WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk knowledge gaps

  1. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  2. Education-based disparities in knowledge of novel health risks: The case of knowledge gaps in HIV risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Orom, Heather; Waters, Erika A; McKillip, Megan; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Risk perception is a key determinant of preventive health behaviour, but when asked, some individuals indicate they do not know their health risk. Low education is associated with both lack of knowledge about health risk and with the persistence and exacerbation of gaps in knowledge about health issues. This study uses the context of an emerging infectious disease threat to explore the hypothesis that the education-don't know risk relation results from differences in knowledge about the health issue of interest. Specifically, we examine whether patterns of change over time follow theoretical predictions that disparities in risk knowledge would increase over time in less educated sectors of the population (knowledge gap hypothesis). Secondary analysis of population-representative behavioural surveillance survey. We analysed data from the 1993 to 2000 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, which measured education and perceived HIV/AIDS risk in a population sample collected separately in each survey year; don't know responses were coded. In each year, individuals with higher education were less likely to respond don't know. The absolute prevalence of don't know responding dropped over time; nonetheless, there was an increase over time in the magnitude of the pattern of lower education being associated with greater don't know responding. We found support for the knowledge gap hypothesis. Over time, populations with greater education gained more knowledge about their HIV risk than populations with lower education. Results highlight the need to carefully consider health communication strategies to reach and address those individuals with low education and health knowledge. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A meaningful potion of the population answers 'don't know' when asked to report their risk for health problems, indicating a lack of risk perception in the domain. Previous studies have shown that level of education is

  3. Using Cyber-Insurance as a Risk Management Strategy: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations for Further Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tøndel, Inger Anne; Meland, Per Håkon; Omerovic, Aida; Gjære, Erlend Andreas; Solhaug, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    - Risk transfer can be an economically favorable way of handling security and privacy issues, but choosing this option indiscriminately and without proper knowledge is a risk in itself. This report provides an overview of knowledge gaps related to cyber-insurance as a risk management strategy. These are grouped into three high-level topics; cyber-insurance products, understanding and measuring risk and estimation of consequences. The topics are further divided into 11 knowledge areas with ...

  4. Robustness of risk maps and survey networks to knowledge gaps about a new invasive pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H. Koch; Yakov Ben-Haim; William D. Smith

    2010-01-01

    In pest risk assessment it is frequently necessary to make management decisions regarding emerging threats under severe uncertainty. Although risk maps provide useful decision support for invasive alien species, they rarely address knowledge gaps associated with the underlying risk model or how they may change the risk estimates. Failure to recognize uncertainty leads...

  5. DCS: A Case Study of Identification of Knowledge and Disposition Gaps Using Principles of Continuous Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Steinberg, Susan; Kundrot, Craig; Charles, John

    2011-01-01

    The Human Research Program (HRP) is formulated around the program architecture of Evidence-Risk-Gap-Task-Deliverable. Review of accumulated evidence forms the basis for identification of high priority risks to human health and performance in space exploration. Gaps in knowledge or disposition are identified for each risk, and a portfolio of research tasks is developed to fill them. Deliverables from the tasks inform the evidence base with the ultimate goal of defining the level of risk and reducing it to an acceptable level. A comprehensive framework for gap identification, focus, and metrics has been developed based on principles of continuous risk management and clinical care. Research towards knowledge gaps improves understanding of the likelihood, consequence or timeframe of the risk. Disposition gaps include development of standards or requirements for risk acceptance, development of countermeasures or technology to mitigate the risk, and yearly technology assessment related to watching developments related to the risk. Standard concepts from clinical care: prevention, diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and surveillance, can be used to focus gaps dealing with risk mitigation. The research plan for the new HRP Risk of Decompression Sickness (DCS) used the framework to identify one disposition gap related to establishment of a DCS standard for acceptable risk, two knowledge gaps related to DCS phenomenon and mission attributes, and three mitigation gaps focused on prediction, prevention, and new technology watch. These gaps were organized in this manner primarily based on target for closure and ease of organizing interim metrics so that gap status could be quantified. Additional considerations for the knowledge gaps were that one was highly design reference mission specific and the other gap was focused on DCS phenomenon.

  6. Motivation and the Knowledge Gap: Effects of a Campaign to Reduce Diet-Related Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, K.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines whether knowledge gaps decrease when motivation to acquire information is similar among more and less educated groups. Compares two groups with differing motivations to acquire cancer and diet information in a community that received a year-long health campaign. Finds evidence of education-based differences in knowledge even among members…

  7. Business travelers' risk perception of infectious diseases: where are the knowledge gaps, and how serious are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynberg, Elke; Toner, Sharyn; Wendt, Judy K; Visser, Leo G; Breederveld, Daan; Berg, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have explored the risk perception of frequent business travelers (FBT) toward malaria. However, less is known about their knowledge of other infectious diseases. This study aimed to identify knowledge gaps by determining the risk perception of FBT toward 11 infectious diseases. Our retrospective web-based survey assessed the accuracy of risk perception among a defined cohort of FBT for 11 infectious diseases. We used logistic regression and the chi-square test to determine the association of risk perception with source of travel advice, demographic variables, and features of trip preparation. Surveys were returned by 63% of the 608 self-registered FBT in Rijswijk, and only the 328 completed questionnaires that adhered to our inclusion criteria were used for analysis. The majority (71%) sought pre-travel health advice and used a company health source (83%). Participants seeking company travel health advice instead of external had significantly more accurate risk knowledge (p = 0.03), but more frequently overestimated typhoid risk (odds ratio = 2.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.23-3.34). While underestimation of disease risk was on average 23% more common than overestimation, HIV risk was overestimated by 75% of FBT. More accurate knowledge among FBT seeking company health advice demonstrates that access to in-company travel clinics can improve risk perception. However, there is an obvious need for risk knowledge improvement, given the overall underestimation of risk. The substantial overestimation of HIV risk is probably due to both public and in-company awareness efforts. Conversely, typhoid risk overestimation was statistically associated with seeking company health advice, and therefore specifically reflects the high focus on typhoid fever within Shell's travel clinic. This study serves as a reminder that a knowledge gap toward infectious diseases besides malaria still exists. Our article will explore the future requirements for more

  8. Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy; Fahal, Ahmed; Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; Serrano, Julian Alberto; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Zijlstra, Ed

    2018-04-01

    On 28th May 2016, mycetoma was recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. This was the result of a 4-year journey starting in February 2013 with a meeting of global mycetoma experts. Knowledge gaps were identified and included the incidence, prevalence, and mapping of mycetoma; the mode of transmission; the development of methods for early diagnosis; and better treatment. In this review, we review the road to recognition, the ISHAM working group meeting in Argentina, and we address the progress made in closing the knowledge gaps since 2013. Progress included adding another 9000 patients to the literature, which allowed us to update the prevalence map on mycetoma. Furthermore, based on molecular phylogeny, species names were corrected and four novel mycetoma causative agents were identified. By mapping mycetoma causative agents an association with Acacia trees was found. For early diagnosis, three different isothermal amplification techniques were developed, and novel antigens were discovered. To develop better treatment strategies for mycetoma patients, in vitro susceptibility tests for the coelomycete agents of black grain mycetoma were developed, and the first randomized clinical trial for eumycetoma started early 2017.

  9. Intervention strategies to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection with avian influenza viruses: scientific basis, challenges and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Leslie D

    2013-09-01

    A range of measures has been recommended and used for the control and prevention of avian influenza. These measures are based on the assessment of local epidemiological situations, field observations and other scientific information. Other non-technical factors are (or in some cases should be) taken into account when developing and recommending control measures. The precise effects under field conditions of most individual interventions applied to control and prevent avian influenza have not been established or subjected to critical review, often because a number of measures are applied simultaneously without controls. In most cases, the combination of measures used results in control or elimination of the virus although there are some countries where this has not been the case. In others, especially those with low poultry density, it is not clear whether the link between the adoption of a set of measures and the subsequent control of the disease is causative. This article discusses the various measures recommended, with particular emphasis on stamping out and vaccination, examines how these measures assist in preventing zoonotic infections with avian influenza viruses and explores gaps in knowledge regarding their effectiveness. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The risk perception gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frech, E.

    1995-01-01

    Most members of the public view the risks of nuclear power as uniquely hazardous. A survey in 1993 found that Canadians rank nuclear waste as the eleventh highest risk to their health. The trouble is that the public are not simply misinformed; rather, they view risk as something different from the product of probability of occurrence of an event multiplied by the measure of its harmful consequences. Among the 30 to 40 factors that influence public perception of risk, or acceptance of technology, are some that the scientific and technical community has hitherto failed to heed. Many of these factors can in fact be accommodated in the design, development and public presentation of nuclear projects. Such an accommodation of the public's views would involve dealing with factors like voluntariness, controllability, reversibility, equity and fairness, benefits, and trust in institutions. 9 refs

  11. Knowledge, risk perception and mitigation measures towards Ebola virus disease by potentially exposed bushmeat handlers in north-central Nigeria: Any critical gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaji, N B; Yatswako, S; Oddoh, E Y

    2018-02-01

    The bushmeat industry has been a topic of increasing importance among public health officials for its influence on zoonotic diseases transmission, such as Ebola virus disease (EVD), a rare and severe infectious disease of humans and non-human primates. This survey assessed knowledge/awareness, risk perceptions and mitigation practices towards EVD among bushmeat handlers in north-central Nigeria. These characteristics are premise to level of preparedness against appropriate risk prevention and control. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and December 2015 on 395 bushmeat handlers. Descriptive and analytical statistical analyses were performed using Epi-Info 3.5.3 software, and p knowledge than the hunters. Handlers with tertiary education were more likely (OR 3.22; 95% CI: 1.56-6.67) to possess significant satisfactory knowledge/awareness about EVD. Also, vendors were more likely (OR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.01-3.42) to practice satisfactory mitigation measures than the hunters. Only handlers with tertiary education were more likely (OR 2.48; 95% CI: 1.26-4.89) to significantly practice satisfactory mitigation measures against EVD. Although most of the handlers possessed significant knowledge/awareness about EVD, few applied mitigation measures against its infection, which is the challenging gap. There is a need for collaborations between the public health, veterinary and wildlife authorities in the provision of health information to bushmeat handlers on better management of emerging and re-emerging zoonotic viral diseases of wildlife origin. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. KNOWLEDGE GAPS IN ORAL AND MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Österberg, Marie; Holmlund, Anders; Sunzel, Bo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate available knowledge and identify knowledge gaps within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery, by systematically collecting and evaluating systematic reviews. Twelve specific domains were selected: surgical removal of teeth, antibiotic....... However, in all domains, the search revealed a large number of knowledge gaps. Also of concern was the lack of data regarding health economics and ethics. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, there is a need for well-conducted clinical research in the fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery........ RESULTS: In all, 1,778 abstracts were identified, of which 200 met the inclusion criteria. Forty-five systematic reviews were assessed as of high to moderate quality. The results disclosed some existing evidence in a few domains, such as surgical removal of teeth and implant survival after sinus lifts...

  13. Knowledge gaps in risk assessment of nanosilica in food: evaluation of the dissolution and toxicity of different forms of silica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, S.; Bouwmeester, H.; Bos, P.M.J.; Peters, R.J.B.; Rietveld, A.; Oomen, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript describes the follow-up study of our previous publication on the presence and risks of nanosilica in food. New information on the presence of nanosilica in the gastrointestinal tract is evaluated and information on nanosilica and synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) is compared to assess

  14. Closing the Knowledge Gap in Foreign Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie A.; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    The study explores how firms close their knowledge gaps in relation to business environments of foreign markets. Potential determinants are derived from traditional internationalization process theory as well as more recent literature on organizational learning processes, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building on these two literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primary data of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggests that factors considered essential in traditional internationalization process theory...

  15. Bridging the gap: simulations meet knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary W.; Morrison, Clayton T.; Westbrook, David L.; Cohen, Paul R.

    2003-09-01

    Tapir and Krill are declarative languages for specifying actions and agents, respectively, that can be executed in simulation. As such, they bridge the gap between strictly declarative knowledge bases and strictly executable code. Tapir and Krill components can be combined to produce models of activity which can answer questions about mechanisms and processes using conventional inference methods and simulation. Tapir was used in DARPA's Rapid Knowledge Formation (RKF) project to construct models of military tactics from the Army Field Manual FM3-90. These were then used to build Courses of Actions (COAs) which could be critiqued by declarative reasoning or via Monte Carlo simulation. Tapir and Krill can be read and written by non-knowledge engineers making it an excellent vehicle for Subject Matter Experts to build and critique knowledge bases.

  16. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants - current knowledge and knowledge gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    as in human blood, urine and milk. Due to their long half-life in human beings, there is an increased risk that exposure to these compounds can cause adverse effects. However, except for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), there is a large data gap regarding toxicological...

  17. Research on Knowledge Gap Recognition Mechanism of Virtual Industry Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Cheng

    2013-01-01

    As a new organizing form, VIC gets rid of regional limit of traditional cluster, realizing virtual space agglomeration which crossing space and time. Knowledge sharing and complementary is foundation to form VIC and be one of the main goals. As preparation of the knowledge transfer, recognizing and making up for knowledge gap did not caused most scholars' attention. This study argues that, knowledge gap recognition is the premise of knowledge transfer, combined with knowledge theories, the co...

  18. The Knowledge Gap Versus the Belief Gap and Abstinence-Only Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Douglas Blanks; Yan, Changmin

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge gap hypothesis predicts widening disparities in knowledge of heavily publicized public affairs issues among socioeconomic status groups. The belief gap hypothesis extends the knowledge gap hypothesis to account for knowledge and beliefs about politically contested issues based on empirically verifiable information. This analysis of 3 national surveys shows belief gaps developed between liberals and conservatives regarding abstinence-only sex education; socioeconomic status-based knowledge gaps did not widen. The findings partially support both belief gap and knowledge gap hypotheses. In addition, the unique contributions of exposure to Fox News, CNN, and MSNBC in this process were investigated. Only exposure to Fox News was linked to beliefs about abstinence-only sex education directly and indirectly through the cultivation of conservative ideology.

  19. Bridging the Gap in Knowledge Transfer between Academia and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Rajat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper intends to identify the causes or gaps in transfer of managerial knowledge between academia and practitioners and to develop a framework that overcomes the gaps through knowledge management, information technology and human resource practices. The paper aims to suggest a strategic approach based on the knowledge transfer cycle.…

  20. The knowledge and skills gap of medical practitioners delivering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The knowledge and skills gap of medical practitioners delivering district hospital ... and quality health services, and also for guiding appropriate undergraduate, ... The uneven skill and knowledge base in aspects of HIV/AIDS management ...

  1. Mass-media information campaigns and knowledge-gap effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenig, M.W.H.; Midden, C.J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The knowledge-gap hypothesis of Tichenor, Donohue, and Olien (1970) states that people from the higher socioeconomic segments of society acquire information at a faster rate than people from the lower socioeconomic segments. The consequence is a growing knowledge gap between the high and low

  2. Filling the Knowledge Gap: Measuring HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in Tripoli, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Joseph J.; Berendes, Sima; Jeffery, Caroline; Thomson, Joanna; Ben Othman, Hussain; Danon, Leon; Turki, Abdullah A.; Saffialden, Rabea; Mirzoyan, Lusine

    2013-01-01

    Background Publications on Libya’s HIV epidemic mostly examined the victims of the tragic nosocomial HIV outbreak in the 1990s and the related dispute about the detention of foreign medical workers. The dispute resolution in 2003 included an agreement with the European Union on humanitarian cooperation and the development of Libya’s first National HIV Strategy. As part of this we conducted Libya’s first bio-behavioural survey among men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). Methods Using respondent-driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and related risk factors among 227 MSM and 69 FSW in Tripoli (FSW recruitment ended prematurely due to the political events in 2011). Results For MSM we estimated an HIV prevalence of 3.1%, HBV prevalence of 2.9%, and HCV prevalence of 7.3%, and for FSW an HIV prevalence of 15.7%, HBV prevalence of 0%, and HCV prevalence of 5.2%. We detected high levels of risk behaviours, poor HIV-related knowledge, high stigma and lack of prevention programmes. These results must be interpreted in the context of the political situation which prohibited reaching an ideal sample size for FSW. Conclusion There is urgent need to implement an effective National HIV Strategy informed by the results of this research. The risk of transmission within different risk groups and to the general population may be high given the recent military events that led to increased violence, migration, and the disruption of essential HIV-related services. PMID:23840521

  3. Financial Knowledge and the Gender Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Woodyard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial knowledge has been identified as an issue of importance to individual financial wellness. The FINRA Financial Capability Study provides data that make it possible to assess financial knowledge, and to analyze it in the context of financial satisfaction and participation in financial behaviors that are generally considered positive. This paper looks at these relationships by gender and by age group, identifying key differences in outcomes and behaviors. The aim of this study was to identify areas and issues where policy makers can focus efforts, and where practitioners can develop education and therapy protocols to assist clients in financial development and restoration.

