most commonly used language. Sensation seeking (SS) is reported to correlate with many risky motor vehicle behaviors, and therefore a culture-adapted Chinese instrument is needed to assess this personality trait in Chinese-speaking motorcycling populations. The standard front and blinded-backward process was carried out to formulate the Chinese-language Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (C-BSSS). 193 parental motorcyclists who rode with their young children were interviewed concerning their SS levels, demographics, riding behaviors, and the driving/riding experiences. A random sample of 30 subjects was re-interviewed 1-2 weeks later to examine the test-retest reliability. Psychometric analyses revealed satisfactory item characteristics, internal consistency, intraobserver reliability, and interobserver reliability. Additionally, parental motorcyclists who had the following characteristics were more likely to be the high sensation seekers (SSers), including male, younger age, presenting risky motor vehicle behaviors of themselves (e.g., higher riding speeds, operating after drinking, using a mobile phone while operating, and receiving a traffic ticket), and carrying child passengers who demonstrated dangerous motorcycling behaviors (e.g., a younger age, non-helmeted, and overloaded). We conclude that the C-BSSS is a useful and reliable measure of SS for ethnic Chinese populations. This instrument may be helpful to develop the future prevention strategy of motorcycle injuries in Chinese parental motorcyclists and their young child passengers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Sexual Compulsivity, and Gender Identity and Its Relationship With Sexual Functioning in a Population Sample of Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Despite awareness of the importance of psycho-affective factors in the development of sexual problems, there is a lack of studies exploring the relation of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC) to sexual functioning. Because sex differences in SSS and SC have been reported, gender identity (GI; an individual's own experience of his or her gender that is unrelated to the actual biological sex) might act as a moderator in this relation. To understand the role of SSS and SC for men and women's sexual functioning and to explore whether these potential associations are moderated by GI. A population-based cross-sectional online survey targeted 279 individuals (69.2% women, 30.8% men; mean age = 32 years). Validated questionnaires, including the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, and the International Index of Erectile Function, were applied. Variations in SSS and SC and their association with sexual functioning were investigated using Spearman rank correlation. Moderation analyses were conducted using regression models in which the interaction terms between SSS and GI and between SCS and GI as predictors of sexual functioning were included. A statistically significant correlation between SSS and SC could be detected in men and women (r = 0.41 and 0.33, respectively; P < .001 for the two comparisons). In women, higher levels of SSS were associated with higher levels of desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm and less sexual pain (P < .05 for all comparisons). No moderating effect of GI could be detected. In men, GI was a significant moderator in the relation between SC and erectile function (β = 0.47; P < .001) and between SSS and erectile and ejaculatory function (β = -0.41 and 0.30; P < .001 for the two comparisons). The present study is the first to show a link between SSS and SC and sexual functioning. The results might have important

  16. Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues.

  17. Social Sensations of Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Whyte, Susan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    The interpretation of sensations and the recognition of symptoms of a sickness, as well as the movement to seek treatment, have long been recognized in medical anthropology as inherently social processes. Based on cases of HIV and trauma (PTSD) in Uganda, we show that even the first signs....../symptoms; differential recognition of symptoms; and the embodied sociality of treatment....... and sensations of sickness can be radically social. The sensing body can be a ‘social body’ – a family, a couple, a network – a unit that transcends the individual body. In this article we focus on four aspects of the sociality of sensations and symptoms: mode of transmission; the shared experience of sensations...

  18. Do markets encourage risk-seeking behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengel, F.; Peeters, R.J.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive risk taking in markets can have devastating consequences as recent financial crises have high-lighted. In this paper we ask whether markets as an institution encourage such excessive risk taking. To establish causality, we isolate the effects of market interaction in a laboratory

  19. Impulsividad y búsqueda de sensaciones: factores asociados a síntomas de anorexia y bulimia nerviosas en estudiantes de secundaria (Impulsiveness and sensation seeking: Factors associated with symptoms of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafina Castro-Zamudio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential association of impulsiveness and sensation seeking and the attitudes and behaviour characteristic of anorexia and bulimia nervosa in male and female students (between 12 and 20 years. The study had an observational case-control design, in which the case group comprised symptomatic subjects who had scores above the cutoff point designated by the authors for several assessment instruments, and the control group, which comprised asymptomatic participants who had scores below the cutoff point. The study included 300 participants (136 men [45.33%] and 164 women [(54.66%] from Malaga (Spain. All participants received parental authorization to take part in the study. The participants anonymously completed the following self-administered tests: Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-II, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Bulimia Test Revised (BULIT-R, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11, and (SSS-V. The results suggest an association between impulsiveness and symptomatology associated with eating disorders, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa. In contrast, sensation seeking was only associated with bulimic symptoms. In summary, the variables impulsivity and sensation seeking appear to be closely associated with eating disorders. Thus, these aspects should be addressed in healthy lifestyle programs, because their inclusion may help to reduce or prevent the increase in eating disorders in the teenage population.

  20. Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk taking behavior in male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eToledo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.

  1. Risk Propensity, Risk Perception, and Sensation Seeking in US Army Soldiers: A Preliminary Study of a Risk Assessment Task Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    G. P. 1999. Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. Journal of Neuroscience. 19: 5473...make a profit? 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 9. While you are flying on a commercial airplane, a lone hijacker stands up next to

  2. Information needs and risk perception as predictors of risk information seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a theoretical framework that describes the importance of public's information sufficiency, risk perception, and self-efficacy as predictors of intended risk information seeking behaviour. Based on theoretical assumptions, measurement instruments for relevant concepts were

  3. Use of bodily sensations as a risk assessment tool: exploring people with Multiple Sclerosis' views on risks of negative interactions between herbal medicine and conventional drug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Lasse; Pedersen, Inge Kryger; Verhoef, Marja

    2014-02-18

    Most users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) combine it with conventional medicine. Recent risk assessment studies have shown risks of negative interactions between CAM and conventional medicine, particularly when combining herbal medicine and conventional drug therapies (CDT). Little is known about the way users consider such risks. The present paper aims to gain knowledge about this issue by exploring views on risks of negative interactions when combining herbal medicine and CDT among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper draws on a qualitative follow-up study on a survey among members of the Danish MS Society. Semi-structured, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with a strategic selection from the survey respondents. The study was inspired by a phenomenological approach and emerging themes were extracted from the data through meaning condensation. Four themes characterized the informants' views on risks of negative interactions when combining herbal medicine and CDT: 1) 'naturalness' in herbal medicine; 2) 'bodily sensations' as guidelines; 3) trust in the CAM practitioner; 4) lack of dialogue with medical doctor. Generally, the combination of herbal medicine and CDT was considered by the informants to be safe. In particular, they emphasized the 'non-chemical' nature of herbal medicine and of their own bodily sensations as warrants of safety. A trustful relation to the CAM practitioner furthermore made some of them feel safe in their use of herbal medicine and CDT in combination. The informants' use of bodily sensations as a non-discursive risk assessment may be a relevant element in understanding these issues.

  4. Risk Information Seeking among U.S. and Dutch Residents. An Application of the model of Risk Information Seeking and Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Griffin, Robert J.; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2009-01-01

    The model of risk information seeking and processing (RISP) proposes characteristics of individuals that might predispose them to seek risk information. The intent of this study is to test the model’s robustness across two independent samples in different nations. Based on data from the United

  5. Are online poker problem gamblers sensation seekers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, Céline

    2018-03-31

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between sensation seeking and online poker gambling in a community sample of adult online poker players, when controlling for age, gender, anxiety and depression. In total, 288 online poker gamblers were recruited. Sociodemographic data, gambling behavior (CPGI), sensation seeking (SSS), depression and anxiety (HADS) were evaluated. Problem online poker gamblers have higher sensation seeking scores (total, thrill and adventure, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility subscores) and depression scores than non-problem online poker gamblers. Being male, with total sensation seeking, disinhibition and depression scores are factors associated with online poker problem gambling. These findings are interesting in terms of harm reduction. For example, because disinhibition could lead to increased time and money spent, protective behavioral strategies like setting time and monetary limits should be encouraged in poker online gamblers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk-averse and Risk-seeking Investor Preferences for Oil Spot and Futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.H. Lean (Hooi Hooi); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines risk-averse and risk-seeking investor preferences for oil spot and futures prices by using the mean-variance (MV) criterion and stochastic dominance (SD) approach. The MV findings cannot distinguish between the preferences of spot and futures markets. However, the SD

  7. Sensation seeking, coping with stress, and readiness to engage in therapy: does ego development influence the psychosocial functioning of substance-abusing mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E

    2012-04-01

    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Insight into the Earthquake Risk Information Seeking Behavior of the Victims: Evidence from Songyuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient risk communication is a vital way to reduce the vulnerability of individuals when facing emergency risks, especially regarding earthquakes. Efficient risk communication aims at improving the supply of risk information and fulfilling the need for risk information by individuals. Therefore, an investigation into individual-level information seeking behavior within earthquake risk contexts is very important for improved earthquake risk communication. However, at present there are very few studies that have explored the behavior of individuals seeking earthquake risk information. Under the guidance of the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model as well as relevant practical findings using the structural equation model, this study attempts to explore the main determinants of an individual’s earthquake risk information seeking behavior, and to validate the mediator effect of information need during the seeking process. A questionnaire-based survey of 918 valid respondents in Songyuan, China, who had been hit by a small earthquake swarm, was used to provide practical evidence for this study. Results indicated that information need played a noteworthy role in the earthquake risk information seeking process, and was detected both as an immediate predictor and as a mediator. Informational subjective norms drive the seeking behavior on earthquake risk information through both direct and indirect approaches. Perceived information gathering capacity, negative affective responses and risk perception have an indirect effect on earthquake risk information seeking behavior via information need. The implications for theory and practice regarding risk communication are discussed and concluded.

  9. I'm feeling lucky: the relationship between affect and risk-seeking in the framing effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Elaine; Mikels, Joseph A

    2011-08-01

    Engagement in risky behavior has traditionally been attributed to an underestimation of the associated risks, but recent perspectives suggest that affective reactions toward a risky option may better explain risk-seeking than risk perception. However, the precise relationship between emotion and risk-seeking remains unclear. The current set of studies elucidates the relationship between emotion and risk-seeking in risky choice framing, using a gambling task. In Study 1, reliance on emotion was related to risk-seeking, but goals to regulate emotion mitigated these effects. In Study 2, positive affect was associated with risk-seeking in loss frames, but unrelated to risk aversion in gain frames. Collectively, these findings indicate a general role for emotion reliance on risk-seeking and a specific role of positive affect on risk-seeking in the loss trials of the framing effect. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Skin cancer concerns and genetic risk information-seeking in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, J; Kaphingst, K A; Baser, R; Li, Y; Hensley-Alford, S; McBride, C M

    2012-01-01

    Genomic testing for common genetic variants associated with skin cancer risk could enable personalized risk feedback to motivate skin cancer screening and sun protection. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated whether skin cancer cognitions and behavioral factors, sociodemographics, family factors, and health information-seeking were related to perceived importance of learning about how (a) genes and (b) health habits affect personal health risks using classification and regression trees (CART). The sample (n = 1,772) was collected in a large health maintenance organization as part of the Multiplex Initiative, ranged in age from 25-40, was 53% female, 41% Caucasian, and 59% African-American. Most reported that they placed somewhat to very high importance on learning about how genes (79%) and health habits (88%) affect their health risks. Social influence actors were associated with information-seeking about genes and health habits. Awareness of family history was associated with importance of health habit, but not genetic, information-seeking. The investment of family and friends in health promotion may be a primary motivator for prioritizing information-seeking about how genes and health habits affect personal health risks and may contribute to the personal value, or personal utility, of risk information. Individuals who seek such risk information may be receptive to interventions aimed to maximize the social implications of healthy lifestyle change to reduce their health risks. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The Influence of Alcohol-Related Cognitions on Personality-Based Risk for Alcohol Use during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether expectancies about the impact of not drinking or reducing alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use partially mediated risk incurred by sensation seeking for adolescent alcohol involvement. High school drinkers (N = 3,153) completed a survey assessing substance use, sensation seeking, perceived peer alcohol use,…

  12. Adolescents' Heightened Risk-Seeking in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Stephanie; Bault, Nadege; Coricelli, Giorgio; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated adolescent males' decision-making under risk, and the emotional response to decision outcomes, using a probabilistic gambling task designed to evoke counterfactually mediated emotions (relief and regret). Participants were 20 adolescents (aged 9-11), 26 young adolescents (aged 12-15), 20 mid-adolescents (aged 15-18) and 17…

  13. Cognitive influences on risk-seeking by rhesus macaques,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Y. Hayden

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other animals are idiosyncratically sensitive to risk, either preferring or avoiding options having the same value but differing in uncertainty. Many explanations for risk sensitivity rely on the non-linear shape of a hypothesized utility curve. Because such models do not place any importance on uncertainty extit{per se}, utility curve-based accounts predict indifference between risky and riskless options that offer the same distribution of rewards. Here we show that monkeys strongly prefer uncertain gambles to alternating rewards with the same payoffs, demonstrating that uncertainty itself contributes to the appeal of risky options. Based on prior observations, we hypothesized that the appeal of the risky option is enhanced by the salience of the potential jackpot. To test this, we subtly manipulated payoffs in a second gambling task. We found that monkeys are more sensitive to small changes in the size of the large reward than to equivalent changes in the size of the small reward, indicating that they attend preferentially to the jackpots. Together, these results challenge utility curve-based accounts of risk sensitivity, and suggest that psychological factors, such as outcome salience and uncertainty itself, contribute to risky decision-making.

  14. A theory-based approach to understanding suicide risk in shelter-seeking women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Smith, Phillip N

    2015-04-01

    Women seeking shelter from intimate partner violence are at an increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts compared to women in the general population. Control-based violence, which is common among shelter-seeking women, may play a pivotal role in the development of suicide ideation and attempts. Current risk assessment and management practices for shelter-seeking women are limited by the lack of an empirically grounded understanding of increased risk in this population. We argue that in order to more effectively promote risk assessment and management, an empirically supported theory that is sensitive to the experiences of shelter-seeking women is needed. Such a theory-driven approach has the benefits of identifying and prioritizing targetable areas for intervention. Here, we review the evidence for the link between coercive control and suicide ideation and attempts from the perspective of Baumeister's escape theory of suicide. This theory has the potential to explain the role of coercive control in the development of suicide ideation and eventual attempts in shelter-seeking women. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention in domestic violence shelters are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Brain responses to repeated visual experience among low and high sensation seekers: role of boredom susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yang; Lianekhammy, Joann; Lawson, Adam; Guo, Chunyan; ynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.; Gold, Brian T.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and present...

  16. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  17. Exploring Demographics and Health as Predictors of Risk-Taking in UK Help-Seeking Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Ashwick

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk-taking amongst veterans has severe consequences, yet few studies have examined factors that may predict risk-taking in help-seeking veteran populations. This paper presents a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 667 UK help-seeking veterans, investigating the role of demographics, mental health and physical health presentations on the propensity for risk-taking. Out of 403 (73.4% veterans, 350 (86.8% reported risk-taking in the past month. We found that younger age, being in a relationship, probable PTSD, common mental health difficulties and traumatic brain injury were significantly associated with risk-taking. Additionally, a direct association was found between increased risk-taking and PTSD symptom clusters, including higher hyperarousal, elevated negative alterations in mood and cognition. Our findings provide initial evidence for demographic and mental health presentations as predictors of risk-taking in help-seeking veterans. Further research and longitudinal studies are needed to facilitate valid risk assessments, and early intervention for veteran services.

  18. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  19. Reacting to unexpected losses in an uncertain world : High approach individuals become even more risk-seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Xiaoyue; Van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Proulx, Travis; Wu, Haizheng; Van Beest, Ilja; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people are risk-seeking in the face of losses. We propose that this risk-seeking orientation is a palliative approach response to deal with a discrepancy between people's desire to avoid losses versus the possibility of loss. An expectancy violation (which induces

  20. Phantom breast sensations are frequent after mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dorthe Marie Helbo; Kehlet, Henrik; Gærtner, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Phantom breast sensation (PBS) following mastectomy has been recognized for many years. PBS is a feeling that the removed breast is still there. The reported prevalence and risk factors have not been established in large well-defined patient series. The purpose of this study was to examine...... the prevalence of PBS following mastectomy and associated risk factors....

  1. Oral sensations and secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Cordelia A

    2018-04-10

    Sensations experienced in the mouth influence food choices, both immediately and in the long term. Such sensations are themselves influenced by experience with flavors, the chemical environment of the mouth, genetics of receptors for flavors, and individual behavior in the chewing of food. Gustation, the sense of taste, yields information about nutrients, influences palatability, and feeds into the human body's preparation to receive those nutrients. Olfaction, the sense of smell, contributes enormously to defining and identifying food flavors (and is experienced even after placing food inside the mouth). Another vital component of food flavor is texture, which contributes to palatability, especially if a food's texture violates a person's expectations. Next, chemesthesis is the sense of chemically induced irritancy and temperature, for example spiciness and stinging. All of these sensations are potentially modified by saliva, the chemical and physical media of the mouth. As a person experiences the culmination of these oral sensations, modified through an individual's own unique saliva, the flavors in turn influence both what and how a person eats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Voluntary risk Seeking in the Risk Society: Explaining Involvement in Edgework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Mascini (Peter); P.H.J. Achterberg (Peter); D. Houtman (Dick)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ How does voluntary participation in dangerous leisure activities requiring skills (‘edgework’) compare, for example, to gambling and thrill seeking and why does edgework thrive in societies preoccupied with safety and security? Lyng (1990) assumes edgework constitutes

  4. From sensation to cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesulam, M M

    1998-06-01

    Sensory information undergoes extensive associative elaboration and attentional modulation as it becomes incorporated into the texture of cognition. This process occurs along a core synaptic hierarchy which includes the primary sensory, upstream unimodal, downstream unimodal, heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic zones of the cerebral cortex. Connections from one zone to another are reciprocal and allow higher synaptic levels to exert a feedback (top-down) influence upon earlier levels of processing. Each cortical area provides a nexus for the convergence of afferents and divergence of efferents. The resultant synaptic organization supports parallel as well as serial processing, and allows each sensory event to initiate multiple cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Upstream sectors of unimodal association areas encode basic features of sensation such as colour, motion, form and pitch. More complex contents of sensory experience such as objects, faces, word-forms, spatial locations and sound sequences become encoded within downstream sectors of unimodal areas by groups of coarsely tuned neurons. The highest synaptic levels of sensory-fugal processing are occupied by heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic cortices, collectively known as transmodal areas. The unique role of these areas is to bind multiple unimodal and other transmodal areas into distributed but integrated multimodal representations. Transmodal areas in the midtemporal cortex, Wernicke's area, the hippocampal-entorhinal complex and the posterior parietal cortex provide critical gateways for transforming perception into recognition, word-forms into meaning, scenes and events into experiences, and spatial locations into targets for exploration. All cognitive processes arise from analogous associative transformations of similar sets of sensory inputs. The differences in the resultant cognitive operation are determined by the anatomical and physiological properties of the transmodal node that acts as the critical

  5. Phantom sensations in people with complete spinal cord lesions: a grounded theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Daren G; Shem, Kazuko; Walbom, Agnes; Miner, Maureen D; Maclachlan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Phantom sensations are somatic phenomena arising from denervated parts of the body. There is very little research, and much diagnostic confusion, regarding such experiences in people with spinal cord injuries. In the case of 'complete' spinal cord lesions, phantom experiences may challenge, and indeed, contradict, the understanding that both clinicians and patients have of such injuries. This paper seeks to provide a better understanding of such 'phantom' sensations in spinal cord injury. We used grounded theory methods to explore 'phantom' sensations as experienced by individuals with complete (ASIA A) spinal lesions. Eight people with complete lesions, who were selected through theoretical sampling, participated in a semi-structured interview. Emergent themes included injury context, sensations experienced, the meaning of sensations, body connectivity, attitude and communication about sensations. Our results provide an enhanced understanding of the embodied experience of phantom sensations, and important insights regarding self-construction and rehabilitative processes in people with spinal cord injury who experience such anomalous sensations.

  6. Information seeking in a risky world : the theoretical and empirical development of FRIS : a Framework of Risk Information Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huurne, E.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Communication regarding industrial hazards and the risks involved for humans and their assets is subject to major changes in contemporary society. Changing views on risk communication have recently triggered a new era of risk communication approaches that move beyond alerting or reassuring the

  7. Auditory and Visual Sensations

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Professor Yoichi Ando, acoustic architectural designer of the Kirishima International Concert Hall in Japan, presents a comprehensive rational-scientific approach to designing performance spaces. His theory is based on systematic psychoacoustical observations of spatial hearing and listener preferences, whose neuronal correlates are observed in the neurophysiology of the human brain. A correlation-based model of neuronal signal processing in the central auditory system is proposed in which temporal sensations (pitch, timbre, loudness, duration) are represented by an internal autocorrelation representation, and spatial sensations (sound location, size, diffuseness related to envelopment) are represented by an internal interaural crosscorrelation function. Together these two internal central auditory representations account for the basic auditory qualities that are relevant for listening to music and speech in indoor performance spaces. Observed psychological and neurophysiological commonalities between auditor...

  8. The influence of risk labeling on risk perception and willingness to seek help in an experimental simulation of preventive medical examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hulshof, Carel T; Sluiter, Judith K

    2018-07-01

    To study the influence of the presentation of results of a preventive medical examination on risk perception and willingness to seek help for work-related fatigue or being overweight. A factorial design experiment was conducted, presenting workers (n = 82) with vignettes including eight scenarios of test results with and without an emphasis on the risk of a current or future health condition or a probe to seek help. Participants rated perceived risk and willingness to seek help (0-100 Visual Analogue Scale) as if these were their own results. Differences were tested with paired-sample t-tests. In scenarios emphasizing the risk of a current or future disorder, participants perceived higher risk and were more willing to seek help (p-values < .00). Slightly higher willingness to seek help scores was observed in all scenarios that included probes (p < .00). Risk perception and willingness to seek help of workers participating in a preventive medical examination were higher when they were told that the test results indicate a risk of a current or future disorder and after being advised to seek help. Healthcare providers should take the potential effects on risk perception and help-seeking into account in preventive settings. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. A cluster randomized trial of alcohol prevention in small businesses: a cascade model of help seeking and risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, G Shawn; Bennett, Joel B

    2015-01-01

    The current study adapted two workplace substance abuse prevention programs and tested a conceptual model of workplace training effects on help seeking and alcohol consumption. Questionnaires were collected 1 month before, 1 month after, and 6 months within a cluster randomized field experiment. Texas small businesses in construction, transportation, and service industries. A total of 1510 employees from 45 businesses were randomly assigned to receive no training or one of the interventions. The interventions were 4-hour on-the-job classroom trainings that encouraged healthy lifestyles and seeking professional help (e.g., from the Employee Assistance Program [EAP]). The Team Awareness Program focused on peer referral and team building. The Choices in Health Promotion Program delivered various health topics based on a needs assessment. Questionnaires measured help-seeking attitudes and behavior, frequency of drinking alcohol, and job-related incidents. Mixed-model repeated-measures analyses of covariance were computed. Relative to the control group, training was associated with significantly greater reductions in drinking frequency, willingness to seek help, and seeking help from the EAP. After including help-seeking attitudes as a covariate, the correlation between training and help seeking becomes nonsignificant. Help-seeking behavior was not correlated with drinking frequency. Training improved help-seeking attitudes and behaviors and decreased alcohol risks. The reductions in drinking alcohol were directly correlated with training and independent from help seeking.

  10. Can prospect theory explain risk-seeking behavior by terminally ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasiel, Emma B; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Schulman, Kevin A

    2005-01-01

    Patients with life-threatening conditions sometimes appear to make risky treatment decisions as their condition declines, contradicting the risk-averse behavior predicted by expected utility theory. Prospect theory accommodates such decisions by describing how individuals evaluate outcomes relative to a reference point and how they exhibit risk-seeking behavior over losses relative to that point. The authors show that a patient's reference point for his or her health is a key factor in determining which treatment option the patient selects, and they examine under what circumstances the more risky option is selected. The authors argue that patients' reference points may take time to adjust following a change in diagnosis, with implications for predicting under what circumstances a patient may select experimental or conventional therapies or select no treatment.

  11. Food Seeking in a Risky Environment: A Method for Evaluating Risk and Reward Value in Food Seeking and Consumption in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Sarah H; McAuley, Clare V; Rawlinson, Sasha; Guiney, Natalie; Andrews, Zane B

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that measure food intake in mice do so in the home cage environment. This necessarily means that mice do not engage in food seeking before consumption, a behavior that is ubiquitous in free-living animals. We modified and validated several commonly used anxiety tests to include a palatable food reward within the anxiogenic zone. This allowed us to assess risk-taking behavior in food seeking in mice in response to different metabolic stimuli. We modified the open field test and the light/dark box by placing palatable peanut butter chips within a designated food zone inside the anxiogenic zone of each apparatus. We then assessed parameters of the interaction with the food reward. Fasted mice or mice treated with ghrelin showed increased consumption and increased time spent in the food zone immediately around the food reward compared to ad libitum fed mice or mice treated with saline. However, fasted mice treated with IP glucose before exposure to the behavioral arena showed reduced time in the food zone compared to fasted controls, indicating that acute metabolic signals can modify the assessment of safety in food seeking in a risky environment. The tests described in this study will be useful in assessing risk processing and incentive salience of food reward, which are intrinsic components of food acquisition outside of the laboratory environment, in a range of genetic and pharmacological models.

  12. Risk aversion and risk seeking in multicriteria forest management: a Markov decision process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Buongiorno; Mo Zhou; Craig Johnston

    2017-01-01

    Markov decision process models were extended to reflect some consequences of the risk attitude of forestry decision makers. One approach consisted of maximizing the expected value of a criterion subject to an upper bound on the variance or, symmetrically, minimizing the variance subject to a lower bound on the expected value.  The other method used the certainty...

  13. Sensation seeking in outdoor pursuits: similarities and differences in discourses on radical sports and adventure tourism / Da exacerbação dos sentidos no encontro com a natureza: contrastando esportes radicais e turismo de aventura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane P. Spink

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a contribution to the understanding of risk-adventure as the set of practices that recuperate the positive dimension of risk. Based on a review of the literature and on the theoretical approach of Constructionist Discursive Psychology, it proposes a model for the analysis of the dimensions of risk adventure present in adventure tourism and radical sports: risk/danger, adrenaline, adventure, training, use of equipments and relationship to nature. The data, derived from the site of a tourism agency that specialized in adventure tourism and an interview with a paraglide practitioner, was analyzed using "trees of association of ideas" and "dialogical maps". All the elements of the model were present in both modalities of risk-adventure. However, adventure tourism was characterized by the delegation of responsibility to specialists, whilst the training/experience dimension made itself more present in radical sports, along with greater emphasis on individual responsibility in the control of risks.

  14. Risk perception, risk taking, accident involvement and the need for stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, A.; van der Molen, H.H.; Wilde, G.J S

    1996-01-01

    In Wilde's risk homeostasis theory, it is assumed that people have a target risk which guides their behaviour. The prime purpose of this experimental on-road study was to establish the effect of the need for stimulation or sensation seeking on this target risk. in addition, the relationship between

  15. Diarrheal Illness and Healthcare Seeking Behavior among a Population at High Risk for Diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Patel, Sweta; Siddiq, Ashraf Uddin; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Khan, Ashraful I.; Saha, Amit; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John; Qadri, Firdausi; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted during April and September 2010. The prevalence of diarrhea was calculated by age-group and sex. A generalized estimating equation with logit link function was used to predict diarrheal disease risk and seeking care from a professional healthcare provider. Of 316,766 individuals, 10% were young children (Bangladesh. Dissemination of information on health education, increasing the supply of skilled healthcare providers, and low-cost and quality healthcare services may encourage more people to seek care from professional healthcare providers, thus may help reduce child mortality in the country. Further studies are warranted to validate the results. PMID:26121650

  16. Risk and Ambiguity in Information Seeking: Eye Gaze Patterns Reveal Contextual Behavior in Dealing with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Peter; Liu, Ying-Hsang; Darányi, Sándor; Gedeon, Tom; Lim, Ik Soo

    2016-01-01

    Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent. Ambiguity, on the other hand, is the opportunity cost of having higher quality patches elsewhere in the search space. The aforementioned tradeoff depends on many attributes, including traits of the user: at the two extreme ends of the spectrum, analytic and wholistic searchers employ entirely different strategies. The former type focuses on exploitation first, interspersed with bouts of exploration, whereas the latter type prefers to explore the search space first and consume later. Our findings from an eye-tracking study of experts' interactions with novel search interfaces in the biomedical domain suggest that user traits of cognitive styles and perceived search task difficulty are significantly correlated with eye gaze and search behavior. We also demonstrate that perceived risk shifts the balance between exploration and exploitation in either type of users, tilting it against vs. in favor of ambiguity minimization. Since the pattern of behavior in information foraging is quintessentially sequential, risk and ambiguity minimization cannot happen simultaneously, leading to a fundamental limit on how good such a tradeoff can be. This in turn connects information seeking with the emergent field of quantum decision theory.

  17. Information Seeking about Global Climate Change among Adolescents: The Role of Risk Perceptions, Efficacy Beliefs and Parental Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Flora, June A.; Maibach, Edward W.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Global climate change is likely to have significant impacts on public health. Effective communication is critical to informing public decision making and behavior to mitigate climate change. An effective method of audience segmentation, the risk perception attitude (RPA) framework has been previously tested with other health behaviors and classifies people into 4 groups on the basis of their perceptions of risk and beliefs about personal efficacy. The 4 groups – indifference (low risk, weak efficacy), proactive (low risk, strong efficacy), avoidance (high risk, weak efficacy), and responsive (high risk, strong efficacy) – are hypothesized to differ in their self-protective behaviors and in their motivations to seek information. In this paper, we extend the RPA framework in two ways. First, we use it at the household level to determine whether parental classifications into the 4 groups are associated with their teenage children’s classification into the same 4 groups. Second, we predict adolescent information-seeking behaviors on the basis of their and their parents’ membership in the 4 RPA groups. Results (N = 523 parent-adolescent pairs) indicated that parental membership in the 4 RPA groups was significantly associated with children’s membership in the same 4 groups. Furthermore, the RPA framework was a significant predictor of adolescent information-seeking: those in the responsive and avoidance groups sought more information on climate change than the indifference group. Family communication on global warming was positively associated with adolescents’ information-seeking. Implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:22866024

  18. The Frequency of Risk Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Women Seeking Planned Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ghaffari Sardasht

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pre-pregnancy period is like a window of hope during which the doctors and midwives can help the mothers to solve or adjust the problems needing special care before pregnancy. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the risk factors for pregnancy health among the females seeking planned pregnancy. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 350 females of childbearing age who referred to health centers of Mashhad, Iran to receive preconception care in 2013. The sampling was performed using the multistage sampling technique. The data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire enquiring the patients’ demographic and obstetric data. Data analysis was performed through the SPSS version 16 using mean and standard deviation (for quantitative variables, frequency (for qualitative variables, and Chi-square test (to assess the relationship between the variables. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: According to the results, the age of 2% and 4.9% of the participants were 35 years, respectively. The most frequent risk factors for pregnancy health were related to gestational diabetes (32%, preeclampsia (22%, abortion (19.1%, history of vaginal bleeding in the second half of pregnancy, and preterm delivery (13%. In addition, the most frequent underlying diseases were diabetes mellitus (22%, thyroid disorders (22%, heart disease, as well as asthma and allergies (13%. Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, most of the risk factors in the pre-pregnancy period were related to diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes.

  19. Da exacerbação dos sentidos no encontro com a natureza: contrastando esportes radicais e turismo de aventura Sensation seeking in outdoor pursuits: similarities and differences in discourses on radical sports and adventure tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane P. Spink

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a contribuir para a compreensão do risco-aventura, entendido como o conjunto de práticas que recuperam a dimensão positiva dos riscos. Com base na revisão da literatura e apoiado na vertente construcionista da Psicologia Discursiva, propõe um modelo para análise das dimensões de risco-aventura presentes no turismo de aventura e nos esportes radicais: risco/perigo, adrenalina, aventura, treinamento, uso de equipamentos e relação com a natureza. Como fonte de dados, utilizamos o site de uma operadora especializada em turismo de aventura e uma entrevista com um praticante de parapente. Os dados coletados foram analisados utilizando árvores de associação de idéias e mapas dialógicos. Todos os elementos do modelo analítico se fizeram presentes nas duas modalidades de risco-aventura. Porém, o turismo de aventura caracterizou-se pela delegação do controle do risco a especialistas, enquanto que nos esportes radicais a dimensão treinamento/experiência foi priorizada, enfatizando-se a responsabilidade individual no controle dos riscos.This article is a contribution to the understanding of risk-adventure as the set of practices that recuperate the positive dimension of risk. Based on a review of the literature and on the theoretical approach of Constructionist Discursive Psychology, it proposes a model for the analysis of the dimensions of risk adventure present in adventure tourism and radical sports: risk/danger, adrenaline, adventure, training, use of equipments and relationship to nature. The data, derived from the site of a tourism agency that specialized in adventure tourism and an interview with a paraglide practitioner, was analyzed using "trees of association of ideas" and "dialogical maps". All the elements of the model were present in both modalities of risk-adventure. However, adventure tourism was characterized by the delegation of responsibility to specialists, whilst the training/experience dimension made

  20. From risk-seeking to risk-averse: The development of economic risk preference from early childhood to adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Paulsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is often described as a period of heightened risk-taking. Adolescents are notorious for impulsivity, emotional volatility, and risky behaviors such as drinking under the influence of alcohol. By contrast, we found that risk-taking declines linearly from childhood to adulthood when individuals make choices over monetary gambles. Further, with age we found increases in the sensitivity to economic risk, defined as the degree to which a preference for assured monetary gains over a risky payoff depends upon the variability in the risky payoff. These findings indicate that decisions about economic risk may follow a different developmental trajectory than other kinds of risk taking, and that changes in sensitivity to risk may be a major factor in the development of mature risk aversion.

  1. Depression and social anxiety in help-seeking patients with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietdijk, J.; Ising, H.K.; Dragt, S.; Klaassen, R.; Nieman, D.; Wunderink, L.; Cuijpers, P.; Linszen, D.; van der Gaag, M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on associations between ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis and on non-psychotic psychopathology in help-seeking populations is limited with respect to differences between male and female patients. The present study tests the hypothesis that both social anxiety and depression

  2. Psychological profiles and emotional regulation characteristics of women engaged in risk-taking sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Nicolas; Le Scanff, Christine; Woodman, Tim

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the psychological profiles and emotional regulation characteristics of women involved in risk-taking sports. The research sample (N=180) consisted of three groups of women engaged in: (1) non-risk sports (N=90); (2) risk-taking sports for leisure purposes (N=53); or (3) risk-taking sports as professionals (N=37). Each participant completed five questionnaires, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Risk & Excitement Inventory, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The results revealed significant differences between the groups' profiles. Of particular interest are the differences that exist between the profiles of Group 2 (escape profile, masculine gender identity, and high scores on sensation seeking, impulsivity, alexithymia) and Group 3 (compensation profile, androgynous gender identity, average score on sensation seeking, and low scores on impulsivity, alexithymia). We propose that the professional woman might be considered a model for preventing destructive risk-taking behaviors.

  3. Girls' Challenge Seeking: How Outdoor Exposure Can Support Girls in Taking Positive Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikalas, Kallen; Martin, Karyn L.

    2015-01-01

    Challenge seeking is an important component of children's personal and academic development. Defined in this paper as a set of beliefs and behaviors that propels individuals to initiate and persist at difficult ventures, challenge seeking is a key indicator of mastery goal orientation. This orientation has been linked with a number of positive and…

  4. Quantifying and simulating human sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quantifying and simulating human sensation – relating science and technology of indoor climate research Abstract In his doctoral thesis from 1970 civil engineer Povl Ole Fanger proposed that the understanding of indoor climate should focus on the comfort of the individual rather than averaged...... this understanding of human sensation was adjusted to technology. I will look into the construction of the equipment, what it measures and the relationship between theory, equipment and tradition....

  5. Risk-seeking for losses is associated with 5-HTTLPR, but not with transient changes in 5-HT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukam, Philipp T; Kroemer, Nils B; Deza Araujo, Yacila I; Hellrung, Lydia; Pooseh, Shakoor; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Henle, Thomas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-05-05

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in different aspects of value-based decision-making. A recent framework proposed that tonic 5-HT (together with dopamine, DA) codes future average reward expectations, providing a baseline against which possible choice outcomes are compared to guide decision-making. To test whether high 5-HT levels decrease loss aversion, risk-seeking for gains, and risk-seeking for losses. In a first session, 611 participants were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and performed a mixed gambles (MGA) task and two probability discounting tasks for gains and losses, respectively (PDG/PDL). Afterwards, a subsample of 105 participants (44 with S/S, 6 with S/L, 55 with L/L genotype) completed the pharmacological study using a crossover design with tryptophan depletion (ATD), loading (ATL), and balanced (BAL) conditions. The same decision constructs were assessed. We found increased risk-seeking for losses in S/S compared to L/L individuals at the first visit (p = 0.002). Neither tryptophan depletion nor loading affected decision-making, nor did we observe an interaction between intervention and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Our data do not support the idea that transient changes of tonic 5-HT affect value-based decision-making. We provide evidence for an association of 5-HTTLPR with risk-seeking for losses, independent of acute 5-HT levels. This indicates that the association of 5-HTTLPR and risk-seeking for losses is mediated via other mechanisms, possibly by differences in the structural development of neural circuits of the 5-HT system during early life phases.

  6. Individual Differences in Children's Risk Perception and Appraisals in Outdoor Play Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Helen; Wyver, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Child characteristics including age, gender, risk-taking behaviour and sensation seeking are thought to influence children's ability to appraise risks. The present study investigated children's risk perceptions and appraisals in the context of common outdoor physical play activities. Risk perceptions and appraisal of four- and five-year olds were…

  7. Risk seeking for losses modulates the functional connectivity of the default mode and left frontoparietal networks in young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza Araujo, Yacila I; Nebe, Stephan; Neukam, Philipp T; Pooseh, Shakoor; Sebold, Miriam; Garbusow, Maria; Heinz, Andreas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-06-01

    Value-based decision making (VBDM) is a principle that states that humans and other species adapt their behavior according to the dynamic subjective values of the chosen or unchosen options. The neural bases of this process have been extensively investigated using task-based fMRI and lesion studies. However, the growing field of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) may shed light on the organization and function of brain connections across different decision-making domains. With this aim, we used independent component analysis to study the brain network dynamics in a large cohort of young males (N = 145) and the relationship of these dynamics with VBDM. Participants completed a battery of behavioral tests that evaluated delay aversion, risk seeking for losses, risk aversion for gains, and loss aversion, followed by an RSFC scan session. We identified a set of large-scale brain networks and conducted our analysis only on the default mode network (DMN) and networks comprising cognitive control, appetitive-driven, and reward-processing regions. Higher risk seeking for losses was associated with increased connectivity between medial temporal regions, frontal regions, and the DMN. Higher risk seeking for losses was also associated with increased coupling between the left frontoparietal network and occipital cortices. These associations illustrate the participation of brain regions involved in prospective thinking, affective decision making, and visual processing in participants who are greater risk-seekers, and they demonstrate the sensitivity of RSFC to detect brain connectivity differences associated with distinct VBDM parameters.

  8. Designing messages with high sensation value: when activation meets reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Based on two theoretical models--activation model of information exposure and psychological reactance theory--this study examined the individual and combined effects of message sensation value (MSV) and controlling language on young adults' information processing. Two experimental studies on anti-drunken driving and anti-smoking public service announcements were conducted that were conceptual replications of one another. The measures included perceived threat to freedom, sensation seeking, perceived ad effectiveness and state reactance (anger). Across the two studies, MSV was found to advance the perceived ad effectiveness, and controlling language contributed to anger. A consistent interaction was revealed, such that participants responded positively to the high sensation value messages when presented with low controlling language. The effect of high sensation value anti-smoking ads to advance persuasiveness particularly under the condition of low controlling language was more influential to low sensation seekers. This study suggests that increasing MSV coupled with high controlling language can backfire, especially when targeting young adults. The implications for persuasion in general are considered, as well as the specific findings for drunken driving and smoking.

  9. Does Type of Child Risk Affect Whether Mothers Seek Assistance for Intimate Partner Violence From Civil or Criminal Court?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jane E; Renner, Lynette M; Goodman, Lisa A; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2016-03-01

    We examined whether risks to children of intimate partner violence survivors affected the type of legal assistance accessed. We hypothesized that the level and type of perceived child risk would be associated with whether women sought a protection order in civil court or filed charges against a current or former intimate partner in criminal court. Using data from a sample of predominantly African American women (N=293), we found that some forms of child risk were positively associated with seeking a civil order of protection but negatively associated with pressing criminal charges. Implications for practice, policy, and future research are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Risk activities and pre-travel health seeking practices of notified cases of imported infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Prakash; Raina, C; Zwar, Nicholas; Seale, Holly; Worth, Heather; Sheikh, Mohamud; Heywood, Anita E

    2017-09-01

    Travellers are at risk of acquiring infectious diseases during travel, with risks differing by destination, travel and traveller characteristics. A pre-travel health consultation may minimize this risk. However, uptake of pre-travel health advice remains low. We investigated pre-travel health preparations and disease-specific risk behaviours among notified cases of selected travel-associated infectious diseases imported into Australia. Prospective enhanced surveillance of notified cases of typhoid, paratyphoid, measles, hepatitis A, hepatitis E, malaria and chikungunya was conducted in two Australian states between February 2013 and January 2014. Details of pre-travel health preparation and disease-specific risk behaviours were collected. Among 180 cases associated with international travel, 28% were travellers and 22% were frequent travellers, having travelled ≥5 times in the past 5 years. 25% had sought pre-travel advice from a healthcare provider, and 16% reported a pre-travel vaccine. Seeking pre-travel health advice did not differ by immigrant status ( P  = 0.22) or by reason for travel ( P  = 0.13) but was more commonly sought by first time travellers ( P  = 0.03). Travellers visiting friends and relatives were more likely to report at-risk activities of brushing teeth with tap water ( P  food ( P  = 0.03) during travel compared to other travellers. Pre-travel health advice seeking practices and vaccine uptake was suboptimal among cases of notified disease. The results of this study highlight the need for a better understanding of barriers to pre-travel health seeking, particularly among high risk travellers, to reduce the importation of infectious diseases into Australia. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Ambient Space and Ambient Sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik

    The ambient is the aesthetic production of the sensation of being surrounded. As a concept, 'ambient' is mostly used in relation to the music genre 'ambient music' and Brian Eno's idea of environmental background music. However, the production of ambient sensations must be regarded as a central...... aspect of the aesthetization of modern culture in general, from architecture, transport and urbanized lifeforms to film, sound art, installation art and digital environments. This presentation will discuss the key aspects of ambient aesthetization, including issues such as objectlessness...

  12. Depression and social anxiety in help-seeking patients with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietdijk, Judith; Ising, Helga K; Dragt, Sara; Klaassen, Rianne; Nieman, Dorien; Wunderink, Lex; Cuijpers, Pim; Linszen, Don; van der Gaag, Mark

    2013-10-30

    Knowledge on associations between ultra-high risk (UHR) for developing psychosis and on non-psychotic psychopathology in help-seeking populations is limited with respect to differences between male and female patients. The present study tests the hypothesis that both social anxiety and depression are highly prevalent in an UHR population, particularly among women. From February 2008 to February 2010 baseline data were collected from help-seeking subjects (14-35 years) who were included in the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial. Two recruiting strategies were used: a two-stage screening strategy in a population of consecutive help-seeking and distressed subjects of secondary mental health services, and a referral strategy. This study included 201 patients with a mean age of 22.7 years. Of these, 102 (51%) were female, 58% of the patients met the criteria for clinical depression on the Beck Depression Inventory and 42% met the criteria for clinical social phobia on the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale. Women showed more depression and social anxiety than men. The results support the hypothesis that UHR is associated with depression and social anxiety, particularly in women. Screening a help-seeking population with depression and anxiety may be effective in detecting patients at UHR for developing psychosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sensation fiction, gender and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDonald, T.; Mangham, A.

    2013-01-01

    The heroine of Wilkie Collins’s The Law and the Lady (1875), Valeria Macallan, is in many ways a typical sensation heroine. She is resilient, independent and determined to get what she wants. What she wants, however, is not to marry rich, hide her bigamous past or inherit a fortune that is

  14. Increasing help-seeking and referrals for individuals at risk for suicide by decreasing stigma: the role of mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Reidenberg, Daniel J; Till, Benedikt; Gould, Madelyn S

    2014-09-01

    Increasing help-seeking and referrals for at-risk individuals by decreasing stigma has been defined as Aspirational Goal 10 in the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force's 2014 prioritized research agenda. This article reviews the research evidence on the impact of mass media awareness campaigns on reducing stigma and increasing help-seeking. The review will focus on both beneficial and iatrogenic effects of suicide preventive interventions using media campaigns to target the broad public. A further focus is on collaboration between public health professionals and news media in order to reduce the risk of copycat behavior and enhance help-seeking behavior. Examples of multilevel approaches that include both mass media interventions and individual-level approaches to reduce stigma and increase referrals are provided as well. Multilevel suicide prevention programs that combine various approaches seem to provide the most promising results, but much more needs to be learned about the best possible composition of these programs. Major research and practice challenges include the identification of optimal ways to reach vulnerable populations who likely do not benefit from current awareness strategies. Caution is needed in all efforts that aim to reduce the stigma of suicidal ideation, mental illness, and mental health treatment in order to avoid iatrogenic effects. The article concludes with specific suggestions for research questions to help move this line of suicide research and practice forward. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment-seeking behavior for sexually transmitted infections in a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Rachel; Ngilangwa, David; Manongi, Rachael; Kapiga, Saidi

    2010-11-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 340 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur every year, while 33 million individuals are estimated to be living with HIV. The AIDS and STI epidemics are not independent with untreated STIs increasing HIV acquisition and transmission. Female sex workers have increased prevalence of untreated STIs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. This paper aims to investigate why some female sex workers who experience symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers seek treatment while others do not. Data were collected from a cohort study conducted between 2002 and 2005 among female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Tanzania. Study subjects were recruited from 7 out of 15 administrative wards in Moshi as part of the Moshi's Women's Health Project. Data were restricted to women self-reporting symptoms of vaginal discharge or genital ulcers (n=459) within the past year. Logistic regression was performed with SAS 9.1. Qualitative analysis was performed using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions among a convenience sample (n=42) of women already enrolled in the study. All interviews and focus group discussions were tape-recorded and transcribed, and data were analyzed thematically. Sixty-four percent of the sample sought treatment for either ailment. Multivariate analysis identified relationship to man of last sexual intercourse, ever experiencing a pregnancy, and age as significant predictors to seeking treatment. Four salient themes of threats to fertility, stigma correlated with prostitution, discomfort with the physical exam, and perceived views of clients were revealed as predictors to why women seek or intentionally ignore symptoms. Understanding the motivations and barriers for seeking treatment of STIs has far ranging public health implications that could help curtail the unnecessary associated morbidity and mortality and curtail

  16. Decisions for Others Are Less Risk-Averse in the Gain Frame and Less Risk-Seeking in the Loss Frame Than Decisions for the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Liu, Yi; Chen, Xiyou; Shang, Xuesong; Liu, Yongfang

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that people make decisions for others as often as they make decisions for themselves, little is known about how decisions for others are different from those made for the self. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of social distance (i.e., making decisions for oneself, a friend, or a stranger) on risk preferences in both gain and loss situations. We found that people were more risk averse in gain situations when they made decisions for themselves than for a stranger (Studies 1 and 2), but were equally risk averse for themselves and their friends (Study 2). However, people were more risk seeking in loss situations when they made decisions for themselves than for their friends as well as for a stranger, and were more risk seeking for their friends than for a stranger (Study 2). Furthermore, the effect of social distance on risk preferences was stronger in loss than in gain situations. Mediation analysis indicated that outcome-induced loss aversion was responsible for effects of social distance on risk preferences. These findings demonstrate that social distance influences risk preferences via perceived loss aversion, which sheds new light on self-other differences in decision making. PMID:28966604

  17. Decisions for Others Are Less Risk-Averse in the Gain Frame and Less Risk-Seeking in the Loss Frame Than Decisions for the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Liu, Yi; Chen, Xiyou; Shang, Xuesong; Liu, Yongfang

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that people make decisions for others as often as they make decisions for themselves, little is known about how decisions for others are different from those made for the self. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of social distance (i.e., making decisions for oneself, a friend, or a stranger) on risk preferences in both gain and loss situations. We found that people were more risk averse in gain situations when they made decisions for themselves than for a stranger (Studies 1 and 2), but were equally risk averse for themselves and their friends (Study 2). However, people were more risk seeking in loss situations when they made decisions for themselves than for their friends as well as for a stranger, and were more risk seeking for their friends than for a stranger (Study 2). Furthermore, the effect of social distance on risk preferences was stronger in loss than in gain situations. Mediation analysis indicated that outcome-induced loss aversion was responsible for effects of social distance on risk preferences. These findings demonstrate that social distance influences risk preferences via perceived loss aversion, which sheds new light on self-other differences in decision making.

  18. Risk perception of obesity and bariatric surgery in patients seeking treatment for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Chaithra; Batsis, John A; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Clark, Matthew M; Somers, Virend K; Sarr, Michael G; Collazo-Clavell, Maria L

    2014-06-01

    Bariatric surgery (BSx) produces clinically relevant weight loss that translates into improved quality of life, decreased mortality, and reduction in medical comorbidities, including cardiovascular (CV) risk. Little is known about patients' decision-making process to undergo BSx, but risk perception is known to influence medical decision-making. This study examined CV and BSx risk perception in obese subjects undergoing BSx (n = 268) versus those managed medically (MM) (n = 273). This retrospective population-based survey of subjects evaluated for BSx had 148 (55%) and 88 (32%) responders in the BSx and MM groups, respectively. Survey questions assessed risk perceptions and habits prior to weight loss intervention. CV risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). At baseline, BSx subjects had a greater body mass index and greater prevalence of diabetes and depression. Follow-up mean weight loss was greater in the BSx group. BSx subjects perceived obesity as a greater risk to their overall health than the surgical risk. FRS declined in the BSx group (10 to 5%; p risk had a greater tendency to perceive the risk of BSx as greater than that of obesity. Obese subjects undergoing BSx are more likely than MM subjects to perceive obesity as a greater risk to their health than BSx. MM subjects generally underestimate their CV risk and overestimate the risk of BSx. Active discussion of CV risk using the FRS and the perception of risk associated with bariatric surgery can enhance patients' ability to make an informed decision regarding their management. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation.

  20. Optimistic bias, advertising skepticism, and consumer intentions for seeking information about the health risks of prescription medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Haley, Eric John

    2017-01-01

    Based on a survey of prescription drug users (N = 408), this study revealed that: (a) the frequency of consumers' personal experience of prescription medicine adverse reactions negatively related to the extent of their optimistic bias about the chances of such events, (b) consumers' perceived personal control over adverse reactions positively related to optimistic bias, and (c) optimistic bias related more negatively to intentions to seek risk information when consumer skepticism toward direct-to-consumer advertising was high. When skepticism was low to average, optimistic bias did not inhibit such intentions. Implications and recommendations for the practice of direct-to-consumer advertising are provided.

  1. Air Turbulence and sensation of draught

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Hanzawa, H.

    1988-01-01

    the sedentary subjects were exposed to six mean air velocities ranging from 0.05 m/s to 0.40 m/s. The air temperature was kept constant at 23°C. They were asked whether and where they could feel air movement and whether or not it felt uncomfortable. The turbulence intensity had a significant impact...... on the occurence of draught sensation. A model is presented which predicts the percentage of people dissatisfied because of draught as a function of air temperature, mean velocity and turbulence intensity. The model can be a useful tool for quantifying the draught risk in spaces and for developing air distribution...... systems with a low draught risk....

  2. Fear and Anger have Opposite Effects on Risk Seeking in the Gain Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne eHabib

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotions strongly influence our decisions, particularly those made under risk. A classic example of the effect of emotion on decision making under risk is the framing effect, which involves predictable shifts in preferences when the same problem is formulated in different ways. According to dual process theories, this bias could stem from an affective heuristic belonging to an intuitive type of reasoning. In this study, we examined whether specific incidental negative emotions (i.e., fear and anger influence framing susceptibility and risk-taking identically. In each trial, participants received an initial amount of money, and pictures of angry or fearful faces were presented to them. Finally, participants chose between a sure option and a gamble option of equally expected value in a gain or loss frame. Risk-taking was modulated by emotional context: fear and anger influenced risk-taking specifically in the gain frame and had opposite effects. Fear increased risk-averse choices, whereas anger decreased risk-averse choices, leading to a suppression of the framing effect. These results confirm that emotions play a key role in framing susceptibility.

  3. Fear and anger have opposite effects on risk seeking in the gain frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Marianne; Cassotti, Mathieu; Moutier, Sylvain; Houdé, Olivier; Borst, Grégoire

    2015-01-01

    Emotions strongly influence our decisions, particularly those made under risk. A classic example of the effect of emotion on decision making under risk is the "framing effect," which involves predictable shifts in preferences when the same problem is formulated in different ways. According to dual process theories, this bias could stem from an affective heuristic belonging to an intuitive type of reasoning. In this study, we examined whether specific incidental negative emotions (i.e., fear and anger) influence framing susceptibility and risk-taking identically. In each trial, participants received an initial amount of money, and pictures of angry or fearful faces were presented to them. Finally, participants chose between a sure option and a gamble option of equally expected value in a gain or loss frame. Risk-taking was modulated by emotional context: fear and anger influenced risk-taking specifically in the gain frame and had opposite effects. Fear increased risk-averse choices, whereas anger decreased risk-averse choices, leading to a suppression of the framing effect. These results confirm that emotions play a key role in framing susceptibility.

  4. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  5. Impact of Psychosocial Risk on Outcomes among Families Seeking Treatment for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Chen, Fang Fang; Pinto, Alison Taggi; Cox, Courtney; Robbins, Jennifer; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-04-02

    To test the hypothesis that children with elevated psychosocial risk would have increased attrition and worse weight outcomes in weight management treatment. This was a prospective cohort study of 100 new patients, aged 4-12 years, in a weight management clinic. Parents completed the Psychosocial Assessment Tool. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds of attrition from the clinic and a nonmeaningful change in body mass index (BMI) z-score (ie, psychosocial risk category, adjusting for child demographics and baseline weight category. The majority of patients were male (59%), black (36%) or white (43%), and had severe obesity (55%), and 59% of families were categorized as having moderate or high psychosocial risk. Over the 6-month period, 53% of families were lost to follow-up, and 67% did not have a clinically meaningful decrease in BMI z-score. Compared with children of families with low psychosocial risk, children of families with moderate or high psychosocial risk were 3.1 times (95% CI, 1.3-7.2 times) more likely to be lost to follow-up and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-7.9 times) more likely to have a non-clinically meaningful change in BMI z-score. Children presenting with increased psychosocial risk have higher attrition and poorer weight outcomes, supporting the need for psychosocial screening as a standard component of pediatric weight management treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A preliminary investigation of risks for adverse outcomes of relationship seeking on social network sites (SNS): a descriptive study of women over 50 seeking relationships on MySpace in Hillsborough County, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Carla; Corvin, Jaime; Coulter, Martha; Perkins, Elizabeth; Telford, Robin; Yalcin, Ali; Myers, Jaime; Yegidis, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to younger populations, little attention has been paid to the increase in seniors using Internet-based venues to find relationships and the potential risk for adverse outcomes this poses. This study examined data collected via an online survey from 45 ethnically diverse women aged 50+ "seeking relationships" on MySpace. The majority of women reported a relationship with someone they met online (85%). They also reported experiencing adverse events including financial exploitation (40%), threats (55%), and physical harm (38%) by someone they met online at levels greater than traditional relationship seeking in the general population. Directions for future research are explored.

  7. The insula: a critical neural substrate for craving and drug seeking under conflict and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Gaznick, Natassia; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-05-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by the inability to control drug use when it results in negative consequences or conflicts with more adaptive goals. Our previous work showed that damage to the insula disrupted addiction to cigarette smoking-the first time that the insula was shown to be a critical neural substrate for addiction. Here, we review those findings, as well as more recent studies that corroborate and extend them, demonstrating the role of the insula in (1) incentive motivational processes that drive addictive behavior, (2) control processes that moderate or inhibit addictive behavior, and (3) interoceptive processes that represent bodily states associated with drug use. We then describe a theoretical framework that attempts to integrate these seemingly disparate findings. In this framework, the insula functions in the recall of interoceptive drug effects during craving and drug seeking under specific conditions where drug taking is perceived as risky and/or where there is conflict between drug taking and more adaptive goals. We describe this framework in an evolutionary context and discuss its implications for understanding the mechanisms of behavior change in addiction treatments. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tiihonen Möller

    Full Text Available Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD.Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months.Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults.Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  9. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiihonen Möller, Anna; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at Stockholm South Hospital, Sweden. Baseline assessments of mental health were carried out and followed up after six months. Thirty-nine percent of the women had developed PTSD at the six month assessment, and 47% suffered from moderate or severe depression. The major risk factors for PTSD were having been sexually assaulted by more than one person, suffering from acute stress disorder (ASD) shortly after the assault, having been exposed to several acts during the assault, having been injured, having co-morbid depression, and having a history of more than two earlier traumas. Further, ASD on its own was found to be a poor predictor of PTSD because of the substantial ceiling effect after sexual assaults. Development of PTSD is common in the aftermath of sexual assaults. Increased risk of developing PTSD is caused by a combination of victim vulnerability and the extent of the dramatic nature of the current assault. By identifying those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD appropriate therapeutic resources can be directed.

  10. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a wide range of risk and externalizing behavior. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a model in which differential activation of the dorsal and ventral striatum produces imbalance in the function of these brain regions. For youth high in sensation seeking, both regions were predicted to develop with age. However, for youth high in the tendency to act without thinking, the ventral striatum was expected to dominate. The model predicted that working memory ability would exhibit (1) early weakness in youth high in acting without thinking but (2) growing strength in those high in sensation seeking. In addition, it predicted that (3) acting without thinking would be more strongly related to risk and externalizing behavior than sensation seeking. Finally, it predicted that (4) controlling for acting without thinking, sensation seeking would predict later increases in risky and externalizing behavior. All four of these predictions were confirmed. The results indicate that the rise in sensation seeking that occurs during adolescence is not accompanied by a deficit in executive function and therefore requires different intervention strategies from those for youth whose impulsivity is characterized by early signs of acting without thinking. PMID:21884327

  11. Perceived Relapse Risk and Desire for Medication Assisted Treatment among Persons Seeking Inpatient Opiate Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Genie L; Herman, Debra S.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with opioid addiction do not receive medication at the time of discharge from brief inpatient detoxification programs despite the high risk of relapse and the availability of three FDA-approved medications. We surveyed 164 inpatient opioid detoxification patients to assess desire for pharmacotherapy following detoxification program discharge. Participants were predominantly male (71.3%) and 80% had detoxed in the past. Reporting on their most recent previous inpatient detoxification, 27% had relapsed the day they were discharged, 65% within a month of discharge, and 90% within a year of discharge. 63% reported they wanted medication-assisted treatment (MAT) after discharge from the current admission. The odds of desiring a treatment medication increased by a factor of 1.02 for every 1% increase in perceived relapse risk (p detox abstinence. PMID:23786852

  12. Social Media Use and Sexual Risk Reduction Behavior Among Minority Youth: Seeking Safe Sex Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer

    Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p < .05) and 2.49 times (p < .08) more likely to have used contraception or a condom at last intercourse, respectively. Parents, schools, or traditional media as information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.

  13. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susan J; Qu, Zhican; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; Zhuo, Min

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB) to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral respons...

  14. Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

    2014-01-01

    Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

  15. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  16. POÉSIE, PAYSAGE ET SENSATION / Poetry, landscape and sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Collot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cet article effectue une refléxion téorique par rapport au paysage, question qui revêt un enjeuconsidérable dans le champ des sciences humaines et des pratiques sociales contemporaines, maisaussi, pour l’art et pour la poésie modernes. Il s’agit d’une notion qui se situe historiquement etstructurellement entre une pensée symbolique du Lieu qui a dominé l’Antiquité classique et leMoyen Âge, et une connaissance scientifique de l’espace qui se développe aux Temps modernes.À partir du Romantisme, notamment la poésie lyrique a fait du paysage un lieu d’expression de lasensibilité. En contrepartie, l’art et la littérature au XXème siècle ont eu tendance à se détournerde la représentation du monde extérieur pour explorer les ressources propres à leurs moyensd’expression. Ainsi, le paysage semble avoir perdu son endroit à la scène esthétique, c’est qui n’estpas vrai du tout, une fois que le thème continue à inspirer beaucoup d’artistes et d’écrivains.Controversée par nature, l’idée de paysage s’ouvre à plusiers interrogations, telques les conceptsde sensation et de de perception, cueillis chez Paul Valéry, lesquels sont amenés à ce text, commeune proposition de jouissance de la poésie entendue à la manière d’un endroit de réactivation dessensations et des affects. Mots-clés: Paysage, Sensation, Perception, Poésie, L’art.

  17. Malaria risk factors and care-seeking behaviour within the private sector among high-risk populations in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ingrid; Thanh, Huong Ngo Thi; Lover, Andrew; Thao, Phung Thi; Luu, Tang Viet; Thang, Hoang Nghia; Thang, Ngo Duc; Neukom, Josselyn; Bennett, Adam

    2017-10-16

    Vietnam has successfully reduced malaria incidence by more than 90% over the past 10 years, and is now preparing for malaria elimination. However, the remaining malaria burden resides in individuals that are hardest to reach, in highly remote areas, where many malaria cases are treated through the informal private sector and are not reported to public health systems. This qualitative study aimed to contextualize and characterize the role of private providers, care-seeking behaviour of individuals at high risk of malaria, as well as risk factors that should be addressed through malaria elimination programmes in Vietnam. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 11 key informants in Hanoi, 30 providers, 9 potential patients, and 11 individuals at risk of malaria in Binh Phuoc and Kon Tum provinces. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed and uploaded to Atlas TI™, themes were identified, from which programmatic implications and recommendations were synthesized. Qualitative interviews revealed that efforts for malaria elimination in Vietnam should concentrate on reaching highest-risk populations in remote areas as well their care providers, in particular private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Among these private providers, diagnosis is currently based on symptoms, leaving unconfirmed cases that are not reported to public health surveillance systems. Among at-risk individuals, knowledge of malaria was limited, and individuals reported not taking full courses of treatment, a practice that threatens selection for drug resistance. Access to insecticide-treated hammock nets, a potentially important preventive measure for settings with outdoor biting Anopheles vectors, was also limited. Malaria elimination efforts in Vietnam can be accelerated by targeting improved treatment, diagnosis, and reporting practices to private pharmacies, private clinics, and grocery stores. Programmes should also seek to increase awareness and

  18. Interaction of Reward Seeking and Self-Regulation in the Prediction of Risk Taking: A Cross-National Test of the Dual Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fanti, Kostas A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-01-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether…

  19. Understanding consumer health information-seeking behavior from the perspective of the risk perception attitude framework and social support in mobile social media websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhaohua; Liu, Shan

    2017-09-01

    This study integrates the risk perception attitude framework and social support to examine factors influencing consumers' intentions to seek health information in mobile social media websites. We develop a research model consisting of four social support dimensions, perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. A survey is conducted among patients with non-serious conditions. A two-step approach of structural equation modeling is used to test the research model. Among the four dimensions of social support, tangible support and appraisal support significantly influence perceived risk, whereas emotional support and esteem support significantly influence health self-efficacy. Perceived health risk and health self-efficacy significantly influence the health information-seeking behavior intention of consumers. Specifically, health self-efficacy significantly moderates the relationship between perceived risk and behavior intention. This study highlights the integrated effects of social capital and risk perception attitude framework on health information-seeking intention. It examines relationships among perceived health risk, health self-efficacy, and behavior intention in the mobile social media context. The findings help understand effects of social capital factors on perceived health risk and health self-efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse childhood experiences and risk for suicidal behavior in male Iraq and Afghanistan veterans seeking PTSD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Timothy D; Currier, Joseph M; McCormick, Wesley H; Drescher, Kent D

    2017-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk for suicide and appear to occur in disproportionately high rates among men who served in the U.S. military. However, research has yet to examine a comprehensive range of ACEs among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or whether these premilitary stressors may contribute to suicidal behavior in this highly vulnerable population. A sample of 217 men entering a residential program for combat-related PTSD completed measures for ACEs, combat exposure, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts. The majority of patients had experienced multiple types of adversity or traumas during childhood/adolescence. In particular, 83.4% endorsed at least 1 ACE category and 41.5% reported experiencing 4 or more ACEs. When accounting for effects of deployment-related stressors, we further found that accumulation of ACEs was uniquely linked with thoughts of suicide or attempts among these patients. Namely, for every 1-point increase on the ACE Questionnaire, veterans' risk of suicidal ideation and attempts increased by 23% and 24%, respectively. This brief report provides initial evidence that veterans seeking treatment for combat-related PTSD often have extensive histories of premilitary stressors that may increase suicide risk beyond probable deployment-related traumas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Cascading effects of attention disengagement and sensory seeking on social symptoms in a community sample of infants at-risk for a future diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace T. Baranek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests sensory seeking predicts later social symptomatology through reduced social orienting in infants who are at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD. We drew on extant longitudinal data from a community sample of at-risk infants who were identified at 12 months using the First Year Inventory, and followed to 3–5 years. We replicate findings of Damiano et al. (in this issue that a high-risk infants who go on to be diagnosed with ASD show heightened sensory seeking in the second year of life relative to those who do not receive a diagnosis, and b increased sensory seeking indirectly relates to later social symptomatology via reduced social orienting. We extend previous findings to show that sensory seeking has more clinical utility later in the second year of life (20–24 months than earlier (13–15 months. Further, this study suggests that diminished attention disengagement at 12–15 months may precede and predict increased sensory seeking at 20–24 months. Findings add support for the notion that sensory features produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD, and suggest that reduced attention disengagement early in life may set off this cascade. Keywords: Sensory features, Autism, Infants, Social, Longitudinal, Attention, Risk markers

  2. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beissner

    Full Text Available Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1 placebo irritant solution, (2 placebo laser stimulation, and (3 imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS, while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (≤ 205 mm² and intensity (≤ 80/100 VAS. Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon.