  4. Increasing business resilience to flood risk: Developing an effective e-learning tool to bridge the knowledge gap between policy, practice and business owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragg, Amanda; McEwen, Lindsey; Harries, Tim

    2015-04-01

    part that their knowledges and learning play in decision-making have been explored. The co-production process engages regional/national stakeholders who form a Stakeholder Competency Group (from policy and practice), and, a Business Research Partnership Group comprising local business participants. The two groups have opportunities to liaise and network in discussing the prototype for the learning tool. Whatmore et al (2008) and McEwen et al (2014) show that stakeholder views, experience and expertise can strengthen research outputs. The approach reflects current ethics and practices of stakeholder participation in that alongside an academic approach to the research, other equally valid forms of knowledge are recognised: 'a lot can be learned from exploring parallels, controversies and frictions between different forms of competency and knowledge (McEwen et al, 2014), for example, scientific, local, tacit and embedded. This paper presents concerns identified by businesses and wider stakeholders in relation to how the tool is framed and its key design premises. The tool is planned as a living resource that can support a community of learning practice among SMEs to increase flood resilience in the face of increased risk. References Federation of Small Businesses (2014) http://www.fsb.org.uk/stats Whatmore, Lane and Ward et al (2007-2010) Understanding Environmental Knowledge Controversies ESRC/NERC funded interdisciplinary research project (2007-2010) McEwen et al (2014) https://floodmemories.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/advice-from-competent-stakeholders/.

  5. Overcoming Knowledge Gaps in Postmerger Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alaranta, Maria Eliisa; Martela, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Over 50% of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) fail, mainly because of integration problems. In such integrations, much of the experiential (learning-by-doing) knowledge critical for running the business becomes redundant or is lost. However, we know virtually nothing about what type of mechanisms...

  6. Gaps in Alzheimer's Knowledge among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of the disease, it appears that there may be a need for increased education for formal and family caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. Today's college students will be asked to fill both of these roles in the future. This study examined the level of knowledge of Alzheimer's disease among…

  7. Critical gaps in the medical knowledge base of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Dennis; Drabkin, Anne; Krantz, Mori J; Mascolo, Margherita; Rosen, Elissa; Sachs, Katherine; Welles, Christine; Mehler, Philip S

    2018-04-21

    Eating disorders are unique in that they inherently have much medical comorbidity both as a part of restricting-type eating disorders and those characterized by purging behaviors. Over the last three decades, remarkable progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of the medical complications of eating disorders. Yet, unfortunately, there is much research that is sorely needed to bridge the gap between current medical knowledge and more effective and evidence-based medical treatment knowledge. These gaps exist in many different clinical areas including cardiology, electrolytes, gastrointestinal and bone disease. In this paper, we discuss some of the knowledge gap areas, which if bridged would help develop more effective medical intervention for this population of patients.

  8. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  9. Primary Health Care Providers' Knowledge Gaps on Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Megan R.; Stone, Ramona F.; Ochs, V. Dan; Litvan, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine primary health care providers' (PCPs) knowledge gaps on Parkinson's disease, data were collected before and after a one-hour continuing medical education (CME) lecture on early Parkinson's disease recognition and treatment from a sample of 104 PCPs participating at an annual meeting. The main outcome measure was the…

  10. Bridging Implementation, Knowledge, and Ambition Gaps to Eliminate Tuberculosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-02-22

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, director of CDC's Division of Tuberculosis Eliminatio,discusses bridging implementation, knowledge, and ambition gaps to eliminate tuberculosis.  Created: 2/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/2/2011.

  11. Media use and HIV/AIDS knowledge: a knowledge gap perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2014-12-01

    Despite the widespread utilization of the mass media in HIV/AIDS prevention, little is known about the knowledge gap that results from disparities in mass media use. This study examined the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related mass media use and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge among urban and rural residents of northwestern Ethiopia. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that HIV/AIDS-related mass media use has both sequestering and mainstreaming effects in certain segments of the study population, although it was not a significant predictor of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge in the total population. The knowledge gaps between individuals with high and low education and between individuals who experience high and low levels of interpersonal communication about HIV/AIDS narrowed as HIV/AIDS-related media use increased, but the gap between urban and rural residents widened. The widening gap could be explained by differences in perceptions of information salience and several theoretical assumptions. Current mass media information campaigns, which are often prepared and broadcast from urban centers, may not only fail to improve the HIV/AIDS knowledge of the rural populace but also put rural populations at a disadvantage relative to their urban counterparts. Communication interventions informed by socioecological models might be helpful to redress and/or narrow the widening knowledge gap between urban and rural residents. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Internet Use and the Political Knowledge Gap in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anduiza, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Media availability and fragmentation and the resulting possibilities of content selection have risen dramatically with the expansion of new digital media. Previous research has found that this may increase knowledge gaps among citizens with different resources and motivations. This article analyses how Internet use affects political knowledge gaps due to education and to political interest in Spain. As expected, frequent Internet users are more knowledgeable about politics than non-users. Furthermore, Internet use increases knowledge more for the highly educated than for citizens with lower levels of education. Thus, the political knowledge gap related to education seems to be growing with the introduction of new media. However, the knowledge gap between citizens with high and low levels of political interest is smaller for frequent Internet users than for non-users. These findings provide a complex picture and partially contradict the pessimistic theory about the impact of increasing media choice on political knowledge.

    La disponibilidad y fragmentación de medios de comunicación y las posibilidades de elegir contenidos han aumentado en gran medida a raíz de la expansión de los medios digitales. Éstos pueden, según investigaciones anteriores, incrementar las diferencias en los niveles de conocimiento entre ciudadanos con distintas características. En este artículo se analiza cómo el uso de Internet afecta a las diferencias en el conocimiento político según el nivel educativo y el interés por la política en España. Los usuarios frecuentes de Internet saben más sobre política que los no usuarios, como era de esperar. Además, el uso de Internet incrementa el conocimiento político de manera más intensa para los usuarios con niveles educativos más elevados. Por tanto, parece que las diferencias en los niveles de conocimiento pueden estar creciendo con la expansión de los medios digitales. Sin embargo, las diferencias

  13. The Gap between Mapuche Knowledge and School Knowledge in the Mapuche Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Quintriqueo Millán

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the gap between Mapuche and school knowledge in schools of the Ninth Region of Araucanía, Chile. To that end, we examine the implications of a monocultural curriculum for the education of Mapuche children and youth who present different systems of logic for native knowledge and academic knowledge. The methodology used is educational research, based on the multi-method approach. The results provide a knowledge base for understanding the gap between school knowledge and traditional Mapuche knowledge in intercultural educational contexts. The objective is to overcome epistemological issues in the teaching and learning of sciences, through contextualized pedagogical practices that will generate intercultural dialogue in the school-based educational process of Mapuche and non-Mapuche children and youth.

  14. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  15. Understanding the Financial Knowledge Gap: A New Dimension of Inequality in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Nuruzzaman; Rothwell, David W; Cherney, Katrina; Sussman, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    To understand individuals' financial behaviors, it is important to understand the financial knowledge gap - the distance between one's objective and subjective financial knowledge. Overestimating one's financial knowledge can lead to risky financial behaviors. To date, limited empirical work has examined how financial knowledge gap varies across age groups. We analyze the size and nature of the financial knowledge gap and its variation across age groups. Using nationally representative data, we find robust evidence that older adults overestimate their financial knowledge. Social workers can assess the financial knowledge gap and educate their clients to protect from financial fraud, exploitation, and abuse.

  16. Determinants of nurses' knowledge gap on pain management in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia; Adejumo, Oluyinka

    2014-03-01

    There are concerns about adequacy of nurses' knowledge and skill in effective pain management since effective pain management promotes early recovery after surgery. This study explores factors that accounted for Ghanaian nurses' inadequate knowledge of postoperative pain management using a focused ethnographic design for data collection at a tertiary teaching hospital in Ghana. Fourteen nurses designated as key informants with different backgrounds as nurse educators and leaders were purposively sampled to participate. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews; all interviews were conducted in English, audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. The study revealed that nurses' inadequate pain management knowledge might have resulted from curriculum gaps during training; inadequate clinical supervision, study days, and workshops for practising nurses; lack of funding for organising regular workshops; and, negative attitudes of nurses whereby new information learned at workshops was not readily applied in clinical practice. It was concluded that nursing curricula at all levels of training in Ghana should incorporate credit-bearing courses on pain management, and appropriate pain management education programmes should be instituted for practising nurses. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the impact of such education programs is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of individual AIDS risk perception: knowledge, behavioural ... we argue that individual risk perception is shaped by social network influences. ... to show that the importance of AIDS related knowledge and behavioural factors risks ...

  18. Exploring Gaps in Concussion Knowledge and Knowledge Translation Among Coaches of Youth Female Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, David; Verweel, Lee; Reed, Nick

    2017-10-27

    To better understand the level of concussion knowledge of youth female hockey coaches and to identify preferred methods of knowledge translation for this population. Cross-sectional survey. Participants independently completed written surveys before in-person concussion information sessions or online surveys through link provided in emails. Convenience sampling yielded 130 coaches of youth female hockey from Canada. Knowledge level on concussion, resources from which coaches obtained information on concussion, opinions on the current level of concussion knowledge, and knowledge translation. Coaches demonstrated adequate knowledge on concussion, achieving 84% correct on true-false questions and 92% correct on symptom identification accuracy. However, coaches showed limited awareness of concussion specific to mechanisms for injury (identification) and postconcussion symptoms. Internet resources were rated as the most used resources for concussion yet were not rated very helpful. Nonetheless, coaches indicated online courses and web sites as the most preferred method for concussion knowledge translation. Youth female hockey coaches have overall adequate knowledge of concussion; however, gaps in knowledge do exist. Future efforts to raise the concussion knowledge among coaches of female youth hockey should include information specific to the mechanism of injury, along with sign and symptom identification, with particular attention paid to emotional symptoms. Given the reported preferences and the widespread availability of the Internet, further exploration and research validation of online courses and web sites tailored to the youth female hockey community is encouraged.

  19. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical application: challenges for genomic translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Wylie; Korngiebel, Diane M

    2015-01-01

    Despite early predictions and rapid progress in research, the introduction of personal genomics into clinical practice has been slow. Several factors contribute to this translational gap between knowledge and clinical application. The evidence available to support genetic test use is often limited, and implementation of new testing programs can be challenging. In addition, the heterogeneity of genomic risk information points to the need for strategies to select and deliver the information most appropriate for particular clinical needs. Accomplishing these tasks also requires recognition that some expectations for personal genomics are unrealistic, notably expectations concerning the clinical utility of genomic risk assessment for common complex diseases. Efforts are needed to improve the body of evidence addressing clinical outcomes for genomics, apply implementation science to personal genomics, and develop realistic goals for genomic risk assessment. In addition, translational research should emphasize the broader benefits of genomic knowledge, including applications of genomic research that provide clinical benefit outside the context of personal genomic risk.

  20. Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) IRKM-P tightly couples risk management and knowledge management processes and tools to produce an effective "modern" work environment. IRKM-P objectives include: (1) to learn lessons from past and current programs (Apollo, Space Shuttle, and the International Space Station); (2) to generate and share new engineering design, operations, and management best practices through preexisting Continuous Risk Management (CRM) procedures and knowledge-management practices; and (3) to infuse those lessons and best practices into current activities. The conceptual framework of the IRKM-P is based on the assumption that risks highlight potential knowledge gaps that might be mitigated through one or more knowledge management practices or artifacts. These same risks also serve as cues for collection of knowledge particularly, knowledge of technical or programmatic challenges that might recur.

  1. ROSS Skills, Knowledge, and Abilities Training Evaluation. Gaps and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, Maureen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gruidl, Jeremiah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, Brooke [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This document describes the development of the ROSS SKAs, the cross-mapping of the SKAs to the available training, identifies gaps in the SKA and training, and provides recommendations to address those gaps.

  2. Hazard Characterization of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector: What Are the Knowledge Gaps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachy I. Okeke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA is the vector of choice for human and veterinary applications due to its strong safety profile and immunogenicity in vivo. The use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines against human and animal diseases must comply with regulatory requirements as they pertain to environmental risk assessment, particularly the characterization of potential adverse effects to humans, animals and the environment. MVA and recombinant MVA are widely believed to pose low or negligible risk to ecosystem health. However, key aspects of MVA biology require further research in order to provide data needed to evaluate the potential risks that may occur due to the use of MVA and MVA-vectored vaccines. The purpose of this paper is to identify knowledge gaps in the biology of MVA and recombinant MVA that are of relevance to its hazard characterization and discuss ongoing and future experiments aimed at providing data necessary to fill in the knowledge gaps. In addition, we presented arguments for the inclusion of uncertainty analysis and experimental investigation of verifiable worst-case scenarios in the environmental risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA. These will contribute to improved risk assessment of MVA and recombinant MVA vaccines.

  3. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edda T. Lwoga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000 in the context of the local communities. Data from focus groups were used to triangulate with data from interviews in order to validate, confirm and corroborate quantitative results with qualitative findings. The study findings showed that knowledge creation theory can be used to manage IK in the local communities, however, adequate and appropriate resources need to be allocated for capturing and preserving IK before it disappears altogether. For sustainable agricultural development, the communities have to be placed within a knowledge-creating setting that continuously creates, distributes and shares knowledge within and beyond the communities’ boundaries and integrates it with new agricultural technologies, innovations and knowledge.

  4. Closing the Knowledge Gap on Effective Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Achievement gaps concern educators at all levels today. Educators recognize the threats these gaps pose to education quality and equity, and they are working hard to close them--but an equally threatening gap in education with consequences just as serious is largely ignored. It influences every educational-improvement effort and seriously…

  5. Mind the gap! A comparison of oral health knowledge between dental, healthcare professionals and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, W; Filipponi, T; Roberts-Burt, V

    2014-02-01

    The importance of consistent, accurate and unambiguous messages are well documented in oral health promotion literature. Whether the reality of delivering messages in the field fulfils these principle is questionable. This paper explores the perceptions of dental professionals, healthcare professionals and lay community members with regard to key oral health messages in order to highlight any inconsistencies and knowledge gaps between and within groups for disease risk factors. A questionnaire was administered to individuals who belonged to three groups: dental professionals, healthcare professionals and lay community members. The questionnaire established knowledge regarding risk factors for caries, periodontal disease and erosion. Thirty-five (57.4%) of the dental group answered the whole questionnaire correctly, with 22 (27.8%) and 9 (5.1%) of the healthcare and lay community group answering the whole questionnaire correctly, respectively. The question of fluoride levels in children's toothpaste was the main reason for incorrect answers in the dental group. The results of this survey demonstrate a knowledge gradient from dental professionals through to healthcare professionals and then to lay members of the community. The knowledge base observed in the dental group is reflected in the other two groups as would be expected albeit with a significant gap between each group. As expected the dental professionals are generally well informed, but not as well informed as could be expected.

  6. The Gender Wage Gap and Sample Selection via Risk Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung , Seeun

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates a new way to estimate the gender wage gap with the introduction of individual risk attitudes using representative Korean data. We es- timate the wage gap with correction for the selection bias, which latter results in the overestimation of this wage gap. Female workers are more risk averse. They hence prefer working in the public sector, where wages are generally lower than in the private sector. It goes on to explain the reduced gender wage gap by develop- ing an appr...

  7. Knowledge gaps in economic analyses of advanced reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, M.; Pencer, J.; Leung, L.K.H.; Sadhankar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The development of next generation nuclear systems is predicated on improvement in sustainability, safety, proliferation resistance and economics. The economic assessment of the reactor concept is required as early as in the concept development stage. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) has developed a methodology for economic assessment of the Generation IV (GEN-IV) nuclear energy systems. The GIF economics methodology was used for the assessment of one of the reactor concepts for the Super-Critical Water-cooled Reactors (SCWR), namely the European pressure-vessel type concept referred to as the High Performance Light Water Reactor (HPLWR). The economic analysis involved studying the sensitivity of two main economic indicators, namely, the Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC) and the Total Capital Investment Cost (TCIC). The knowledge gaps in estimating the capital costs and fuel costs, as well as the uncertainties in other cost parameters affecting the economic assessment of the nuclear energy system in the concept development stage are presented. (author)

  8. Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids.