  3. Gender-related differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors in treatment-seeking adolescents with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barstad, Lisa Ha; Júlíusson, Pétur B; Johnson, Line Kristin; Hertel, Jens Kristoffer; Lekhal, Samira; Hjelmesæth, Jøran

    2018-02-14

    Obesity during adolescence is associated with cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. The adverse obesity-related cardiometabolic risk profile is already observed in adolescence. We aimed to examine possible gender differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and lifestyle behaviors among adolescents with severe obesity, hypothesizing that boys would have both a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome as well as less healthy lifestyle behaviors than girls. Cross-sectional study of treatment-seeking adolescents with severe obesity who attended the Morbid Obesity Centre at Vestfold Hospital Trust and who were consecutively enrolled in the Vestfold Register of Obese Children between September 2009 and September 2015. A total of 313 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years were recruited, whereof 268 subjects (49% boys) completed a food and activity frequency questionnaire and were included in the analysis. Mean (SD) age, BMI and BMI SDS were 15 (1.6) years, 38.6 (5.9) kg/m 2 and 3.5 (0.6). Levels of LDL cholesterol, fasting insulin and glucose and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not differ between genders. Compared to girls, boys had significantly higher triglycerides (p = 0.037) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.003), as well as lower HDL cholesterol (p = 0.002). The metabolic syndrome was present in 27% of the boys and 19% of the girls (p = 0.140), and the prevalence of high DBP, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia also did not differ significantly between genders. The prevalence of high SBP was higher in boys than in girls (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.021). Gender was associated with a number of lifestyle habits, as a larger proportions of boys had higher screen time (p = 0.032), more regular breakfast eating (p = 0.023), higher intake of sugar sweetened soda (p = 0.036), and lower intake of vegetables than girls (p = 0.011). By contrast, physical activity level and intake of fruit and berries did not differ between genders. Male treatment-seeking

  4. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Wu, Shih-Yun; Huang, Hsin-Yi; Lai, Yu-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia) after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients’ satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement) and long-term (1 year after implant placement) incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25%) and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%), respectively. (2) For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94%) of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96%) of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%). When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery), the incidence is much lower (3%) and most patients (91%) would return to normal sensation. PMID:27100832

  6. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Incidence of Altered Sensation of Mandibular Implant Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shu Lin

    Full Text Available Altered sensation (including paresthesia, dysesthesia and hypoesthesia after mandibular implant surgery may indicate transient or permanent injury of the inferior alveolar nerve and the mental branch, and considerably lower patients' satisfaction about the therapy. Previous studies have shown a great degree of variability on the incidence of altered sensation. We here reported the incidence of altered sensation after mandibular implant surgery based on a meta-analysis of 26 articles published between 1990.1.1 and 2016.1.1. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed and the studies with a lower score were excluded in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis was performed using the logistic-normal random-effect model. The meta-analyses revealed that the short-term (10 days after implant placement and long-term (1 year after implant placement incidence was 13% (95% CI, 6%-25% and 3% (95% CI, 1%-7%, respectively. (2 For the patients who initially reported altered sensation, 80% (95% CI, 52%-94% of them would return to normal sensation within 6 months after surgery, and 91% (95% CI, 78%-96% of them would return to normal sensation one year after surgery. We concluded that dentist-patient communication about the risk of altered sensation is critical to treatment planning, since the short-term incidence of altered sensation is substantial (13%. When a patient reports altered sensation, regular assessment for 6 months would help tracing the changes of symptoms. In terms of long-term follow-up (1 year after surgery, the incidence is much lower (3% and most patients (91% would return to normal sensation.

  7. Cascading effects of attention disengagement and sensory seeking on social symptoms in a community sample of infants at-risk for a future diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Grace T; Woynaroski, Tiffany G; Nowell, Sallie; Turner-Brown, Lauren; DuBay, Michaela; Crais, Elizabeth R; Watson, Linda R

    2018-01-01

    Recent work suggests sensory seeking predicts later social symptomatology through reduced social orienting in infants who are at high-risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) based on their status as younger siblings of children diagnosed with ASD. We drew on extant longitudinal data from a community sample of at-risk infants who were identified at 12 months using the First Year Inventory, and followed to 3-5 years. We replicate findings of Damiano et al. (in this issue) that a) high-risk infants who go on to be diagnosed with ASD show heightened sensory seeking in the second year of life relative to those who do not receive a diagnosis, and b) increased sensory seeking indirectly relates to later social symptomatology via reduced social orienting. We extend previous findings to show that sensory seeking has more clinical utility later in the second year of life (20-24 months) than earlier (13-15 months). Further, this study suggests that diminished attention disengagement at 12-15 months may precede and predict increased sensory seeking at 20-24 months. Findings add support for the notion that sensory features produce cascading effects on social development in infants at risk for ASD, and suggest that reduced attention disengagement early in life may set off this cascade. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing haptic sensations for spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Having identified key determinants of teaching and learning spinal anesthesia, it was necessary to characterize and render the haptic sensations (feeling of touch) associated with needle insertion in the lower back. The approach used is to match recreated sensations (eg, "pop" through skin or dura mater) with experts\\' perceptions of the equivalent clinical events.

  9. Perceived social stress and symptom severity among help-seeking adolescents with versus without clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenging the assumptions for thermal sensation scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Fuchs, Xaver; Becker, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Scales are widely used to assess the personal experience of thermal conditions in built environments. Most commonly, thermal sensation is assessed, mainly to determine whether a particular thermal condition is comfortable for individuals. A seven-point thermal sensation scale has been used...... extensively, which is suitable for describing a one-dimensional relationship between physical parameters of indoor environments and subjective thermal sensation. However, human thermal comfort is not merely a physiological but also a psychological phenomenon. Thus, it should be investigated how scales for its...... assessment could benefit from a multidimensional conceptualization. The common assumptions related to the usage of thermal sensation scales are challenged, empirically supported by two analyses. These analyses show that the relationship between temperature and subjective thermal sensation is non...

  11. Effects of 24 hours of tobacco withdrawal and subsequent tobacco smoking among low and high sensation seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dustin C; Perkins, Kenneth A; Zimmerman, Eli; Robbins, Glenn; Kelly, Thomas H

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that high sensation seekers are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of nicotine, initiate smoking at an earlier age, and smoke greater amounts of cigarettes. This study examined the influence of sensation-seeking status on tobacco smoking following deprivation in regular tobacco users. Twenty healthy tobacco-smoking volunteers with low or high impulsive sensation-seeking subscale scores completed 2 consecutive test days per week for 3 consecutive weeks. Each week, a range of self-report, performance, and cardiovascular assessments were completed during ad libitum smoking on Day 1 and before and after the paced smoking of a tobacco cigarette containing 0.05, 0.6, or 0.9 mg of nicotine following 24 hr of tobacco deprivation on Day 2. In addition, self-administration behavior was analyzed during a 2-hr free access period after the initial tobacco administration. In high sensation seekers, tobacco smoking independent of nicotine yield ameliorated deprivation effects, whereas amelioration of deprivation effects was dependent on nicotine yield among low sensation seekers. However, this effect was limited to a small subset of measures. Subsequent cigarette self-administration increased in a nicotine-dependent manner for high sensation seekers only. Compared with low sensation seekers, high sensation seekers were more sensitive to the withdrawal relieving effects of nonnicotine components of smoking following 24 hr of deprivation on selective measures and more sensitive to nicotine yield during subsequent tobacco self-administration. These results are consistent with studies suggesting that factors driving tobacco dependence may vary as a function of sensation-seeking status.

  12. Interaction of reward seeking and self-regulation in the prediction of risk taking: A cross-national test of the dual systems model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Natasha; Steinberg, Laurence; Chein, Jason; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bacchini, Dario; Lei, Chang; Chaudhary, Nandita; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Fanti, Kostas A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Alampay, Liane Peña

    2016-10-01

    In the present analysis, we test the dual systems model of adolescent risk taking in a cross-national sample of over 5,200 individuals aged 10 through 30 (M = 17.05 years, SD = 5.91) from 11 countries. We examine whether reward seeking and self-regulation make independent, additive, or interactive contributions to risk taking, and ask whether these relations differ as a function of age and culture. To compare across cultures, we conduct 2 sets of analyses: 1 comparing individuals from Asian and Western countries, and 1 comparing individuals from low- and high-GDP countries. Results indicate that reward seeking and self-regulation have largely independent associations with risk taking and that the influences of each variable on risk taking are not unique to adolescence, but that their link to risk taking varies across cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The association between whole body sagittal balance and risk of falls among elderly patients seeking treatment for back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Hwang, J Y; Oh, J K; Park, M S; Kim, S W; Chang, H; Kim, T-H

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association between whole body sagittal balance and risk of falls in elderly patients who have sought treatment for back pain. Balanced spinal sagittal alignment is known to be important for the prevention of falls. However, spinal sagittal imbalance can be markedly compensated by the lower extremities, and whole body sagittal balance including the lower extremities should be assessed to evaluate actual imbalances related to falls. Patients over 70 years old who visited an outpatient clinic for back pain treatment and underwent a standing whole-body radiograph were enrolled. Falls were prospectively assessed for 12 months using a monthly fall diary, and patients were divided into fallers and non-fallers according to the history of falls. Radiological parameters from whole-body radiographs and clinical data were compared between the two groups. A total of 144 patients (120 female patients and 24 male patients) completed a 12-month follow-up for assessing falls. A total of 31 patients (21.5%) reported at least one fall within the 12-month follow-up. In univariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of falls was significantly increased in older patients and those with more medical comorbidities, decreased lumbar lordosis, increased sagittal vertical axis, and increased horizontal distance between the C7 plumb line and the centre of the ankle (C7A). Increased C7A was significantly associated with increased risk of falls even after multivariate adjustment. Whole body sagittal balance, measured by the horizontal distance between the C7 plumb line and the centre of the ankle, was significantly associated with risk of falls among elderly patients with back pain. Cite this article : J. Kim, J. Y. Hwang, J. K. Oh, M. S. Park, S. W. Kim, H. Chang, T-H. Kim. The association between whole body sagittal balance and risk of falls among elderly patients seeking treatment for back pain. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:-344. DOI: 10

  14. Substance use risk profiles and associations with early substance use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, sensation seeking, and impulsivity (i.e., revised version of the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale) would be related to the lifetime prevalence and age of onset of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use, and to polydrug use in early adolescence.

  15. The experience of fear in high-risk sport | Miesel | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An additional quantitative measure, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, was used to complement the interview findings. The results were presented in the delineation of 26 meaning cluster groups and seven themes. High-risk sport participants indicated frequent experiences with "peak" and "ultimate" athletic moments ...

  16. Risk factors and current health seeking patterns of migrants in northeastern Mexico: healthcare needs for a socially vulnerable population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eStoesslé

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identified risk factors for health and access to healthcare services of migrants during their journey across Mexico to the United States. Data were collected in shelters located in Monterrey, the largest city of northeastern Mexico, through a basic clinical examination and a survey completed by 75 migrants; 92% of them were undocumented Central Americans. During their transit, they are at a high risk of contracting, developing, and transmitting diseases. The need of working to survive affects health-seeking behavior and a constant fear of being traced keeps migrants away from public health services, which delays diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Negligent lifestyles, such as smoking, drinking (31.8% of men and 11.1% of women, and drug abuse (13% of men and 11% of women, were found. Regarding tuberculosis (TB, undocumented migrants are usually not screened, even though they come from countries with a high TB burden. Besides, they might be overexposed to TB because of their living conditions in overcrowded places with deficient hygiene, protection, and malnutrition (54.7% of the sample. Possible comorbidities like acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS; 4% and diabetes (2.7%, but probably under-diagnosed were referred. Migrants have little TB knowledge, which is independent of their level of education or a previous experience of deportation. About one-third of the migrants were totally unfamiliar with TB-related symptoms, while 36% had correct knowledge of basic TB symptoms. We conclude that a shortage of information on the highly vulnerable migratory population combined with a lack of social support and health education among migrants may play a significant role in the spread of communicable diseases. We recommend that health authorities address this urgent, binational, public health concern, in order to prevent outbreaks of emerging infections.

  17. Do adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder show risk seeking? Disentangling probabilistic decision making by equalizing the favorability of alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Yehuda; Oz, Adi; Neventsal, Oded; Rabi, Orit; Kitrossky, Leah; Maeir, Adina

    2016-04-01

    The clinical literature provides evidence for increased risk taking by individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Most of the experimental tasks used to measure risk taking, confounded risky and disadvantageous alternatives, and therefore did not disentangle increased risk seeking from suboptimal decision making. The aim of the study was to examine whether adolescents with ADHD show risk seeking by equalizing the expected value of both certain and risky alternatives. In 3 different samples, adolescents with and without ADHD performed gambling tasks, in which they had to choose between certain and risky alternatives. Notably, the expected values of both alternatives were equal. Various personal and contextual intervening factors were controlled for. The rate of risky choices was compared across groups. In addition, participants reported on risk taking in real-life. We found that adolescents with ADHD did not choose the risky alternative more often than controls, but reported higher engagement in real-life risky behavior. These findings suggest that risky behavior shown by people with ADHD in daily life and on some experimental tasks may not be accounted for by increased risk seeking, but rather may reflect suboptimal decision making. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Perineal Sensation Predictive of Spina Bifida Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic examination, including perineal sensation, was conducted in a prospective cohort study of 117 consecutive patients with open spina bifida at St George's, University of London, and Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

  19. Visual sensations induced by relativistic pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Visual sensations were experienced when bursts of high-energy pions passed through the dark-adapted right eyes of three human subjects. The threshold for a visual sensation was typically 1 to 3 μrad at the retina. Data are presented to show that the mechanism is Cerenkov radiation generated within the vitreous humor. Threshold measurements agree with published optical data. A comparison is made between our observations and the light flashes observed in deep space by Apollo astronauts

  20. SEEK! Tiedonhakupeli

    OpenAIRE

    Kivinen, Nina; Lassila, Matti; Rajahonka, Matti; Korkiakangas, Ville

    2014-01-01

    Finnish adaptation of SEEK! The search skills game. Includes press-ready files and Adobe Illustrator & Indesign templates. Original game developed by Andrew Walsh & Tanya Williamson, University of Huddersfield.

  1. Bladder sensation measures and overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, David E; Neil, Nancy J; Govier, Fred E; Kobashi, Kathleen C

    2009-09-01

    We performed a prospective multicomponent study to determine whether subjective and objective bladder sensation instruments may provide data on sensory dysfunction in patients with overactive bladder. We evaluated 70 prospectively enrolled patients with urodynamics and questionnaires on validated urgency (Urgency Perception Score), general overactive bladder (Urogenital Distress Inventory) and quality of life (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire). We first sought a correlation between sensory specific (Urgency Perception Score) and quality of life questionnaire scores. We then assessed a correlation between sensory questionnaire scores and urodynamic variables, exploring the hypothesis that certain urodynamic parameters may be bladder sensation measures. We evaluated 2 urodynamic derivatives (first sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity) to increase sensory finding discrimination. We noted a moderate correlation between the Urgency Perception Score (0.56) and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (0.74) vs the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (each p Perception Score and bladder capacity (-0.25, p sensation ratio and bladder urgency velocity statistically significantly correlated with the Urgency Perception Score despite the lesser or absent correlation associated with the individual components of these derivatives. Bladder sensation questionnaires may be valuable to identify patients with sensory dysfunction and provide additional data not obtained in generalized symptom questionnaires. Urodynamic variables correlated with bladder sensation questionnaire scores and may be an objective method to assess sensory dysfunction.

  2. Sensation Following Immediate Breast Reconstruction with Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Jakob; Wickman, Marie; Hansson, Per

    2010-01-01

    Sensation is a neglected aspect of the outcome of breast reconstructions with implants. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the cutaneous somatosensory status in breasts following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with permanent adjustable prostheses and to analyze the patients' subjective experience of the sensation. Twenty-four consecutive patients diagnosed with invasive or in situ breast carcinoma were examined preoperatively and 2 years after mastectomy and reconstruction, for assessment of perception thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, and heat pain above and below the areola. Von Frey filaments and a Peltier element-based thermode were used. The patients completed a questionnaire concerning their experienced sensation in the reconstructed breast. Using quantitative somato-sensory testing, the sensation to all the examined modalities was significantly impaired compared to preoperatively. Most affected was the area above the areola. Patients given postoperative radiotherapy (n = 9) did not differ from those without radiotherapy (n = 15) regarding any of the modalities. All patients reported reduced sensation in the reconstructed breast compared to that preoperatively. Twenty-three patients stated that the reconstructed breast felt different from the other breast; nevertheless 16 reported that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast. The study revealed sensation impairment following mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with implants. Patients should be informed about this effect preoperatively to allow adequate expectations regarding the sensation outcome. However, two-thirds of the study patients considered that the reconstructed breast felt like a real breast, which must be one of the main purposes of a breast reconstruction.

  3. Surface electrical stimulation to evoke referred sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Johanna C; Blok, Derek C; Slopsema, Julia P; Boss, John M; Heyboer, Lane A; Tobias, Carson M; Polasek, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation (SES) is being investigated as a noninvasive method to evoke natural sensations distal to electrode location. This may improve treatment for phantom limb pain as well as provide an alternative method to deliver sensory feedback. The median and/or ulnar nerves of 35 subjects were stimulated at the elbow using surface electrodes. Strength-duration curves of hand sensation were found for each subject. All subjects experienced sensation in their hand, which was mostly described as a paresthesia-like sensation. The rheobase and chronaxie values were found to be lower for the median nerve than the ulnar nerve, with no significant difference between sexes. Repeated sessions with the same subject resulted in sufficient variability to suggest that recalculating the strength-duration curve for each electrode placement is necessary. Most of the recruitment curves in this study were generated with 28 to 36 data points. To quickly reproduce these curves with limited increase in error, we recommend 10 data points. Future studies will focus on obtaining different sensations using SES with the strength-duration curve defining the threshold of the effective parameter space.

  4. Trauma Risk Management (TRiM): Promoting Help Seeking for Mental Health Problems Among Combat-Exposed U.K. Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Burdett, Howard; Green, Kevin; Greenberg, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Trauma Risk Management (TRiM) is a peer-led, occupational mental health support process that aims to identify and assist U.K. military personnel with persistent mental ill health related to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). This study compared help seeking, mental disorder symptoms, and alcohol use between TRiM recipients and personnel experiencing similar combat events who did not receive TRiM; an unexposed group provided context. Records of TRiM activity during a U.K. military deployment in Afghanistan were linked to contemporaneous survey data assessing mental health and combat experiences. The resulting deployment data set was amalgamated with mental health, alcohol use, and help-seeking data collected within 12 weeks of homecoming and again one to two years later. Mental health and help-seeking outcomes were compared between a nonexposed, non-TRiM sample (n = 161), an exposed, non-TRiM sample (n = 149), and an exposed, TRiM-recipient sample (n = 328) using logistic regression analyses. At follow-up, TRiM recipients were significantly more likely to seek help from mental health services than exposed, non-TRiM personnel. At baseline, TRiM recipients had significantly greater adjusted odds of reporting possible posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than exposed non-TRiM personnel; the difference was not significant at follow-up. TRiM recipients were significantly more likely to report persistent mental disorder and alcohol misuse caseness over the follow-up period. TRiM recipients were significantly more likely to seek help from mental health services than a similar PTE-exposed group that did not receive TRiM; however, TRiM recipients experienced more persistent mental ill-health symptoms and hazardous alcohol use over the period of follow-up despite seeking help.

  5. The Racing-Game Effect: Why Do Video Racing Games Increase Risk-Taking Inclinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players’ risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure,sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on r...

  6. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...

  7. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess.

  8. A transcription factor for cold sensation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milbrandt Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The ability to feel hot and cold is critical for animals and human beings to survive in the natural environment. Unlike other sensations, the physiology of cold sensation is mostly unknown. In the present study, we use genetically modified mice that do not express nerve growth factor-inducible B (NGFIB to investigate the possible role of NGFIB in cold sensation. We found that genetic deletion of NGFIB selectively affected behavioral responses to cold stimuli while behavioral responses to noxious heat or mechanical stimuli were normal. Furthermore, behavioral responses remained reduced or blocked in NGFIB knockout mice even after repetitive application of cold stimuli. Our results provide strong evidence that the first transcription factor NGFIB determines the ability of animals to respond to cold stimulation.

  9. Saccadic Eye Movement Improves Plantar Sensation and Postural Balance in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Youngsook

    2016-06-01

    Vision, proprioception and plantar sensation contribute to the control of postural balance (PB). Reduced plantar sensation alters postural response and is at an increased risk of fall, and eye movements reduce the postural sway. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the improvement of plantar sensation and PB after saccadic eye movement (SEM) and pursuit eye movement (PEM) in community-dwelling elderly women. Participants (104 females; 75.11 ± 6.25 years) were randomly allocated into the SEM group (n = 52) and PEM groups (n = 52). The SEM group performed eye fixation and SEM for 5 minutes, and the PEM group performed eye fixation and PEM for 5 minutes. The plantar sensation was measured according to the plantar surface area of the feet in contact with the floor surface before and after the intervention. Before and after SEM and PEM with the eyes open and closed, PB was measured as the area (mm(2)), length (cm), and velocity (cm/s) of the fluctuation of the center of pressure (COP). The plantar sensation of both feet improved in both groups (p eye open and close in both groups (p < 0.01). The length and velocity of the COP significantly decreased in the SEM group compared to the PEM group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, SEM and PEM are effective interventions for improving plantar sensation and PB in elderly women, with greater PB improvement after SEM.

  10. Thermal sensation models: a systematic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelblen, B; Psikuta, A; Bogdan, A; Annaheim, S; Rossi, R M

    2017-05-01

    Thermal sensation models, capable of predicting human's perception of thermal surroundings, are commonly used to assess given indoor conditions. These models differ in many aspects, such as the number and type of input conditions, the range of conditions in which the models can be applied, and the complexity of equations. Moreover, the models are associated with various thermal sensation scales. In this study, a systematic comparison of seven existing thermal sensation models has been performed with regard to exposures including various air temperatures, clothing thermal insulation, and metabolic rate values after a careful investigation of the models' range of applicability. Thermo-physiological data needed as input for some of the models were obtained from a mathematical model for human physiological responses. The comparison showed differences between models' predictions for the analyzed conditions, mostly higher than typical intersubject differences in votes. Therefore, it can be concluded that the choice of model strongly influences the assessment of indoor spaces. The issue of comparing different thermal sensation scales has also been discussed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Rate of decay of auditory sensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, R.

    1964-01-01

    The rate of decay of auditory sensation was investigated by measuring the minimum silent interval that must be introduced between two noise pulses to be perceived. The value of this critical time Δt was determined for difierent intensity levels of both the first and the second pulse. It is shown

  12. Visual sensations induced by Cherenkov radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNulty, P.J.; Pease, V.P.; Bond, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    Pulses of relativistic singly charged particles entering the eyeball induce a variety of visual phenomena by means of Cerenkov radiation generated during their passage through the vitreous. These phenomena are similar in appearance to many of the visual sensations experienced by Apollo astronauts exposed to the cosmic rays in deep space

  13. Understanding internet sex-seeking behaviour and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men: evidences from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Annang, Lucy; Spencer, S Melinda; Fairchild, Amanda Jane; Billings, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Internet sex-seeking is common among young men who have sex with men (MSM). However, research examining its association with risky sexual behaviour has produced mixed findings, possibly due to various operational definitions of internet sex-seeking which fail to account for its multi-dimensionality. This study purposed to: (1) examine if the way internet sex-seeking behaviour is operationalised influences its association with risky sexual behaviour (unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and casual sex) and (2) determine the association of each operational definition with sexual risk. We recruited 263 sexually-experienced young MSM (18-29 years) and operationalised internet sex-seeking behaviour in four ways: (i) ever used the internet to meet other men, (ii) currently own a profile on a website dedicated to meeting other men, (iii) ever physically met a man you initially met online and (iv) ever had sex with a man you met online. Using binomial regression, we examined the association of each operationalisation with UAI and casual sex. Only MSM who reported physically meeting a man they met online and those who ever had sex with a man they met online were more likely to report a history of UAI (pdefinitions in future research and inferences drawn from such research must be interpreted with caution. Findings have important implications for sexual health research and methodology, survey development, sexual health prevention interventions, and evaluating sexual risk among young MSM. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Contextual factors associated with treatment-seeking and higher-risk sexual behaviour in Botswana among men with symptoms of sexually transmitted infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeni, Tabitha

    2007-11-01

    This study investigates contextual factors associated with treatment-seeking behaviour and higher-risk sexual conduct of men symptomatic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Botswana. Data were drawn from a randomly selected, nationally representative sample of 8 222 men, aged 15-64 years, who had reported having symptoms suggestive of an STI during the previous twelve months. Higher-risk behaviour continues to sustain the HIV epidemic in Botswana. At the heart of Botswana's epidemic lies men's reluctance to seek medical treatment, engaging in unprotected sex, and having sex with multiple partners while symptomatic of an STI. The odds of engaging in unprotected sex while symptomatic of an STI were significantly higher among teenage males and males in urban households. For every year's increase in the age difference between partners there was a 28% increase in the odds of the male having had unprotected sex. Being married and having had more than one sexual partner in the last year multiplied the odds of having unprotected sex while symptomatic of an STI by three times. The longer an infected man remained with symptoms before seeking help, the more likely it was to have unprotected sex while infected and the more likely to seek treatment from a traditional healer. Notably, having sought medical treatment from hospitals, clinics and health workers, as opposed to consulting traditional healers, significantly reduced the odds of having had unprotected sex while infected with an STI by 48%. The results indicate the need to encourage men to utilise public healthcare services. The public health sector in Botswana needs to provide healthcare services that are user-friendly for men. Increasing the number of treatment sites may also contribute to preventing onward transmission of STIs. Special attention needs to be paid to boys' socialisation towards gender norms, and men are to be encouraged to play a responsible role in HIV prevention.

  15. Radiation dose to the cells at risk for the induction of bone tumors by bone-seeking radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    For bone-seeking radioactive isotopes, such as 226 Ra, 224 Ra, and 239 Pu, it has become common practice to consider a layer of cells 0 to 10 microns from bone mineral as appropriate for calculations of effective carcinogenic radiation doses. From considerations of our measurements of dimensions and positions of cells relative to bone mineral at the endosteal surface of human bone together with our in vitro studies, it would appear that limitation to less than the complete range of the emitted particles is unwarranted for calculation of the dose

  16. Too little, too late or too much, too early? Differential hemodynamics of response inhibition in high and low sensation seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Heather R; Corbly, Christine R; Liu, Xun; Kelly, Thomas H; Lynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E

    2012-10-24

    High sensation seeking is associated with strong approach behaviors and weak avoidance responses. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to further characterize the neurobiological underpinnings of this behavioral profile using a Go/No-go task. Analysis of brain activation associated with response inhibition (No-go) versus response initiation and execution (Go) revealed the commonly reported right lateral prefrontal, insula, cingulate, and supplementary motor area network. However, right lateral activation was associated with greater No-go than Go responses only in low sensation seekers. High sensation seekers showed no differential activation in these regions but a more pronounced Go compared to No-go response in several other regions that are involved in salience detection (insula), motor initiation (anterior cingulate) and attention (inferior parietal cortex). Temporal analysis of the hemodynamic response for Go and No-go conditions revealed that the stronger response to Go than No-go trials in high sensation seekers occurred in in the earliest time window in the right middle frontal gyrus, right mid-cingulate and right precuneus. In contrast, the greater No-go than Go response in low sensation seekers occurred in the later time window in these same regions. These findings indicate that high sensation seekers more strongly attend to or process Go trials and show delayed or minimal inhibitory responses on No-go trials in regions that low sensation seekers use for response inhibition. Failure to engage such regions for response inhibition may underlie some of the risky and impulsive behaviors observed in high sensation seekers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cryotherapy, Sensation, and Isometric-Force Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denegar, Craig R.; Buckley, William E.; Newell, Karl M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the changes in sensation of pressure, 2-point discrimination, and submaximal isometric-force production variability due to cryotherapy. Design and Setting: Sensation was assessed using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design, with treatment (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), digit (finger or thumb), and sensation test time (baseline, posttreatment, or postisometric-force trials) as independent variables. Dependent variables were changes in sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination. Isometric-force variability was tested with a 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design. Treatment condition (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), and percentage (10, 25, or 40) of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were the independent variables. The dependent variables were the precision or variability (the standard deviation of mean isometric force) and the accuracy or targeting error (the root mean square error) of the isometric force for each percentage of MVIC. Subjects: Fifteen volunteer college students (8 men, 7 women; age = 22 ± 3 years; mass = 72 ± 21.9 kg; height = 183.4 ± 11.6 cm). Measurements: We measured sensation in the distal palmar aspect of the index finger and thumb. Sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination were measured before treatment (baseline), after treatment (15 minutes of ice immersion or control), and at the completion of isometric testing (final). Variability (standard deviation of mean isometric force) of the submaximal isometric finger forces was measured by having the subjects exert a pinching force with the thumb and index finger for 30 seconds. Subjects performed the pinching task at the 3 submaximal levels of MVIC (10%, 25%, and 40%), with the order of trials assigned randomly. The subjects were given a target representing the submaximal percentage of MVIC and visual feedback of the force produced as they pinched the testing device. The force exerted

  18. Opponency of astringent and fat sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Mura, Emi; Speziale, Camille; Favreau, Charlotte J; Dubreuil, Guillaume F; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-10-09

    In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations [1], in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures [6] to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterizing users of new psychoactive substances using psychometric scales for risk-related behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeker, Annabel; van der Burg, Babette G; van Laar, Margriet; Brunt, Tibor M

    2017-07-01

    Studies investigating risk-related behavior in relation to new psychoactive substance (NPS) use are sparse. The current study investigated characteristics of NPS users by comparing risk-related behavior of NPS users to that of illicit drugs (ID) users and licit substances users and non-users (NLC) users. In this cross-sectional study we included 528 individuals across an age range of 18-72years. Using a web-based questionnaire we collected self-report data on substance use, sensation seeking, impulsivity, peer substance use and risk perception of substance use. NPS and ID users had a higher level of sensation seeking compared to NLC users (NPS users: pusers: pusers (pusers (p=0.16), had increased levels of impulsivity compared to NLC users. NPS users had significantly higher scores for sensation seeking (F 1,423 =51.52, pusers. Additionally, NPS users had significantly more peers who use substances compared to ID and NLC users. Also, NPS and ID users had lower risk perception for most substances than NLC users. NPS users had lower risk perception for most substances than ID users. The findings highlight that NPS users show substantial more risk-related behavior than both ID and NLC users. Therefore, NPS users might be considered as a distinctive group of substance users that need another approach in terms of prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Tactile Sensation by Electrical and Mechanical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yem, Vibol; Kajimoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    An electrotactile display is a tactile interface that provides tactile perception by passing electrical current through the surface of the skin. It is actively used instead of mechanical tactile displays for tactile feedback because of several advantages such as its small and thin size, light weight, and high responsiveness. However, the similarities and differences between these sensations is still not clear. This study directly compares the intensity sensation of electrotactile stimulation to that of mechanical stimulation, and investigates the characteristic sensation of anodic and cathodic stimulation. In the experiment, participants underwent a 30 pps electrotactile stimulus every one second to their middle finger, and were asked to match this intensity by adjusting the intensity of a mechanical tactile stimulus to an index finger. The results showed that anodic stimulation mainly produced vibration sensation, whereas cathodic sensation produced both vibration and pressure sensations. Relatively low pressure sensation was also observed for anodic stimulation but it remains low, regardless of the increasing of electrical intensity.

  1. Descriptors of sensation confirm the multidimensional nature of desire to void.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan D; Williams, Marie T

    2015-02-01

    To collect and categorize descriptors of "desire to void" sensation, determine the reliability of descriptor categories and assess whether descriptor categories discriminate between people with and without symptoms of overactive bladder. This observational, repeated measures study involved 64 Australian volunteers (47 female), aged 50 years or more, with and without symptoms of overactive bladder. Descriptors of desire to void sensation were derived from a structured interview (conducted on two occasions, 1 week apart). Descriptors were recorded verbatim and categorized in a three-stage process. Overactive bladder status was determined by the Overactive Bladder Awareness Tool and the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score. McNemar's test assessed the reliability of descriptors volunteered between two occasions and Partial Least Squares Regression determined whether language categories discriminated according to overactive bladder status. Post hoc Chi squared analysis and relative risk calculation determined the size and direction of overactive bladder prediction. Thirteen language categories (Urgency, Fullness, Pressure, Tickle/tingle, Pain/ache, Heavy, Normal, Intense, Sudden, Annoying, Uncomfortable, Anxiety, and Unique somatic) encapsulated 344 descriptors of sensation. Descriptor categories were stable between two interviews. The categories "Urgency" and "Fullness" predicted overactive bladder status. Participants who volunteered "Urgency" descriptors were twice as likely to have overactive bladder and participants who volunteered "Fullness" descriptors were almost three times as likely not to have overactive bladder. The sensation of desire to void is reliably described over sessions separated by a week, the language used reflects multiple dimensions of sensation, and can predict overactive bladder status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Thermal sensation and comfort with five different air terminal devices for personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Bolashikov, Z.

    2004-01-01

    could not see it. During exposures, subjects performed typical office work. Several times during the experiment they answered questions regarding air quality and SBS symptoms, thermal sensation, draught risk, and reported changes made in the PVS. Results showed that all participants actively made use...

  3. Large-scale STI services in Avahan improve utilization and treatment seeking behaviour amongst high-risk groups in India: an analysis of clinical records from six states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurung Anup

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence.

  4. Delivery dilemmas: How drug cryptomarket users identify and seek to reduce their risk of detection by law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Judith; Askew, Rebecca

    2017-03-01

    Cryptomarkets represent an important drug market innovation by bringing buyers and sellers of illegal drugs together in a 'hidden' yet public online marketplace. We ask: How do cryptomarket drug sellers and buyers perceive the risks of detection and arrest, and attempt to limit them? We analyse selected texts produced by vendors operating on the first major drug cryptomarket, Silk Road (N=600) alongside data extracted from the marketplace discussion forum that include buyer perspectives. We apply Fader's (2016) framework for understanding how drug dealers operating 'offline' attempt to reduce the risk of detection and arrest: visibility reduction, charge reduction and risk distribution. We characterize drug transactions on cryptomarkets as 'stretched' across time, virtual and physical space, and handlers, changing the location and nature of risks faced by cryptomarket users. The key locations of risk of detection and arrest by law enforcement were found in 'offline' activities of cryptomarket vendors (packaging and delivery drop-offs) and buyers (receiving deliveries). Strategies in response involved either creating or disrupting routine activities in line with a non-offending identity. Use of encrypted communication was seen as 'good practice' but often not employed. 'Drop shipping' allowed some Silk Road vendors to sell illegal drugs without the necessity of handling them. Silk Road participants neither viewed themselves as immune to, nor passively accepting of, the risk of detection and arrest. Rational choice theorists have viewed offending decisions as constrained by limited access to relevant information. Cryptomarkets as 'illicit capital' sharing communities provide expanded and low-cost access to information enabling drug market participants to make more accurate assessments of the risk of apprehension. The abundance of drug market intelligence available to those on both sides of the law may function to speed up innovation in illegal drug markets, as well

  5. Perceived message sensation value and psychological reactance: a test of the dominant thought disruption hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests to see whether perceived message sensation value reduces psychological reactance within the context of anti-marijuana ads for television. After controlling for sensation seeking, biological sex, and marijuana use, the results indicate that message novelty is negatively associated with a freedom threat, whereas dramatic impact and emotional arousal were not associated with the antecedent to reactance. Results support the use of novel messages in future ads while at the same time offer an explanation to the challenges involved in creating effective anti-marijuana ads. Overall, the results provide partial support for the dominant thought disruption hypothesis and are discussed with an emphasis on the theoretical and practical implications for health communication researchers and practitioners.

  6. Treatment seeking adults with autism or ADHD and co-morbid Substance Use Disorder: Prevalence, risk factors and functional disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo, Bram; van den Brink, Wim; Koeter, Maarten; Gorissen van Eenige, Marielle; van Wijngaarden-Cremers, Patricia; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in adults, especially not about ASD with co-morbid Substance Use Disorder (SUD). We wanted to examine how adults with ASD compare to adults with ADHD on prevalence and risk factors for co-morbid SUD, and on disability levels associated

  7. Using public relations strategies to prompt populations at risk to seek health information: the Hanford Community Health Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.

  8. Addressing the issue of falls off playground equipment: an empirically-based intervention to reduce fall-risk behaviors on playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Matheis, Shawn

    2007-08-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of an intervention to reduce fall-risk behaviors on playgrounds among children 6-11 years of age. Children completed posters indicating risky playground behaviors they would and would not do. In the intervention group, video and audio presentations were used to expose children to injury occurrences so that injury vulnerability was communicated in a fear-evoking way. In the control group, children only completed the pre- and post-intervention measures. Significant decreases in intentions to risk-take were obtained in the intervention, but not the control group. Effectiveness did not vary with children's age or sex, but was greater for those scoring high in sensation-seeking. A fear-appeals approach proved successful to reduce intended fall-risk behaviors, particularly for children high in sensation-seeking whose risk-taking is motivated by affect arousal.

  9. How to use health and nutrition-related claims correctly on food advertising: comparison of benefit-seeking, risk-avoidance, and taste appeals on different food categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Springston, Jeffrey K

    2014-09-01

    This study applies the concepts of health halos and unhealthy = tasty intuition to examine how the different health and nutrition-related (HNR) appeal types interact with different food product types compared with taste claims. The experiment investigated the impact of benefit-seeking and risk-avoidance HNR appeals compared with that of taste appeals on different food types. The authors found that although respondents evaluated food ads with the two HNR appeals as less risky/more beneficial and healthier than food ads with a taste claim, the respondents showed better ad-related evaluations on the HNR appeals for perceivably healthy food and on taste appeal for perceivably unhealthy food. The findings provide several theoretical and practical implications for health food marketing and public health policy.

  10. Loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Akiyuki; Nagumo, Kiyomi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Fujinawa, Naoto; Hashimoto, Tasuku

    2003-01-01

    A case of sacral herpes zoster infection in a 56-year-old man with the complication of loss of urinary voiding sensation is presented. He had typical herpes zoster eruption on the left S2 dermatome, hypalgesia of the S1-S4 dermatomes, and absence of urinary voiding sensation. There was no other urinary symptom at the first medical examination. Urinary complications associated with herpes zoster are uncommon, but two types, acute cystitis and acute retention, have been recognized. No cases of loss of urinary voiding sensation due to herpes zoster have been reported. In this case, hypalgesia of the sacral dermatomes was mild compared to the marked loss of urethral sensation. This inconsistency is explained by the hypothesis that the number of urethral fibers is very small as compared to that of cutaneous fibers, therefore, urethral sensation would be more severely disturbed than cutaneous sensation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Does Adolescent Risk Taking Imply Weak Executive Function? A Prospective Study of Relations between Working Memory Performance, Impulsivity, and Risk Taking in Early Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Romer, Daniel; Betancourt, Laura M.; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Studies of brain development suggest that the increase in risk taking observed during adolescence may be due to insufficient prefrontal executive function compared to a more rapidly developing subcortical motivation system. We examined executive function as assessed by working memory ability in a community sample of youth (n = 387, ages 10 to 12 at baseline) in three annual assessments to determine its relation to two forms of impulsivity (sensation seeking and acting without thinking) and a ...

  12. Urethral sensation following reconstructive pelvic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, M G; Davis, C; Lowenstein, L; Mueller, E R; Brubaker, L; Kenton, K

    2014-11-01

    Most urethral neuromuscular function data focus on efferent rather than afferent innervation. We aimed to determine if changes exist in urethral afferent nerve function before and after reconstructive pelvic surgery (RPS). Secondarily, we compared afferent urethral innervation in women with and without stress urinary incontinence undergoing RPS. Participants underwent current perception threshold (CPT) and urethral anal reflex (UAR) testing prior to surgery and again post-operatively. Wilcoxon signed ranked test and Spearman's correlations were used and all tests were two-sided. p = 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. Urethral CPT thresholds increased significantly after RPS, consistent with decreased urethral afferent function. Pre-operative urethral CPT thresholds at 5 and 250 Hz were lower in SUI women (10 [IQR 5-29], 40 [32-750]) compared with continent women (63 [14-99], 73 [51-109]; p = 0.45, p = 0.020), signifying increased urethral sensation or easier activation of urethral afferents in SUI women. Reconstructive pelvic surgery is associated with a short-term deleterious impact on urethral afferent function, as demonstrated by the higher levels of stimuli required to activate urethral afferent nerves (decreased urethral sensation) immediately after RPS. Women with SUI required lower levels of stimuli to activate urethral afferent nerves prior to RPS, although UAR latencies were similar regardless of concomitant SUI.

  13. Risk Factors for Eating Disorder Psychopathology within the Treatment Seeking Transgender Population: The Role of Cross-Sex Hormone Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Haycraft, Emma; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Brewin, Nicola; Claes, Laurence; Arcelus, Jon

    2018-03-01

    Many transgender people experience high levels of body dissatisfaction, which is one of the numerous factors known to increase vulnerability to eating disorder symptoms in the cisgender (non-trans) population. Cross-sex hormones can alleviate body dissatisfaction so might also alleviate eating disorder symptoms. This study aimed to explore risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in transgender people and the role of cross-sex hormones. Individuals assessed at a national transgender health service were invited to participate (N = 563). Transgender people not on cross-sex hormones reported higher levels of eating disorder psychopathology than people who were. High body dissatisfaction, perfectionism, anxiety symptoms, and low self-esteem were risk factors for eating psychopathology, but, after controlling for these, significant differences in eating psychopathology between people who were and were not on cross-sex hormones disappeared. Cross-sex hormones may alleviate eating disorder psychopathology. Given the high prevalence of transgender identities, clinicians at eating disorder services should assess for gender identity issues. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie [Center for the Built Environment, UC Berkeley (United States); Han, Taeyoung [General Motors Company (United States)

    2010-02-15

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specific human subject tests in a climate chamber. They were validated against a test of automobile passengers. The series is intended to present the models' rationale, structure, and coefficients, so that others can test them and develop them further as additional empirical data becomes available. A) The whole-body (overall) sensation model has two forms, depending on whether all of the body's segments have sensations effectively in the same direction (e.g warm or cool), or whether some segments have sensations opposite to those of the rest of the body. For each, individual body parts have different weights for warm versus cool sensations, and strong local sensations dominate the overall sensation. If all sensations are near neutral, the overall sensation is close to the average of all body sensations. B) The overall comfort model also has two forms. Under stable conditions, people evaluate their overall comfort by a complaint-driven process, meaning that when two body parts are strongly uncomfortable, no matter how comfortable the other body parts might be, the overall comfort will be near the discomfort level of the two most uncomfortable parts. When the environmental conditions are transient, or people have control over their environments, overall comfort is better than that of the two most uncomfortable body parts. This can be accounted for by adding the most comfortable vote to the two most uncomfortable ones. (author)

  15. A Video Game Promoting Cancer Risk Perception and Information Seeking Behavior Among Young-Adult College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Georges Elias; Beale, Ivan L; Chen, Minxing; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2016-07-28

    Risky behaviors tend to increase drastically during the transition into young adulthood. This increase may ultimately facilitate the initiation of carcinogenic processes at a young age, highlighting a serious public health problem. By promoting information seeking behavior (ISB), young adults may become aware of cancer risks and potentially take preventive measures. Based on the protection motivation theory, the current study seeks to evaluate the impact of challenge in a fully automated video game called Re-Mission on young adult college students' tendency to perceive the severity of cancer, feel susceptible to cancer, and engage in ISB. A total of 216 young adults were recruited from a university campus, consented, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 3 conditions: an intervention group playing Re-Mission at high challenge (HC; n=85), an intervention group playing Re-Mission at low challenge (LC; n=81), and a control group with no challenge (NC; presented with illustrated pictures of Re-Mission; n=50). Measurement was conducted at baseline, immediate posttest, 10-day follow-up, and 20-day follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effect models were conducted for data analysis of the main outcomes. A total of 101 young adults continued until 20-day follow-up. Mixed-effect models showed that participants in the HC and LC groups were more likely to increase in perceived susceptibility to cancer (P=.03), perceived severity of cancer (P=.02), and ISB (P=.01) than participants in the NC group. The LC group took until 10-day follow-up to show increase in perceived susceptibility (B=0.47, standard error (SE) 0.16, P=.005). The HC group showed an immediate increase in perceived susceptibility at posttest (B=0.43, SE 0.14, P=.002). The LC group exhibited no changes in perceived severity (B=0.40, SE 0.33, P=.24). On the other hand, the HC group showed a significant increase from baseline to posttest (B=0.39, SE 0.14, P=.005), maintaining this increase until

  16. The perception of materials through oral sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception.

  17. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  18. A central neural circuit for itch sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Di; Deng, Juan; Liu, Ke-Fei; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Shi, Yu-Feng; Guo, Wei-Min; Mao, Qun-Quan; Liu, Xing-Jun; Li, Hui; Sun, Yan-Gang

    2017-08-18

    Although itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals, chronic itch remains a challenging clinical problem. Itch processing has been studied extensively at the spinal level. However, how itch information is transmitted to the brain and what central circuits underlie the itch-induced scratching behavior remain largely unknown. We found that the spinoparabrachial pathway was activated during itch processing and that optogenetic suppression of this pathway impaired itch-induced scratching behaviors. Itch-mediating spinal neurons, which express the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor, are disynaptically connected to the parabrachial nucleus via glutamatergic spinal projection neurons. Blockade of synaptic output of glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus suppressed pruritogen-induced scratching behavior. Thus, our studies reveal a central neural circuit that is critical for itch signal processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Can I risk using public services? Perceived consequences of seeking help and health care among households living in poverty: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canvin, Krysia; Jones, Chris; Marttila, Anneli; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2007-11-01

    To improve understanding of how families living in adverse conditions perceive their encounters with public services and how past experiences influence current and future attempts to seek help. Qualitative interviews with adult members of households living in poverty in deprived areas, plus observations conducted in the surrounding neighbourhoods and service settings. Purposive sample of 25 adults living in a deprived area, on welfare benefits. Eight sites in disadvantaged areas in Merseyside, North Wales, London and Greater Manchester in 2004/05. Participants generally perceived public services as a source of distrust and a potential risk to well-being. Encounters with a range of services were perceived as risky in terms of losing resources, being misunderstood or harshly judged, and carrying the ultimate threat of losing custody of their children. Participants perceived that they were subjected to increasing levels of surveillance, with fear of "being told on" by neighbours, in addition to service providers, adding to anxiety. Adverse consequences included avoiding child health and social services, anxiety and self-imposed isolation. Approaching services was perceived as akin to taking a gamble that might or might not result in their needs being met. Faced with this "choice", participants employed strategies to minimise the risks that on the surface may appear risky to health. If public services are to succeed in providing support to disadvantaged families, greater efforts are needed to build trust and demonstrate understanding for the strategies these families use to maintain their well-being against formidable odds.

  20. African American adolescents and new media: associations with HIV/STI risk behavior and psychosocial variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Romer, Daniel; DiClemente, Ralph J P; Salazar, Laura E; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones and online media are used frequently but we know little about their use among African American adolescents. This study examines the frequency of such use and its relationship to psychosocial variables and STI/HIV risk behavior. 1,518 African American, aged 13-18 years, from 2 Northeast US cities (Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) and 2 Southeast US cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA), were assessed from 2008-2009. Participants were assessed on frequency of cell phone and Internet use, psychological constructs (ie, depression, life satisfaction, impulsivity) and HIV/STI risk behaviors (ie, history of intercourse, sexual sensation seeking attitudes, peer sexual risks norms) with reliable scales and measures using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Over 90% of African American adolescents used cell phones every day or most days and 60% used social networking sites every day or most days (96% used Myspace). Greater frequency of cell phone use was associated with sexual sensation seeking (P = .000), riskier peer sexual norms (P = .000), and impulsivity (P = .016). Greater frequency of Internet use was associated with a history of oral/vaginal/anal sex (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.0-1.05) and sexual sensation seeking (P = .000). These findings suggest that riskier youth are online and using cell phones frequently. The Internet and cell phones may be useful platforms for targeted health promotion and prevention efforts with AA adolescents.

  1. Comparison of thermal comfort and sensation scales : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesely, Michal; Zeiler, Wim; Li, Rongling; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; te Kulve, M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal sensation is a conscious feeling that grades the thermal environment, while thermal comfort expresses satisfaction with this feeling. Multiple scales to quantify thermal sensation and comfort have been developed throughout the history of research on thermal comfort. In this paper, the most

  2. Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined.

  3. 'Errors of Judgment': The Case of Pain Sensations | Loonat | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hill, in his paper 'Introspective Awareness of Sensations', argues that we do sometimes commit 'errors of judgment' and he draws on an example that involves the perception of pain to illustrate his point. I analyze Hill's example and draw on other examples of pain sensations to show how errors of judgment are not possible.

  4. Sensation of agency and perception of temporal order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; SanMiguel, Iria; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    After adaptation to a fixed temporal delay between actions and their sensory consequences, stimuli delivered during the delay are perceived to occur prior to actions. Temporal judgments are also influenced by the sensation of agency (experience of causing our own actions and their sensory consequences). Sensory consequences of voluntary actions are perceived to occur earlier in time than those of involuntary actions. However, it is unclear whether temporal order illusions influence the sensation of agency. Thus, we tested how the illusionary reversal of motor actions and sound events affect the sensation of agency. We observed an absence of the sensation of agency in the auditory modality in a condition in which sounds were falsely perceived as preceding motor acts relative to the perceived temporal order in the control condition. This finding suggests a strong association between the sensation of agency and the temporal order perception of actions and their consequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Shared Neural Mechanisms for the Evaluation of Intense Sensory Stimulation and Economic Reward, Dependent on Stimulation-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Valton, Vincent; Rees, Geraint; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2016-09-28

    . Further understanding of stimulation-seeking behavior may shed light on the etiology of psychopathologies such as addiction, for which high or low sensation-seeking personality has been identified as a risk factor. Copyright © 2016 Norbury et al.

  6. Mechanisms of host seeking by parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Spencer S; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-07-01

    The phylum Nematoda comprises a diverse group of roundworms that includes parasites of vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants. Human-parasitic nematodes infect more than one billion people worldwide and cause some of the most common neglected tropical diseases, particularly in low-resource countries [1]. Parasitic nematodes of livestock and crops result in billions of dollars in losses each year [1]. Many nematode infections are treatable with low-cost anthelmintic drugs, but repeated infections are common in endemic areas and drug resistance is a growing concern with increasing therapeutic and agricultural administration [1]. Many parasitic nematodes have an environmental infective larval stage that engages in host seeking, a process whereby the infective larvae use sensory cues to search for hosts. Host seeking is a complex behavior that involves multiple sensory modalities, including olfaction, gustation, thermosensation, and humidity sensation. As the initial step of the parasite-host interaction, host seeking could be a powerful target for preventative intervention. However, host-seeking behavior remains poorly understood. Here we review what is currently known about the host-seeking behaviors of different parasitic nematodes, including insect-parasitic nematodes, mammalian-parasitic nematodes, and plant-parasitic nematodes. We also discuss the neural bases of these behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Classifying Internet Pathological Users: Their Usage, Internet Sensation Seeking, and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sunny S. J.

    A study was conducted to identify pathological Internet users and to reveal their psychological features and problematic usage patterns. One thousand and fifty Taiwanese undergraduates were selected. An Internet Addiction Scale was adopted to classify 648 students into 4 clusters. The 146 users in the 4th cluster, who reported significantly higher…

  8. Psychometric assessment of inventory sensation seeking in Mexican adolescents (IBS-Mx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Raúl Palacios Delgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de sensaciones es un rasgo de personalidad que se refiere a la necesidad de buscar nuevas experiencias y sensaciones. Se desarrolló un nuevo inventario para medir éste rasgo como una expresión bioconductual de la personalidad. Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron determinar las propiedades psicométricas (estructura factorial, validez y consistencia interna de un nuevo inventario para medir búsqueda de sensaciones, así como evaluar su validez referida a un criterio y obtener baremos normativos en una muestra de adolescentes mexicanos. Se seleccionó una muestra de 550 jóvenes, 260 hombres y 290 mujeres, entre 14 y 23 años, estudiantes de bachillerato de la Ciudad de México. Los análisis psicométricos mostraron ocho dimensiones, cuatro similares a las reportadas por Zuckerman: búsqueda de emociones intensas, búsqueda de experiencias y aventura, desinhibición y susceptibilidad al aburrimiento y cuatro nuevas dimensiones nombradas búsqueda de placer, búsqueda de riesgo, búsqueda de novedad y búsqueda de lo inusual. Adicionalmente los hombres puntúan significativamente más que las mujeres en el total de la búsqueda de sensaciones y en seis subescalas. La discusión analiza la utilidad del nuevo inventario para la evaluación de la búsqueda de sensaciones y de sus dimensiones en adolescentes.

  9. Early adolescent boys’ exposure to Internet pornography: relationships to pubertal timing, sensation seeking, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyens, I.; Vandenbosch, L.; Eggermont, S.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (Mage = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and

  10. Decision-Making Style among Adolescents: Relationship with Sensation Seeking and Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; Laghi, Fiorenzo; D'Alessio, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The principal aim of the study was to examine the psychometric properties and construct validity of the General Decision-Making Scale (GDMS) in a sample of 700 adolescents (aged 15-19 years). Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses provide evidence for a solid five-dimension structure reflecting the theorized construct: rational, intuitive,…

  11. Affective Underpinnings of Surface Approaches to Learning and Their Relationship with Sensation Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter M.

    2018-01-01

    Surface approaches to learning materials and tasks are a commonplace challenge to teachers, and they prove difficult to shift, even among students who are otherwise talented or motivated to learn. The present study investigates a theory that surface approaches are triggered by a suboptimal, aversive response to learning stimuli, which overrides…

  12. Testing for and the role of anal and rectal sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J

    1992-03-01

    The rectum is insensitive to stimuli capable of causing pain and other sensations when applied to a somatic cutaneous surface. It is, however, sensitive to distension by an experimental balloon introduced through the anus, though it is not known whether it is the stretching or reflex contraction of the gut wall, or the distortion of the mesentery and adjacent structures which induces the sensation. No specific sensory receptors are seen on careful histological examination of the rectum in humans. However, myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres are seen adjacent to the rectal mucosa, but no intraepithelial fibres arise from these. The sensation of rectal distension travels with the parasympathetic system to S2, S3 and S4. The two main methods for quantifying rectal sensation are rectal balloon distension and mucosal electrosensitivity. The balloon is progressively distended until particular sensations are perceived by the patient. The volumes at which these sensations are perceived are recorded. Three sensory thresholds are usually defined: constant sensation of fullness, urge to defecate, and maximum tolerated volume. The modalities of anal sensation can be precisely defined. Touch, pain and temperature sensation exist in normal subjects. There is profuse innervation of the anal canal with a variety of specialized sensory nerve endings: Meissner's corpuscles which record touch sensation, Krause end-bulbs which respond to thermal stimuli, Golgi-Mazzoni bodies and pacinian corpuscles which respond to changes in tension and pressure, and genital corpuscles which respond to friction. In addition, there are large diameter free nerve endings within the epithelium. The nerve pathway for anal canal sensation is via the inferior haemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal nerve to the sacral roots of S2, S3 and S4. Anal sensation may be quantitatively measured in response to electrical stimulation. The technique involves the use of a specialized constant current generator

  13. "Leaving it to chance"-Passive risk taking in everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruty Keinan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available While risk research focuses on actions that put people at risk, this paper introduces the concept of ``passive risk''---risk brought on or magnified by inaction. We developed a scale measuring personal tendency for passive risk taking (PRT, validated it using a 150 undergraduate student sample, and obtained three factors indicating separate domains of passive risk taking: risk involving resources, medical risks and ethical risks. The scale has criterion validity, as it is correlated with reported passive risk taking in everyday life, and also has high test-retest reliability. While correlated with the DOSPERT scale, the PRT shows divergent validity from classic risk taking constructs like sensation seeking, and convergent validity with tendencies previously not linked to risk taking, such as procrastination and avoidance. The results indicate that passive risk is a separate and unique domain of risk taking, which merits further research to understand the cognitive and motivational mechanism perpetuating it.

  14. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatement of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three I. scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the ‘4-Poster’ device and from control a...

  15. Regional differences in temperature sensation and thermal comfort in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Yasuhara, Saki; Saito, Yasuyo; Kasuga, Momoko; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, "temperature sensation" and "thermal comfort." Although several studies have investigated regional differences in temperature sensation, less is known about the sensitivity differences in thermal comfort for the various body regions. In the present study, we examined regional differences in temperature-related sensations with special attention to thermal comfort. Healthy male subjects sitting in an environment of mild heat or cold were locally cooled or warmed with water-perfused stimulators. Areas stimulated were the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh. Temperature sensation and thermal comfort of the stimulated areas were reported by the subjects, as was whole body thermal comfort. During mild heat exposure, facial cooling was most comfortable and facial warming was most uncomfortable. On the other hand, during mild cold exposure, neither warming nor cooling of the face had a major effect. The chest and abdomen had characteristics opposite to those of the face. Local warming of the chest and abdomen did produce a strong comfort sensation during whole body cold exposure. The thermal comfort seen in this study suggests that if given the chance, humans would preferentially cool the head in the heat, and they would maintain the warmth of the trunk areas in the cold. The qualitative differences seen in thermal comfort for the various areas cannot be explained solely by the density or properties of the peripheral thermal receptors and thus must reflect processing mechanisms in the central nervous system.

  16. Epiglottic cyst as an etiological factor of globus sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Bahtiyar; Karahatay, Serdar; Gerek, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Globus is a subjective complaint that describes a sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat. Despite being a well-known and common clinical condition, the etiological factors have not been definitely elucidated yet. The study was set up to ascertain the relationship between epiglottic cysts and globus sensation. All patients undergoing investigation and treatments for globus sensation were included in the study. Patients with epiglottic cysts but no other possible causes of globus sensation were constituted the series of patients. Patients were asked to assess the levels of complaint before and after the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser excisions of the cysts. Epiglottic cysts were found in 10 (5.4%) of the 182 patients. Three of these 10 patients who had concomitant diseases or conditions that may cause globus sensation and one patient who refused the surgery were excluded from the study. All the remaining six patients reported relief of the globus sensation after the CO2 laser excisions of the cysts. Our results, obtained from this limited series, indicated that epiglottic cysts may be considered as one of the etiological factors of globus sensation.

  17. Impulsivity and Reasons for Living Among African American Youth: A Risk-Protection Framework of Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temilola K. Salami

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS, as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of the UPPS interacting with reasons for living, a construct meant to buffer against risk for suicide, was explored in a sample of African American students (N = 130; ages 18–24. Results revealed significant interactions between reasons for living and two factors of impulsivity, (lack of premeditation and sensation seeking. Higher levels of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation in conjunction with lower reasons for living was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Neither urgency nor (lack of perseverance significantly interacted with reasons for living in association with suicidal ideation. These results suggest including elements of impulsivity, specifically sensation seeking and (lack of premeditation, when screening for suicidal ideation among African American youth. Future investigations should continue to integrate factors of both risk and protection when determining risk for suicide.

  18. Impulsivity and reasons for living among African American youth: a risk-protection framework of suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Temilola K; Brooks, Bianca A; Lamis, Dorian A

    2015-05-15

    This study aims to explore the impact of specific facets of impulsivity as measured by the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS), as well as reasons for living in predicting suicidal ideation among African American college-aged students. The incremental validity of each facet of the UPPS interacting with reasons for living, a construct meant to buffer against risk for suicide, was explored in a sample of African American students (N = 130; ages 18-24). Results revealed significant interactions between reasons for living and two factors of impulsivity, (lack of) premeditation and sensation seeking. Higher levels of sensation seeking and lack of premeditation in conjunction with lower reasons for living was associated with increased suicidal ideation. Neither urgency nor (lack of) perseverance significantly interacted with reasons for living in association with suicidal ideation. These results suggest including elements of impulsivity, specifically sensation seeking and (lack of) premeditation, when screening for suicidal ideation among African American youth. Future investigations should continue to integrate factors of both risk and protection when determining risk for suicide.

  19. Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part III: whole-body sensation and comfort

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Huizenga, Charlie; Han, Taeyoung

    2009-01-01

    A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and non-uniform, stable and transient. They are based on diverse findings from the literature and from body-part-specifi...

  20. Visceral sensitivity, anxiety, and smoking among treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Norton, Peter J; Smits, Jasper A J; Buckner, Julia D; Garey, Lorra; Manning, Kara

    2017-12-01

    It is widely recognized that smoking is related to abdominal pain and discomfort, as well as gastrointestinal disorders. Research has shown that visceral sensitivity, experiencing anxiety around gastrointestinal sensations, is associated with poorer gastrointestinal health and related health outcomes. Visceral sensitivity also increases anxiety symptoms and mediates the relation with other risk factors, including gastrointestinal distress. No work to date, however, has evaluated visceral sensitivity in the context of smoking despite the strong association between smoking and poor physical and mental health. The current study sought to examine visceral sensitivity as a unique predictor of cigarette dependence, threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), and perceived barriers for cessation via anxiety symptoms. Eighty-four treatment seeking adult daily smokers (M age =45.1years [SD=10.4]; 71.6% male) participated in this study. There was a statistically significant indirect effect of visceral sensitivity via general anxiety symptoms on cigarette dependence (b=0.02, SE=0.01, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.006, 0.05]), smoking abstinence somatic expectancies (b=0.10, SE=0.03, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.19]), smoking abstinence harmful experiences (b=0.13, SE=0.05, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.03, 0.25]), and barriers to cessation (b=0.05, SE=0.06, Bootstrapped 95% CI [0.01, 0.13]). Overall, the present study serves as an initial investigation into the nature of the associations between visceral sensitivity, anxiety symptoms, and clinically significant smoking processes among treatment-seeking smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which anxiety accounts for relations between visceral sensitivity and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. More than a feeling: sensation from cortical stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kristina J; Callaway, Edward M

    2008-01-01

    Changes in neuronal firing underlie sensation, but how many neurons are needed to perceive these activity shifts? Two new studies in Nature suggest that the experimental modulation of only a few neurons can influence perception.

  2. Prognostic value of thumb pain sensation in birth brachial plexopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos O. Heise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic value of absent thumb pain sensation in newborns and young infants with birth brachial plexopathy. METHODS: We evaluated 131 patients with birth brachial plexopathy with less than two months of age. Pain sensation was evoked by thumb nail bed compression to evaluate sensory fibers of the upper trunk (C6. The patients were followed-up monthly. Patients with less than antigravity elbow flexion at six months of age were considered to have a poor outcome. RESULTS: Thirty patients had absent thumb pain sensation, from which 26 showed a poor outcome. Sensitivity of the test was 65% and specificity was 96%. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of thumb pain sensation should be included in the clinical assessment of infants with birth brachial plexopathy.

  3. Correlation Factors Describing Primary and Spatial Sensations of Sound Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANDO, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall is established based on the model of human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) mechanism and the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) mechanism for signals arriving at two ear entrances, and the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. This theory can be developed to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre and, in addition, duration sensation which is introduced here as a fourth. These four primary sensations may be formulated by the temporal factors extracted from the ACF associated with the left hemisphere and, spatial sensations such as localization in the horizontal plane, apparent source width and subjective diffuseness are described by the spatial factors extracted from the IACF associated with the right hemisphere. Any important subjective responses of sound fields may be described by both temporal and spatial factors.

  4. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses with metabolic step-changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; deDear, Richard

    2006-01-01

    at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise....... The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative...... average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10-5 min 25% and during the prior 20-10 min 10%....