  9. Mainstreaming conservation agriculture in Malawi: Knowledge gaps and institutional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew J; Whitfield, Stephen; Stringer, Lindsay C; Vincent, Katharine; Wood, Benjamin T; Chinseu, Edna L; Steward, Peter; Mkwambisi, David D

    2017-06-15

    Conservation agriculture (CA) practices of reduced soil tillage, permanent organic soil coverage and intercropping/crop rotation, are being advocated globally, based on perceived benefits for crop yields, soil carbon storage, weed suppression, reduced soil erosion and improved soil water retention. However, some have questioned their efficacy due to uncertainty around the performance and trade-offs associated with CA practices, and their compatibility with the diverse livelihood strategies and varied agro-ecological conditions across African smallholder systems. This paper assesses the role of key institutions in Malawi in shaping pathways towards more sustainable land management based on CA by outlining their impact on national policy-making and the design and implementation of agricultural development projects. It draws on interviews at national, district and project levels and a multi-stakeholder workshop that mapped the institutional landscape of decision-making for agricultural land management practices. Findings identify knowledge gaps and institutional barriers that influence land management decision-making and constrain CA uptake. We use our findings to set out an integrated roadmap of research needs and policy options aimed at supporting CA as a route to enhanced sustainable land management in Malawi. Findings offer lessons that can inform design, planning and implementation of CA projects, and identify the multi-level institutional support structures required for mainstreaming sustainable land management in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental Evidence of the Knowledge Gap: Message Arousal, Motivation, and Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Yegiyan, Narine; Kamhawi, Rasha

    2008-01-01

    This study experimentally tested the knowledge gap from an information processing perspective. Specifically, knowledge acquisition was investigated under conditions of medium and low news message arousal, with time delay. Results show the persistence of a knowledge gap, particularly for low arousing messages. In fact, at low levels of message…

  11. Bridging the PSI Knowledge Gap: A Multi-Scale Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Brian D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-01-08

    Plasma-surface interactions (PSI) pose an immense scientific hurdle in magnetic confinement fusion and our present understanding of PSI in confinement environments is highly inadequate; indeed, a recent Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee report found that 4 out of the 5 top five fusion knowledge gaps were related to PSI. The time is appropriate to develop a concentrated and synergistic science effort that would expand, exploit and integrate the wealth of laboratory ion-beam and plasma research, as well as exciting new computational tools, towards the goal of bridging the PSI knowledge gap. This effort would broadly advance plasma and material sciences, while providing critical knowledge towards progress in fusion PSI. This project involves the development of a Science Center focused on a new approach to PSI science; an approach that both exploits access to state-of-the-art PSI experiments and modeling, as well as confinement devices. The organizing principle is to develop synergistic experimental and modeling tools that treat the truly coupled multi-scale aspect of the PSI issues in confinement devices. This is motivated by the simple observation that while typical lab experiments and models allow independent manipulation of controlling variables, the confinement PSI environment is essentially self-determined with few outside controls. This means that processes that may be treated independently in laboratory experiments, because they involve vastly different physical and time scales, will now affect one another in the confinement environment. Also, lab experiments cannot simultaneously match all exposure conditions found in confinement devices typically forcing a linear extrapolation of lab results. At the same time programmatic limitations prevent confinement experiments alone from answering many key PSI questions. The resolution to this problem is to usefully exploit access to PSI science in lab devices, while retooling our thinking from a linear and de

  12. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  13. Biochar effects on soils: overview and knowledge gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijen, F. G. A.; Jeffery, S.; Bastos, A. C.; van der Velde, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the cornerstones of the sustainable biochar concept is to improve, or at least to not deteriorate, soil quality and functioning. The idea of global sustainable biochar systems, with biochar applied to global cropland and grassland soils, has highlighted limitations in: i) current scientific understanding of biochar interactions with soil components, ii) the capacity to assess ecosystem services provided by soils, and iii) the uncertainty in spatio-temporal representation of both (i) and (ii). Pyrolysis conditions and feedstock characteristics largely control the physico-chemical properties of the resulting biochar, which in turn determine the suitability for a given application. Soils are highly heterogeneous systems at a range of scales. Combinations of land use, soil management and changing climatic conditions further enhance this heterogeneity. While this leads to difficulties in identifying the underlying mechanisms behind reported effects in the scientific literature, it also provides an opportunity for 'critical matching' of biochar properties that are best suited to a particular site (depending on soil type, hydrology, climate, land use, soil contaminants, etc.). Biochar's relatively long mean residence times in soils (100s of years) make it a potential instrument for sequestering carbon (if done sustainably). However, that same long mean residence time sets biochar apart from conventional soil amendments (such as manures and other organic fertilizers) that are considered as transient in the soil (1-10s of years). The functional life time of biochar in soils essentially moves biochar from a soil management tool to a geo-engineering technique. One of the consequences is that desired ecosystem services that are provided by soils, have to be projected for the same time period. This presentation aims to discuss critical knowledge gaps in biochar-soil-ecosystem interactions against a background of ecosystem services.

  14. Identifying knowledge gaps for gene drive research to control invasive animal species: The next CRISPR step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive animals have been linked to the extinctions of native wildlife, and to significant agricultural financial losses or impacts. Current approaches to control invasive species require ongoing resources and management over large geographic scales, and often result in the short-term suppression of populations. New and innovative approaches are warranted. Recently, the RNA guided gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 is being proposed as a potential gene editing tool that could be used by wildlife managers as a non-lethal addition or alternative to help reduce pest animal populations. While regulatory control and social acceptance are crucial issues that must be addressed, there is an opportunity now to identify the knowledge and research gaps that exist for some important invasive species. Here we systematically determine the knowledge gaps for pest species for which gene drives could potentially be applied. We apply a conceptual ecological risk framework within the gene drive context within an Australian environment to identify key requirements for undertaking work on seven exemplar invasive species in Australia. This framework allows an evaluation of the potential research on an invasive species of interest and within a gene drive and risk context. We consider the currently available biological, genetic and ecological information for the house mouse, European red fox, feral cat, European rabbit, cane toad, black rat and European starling to evaluate knowledge gaps and identify candidate species for future research. We discuss these findings in the context of future thematic areas of research worth pursuing in preparation for a more formal assessment of the use of gene drives as a novel strategy for the control of these and other invasive species. Keywords: Invasive species, Gene drive, CRISPR, Pest management, Islands

  15. Filling Knowledge Gaps for Mimivirus Entry, Uncoating, and Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana Cláudia Dos Santos Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Araújo Lima; Oliveira, Graziele Pereira; Andrade, Kétyllen Reis; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; La Scola, Bernard; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2017-11-15

    Since the discovery of mimivirus, its unusual structural and genomic features have raised great interest in the study of its biology; however, many aspects concerning its replication cycle remain uncertain. In this study, extensive analyses of electron microscope images, as well as biological assay results, shed light on unclear points concerning the mimivirus replication cycle. We found that treatment with cytochalasin, a phagocytosis inhibitor, negatively impacted the incorporation of mimivirus particles by Acanthamoeba castellanii , causing a negative effect on viral growth in amoeba monolayers. Treatment of amoebas with bafilomicin significantly impacted mimivirus uncoating and replication. In conjunction with microscopic analyses, these data suggest that mimiviruses indeed depend on phagocytosis for entry into amoebas, and particle uncoating (and stargate opening) appears to be dependent on phagosome acidification. In-depth analyses of particle morphogenesis suggest that the mimivirus capsids are assembled from growing lamellar structures. Despite proposals from previous studies that genome acquisition occurs before the acquisition of fibrils, our results clearly demonstrate that the genome and fibrils can be acquired simultaneously. Our data suggest the existence of a specific area surrounding the core of the viral factory where particles acquire the surface fibrils. Furthermore, we reinforce the concept that defective particles can be formed even in the absence of virophages. Our work provides new information about unexplored steps in the life cycle of mimivirus. IMPORTANCE Investigating the viral life cycle is essential to a better understanding of virus biology. The combination of biological assays and microscopic images allows a clear view of the biological features of viruses. Since the discovery of mimivirus, many studies have been conducted to characterize its replication cycle, but many knowledge gaps remain to be filled. In this study, we conducted a

  16. Mitigating the Mathematical Knowledge Gap between High School and First Year University Chemical Engineering Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, Moses; Ivala, Eunice

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out at a University of Technology, South Africa, aimed at identifying the existence of the mathematical knowledge gap and evaluating the intervention designed to bridge the knowledge gap amongst students studying first year mathematics at the Chemical Engineering Extended Curriculum Program (ECP). In this…

  17. The gap in scientific knowledge and role of science communication in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Sei-Hill; Kang, Myung-Hyun; Shim, Jae Chul; Ma, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of South Koreans, this study explores the role of science communication in enhancing three different forms of scientific knowledge ( factual, procedural, and subjective). We first assess learning effects, looking at the extent to which citizens learn science from different channels of communication (interpersonal discussions, traditional newspapers, television, online newspapers, and social media). We then look into the knowledge gap hypothesis, investigating how different communication channels can either widen or narrow the gap in knowledge between social classes. Television was found to function as a "knowledge leveler," narrowing the gap between highly and less educated South Koreans. The role of online newspapers in science learning is pronounced in our research. Reading newspapers online indicated a positive relationship to all three measures of knowledge. Contrary to the knowledge-leveling effect of television viewing, reading online newspapers was found to increase, rather than decrease, the gap in knowledge. Implications of our findings are discussed in detail.

  18. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon V.; Dougherty, Mariah K.

    2018-01-01

    Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public. PMID:29316699

  19. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Winham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Registered Dietitians (RDs promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public.

  20. Knowledge gaps and misconceptions about coronary heart disease among U.S. South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Namratha R; Tirodkar, Manasi A; Lauderdale, Diane S; Khurana, Neerja R; Makoul, Gregory; Baker, David W

    2010-04-01

    Although South Asians are at higher risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) than most other U.S. racial/ethnic groups, very little research has addressed this disparity. As a first step in developing culturally targeted CHD prevention messages for this rapidly growing community, this study examined South Asians' knowledge and beliefs about CHD. Analyses, conducted in 2009, were based on data collected from January to July 2008 in a cross-sectional study population of 270 South Asian adults in Illinois. Interviews were conducted in English, Hindi, or Urdu using a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the associations between sociodemographics and CHD knowledge and attitudes about preventability. Eighty-one percent of respondents had one or more CHD risk factors. Most participants (89%) said they knew little or nothing about CHD. Stress was the most frequently mentioned risk factor (44%). Few mentioned controlling blood pressure (11%); cholesterol (10%); and diabetes (5%) for prevention. Fifty-three percent said that heart attacks are not preventable. Low education level, being interviewed in Urdu or Hindi, and low level of acculturation were associated with less knowledge and believing that CHD is not preventable. A majority of South Asians in this study believed that CHD is not preventable and had low awareness of modifiable risk factors. As a first step, CHD education should target the knowledge gaps that may affect risk factor control and behavior change. Educational messages may need to be somewhat different for subgroups (e.g., by education and language) to be maximally effective. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.

  2. Knowledge-Base Semantic Gap Analysis for the Vulnerability Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Raymond; Seki, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Ryusuke; Hisada, Masayuki

    Web security became an alert in internet computing. To cope with ever-rising security complexity, semantic analysis is proposed to fill-in the gap that the current approaches fail to commit. Conventional methods limit their focus to the physical source codes instead of the abstraction of semantics. It bypasses new types of vulnerability and causes tremendous business loss.

  3. Critical Knowledge Gaps in Our Understanding of Environmental Cycling and Transmission of Leptospira spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragan, Veronica; Olivas, Sonora; Keim, Paul; Pearson, Talima

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to soil or water contaminated with the urine of Leptospira -infected animals is the most common way in which humans contract leptospirosis. Entire populations can be at high risk of leptospirosis while working in inundated fields, when engaging in aquatic sports, or after periods of heavy rainfall. The risk of infection after contact with these environmental sources depends on the ability of Leptospira bacteria to survive, persist, and infect new hosts. Multiple variables such as soil and water pH, temperature, and even environmental microbial communities are likely to shape the environmental conditions needed by the pathogen to persist. Here we review what is known about the environmental phase of the infectious Leptospira transmission cycle and identify knowledge gaps that will serve as a guide for future research. Copyright © 2017 Barragan et al.

  4. Knowledge, risk perception and practice regarding tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.

  5. Can Knowledge Deficit Explain Societal Perception of Climate Change Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.; Bondell, H.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change literacy efforts have had a rough journey in the past decade. Although scientists have become increasingly convinced about anthropological climate change, change in public opinion has been underwhelming. The unexplained gap between scientific consensus and public opinion has made this topic an important research area in the realm of public understanding of science. Recent research on climate change risk perception (CCRP) has advanced an intriguing hypothesis, namely, cultural cognition thesis (CCT), which posits that the public has adequate knowledge to understand climate change science but people tend to use this knowledge solely to promote their culturally motivated view-point of climate change. This talk provides evidence to demonstrate that despite culture playing a significant role in influencing CCRP, knowledge deficiency remains a persistent problem in our society and contributes to the aforementioned gap. However, such deficits can remain undiagnosed due to limitations of survey design.

  6. Cybernetics: A Possible Solution for the "Knowledge Gap" between "External" and "Internal" in Evaluation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the knowledge gap between evaluators and the entity being evaluated: the dilemma of the knowledge of professional evaluators vs. the in-depth knowledge of the evaluated subjects. In order to optimize evaluative outcomes, the author suggests an approach based on ideas borrowed from the science of cybernetics as a…

  7. Parental knowledge and adolescents' risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Albertos, A. (Aranzazu); Osorio, A. (Alfonso); Lopez-del-Burgo, C. (Cristina); Carlos, S. (Silvia); Beltramo, C. (Carlos); Trullols, F. (Fernando)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents’ activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answere...

  8. Towards a Consensus View on Understanding Nanomaterials Hazards and Managing Exposure: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey; Lynch, Iseult; Cassee, Flemming; Handy, Richard D.; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Berges, Markus; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A. J.; Dusinska, Maria; Riediker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present an overview of salient issues of exposure, characterisation and hazard assessment of nanomaterials as they emerged from the consensus-building of experts undertaken within the four year European Commission coordination project NanoImpactNet. The approach adopted is to consolidate and condense the findings and problem-identification in such a way as to identify knowledge-gaps and generate a set of interim recommendations of use to industry, regulators, research bodies and funders. The categories of recommendation arising from the consensual view address: significant gaps in vital factual knowledge of exposure, characterisation and hazards; the development, dissemination and standardisation of appropriate laboratory protocols; address a wide range of technical issues in establishing an adequate risk assessment platform; the more efficient and coordinated gathering of basic data; greater inter-organisational cooperation; regulatory harmonization; the wider use of the life-cycle approaches; and the wider involvement of all stakeholders in the discussion and solution-finding efforts for nanosafety. PMID:28809359

  9. Empirical study using network of semantically related associations in bridging the knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Vida; Yeasin, Mohammed; Zand, Ramin

    2014-11-27

    The data overload has created a new set of challenges in finding meaningful and relevant information with minimal cognitive effort. However designing robust and scalable knowledge discovery systems remains a challenge. Recent innovations in the (biological) literature mining tools have opened new avenues to understand the confluence of various diseases, genes, risk factors as well as biological processes in bridging the gaps between the massive amounts of scientific data and harvesting useful knowledge. In this paper, we highlight some of the findings using a text analytics tool, called ARIANA--Adaptive Robust and Integrative Analysis for finding Novel Associations. Empirical study using ARIANA reveals knowledge discovery instances that illustrate the efficacy of such tool. For example, ARIANA can capture the connection between the drug hexamethonium and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis that caused the tragic death of a healthy volunteer in a 2001 John Hopkins asthma study, even though the abstract of the study was not part of the semantic model. An integrated system, such as ARIANA, could assist the human expert in exploratory literature search by bringing forward hidden associations, promoting data reuse and knowledge discovery as well as stimulating interdisciplinary projects by connecting information across the disciplines.

  10. MERS-CoV infection: Mind the public knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawazir, Amen; Al-Mazroo, Eman; Jradi, Hoda; Ahmed, Anwar; Badri, Motasim

    In August 2015, the Corona outbreak caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was the 9th episode since June 2012 in Saudi Arabia. Little is known about the public awareness toward the nature or prevention of the disease. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge of the adult population in Riyadh toward the MERS-CoV. In this cross-sectional survey, a self-administrated questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected participants visiting malls in Riyadh. The questionnaire contained measurable epidemiological and clinical MERS-CoV knowledge level variables and relevant source of information. The study included 676 participants. Mean age was 32.5 (±SD 8.6) years and 353 (47.8%) were males. Almost all participants heard about the corona disease and causative agent. The study showed a fair overall knowledge (66.0%), less knowledge on epidemiological features of the disease (58.3%), and good knowledge (90.7%) on the clinical manifestation of the MERS-CoV. Internet was the major (89.0%) source of disease information, and other sources including health care providers, SMS, television, magazines and books were low rated (all knowledge. This study concludes that there was inadequate epidemiological knowledge received by the public and the reliance mostly on the clinical manifestations to recognizing the MERS-CoV disease. Comprehensive public health education programs is important to increase awareness of simple epidemiological determinants of the disease is warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.; Adjeroud, M.; Bellwood, D. R.; Berumen, Michael L.; Booth, D.; Bozec, Y.-M.; Chabanet, P.; Cheal, A.; Cinner, J.; Depczynski, M.; Feary, D. A.; Gagliano, M.; Graham, N. A. J.; Halford, A. R.; Halpern, B. S.; Harborne, A. R.; Hoey, A. S.; Holbrook, S. J.; Jones, G. P.; Kulbiki, M.; Letourneur, Y.; De Loma, T. L.; McClanahan, T.; McCormick, M. I.; Meekan, M. G.; Mumby, P. J.; Munday, P. L.; Ohman, M. C.; Pratchett, M. S.; Riegl, B.; Sano, M.; Schmitt, R. J.; Syms, C.

    2010-01-01

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef

  12. Scoping study for a one-health response to knowledge gaps in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scoping study for a one-health response to knowledge gaps in antimicrobial ... A recent World Bank report finds that drug-resistant infections have the ... Going to Scale : Sustainable Land Management in the Highlands of Eastern Africa.

  13. State of the Art in HIV Drug Resistance: Science and Technology Knowledge Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Charles A; Bobkova, Marina R; Geretti, Anna Maria; Hung, Chien-Ching; Kaiser, Rolf; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; van Wyk, Jean; Dorr, Pat; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2018-01-01

    Resistance to antiretroviral therapy (ART) threatens the efficacy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) treatment. We present a review of knowledge gaps in the science and technologies of acquired HIV-1 drug resistance (HIVDR) in an effort to facilitate research, scientific exchange, and progress in clinical management. The expert authorship of this review convened to identify data gaps that exist in the field of HIVDR and discuss their clinical implications. A subsequent literature review of trials and current practices was carried out to provide supporting evidence. Several gaps were identified across HIVDR science and technology. A summary of the major gaps is presented, with an expert discussion of their implications within the context of the wider field. Crucial to optimizing the use of ART will be improved understanding of protease inhibitors and, in particular, integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI) in the context of HIVDR. Limited experience with INSTI represents an important knowledge gap in HIV resistance science. Utilizing such knowledge in a clinical setting relies on accurate testing and analysis of resistance-associated mutations. As next-generation sequencing becomes more widely available, a gap in the interpretation of data is the lack of a defined, clinically relevant threshold of minority variants. Further research will provide evidence on where such thresholds lie and how they can be most effectively applied. Expert discussion identified a series of gaps in our knowledge of HIVDR. Addressing prefsuch gaps through further research and characterization will facilitate the optimal use of ART therapies and technologies.

  14. Community knowledge and information communication gaps on HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community needs and address economic and socio-cultural barriers to facilitate education utilisation and behavioural changes required in HIV/AIDS prevention and control in Tanzania. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, knowledge, information communication, Tanzania Tanzania Health Research Bulletin Vol. 8 (2) 2006: pp. 101-108 ...

  15. Looking beyond superficial knowledge gaps: understanding public representations of biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, A.E.; Fischer, A.; Rink, D.; Young, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Lack of public support for, and protest against, biodiversity management measures have often been explained by the apparently inadequate knowledge of biodiversity in the general public. In stark contrast to this assumption of public ignorance, our results from focus group discussions in The

  16. Hypertension detection and control in Port Harcourt: knowledge gap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on continuing medical education on hypertension in Port Harcourt, Nigeria was conducted in June 2013. Post test was also administered. Participants were drawn from both private and public medical practice. The questionnaire contained demographic data and knowledge of diagnosis and treatment of hypertension.

  17. Addressing the knowledge gap: sexual violence and harassment in the UK Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, Lauren R; Fossey, M

    2017-09-06

    Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertaining to the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in the military, explore potential reasons for this gap in knowledge and outline future directions and priorities for academic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Bridging the gap between human knowledge and machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos ALVARADO-PÉREZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, great amount of data is being created by several sources from academic, scientific, business and industrial activities. Such data intrinsically contains meaningful information allowing for developing techniques, and have scientific validity to explore the information thereof. In this connection, the aim of artificial intelligence (AI is getting new knowledge to make decisions properly. AI has taken an important place in scientific and technology development communities, and recently develops computer-based processing devices for modern machines. Under the premise, the premise that the feedback provided by human reasoning -which is holistic, flexible and parallel- may enhance the data analysis, the need for the integration of natural and artificial intelligence has emerged. Such an integration makes the process of knowledge discovery more effective, providing the ability to easily find hidden trends and patterns belonging to the database predictive model. As well, allowing for new observations and considerations from beforehand known data by using both data analysis methods and knowledge and skills from human reasoning. In this work, we review main basics and recent works on artificial and natural intelligence integration in order to introduce users and researchers on this emergent field. As well, key aspects to conceptually compare them are provided.

  19. Human strongyloidiasis: identifying knowledge gaps, with emphasis on environmental control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor MJ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Taylor, Tara A Garrard, Francis J O'Donahoo, Kirstin E Ross Health and Environment, School of the Environment, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Strongyloides is a human parasitic nematode that is poorly understood outside a clinical context. This article identifies gaps within the literature, with particular emphasis on gaps that are hindering environmental control of Strongyloides. The prevalence and distribution of Strongyloides is unclear. An estimate of 100–370 million people infected worldwide has been proposed; however, inaccuracy of diagnosis, unreliability of prevalence mapping, and the fact that strongyloidiasis remains a neglected disease suggest that the higher figure of more than 300 million cases is likely to be a more accurate estimate. The complexity of Strongyloides life cycle means that laboratory cultures cannot be maintained outside of a host. This currently limits the range of laboratory-based research, which is vital to controlling Strongyloides through environmental alteration or treatment. Successful clinical treatment with antihelminthic drugs has meant that controlling Strongyloides through environmental control, rather than clinical intervention, has been largely overlooked. These control measures may encompass alteration of the soil environment through physical means, such as desiccation or removal of nutrients, or through chemical or biological agents. Repeated antihelminthic treatment of individuals with recurrent strongyloidiasis has not been observed to result in the selection of resistant strains; however, this has not been explicitly demonstrated, and relying on such assumptions in the long-term may prove to be shortsighted. It is ultimately naive to assume that continued administration of antihelminthics will be without any negative long-term effects. In Australia, strongyloidiasis primarily affects Indigenous communities, including communities from arid central Australia. This

  20. Gaps in the Body of Knowledge of Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    practices, agile development, Kanban , risk management, and decision management. This focus is being driven by the need to reduce time for delivery of...to incorporate Kanban approaches to scheduling the SE activities based on value. Rapid Fielding. In this situation, there is a short time to

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury: Persistent Misconceptions and Knowledge Gaps among Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettel, Deborah; Glang, Ann E.; Todis, Bonnie; Davies, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Each year approximately 700,000 U.S. children aged 0-19 years sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI) placing them at risk for academic, cognitive, and behavioural challenges. Although TBI has been a special education disability category for 25 years, prevalence studies show that of the 145,000 students each year who sustain long-term injury from…

  2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Related Knowledge, Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was poor HIV preventive practices; indicating ... Gyawali, et al.: HIV related knowledge, risk perception and practices among married women. Annals of Medical .... of this study correspond to the Indian, Nigerian and Iranian studies cited ...

  3. The influence of knowledge on risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi

    1997-01-01

    Many researches on risk perception have often been concerned with reaction of the public to modern technology. A major concern is the public fear of such new technology as nuclear power and genetic engineering. When the perceived risk was examined using a risk ranking technique, Japanese school teachers, university students and also NIRS staffs (female clerical staffs and researchers) viewed nuclear power to be much riskier than the objective estimation. Many technical experts have believed that this great fear results from an overestimation of risk by the public due to lack of scientific knowledge. So far, several studies reported the results to examine the correlation of the perception of some risk sources with knowledge about them, although their conclusions are inconsistent. When the perceived risk by trainees on a radiation protection course in NIRS was examined, nuclear power was rated as the second and 14th among 30 risk items by those who majored in life sciences in college and by those in physics, chemistry or technology, respectively. The perceived risk of nuclear power did not change among trainees by training offered fundamental knowledge about radiation during the course. On the other hand, the orders of smoking and alcoholic beverages rose considerably. Our results are consistent with the previous reports, i.e., what people learn initially about risk source has more important role in risk perception than what they learn later, and the increase of perceived risk is more easier than its decrease. Knowledge is now recognized as one of the factors which influence on risk perception. However, a special emphasis is now placed on risk communication in order to make partnership between communicators and receivers in the risk management. (author)

  4. Bridging the knowledge gap between Big Data producers and consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G. S.; Worley, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most weather data is produced, disseminated and consumed by expert users in large national operational centers or laboratories. Data 'ages' off their systems in days or weeks. While archives exist, would-be users often lack the credentials necessary to obtain an account to access or search its contents. Moreover, operational centers and many national archives lack the mandate and the resources to serve non-expert users. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Research Data Archive (RDA), rda.ucar.edu, was created over 40 years ago to collect data for NCAR's internal Big Science projects such as the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Project. Over time, the data holdings have grown to 1.8+ Petabytes spanning 600+ datasets. The user base has also grown; in 2014, we served 1.1 Petabytes of data to over 11,000 unique users. The RDA works with national centers, such as NCEP, ECMWF and JMA to make their data available to worldwide audiences and mutually support data access at the production source. We have become not just an open-access data center, but also a data education center. Each dataset archived at the RDA is assigned to a data specialist (DS) who curates the data. If a user has a question not answered in the dataset information web pages prepared by the DS, they can call or email a skilled DS for further clarification. The RDA's diverse staff—with academic training in meteorology, oceanography, engineering (electrical, civil, ocean and database), mathematics, physics, chemistry and information science—means we likely have someone who "speaks your language." Erroneous data assumptions are the Achilles heel of Big Data. It doesn't matter how much data you crunch if the data is not what you think it is. Data discovery is another difficult Big Data problem; one can only solve problems with data if one can find the right data. Metadata, both machine and human-generated, underpin the RDA data search tools. The RDA has stepped in to fill the gap between data

  5. Parental knowledge and adolescents' risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertos, Aranzazu; Osorio, Alfonso; Lopez-Del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; Beltramo, Carlos; Trullols, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study whether parental knowledge of adolescents' activities varies according to socio-demographic variables, and we analyze the possible association between parental knowledge patterns and certain risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with representative samples of high-school students in Peru and El Salvador. A questionnaire assessed risk behaviors, as well as possible determinants, including parental knowledge. The questionnaire was answered by 6208 adolescents. We observed that the greater the degree of knowledge, the lower the frequency of risk behaviors among youth. The degree of knowledge was inversely associated with children's age, and we observed that being female was associated with a greater degree of parental knowledge. The study shows that parents' supervision criteria might be influenced by gender stereotypes, which would have a harmful effect on young males, as the lower degree of knowledge puts them at higher odds of risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nuclear transport in Entamoeba histolytica: knowledge gap and therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwairgi, Marina A; Ghildyal, Reena

    2018-03-22

    Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes human amoebiasis. It is one of the leading parasitic disease burdens in tropical regions and developing countries, with spread to developed countries through migrants from and travellers to endemic regions. Understanding E. histolytica's invasion mechanisms requires an understanding of how it interacts with external cell components and how it engulfs and kills cells (phagocytosis). Recent research suggests that optimal phagocytosis requires signalling events from the cell surface to the nucleus via the cytoplasm, and the induction of several factors that are transported to the plasma membrane. Current research in other protozoans suggests the presence of proteins with nuclear localization signals, nuclear export signals and Ran proteins; however, there is limited literature on their functionality and their functional similarity to higher eukaryotes. Based on learnings from the development of antivirals, nuclear transport elements in E. histolytica may present viable, specific, therapeutic targets. In this review, we aim to summarize our limited knowledge of the eukaryotic nuclear transport mechanisms that are conserved and may function in E. histolytica.

  7. The value of health information technology: filling the knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Robert S; Jones, Spencer S; Shekelle, Paul; Hillestad, Richard J; Keeler, Emmett B

    2014-11-01

    Despite rapid growth in the rate of adoption of health information technology (HIT), and in the volume of evaluation studies, the existing knowledge base for the value of HIT is not advancing at a similar rate. Most evaluation articles are limited in that they use incomplete measures of value and fail to report the important contextual and implementation characteristics that would allow for an adequate understanding of how the study results were achieved. To address these deficiencies, we present a conceptual framework for measuring HIT value and we propose a checklist of characteristics that should be considered in HIT evaluation studies. The framework consists of 3 key principles: 1) value includes both costs and benefits; 2) value accrues over time; and 3) value depends on which stakeholder's perspective is used. Through examples, we show how these principles can be used to guide and improve HIT evaluation studies. The checklist includes a list of contextual and implementation characteristics that are important for interpretation of results. These improvements will make future studies more useful for policy makers and more relevant to the current needs of the healthcare system.

  8. Personalized medicine. Closing the gap between knowledge and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Duarte-Rey, Carolina; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan C; Bardey, David; Castiblanco, John; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Personalized medicine encompasses a broad and evolving field informed by a patient distinctive information and biomarker profile. Although terminology is evolving and some semantic interpretations exist (e.g., personalized, individualized, precision), in a broad sense personalized medicine can be coined as: "To practice medicine as it once used to be in the past using the current biotechnological tools." A humanized approach to personalized medicine would offer the possibility of exploiting systems biology and its concept of P5 medicine, where predictive factors for developing a disease should be examined within populations in order to establish preventive measures on at-risk individuals, for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. Herein, the process of personalized medicine is presented together with the options that can be offered in health care systems with limited resources for diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge gaps in tropical Southeast Asian seagrass systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Jillian Lean Sim; Kendrick, Gary A.; Van Niel, Kimberly P.; Affendi, Yang Amri

    2011-03-01

    Seagrasses are habitats with significant ecological and economic functions but we have limited knowledge of seagrasses in Southeast Asia, the hypothesized centre-of-origin for tropical seagrasses. There have been only 62 ISI-cited publications on the seagrasses of Southeast Asia in the last three decades and most work has been in few sites such as Northwest Luzon in the Philippines and South Sulawesi in Indonesia. Our understanding of the processes driving spatial and temporal distributions of seagrass species here has focussed primarily on backreef and estuarine seagrass meadows, with little work on forereef systems. We used Pulau Tinggi, an island off the southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, as an example of a subtidal forereef system. It is characterized by a community of small and fast growing species such as Halophila ovalis (mean shoot density 1454.6 ± 145.1 m -2) and Halodule uninervis (mean shoot density 861.7 ± 372.0 m -2) growing in relatively low light conditions (mean PAR 162.1 ± 35.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 10 m depth to 405.8 ± 99.0 μmol m -2 s -1 at 3 m water depth) on sediment with low carbonate (mean 9.24 ± 1.74 percentage dry weight), organic matter (mean 2.56 ± 0.35 percentage dry weight) and silt-clay content (mean 2.28 ± 2.43 percentage dry weight). The literature reveals that there is a range of drivers operating in Southeast Asian seagrass systems and we suggest that this is because there are various types of seagrass habitats in this region, i.e. backreef, forereef and estuary, each of which has site characteristics and ecological drivers unique to it. Based on our case study of Pulau Tinggi, we suggest that seagrasses in forereef systems are more widespread in Southeast Asia than is reflected in the literature and that they are likely to be driven by recurring disturbance events such as monsoons, sediment burial and herbivory.

  10. The ecotoxicity of graphene family materials: current status, knowledge gaps and future needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzębska, Agnieszka Maria; Olszyna, Andrzej Roman

    2015-01-01

    Recently, graphene family materials (GFMs) have been introduced among all fields of science and still get numerous attention. Also, the applicability of these materials in many areas makes them very attractive. GFMs have attracted both academic and industrial interest as they can produce a dramatic improvement in materials properties at very low filler content. The aim of this review is to identify, summarize, and present the first available information on the influence of GFMs on soil and water environment as well as identify the knowledge gaps and indicate the directions for the next generation of the original scientific investigations. The paper also presents our first preliminary impact assessment and potential pathways of GFMs distribution in the environment. We used as an example the reduced graphene oxide/Al 2 O 3 nanocomposite (RGO/Al 2 O 3 ) that has been previously designed and synthesized by us. Authors believe that further work should focus on improvement of characterization methodology applicable for ecotoxicity analyses and possible interactions between GFMs and different living ecosystems. Consequently, the potential impact of graphene and its derivatives on environmental health is a matter of academic interest. However, potential hazards sufficient for risk assessment and concerned with GFMs usage in consumer products first need to be investigated and identified. Further research should focus on gathering knowledge on GFMs properties for life cycle analyses, which still poses a great challenge for scientists

  11. The ecotoxicity of graphene family materials: current status, knowledge gaps and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrzębska, Agnieszka Maria, E-mail: agsolgala@gmail.com; Olszyna, Andrzej Roman, E-mail: aolszyna@meil.pw.edu.pl [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    Recently, graphene family materials (GFMs) have been introduced among all fields of science and still get numerous attention. Also, the applicability of these materials in many areas makes them very attractive. GFMs have attracted both academic and industrial interest as they can produce a dramatic improvement in materials properties at very low filler content. The aim of this review is to identify, summarize, and present the first available information on the influence of GFMs on soil and water environment as well as identify the knowledge gaps and indicate the directions for the next generation of the original scientific investigations. The paper also presents our first preliminary impact assessment and potential pathways of GFMs distribution in the environment. We used as an example the reduced graphene oxide/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite (RGO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) that has been previously designed and synthesized by us. Authors believe that further work should focus on improvement of characterization methodology applicable for ecotoxicity analyses and possible interactions between GFMs and different living ecosystems. Consequently, the potential impact of graphene and its derivatives on environmental health is a matter of academic interest. However, potential hazards sufficient for risk assessment and concerned with GFMs usage in consumer products first need to be investigated and identified. Further research should focus on gathering knowledge on GFMs properties for life cycle analyses, which still poses a great challenge for scientists.

  12. Understanding the Knowledge Gap Experienced by U.S. Safety Net Patients in Teleretinal Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba M; Hayes, Erin Moran; Fish, Allison; Daskivich, Lauren Patty; Ogunyemi, Omolola I

    2016-01-01

    Safety-net patients' socioeconomic barriers interact with limited digital and health literacies to produce a "knowledge gap" that impacts the delivery of healthcare via telehealth technologies. Six focus groups (2 African- American and 4 Latino) were conducted with patients who received teleretinal screening in a U.S. urban safety-net setting. Focus groups were analyzed using a modified grounded theory methodology. Findings indicate that patients' knowledge gap is primarily produced at three points during the delivery of care: (1) exacerbation of patients' pre-existing personal barriers in the clinical setting; (2) encounters with technology during screening; and (3) lack of follow up after the visit. This knowledge gap produces confusion, potentially limiting patients' perceptions of care and their ability to manage their own care. It may be ameliorated through delivery of patient education focused on both disease pathology and specific role of telehealth technologies in disease management.

  13. The Trilogy of Science: Filling the Knowledge Management Gap with Knowledge Science and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Anthony Shawn

    2017-01-01

    The international knowledge management field has different ways of investigating, developing, believing, and studying knowledge management. Knowledge management (KM) is distinguished deductively by know-how, and its intangible nature establishes different approaches to KM concepts, practices, and developments. Exploratory research and theoretical…

  14. Knowledge gaps that hamper prevention and control of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkema, H W; Orsel, K; Nielsen, S S

    2018-01-01

    In the last decades, many regional and country-wide control programmes for Johne's disease (JD) were developed due to associated economic losses, or because of a possible association with Crohn's disease. These control programmes were often not successful, partly because management protocols were...... programmes are typically evaluated in a limited number of herds and the duration of the study is less than 5 year, making it difficult to adequately assess the efficacy of control programmes. In this manuscript, we identify the most important gaps in knowledge hampering JD prevention and control programmes......, including vaccination and diagnostics. Secondly, we discuss directions that research should take to address those knowledge gaps....