  5. Thirst sensation and oral dryness following alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotoshi Inenaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial acute and chronic intakes of alcohol or ethanol (EtOH severely influence oral sensations, such as thirst and oral dryness (dry mouth, xerostomia. Thirst sensation and oral dryness are primarily caused by the activation of neurons in brain regions, including the circumventricular organs and hypothalamus, which are referred to as the dipsogenic center, and by a decrease in salivary secretion, respectively. The sensation of thirst experienced after heavy-alcohol drinking is widely regarded as a consequence of EtOH-induced diuresis; however, EtOH in high doses induces anti-diuresis. Recently, it has been proposed that the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde induces thirst via two distinct processes in the central nervous system from EtOH-induced diuresis, based on the results of animal experiments. The present review describes new insights regarding the induction mechanism of thirst sensation and oral dryness after drinking alcohol.

  6. Differential relations of locus of control to perceived social stress among help-seeking adolescents at low vs. high clinical risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Zachary B; Weintraub, Marc J; Bentley, Eryn; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Demro, Caroline; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2017-06-01

    Research suggests that perceived social stress influences illness presentation and course among youth in the clinical high-risk (CHR) phase of psychosis. Little is known, however, about the social cognitive factors associated with social stress perception in this population, particularly relative to youth with non-CHR psychopathology. Individuals with psychosis tend to endorse an external locus of control (LOC), which is associated with the stress response in healthy individuals. LOC may therefore be related to perceived social stress in youth at CHR. We examined the differential relations of self-reported LOC and perceived social stress, as measured by the Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, across 45 CHR and 65 help-seeking control (HSC) participants. Youth at CHR reported more social stress (F[1, 107]=6.28, p=0.01) and a more external LOC (F[1, 107]=4.98, p=0.03) than HSCs. Further, external LOC was more strongly associated with feelings of social stress in the CHR group relative to the HSC group (interaction: b=0.35, t[105]=2.32, psocial stress, however, were nonsignificant at internal levels of LOC (b=-2.0, t[105]=-0.72, p=0.48; f 2 =0.00). Results suggest that perceptions of uncontrollability over one's social environment may more often induce or exacerbate feelings of stress and tension in CHR youth relative to HSCs. A better understanding of the social cognition-stress relation may improve understanding of CHR phenomenology, etiology, and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Conscious sensation, conscious perception and sensorimotor theories of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Gamez, David

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the hypothesis that the differences between our conscious sensations (color, sound, smell, etc.) could be linked to the different ways in which our senses process and structure information. It is also proposed that the organization of our conscious sensations into a conscious perception of a three-dimensional world could be linked to our mastery of sensorimotor contingencies. These hypotheses are supported by a number of observations, including the appearance of consciou...

  8. Breast sensation after breast reconstruction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Magarakis, Michael; Stapleton, Sahael M; Basdag, Basak; Seal, Stella M; Rosson, Gedge D

    2010-07-01

    Studies show some return of breast sensation after breast reconstruction; however, recovery is variable and unpredictable. Efforts are being made to restore innervation by reattaching nerves (neurotization). We sought to systematically review the literature addressing breast sensation after reconstruction. The following databases were searched: EMBASE, Cochrane, and PubMed. Additionally, the PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY journal was hand searched from 1960 to 2009. Inclusion criteria included breast reconstruction for cancer, return of sensation with objective results, and patients aged 18 to 90 years. Studies with purely cosmetic procedures, case reports, studies with less than 10 patients, and studies involving male patients were excluded. The initial search yielded 109 studies, which was refined to 20 studies with a total pool of 638 patients. Innervated flaps have a greater magnitude of recovery, which occurs at an earlier stage compared with the noninnervated flaps. Overall, sensation to deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps may recover better sensation than transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, followed by latissimus dorsi flaps, and finally implants. Women's needs and expectations for sensation have led plastic surgeons to investigate ways to facilitate its return. Studies, however, depict conflicting data. Larger series are needed to define the role of neurotization as a modality for improving sensory restoration. Thieme Medical Publishers.

  9. Estimation of Thermal Sensation Based on Wrist Skin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Soo Young; Koh, Myung Jun; Joo, Kwang Min; Noh, Seungwoo; Park, Sangyun; Kim, Youn Ho; Park, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    Thermal comfort is an essential environmental factor related to quality of life and work effectiveness. We assessed the feasibility of wrist skin temperature monitoring for estimating subjective thermal sensation. We invented a wrist band that simultaneously monitors skin temperatures from the wrist (i.e., the radial artery and ulnar artery regions, and upper wrist) and the fingertip. Skin temperatures from eight healthy subjects were acquired while thermal sensation varied. To develop a thermal sensation estimation model, the mean skin temperature, temperature gradient, time differential of the temperatures, and average power of frequency band were calculated. A thermal sensation estimation model using temperatures of the fingertip and wrist showed the highest accuracy (mean root mean square error [RMSE]: 1.26 ± 0.31). An estimation model based on the three wrist skin temperatures showed a slightly better result to the model that used a single fingertip skin temperature (mean RMSE: 1.39 ± 0.18). When a personalized thermal sensation estimation model based on three wrist skin temperatures was used, the mean RMSE was 1.06 ± 0.29, and the correlation coefficient was 0.89. Thermal sensation estimation technology based on wrist skin temperatures, and combined with wearable devices may facilitate intelligent control of one’s thermal environment. PMID:27023538

  10. Personality traits as predictors of intentions to seek online information about STDs and HIV/AIDS among junior and senior college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hung-Yi; Palmgreen, Philip C; Zimmerman, Rick S; Lane, Derek R; Alexander, Linda J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine how personality traits such as sensation- seeking and impulsive decision-making affect Taiwanese college students' intentions to seek online information about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Five hundred thirty-five (n = 535) junior and senior college students in Taiwan were recruited and completed self-report questionnaires. This study found high sensation-seekers were more likely to seek information about STDs and HIV/AIDS on the Internet than low sensation-seekers. Impulsive decision-makers were less likely than rational decision-makers to seek information about STDs and HIV/AIDS on the Internet. These findings suggest that personality needs to be considered as an exploratory factor which potentially influences intentions to seek STD and HIV/AIDS information on the Internet among Taiwanese college students.

  11. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information......, the activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing...... on the collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  12. Newcomer information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moring, Camilla Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper is to o...... and corporeal information sources newcomers learn about the organizational practice, and the knowledge needed in order to develop as a competent practitioner and become a full member of the organization.......Introduction: Research on socialization and learning processes among organizational newcomers is offering valuable insight into the role of information seeking in the workplace, and to why, and how newcomers seek information when entering a new organization. Analysis: The aim of the paper...... is to outline and discuss the significance of information seeking in newcomer socialization and learning, and analyse how different approaches influence our understanding of the role of information seeking in the workplace. Results: It is argued, that a development in research on newcomer information seeking...

  13. Strategie del patetico e interludi circensi in Hide and Seek di Wilkie Collins

    OpenAIRE

    De Giovanni, Flora

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Victor Turner’s definitions of cultural performance and liminoid phenomena, the essay aims to analyse Wilkie Collins’s third novel, Hide and Seek (1854), which seems to be a sort of survey of the pastimes Victorian England allowed itself in the age of the increasing commodification of leisure. Though not a proper sensation novel (the genre for which Collins became famous in the 1860s), Hide and Seek draws on the conventions of melodrama, which, as Peter Brook conv...

  14. The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present s...

  15. Deqi sensations without cutaneous sensory input: results of an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simang Michael

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deqi is defined in relation to acupuncture needling as a sensory perception of varying character. In a recently published sham laser validation study, we found that subjects in the verum and the sham laser group experienced deqi sensations. Therefore, we aim to further analyze whether the perceptions reported in the two study arms were distinguishable and whether expectancy effects exhibited considerable impact on our results. Methods A detailed re-analysis focusing on deqi sensations was performed from data collected in a previously published placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical cross-over trial for a sham laser evaluation. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (28 ± 10.7 years; 16 women, 18 men received two laser acupuncture treatments at three acupuncture points LI4 (hégu, LU7 (liéque, and LR3 (táichong; once by verum laser and once using a sham device containing an inactive laser in randomized order. Outcome measures were frequency, intensity (evaluated by visual analogue scale; VAS, and quality of the subjects' sensations perceived during treatments (assessed with the "acupuncture sensation scale". Results Both, verum and the sham laser acupuncture result in similar deqi sensations with regard to frequency (p-value = 0.67, intensity (p-value = 0.71 and quality (p-values between 0.15 - 0.98. In both groups the most frequently used adjectives to describe these perceptions were "spreading", "radiating", "tingling", "tugging", "pulsing", "warm", "dull", and "electric". Sensations reported were consistent with the perception of deqi as previously defined in literature. Subjects' conviction regarding the effectiveness of laser acupuncture or the history of having received acupuncture treatments before did not correlate with the frequency or intensity of sensations reported. Conclusions Since deqi sensations, described as sensory perceptions, were elicited without any cutaneous sensory input, we assume that they are a

  16. Self-Produced Tickle Sensation by Manipulating Visual Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Iizuka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper was to clarify how the distinction of self- (sense of agency, SOA and other-produced behavior can be synthesized and recognized in multisensory integration as our cognitive processes. To address this issue, we used tickling paradigm that it is hard for us to tickle ourselves. Previous studies show that tickle sensation by their own motion increases if more delay is given between self-motion of tickling and tactile stimulation (Blakemore et al. 1998, 1999. We introduced visual feedbacks to the tickling experiments. In our hypothesis, integration of vision, proprioception, and motor commands forms the SOA and disintegration causes the breakdown the SOA, which causes the feeling of others, producing tickling sensation even by tickling oneself. We used video-see-through HMD to suddenly delay the real-time images of their hand tickling motions. The tickle sensation was measured by subjective response in the following conditions; 1 tickling oneself without any visual modulation, 2 tickled by others, 3 tickling oneself with visual feedback manipulation. The statistical analysis of ranked evaluation of tickle sensations showed that the delay of visual feedback causes the increase of tickle sensation. The SOA was discussed with Blakemore's and our results.

  17. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan; Charbonnier, Caecilia; Chagué , Sylvain; Preissmann, Delphine; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Ansermet, Franç ois; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  18. The Role of Body Sensations in Understanding One's Own Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balueva O.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available There are at least three different viewpoints among all theories of emotions that attempt to explain the role of body sensations in understanding one's own emotions. In order to compare the explanatory resources of these viewpoints we conducted a research in which the subjects (n=59 were shown a series of neutral and emotionally significant slides (taken from the IAPS database. During the slideshow we registered the subjects' pulse and galvanic skin response. The subjects were asked to assess the intensity of their emotional reactions and body sensations in response to the emotionally significant slides, and also filled in a questionnaire on emotional intelligence that enabled us to measure their ability to understand their own emotions as well as those of other people. The outcomes of our research show that sensations accompanying emotional experiences are not the result of interoception as they do not correspond with objective indicators of the changes in physiological arousal, whereas they do correspond in many ways with the subjects' emotional appraisal of the stimuli and selfassessment of sensations. These outcomes also revealed that subjective evaluations of body sensations correlate with emotional valence, while heart rate (the objective indicator of arousal correlates with modality of the emotion

  19. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  20. Water Sensation During Passive Propulsion for Expert and Nonexpert Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusanagi, Kenta; Sato, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Norimasa

    2017-06-01

    This study determined whether expert swimmers, compared with nonexperts, have superior movement perception and physical sensations of propulsion in water. Expert (national level competitors, n = 10) and nonexpert (able to swim 50 m in > 3 styles, n = 10) swimmers estimated distance traveled in water with their eyes closed. Both groups indicated their subjective physical sensations in the water. For each of two trials, two-dimensional coordinates were obtained from video recordings using the two-dimensional direct linear transformation method for calculating changes in speed. The mean absolute error of the difference between the actual and estimated distance traveled in the water was significantly lower for expert swimmers (0.90 ± 0.71 meters) compared with nonexpert swimmers (3.85 ± 0.84 m). Expert swimmers described the sensation of propulsion in water in cutaneous terms as the "sense of flow" and sensation of "skin resistance." Therefore, expert swimmers appear to have a superior sense of distance during their movement in the water compared with that of nonexpert swimmers. In addition, expert swimmers may have a better perception of movement in water. We propose that expert swimmers integrate sensations and proprioceptive senses, enabling them to better perceive and estimate distance moved through water.

  1. The Subjective Sensation of Synchrony: An Experimental Study

    KAUST Repository

    Llobera, Joan

    2016-02-12

    People performing actions together have a natural tendency to synchronize their behavior. Consistently, people doing a task together build internal representations not only of their actions and goals, but also of the other people performing the task. However, little is known about which are the behavioral mechanisms and the psychological factors affecting the subjective sensation of synchrony, or “connecting” with someone else. In this work, we sought to find which factors induce the subjective sensation of synchrony, combining motion capture data and psychological measures. Our results show that the subjective sensation of synchrony is affected by performance quality together with task category, and time. Psychological factors such as empathy and negative subjective affects also correlate with the subjective sensation of synchrony. However, when people estimate synchrony as seen from a third person perspective, their psychological factors do not affect the accuracy of the estimation. We suggest that to feel this sensation it is necessary to, first, have a good joint performance and, second, to assume the existence of an attention monitoring mechanism that reports that the attention of both participants (self and other) is focused on the task.

  2. Motivation to change risky drinking and motivation to seek help for alcohol risk drinking among general hospital inpatients with problem drinking and alcohol-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katharina; Freyer-Adam, Jennis; Gaertner, Beate; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; John, Ulrich; Hapke, Ulfert

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze motivation to change drinking behavior and motivation to seek help in general hospital inpatients with problem drinking and alcohol-related diseases. The sample consisted of 294 general hospital inpatients aged 18-64 years. Inpatients with alcohol-attributable disease were classified according to its alcohol-attributable fraction (AAF; AAF=1, AAFmotivation between the AAF groups were analyzed. Furthermore, differences in motivation to change, in motivation to seek help and in the amount of alcohol consumed from baseline to follow-up between the AAF groups were evaluated. During hospital stay, motivation to change was higher among inpatients with alcohol-attributable diseases than among inpatients who had no alcohol-attributable diseases [F(2)=18.40, PMotivation to seek help was higher among inpatients with AAF=1 than among inpatients with AAFmotivation to change drinking behavior remained stable within 12 months of hospitalization, motivation to seek help decreased. The amount of alcohol consumed decreased in all three AAF groups. Data suggest that hospital stay seems to be a "teachable moment." Screening for problem drinking and motivation differentiated by AAFs might be a tool for early intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Travel characteristics and risk-taking attitudes in youths traveling to nonindustrialized countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pauline; Balaban, Victor; Marano, Cinzia

    2010-01-01

    International travel to developing countries is increasing with rising levels of disposable income; this trend is seen in both adults and children. Risk-taking attitude is fundamental to research on the prevention of risky health behaviors, which can be an indicator of the likelihood of experiencing illness or injury during travel. The aim of this study is to investigate whether risk-taking attitudes of youths are associated with travel characteristics and likelihood of experiencing illness or injury while traveling to nonindustrialized countries. Data were analyzed from the 2008 YouthStyles survey, an annual mail survey gathering demographics and health knowledge, attitudes, and practices of individuals from 9 through 18 years of age. Travelers were defined as respondents who reported traveling in the last 12 months to a destination other than the United States, Canada, Europe, Japan, Australia, or New Zealand. Risk-taking attitude was measured by using a four-item Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale. All p values ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. Of 1,704 respondents, 131 (7.7%) traveled in the last 12 months. Females and those with higher household income were more likely to travel (odds ratio = 1.6,1.1). Of those who traveled, 16.7% reported seeking pretravel medical care, with most visiting a family doctor for that care (84.0%). However, one-fifth of respondents reported illness and injury during travel; of these, 83.3% traveled with their parents. Males and older youths had higher mean sensation-seeking scores. Further, travelers had a higher mean sensation-seeking score than nontravelers. Those who did not seek pretravel medical care also had higher mean sensation-seeking scores (p = 0.1, not significant). Our results show an association between risk-taking attitudes and youth travel behavior. However, adult supervision during travel and parental directives prior to travel should be taken into consideration. Communication messages should emphasize the

  4. [German Language Version and Validation of the Risk-Taking Behaviour Scale (RBS-K) for High-Risk Sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühauf, Anika; Niedermeier, Martin; Ruedl, Gerhard; Barlow, Matthew; Woodman, Tim; Kopp, Martin

    2017-11-23

    Background  High-risk sports, particularly climbing, kayaking and extreme skiing, have become increasingly popular. The most widely used psychological survey instrument with regard to risk behaviour in sports is the Sensation Seeking Model, mostly assessed by the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V). Until recently, the literature discussed risk behaviour solely through this model. However, this scale does not measure risk-taking behaviours. In contrast, the Risk-Taking Behaviour Scale (RBS-K) is a three-item scale that measures risk behaviour in high-risk sports. This study aimed to validate a German language version of the RBS-K. Methods  The RBS-K was translated and back-translated between English and German. High-risk sports participants (n = 2399) completed the German version of the RBS-K. Of those participants, 820 completed the RBS-K in person as part of a field survey and 1579 participated in an online survey. To validate the questionnaire, the SSS-V, accident involvement, age and sex were evaluated. The RBS-K divides the sample into deliberate risk takers (mean + standard deviation) and risk-averse persons (mean - standard deviation). We tested for internal consistency and correlations with SSS-V, age, sex and accident involvement. Group differences were calculated between deliberate risk takers and risk-averse persons. Results  For internal consistency, we obtained a Cronbach's alpha of 0.56 and a McDonald's omega of 0.63. Significant correlations were shown between RBS-K and SSS-V as well as age and sex. Compared to risk-averse persons (n = 643, 26.8 %), deliberate risk takers (n = 319, 13.3 %) scored significantly higher in sensation seeking, were significantly younger and primarily male and had a significantly higher accident involvement. Conclusion  The RBS-K discriminates well for age, sex and accident involvement. Also, correlations between the RBS-K and the well-established SSS-V are acceptable. With regard to the results and its

  5. Can Adolescents Learn Self-control? Delay of Gratification in the Development of Control over Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Sznitman, Sharon; Park, Sunhee

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings from developmental neuroscience suggest that the adolescent brain is too immature to exert control over impulsive drives, such as sensation seeking, that increase during adolescence. Using a discounting of delayed reward paradigm, this research examines the ability to delay gratification as a potential source of control over risk-taking tendencies that increase during adolescence. In addition, it explores the role of experience resulting from risk taking as well as future time perspective as contributors to the development of this ability. In a nationally representative sample (n=900) of young people aged 14–22, a structural equation analysis shows that risk taking as assessed by use of three popular drugs (tobacco, marijuana, and alcohol) is inversely related to the ability to delay gratification. The relation is robust across gender, age, and different levels of sensation seeking. In addition, high sensation seekers exhibit dramatic age-related increase in delay of gratification, lending support to the hypothesis that engaging in risky behavior provides experience that leads to greater patience for long-term rewards. The findings support the conclusion that a complete understanding of the development of self-control must consider individual differences not easily explained by universal trends in brain maturation. PMID:20306298

  6. Odors and sensations of humidity and dryness in relation to sick building syndrome and home environment in Chongqing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of perceptions of odors and sensations of air humidity and sick building syndrome symptoms in domestic environments were studied using responses to a questionnaire on the home environment. Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. Stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, mold odor, tobacco smoke odor, humid air and dry air in the last three month (weekly or sometimes was reported by 31.4%, 26.5%, 16.1%, 10.6%, 33.0%, 32.1% and 37.2% of the parents, respectively. The prevalence of parents' SBS symptoms (weekly or sometimes were: 78.7% for general symptoms, 74.3% for mucosal symptoms and 47.5% for skin symptoms. Multi-nominal regression analyses for associations between odors/sensations of air humidity and SBS symptoms showed that the odds ratio for "weekly" SBS symptoms were consistently higher than for "sometimes" SBS symptoms. Living near a main road or highway, redecoration, and new furniture were risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air. Dampness related problems (mold spots, damp stains, water damage and condensation were all risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air, as was the presence of cockroaches, rats, and mosquitoes/flies, use of mosquito-repellent incense and incense. Protective factors included cleaning the child's bedroom every day and frequently exposing bedding to sunshine. In conclusion, adults' perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air are related to factors of the home environment and SBS symptoms are related to odor perceptions.

  7. Beyond stereotypes of adolescent risk taking: Placing the adolescent brain in developmental context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroscience models of adolescent brain development attribute the morbidity and mortality of this period to structural and functional imbalances between more fully developed limbic regions that subserve reward and emotion as opposed to those that enable cognitive control. We challenge this interpretation of adolescent development by distinguishing risk-taking that peaks during adolescence (sensation seeking and impulsive action from risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood (impulsive choice and other decisions under known risk. Sensation seeking is primarily motivated by exploration of the environment under ambiguous risk contexts, while impulsive action, which is likely to be maladaptive, is more characteristic of a subset of youth with weak control over limbic motivation. Risk taking that declines monotonically from childhood to adulthood occurs primarily under conditions of known risks and reflects increases in executive function as well as aversion to risk based on increases in gist-based reasoning. We propose an alternative Life-span Wisdom Model that highlights the importance of experience gained through exploration during adolescence. We propose, therefore, that brain models that recognize the adaptive roles that cognition and experience play during adolescence provide a more complete and helpful picture of this period of development.

  8. Intraoperative perception and sensation in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivannaboon, Sabong; Chansue, Ekktet

    2004-04-01

    To investigate intraoperative perception and sensation during Laser in situ Keratomileusis (LASIK). Sixty patients with uneventful LASIK were included. All procedures were performed by one surgeon with one technique. Any patient with intra-operative complications was excluded. The patients were asked to fill in the subjective evaluation form regarding their perception and sensation during the operation. Twenty-nine patients (48%) reported no pain and twenty-six patients (43%) reported no burning sensation during the surgery. Nineteen patients (32%) reported no light perception during the suction period of microkeratome. There was no correlation between duration of the suction and no light perception (R2 0.01). Thirty-four patients (56%) reported no trouble in maintaining visual fixation at the red light during the laser treatment. Ten patients (16%) reported they could clearly see the movement during the surgery and 5 out of 10 patients (50% of 16%) reported visual frightening. Fifty cases (84%) reported no visual frightening during the surgery after reassurance of the visual experience by the surgeon before the surgery. Patients undergoing LASIK may experience different visual perceptions. Reassurance of the intraoperative perception and sensation before the surgery can reduce the visual frightening.

  9. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort in changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velt, K.B.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    It is the purpose of this study to investigate thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) in changing environments. Therefore, 10 subjects stayed in a 30 °C, 50% relative humidity for 30 min in summer clothes and then moved to a 20 °C room where they remained seated for 30 min (Hot to Reference

  10. Textures of Time. A Study of Cinematic Sensations of Anachronism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.D.N.

    2008-01-01

    This research project presents a nonlinear method of encounters to investigate and affirm the spatial effects of anachronism on our traditional sensation of time in four unique and inventive cinematographic representations of the past: Elizabeth (Kapur 1998), Moulin Rouge (Luhrmann 2001), Russian

  11. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiki Tajima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2O  15 positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11. Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

  12. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  13. Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masny, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

  14. The response of skin hardness and pain sensation to ultrasonic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shaimaa A. Hamid

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... mation of LDS from venous hypertension are not known; it is likely to be .... position allowed the durometer to be both perpendicular to the leg and ... difference in pain sensation measured by NRS between control and study ...

  15. Functional brain imaging of gastrointestinal sensation in health and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lukas Van Oudenhove; Steven J Coen; Qasim Aziz

    2007-01-01

    It has since long been known, from everyday experience as well as from animal and human studies, that psychological processes-both affective and cognitiveexert an influence on gastrointestinal sensorimotor function. More specifically, a link between psychological factors and visceral hypersensitivity has been suggested,mainly based on research in functional gastrointestinal disorder patients. However, until recently, the exact nature of this putative relationship remained unclear,mainly due to a lack of non-invasive methods to study the (neurobiological) mechanisms underlying this relationship in non-sleeping humans. As functional brain imaging, introduced in visceral sensory neuroscience some 10 years ago, does provide a method for in vivo study of brain-gut interactions, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying visceral sensation in general and the influence of psychological factors more particularly,has rapidly grown. In this article, an overview of brain imaging evidence on gastrointestinal sensation will be given, with special emphasis on the brain mechanisms underlying the interaction between affective & cognitive processes and visceral sensation. First, the reciprocal neural pathways between the brain and the gut (braingut axis) will be briefly outlined, including brain imaging evidence in healthy volunteers. Second, functional brain imaging studies assessing the influence of psychological factors on brain processing of visceral sensation in healthy humans will be discussed in more detail.Finally, brain imaging work investigating differences in brain responses to visceral distension between healthy volunteers and functional gastrointestinal disorder patients will be highlighted.

  16. Estimation of thermal sensation during varied air temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuura, T; Tabuchi, R; Iwanaga, K; Harada, H; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-03-01

    Seven male students were exposed to four varied air temperature environments: hot (37 degrees C) to neutral (27 degrees C) (HN), neutral to hot (NH), cool (17 degrees C) to neutral (CN), and neutral to cool (NC). The air temperature was maintained at the first condition for 20 min, then was changed to the second condition after 15 min and was held there for 20 min. Each subject wore a T-shirt, briefs, trunks, and socks. Each sat on a chair and was continuously evaluated for thermal sensation, thermal comfort, and air velocity sensation. Some physiological and thermal parameters were also measured every 5 s during the experiment. The correlation between thermal sensation and skin temperature at 15 sites was found to be poor. The subjects felt much warmer during the rising phase of the air temperature (CN, NH) than during the descending phase (HN, NC) at a given mean skin temperature. However, thermal sensation at the same heat flux or at the same value of the difference between skin and air temperature (delta(Tsk - Ta)) was not so different among the four experimental conditions, and the correlation between thermal sensation and heat flux or delta(Tsk - Ta) was fairly good. The multiple regression equation of the thermal sensation (TS) on 15 sites of skin temperature (Tsk; degrees C) was calculated and the coefficient of determination (R*2) was found to be 0.656. Higher coefficients of determination were found in the equations of thermal sensation for the heat flux (H; kcal.m-2.h-1) at the right and left thighs of the subjects and on delta(Tsk - Ta) (degrees C) at 4 sites. They were as follows: TS = 2.04 - 0.016 Hright - 0.036 Hleft; R*2 = 0.717, TS = 1.649 + 0.013 delta(Tsk - Ta)UpperArm - 0.036 delta(Tsk - Ta)Chest - 0.223 delta(Tsk - Ta)Thigh-0.083 delta(Tsk - Ta)LowerLeg; R*2 = 0.752, respectively.

  17. The precedence effect for lateralization at low sensation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverts, S T; Houtgast, T; van Beek, H H

    2000-10-01

    Using dichotic signals presented by headphone, stimulus onset dominance (the precedence effect) for lateralization at low sensation levels was investigated for five normal hearing subjects. Stimuli were based on 2400-Hz low pass filtered 5-ms noise bursts. We used the paradigm, as described by Aoki and Houtgast (Hear. Res., 59 (1992) 25-30) and Houtgast and Aoki (Hear. Res., 72 (1994) 29-36), in which the stimulus is divided into a leading and a lagging part with opposite lateralization cues (i.e. an interaural time delay of 0.2 ms). The occurrence of onset dominance was investigated by measuring lateral perception of the stimulus, with fixed equal duration of leading and lagging part, while decreasing absolute signal level or adding a filtered white noise with the signal level set at 65 dBA. The dominance of the leading part was quantified by measuring the perceived lateral position of the stimulus as a function of the relative duration of the leading (and thus the lagging) part. This was done at about 45 dB SL without masking noise and also at a signal-to-noise ratio resulting in a sensation level of 10 dB. The occurrence and strength of the precedence effect was found to depend on sensation level, which was decreased either by lowering the signal level or by adding noise. With the present paradigm, besides a decreased lateralization accuracy, a decrease in the precedence effect was found for sensation levels below about 30-40 dB. In daily-life conditions, with a sensation level in noise of typically 10 dB, the onset dominance was still manifest, albeit degraded to some extent.

  18. Not all risks are equal: the risk taking inventory for high-risk sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Barlow, Matt; Bandura, Comille; Hill, Miles; Kupciw, Dominika; Macgregor, Alexandra

    2013-10-01

    Although high-risk sport participants are typically considered a homogenous risk-taking population, attitudes to risk within the high-risk domain can vary considerably. As no validated measure allows researchers to assess risk taking within this domain, we validated the Risk Taking Inventory (RTI) for high-risk sport across four studies. The RTI comprises seven items across two factors: deliberate risk taking and precautionary behaviors. In Study 1 (n = 341), the inventory was refined and tested via a confirmatory factor analysis used in an exploratory fashion. The subsequent three studies confirmed the RTI's good model-data fit via three further separate confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2 (n = 518) and in Study 3 (n = 290), concurrent validity was also confirmed via associations with other related traits (sensation seeking, behavioral activation, behavioral inhibition, impulsivity, self-esteem, extraversion, and conscientiousness). In Study 4 (n = 365), predictive validity was confirmed via associations with mean accidents and mean close calls in the high-risk domain. Finally, in Study 4, the self-report version of the inventory was significantly associated with an informant version of the inventory. The measure will allow researchers and practitioners to investigate risk taking as a variable that is conceptually distinct from participation in a high-risk sport.

  19. seeking behavior in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Background: Immunization and appropriate health-seeking behavior are effective strategies to reduce child ..... be cured in the hospital which the TBA can cure like 'iru inu'. ... with a rural nurse) Rural Indian mothers were also.

  20. Teaching information seeking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Limberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The article argues for a closer association between information seeking research and the practices of teaching information seeking. Findings are presented from a research project on information seeking, didactics and learning (IDOL investigating librarians' and teachers' experiences of teaching information seeking. Method. Thirteen teachers and five librarians, teaching 12-19 year-old students in three schools, participated. Forty-five interviews were conducted over a period of three years. Analysis. The IDOL project adopted a phenomenographic approach with the purpose of describing patterns of variation in experiences. The findings were also analysed by way of relating them to four competing approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Results. A gap was identified between experiences of teaching content that focused on sources and order, and experiences of assessment criteria applied to students' work that focused on the importance of correct facts and the analysis of information. These findings indicate a highly restricted range of teaching contents when compared with the four theoretical approaches to the mediation of information literacy. Conclusion. Teaching information seeking might be enhanced by a wider repertoire of contents reflecting more varied theoretical understanding developed in information seeking research, particularly as regards the importance of content and context related to user perspectives.

  1. Predicting women's alcohol risk-taking while abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary.

  2. Human roughness perception and possible factors effecting roughness sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Tugba; Chen, Jianshe; Ettelaie, Rammile; Holmes, Melvin; Henson, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Surface texture sensation is significant for business success, in particular for solid surfaces for most of the materials; including foods. Mechanisms of roughness perception are still unknown, especially under different conditions such as lubricants with varying viscosities, different temperatures, or under different force loads during the observation of the surface. This work aims to determine the effect of those unknown factors, with applied sensory tests on 62 healthy participants. Roughness sensation of fingertip was tested under different lubricants including water and diluted syrup solutions at room temperature (25C) and body temperature (37C) by using simple pair-wise comparison to observe the just noticeable difference threshold and perception levels. Additionally, in this research applied force load during roughness observation was tested with pair-wise ranking method to illustrate its possible effect on human sensation. Obtained results showed that human's capability of roughness discrimination reduces with increased viscosity of the lubricant, where the influence of the temperature was not found to be significant. Moreover, the increase in the applied force load showed an increase in the sensitivity of roughness discrimination. Observed effects of the applied factors were also used for estimating the oral sensation of texture during eating. These findings are significant for our fundamental understanding to texture perception, and for the development of new food products with controlled textural features. Texture discrimination ability, more specifically roughness discrimination capability, is a significant factor for preference and appreciation for a wide range of materials, including food, furniture, or fabric. To explore the mechanism of sensation capability through tactile senses, it is necessary to identify the relevant factors and define characteristics that dominate the process involved. The results that will be obtained under these principles

  3. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent "noise," generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the β 3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by

  4. Sensationalism in front page photographs : Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Gabi; Pleijter, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    GABI SCHAAP & ALEXANDER PLEIJTER Sensationalism in front page photographs: Content analysis of Dutch popular and quality newspapers Sensation in the news has been a longtime cause for social and scientific debate. Sensational news is thought to substitute 'serious' information needed for serious

  5. The sensation of the look: The gazes in Laurence Anyways

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Corey Kai Nelson

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses the gazes, looks, stares and glares in Laurence Anyways (Xavier Dolan, 2012), and examines their affective, interpretive, and symbolic qualities, and their potential to create viewer empathy through affect. The cinematic gaze can produce sensations of shame and fear, by offering a sequence of varied “encounters” to which viewers can react, before we have been given a character onto which we can deflect them, thus bypassing the representational, narrative and even the sym...