  15. An eHealth Approach to Reporting Allergic Reactions to Food and Closing the Knowledge Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Christopher; Semic-Jusufagic, Aida; Pyrz, Katarzyna; Couch, Philip; Dunn-Galvin, Audrey; Peek, Niels; Themis, Marina; Mills, Clare; Buchan, Iain; Hourihane, Jonathan; Simpson, Angela

    2015-01-01

    There is an important knowledge gap in food allergy management in understanding the factors that determine allergic reactions to food, in gathering objective reports of reactions in real time, and in accessing patients' reaction-histories during consultations. We investigate how eHealth methods can close this knowledge gap. We report experiences with an online tool for reporting allergic reactions that we have developed as a web application. This application has been successfully validated by participants from Ireland and the UK, and is currently being used in a pilot where participants report allergic reactions in near-real time.

  16. Summary of: Mind the gap! A comparison of oral health knowledge between dental, healthcare professionals and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R S

    2014-02-01

    The importance of consistent, accurate and unambiguous messages are well documented in oral health promotion literature. Whether the reality of delivering messages in the field fulfils these principle is questionable. This paper explores the perceptions of dental professionals, healthcare professionals and lay community members with regard to key oral health messages in order to highlight any inconsistencies and knowledge gaps between and within groups for disease risk factors. A questionnaire was administered to individuals who belonged to three groups: dental professionals, healthcare professionals and lay community members. The questionnaire established knowledge regarding risk factors for caries, periodontal disease and erosion. Thirty-five (57.4%) of the dental group answered the whole questionnaire correctly, with 22 (27.8%) and 9 (5.1%) of the healthcare and lay community group answering the whole questionnaire correctly, respectively. The question of fluoride levels in children's toothpaste was the main reason for incorrect answers in the dental group. The results of this survey demonstrate a knowledge gradient from dental professionals through to healthcare professionals and then to lay members of the community. The knowledge base observed in the dental group is reflected in the other two groups as would be expected albeit with a significant gap between each group. As expected the dental professionals are generally well informed, but not as well informed as could be expected.

  17. Assessing and Managing Knowledge Loss Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermarkar, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • Sustaining Design Basis Knowledge is a strategic need for long term safe and reliable operation; • Utilities need to manage knowledge in a systematic manner, based on identifying areas of risk, developing and implementing plans to mitigate the risk, and exercising oversight of those plans; • Approaches will differ depending upon organizational functions and needs; • Individual utility efforts are not sufficient: they need to be complemented by a larger scale infrastructure in the academic and research communities; • The Canadian nuclear industry has been collaborating to actively support and expand the academic infrastructure to sustain design basis knowledge; • KM initiatives require constant nurturing for sustainability; • Internationally recognized guidance on Characteristics, Attributes and Best Practices for governmental, industrial and academic contributions to KM is important to sustainability

  18. Giving what one should: explanations for the knowledge-behavior gap for altruistic giving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning. I conclude that self-regulation, social distance, and social learning show the most promising evidence for understanding the mechanisms that can close the gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A review of higher education image and reputation literature: Knowledge gaps and a research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Lafuente-Ruiz-de-Sabando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions are investing increasing resources in order to achieve favourable perceptions among their stakeholders. However, image and reputation management is a complex issue and how stakeholders perceive universities does not always coincide with the image the latter wish to project. For this reason, in this article we address a review of the literature on higher education image and reputation to identify the main knowledge gaps and establish the research lines that merit deeper examination in the future. The gaps identified highlight the need to improve knowledge about the way perceptions (image and reputation of university institutions are shaped, pinpointing the dimensions or essential aspects that influence their formation and determining whether their degree of influence differs when considering the perspectives of different stakeholders or individuals from different geographical areas. Theoretical propositions related to the identified gaps have been set out.

  20. Knowledge Gaps Impacting the Development of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Control Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper identifies knowledge gaps that impact on the design of programs to control and or eradicate bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) in the United States. Currently there are several voluntary regional BVDV control programs in place. These control programs are aimed at the removal of animals ...

  1. Practice Patterns of School-Based Occupational Therapists Targeting Handwriting: A Knowledge-to-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramm, Heidi; Egan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Poor handwriting is a common reason for referral to school-based occupational therapy. A survey was used to explore the extent to which current practice patterns in Ontario, Canada, align with evidence on effective intervention for handwriting. Knowledge-to-practice gaps were identified related to focus on performance components versus…

  2. Beyond Knowledge Gaps: Examining Socioeconomic Differences in Response to Cancer News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This article tested a model, informed by the knowledge gap hypothesis, to predict information seeking about cancer immediately following news about the diagnosis or death from cancer of a national celebrity. I identified five celebrity news events and examined their impact using data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey. News…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge, Misconceptions and Gaps about Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Fernández-Andrés, María-Inmaculada; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    The inclusive education framework and the increase in autism diagnoses have led to an overwhelming challenge for pre-service teachers who need to be qualified to teach all children. To test the quality of their training, the main purpose of this study was to compare 866 pre-service teachers' knowledge, misconceptions, and gaps about autism in…

  4. What College Students Do Not Know: Where Are the Gaps in Sexual Health Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.; Smith, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to understand the gaps in college students' knowledge regarding sexual health information. Participants: A sample of 242 participants enrolled in an introductory college course participated in this study in the Fall 2009 semester. Methods: Students participated in 1 of 2 brief interventions and wrote a response paper…

  5. Selective media exposure and increasing knowledge gaps in Swiss referendum campaigns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopmann, D.N.; Wonneberger, A.; Shehata, A.; Höijer, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the discussion on how the growing opportunities for media choice influence gaps in political knowledge among those motivated to consume news versus those who are not. With more television channels available, it becomes easier to choose content matching personal

  6. Knowledge Management Practices and Enablers in Public Universities: A Gap Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sharimllah Devi; Chong, Siong-Choy; Wong, Kuan-Yew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the gap between knowledge management (KM) practices and key strategic enablers in public universities. For this purpose, a 57-item survey on two dimensions--"use" and "importance"--was used as the instrument for this study. Design/methodology/approach: The questionnaire was…

  7. HRS/NSA 2014 Survey of Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke: Gaps in Knowledge and Perspective, Opportunities for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, David S; Parker, Sarah E; Rosenfeld, Lynda E; Gorelick, Philip B

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is substantial and increasing. Stroke is common in AF and can have devastating consequences. Oral anticoagulants are effective in reducing stroke risk, but are underutilized. We sought to characterize the impact of stroke on AF patients and their caregivers, gaps in knowledge and perspective between physicians and patients, and barriers to effective communication and optimal anticoagulation use. A survey was administered to AF patients with and without history of stroke, caregivers of stroke survivors, and physicians across the range of specialties caring for AF and stroke patients. While AF patients (n = 499) had limited knowledge about stroke, they expressed great desire to learn more and take action to reduce their risk. They were often dissatisfied with the education they had received and desired high-quality written materials. Stroke survivors (n = 251) had poor functional outcomes and often underestimated the burden of caring for them. Caregivers (n = 203) also wished they had received more information about reducing stroke risk before their survivor's event. They commonly felt overwhelmed and socially isolated. Physicians (n = 504) did not prescribe anticoagulants as frequently as recommended by guidelines. Concerns about monitoring anticoagulation and patient compliance were commonly reported barriers. Physicians may underestimate patient willingness to take anticoagulants. We identified significant knowledge gaps among patients, caregivers, and physicians in relation to AF and stroke. Furthermore, gaps in perspective often lead to suboptimal communication and decision making. Increased education and better communication between all stakeholders are needed to reduce the impact of stroke in AF. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society and National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Closing global knowledge gaps : Producing generalized knowledge from case studies of social-ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Ellis, Erle C.; Allington, Ginger R.H.; de Bremond, Ariane; Dell'Angelo, Jampel; Mertz, Ole; Messerli, Peter; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Seppelt, Ralf; Verburg, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over rapid widespread changes in social-ecological systems and their consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, food security, and human livelihoods are driving demands for globally comprehensive knowledge to support decision-making and policy development. Claims of regional or

  9. Ambiguity in knowledge transfer: The role of theory-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Salsali, Mahvash; Safari, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    In spite of much literature written about the theory-practice gap in the international nursing journals, there is evidence that indicates this subject has not been probed comprehensively since nursing education was transferred to universities in Iran. In the recent years, the public and the government have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor quality of patient care. Although this subject has been lamented by some researchers, there is no comprehensive work on how this gap resulted. In the process of a larger study on "nursing knowledge translation to practice", of one PhD thesis, this process was explored. Using grounded theory analysis, indepth interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 29 nurses, with different levels of experience, from the school of nursing in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2006 from January to August. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Three main themes emerging from this study included clinical behavior structure, paradoxical knowledge and practice, and divergent nursing organization. It seems that nursing education with some praxis and paradoxes in the realm of nursing knowledge and practice, along with divergent organizational structure have decreased nurses' ability in applying their professional knowledge and skills in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Moreover, in spite of increased academic input into nursing education, clinical behaviors of both education and practice settings was perceived as "traditional routine-based".

  10. Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Clinicians Who Evaluate and Treat Vocal Performing Artists in College Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon-Howe, Leah; Dowdall, Jayme

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this study was to identify knowledge gaps in clinicians who evaluate and treat performing artists for illnesses and injuries that affect vocal function in college health settings. This pilot study utilized a web-based cross-sectional survey design incorporating common clinical scenarios to test knowledge of evaluation and management strategies in the vocal performing artist. A web-based survey was administered to a purposive sample of 28 clinicians to identify the approach utilized to evaluate and treat vocal performing artists in college health settings, and factors that might affect knowledge gaps and influence referral patterns to voice specialists. Twenty-eight clinicians were surveyed, with 36% of respondents incorrectly identifying appropriate vocal hygiene measures, 56% of respondents failing to identify symptoms of vocal fold hemorrhage, 84% failing to identify other indications for referral to a voice specialist, 96% of respondents acknowledging unfamiliarity with the Voice Handicap Index and the Singers Voice Handicap Index, and 68% acknowledging unfamiliarity with the Reflux Symptom Index. The data elucidated specific knowledge gaps in college health providers who are responsible for evaluating and treating common illnesses that affect vocal function, and triaging and referring students experiencing symptoms of potential vocal emergencies. Future work is needed to improve the standard of care for this population. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cost assessment of natural hazards in Europe - state-of-the-art, knowledge gaps and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, V.; Becker, N.; Markantonis, V.; Schwarze, R.; van den Bergh, J. C. J. M.; Bouwer, L. M.; Bubeck, P.; Ciavola, P.; Thieken, A. H.; Genovese, E.; Green, C.; Hallegatte, S.; Kreibich, H.; Lequeux, Q.; Viavattenne, C.; Logar, I.; Papyrakis, E.; Pfurtscheller, C.; Poussin, J.; Przyluski, V.

    2012-04-01

    Effective and efficient reduction of natural hazard risks requires a thorough understanding of the costs of natural hazards in order to develop sustainable risk management strategies. The current methods that assess the costs of different natural hazards employ a diversity of terminologies and approaches for different hazards and impacted sectors. This makes it difficult to arrive at robust, comprehensive and comparable cost figures. The CONHAZ (Costs of Natural Hazards) project aimed to compile and synthesise current knowledge on cost assessment methods in order to strengthen the role of cost assessments in the development of integrated natural hazard management and adaptation planning. In order to achieve this, CONHAZ has adopted a comprehensive approach, considering natural hazards ranging from droughts, floods and coastal hazards to Alpine hazards, as well as different impacted sectors and cost types. Its specific objectives have been 1) to compile the state-of-the-art methods for cost assessment; 2) to analyse and assess these methods in terms of technical aspects, as well as terminology, data quality and availability, and research gaps; and 3) to synthesise resulting knowledge into recommendations and to identify further research needs. This presentation summarises the main results of CONHAZ. CONHAZ differentiates between direct tangible damages, losses due to business interruption, indirect damages, intangible effects, and costs of risk mitigation. It is shown that the main focus of cost assessment methods and their application in practice is on direct costs, while existing methods for assessing intangible and indirect effects are rather rarely applied and methods for assessing indirect effects often cannot be used on the scale of interest (e.g. the regional scale). Furthermore, methods often focus on single sectors and/or hazards, and only very few are able to reflect several sectors or multiple hazards. Process understanding and its use in cost assessment

  12. HIV knowledge, risk perception and risk behaviour among male ex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate HIV knowledge, beliefs and HIV risk behaviours among ex-offenders in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. A sample of 85 male ex-offenders conveniently selected from an exoffenders organization were interviewed with a structured and open-ended questionnaire. Results indicate ...

  13. Narrowing the gap between theory and practice? Interactive knowledge development in a coastal defense project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, Chris; van Tatenhove, J.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Otter, Henriëtte; Javernick-Will, A.; Chinowsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal defence projects intend to develop solutions in a highly dynamic environment. The coastal zone is characterized by expanding cities, rising flood risks, economic activity, and a threatened natural environment. Developing relevant knowledge for solutions in coastal defence projects is

  14. The Perception Gap: Recognizing and managing the risks that arise when we get risk wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropeik, David

    2012-05-01

    Many in the academic, science, and business communities are frustrated at how people perceive and respond to risk, lamenting that the lay public is sometimes more afraid of some threats than the evidence warrants, and less afraid of some dangers than the evidence warns. This is often ascribed to the alarmist way the news media cover risk-related subjects. That criticism is simplistic and unproductive, and ignores or dismisses the large body of research that finds that the perception of risk is not, and can never be, perfectly rational. Risk perception among members of the public, the media, and members of the academic, scientific, and business communities, is ultimately subjective. The gap between our fears and the evidence is not simply the product of alarmist media reporting. This 'Perception Gap' poses significant risks in and of itself, influencing the choices we make as individuals and as a society. The roots of the Perception Gap must be understood if we are to recognize the dangers that can arise when we sometimes get risk wrong, and in order that we may more wisely manage those risks as actively as we manage toxicological or food or other risks with which we are more familiar. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pharmacogenomic knowledge gaps and educational resource needs among physicians in selected specialties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Taber KA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Katherine A Johansen Taber, Barry D Dickinson Department of Science and Biotechnology, American Medical Association, Chicago, IL, USA Background: The use of pharmacogenomic testing in the clinical setting has the potential to improve the safety and effectiveness of drug therapy, yet studies have revealed that physicians lack knowledge about the topic of pharmacogenomics, and are not prepared to implement it in the clinical setting. This study further explores the pharmacogenomic knowledge deficit and educational resource needs among physicians. Materials and methods: Surveys of primary care physicians, cardiologists, and psychiatrists were conducted. Results: Few physicians reported familiarity with the topic of pharmacogenomics, but more reported confidence in their knowledge about the influence of genetics on drug therapy. Only a small minority had undergone formal training in pharmacogenomics, and a majority reported being unsure what type of pharmacogenomic tests were appropriate to order for the clinical situation. Respondents indicated that an ideal pharmacogenomic educational resource should be electronic and include such components as how to interpret pharmacogenomic test results, recommendations for prescribing, population subgroups most likely to be affected, and contact information for laboratories offering pharmacogenomic testing. Conclusion: Physicians continue to demonstrate pharmacogenomic knowledge gaps, and are unsure about how to use pharmacogenomic testing in clinical practice. Educational resources that are clinically oriented and easily accessible are preferred by physicians, and may best support appropriate clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, knowledge gap, drug response, educational resource

  16. Towards prevention of vitamin D deficiency and beyond: knowledge gaps and research needs in vitamin D nutrition and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2011-12-01

    The North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently published their report on dietary reference intakes (DRI) for Ca and vitamin D. The DRI committee's deliberations underpinning this most comprehensive report on vitamin D nutrition to date benefited hugely from a much expanded knowledge base in vitamin D over the last decade or more. However, since their release, the vitamin D DRI have been the subject of intense controversy, which is largely due to the persistence of fundamental knowledge gaps in vitamin D. These can be identified at the levels of exposure, metabolism, storage, status, dose-response, function and beneficial or adverse health effects, as well as safe and effective application of intake recommendations at the population level through sustainable food-based approaches. The present review provides a brief overview of the approach used by the IOM committee to revise the DRI for vitamin D and to collate from a number of authoritative sources key knowledge gaps in vitamin D nutrition from the public health perspective. A number of research topics are outlined and data requirements within these are identified and mapped to the risk assessment framework used by the DRI committee. While not intended as an exhaustive list, it provides a basis for organising and prioritising research efforts in the area of vitamin D, which may offer a perspective on the major areas in need of attention. It is intended to be of use to researchers, national policy makers, the public health community, industry groups and other relevant stakeholders including funding institutions.

  17. Knowledge management in support of enterprise risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Eduardo; Edwards, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Risk management and knowledge management have so far been studied almost independently. The evolution of risk management to the holistic view of Enterprise Risk Management requires the destruction of barriers between organizational silos and the exchange and application of knowledge from different risk management areas. However, knowledge management has received little or no attention in risk management. This paper examines possible relationships between knowledge management constructs relate...

  18. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

  19. Knowledge and behavioural factors associated with gender gap in acquiring HIV among youth in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraboni Patra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Design and Methods. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years, interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson’s Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, P<0.001. Women who had first sex under age 15 (7.3%, had more than 2 sexual partners (9.2% and did not use condom during last sex (6.4% were more HIV-positive. Higher risk was found among women (6.3% than men (2.2%. Significantly (P<0.01 less percentage (81.3% of women as compared to men (83.8% perceived that the probability of HIV transmission may be reduced by correct and consistent use of the condom during sex. Conclusions. Hence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies and programmes to raise awareness on sexual health and risky behaviour, particularly targeting the youth, which will reduce the gender gap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda.

  20. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jane Rochelle-Newall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms e.g. fecal indicator bacteria (FIB such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

  1. Spinal Cord Injury Clinical Registries: Improving Care across the SCI Care Continuum by Identifying Knowledge Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Marcel F; Cheng, Christiana L; Fallah, Nader; Santos, Argelio; Atkins, Derek; Humphreys, Suzanne; Rivers, Carly S; White, Barry A B; Ho, Chester; Ahn, Henry; Kwon, Brian K; Christie, Sean; Noonan, Vanessa K

    2017-10-15

    Timely access and ongoing delivery of care and therapeutic interventions is needed to maximize recovery and function after traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). To ensure these decisions are evidence-based, access to consistent, reliable, and valid sources of clinical data is required. The Access to Care and Timing Model used data from the Rick Hansen SCI Registry (RHSCIR) to generate a simulation of healthcare delivery for persons after tSCI and to test scenarios aimed at improving outcomes and reducing the economic burden of SCI. Through model development, we identified knowledge gaps and challenges in the literature and current health outcomes data collection throughout the continuum of SCI care. The objectives of this article were to describe these gaps and to provide recommendations for bridging them. Accurate information on injury severity after tSCI was hindered by difficulties in conducting neurological assessments and classifications of SCI (e.g., timing), variations in reporting, and the lack of a validated SCI-specific measure of associated injuries. There was also limited availability of reliable data on patient factors such as multi-morbidity and patient-reported measures. Knowledge gaps related to structures (e.g., protocols) and processes (e.g., costs) at each phase of care have prevented comprehensive evaluation of system performance. Addressing these knowledge gaps will enhance comparative and cost-effectiveness evaluations to inform decision-making and standards of care. Recommendations to do so were: standardize data element collection and facilitate database linkages, validate and adopt more outcome measures for SCI, and increase opportunities for collaborations with stakeholders from diverse backgrounds.

  2. Drive Cost Reduction, Increase Innovation and Mitigate Risk with Advanced Knowledge Discovery Tools Designed to Unlock and Leverage Prior Knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry is knowledge-intensive and includes a diverse number of stakeholders. Much of this knowledge is at risk as engineers, technicians and project professionals retire, leaving a widening skills and information gap. This knowledge is critical in an increasingly complex environment with information from past projects often buried in decades-old, non-integrated systems enterprise. Engineers can spend 40% or more of their time searching for answers across the enterprise instead of solving problems. The inability to access trusted industry knowledge results in increased risk and expense. Advanced knowledge discovery technologies slash research times by as much as 75% and accelerate innovation and problem solving by giving technical professionals access to the information they need, in the context of the problems they are trying to solve. Unlike traditional knowledge management approaches, knowledge discovery tools powered by semantic search technologies are adept at uncovering answers in unstructured data and require no tagging, organization or moving of data, meaning a smaller IT footprint and faster time-to-knowledge. This session will highlight best-in-class knowledge discovery technologies, content, and strategies to give nuclear industry organizations the ability to leverage the corpus of enterprise knowledge into the future. (author

  3. Cross-disciplinary research in cancer: an opportunity to narrow the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, R; Grunfeld, E; Jackson, L; Sargeant, J; Porter, G A

    2013-12-01

    Health services researchers have consistently identified a gap between what is identified as "best practice" and what actually happens in clinical care. Despite nearly two decades of a growing evidence-based practice movement, narrowing the knowledge-practice gap continues to be a slow, complex, and poorly understood process. Here, we contend that cross-disciplinary research is increasingly relevant and important to reducing that gap, particularly research that encompasses the notion of transdisciplinarity, wherein multiple academic disciplines and non-academic individuals and groups are integrated into the research process. The assimilation of diverse perspectives, research approaches, and types of knowledge is potentially effective in helping research teams tackle real-world patient care issues, create more practice-based evidence, and translate the results to clinical and community care settings. The goals of this paper are to present and discuss cross-disciplinary approaches to health research and to provide two examples of how engaging in such research may optimize the use of research in cancer care.

  4. Active epilepsy prevalence, the treatment gap, and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Yang; Guo, Yi; Shen, Chunhong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Feng; Yan, Shengqiang; Ding, Meiping

    2018-01-01

    We measured the prevalence of active epilepsy and investigated the treatment gap and treatment gap risk profile in eastern China. This was a cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in Zhejiang, China, from October 2013 to March 2014. A total 54,976 people were selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. A two-stage questionnaire-based process was used to identify patients with active epilepsy and to record their demographic, socioeconomic, and epilepsy-related features. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze risk factors of the treatment gap in eastern China, as adjusted for age and sex. We interviewed 50,035 people; 118 had active epilepsy (2.4‰), among which the treatment gap was 58.5%. In multivariate analysis, failure to receive appropriate antiepileptic treatment was associated with higher seizure frequency of 12-23 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=6.874; 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.372-19.918), >24 times per year (adjusted odds ratio=19.623; 95% CI=4.999-77.024), and a lack of health insurance (adjusted odds ratio=7.284; 95% CI=1.321-40.154). Eastern China has relatively lower prevalence of active epilepsy and smaller treatment gap. Interventions aimed at reducing seizure frequency, improving the health insurance system should be investigated as potential targets to further bridge the treatment gap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stakeholder Meeting: Integrated Knowledge Translation Approach to Address the Caregiver Support Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; McMillan, Jacqueline; Jette, Nathalie; Brémault-Phillips, Suzette C; Duggleby, Wendy; Hanson, Heather M; Parmar, Jasneet

    2017-03-01

    Family caregivers are an integral and increasingly overburdened part of the health care system. There is a gap between what research evidence shows is beneficial to caregivers and what is actually provided. Using an integrated knowledge translation approach, a stakeholder meeting was held among researchers, family caregivers, caregiver associations, clinicians, health care administrators, and policy makers. The objectives of the meeting were to review current research evidence and conduct multi-stakeholder dialogue on the potential gaps, facilitators, and barriers to the provision of caregiver supports. A two-day meeting was attended by 123 individuals. Three target populations of family caregivers were identified for discussion: caregivers of seniors with dementia, caregivers in end-of-life care, and caregivers of frail seniors with complex health needs. The results of this meeting can and are being used to inform the development of implementation research endeavours and policies targeted at providing evidence-informed caregiver supports.

  6. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  7. Understanding gaps between the risk perceptions of wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents and wildfire professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Meldrum; Patricia A. Champ; Hannah Brenkert-Smith; Travis Warziniack; Christopher M. Barth; Lilia C. Falk

    2015-01-01

    Research across a variety of risk domains finds that the risk perceptions of professionals and the public differ. Such risk perception gaps occur if professionals and the public understand individual risk factors differently or if they aggregate risk factors into overall risk differently. The nature of such divergences, whether based on objective inaccuracies or on...

  8. Results of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Gap Review: Specific Action Team (SAT), Examination of Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for Human Exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Eppler, D.; Farrell, W.; Gruener, J.; Lawrence, S.; Pellis, N.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J.; Zeigler, R.; Neal, C; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) was tasked by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to establish a Specific Action Team (SAT) to review lunar Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) within the context of new lunar data and some specific human mission scenarios. Within this review, the SAT was to identify the SKGs that have been fully or partially retired, identify new SKGs resulting from new data and observations, and review quantitative descriptions of measurements that are required to fill knowledge gaps, the fidelity of the measurements needed, and if relevant, provide examples of existing instruments or potential missions capable of filling the SKGs.

  9. Mapping the global research landscape and knowledge gaps on multimorbidity: a bibliometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolin; Mishra, Gita D; Jones, Mark

    2017-06-01

    To summarize global research trends and activities on multimorbidity; then to assess the knowledge gaps and to identify implications for knowledge exchange between high income countries (HICs) and low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). A comprehensive search was conducted to identify research publications on multimorbidity in the Web of Science TM , as well as diabetes, depression, hypertension, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The time frame for the search was from 1900 to June, 2016. Information (such as publication date, subject category, author, country of origin, title, abstract, and keywords) were extracted and the full texts were obtained for the co-citation analysis. Data were linked with the life expectancy at birth (years) and Gross National Income (GNI). Co-citation and hierarchal clustering analysis was used to map the trends and research networks with CiteSpace II (JAVA freeware, copyright Chaomei Chen, http://cluster.cis.drexel.edu/~cchen/citespace/). We identified 2864 relevant publications as at June 2016, with the first paper on this topic indexed in 1974 from Germany, but 80% were published after 2010. Further analysis yielded two knowledge gaps: (1) compared with single conditions (diabetes, hypertension, depression, and COPD), there is a mismatch between the high prevalence of multimorbidity and its research outputs (ratio of articles on multimorbidity vs other four single conditions is 1:13-150); (2) although a total of 76 countries have contributed to this research area, only 5% of research originated from LMICs where 73% of non-communicable disease (NCD) related deaths had occurred. Additional analysis showed the median year of first publication occurred 15 years later in the LMICs compared with HICs (2010 vs 1995); and longer life expectancy was associated with exponentially higher publication outputs (Pearson correlation coefficient r  = 0.95) at the global level. The life expectancy at the median year (1994) of

  10. Gaps in knowledge: tracking and explaining gender differences in health information seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manierre, Matthew J

    2015-03-01

    Self-directed health information seeking has become increasingly common in recent years, yet there is a substantial body of evidence suggesting that females are more likely to engage in information seeking than males. Previous research has largely ignored the significance of this difference as both an empirical and a theoretical finding. The current study has two goals, seeking to track this sex gap over time and to test explanations for its existence. The three explanations tested are based in past findings of gendered division of childcare labor, gendered reactivity to illness, and gendered perceived risk of illness. These were tested using multiple dependent variables from both repeated cross sectional data and 2012 data from the Health Information Trends Survey (HINTS). Results show that females are significantly more likely to look for cancer information, information in general, and information over the Internet over time than males, though the gap may be closing in the case of cancer information. The three explanations also received little clear support though perceived risk of getting cancer acted as a mediator through which men may be less likely to look for cancer information. Based on this analysis it is clear that a sex gap in information seeking is present and theories of masculinity and health may hold promise in some contexts but additional explanations are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge diffusion in social work: a new approach to bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herie, Marilyn; Martin, Garth W

    2002-01-01

    The continuing gap between research and practice has long been a problem in social work. A great deal of the empirical practice literature has emphasized practice evaluation (usually in the form of single-case methodologies) at the expense of research dissemination and utilization. An alternative focus for social work researchers can be found in the extensive theoretical and research literature on knowledge diffusion, technology transfer, and social marketing. Knowledge diffusion and social marketing theory is explored in terms of its relevance to social work education and practice, including a consideration of issues of culture and power. The authors present an integrated dissemination model for social work and use a case example to illustrate the practical application of the model. The OPTIONS (OutPatient Treatment In ONtario Services) project is an example of the effective dissemination of two research-based addiction treatment modalities to nearly 1,000 direct practice clinicians in Ontario, Canada.

  12. Engineered nanoparticles at the workplace: current knowledge about workers' risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietroiusti, A; Magrini, A

    2014-07-01

    The novel physicochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) make them very attractive for industrial and biomedical purposes, but concerns have been raised regarding unpredictable adverse health effects in humans. Current evidence for the risk posed by ENPs to exposed workers is the subject of this review. To perform an in-depth review of the state of art of nanoparticle exposure at work. Original articles and reviews in Pubmed and in principal databases of medical literature up to 2013 were included in the analysis. In addition, grey literature released by qualified regulatory agencies and by governmental and non-governmental organizations was also taken into consideration. There are significant knowledge and technical gaps to be filled for a reliable evaluation of the risk posed for workers by ENPs. Evidence for potential workplace release of ENPs however seems substantial, and the amount of exposure may exceed the proposed occupational exposure limits (OELs). The rational use of conventional engineering measures and of protective personal equipment seems to mitigate the risk. A precautionary approach is recommended for workplace exposure to ENPs, until health-based OELs are developed and released by official regulatory agencies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.

    2010-02-26

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  14. Knowledge of Stroke Risk Factors among Stroke Survivors in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Vincent-Onabajo; Taritei Moses

    2016-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of stroke risk factors is expected to reduce the incidence of stroke?whether first-ever or recurrent. This study examined knowledge of stroke risk factors and its determinants among stroke survivors. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of consenting stroke survivors at two physiotherapy facilities in Nigeria was carried out. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained and knowledge of stroke risk factors (defined as the ability to mention at least one correct risk fac...

  15. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I. A knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.S.; Thomsen, M.; Assmuth, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environ...... and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk components in cumulative risk management.......This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human...... and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again...

  16. Two approaches to bridging the knowledge-practice gap in oncology nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Gloanna J

    2015-01-01

    The field of oncology nursing is continually changing. New drugs to aid in the fight against cancer are being developed, complementary therapies to ease symptoms are gaining prominence, and survivorship care is becoming a welcome yet challenging area of subspecialty. For oncology nurses to provide quality care and to develop improved care delivery systems, they must not only have access to the most current knowledge in the field, but also be equipped with the skills necessary to integrate that knowledge into practice for the benefit of patients and families (LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014). The importance of nursing research and its relationship to the practice of oncology nursing cannot be minimized (Moore & Badger, 2014). Oncology nurse researchers advance knowledge and, consequently, improve the quality of care for patients with cancer and their families. For example, the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) regularly surveys its membership to identify key areas of research focus that then guide the work of nurse investigators (LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014; ONS Research Agenda Team, 2009). Unfortunately, the shortage of nurse scientists, particularly in oncology nursing, continues to increase as senior doctoral faculty reach retirement age and doctoral education program development remains stagnant (Glasgow & Dreher, 2010; LoBiondo-Wood et al., 2014). This shortage has and will continue to lead to gaps in the generation and implementation of new knowledge, negatively affecting the quality of patient care. As a result, an urgent need exists for innovative and quality doctoral educational programs to develop nurse scientists (Moore & Badger, 2014).

  17. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  18. Oncology knowledge gap among freshly passed interns in a Government Medical College of Eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Anis; Das, Anuradha; Ghosh, Ashok; Giri, Rajsekhar; Biswas, Nilay

    2013-04-01

    A survey was conducted among freshly passed undergraduate doctors of a medical college in Eastern India with the aim to investigate their exposure to oncology patients, their knowledge about various aspects of oncology patient management and their confidence in managing patients with cancer. One hundred and twelve newly passed interns of a Government Medical College in Kolkata were interviewed using semi-structured partly open ended and partly closed end questionnaire. The questionnaire dealt with the qualitative and quantitative aspects of knowledge and perception of the interns about the problem of cancer and its management. A total of 82 interns responded to the questionnaire, with a response rate of 73.2%. About 53% of the respondents have seen less than five patients during their undergraduate ward/clinical postings. Among the respondents, 71% felt they were confident in diagnosing cancer, and about 56% were confident in counseling of patient and their relatives about cancer. About 63% were aware about the role of surgery; however, only 32% and 37.5% were aware about the role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively. A dismal 12.5% were confident of care of terminal and late stage patients. Preparedness was correlated with exposure to patients with cancer (P = 0.03). Majority (87%) felt the need for incorporating oncology training at the undergraduate level and the most frequent method (67%) suggested for doing so was having separate posting in radiotherapy department/oncology wards. There is glaring knowledge gap among newly passed doctors and integrated oncology postings during undergraduate training and during internship may help seal this gap.

  19. Crowdsourcing awareness: exploration of the ovarian cancer knowledge gap through Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca R Carter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease in the United States, with more women dying from this cancer than all gynecological cancers combined. Ovarian cancer has been termed the "silent killer" because some patients do not show clear symptoms at an early stage. Currently, there is a lack of approved and effective early diagnostic tools for ovarian cancer. There is also an apparent severe knowledge gap of ovarian cancer in general and of its indicative symptoms among both public and many health professionals. These factors have significantly contributed to the late stage diagnosis of most ovarian cancer patients (63% are diagnosed at Stage III or above, where the 5-year survival rate is less than 30%. The paucity of knowledge concerning ovarian cancer in the United States is unknown. METHODS: The present investigation examined current public awareness and knowledge about ovarian cancer. The study implemented design strategies to develop an unbiased survey with quality control measures, including the modern application of multiple statistical analyses. The survey assessed a reasonable proxy of the US population by crowdsourcing participants through the online task marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk, at a highly condensed rate of cost and time compared to traditional recruitment methods. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of ovarian cancer was compared to that of breast cancer using repeated measures, bias control and other quality control measures in the survey design. Analyses included multinomial logistic regression and categorical data analysis procedures such as correspondence analysis, among other statistics. We confirmed the relatively poor public knowledge of ovarian cancer among the US population. The simple, yet novel design should set an example for designing surveys to obtain quality data via Amazon Mechanical Turk with the associated analyses.