  6. Pulse Width Affects Scalp Sensation of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Luber, Bruce; Westin, Gregory G; Lisanby, Sarah H

    Scalp sensation and pain comprise the most common side effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which can reduce tolerability and complicate experimental blinding. We explored whether changing the width of single TMS pulses affects the quality and tolerability of the resultant somatic sensation. Using a controllable pulse parameter TMS device with a figure-8 coil, single monophasic magnetic pulses inducing electric field with initial phase width of 30, 60, and 120 µs were delivered in 23 healthy volunteers. Resting motor threshold of the right first dorsal interosseus was determined for each pulse width, as reported previously. Subsequently, pulses were delivered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at each of the three pulse widths at two amplitudes (100% and 120% of the pulse-width-specific motor threshold), with 20 repetitions per condition delivered in random order. After each pulse, subjects rated 0-to-10 visual analog scales for Discomfort, Sharpness, and Strength of the sensation. Briefer TMS pulses with amplitude normalized to the motor threshold were perceived as slightly more uncomfortable than longer pulses (with an average 0.89 point increase on the Discomfort scale for pulse width of 30 µs compared to 120 µs). The sensation of the briefer pulses was felt to be substantially sharper (2.95 points increase for 30 µs compared to 120 µs pulse width), but not stronger than longer pulses. As expected, higher amplitude pulses increased the perceived discomfort and strength, and, to a lesser degree the perceived sharpness. Our findings contradict a previously published hypothesis that briefer TMS pulses are more tolerable. We discovered that the opposite is true, which merits further study as a means of enhancing tolerability in the context of repetitive TMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction de la sensation des malaises thermiques: determination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objet de contribuer à la réduction de la sensation des malaises thermiques à travers la recherche des orientations préférentielles des bâtiments dans les différentes zones du Togo à partir des conditions aérodynamiques et climatiques locales. Les données climatiques à savoir la température, ...

  8. Dental health awareness, attitude, and dental health-care seeking practices as risk indicators for the prevalence of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old school children in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Uma Mohan; Vadakkekuttical, Rosamma Joseph; Kanakkath, Harikumar; Shankunni, Smitha Pathiyari

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease prevalence in children is an indicator of future disease burden in the adult population. Knowledge about the prevalence and risk status of periodontal disease in children can prove instrumental in the initiation of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures. This school-based cross-sectional survey estimated the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old children in Kozhikode district and assessed the risk factors. Multistage stratified random sampling and randomized cluster sampling were used in the selection of schools and study participants, respectively, in three educational districts of Kozhikode. Periodontal disease was assessed among 2000 school children aged 15-17 years, by community periodontal index. A content validated questionnaire was used to evaluate the sociodemographic characteristics and other risk factors. The prevalence of periodontal disease was estimated as 75% (72% gingivitis and 3% mild periodontitis). The prevalence was higher in urban population ( P = 0.049) and males had significantly ( P = 0.001) higher prevalence. Lower socioeconomic strata experienced slightly more periodontal disease burden. Satisfactory oral hygiene practices (material and frequency) were observed, but oral hygiene techniques were erroneous. Unhealthy dental treatment-seeking practices and unfavorable attitude toward dental treatment (ATDT) significantly influenced periodontal health status. Overall awareness about dental treatment was poor in this study population. The prevalence of periodontal disease among 15-17-year-old school children in Kozhikode district is 75% and is influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Other risk factors identified were unhealthy dental treatment-seeking practices and unfavorable ATDT. Implementation of well-formulated oral health education programs is thus mandatory.

  9. [Distorted cognition of bodily sensations in subtypes of social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Shoko; Iwanaga, Makoto; Seiwa, Hidetoshi

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between subtypes of social anxiety and distorted cognition of bodily sensations. The package of questionnaires including the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was administered to 582 undergraduate students. To identify subtypes of social anxiety, cluster analysis was conducted using scores of the SPS and SIAS. Five clusters were identified and labeled as follows: Generalized type characterized by intense anxiety in most social situations, Non-anxious type characterized by low anxiety levels in social situations, Averaged type whose anxiety levels are averaged, Interaction anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in social interaction situations, and Performance anxiety type who feels anxiety mainly in performance situations. Results of an ANOVA indicated that individuals with interaction type fear the negative evaluation from others regarding their bodily sensations whereas individuals with performance type overestimate the visibility of their bodily sensations to others. Differences in salient aspects of cognitive distortion among social anxiety subtypes may show necessity to select intervention techniques in consideration of subtypes.

  10. Attenuation of self-generated tactile sensations is predictive, not postdictive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Bays

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause.

  11. Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations is Predictive, not Postdictive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause.

  12. Thermal sensations and comfort investigations in transient conditions in tropical office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Nur Dalilah; Gital, Yakubu Yau

    2016-05-01

    The study was done to identify affective and sensory responses observed as a result of hysteresis effects in transient thermal conditions consisting of warm-neutral and neutral - warm performed in a quasi-experiment setting. Air-conditioned building interiors in hot-humid areas have resulted in thermal discomfort and health risks for people moving into and out of buildings. Reports have shown that the instantaneous change in air temperature can cause abrupt thermoregulation responses. Thermal sensation vote (TSV) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) assessments as a consequence of moving through spaces with distinct thermal conditions were conducted in an existing single-story office in a hot-humid microclimate, maintained at an air temperature 24 °C (± 0.5), relative humidity 51% (± 7), air velocity 0.5 m/s (± 0.5), and mean radiant temperature (MRT) 26.6 °C (± 1.2). The measured office is connected to a veranda that showed the following semi-outdoor temperatures: air temperature 35 °C (± 2.1), relative humidity 43% (± 7), air velocity 0.4 m/s (± 0.4), and MRT 36.4 °C (± 2.9). Subjective assessments from 36 college-aged participants consisting of thermal sensations, preferences and comfort votes were correlated against a steady state predicted mean vote (PMV) model. Local skin temperatures on the forehead and dorsal left hand were included to observe physiological responses due to thermal transition. TSV for veranda-office transition showed that no significant means difference with TSV office-veranda transition were found. However, TCV collected from warm-neutral (-0.24, ± 1.2) and neutral-warm (-0.72, ± 1.3) conditions revealed statistically significant mean differences (p thermal transition after travel from warm-neutral-warm conditions did not replicate the hysteresis effects of brief, slightly cool, thermal sensations found in previous laboratory experiments. These findings also indicate that PMV is an acceptable alternative to predict thermal

  13. Alcohol use, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity as risk factors for suicide proneness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Robert D; Lamis, Dorian A; Malone, Patrick S

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol use, depression, and suicide are significant public health problems, particularly among college students. Impulsivity is associated with all of these factors. Additionally, impulsivity increases the effects of negative mood and alcohol use on maladaptive behavior. The current cross-sectional study examined the association between the four-factor model of impulsivity (urgency, (lack of) perseverance, (lack of) premeditation, and sensation seeking), depressive symptoms, and alcohol use as predictors of suicide proneness among college students. Participants (n=1100) completed online assessments of demographics, impulsivity, depressive symptoms, and suicide proneness. All predictors were positively related to suicide proneness. The relation between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness was moderated by (lack of) perseverance, alcohol use, and joint interactions of urgency×alcohol use and sensation seeking×alcohol use. Despite some paradoxical findings regarding the depressive symptoms-suicide proneness relation when only one risk factor was elevated, the average level of suicide proneness increased as risk factors increased. This cross-sectional self-report data comes from a non-clinical sample of college students from a homogeneous background, limiting generalizability and causal predictions. Overall, these findings indicate that the association between depressive symptoms and suicide proneness varies considerably by different facets of impulsivity and alcohol use. The results suggest that clinical risk-assessments should weigh two forms of impulsivity (urgency and sensation seeking) as particularly vital in the presence of heavy alcohol use. These findings highlight the importance of considering and exploring moderators of the mood-suicide relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk factors for chronic disability in a cohort of patients with acute whiplash associated disorders seeking physiotherapy treatment for persisting symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Esther; Williams, Mark A; Gates, Simon; Lamb, Sarah E

    2015-03-01

    (1) To identify risk factors for chronic disability in people with acute whiplash associated disorders (WAD). (2) To estimate the impact of the numbers of risk factors present. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected, on average, 32 days after injury (SD=10.9) and 12 months later. Baseline measures of pain, disability, neck movement, psychological and behavioural factors were independent variables and chronic disability at 12 months was the dependent variable in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. National Health Service physiotherapy departments. Participants (n=599) with symptoms 3 weeks after injury, self-referred to physiotherapy as part of a randomised controlled trial. 430 (72%) participants provided complete data for this analysis. Chronic disability based on Neck Disability Index scores. 136 (30%) participants developed chronic disability. High baseline disability (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.97 to 5.55), longer predicted recovery time (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.87), psychological distress (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.51), passive coping (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.97) and greater number of symptoms (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.78) were associated with chronic disability. One risk factor resulted in 3.5 times the risk (95% CI 1.04 to 11.45) of chronic disability but this risk increased to 16 times (95%CI 5.36 to 49.27) in those with four or five risk factors. Baseline disability had the strongest association with chronic disability but psychological and behavioural factors were also important. Treatment strategies should reflect this which may require a change to current physiotherapy approaches for acute WAD. The number of risk factors present should be considered when evaluating potential for poor outcome. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Traces: making sense of urodynamics testing--Part 8: Evaluating sensations of bladder filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    The "Traces" series discusses how the urodynamic clinician generates usable data from a filling cystometrogram (CMG). Part 8 focuses on the question, "What are the sensations of bladder filling?" Recent research suggests that sensations of bladder filling wax and wane from consciousness in healthy persons free of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms. Because of its invasive and atypical nature when compared to daily life, multichannel urodynamics testing cannot reproduce the numerous and complex variables that influence bladder sensation in the healthy individual, making the evaluation of sensations of bladder filling a particularly challenging component of the filling CMG. Routine assessment of bladder sensations focuses on identification of three landmarks--first sensation of bladder filling, first desire to void, and a strong desire to void. A fourth sensation, bladder fullness or a compelling desire to void, is recommended. In addition to assessing these sensations, the urodynamic clinician must assess sensations indicating associated disease or disorders affecting lower urinary tract function, including urgency, pain, and atypical sensations. This assessment should be completed in the context of the results of one or more validated instruments used to measure bladder sensations.

  16. Design for thermal sensation and comfort states in vehicles cabins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Omar, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript investigates the analysis and modeling of vehicular thermal comfort parameters using a set of designed experiments aided by thermography measurements. The experiments are conducted using a full size climatic chamber to host the test vehicle, to accurately assess the transient and steady state temperature distributions of the test vehicle cabin. Further investigate the thermal sensation (overall and local) and the human comfort states under artificially created relative humidity scenarios. The thermal images are calibrated through a thermocouples network, while the outside temperature and relative humidity are manipulated through the climatic environmental chamber with controlled soaking periods to guarantee the steady state conditions for each test scenario. The relative humidity inside the passenger cabin is controlled using a Total Humidity Controller (THC). The simulation uses the experimentally extracted boundary conditions via a 3-D Berkeley model that is set to be fully transient to account for the interactions in the velocity and temperature fields in the passenger compartment, which included interactions from turbulent flow, thermal buoyancy and the three modes of heat transfer conduction, convection and radiation. The model investigates the human comfort by analyzing the effect of the in-cabin relative humidity from two specific perspectives; firstly its effect on the body temporal variation of temperature within the cabin. Secondly, the Local Sensation (LS) and Comfort (LC) are analyzed for the different body segments in addition to the Overall Sensation (OS) and the Overall Comfort (OC). Furthermore, the human sensation is computed using the Fanger model in terms of the Predicted Mean Value (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) indices. The experimental and simulation results show that controlling the RH levels during the heating and the cooling processes (winter and summer conditions respectively) aid the A/C system to

  17. Solifenacin objectively decreases urinary sensation in women with overactive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lior; Kenton, Kimberly; Mueller, Elizabeth R; Brubaker, Linda; Sabo, Edmond; Durazo-Arivzu, Ramón A; Fitzgerald, Mary P

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of a device that measures urinary sensation during cystometry, and to use that device to determine whether treatment of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) with solifenacin is associated with a change in urinary sensation. Overall 15 women were recruited for this study, ten women with OAB and urodynamically demonstrated detrusor overactivity and five controls without OAB underwent filling cystometry twice with contemporaneous, continuous recording of urinary sensation. Women with OAB received solifenacin 10 mg daily during the weeks between testing. We compared the areas under the initial and repeat sensation-volume curves. While taking solifenacin, the maximum cystometric capacity increased from 329 ± 168 ml to 464 ± 123 ml (P sensation curve decreased (P sensation during the treatment of OAB with solifenacin. If clinical correlations are confirmed by future study, such urinary sensation measures may prove useful as assessment, treatment predictor, or outcome measures in OAB research and/or clinical care.

  18. Dimensions of sensation assessed in urinary urgency: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan; Williams, Marie

    2013-10-01

    Urinary urgency is an adverse sensory experience. Confirmation of the multidimensional nature of other adverse sensory experiences such as pain and dyspnea has improved the understanding of neurophysiological and perceptual mechanisms leading to innovations in assessment and treatment. It has been suggested that the sensation of urgency may include multiple dimensions such as intensity, suddenness and unpleasantness. In this systematic review we determine which dimensions of sensation have been assessed by instruments used to measure urinary urgency. A systematic search was undertaken of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, Ageline, Web of Science, InformIT Health and Scopus databases to identify studies that included assessments of urinary urge or urgency. Articles were included in the analysis if they were primary studies that described the method used to measure urge/urgency in adults and published in English in peer reviewed publications since January 1, 2000. Articles were excluded from study if urgency was measured only in conjunction with other symptoms (eg frequency or incontinence) or if there was no English version of the instrument. Secondary analyses and systematic reviews were retained to hand search references for additional primary studies. Data were extracted for the instruments used to measure urge/urgency. For each instrument the items specific to urinary urgency were reviewed using a prospectively developed categorization process for the sensory dimension and the measurement metric. Items used to assess urinary urgency were collated in a matrix (sensory dimensions vs assessment metric). The most frequently used dimensions, metrics and combinations were descriptively analyzed. After removal of duplicate articles 1,048 full text articles were screened and 411 were excluded, leaving 637 eligible articles from which data were extracted. A total of 216 instruments were identified which were 1 of 6 types, namely 1) wider symptom questionnaires, 2) urgency

  19. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    A general theory of information seeking behaviour must include an outline of an evolutionary theory of how organisms have adapted their cognitive apparatus to the demands raised in order to cope with their environments. It should describe important qualitative stages in this development and explain...

  20. Framing alters risk-taking behavior on a modified Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Kara I; Williamson, Ashley

    2010-12-01

    Framing uncertain scenarios to emphasize potential positive or negative elements influences decision making and behavior. The current experiment investigated sex differences in framing effects on risk-taking propensity in a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART). Male and female undergraduates completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and risk and benefit perception prior to viewing one of three framing conditions for the BART: (1) positively-framed instructions emphasizing the ability to earn money if balloons were inflated to large size; (2) negatively framed instructions emphasizing the possibility that money could be lost if balloons were inflated to bursting; and (3) completely framed instructions noting both possible outcomes. Results revealed correlations between BART performance and impulsiveness for both sexes. Compared to positive and complete framing, negatively framed instructions decreased balloon inflation time in women but not men, indicating sex differences in response to treatments designed to alter risk-taking behavior.

  1. Restoring penis sensation in patients with low spinal cord lesions: the role of the remaining function of the dorsal nerve in a unilateral or bilateral TOMAX procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgoor, Max L E; Braakhekke, Jan P; Kon, Moshe; De Jong, Tom P V M

    2015-04-01

    The recently developed TOMAX-procedure restores unilateral genital sensation, improving sexual health in men with a low spinal lesion (LSL). It connects one dorsal nerve of the penis (DNP) to the intact ipsilateral ilioinguinal nerve. We proposed bilateral neurotization for full sensation of the glans but this entails cutting both DNPs, risking patients' erection/ejaculation ability. The objective was to select patients for a bilateral TOMAX-procedure by measuring remaining DNP function, and perform the first bilateral cases. In 30 LSL patients with no penile- but normal groin sensation selected for a unilateral TOMAX-procedure the integrity of the sacral-reflex-arc and DNP function was tested pre-operatively using bilateral needle electromyography (EMG)-bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) measurements, and an interview about reflex erections (RE) ability. In 13 spina bifida- and 17 spinal cord injury patients [median age 29.5 years (range 13-59 years), spinal lesion T12 (incomplete) to sacral], seven (23%) patients reported RE, four (57%) with intact BCR, and of nine (30%) patients with intact BCR, four reported RE (44%). Even patients with a LSL and no penile sensation can have signs of remaining DNP function, but cutting both DNPs to restore full glans sensation in a bilateral TOMAX-procedure might interfere with their RE/ejaculation. To avoid this risk, we propose a selecting-protocol for a unilateral- or bilateral procedure using RE and BCR measurements. Using this protocol, three patients were bilaterally operated with promising preliminary results. Full sensation of the glans could lead to further improvement in sexual function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Early reported rectal sensation predicts continence in anorectal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerritt, Clare; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Rees, Clare; Cockar, Iram; Kiely, Edward

    2016-03-01

    Straining at stool is an automatic reflex in babies and implies the presence of rectal sensation. We hypothesised that early reported rectal sensation would predict future continence in children with anorectal anomalies. The aim of this study is to determine if early straining at stool was a useful predictor of future continence in infants born with high anorectal malformations. A retrospective case note review of prospectively collected clinical information was performed with institutional review board approval. All patients with intermediate/high anorectal malformation operated on by a single surgeon from 1984 to 2010 were included. After stoma closure, parents were asked: The responses were noted within the first year of stoma closure and then all patients were followed up until they were at least 3 ½years old and continence could be assessed using the Krickenbeck outcome classification. Data were compared using Fisher's exact test and sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) were calculated. Forty-eight patients were included in the study. Sixteen (33%) were female (12 cloacal malformation, 3 rectovaginal fistula, 1 rectal atresia) and 32 (66%) were male (6 rectovesical fistulae, 22 rectourethral fistulae, 4 no fistula). Median follow-up was 9.7years (range 3.5-17.9). Twenty-one children were noted by their parents to exhibit early straining at stool after stoma closure. Twenty of them achieved long term continence. The sensitivity of early straining as a predictor for long term continence was 77%, specificity 95% and positive predictive value 95%. The presence of early rectal sensation reported by parents is a good predictor of long term continence. This allows more informed discussion with families in the early years of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behaviour among schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the studyThis study tried to identify risk factors of aggressive behavior in a population of schizophrenic inpatients. We tested the association between aggressive behavior and socio-demographic characteristics, addictive disorders, history of suicide attempt and sexual violence, impulsivity and sensation seeking.MethodsAll consecutive schizophrenic inpatients (100 were assessed during six months. Aggressive behavior was quantified with a standardized scale, the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS. We studied socio-demographic characteristics and the history of suicide attempt and sexual violence with a specific standardized questionnaire. Addictive disorders were identified with the Fagerström and CAGE questionnaires and with the DSM-IV-R diagnostic criteria for nicotine, alcohol, cannabis opiates, and cocaine abuse and dependence disorders. Lastly, we studied sensation-seeking with the Zuckerman scale and impulsivity with the Barratt scale. ResultsLinear regression identified four factors associated with aggressive behaviour: male gender (odd ratio =12.8, history of sexual violence (odd ratio = 3.6, Fagerström score (odd ratio= 1.3, number of cigarettes smoked each day (odd ratio=1.16. Patients with nicotine use or dependence had significantly higher levels of OAS scores. This difference was not observed between patients with or without alcohol dependence. OAS scores were correlated to the number of cigarettes smoked each day and to Fagerström scores. Patients with a higher level of sensation seeking and impulsivity also had higher OAS scores. ConclusionA Typical schizophrenic patient at risk of showing aggressive behavior is a man, who smokes and presents a history of sexual violence.

  4. Seeking an African Einstein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-07-01

    A new postgraduate centre for maths and computer science is set to open in the Nigerian capital of Abuja this month as part of an ambitious plan to find the "next Einstein" in Africa. The centre will provide advanced training to graduate students from across Africa in maths and related fields. It will seek to attract the best young African scientists and nurture their talents as problem-solvers and teachers.

  5. Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

  6. The Cold man. A clinical case of the cold sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Settineri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of correlation between available knowledge and the current approach to Somatoform Disorders is highlighted.. Methods: the study, via the analysis of an unusual clinical case of an anomalous sensation of cold, examines various hypotheses on the physiopathology of somatization. Conclusions: a conceptualization would focus attention on the level of patients’ preoccupation with their symptoms, on the anomalies of the variations of perceptions and on patients’ hyperarousal. It could lead to a more harmonious position in psychiatry, between anthropologically-based understanding and interpretation of psychophysical information.

  7. Sexual Orientation, Drug Use Preference during Sex, and HIV Risk Practices and Preferences among Men Who Specifically Seek Unprotected Sex Partners via the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Klein

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study entailed conducting a content analysis of 1,434 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular “Men who have Sex with Men” (MSM websites that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence (n = 1,316, with a randomly-drawn oversampling of profiles of men who self-identified as heterosexual or ���curious” rather than gay or bisexual (n = 118. Data were collected between September 2006 and September 2007. The purpose of the present paper is to examine the conjoint effects of self-identified sexual orientation and preference for having/not having sex while high, on men’s sought-after sexual risk. Analytical comparisons of the four groups showed that, on most measures, the combination of sexual orientation and drug use preference during sex differentiated the men. Generally speaking, gay/bisexual men who advertised online for partners with whom they could have sex while high expressed the greatest interest in risky sexual behaviors (e.g., felching, unprotected oral sex, unprotected anal sex and various risk-related preferences (e.g., multiple partner sex, anonymous sex, eroticizing ejaculatory fluids. This is especially true when they are compared to their heterosexual/“curious” counterparts whose online profiles were not as likely to indicate a desire for having sex while high.

  8. Intention to seek information on cancer genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Andrews

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The public has a high interest in seeking personal genetic information, which holds implications for health information seeking research and health care policy. Rapid advances in cancer genetics research promise early detection, prevention and treatment, yet consumers may have greater difficulty finding and using the information they may need to make informed decisions regarding their personal health and the future of their families. Design. A statewide telephone survey was conducted of non-institutionalized Kentucky residents 18 years of age or older to investigate factors associated with the intention to seek cancer genetics information, including the need for such information seeking help. Results. The results show that intention to seek cancer genetics information, if testing were readily available, is moderately high (62.5% of those responding; n=835, and that status as a racial minority, the perception that cancer runs in one's family, and frequent worrying about cancer risk are statistically significant predictors of intent to seek genetics information. Conclusion. . We argue that an already complex health information environment will be even more difficult for individuals to navigate as genetic research becomes more ubiquitous in health care. An increase in demand for genetics information in various forms, as suggested by these results and those of other studies, implies that enduring intervention strategies are needed to help individuals acquire necessary health information literacy skills, with special attention given to racial minorities.

  9. On deciding to have a lobotomy: either lobotomies were justified or decisions under risk should not always seek to maximise expected utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Rachel

    2014-02-01

    In the 1940s and 1950s thousands of lobotomies were performed on people with mental disorders. These operations were known to be dangerous, but thought to offer great hope. Nowadays, the lobotomies of the 1940s and 1950s are widely condemned. The consensus is that the practitioners who employed them were, at best, misguided enthusiasts, or, at worst, evil. In this paper I employ standard decision theory to understand and assess shifts in the evaluation of lobotomy. Textbooks of medical decision making generally recommend that decisions under risk are made so as to maximise expected utility (MEU) I show that using this procedure suggests that the 1940s and 1950s practice of psychosurgery was justifiable. In making sense of this finding we have a choice: Either we can accept that psychosurgery was justified, in which case condemnation of the lobotomists is misplaced. Or, we can conclude that the use of formal decision procedures, such as MEU, is problematic.

  10. Effect of wind speed on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yuhan

    2018-06-01

    In this experiment, a method of questionnaire survey was adopted. By changing the air flow rate under the indoor and outdoor natural conditions, the subjective Thermal Sensation Vote (TSV) and the Thermal Comfort Vote (TCV) were recorded. The draft sensation can reduce the thermal sensation, but the draft sensation can cause discomfort, and the thermal comfort in a windy environment is lower than in a windless environment. When the temperature rises or the level of human metabolism increases, the person feels heat, the demand for draft sensation increases, and the uncomfortable feeling caused by the draft sensation may be reduced. Increasing the air flow within a certain range can be used to compensate for the increase in temperature.

  11. Sacral neuromodulation effects on periurethral sensation and urethral sphincter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jonathan L; Kenton, Kimberly; Greer, W Jerod; Ramm, Olga; Szychowski, Jeff M; Wilson, Tracey; Richter, Holly E

    2013-06-01

    To characterize the effect of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on urethral neuromuscular function. Following IRB approval, women with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) underwent standardized urethral testing prior to and after Stage 1 SNM implantation. Periurethral sensation was measured using current perception thresholds (CPT). Striated urethral sphincter activity was quantified using concentric needle electromyography (CNE) and Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) analysis software. Nonparametric analyses were used to characterize pre/post changes with intervention. Baseline CPT and CNE findings were compared between SNM responders and non-responders. Twenty-seven women were enrolled in this pilot study with a mean age of 61 ± 13 years. Twenty of 26 women (76.9%) responded to SNM and went to Stage 2 permanent implantation. Four (14.8%) withdrew after Stage 1 implantation; three of the four withdrawals had not had therapeutic responses to SNM. CPT and CNE parameters did not significantly differ from baseline 2 weeks after SNM. Pre-SNM urethral sensation was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, responders had larger amplitude, longer duration and more turns and phases at baseline approaching significance, reflecting more successful urethral reinnervation, than non-responders. SNM does not alter urethral neuromuscular function 2 weeks post Stage 1 implantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of satiety sensations and food intake after different preloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, M; Crovetti, R; Testolin, G; Silva, S

    1995-08-01

    The reproducibility of three questions, related to fullness, satiety and desire to eat, rated on an unmarked triangle was verified. In four sessions 12 volunteers ate pasta with tomato sauce (520 kcal) and were asked to rate the sensations felt. There was no difference in rating scores of the replications so the proposed questionnaire provides a stable measure of sensations related to satiety. Subsequently three satiety conditions were studied. Two foods, one rich in carbohydrate, pasta (baked macaroni) and the other in protein, polpette (meatballs), were used as loads at two calorie levels and as preload before an "ad libitum" meal. All the three questions proved useful in discriminating between the different satiety conditions. The food intake underlines the specificity of satiety: subjects, after eating a preload which previously had satiated them, ate other foods in different amounts depending on the kind of preload eaten. Food intake was significantly higher after the pasta preload, furthermore "fullness" and "satiety" ratings were significantly highest after the meatball preload, suggesting that in our experimental conditions, meatballs were more satiating than pasta. In conclusion, this study highlights the validity of using several quite different questions to study hunger and satiety, together with the actual food intake.

  13. The Japanese Version of the Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale: A Validation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Masako Nishiwaki; Miho Takayama; Hiroyoshi Yajima; Morihiro Nasu; Jian Kong; Nobuari Takakura

    2017-01-01

    Acupuncture sensations are considered essential in producing the treatment effect of acupuncture. The Massachusetts General Hospital Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) is a frequently used scale in acupuncture research to measure acupuncture sensations. We translated the MASS into Japanese (Japanese MASS) based on Beaton's guidelines. 30 acupuncturists evaluated the relevancy and meaning of the 12 descriptors included in the Japanese MASS. The content validity ratios for 10 of the 12 descript...

  14. Parallel lives. Anthropological perspectives on social differences in bodily experiences of sensations and health care seeking practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann

    2015-01-01

    Sociale forhold spiller en afgørende rolle for, hvordan vi forstår egen krop, og hvornår vi søger lægehjælp. Det viser denne nye ph.d.-afhandling fra Aarhus Universitet. Manglende viden om symptomer er tidligere blevet set som en væsentlig årsag til, at folk fra lavere sociale klasser bliver diag...

  15. Mediation of Sensation Seeking and Behavioral Inhibition on the Relationship between Heart Rate and Antisocial Behavior: The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Veenstra, Rene; Lindenberg, Siegwart; van Roon, Arie M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Why is low resting heart rate (HR) associated with antisocial behavior (ASB), i.e., aggression and rule breaking, in adolescence? Theory suggests that personality traits mediate this relationship but differently with age. In the present study this age-effect hypothesis is tested; we expected that the relationship between HR and…

  16. L-DRD4 genotype not associated with sensation seeking, gambling performance and startle reactivity in adolescents: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.; Ormel, J.; Oldehinkel, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether a length polymorphism in the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) was associated with approach related traits in adolescents. Data were used from TRAILS (TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey), a population based cohort of Dutch

  17. Camphor induces cold and warm sensations with increases in skin and muscle blood flow in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotaka, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shoji; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto; Iwamoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Application of camphor to the skin has been empirically thought to improve blood circulation. However, camphor's effects on blood circulation to the skin and on thermal sensation have not been well elucidated. In this study, we examined its effects on the quality of sensation as well as on skin and muscle blood flow in human. Nine adults (average age 37±9.4 years) participated in the study. Petroleum jelly containing 5%, 10%, 20% camphor, or 2% menthol was separately applied to the skin on the medial side of one forearm of each subject. Just after the application, camphor at each concentration induced a cold sensation in a dose-dependent manner. Within 10 min, each subject reported that the cold sensation had faded, after which it was replaced by a warm sensation. As reported previously, a cold sensation was induced by application of 2% menthol, but the subjects did not adapt to that sensation. In addition, menthol did not induce a warm sensation at all. Application of menthol has been shown to increase blood flow in the skin. Finally, we measured blood flow in skin and muscle after the application of camphor or menthol. Application of camphor or menthol separately induced increases in local blood flow in the skin and muscle. The present results indicate that camphor induces both cold and warm sensations and improves blood circulation.

  18. Delay between Onset of Symptoms and Seeking Physician Intervention Increases Risk of Diabetic Foot Complications: Results of a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norina A. Gavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a post hoc analysis of 17,530 questionnaires collected as part of the 2012 screening for neuropathy using Norfolk Quality of Life tool in patients with diabetes in Romania, to assess the impact on foot complications of time between the onset of symptoms of diabetes/its complications and the physician visit. Odds ratios (ORs for self-reporting neuropathy increased from 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07–1.25 in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset to 2.27 in those who sought medical care >2 years after symptoms onset. The ORs for having a history of foot ulcers were 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26–1.63 in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months and increased to 3.08 (95% CI: 2.59–3.66 in those who sought medical care after >2 years from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset. The highest ORs for a history of gangrene (2.49 [95% CI: 1.90–3.26] and amputations (2.18 [95% CI: 1.60–2.97] were observed in those who sought medical care after >2 years following symptoms onset. In conclusion, we showed that waiting for >1 month after symptoms onset dramatically increases the risk of diabetic foot complications. These results show the need for accessible educational programs on diabetes and its chronic complications and the need to avoid delays in reporting.

  19. The Association Between Risk-taking Behavior and Helmet Use Among Motorcyclist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Tu Anh; Phuong Linh Le, Thi

    2018-04-01

    The central aim of the research was to examine speeding behavior without helmet wearing among motorcycle riders in Ho Chi Minh City. The research model expanded the Theory of Planned Behavior by both psychological flow theory and sensation-seeking. 268 motorcyclists were involved in the research. A Confirmatory factor analysis and a Structural equation modeling were employed for model specification. The findings indicated a significant effect between predictors and the intention of speeding without helmet wearing. In addition, there was direct relation between intention and actual behavior. Also, sensation-seeking proved to be important in moderating predictors between the low-sensation-seeking motorcyclists and high-sensation-seeking ones. A deeper understanding of why motorcycle riders exceed the speed limit without wearing helmet played key role in changing their behavior.

  20. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  1. Risks, Risk Factors, and Outcomes Associated with Phone and Internet Sexting Among University Students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dir, Allyson L; Cyders, Melissa A

    2015-08-01

    Sexting, defined as the exchange of sexually suggestive pictures or messages via mobile phone or social networking sites (SNS), has received media attention for its prevalence and associated negative outcomes; however, research has not yet fully established risk factors for and resulting outcomes from sexting behaviors. The current study was the first empirical test of a causal path model in males and females, in which impulsivity-related traits and expectancies influence sexual behaviors through phone and SNS sexting. We also examined prevalence and perceived likelihood of common negative outcomes associated with sexting. Multiple regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) statistics were conducted on two independent undergraduate samples (n = 611 and 255). The best fitting SEM model (RMSEA = 0.04, CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.94, and χ(2) = 176.06, df = 75, p < .001) demonstrated a significant indirect effect of sensation seeking on phone sexting behaviors through sex-related sexting expectancies and a significant indirect effect of sensation seeking on sexual hookup behaviors through phone sexting behaviors (b = 0.06, p = .03), but only for females. Reverse mediations and mediation with SNS were not significant. Negative outcomes were rare: sexts being spread to others was the most common negative sexting experience (n = 21, 12 %). This study suggests the viability of personality and expectancies affecting sexual hookup behaviors through engagement in sexting behaviors. It also suggests that although direct negative outcomes associated with sexting are thought to be common, they were rare in the current sample.