  20. Crowdsourcing awareness: exploration of the ovarian cancer knowledge gap through Amazon Mechanical Turk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Rebecca R; DiFeo, Analisa; Bogie, Kath; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Sun, Jiayang

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease in the United States, with more women dying from this cancer than all gynecological cancers combined. Ovarian cancer has been termed the "silent killer" because some patients do not show clear symptoms at an early stage. Currently, there is a lack of approved and effective early diagnostic tools for ovarian cancer. There is also an apparent severe knowledge gap of ovarian cancer in general and of its indicative symptoms among both public and many health professionals. These factors have significantly contributed to the late stage diagnosis of most ovarian cancer patients (63% are diagnosed at Stage III or above), where the 5-year survival rate is less than 30%. The paucity of knowledge concerning ovarian cancer in the United States is unknown. The present investigation examined current public awareness and knowledge about ovarian cancer. The study implemented design strategies to develop an unbiased survey with quality control measures, including the modern application of multiple statistical analyses. The survey assessed a reasonable proxy of the US population by crowdsourcing participants through the online task marketplace Amazon Mechanical Turk, at a highly condensed rate of cost and time compared to traditional recruitment methods. Knowledge of ovarian cancer was compared to that of breast cancer using repeated measures, bias control and other quality control measures in the survey design. Analyses included multinomial logistic regression and categorical data analysis procedures such as correspondence analysis, among other statistics. We confirmed the relatively poor public knowledge of ovarian cancer among the US population. The simple, yet novel design should set an example for designing surveys to obtain quality data via Amazon Mechanical Turk with the associated analyses.

  1. Knowledge and awareness of and perception towards cardiovascular disease risk in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boateng, Daniel; Wekesah, Frederick; Browne, Joyce L.; Agyemang, Charles; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Smit, Henriette A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common cause of non-communicable disease mortality in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Gaps in knowledge of CVD conditions and their risk factors are important barriers in effective prevention and treatment. Yet, evidence on the awareness and knowledge

  2. Gaps in Science Content Knowledge Encountered during Teaching Practice: A Study of Early-Career Middle-School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Brian Edward

    2013-01-01

    Subject-specific content knowledge is crucial for effective science teaching, yet many teachers are entering the field not fully equipped with all the science content knowledge they need to effectively teach the subject. Learning from practice is one approach to bridging the gap between what practicing teachers know and what they need to know.…

  3. Bridging the Otolaryngology Peer Review Knowledge Gap: A Call for a Residency Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-07-01

    Current otolaryngology literature and future scientific direction rely heavily on a rigorous peer review process. Just as manuscripts warrant thoughtful review with constructive feedback to the authors, the same can be said for critiques written by novice peer reviewers. Formal scientific peer review training programs are lacking. Recognizing this knowledge gap, Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery is excited to offer its new Resident Reviewer Development Program. All otolaryngology residents who are postgraduate year 2 and above and in excellent academic standing are eligible to participate in this mentored program, during which they will conduct 6 manuscript reviews under the direction of a seasoned reviewer in his or her subspecialty area of interest. By completing reviews alongside a mentor, participants gain the required skills to master the peer review process-a first step that often leads to journal editorial board and associate editor invitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  4. Preparing for Humans at Mars, MPPG Updates to Strategic Knowledge Gaps and Collaboration with Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Wargo, Michael J.; Beaty, David

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Program Planning Group (MPPG) was an agency wide effort, chartered in March 2012 by the NASA Associate Administrator for Science, in collaboration with NASA's Associate Administrator for Human Exploration and Operations, the Chief Scientist, and the Chief Technologist. NASA tasked the MPPG to develop foundations for a program-level architecture for robotic exploration of Mars that is consistent with the President's challenge of sending humans to the Mars system in the decade of the 2030s and responsive to the primary scientific goals of the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey for Planetary Science. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) also sponsored a Precursor measurement Strategy Analysis Group (P-SAG) to revisit prior assessments of required precursor measurements for the human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the key results of the MPPG and P-SAG efforts to update and refine our understanding of the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) required to successfully conduct human Mars missions.

  5. "Mind the Gap": Researchers Ignore Politics at Their Own Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Judith

    2016-02-01

    No matter how distasteful researchers find policy politics, effective policy requires that they engage. Drawing on her career bridging the research/politics gap in health care policy, the author makes a case for why and how researchers can do just that. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  6. Bioinvasion in a Brazilian bay: filling gaps in the knowledge of southwestern Atlantic biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara L Ignacio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are a major cause of global species change. Nevertheless, knowledge about the distribution and ecology of introduced species is regionally biased, and many gaps in knowledge exist for most developing countries.To study the zoobenthos on the hard substratum of the Ilha Grande Bay, a survey was conducted on both natural and artificial substrata at three depths and seven sites. The species recorded were classified as native, cryptogenic or introduced. Multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the prevalence of introduced species in these communities and to compare the distribution of species on natural and artificial substrata of this bay to identify possible discrepancies in habitat use. Of the 61 species, 25 were cryptogenic, 10 were introduced and 26 were native. Similar numbers of introduced species were found on both natural and artificial substrata, though the community composition was significantly different between them. We also compared the species composition of the Ilha Grande Bay survey to other inventories taken around the world. The highest similarities were found between the Ilha Grande Bay inventory and the Atlantic coastal region (Tampa Bay, USA and the Gulf of Mexico, American Samoa and Pearl Harbor (USA inventories.This study presents the first published comprehensive list of hard substratum sessile marine invertebrate species in a Brazilian bay. The high percentage of cryptogenic species reveals gaps in both zoological records and information on introduced species for the Brazilian coast. The introduced species successfully colonized different sites in the Ilha Grande Bay, including both natural and artificial substrata. In addition, we find that artificial structures may not be good surrogates for natural rocky shores and may represent an ecological threat. Comparisons with other inventories suggest a history of broad-scale invasion, though more evidence is needed to support this conclusion.

  7. The Longitudinal Study of Aging in Human Young Adults: Knowledge Gaps and Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E; Belsky, Daniel W; Danese, Andrea; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2017-02-01

    To prevent onset of age-related diseases and physical and cognitive decline, interventions to slow human aging and extend health span must eventually be applied to people while they are still young and healthy. Yet most human aging research examines older adults, many with chronic disease, and little is known about aging in healthy young humans. This article explains how this knowledge gap is a barrier to extending health span and puts forward the case that geroscience should invest in researching the pace of aging in young adults. As one illustrative example, we describe an initial effort to study the pace of aging in a young-adult birth cohort by using repeated waves of biomarkers collected across the third and fourth decades to quantify the pace of coordinated physiological deterioration across multiple organ systems (eg, pulmonary, periodontal, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, metabolic, and immune function). Findings provided proof of principle that it is possible to quantify individual variation in the pace of aging in young adults still free of age-related diseases. This article articulates research needs to improve longitudinal measurement of the pace of aging in young people, to pinpoint factors that slow or speed the pace of aging, to compare pace of aging against genomic clocks, to explain slow-aging young adults, and to apply pace of aging in preventive clinical trials of antiaging therapies. This article puts forward a research agenda to fill the knowledge gap concerning lifelong causes of aging. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment in Education and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, Sanda; Varas, Gonzalo Jimenez

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge management is based on the idea that the most valuable resource of some organisation is the knowledge of its people. Organisational performances will depend, among many other things, on how effectively its people can create new knowledge, share knowledge in organisation, and use that knowledge to achieve higher efficiency and the best results. The aim of knowledge management is not necessarily to manage all knowledge, just the knowledge that is most important to the organisation. It is about ensuring that people have the knowledge they need, where and when they need it. Knowledge is derived from information but it is richer and more meaningful than information. In organisational terms, knowledge is generally considered as 'knowing how', or 'applied action'. Organisational knowledge is often classified as explicit and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be captured and written down in documents or databases. Tacit knowledge is the knowledge that people carry in their heads and can be difficult to access. Tacit knowledge is considered more valuable because it provides context for people, ideas and experiences. Knowledge management is discipline consisting of three components: people, processes and technology. These three components are often compared to the legs of stool- if one is missing, the stool will collapse. However, one component is more important than the others- people. What happens when someone leaves an organisation? Does the organisation feel knowledge loss? According intellectual capital theory organisation will lose not only human capital but also social, structural and relational capital. Determining what happens when these valuable experts leave may help organisation to better understand the impact of knowledge loss and formulate appropriate action in future. Management of knowledge loss is process consisting of three steps: risk assessment, determination of approach for critical knowledge capturing, and monitoring

  9. WILDLIFE HEALTH 2.0: BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE-TO-ACTION GAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Craig

    2017-01-01

    The unprecedented threats to the health and sustainability of wildlife populations are inspiring conversations on the need to change the way knowledge is generated, valued, and used to promote action to protect wildlife health. Wildlife Health 2.0 symbolizes the need to investigate how to improve connections between research expertise and policy or practices to protect wildlife health. Two imperatives drive this evolution: 1) growing frustrations that research is inadequately being used to inform management decisions and 2) the realization that scientific certainty is context specific for complex socioecologic issues, such as wildlife health. Failure to appreciate the unpredictability of complex systems or to incorporate ethical and cultural dimensions of decisions has limited the contribution of research to decision making. Wildlife health can draw from scholarship in other fields, such as public health and conservation, to bridge the knowledge-to-action gap. Efforts to integrate science into decisions are more likely to be effective when they enhance relevance, credibility, and legitimacy of information for people who will make or be affected by management decisions. A Wildlife Health 2.0 agenda is not a rejection of the current research paradigm but rather a call to expand our areas of inquiry to ensure that the additional contextual understanding is generated to help decision makers make good choices.

  10. The 5As team intervention: bridging the knowledge gap in obesity management among primary care practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunleye, Ayodele; Osunlana, Adedayo; Asselin, Jodie; Cave, Andrew; Sharma, Arya Mitra; Campbell-Scherer, Denise Lynn

    2015-12-22

    Despite opportunities for didactic education on obesity management, we still observe low rates of weight management visits in our primary care setting. This paper describes the co-creation by front-line interdisciplinary health care providers and researchers of the 5As Team intervention to improve obesity prevention and management in primary care. We describe the theoretical foundations, design, and core elements of the 5AsT intervention, and the process of eliciting practitioners' self-identified knowledge gaps to inform the curricula for the 5AsT intervention. Themes and topics were identified through facilitated group discussion and a curriculum relevant to this group of practitioners was developed and delivered in a series of 12 workshops. The research question and approach were co-created with the clinical leadership of the PCN; the PCN committed internal resources and a practice facilitator to the effort. Practice facilitation and learning collaboratives were used in the intervention For the content, front-line providers identified 43 topics, related to 13 themes around obesity assessment and management for which they felt the need for further education and training. These needs included: cultural identity and body image, emotional and mental health, motivation, setting goals, managing expectations, weight-bias, caregiver fatigue, clinic dynamics and team-based care, greater understanding of physiology and the use of a systematic framework for obesity assessment (the "4Ms" of obesity). The content of the 12 intervention sessions were designed based on these themes. There was a strong innovation values fit with the 5AsT intervention, and providers were more comfortable with obesity management following the intervention. The 5AsT intervention, including videos, resources and tools, has been compiled for use by clinical teams and is available online at http://www.obesitynetwork.ca/5As_Team . Primary care interdisciplinary practitioners perceive important

  11. The relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele Burger

    CV risk profile of the group according to the risk score system developed by the ... an individual has about CVD, and the possible risk factors contributing to the .... levels in the lowest tertile of CVD knowledge versus the highest tertile of CVD ..... CV risk factors and health behavior counseling, much can be done to prevent ...

  12. A MSFD complementary approach for the assessment of pressures, knowledge and data gaps in Southern European Seas: The PERSEUS experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crise, A.; Kaberi, H.; Ruiz, José Luis Martinez

    2015-01-01

    PERSEUS project aims to identify the most relevant pressures exerted on the ecosystems of the Southern European Seas (SES), highlighting knowledge and data gaps that endanger the achievement of SES Good Environmental Status (GES) as mandated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD......). A complementary approach has been adopted, by a meta-analysis of existing literature on pressure/impact/knowledge gaps summarized in tables related to the MSFD descriptors, discriminating open waters from coastal areas. A comparative assessment of the Initial Assessments (IAs) for five SES countries has been also...... independently performed. The comparison between meta-analysis results and IAs shows similarities for coastal areas only. Major knowledge gaps have been detected for the biodiversity, marine food web, marine litter and underwater noise descriptors. The meta-analysis also allowed the identification of additional...

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practice GAP in family planning usage: an analysis of selected cities of Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anjali; Singh, K K; Verma, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    The GAP between the knowledge of contraception and its actual practice is well recognized in the literature of family welfare studies. The present study assessed the relation between the level of knowledge and practice of contraception among the women and sought to explore the reasons behind the Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice - GAP (KAP GAP) regarding contraceptive users in six cities of Uttar Pradesh. Present analysis based on 17,643 currently married women aged 15 to 49. A Bivariate analysis ( χ 2 test) and a multivariable logistic regression were performed for the study. The highest percentages of respondents (women) were in the age group 35-49 (40-45 %) in all the districts considered. Knowledge of contraceptives was almost universal; tubal ligation and pill were the commonly known methods. Information about the contraceptive methods was mostly obtained through the husband. In the present study, there was a highly significant association ( p  GAP for all six cities. Health concern issues in all the districts were the most prominent reason for not using contraception. There differences in the socioeconomic and demographic factors exist, which lead to KAP GAP in the family planning (FP) usages. Therefore, in designing effective family planning programme, there is a need to understand the various factors which influence the practice of contraception.

  14. Clinical Perspective Youth violence risk assessment: gaps in local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International literature on violence risk assessment indicates that although a number of instruments designed to assess youth violence risk exist, many primarily focus on identifying psychopathic tendencies in young people, which has stimulated much debate amongst scholars. In addition to paying careful attention to the ...

  15. Currency Risk and Imperfect Knowledge: Volatility and Long Swings around Benchmark Values

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Stillwagon

    2013-01-01

    This study tests several models of the currency risk premium, but does so using survey data on traders' forecasts to directly measure the expected excess return. Among those tested are UIP, CAPM, and the Imperfect Knowledge Economics (IKE) gap model, which respectively imply that the premium is zero, related to the variance of the exchange rate, and related to the deviation between the exchange rate and its benchmark value of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). The main result is that the p-value ...

  16. Evidence and knowledge gaps on the disease burden in sexual and gender minorities: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Karel; Say, Lale; Chou, Doris; Toskin, Igor; Khosla, Rajat; Scolaro, Elisa; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-01-22

    Sexual and gender minorities (SGM) include individuals with a wide range of sexual orientations, physical characteristics, and gender identities and expressions. Data suggest that people in this group face a significant and poorly understood set of additional health risks and bear a higher burden of some diseases compared to the general population. A large amount of data is available on HIV/AIDS, but far less on other health problems. In this review we aimed to synthesize the knowledge on the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases, mental health conditions and violence experienced by SGM, based on available systematic reviews. We conducted a global review of systematic reviews, including searching the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaboration libraries, as well as PubMed, using a range of search terms describing the populations of interest, without time or language restrictions. Google Scholar was also scanned for unpublished literature, and references of all selected reviews were checked to identify further relevant articles. We found 30 systematic reviews, all originally written in English. Nine reviews provided data on HIV, 12 on other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 4 on cancer, 4 on violence and 3 on mental health and substance use. A quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. The findings are presented in a narrative format. Our review primarily showed that there is a high burden of disease for certain subpopulations of SGM in HIV, STIs, STI-related cancers and mental health conditions, and that they also face high rates of violence. Secondly, our review revealed many knowledge gaps. Those gaps partly stem from a lack of original research, but there is an equally urgent need to conduct systematic and literature reviews to assess what we already know on the disease burden in SGM. Additional reviews are needed on the non-biological factors that could contribute to the higher disease burden. In addition, to provide universal access to

  17. Systematic review on physician's knowledge about radiation doses and radiation risks of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krille, Lucian; Hammer, Gael P.; Merzenich, Hiltrud; Zeeb, Hajo

    2010-01-01

    Background: The frequent use of computed tomography is a major cause of the increasing medical radiation exposure of the general population. Consequently, dose reduction and radiation protection is a topic of scientific and public concern. Aim: We evaluated the available literature on physicians' knowledge regarding radiation dosages and risks due to computed tomography. Methods: A systematic review in accordance with the Cochrane and PRISMA statements was performed using eight databases. 3091 references were found. Only primary studies assessing physicians' knowledge about computed tomography were included. Results: 14 relevant articles were identified, all focussing on dose estimations for CT. Overall, the surveys showed moderate to low knowledge among physicians concerning radiation doses and the involved health risks. However, the surveys varied considerably in conduct and quality. For some countries, more than one survey was available. There was no general trend in knowledge in any country except a slight improvement of knowledge on health risks and radiation doses in two consecutive local German surveys. Conclusions: Knowledge gaps concerning radiation doses and associated health risks among physicians are evident from published research. However, knowledge on radiation doses cannot be interpreted as reliable indicator for good medical practice.