  2. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Ishii

    Full Text Available There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  3. The neural mechanisms of re-experiencing mental fatigue sensation: a magnetoencephalography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann's area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation.

  4. Sensation, mechanoreceptor, and nerve fiber function after nerve regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Christian; Rosén, Birgitta; Boeckstyns, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sensation is essential for recovery after peripheral nerve injury. However, the relationship between sensory modalities and function of regenerated fibers is uncertain. We have investigated the relationships between touch threshold, tactile gnosis, and mechanoreceptor and sensory fiber...... function after nerve regeneration. Methods: Twenty-one median or ulnar nerve lesions were repaired by a collagen nerve conduit or direct suture. Quantitative sensory hand function and sensory conduction studies by near-nerve technique, including tactile stimulation of mechanoreceptors, were followed for 2...... years, and results were compared to noninjured hands. Results: At both repair methods, touch thresholds at the finger tips recovered to 81 ± 3% and tactile gnosis only to 20 ± 4% (p nerve action potentials (SNAPs) remained dispersed and areas recovered to 23 ± 2...

  5. Acetylated tubulin is essential for touch sensation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Shane J; Qi, Yanmei; Iovino, Loredana; Andolfi, Laura; Guo, Da; Kalebic, Nereo; Castaldi, Laura; Tischer, Christian; Portulano, Carla; Bolasco, Giulia; Shirlekar, Kalyanee; Fusco, Claudia M; Asaro, Antonino; Fermani, Federica; Sundukova, Mayya; Matti, Ulf; Reymond, Luc; De Ninno, Adele; Businaro, Luca; Johnsson, Kai; Lazzarino, Marco; Ries, Jonas; Schwab, Yannick; Hu, Jing; Heppenstall, Paul A

    2016-12-13

    At its most fundamental level, touch sensation requires the translation of mechanical energy into mechanosensitive ion channel opening, thereby generating electro-chemical signals. Our understanding of this process, especially how the cytoskeleton influences it, remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking the α-tubulin acetyltransferase Atat1 in sensory neurons display profound deficits in their ability to detect mechanical stimuli. We show that all cutaneous afferent subtypes, including nociceptors have strongly reduced mechanosensitivity upon Atat1 deletion, and that consequently, mice are largely insensitive to mechanical touch and pain. We establish that this broad loss of mechanosensitivity is dependent upon the acetyltransferase activity of Atat1, which when absent leads to a decrease in cellular elasticity. By mimicking α-tubulin acetylation genetically, we show both cellular rigidity and mechanosensitivity can be restored in Atat1 deficient sensory neurons. Hence, our results indicate that by influencing cellular stiffness, α-tubulin acetylation sets the force required for touch.

  6. Illusory sensation of movement induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Grey, Michael James

    2010-01-01

    Human movement sense relies on both somatosensory feedback and on knowledge of the motor commands used to produce the movement. We have induced a movement illusion using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex in the absence of limb movement...... and its associated somatosensory feedback. Afferent and efferent neural signalling was abolished in the arm with ischemic nerve block, and in the leg with spinal nerve block. Movement sensation was assessed following trains of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation applied over...... premotor cortex stimulation was less affected by sensory and motor deprivation than was primary motor cortex stimulation. We propose that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over dorsal premotor cortex produces a corollary discharge that is perceived as movement....

  7. A novel behavioral assay for measuring cold sensation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Brenner

    Full Text Available Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia.

  8. A novel behavioral assay for measuring cold sensation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Daniel S; Golden, Judith P; Gereau, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia.

  9. A remote instruction system empowered by tightly shared haptic sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagawa, Tsuneo; Utsumiya, Kouichi

    2007-09-01

    We present a system to realize an on-line instruction environment among physically separated participants based on a multi-modal communication strategy. In addition to visual and acoustic information, commonly used communication modalities in network environments, our system provides a haptic channel to intuitively conveying partners' sense of touch. The human touch sensation, however, is very sensitive for delays and jitters in the networked virtual reality (NVR) systems. Therefore, a method to compensate for such negative factors needs to be provided. We show an NVR architecture to implement a basic framework that can be shared by various applications and effectively deals with the problems. We take a hybrid approach to implement both data consistency by client-server and scalability by peer-to-peer models. As an application system built on the proposed architecture, a remote instruction system targeted at teaching handwritten characters and line patterns on a Korea-Japan high-speed research network also is mentioned.

  10. Lower thermal sensation in normothermic and mildly hyperthermic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-05-01

    It is important to know how thermal sensation is affected by normal aging under conditions that elevate core body temperature for the prevention of heat-related illness in older people. We assessed whether thermal sensation under conditions of normothermia (NT) and mild hyperthermia (HT) is lowered in older adults. Seventeen younger (23 ±  3 years) and 12 older (71 ±  3 years) healthy men underwent measurements of the cold and warmth detection thresholds ( ± 0.1 °C/s) of their chest and forearm skin, and whole body warmth perception under NT (esophageal temperature, T es, ~36.5 °C) and HT (T es, ~37.3 °C; lower legs immersed in 42 °C water) conditions. Warmth detection threshold at the forearm was increased in older compared with younger participants under both NT (P = 0.006) and HT (P = 0.004) conditions. In contrast, cold detection threshold at the forearm was decreased in older compared with younger participants under NT (P = 0.001) but not HT (P = 0.16). Mild hyperthermia decreased cold detection threshold at forearm in younger participants (P = 0.001) only. There were no effects of age and condition on warmth and cold detection thresholds at chest. Whole body warmth perception increased during HT compared with NT in both groups (both, P perception under NT and HT and skin cold detection thresholds at forearm under NT deteriorated with aging.

  11. Effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on host-seeking tick infection prevalence and entomologic risk for Ixodes scapularis-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Rollend, Lindsay G; Papero, Michele A; Carroll, John F; Daniels, Thomas J; Mather, Thomas N; Schulze, Terry L; Stafford, Kirby C; Fish, Durland

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of tick control by acaricide self-treatment of white-tailed deer on the infection prevalence and entomologic risk for three Ixodes scapularis-borne bacteria in host-seeking ticks. Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas treated with the "4-Poster" device and from control areas over a 6-year period in five geographically diverse study locations in the Northeastern United States and tested for infection with two known agents of human disease, Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and for a novel relapsing fever-group spirochete related to Borrelia miyamotoi. Overall, 38.2% of adults and 12.5% of nymphs were infected with B. burgdorferi; 8.5% of adults and 4.2% of nymphs were infected with A. phagocytophilum; and 1.9% of adults and 0.8% of nymphs were infected with B. miyamotoi. In most cases, treatment with the 4-Poster device was not associated with changes in the prevalence of infection with any of these three microorganisms among nymphal or adult ticks. However, the density of nymphs infected with B. burgdorferi, and consequently the entomologic risk for Lyme disease, was reduced overall by 68% in treated areas compared to control areas among the five study sites at the end of the study. The frequency of bacterial coinfections in ticks was generally equal to the product of the proportion of ticks infected with a single bacterium, indicating that enzootic maintenance of these pathogens is independent. We conclude that controlling ticks on deer by self-application of acaricide results in an overall decrease in the human risk for exposure to these three bacterial agents, which is due solely to a reduction in tick density.

  12. The use of mobile phone apps by Australian gay and bisexual men to meet sex partners: an analysis of sex-seeking repertoires and risks for HIV and STIs using behavioural surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    2016-04-19

    Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated with a greater risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) than with other ways of meeting partners. Data were analysed from the Gay Community Periodic Surveys, community-based, cross-sectional surveys conducted in Australian state capital cities between 2010 and 2014. χ 2 tests and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyse differences in risk profiles of men who used different methods to meet partners. Data were analysed from 36 428 men who participated in the Gay Community Periodic Surveys between 2010 and 2014. In 2014, 4116 men reported meeting sex partners with the use of mobile apps, increasing from 23.9% in 2011 to 42.5% in 2014. Men who used a combination of online and offline methods reported a greater number of sex partners and were more likely to report a recent STI than men who used online methods only or offline methods only. There has been a steep increase in the use of mobile phone apps by gay men in Australia to meet male partners. However, men who use a combination of mobile phone apps, internet websites and offline places to meet partners appear to be at increased risk of STIs or HIV compared with men who use a narrower range of online and offline methods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Non-invasive characterization of real-time bladder sensation using accelerated hydration and a novel sensation meter: An initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Anna S; Speich, John E; De Wachter, Stefan G; Ghamarian, Peter P; Le, David M; Colhoun, Andrew F; Ratz, Paul H; Barbee, Robert W; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a non-invasive, objective, and unprompted method to characterize real-time bladder sensation. Volunteers with and without overactive bladder (OAB) were prospectively enrolled in a preliminary accelerated hydration study. Participants drank 2L Gatorade-G2® and recorded real-time sensation (0-100% scale) and standardized verbal sensory thresholds using a novel, touch-screen "sensation meter." 3D bladder ultrasound images were recorded throughout fillings for a subset of participants. Sensation data were recorded for two consecutive complete fill-void cycles. Data from 14 normal and 12 OAB participants were obtained (ICIq-OAB-5a = 0 vs. ≥3). Filling duration decreased in fill2 compared to fill1, but volume did not significantly change. In normals, adjacent verbal sensory thresholds (within fill) showed no overlap, and identical thresholds (between fill) were similar, demonstrating effective differentiation between degrees of %bladder capacity. In OAB, within-fill overlaps and between-fill differences were identified. Real-time %capacity-sensation curves left shifted from fill1 to fill2 in normals, consistent with expected viscoelastic behavior, but unexpectedly right shifted in OAB. 3D ultrasound volume data showed that fill rates started slowly and ramped up with variable end points. This study establishes a non-invasive means to evaluate real-time bladder sensation using a two-fill accelerated hydration protocol and a sensation meter. Verbal thresholds were inconsistent in OAB, and the right shift in OAB %capacity-sensation curve suggests potential biomechanical and/or sensitization changes. This methodology could be used to gain valuable information on different forms of OAB in a completely non-invasive way. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

  15. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  16. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm 2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (T es ), ∼36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; T es , ∼37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit (P sensation on the skin at both sites remained unchanged with changes in body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by postural change from supine to sitting to sense lesser cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  17. Relation between anal electrosensitivity and rectal filling sensation and the influence of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broens, PMA; Penninckx, FM

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of age and sex on the rectal filling sensation and anal electrosensitivity and to explore the relation between anal electrosensitivity and the parameters of the rectal filling sensation. METHODS: Anal mucosal electrosensitivity and anorectal

  18. Chronic cough management: dealing with a sensation of irritation in the throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Among the various types of laryngeal paraesthesia suffered by chronic cough patients, we often encounter 'a sensation of irritation in the throat (SIT)'. Our study indicated that capsaicin cough threshold was significantly (P sensation. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  20. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  1. How sudden is a compelling desire to void? An observational cystometric study on the suddenness of this sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate whether a compelling desire to void (CDV) is always perceived suddenly, or whether it can result from the gradual build-up of bladder-filling sensations. The pattern of filling sensations was evaluated during standard cystometric bladder filling in 75 patients who complained of urgency and showed detrusor overactivity during cystometry. Cystometric filling ended when a CDV was reported. The 'warning volume' is defined as the difference in volume between the first perception of filling and the volume at CDV. Different patterns of bladder-filling sensations were reported. A CDV occurred suddenly, without a preceding sensation in 13% of the patients, whereas 66% reported at least two normal preceding filling sensations before a CDV. The bladder volume at the CDV was significantly smaller in patients that reported no or just one preceding sensation compared with those that reported the normal pattern of two or three sensations (P perception was reported was not different regardless of whether it was described as a first sensation of filling, a first desire or a CDV (P = 0.42). The warning volumes were not different between patients with one or no standardized filling sensations (P = 0.7), but they were significantly smaller than in patients with two or three filling sensations (P = 0.85). A CDV can occur suddenly if normal filling sensation is disturbed, but also gradually if normal filling sensation is preserved. In cases of disturbed filling sensation, the volume at CDV and the warning volume are significantly lower.

  2. [Joint diagnostic value of four temperature sensation tests in elderly patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Li, Yun-Ming; Ai, Zhi-Hua; You, Zhi-Qing; Wan, Yong; Cheng, Ying; Lang, Hong-Mei

    2013-07-01

    To explore the joint diagnostic value of four temperature sensation tests in elderly patients with type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Thermal sensory analyzer-II were applied to measure cool sensation (CS), warm sensation (WS), cold pain sensation (CP)and heat pain sensation (HP) of 308 elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Logistic regression model was adopted to create the new variable Temp4 from four temperature sensation tests to diagnose type 2 diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The ROC curve analysis was used to determine the best cut-off points of the four temperature sensation and Temp4, and the diagnostic value of it was evaluated. The means of temperature sensation tests of the diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) group were significantly different from those of the non-DPN group (P sensation tests to diagnose the DPN, the sensitivity of WS test was the highest, and the value was 0.710; but the specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, Youden index, diagnostic accuracy and Kappa value of cold sensation test were the highest, and the values were 0.842, 0.746, 0.799, 0.528, 77.92% and 0.535, respectively; the Kappa values of the other three temperature sensation tests were all greater than 0.4 (P sensation tests (P sensation quantitative tests were in good agreementand could be applied to diagnose DPN; the new variable Temp4 could be used for diagnosis of DPN with a higher diagnostic accuracy.

  3. How do different tests evaluate sensation in the lower urinary tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laet, Kevin; De Wachter, Stefan; Van Meel, Tom; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2010-04-01

    Different tests can be used to evaluate lower urinary tract (LUT) sensation. The purpose of this study is to compare sensory tests in patients with voiding disorders. Seventy patients with various functional disorders of the LUT were admitted for a cystometry and an electrical perception threshold test of the bladder (bEPT) and distal urethra (uEPT). A pudendal EPT (pEPT) and pudendal somatosensory evoked potentials (pSSEP) were also determined. Correlations were calculated for somatosensory (uEPT, pEPT and pSSEP latency) and viscerosensory tests (volumes at filling sensations and bEPT). Fifty of the 70 patients (71%) had normal bladder filling sensations, with abnormal bEPT in 21/50 (41%), including 11 (22%) with no sensation at maximal electrical stimulation. Twenty out of 70 (29%) had an abnormal pattern of filling sensation, with increased bEPT in 13/20 (65%) and no sensation at electrical stimulation in 8/13 (40%). No significant correlation exists between filling sensation and bladder electrical perception thresholds (r 0.243). pEPT correlated with uEPT and SSEP (r > 0.035, p sensation. No significant correlation exists between volumes of filling sensations and bEPT (r 0.243). Therefore, both tests provide complementary information. Somatosensory tests of the pudendal nerve are correlated, so performing SSEP, pEPT and uEPT provides poor additional information to one of these tests alone. Somatosensory pudendal tests cannot be used to quantify filling sensation.

  4. Pleasure seeking and birdsong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riters, Lauren V

    2011-10-01

    Songbirds sing at high rates within multiple contexts, suggesting that they are highly motivated to communicate and that the act of singing itself may be rewarding. Little is known about the neural regulation of the motivation to communicate. Dopamine and opioid neuropeptides play a primary role in reward seeking and sensory pleasure. In songbirds, these neurochemicals are found within brain regions implicated in both motivation and reward, including the medial preoptic nucleus (mPOA) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Several lines of research indicate that dopamine and opioids in these regions play a role in birdsong that differs depending upon whether song is used to attract females (female-directed song) or is not directed towards other individuals (undirected song). Evidence is reviewed supporting the hypotheses: (1) that distinct patterns of dopamine activity influence the motivation to produce undirected and female-directed song, (2) that undirected communication is intrinsically reinforced by immediate release of opioids induced by the act of singing, and (3) that directed communication is socially reinforced by opioids released as part of social interactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk behaviors and HIV care continuum outcomes among criminal justice-involved HIV-infected transgender women and cisgender men: Data from the Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain Harmonization Initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt G Beckwith

    Full Text Available Transgender persons are highly victimized, marginalized, disproportionately experience incarceration, and have alarmingly increased rates of HIV infection compared to cis-gender persons. Few studies have examined the HIV care continuum outcomes among transgender women (TW, particularly TW who are involved with the criminal justice (CJ system.To improve our understanding of HIV care continuum outcomes and risk behaviors among HIV-infected TW who are involved with the CJ system, we analyzed data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse-supported Seek, Test, Treat, Retain (STTR Data Harmonization Initiative. Baseline data were pooled and analyzed from three U.S. STTR studies to examine HIV risk and care continuum indicators among CJ-involved HIV-infected TW compared to cisgender men (CM, matched on age (within 5 years and study at a ratio of 1:5.Eighty-eight TW and 440 CM were included in the study. Among matched participants, TW were more likely to report crack and cocaine use compared to CM (40%,16% respectively, p<0.001; both TW and CM reported high rates of condomless sex (58%, 64%, respectively; TW were more likely than CM to have more than one sexual partner (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.2; p<0.001 and have engaged in exchange sex (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.3, 6.6; p<0.001. There were no significant differences between TW and CM in the percentage currently taking ART (52%, 49%, respectively, the mean percent adherence to ART (77% for both groups, and the proportion who achieved viral suppression (61%, 58%, respectively.HIV-infected CJ-involved TW and CM had similar use of ART and viral suppression but TW were more likely than matched CM to engage in exchange sex, have multiple sexual partners, and use crack/cocaine. TW and CM had similarly high rates of condomless sex and use of other drugs. TW require tailored risk reduction interventions, however both CJ-involved TW and CM require focused attention to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV continuum of

  6. Fatigue sensation induced by the sounds associated with mental fatigue and its related neural activities: revealed by magnetoencephalography

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Akira; Tanaka, Masaaki; Iwamae, Masayoshi; Kim, Chongsoo; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that an inappropriately conditioned fatigue sensation could be one cause of chronic fatigue. Although classical conditioning of the fatigue sensation has been reported in rats, there have been no reports in humans. Our aim was to examine whether classical conditioning of the mental fatigue sensation can take place in humans and to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Ten and 9 healthy volunteers particip...

  7. Thrill and adventure seeking in risky driving at work: The moderating role of safety climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, Darren; Somoray, Klaire; Evenhuis, Amanda

    2017-12-01

    Introduction Within many industrialized countries, the leading cause of worker fatalities and serious injuries can be attributed to road trauma. In non-occupational research, high levels of sensation seeking personality, and specifically thrill and adventure seeking, have been associated with risky driving behaviors. In work driving literature, high organizational safety climate has been associated with reduced risky driving in work drivers. However, the extent that factors such as safety climate and thrill seeking interact in regard to work driving safety remains unclear, and the current research examined this interaction. Methods A total of 1,011 work drivers from four organizations participated in the research. Surveys were distributed online and hardcopies were sent via mail. The survey included measures of thrill and adventure seeking, safety climate and work-related driving behaviors, as well as questions relating to participant demographics and information about their work driving. Results The results demonstrated that safety climate significantly moderated the effect of thrill and adventure seeking trait on driving errors, driving violations, and driving while fatigued. Conclusion These results suggest that the development of a strong safety climate has the potential to improve work driving safety outcomes by reducing the impact of particular personality traits such as thrill seeking within an organizational context. Practical application To improve work driving safety, organizations and management need to develop strategies to encourage and foster positive work driving safety climate, particularly within work settings that may attract thrill and adventure seeking employees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Role of interoceptive accuracy in topographical changes in emotion-induced bodily sensations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Won-Mo; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Ye-Seul; Wallraven, Christian; Chae, Younbyoung

    2017-01-01

    The emotion-associated bodily sensation map is composed of a specific topographical distribution of bodily sensations to categorical emotions. The present study investigated whether or not interoceptive accuracy was associated with topographical changes in this map following emotion-induced bodily sensations. This study included 31 participants who observed short video clips containing emotional stimuli and then reported their sensations on the body map. Interoceptive accuracy was evaluated with a heartbeat detection task and the spatial patterns of bodily sensations to specific emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral, were visualized using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analyses. Distinct patterns of bodily sensations were identified for different emotional states. In addition, positive correlations were found between the magnitude of sensation in emotion-specific regions and interoceptive accuracy across individuals. A greater degree of interoceptive accuracy was associated with more specific topographical changes after emotional stimuli. These results suggest that the awareness of one’s internal bodily states might play a crucial role as a required messenger of sensory information during the affective process. PMID:28877218

  9. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry--the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation--and that of adaptation--the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Referral of sensation to an advanced humanoid robotic hand prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Birgitta; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Antfolk, Christian; Cipriani, Christian; Sebelius, Fredrik; Lundborg, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Hand prostheses that are currently available on the market are used by amputees to only a limited extent, partly because of lack of sensory feedback from the artificial hand. We report a pilot study that showed how amputees can experience a robot-like advanced hand prosthesis as part of their own body. We induced a perceptual illusion by which touch applied to the stump of the arm was experienced from the artificial hand. This illusion was elicited by applying synchronous tactile stimulation to the hidden amputation stump and the robotic hand prosthesis in full view. In five people who had had upper limb amputations this stimulation caused referral touch sensation from the stump to the artificial hand, and the prosthesis was experienced more like a real hand. We also showed that this illusion can work when the amputee controls the movements of the artificial hand by recordings of the arm muscle activity with electromyograms. These observations indicate that the previously described "rubber hand illusion" is also valid for an advanced hand prosthesis, even when it has a robotic-like appearance.

  11. The molecular and cellular basis of cold sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKemy, David D

    2013-02-20

    Of somatosensory modalities, cold is one of the more ambiguous percepts, evoking the pleasant sensation of cooling, the stinging bite of cold pain, and welcome relief from chronic pain. Moreover, unlike the precipitous thermal thresholds for heat activation of thermosensitive afferent neurons, thresholds for cold fibers are across a range of cool to cold temperatures that spans over 30 °C. Until recently, how cold produces this myriad of biological effects has been poorly studied, yet new advances in our understanding of cold mechanisms may portend a better understanding of sensory perception as well as provide novel therapeutic approaches. Chief among these was the identification of a number of ion channels that either serve as the initial detectors of cold as a stimulus in the peripheral nervous system, or are part of rather sophisticated differential expression patterns of channels that conduct electrical signals, thereby endowing select neurons with properties that are amenable to electrical signaling in the cold. This review highlights the current understanding of the channels involved in cold transduction as well as presents a hypothetical model to account for the broad range of cold thermal thresholds and distinct functions of cold fibers in perception, pain, and analgesia.

  12. Disorders of saliva production and taste sensation after oropharyngeal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, T.; Adamski, K.; Stefan, M.

    1984-01-01

    Salivary secretion and disorders of taste sensation during and after radiotherapy of the oropharyngeal region were investigated in 20 patients. Salivary glands and tongue were exposed to radiation in different extent. Telecobalt irradiations were given in daily doses of 1.8 - 2.0 Gy, the total dose being 55 - 60 Gy in the salivary glands (1,590 - 1,760 ret). The patients were asked for subjective statements on salivary secretion, taste disorders were measured by semiquantitative gustometry with different dilution ratios for the four basis qualities of taste. 2 weeks after the onset of irradiation (20.0 Gy) a reduction of saliva production appeared without tendency of recovery. A statistically significant increase of the taste threshold appeared for all qualities of taste after 20 - 30 Gy. The criterion 'bitter' was primarily affected. This radiogen disorder, apparently caused on the cellular level of the taste buds, seems to be reversible also for doses of 60 Gy (1,760 ret) while radiogen functional disorders of the salivary glands are irreversible from 45 Gy (1,500 ret). Considering all sensual and organic effects of xerostomy (dental caries, osteoradionecrosis) it is advisable to keep the dose for at least one third of the salivary gland tissue below this critical value. (author)

  13. Phantom auditory sensation in rats: an animal model for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Brennan, J F; Coleman, J K; Sasaki, C T

    1988-12-01

    In order to measure tinnitus induced by sodium salicylate injections, 84 pigmented rats, distributed among 14 groups in five experiments, were used in a conditioned suppression paradigm. In Experiment 1, all groups were trained with a conditioned stimulus (CS) consisting of the offset of a continuous background noise. One group began salicylate injections before Pavlovian training, a second group started injections after training, and a control group received daily saline injections. Resistance to extinction was profound when injections started before training, but minimal when initiated after training, which suggests that salicylate-induced effects acquired differential conditioned value. In Experiment 2 we mimicked the salicylate treatments by substituting a 7 kHz tone in place of respective injections, resulting in effects equivalent to salicylate-induced behavior. In a third experiment we included a 3 kHz CS, and again replicated the salicylate findings. In Experiment 4 we decreased the motivational level, and the sequential relation between salicylate-induced effects and suppression training was retained. Finally, no salicylate effects emerged when the visual modality was used. These findings support the demonstration of phantom auditory sensations in animals.

  14. Does the effect of acupuncture depend on needling sensation and manipulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu-Jin; Lee, Jae-Eun; Moon, Won-Kyung; Cho, Seung-Hun

    2013-06-01

    Acupuncture sensation and manipulation have been considered to be an important component of acupuncture in traditional Asian medicine. However, there has been limited research as to whether acupuncture sensation is associated with therapeutic benefit. This study investigated the relationship between acupuncture sensation and analgesic effect according to acupuncture manipulation. Fifty-three healthy volunteers received three different forms of acupuncture in a single-blinded crossover design: superficial needling (0.3 cm), deep needling (2 cm) and needling with bi-directional rotation. The effects of acupuncture were evaluated by using the pressure pain threshold. Acupuncture sensation measurement was done in two ways. Both total acupuncture sensation and increase of the pressure pain threshold were maximum in needling with rotation, followed by deep needling and superficial needling. Repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis was carried out to assess whether there was a significant difference; both showed significant difference (p = 0.000, 0.003). A paired sample t-test was carried out, which revealed that needling with rotation showed significant difference from both superficial needling and deep needling. Further, the correlation between the total acupuncture sensation and changes in pressure pain threshold were calculated using Pearson correlation; there was a significant correlation (p = 0.002, p = 0.013). Acupuncture sensation and pressure pain threshold increase according to the depth and rotation of acupuncture. Especially, both display significant increase with needle rotation. Further, there is a significant correlation between acupuncture needling sensation and increase in pressure pain threshold. It seems that needle rotation and acupuncture sensation play an important role in verifying the effect of acupuncture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Care seeking for orofacial pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rollman, A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Naeije, M.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the contribution of a wide range of factors to care-seeking behavior in orofacial pain patients, expressed as (A) decision to seek care and (B) number of health care practitioners visited. METHODS: Subjects with orofacial pain complaints were recruited in seven TMD clinics and

  16. Mirtazapine attenuates cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Méndez, Susana; Leff, Phillipe; Arías-Caballero, Adriana; Hernández-Miramontes, Ricardo; Heinze, Gerardo; Salazar-Juárez, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to cocaine use is a major problem in the clinical treatment of cocaine addiction. Antidepressants have been studied for their therapeutic potential to treat cocaine use disorder. Research has suggested that antidepressants attenuate both drug craving and the re-acquisition of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors. This study examined the efficacy of mirtazapine, an antidepressant/anxiolytic, in decreasing cocaine seeking in rats. We used the cocaine self-administration paradigm to assess the effects of mirtazapine on rats trained to self-administer cocaine or food under a fixed-ratio schedule. Mirtazapine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered during extinction. Mirtazapine significantly attenuated non-reinforced lever-press responses during extinction. Moreover, the mirtazapine dosed for 30 days during extinction produced sustained attenuation of lever-press responses during re-acquisition of cocaine self-administration, without changing food-seeking behavior. Our results showed that mirtazapine attenuated the re-acquisition of cocaine-seeking responses. Our study pointed to the efficacy of mirtazapine in reducing the risk of drug relapse during abstinence, suggesting for its potential use as a novel pharmacological agent to treat drug abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns...... are breakdowns in collaborative grounding rather than information seeking, that the medication incidents mainly concern breakdowns in the use of records as opposed to oral communication, that the breakdowns span multiple degrees of separation between clinicians, and that the electronic medication record has...

  18. Kant and the magnitude of sensation: a neglected prologue to modern psychophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative relations between the sensations and the stimuli that produce them are the domain of psychophysics, a branch of natural science not yet known at the time of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). But Kant's philosophical doctrines of perception imply that sensations can be quantified. Accordingly, he proposed not only to consider the magnitude of both sensations and stimuli but also to work out an appropriate mathematics that would relate these magnitudes to each other. This part of Kant's work received almost no attention up to the present time although it contains some essential elements of modern psychophysics.

  19. Modification of booming level for higher correlation with booming sensation; Booming level no koseidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, S; Hashimoto, T [Seikei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    In our previous study, we proposed a objective measure, i.e., Booming Level for quantifying booming sensation caused by car interior noise. In this paper, Booming Level was modified with its weighting function and within the process of calculation 1/3 octave band level was modified for the best match with subjective result. These modifications were conducted through a subjective experiment rating booming sensation with sounds having much lower frequency contents below 63Hz. With this modified Booming Level, we have obtained higher correlation for rating booming sensation with sounds having prominent low frequency components. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  20. Body schema and midline sensation influenced by unilateral manual stimulation of lower extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre

    Relevance: Clinical experience advocates manual stimulation in order to increase the sensation of the body and adjust the body schema. Unilateral treatment may affect the midline sensation and weight distribution in a standing position, but little evidence is available to support this procedure...... alignment was seen as a response to unilateral massage. It may be suggested, that the manipulated midline sensation and weight distribution reflects a state in which the participant's attention to a greater extent has been directed towards a specific body part due to the manual sensory stimulation. Impact...

  1. Personality patterns predict the risk of antisocial behavior in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Córcoles, Miguel A; Verdejo-García, Antonio; Bouso-Sáiz, José C; Revuelta-Menéndez, Javier; Ramírez-Lira, Ezequiel

    2017-05-01

    There is a renewed interest in incorporating personality variables in criminology theories in order to build models able to integrate personality variables and biological factors with psychosocial and sociocultural factors. The aim of this article is the assessment of personality dimensions that contribute to the prediction of antisocial behavior in adolescents. For this purpose, a sample of adolescents from El Salvador, Mexico, and Spain was obtained. The sample consisted of 1035 participants with a mean age of 16.2. There were 450 adolescents from a forensic population (those who committed a crime) and 585 adolescents from the normal population (no crime committed). All of participants answered personality tests about neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticism, sensation seeking, impulsivity, and violence risk. Principal component analysis of the data identified two independent factors: (i) the disinhibited behavior pattern (PDC), formed by the dimensions of neuroticism, psychoticism, impulsivity and risk of violence; and (ii) the extrovert behavior pattern (PEC), formed by the dimensions of sensation risk and extraversion. Both patterns significantly contributed to the prediction of adolescent antisocial behavior in a logistic regression model which properly classifies a global percentage of 81.9%, 86.8% for non-offense and 72.5% for offense behavior. The classification power of regression equations allows making very satisfactory predictions about adolescent offense commission. Educational level has been classified as a protective factor, while age and gender (male) have been classified as risk factors.

  2. Extraretinal induced visual sensations during IMRT of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Buchstab, Barbara Myrthe; Leitzen, Christina; Garbe, Stephan; Müdder, Thomas; Oberste-Beulmann, Susanne; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Simon, Birgit; Nelles, Michael; Block, Wolfgang; Schoroth, Felix; Schild, Hans Heinz; Schüller, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    We observed visual sensations (VSs) in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin. Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years) with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy) with helical tomotherapy (TT). A megavolt-CT (MVCT) was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF) matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR) from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient) 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm). The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%). There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs.

  3. Extraretinal induced visual sensations during IMRT of the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Wilhelm-Buchstab

    Full Text Available We observed visual sensations (VSs in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin.Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy with helical tomotherapy (TT. A megavolt-CT (MVCT was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm. The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%.There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs.

  4. Dangerous Beliefs: College Alcohol Beliefs Are Associated With Increased Risk of Regretted Sexual Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberg, Timothy M; Boyer, Amber

    2016-10-14

    This study explored the relative impact of college alcohol beliefs (CABs; i.e., the extent to which the student views alcohol as part of the fabric of college life), descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies, and sensation seeking on college students' (N = 415) risk for engaging in regretted sexual encounters (RSE). Overall, 12% of our sample reported having experienced RSE within the past 30 days. When pitted against the other traditional predictors of college student drinking and its consequences, such as positive alcohol expectancies, descriptive and injunctive norms, and sensation seeking, CABs emerged as the strongest correlate of RSE other than drinking itself, and explained significant additional variance in RSE beyond these other predictors. Mediation analyses revealed that CABs had a significant indirect effect on RSE through typical weekly drinking. This pattern of findings indicates that college alcohol beliefs are, from a public health perspective, dangerous beliefs, that warrant serious consideration in the development of new approaches to college student drinking and its consequences.

  5. Subjective thermal sensation and human body exergy consumption rate: analysis and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Dovjak, M.; Kolarik, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    , it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. There is a need to verify the human-body exergy model with the Thermal-Sensation (TS) response of subjects exposed to different combinations of indoor climate parameters (temperature, humidity, etc.). First results...... available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation showed that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to slightly cool side of thermal sensation. By applying...... the exergy concept to the built indoor environment, additional results are going to be explored. By using the data available so far of operative temperature (to), the human body exergy consumption rates increase as to increases above 24°C or decreases below 22°C at relative humidity (RH) lower than 50...

  6. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  7. Reproducibility of urodynamic filling sensation at weekly interval in healthy volunteers and in women with detrusor overactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, Tom David; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the reproducibility of bladder sensation during standardized filling cystometry in female volunteers and overactive bladder (OAB) patients, repeated with weekly interval. We recruited 13 female nulliparous volunteers (age 21-47) and 17 female patients with OAB between (age 18-72). They participated in three investigation periods, each separated by 7 days to assess reproducibility of sensation related to standardized cystometry. Subjects were asked to report all sensations they felt during bladder filling. The previously described pattern of sensation was reported during bladder filling in all. Consecutive sensations corresponded to statistically higher bladder volumes. Volumes, at which different sensations of bladder filling were reported, were significantly higher in controls than in OAB patients [first sensation of filling (FSF) P = 0.003, first desire to void (FDV) P sensation/volume ratios were significantly higher in patients with OAB than in the healthy volunteers: FSF occurred at mean 46% and FDV at mean 73% of SDV in OAB patients, compared to 36% and 64% in healthy volunteers. Sensations proved highly reproducible when determined with weekly interval. Our data demonstrate that cystometric filling sensation determined in a standardized way with weekly interval is highly reproducible in healthy and in OAB patients. This finding has, in our opinion, clinical importance as it shows that the technique is reliable both for a sensory evaluation of the LUT as to study influence of treatment aimed at changing this sensation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Genre of “Sensational Novel” in the Ukrainian Immigrant Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Wesselenyi, Olexandr

    2013-01-01

    The literary process of the Ukrainian immigration is a special segment of Ukrainian culture and shows an “alternative way” in the development of literature. The purpose of this article is to study the specifications of sensational novels in the Ukrainian immigrant literature.The literary genre “sensational novel” appeared in Great Britain in the second half of the XIX century. These novels typologically descend from another popular Victorian genre – gothic fiction. Later they transformed into...

  9. Medico-legal aspects of altered sensation following endodontic treatment: a retrospective case series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givol, Navot; Rosen, Eyal; Bjørndal, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze cases of liability claims related to persistent altered sensation following endodontic treatments so as to characterize the medico-legal aspects of this complication.......The objective of this study was to analyze cases of liability claims related to persistent altered sensation following endodontic treatments so as to characterize the medico-legal aspects of this complication....

  10. Sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of iodinated contrast media in CT examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Naoto; Yamaguchi, Aiko; Nagasawa, Naoki; Taketomi-Takahashi, Ayako; Suto, Takayuki; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in CT examinations. Methods: 735 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM (one of the following: iopromide, iomeprol, iopamidol, iohexol and ioversol) after their CE-CT. If the patients stated having felt the sensation of smell or taste, they were also asked what kind of smell or taste they sensed. Next, 30 ml of each CM was poured into high-purity pet cups for radiological technologists to smell directly. Radiological technologists were asked whether or not each CM had any smell. Results: The sensations of smell and taste incidence for iopromide were 24.3% and 18.9%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those for other CM (p < 0.05). The highest incidence of the sensation of smell was medicine-ish, and the most frequently noted taste was bitterness. All radiological technologists could directly smell only iopromide, which has an ether group on a side chain and fewer hydroxyl groups. Conclusion: Iopromide showed a higher incidence of sensation of smell and taste than other CM. Advances in knowledge: This was the first investigation of sensation of smell and taste during i.v. injection of CM, and a specific CM showed a higher incidence, which is suspected to be due to its chemical structure. PMID:27805431

  11. Human thermal sensation and comfort in a non-uniform environment with personalized heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qihong; Wang, Runhuai; Li, Yuguo; Miao, Yufeng; Zhao, Jinping

    2017-02-01

    Thermal comfort in traditionally uniform environment is apparent and can be improved by increasing energy expenses. To save energy, non-uniform environment implemented by personalized conditioning system attracts considerable attention, but human response in such environment is unclear. To investigate regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort in a cool environment with personalized heating. In total 36 subjects (17 males and 19 females) including children, adults and the elderly, were involved in our experiment. Each subject was first asked to sit on a seat in an 18°C chamber (uniform environment) for 40min and then sit on a heating seat in a 16°C chamber (non-uniform environment) for another 40min after 10min break. Subjects' regional- and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort were surveyed by questionnaire and their skin temperatures were measured by wireless sensors. We statistically analyzed subjects' thermal sensation and comfort and their skin temperatures in different age and gender groups and compared them between the uniform and non-uniform environments. Overall thermal sensation and comfort votes were respectively neutral and just comfortable in 16°C chamber with personalized heating, which were significantly higher than those in 18°C chamber without heating (pthermal sensation and comfort was consistent in subjects of different age and gender. However, adults and the females were more sensitive to the effect of personalized heating and felt cooler and less comfort than children/elderly and the males respectively. Variations of the regional thermal sensation/comfort across human body were consistent with those of skin temperature. Personalized heating significantly improved human thermal sensation and comfort in non-uniform cooler environment, probably due to the fact that it increased skin temperature. However, the link between thermal sensation/comfort and variations of skin temperature is rather complex and warrant further

  12. Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-08-01

    A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with α = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery.

  13. Flaxseed dietary fibers suppress postprandial lipemia and appetite sensation in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, M; Savorani, F; Christensen, S; Engelsen, S B; Bügel, S; Toubro, S; Tetens, I; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    Dietary fibers (DF) are linked to a reduced risk of life-style diseases, which relate to their physiological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim was to examine whether flaxseed DF-enriched meals suppress postprandial lipemia and reduce appetite. Four different iso-caloric meals were tested in 18 young men in a double-blind randomized crossover design. Test meals were served after an overnight fast. DF content and source were: control (C): 1.4 g/MJ; whole flaxseed (WF): 2.4 g/MJ from whole flaxseeds; low-mucilage dose (LM): 2.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF; high-mucilage dose (HM): 3.4 g/MJ from flaxseed DF. During the 7 h test day, subjective appetite sensation was assessed using visual analogue scales and appetite-regulating hormones, and lipemia and glycemia were measured, after which ad libitum energy intake was recorded. There was a significant time × meal effect on triacylglycerols (TG) (p = 0.02) and an 18% smaller area under the curve (AUC) for TG after meal HM compared to meal C was observed (p appetite although subsequent energy intake was not affected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Éric; Pomerleau, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating) versus “hedonic”) by two (restrained or not restrained) by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese) by two (men versus women) factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm) were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations. PMID:27725885

  15. Cognitive Appraisals Affect Both Embodiment of Thermal Sensation and Its Mapping to Thermal Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Trevor P; Roesch, Etienne B; Clements-Croome, Derek

    2016-01-01

    The physical environment leads to a thermal sensation that is perceived and appraised by occupants. The present study focuses on the relationship between sensation and evaluation. We asked 166 people to recall a thermal event from their recent past. They were then asked how they evaluated this experience in terms of 10 different emotions (frustrated, resigned, dislike, indifferent, angry, anxious, liking, joyful, regretful, proud). We tested whether four psychological factors (appraisal dimensions) could be used to predict the ensuing emotions, as well as comfort, acceptability, and sensation. The four dimensions were: the Conduciveness of the event, who/what caused the event (Causality), who had control (Agency), and whether the event was expected (Expectations). These dimensions, except for Expectations, were good predictors of the reported emotions. Expectations, however, predicted the reported thermal sensation, its acceptability, and ensuing comfort. The more expected an event was, the more uncomfortable a person felt, and the less likely they reported a neutral thermal sensation. Together, these results support an embodied view of how subjective appraisals affect thermal experience. Overall, we show that appraisal dimensions mediate occupants' evaluation of their thermal sensation, which suggests an additional method for understanding psychological adaption.

  16. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit ( P body posture or temperature. The whole-body warm sensation was higher during HT than NT in both postures and higher in the Sit than Sup during both NT and HT (all, P cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  17. Influence of Nutrition Claims on Appetite Sensations according to Sex, Weight Status, and Restrained Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Painchaud Guérard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition claims may help people to adopt healthier eating habits, but little is known about the potential cognitive effects of such claims on appetite sensations. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nutrition claims and individual factors on perceived appetite sensations. According to a three (“healthy” versus “diet” (i.e., satiating versus “hedonic” by two (restrained or not restrained by two (normal-weight or overweight/obese by two (men versus women factorial design, 164 males and 188 females aged 18–65 were invited to taste an oatmeal-raisin snack in a blinded and ad libitum context. Visual analog scales (150 mm were used to evaluate appetite sensations before and over 1 h after consumption period. BMI and Restraint Scale were used to categorize participants according to their weight and restraint status. No main condition effect was observed for any of the four appetite sensations. However, subgroups analysis revealed significant differences among specific subgroups. A main effect of sex was also observed for all appetite sensations with men reporting higher levels of desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption, and lower levels of fullness than women. These findings highlight the importance of considering individual characteristics in interaction when studying appetite sensations.

  18. The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsen; Zheng, Shuxia; Pan, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the dian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the pheral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction. PMID:25206574

  19. Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83 cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27 cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to “jump” between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians. PMID:23243458

  20. Predicting Intentions to Seek Psychological Help Among Botswana University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho M. Pheko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study had two main objectives. The first was to investigate Botswana’s university students’ intentions to seek psychological help. The second was to investigate whether (a Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help (ATSPPH, (b Self-Stigma of Seeking Help (SSOSH, and (c Social Stigma of Receiving Psychological Help (SSRPH predicted the students’ intentions to seek psychological help. A total of N = 519 (283 females and 236 males students from the University of Botswana completed the survey. Results indicated that generally, the students had moderate intentions of seeking psychological help. Multiple regression analysis revealed that of the three predictors, only ATSPPH and SSRPH significantly predicted intentions to seek psychological help. The current study is important because while it has been established that university students are a high-risk population for mental health problems, there is close to nothing documented on university students in Botswana. Findings of the current study will undoubtedly increase knowledge relating to psychological help-seeking and its predictors in Botswana and may inform interventions that aim to encourage young people to seek psychological or counseling help.

  1. Disturbances of sensation occasioned by experimental arrest of blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Auersperg

    1949-12-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances of sensation in the hand were studied during and after experimental arrest of circulation to the arm. Blockage of circulation was performed as outlined by Lewis and Pochin, by putting the cuff of a sphygmomanometer on the upper arm and bringing the pressure rapidly up to 200 mm/Hg. The experiments listed below were intended to demonstrate the variability of a central reaction brought about by fairly definite disturbances of the ischaemic periphery. All experiments were made on the present writers and repeated on nine other subjects, none of whom had systolic pressure reaching 150 mm/Hg. I - Blockage of circulation in both arms led to symmetrical phenomena in both hands (thermal paresthesias, tingling and hyposthesia, both under symmetrical experimental circumstances, and under the following variations: So long as the cuff pressure on both arms was above the systolic blood pressure, differences as great as 300 mm/Hg in one cuff and 150 mm in the other did not alter the symmetry of the effects. Neither was symmetry and synchronism of paresthesias affected when compression on one side preceded equal compression on the other up to 20 seconds. II - When a punctate pressure is applied to the paresthetic field the paresthesias disappear around that point and the latter is clearly brought out from the indifferent background produced in the area of depressed skin. On the basis of Kugelberg's findings, it seems that this occurs because the impulses caused by pressure have a higher frequency and substitute the spontaneous abnormal discharges of the ischaemic nerve fibers. III - Repeated mechanical stimulation of a fingertip during the experiment failed to show any influence on sensory (touch thresholds, in contrast, therefore, to what would be expected on the basis of the physiologic experiments which show rapid fatigue of ischaemic structures. IV - In contrast to what might be expected from the intense changes undergone by receptors in the

  2. Seeking and Avoiding Information in a Risky World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Chun Wei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In an era where collective action is necessary to confront societal level risks such as climate change and food safety, we need to better understand how people are motivated to seek risk information that would lead them to make choices and behavioural changes to mitigate those hazards. Method: We selectively review the research in…

  3. After the Flood : Anger, Attribution, and the Seeking of Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffin, Robert J.; Yang, Zheng; ter Huurne, E.F.J.; Boerner, Francesca; Ortiz, Sherry; Dunwoody, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to understand what motivates people to attend to information about flood risks, this study applies the Risk Information Seeking and Processing model to explore how local residents responded to damaging river flooding in the Milwaukee area. The results indicate that anger at managing

  4. Validation of a Self-Report Questionnaire Assessing the Bodily and Physiological Sensations of Orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubray, Samantha; Gérard, Marina; Beaulieu-Prévost, Dominic; Courtois, Frédérique

    2017-02-01

    Despite a plethora of research on sexual functioning during the past decades, the field is still lacking standardized measurements specifically characterizing orgasm. Although several validated tools are available to assess sexual function in healthy and clinical populations, items on orgasm are limited to frequency or dichotomous responses. A neurophysiologic model of orgasm developed from previous research in able-bodied and spinally injured populations offers a promising framework for the construction of a new questionnaire. To develop and validate a brief self-report measurement of orgasm by the assessment of bodily and physiologic sensations perceived during climax by able-bodied individuals. Although the currently available tool focuses on the phenomenological sensations associated with climax, the goal of this questionnaire was to capture the more specific genital and extragenital sensations associated with orgasm. The current Bodily Sensations of Orgasm questionnaire and the Orgasm Rating Scale. Data from previous research conducted on individuals with spinal cord injury and the available empirical literature provided a pool of 45 items organized into four categories, which were reviewed by an expert panel. Upon review, a 28-item questionnaire was created and administered to a community sample of 227 participants, including men and women, 18 to 73 years old. Exploratory factor analyses supported the four-factor model, in which orgasm is comprised of extragenital sensations, genital sensations and spasms, nociceptive sensations, and sweating responses. Overall, a high degree of internal consistency was found for the final 22-item questionnaire (Cronbach α = 0.87), with individual reliability coefficients showing moderate to high internal consistency (r = 0.65-0.79) for each dimension. Overall temporal stability of the measurement was acceptable (r = 0.74). Using the Orgasm Rating Scale, satisfying convergent validity was confirmed, thereby indicating

  5. The prevalence and magnitude of impaired cutaneous sensation across the hand in the chronic period post-stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; Lin, Gaven G; McNulty, Penelope A

    2014-01-01

    Sensation is commonly impaired immediately post-stroke but little is known about the long-term changes in cutaneous sensation that have the capacity to adversely impact independence and motor-function. We investigated cutaneous sensory thresholds across the hand in the chronic post-stroke period. Cutaneous sensation was assessed in 42 community-dwelling stroke patients and compared to 36 healthy subjects. Sensation was tested with calibrated monofilaments at 6 sites on the hand that covered the median, ulnar and radial innervation territories and included both glabrous (hairless) and hairy skin. The motor-function of stroke patients was assessed with the Wolf Motor Function Test and the upper-limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Impaired cutaneous sensation was defined as monofilament thresholds >3 SD above the mean of healthy subjects and good sensation was ≤ 3 SD. Cutaneous sensation was impaired for 33% of patients and was 40-84% worse on the more-affected side compared to healthy subjects depending on the site (psensation fell within the healthy range, although ∼ 1/3 of patients were classified with impaired sensation. Classification by motor-function revealed low levels of impaired sensation. The magnitude of sensory loss was only apparent when the sensory-function of stroke patients was classified as good or impaired. Sensation was most impaired on the dorsum of the hand where age-related changes in monofilament thresholds are minimal in healthy subjects. Although patients with both high and low motor-function had poor cutaneous sensation, overall patients with low motor-function had poorer cutaneous sensation than those with higher motor-function, and relationships were found between motor impairments and sensation at the fingertip and palm. These results emphasize the importance of identifying the presence and magnitude of cutaneous sensory impairments in the chronic period after stroke.

  6. Relationship between foot sensation and standing balance in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citaker, Seyit; Gunduz, Arzu Guclu; Guclu, Meral Bosnak; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla; Kaya, Defne

    2011-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between the foot sensations and standing balance in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and find out the sensation, which best predicts balance. Twenty-seven patients with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 1-3.5) and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Threshold of light touch-pressure, duration of vibration, and distance of two-point discrimination of the foot sole were assessed. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured. Light touch-pressure, vibration, two-point discrimination sensations of the foot sole, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS compared with controls (pbalance in patients with MS. In the multiple regression analysis conducted in the 27 MS patients, 47.6% of the variance in the duration of one-leg standing balance was explained by two-point discrimination sensation of the heel (R(2)=0.359, p=0.001) and vibration sensation of the first metatarsal head (R(2)=0.118, p=0.029). As the cutaneous receptors sensitivity decreases in the foot sole the standing balance impairs in patients with MS. Two-point discrimination sensation of the heel and vibration sensation of the first metatarsal head region are the best predictors of the static standing balance in patients with MS. Other factors which could be possible to predict balance and effects of sensorial training of foot on balance should be investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Individual differences in temperature perception: evidence of common processing of sensation intensity of warmth and cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Akirav, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The longstanding question of whether temperature is sensed via separate sensory systems for warmth and cold was investigated by measuring individual differences in perception of nonpainful heating and cooling. Sixty-two subjects gave separate ratings of the intensity of thermal sensations (warmth, cold) and nociceptive sensations (burning/stinging/pricking) produced by cooling (29 degrees C) or heating (37 degrees C) local regions of the forearm. Stimuli were delivered via a 4 x 4 array of 8 mm x 8 mm Peltier thermoelectric modules that enabled test temperatures to be presented sequentially to individual modules or simultaneously to the full array. Stimulation of the full array showed that perception of warmth and cold were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.83, p sensations produced by the two temperatures were also correlated, but to a lesser degree (r = 0.44), and the associations between nociceptive and thermal sensations (r = 0.35 and 0.22 for 37 and 29 degrees C, respectively) were not significant after correction for multiple statistical tests. Intensity ratings for individual modules indicated that the number of responsive sites out of 16 was a poor predictor of temperature sensations but a significant predictor of nociceptive sensations. The very high correlation between ratings of thermal sensations conflicts with the classical view that warmth and cold are mediated by separate thermal modalities and implies that warm-sensitive and cold-sensitive spinothalamic pathways converge and undergo joint modulation in the central nervous system. Integration of thermal stimulation from the skin and body core within the thermoregulatory system is suggested as the possible source of this convergence.

  8. The Impact of Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome on Cold Sensation in the Pedal Extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Rinko; Kim, Kyongsong; Isu, Toyohiko; Morimoto, Daijiro; Iwamoto, Naotaka; Kobayashi, Shiro; Morita, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is an entrapment neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel. It is not known whether vascular or neuropathic factors are implicated in the cause of a cold sensation experienced by patients. Therefore, we studied the cold sensation in the pedal extremities of patients who did or did not undergo TTS surgery. Our study population comprised 20 patients with TTS (38 feet); 1 foot was affected in 2 patients and both feet in 18 patients. We acquired the toe-brachial pressure index to evaluate perfusion of the sole and toe perfusion under 4 conditions: the at-rest position (condition 1); the at-rest position with compression of the foot dorsal artery (condition 2); the Kinoshita foot position (condition 3); and the Kinoshita foot position with foot dorsal artery compression (condition 4). Patients who reported abatement in the cold sensation during surgery underwent intraoperative reocclusion of the tibial artery to check for the return of the cold sensation. The toe-brachial pressure index for conditions 1 and 3 averaged 0.82 ± 0.09 and 0.81 ± 0.11, respectively; for conditions 2 and 4, it averaged 0.70 ± 0.11 and 0.71 ± 0.09, respectively. Among the 16 operated patients, the cold sensation in 7 feet improved intraoperatively; transient reocclusion of the tibial artery did not result in the reappearance of the cold sensation. Our findings suggest that the cold sensation in the feet of our patients with TTS was associated with neuropathic rather than vascular factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Remote vibrotactile noise improves light touch sensation in stroke survivors' fingertips via stochastic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Leah R; Hur, Pilwon; Johnson, Michelle J; Seo, Na Jin

    2013-10-11

    Stroke rehabilitation does not often integrate both sensory and motor recovery. While subthreshold noise was shown to enhance sensory signal detection at the site of noise application, having a noise-generating device at the fingertip to enhance fingertip sensation and potentially enhance dexterity for stroke survivors is impractical, since the device would interfere with object manipulation. This study determined if remote application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise (away from the fingertips) improves fingertip tactile sensation with potential to enhance dexterity for stroke survivors. Index finger and thumb pad sensation was measured for ten stroke survivors with fingertip sensory deficit using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and Two-Point Discrimination Tests. Sensation scores were measured with noise applied at one of three intensities (40%, 60%, 80% of the sensory threshold) to one of four locations of the paretic upper extremity (dorsal hand proximal to the index finger knuckle, dorsal hand proximal to the thumb knuckle, dorsal wrist, volar wrist) in a random order, as well as without noise at beginning (Pre) and end (Post) of the testing session. Vibrotactile noise of all intensities and locations instantaneously and significantly improved Monofilament scores of the index fingertip and thumb tip (p sensation, independent of noise location and intensity. Vibrotactile noise at the wrist and dorsal hand may have enhanced the fingertips' light touch sensation via stochastic resonance and interneuronal connections. While long-term benefits of noise in stroke patients warrants further investigation, this result demonstrates potential that a wearable device applying vibrotactile noise at the wrist could enhance sensation and grip ability without interfering with object manipulation in everyday tasks.

  10. The use of mobile phone apps by Australian gay and bisexual men to meet sex partners : an analysis of sex-seeking repertoires and risks for HIV and STIs using behavioural surveillance data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Peter; Mao, Limin; Prestage, Garrett; Zablotska, Iryna; de Wit, John; Holt, Martin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mobile phone apps are now the most popular method that Australian gay men use to find sex partners. Partner-seeking mobile phone apps use location functions to identify like-minded men and display their proximity. This study examines whether meeting partners via mobile apps is associated

  11. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  12. Is a pulling sensation in the anteroposterior direction associated with otolith dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Naoki; Seo, Toru; Ohta, Shigeto; Sakagami, Masafumi

    2014-03-01

    A pulling sensation in the anteroposterior direction is suggested to originate from a dysfunction of the otolith organs. Previous study with vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) confirmed that a falling sensation (in an up or down direction) and a lateral tilt sensation (in a right or left direction) were caused by otolith lesions. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether a pulling sensation in the anteroposterior (forward or backward) direction originates from otolith dysfunction. The otolith function was assessed by cervical and ocular VEMPs (cVEMPs and oVEMPs) in 12 patients who complained of a forward or backward pulling sensation. cVEMPs were evaluated by the asymmetry ratio (AR) of the amplitude of the p13-n23 wave and the peak latencies of the p13 and n23 waves. oVEMPs were evaluated by the AR of the amplitude of the n1-p1 wave and the peak latency of the n1 and p1 waves. Abnormal ARs on cVEMP were observed in 7 of 12 patients. Nine of 12 patients had abnormal oVEMP results including 3 bilateral absent responses. Most (10 of 12) patients had abnormal cVEMP and/or oVEMP results. The latency of each detected wave was within the normal ranges.

  13. Biased Intensity Judgements of Visceral Sensations After Learning to Fear Visceral Stimuli: A Drift Diffusion Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Jonas; Madden, Victoria J; Iven, Julie; Wiech, Katja; Weltens, Nathalie; Ly, Huynh Giao; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse

    2017-10-01

    A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with nonpainful esophageal balloon distensions of 2 different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised of preacquisition, acquisition, and postacquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity. The CS+ was always followed by a painful electrical stimulus (unconditioned stimulus) during the acquisition phase and in 60% of the trials during postacquisition. The second stimulus (CS-) was never associated with pain. Analyses of galvanic skin and startle eyeblink responses as physiological markers of successful conditioning showed increased fear responses to the CS+ compared with the CS-, but only in the group with the low-intensity stimulus as CS+. Computational modeling of response times and response accuracies revealed that differential fear learning affected perceptual decision-making about the intensities of visceral sensations such that sensations were more likely to be categorized as more intense. These results suggest that associative learning might indeed contribute to visceral hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders. This study shows that associative fear learning biases intensity judgements of visceral sensations toward perceiving such sensations as more intense. Learning-induced alterations in visceroception might therefore contribute to the development or maintenance of visceral pain. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Paradoxical sensation of nasal airflow in patients with common cold. Are we measuring the correct modality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan D; Eccles, Ronald

    2005-12-01

    A paradoxical relationship between objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction exists in participants not exposed to any treatment. The sensation of nasal obstruction may be due to the amalgamation of many different nasal sensations. Improved methods for measuring nasal sensations are required to further investigate the relationship between objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction. In a recent study it was shown that the subjective sensation of nasal patency increased as the nasal passages became objectively more obstructed in patients who received a placebo compared to those who received an oral decongestant. This paradoxical response may be explained as a placebo effect, i.e. patients who received a placebo may have expected to feel less obstructed. The aim of the present study was to investigate this interesting paradox by determining objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction over time in participants not exposed to any treatment. A total of 60 healthy participants with common cold were recruited. Objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 2 h using posterior rhinomanometry and a visual analogue scale. Objective measures demonstrated an increase in nasal obstruction over time for both nasal passages considered together and for individual nasal passages. Subjective measures demonstrated a sensation of decreased nasal obstruction over time for both nasal passages considered together and for individual nasal passages.

  15. The multidimensional sensation of desire to void differs between people with and without overactive bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rebekah; Buckley, Jonathan D; Williams, Marie T

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether the multidimensional sensation of desire to void can be reliability assessed and whether differences exist between people with and without overactive bladder (OAB). Assessing reliability and convergent validity of OAB screening tools comprised a secondary aim. This observational, repeated-measures study involved 64 volunteers (47 female), aged ≥50 years, with and without OAB symptoms. Six sensory dimensions (intensity, unpleasantness, suddenness, perceived difficulty "holding on," bladder fullness and location of sensation) were assessed by structured interview on two occasions. Overactive bladder status was determined using the OAB Symptom Score and OAB Awareness Tool. Reliability of sensory dimensions was assessed via random effects mixed modeling. The ability of each sensory dimension to predict OAB status was determined by partial least squares regression. With the exception of sensory intensity, perceived bladder fullness, and one location of sensation, sensory dimensions were reliably reported. Sensory intensity, unpleasantness, suddenness, and perceived difficulty "holding on" predicted OAB, whereas perceived bladder fullness and sensory location did not. The OAB screening questionnaires demonstrated comparable test-retest reliability and convergent validity. People with and without OAB can reliably describe the multidimensional sensation of desire to void. The sensation of desire to void is more intense, unpleasant, sudden, and perceived as more difficult to hold on in people with OAB. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Age-related changes in cutaneous sensation in the healthy human hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous sensation deteriorates with age. It is not known if this change is consistent over the entire hand or if sensation is affected by changes in skin mechanics. Cutaneous perceptual thresholds were tested at eight sites in the glabrous skin and two in the hairy skin of both hands in 70 subjects (20-88 years), five male and five female per decade, using calibrated von Frey filaments, two-point discrimination, and texture discrimination. Venous occlusion at the wrist (40 ± 10 mmHg) and moisturizer were used to alter skin mechanics. Cutaneous thresholds increased significantly with age (p sensation varied according to the site tested with smaller changes on the fingers compared to the palm. Two-point discrimination deteriorated with age (p = 0.046), but with no interaction between sex, handedness, or changes in skin mechanics. There were no significant differences for texture discrimination. Changes in skin mechanics improved cutaneous thresholds in the oldest males after moisturizing (p = 0.001) but not otherwise. These results emphasize the complex pattern of age-related deterioration in cutaneous sensation with differences between sexes, the hands, sites on the hand, and the mode of testing. As the index fingertip is not a sensitive indicator of sensory decline, the minimum assessment of age-related changes in cutaneous sensation should include both hands, and sites on the palm.

  17. Changes in corneal sensation, epithelial damage, and tear function after descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yumiko; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Masatoshi; Shimazaki-Den, Seika; Konomi, Kenji; Shimazaki, Jun

    2013-09-01

    To study the ocular surface changes in eyes after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) compared with those after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP). This prospective study compared the changes in 31 eyes of 28 patients who underwent DSAEK (DSAEK group) with those in 15 disease-matched eyes of 15 patients who underwent PKP (PKP group). Corneal epithelial integrity was evaluated using a fluorescein staining score. Corneal sensation was measured with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer. Tear function was evaluated using the Schirmer test, tear clearance test, tear function index, and tear break-up time. The postoperative fluorescein staining score was significantly higher in the PKP group than in the DSAEK group (P = 0.02). Postoperative corneal sensation was significantly better in the DSAEK group than in the PKP group (P sensation after DSAEK was significantly better than the preoperative value (P = 0.02). There were no statistically significant changes in the Schirmer test, tear clearance test, tear function index, or break-up time before and after the surgery in both the DSAEK and PKP groups. No significant differences were observed between the DSAEK and PKP groups after the surgery. Corneal sensation was preserved, and epithelial damage was less severe after DSAEK compared with PKP. Preservation of corneal sensation may contribute to the early recovery of visual function and long-term maintenance of ocular surface health after DSAEK.

  18. Touched in sensation--moved by respiration: embodied narrative identity--a treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviland, Randi; Råheim, Målfrid; Martinsen, Kari

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this theoretical article is to elaborate on the underpinning of Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy (NPMP). With a narrative and hermeneutic point of departure, we explore the unfolding of a 10-year-long treatment by analysing a particular narrative from this treatment context in relation to some foundational perspectives on movement, sensation and time. A woman in her late thirties suffering from muscular tensions and pain, depression, anxiety and anorexia, came for NPMP. The investigation of her treatment experience is based on the journal written by her physiotherapist and first author of this article. We suggest that new experiences in movement and sensation as well as changes in movement patterns can contribute to retuning in sensation and restructuring of narrative time. Feeding the fictional space and narrative fantasy with new experiences in movement and sensation can help counteracting delusional ideas and assist changes, supporting embodied narrative identity. Ingrid's experience is discussed in the light of Trygve Braatøy's understanding of muscular functions, Knud E Løgstrup's phenomenology of sensation and Paul Ricouer's narrative time. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  19. Do sensation differences exist between dental implants and natural teeth?: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Nobuaki; Goto, Takaharu; Ishida, Yuichi; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to survey evidence pertaining to the sensation differences between natural teeth and osseointegrated dental implants. Using the MEDLINE (online PubMed) database, Cochrane Library, and Scientific Citation index, we performed a systematic search of articles. We used the following search terms: "perception or sensation and dental implant." The systematic review of the extracted articles was performed to see the sensation differences between natural teeth and dental implants. A total of six studies on oral sensation, "tactile sensibility," and "thickness discrimination" were included in the meta-analysis. As to the "tactile sensibility", all studies indicated the threshold levels of the implants were about 4-20 times higher than that of natural teeth. The tactile sensibility of an implant was significantly higher than that of a natural tooth, with an standardized mean difference (SMD) of 8.3619 (95% CI, 6.3920-10.3317) and a P sensation differences between dental implants and natural teeth exist. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Exploring the Role of Neuroticism and Insecure Attachment in Health Anxiety, Safety-Seeking Behavior Engagement, and Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotios Anagnostopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore an extended interpersonal model of health anxiety, according to which health-anxious individuals are trapped in a vicious circle of health-related reassurance-seeking, alienation from others, and worry about health, while somatic absorption with body sensations, insecure attachment, neuroticism, safety-seeking behaviors, and medical services utilization were also included in the model. Data were collected from 196 Greek university students using standardized instruments. Results indicated that anxious attachment was directly related to absorption (β = .163, p < .05 and alienation (β = .204, p < .05, while avoidant attachment was directly related to absorption (β = −.344, p < .001, reassurance-seeking (β = −.130, p < .05, and alienation (β = .148, p < .05. Neuroticism was positively and significantly associated with all dimensions of health anxiety. Absorption, alienation, and anxious attachment were related to medical services utilization, which, in turn, was related to safety-seeking behaviors (β = .200, p < .01. Neuroticism and anxious attachment were also indirectly and positively associated with worry. Moreover, absorption was positively related to worry and reassurance-seeking, worry was positively related to reassurance-seeking, and alienation was positively related to worry. Study results highlight the key role that interpersonal (e.g., alienation from others and perceptual factors (e.g., the tendency to focus on bodily sensations can play in health anxiety maintenance, and the importance of anxious and avoidant attachment in safety-seeking behavior engagement. Implications of the results and suggestions for future research and practice are outlined.