  18. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-01

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  19. Failures of knowledge production in nuclear power risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2008-09-15

    Risks are ascribed in processes of knowledge production, where risk objects are defined and measures taken. This knowledge is also the basis for regulatory action. Thus, uncertainties in knowledge production, based upon choices of assumptions, methods, calculations and evidence criteria for reliable data create vulnerabilities for risk management and risk regulation. A recent incident in Swedish nuclear power plant provides an opportunity to develop theories of knowledge production in complex organizations. Knowledge modes within nuclear power can be characterized as either calculated logics where evidence claims need numbers, real time logics based upon subtle signals and tacit knowledge or as policy logics, navigating between internal and external demands for safety, trustworthiness and profit. The plant had neither foreseen the triggering event nor designed the plant to withstand it. I analyze how the plant and the regulator have interpreted the event, its significance and the measures taken to prevent similar events. I also discuss alternative interpretations, lack of knowledge and the generic deficiencies in knowledge production that the event indicates. First, the plant was not as robustly designed as expected. Deficiencies in diversification may have been caused by overconfidence in the reliability of its design. Second, inadequate design was ascribed to various deficient knowledge production processes: original design of the plant, reconstruction or caused by inadequate learning from previous events. The failures in knowledge production were probably caused by insufficient integration of different knowledge processes and limitations in engineering analysis. Knowledge about risks from nuclear power operations is mainly based upon calculations and simulations, not upon real events. But knowledge and design could be improved also without accidents. Control room operators and maintenance staff can provide invaluable knowledge and methods; to improve causal

  20. Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs: Knowledge gaps for improved disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, D; Sibila, M; Kuhnert, P; Segalés, J; Haesebrouck, F; Pieters, M

    2017-08-23

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) is the primary pathogen of enzootic pneumonia, a chronic respiratory disease in pigs. Infections occur worldwide and cause major economic losses to the pig industry. The present paper reviews the current knowledge on M. hyopneumoniae infections, with emphasis on identification and analysis of knowledge gaps for optimizing control of the disease. Close contact between infected and susceptible pigs is the main route of M. hyopneumoniae transmission. Management and housing conditions predisposing for infection or disease are known, but further research is needed to better understand M. hyopneumoniae transmission patterns in modern pig production systems, and to assess the importance of the breeding population for downstream disease control. The organism is primarily found on the mucosal surface of the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. Different adhesins and lipoproteins are involved in the adherence process. However, a clear picture of the virulence and pathogenicity of M. hyopneumoniae is still missing. The role of glycerol metabolism, myoinositol metabolism and the Mycoplasma Ig binding protein-Mycoplasma Ig protease system should be further investigated for their contribution to virulence. The destruction of the mucociliary apparatus, together with modulating the immune response, enhances the susceptibility of infected pigs to secondary pathogens. Clinical signs and severity of lesions depend on different factors, such as management, environmental conditions and likely also M. hyopneumoniae strain. The potential impact of strain variability on disease severity is not well defined. Diagnostics could be improved by developing tests that may detect virulent strains, by improving sampling in live animals and by designing ELISAs allowing discrimination between infected and vaccinated pigs. The currently available vaccines are often cost-efficient, but the ongoing research on developing new vaccines that confer protective

  1. Avoiding a knowledge gap in a multiethnic statewide social marketing campaign: is cultural tailoring sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchthal, O Vanessa; Doff, Amy L; Hsu, Laura A; Silbanuz, Alice; Heinrich, Katie M; Maddock, Jay E

    2011-03-01

    In 2007, the State of Hawaii, Healthy Hawaii Initiative conducted a statewide social-marketing campaign promoting increased physical activity and nutrition. The campaign included substantial formative research to develop messages tailored for Hawaii's multiethnic Asian and Pacific Islander populations. The authors conducted a statewide random digital dialing telephone survey to assess the campaign's comparative reach among individuals with different ethnicities and different levels of education and income. This analysis suggests that the intervention was successful in reaching its target ethnic audiences. However, a knowledge gap related to the campaign appeared among individuals with incomes less than 130% of the poverty level and those with less than a high school education. These results varied significantly by message and the communication channel used. Recall of supermarket-based messages was significantly higher among individuals below 130% of the poverty level and those between 18 and 35 years of age, 2 groups that showed consistently lower recall of messages in other channels. Results suggest that cultural tailoring for ethnic audiences, although important, is insufficient for reaching low-income populations, and that broad-based social marketing campaigns should consider addressing socioeconomic status-related channel preferences in formative research and campaign design.

  2. Does bridging the gap between knowledge and practice help? Example of patient dose reduction in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Kaul, Rashmi; Kumar, Pratik; Berry, M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is aimed at bridging the gap between knowledge and practice and evaluating the impact of this activity on reduction of patient dose. While enormous data on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology exists, there is absolute lack of information at user's level. For example, the implications on patient dose from 1cm error in x-ray field size or error of 5 kVp or 5mAs is invariably not known. We estimated that 1 cm increase in field size results in irradiation of 600-900cc of extra volume of patient which may contain sensitive tissue, 5 kVp increase results in exposure of 35-65 mR, with more effect in case of lumbar spine and abdomen x-ray and lesser for chest and D-spine, 5 mAs error results in 4-25 mR. The impact of information supply to users was evaluated and it was found that information based approach results in dose reduction to patient and improved image quality. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Identification of knowledge gaps in neurosurgery using a validated self-assessment examination: differences between general and spinal neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jason; Starke, Robert M; Pouratian, Nader; Litvack, Zachary

    2013-11-01

    The practice of neurosurgery requires fundamental knowledge base. Residency training programs and continuing medical education courses are designed to teach relevant neurosurgical principles. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps exist for neurosurgeons and may be different between cohorts of neurosurgeons. The Self-Assessment in Neurological Surgery (SANS) General Examination and Spine Examination are online educational tools for lifelong learning and maintenance of certification. This study examines the gaps in knowledge of spinal neurosurgeons and general neurosurgeons taking SANS. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 165 spinal neurosurgeons completed the 243 available questions of the SANS Spine Examination. Over that same time frame, 993 general neurosurgeons completed the SANS General Spine Examination. Mean scores were calculated and assessed according to 18 major neurosurgical knowledge disciplines. Statistical analysis was carried out to evaluate for significant knowledge gaps among all users and significant differences in performance between spinal neurosurgeons and their general neurosurgeon counterparts. The mean overall examination score was 87.4% ± 7.5% for spinal neurosurgeons and 71.5% ± 8.9% for general neurosurgeons (P neurosurgeons (n = 165) answered questions incorrectly 15% or greater of the time in five of the categories. The categories of lower performance for spinal neurosurgeons were cerebrovascular, anesthesia and critical care, general clinical, tumor, and trauma. For general neurosurgeons (n = 993), the five knowledge categories with lowest performance were cerebrovascular, epilepsy, peripheral nerve, trauma, and radiosurgery. Although spinal neurosurgeons and general neurosurgeons shared some areas of decreased performance including trauma and cerebrovascular, spine neurosurgeons relatively underperformed in general clinical, anesthesia and critical care, and tumor. The SANS Spine Examination demonstrated knowledge gaps in specific categories for

  4. MENSTRUAL HYGIENE: GAPS IN THE KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES IN ADOLESCENT SCHOOL GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Menstrual hygiene is an issue that is insufficiently acknowledged. Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio - cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls lacking knowledge and remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes res ult into adverse health outcomes. Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections (RTI, is a vital aspect of health education. Menarche is a significant milestone in the transitory developmental journey of an adolescent. Poor personal hygiene and defective menstrual management practices give rise to repeated reproductive tract infections (RTIs, which are otherwise preventable. Menstruation is generally considered as unclean in the Indian society. Isolation of the menstrua ting girls and restrictions being imposed on them in the family, have reinforced a negative attitude towards this phenomenon. There is a substantial lacuna in the knowledge about menstruation among adolescent. This study was conducted to assess the knowled ge, attitudes and practices of adolescent school girls of a secondary school in an urban setting. It was found that there was lack of knowledge in specific areas. This study throws light on lack of basic amenities in school for girls which in turn leads to unhygienic practices during menstruation. These reinforce the fact that health education has to be more effective and also that the need of the hour is basic amenities in schools.

  5. Dengue Disease Risk Mental Models in the City of Dhaka, Bangladesh: Juxtapositions and Gaps Between the Public and Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Driedger, S Michelle

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide, more than 50 million cases of dengue fever are reported every year in at least 124 countries, and it is estimated that approximately 2.5 billion people are at risk for dengue infection. In Bangladesh, the recurrence of dengue has become a growing public health threat. Notably, knowledge and perceptions of dengue disease risk, particularly among the public, are not well understood. Recognizing the importance of assessing risk perception, we adopted a comparative approach to examine a generic methodology to assess diverse sets of beliefs related to dengue disease risk. Our study mapped existing knowledge structures regarding the risk associated with dengue virus, its vector (Aedes mosquitoes), water container use, and human activities in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. "Public mental models" were developed from interviews and focus group discussions with diverse community groups; "expert mental models" were formulated based on open-ended discussions with experts in the pertinent fields. A comparative assessment of the public's and experts' knowledge and perception of dengue disease risk has revealed significant gaps in the perception of: (a) disease risk indicators and measurements; (b) disease severity; (c) control of disease spread; and (d) the institutions responsible for intervention. This assessment further identifies misconceptions in public perception regarding: (a) causes of dengue disease; (b) dengue disease symptoms; (c) dengue disease severity; (d) dengue vector ecology; and (e) dengue disease transmission. Based on these results, recommendations are put forward for improving communication of dengue risk and practicing local community engagement and knowledge enhancement in Bangladesh. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Expanding Knowledge Gaps: The Function of Fictions in Teaching Materials after the 2011 Swedish High School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeske, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The aim in the study is to analyze how work with fiction is organized in six textbooks for senior high school in Sweden after the school reform 2011. Research into Swedish teaching materials has been neglected in recent years and there is a knowledge gap about how the work with fictions is affected by the reform in 2011. In the study quantitative…

  7. Melanoma reporting to central cancer registries by US dermatologists: an analysis of the persistent knowledge and practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartee, Todd V; Kini, Seema P; Chen, Suephy C

    2011-11-01

    Every state requires diagnosing physicians to report new cases of melanoma to its central cancer registry. Previous regional studies and anecdotal experience suggest that few dermatologists are cognizant of this obligation. This oversight could result in a large number of unreported melanomas annually and, in turn, US melanoma statistics that markedly underestimate the true incidence of the disease. We sought to quantify the percentage of dermatologists who are unaware of melanoma reporting requirements (the knowledge gap) and who are not reporting melanoma diagnoses (the practice gap). We also sought to delineate factors predictive of reporting knowledge and behavior. A survey was administered to attendees of the Cutaneous Oncology Symposium at the 2010 American Academy of Dermatology annual meeting. In all, 104 of 419 eligible attendees completed surveys (response rate 26%). Fifty percent of respondents do not believe they are required to report melanomas and 56% do not actively report their diagnoses to a registry. Practice duration of less than 10 years was significantly associated with both a knowledge gap (P = .047) and practice gap (P = .056). Similarly, dermatologists who diagnosed fewer than 10 melanomas per year were more likely to possess a knowledge gap (P = .096) and a practice gap (P = .087) than those who diagnosed more than 10. Limitations include small sample size and low response rate. A majority of dermatologists are not reporting melanomas they diagnose to a cancer registry, and half of those surveyed were not aware that diagnosing physicians are required to report melanoma. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ruin probabilities for a regenerative Poisson gap generated risk process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Biard, Romain

    A risk process with constant premium rate c and Poisson arrivals of claims is considered. A threshold r is defined for claim interarrival times, such that if k consecutive interarrival times are larger than r, then the next claim has distribution G. Otherwise, the claim size distribution is F...

  9. A systematic review highlights a knowledge gap regarding the effectiveness of health-related training programs in journalology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, James; Moher, David; Campbell, Craig; Hendry, Paul; Cameron, D William; Palepu, Anita; Hébert, Paul C

    2015-03-01

    To investigate whether training in writing for scholarly publication, journal editing, or manuscript peer review effectively improves educational outcomes related to the quality of health research reporting. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, ERIC, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library for comparative studies of formalized, a priori-developed training programs in writing for scholarly publication, journal editing, or manuscript peer review. Comparators included the following: (1) before and after administration of a training program, (2) between two or more training programs, or (3) between a training program and any other (or no) intervention(s). Outcomes included any measure of effectiveness of training. Eighteen reports of 17 studies were included. Twelve studies focused on writing for publication, five on peer review, and none fit our criteria for journal editing. Included studies were generally small and inconclusive regarding the effects of training of authors, peer reviewers, and editors on educational outcomes related to improving the quality of health research. Studies were also of questionable validity and susceptible to misinterpretation because of their risk of bias. This review highlights the gaps in our knowledge of how to enhance and ensure the scientific quality of research output for authors, peer reviewers, and journal editors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field.

  11. The 'third wave' of HIV prevention: filling gaps in integrated interventions, knowledge, and funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Jaime

    2012-07-01

    There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis--the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals--has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that would integrate behavioral, biological, and structural interventions focused on the social, political, and environmental underpinnings of the epidemic, making use of local epidemiological evidence to target affected populations. In this third wave, global programs should deliver HIV prevention services together with cost-effective interventions for reproductive health and for tuberculosis, malaria, and other diseases. Additionally, new efforts are needed to address gaps in HIV prevention research, evaluation, and implementation. Increased and sustained funding, along with evidence-based allocation of funds, will be necessary to accelerate the decline in new HIV infections.

  12. Modelling Marine Sediment Biogeochemistry: Current Knowledge Gaps, Challenges, and Some Methodological Advice for Advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadi Lessin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological improvements in quality and quantity of benthic data, it is necessary to ensure that benthic systems are appropriately represented in coupled benthic-pelagic biogeochemical and ecological modelling studies. In this paper we focus on five topical challenges related to various aspects of modelling benthic environments: organic matter reactivity, dynamics of benthic-pelagic boundary layer, microphytobenthos, biological transport and small-scale heterogeneity, and impacts of episodic events. We discuss current gaps in their understanding and indicate plausible ways ahead. Further, we propose a three-pronged approach for the advancement of benthic and benthic-pelagic modelling, essential for improved understanding, management and prediction of the marine environment. This includes: (A development of a traceable and hierarchical framework for benthic-pelagic models, which will facilitate integration among models, reduce risk of bias, and clarify model limitations; (B extended cross-disciplinary approach to promote effective collaboration between modelling and empirical scientists of various backgrounds and better involvement of stakeholders and end-users; (C a common vocabulary for terminology used in benthic modelling, to promote model development and integration, and also to enhance mutual understanding.

  13. Knowledge of Postpartum Depression and its Associated Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of Postpartum Depression and its Associated Risk Factors ... affects many women and if ignored can have long-term adverse consequences, for both ... who are the first point of contact during antenatal, labour and post natal period.

  14. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for hypertension among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for hypertension among workers in the banking industry in ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... hours, with little physical activity could predispose bank workers to developing hypertension.

  15. Radioecological consequences of potential accident in Norwegian coastal waters. Uncertainties and knowledges gaps in methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iosjpe, M.; Reistad, O.; Brown, J.; Jaworska, A.; Amundsen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A potential accident involving the transport of spent nuclear fuel along the Norwegian coastline has been choosen for evaluation of a dose assessment methodology. The accident scenario assumes that the release the radioactivity takes place under water and that there is free exchange of water between the spent fuel and the sea. The inventory has been calculated using the ORIGEN programme. Radioecological consequences are provided by the NRPA compartment model which includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments and water-sediment interactions. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment and dose conversion factors. Collective dose-rates to man, doses to the critical groups, concentration of radionuclides in biota/sea-foods and doses to marine organisms were calculated through the evaluation of radioecological consequences after accidents. Results of calculations indicate that concentrations of radionuclides for some marine organisms can exceed guideline levels. At the same time collective dose rates to man as well as doses to a critical group are not higher than guideline levels. Comparison of results from calculations with provisional benchmark values suggests that doses to biota are in most cases unlikely to be of concern. However, to some marine organisms can be much higher than the screening dose of 10 μGyh over long periods. It is apparent that water-sediment distribution coefficients and concentration factors constitute the main sources of uncertainties in the present case. It is important to note that knowledge gaps concerning the influence of relatively low dose to populations of marine organisms over long time periods (many generations) substantially constrain the accessor's ability to

  16. Radiotelemetry and wildlife: Highlighting a gap in the knowledge on radiofrequency radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Radio transmitters and associated devices may induce negative effects that can bias the results of ongoing research. The main documented effects of radio transmitters on animals include reduced survival, decreased productivity, changes in behaviour and movement patterns and a biased sex ratio. The only factors that have claimed responsibility for these possible damages are the weight of the radio transmitter and associated devices, and the attachment type. The electromagnetic radiation produced by radio transmitters has not been considered so far in research. There have been no studies evaluating the effects of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation (radiofrequency signals) necessary for tracking, although the problems found were significantly associated with the length of time that animals had been carrying their radio transmitters. Similar problems as those in radiotracked animals have been found in numerous studies with animals exposed to radiofrequency radiation for a sufficient amount of time. Laboratory scientists investigating the orientation of animals know they have to shield the place where experiments are performed to prevent interference from man-made radiation, as anthropogenic signals may distort the results. It is paradoxical that, at the same time, field scientists investigating the movements and other aspects of animal biology are providing animals with radio transmitters that emit the same type of radiation, since this may affect the results concerning their orientation and movement. This paper identifies gaps in the knowledge that should be investigated in-depth. The possibility that the radiofrequency radiation from radiotracking devices is responsible for the findings should be considered. Considering this factor may allow researchers to best understand the long-term effects found. - Highlights: • Radiotracking may induce negative effects that can bias the results. • Effects have been documented on survival, reproduction and behaviour.

  17. Radiotelemetry and wildlife: Highlighting a gap in the knowledge on radiofrequency radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmori, Alfonso, E-mail: balmaral@jcyl.es

    2016-02-01

    Radio transmitters and associated devices may induce negative effects that can bias the results of ongoing research. The main documented effects of radio transmitters on animals include reduced survival, decreased productivity, changes in behaviour and movement patterns and a biased sex ratio. The only factors that have claimed responsibility for these possible damages are the weight of the radio transmitter and associated devices, and the attachment type. The electromagnetic radiation produced by radio transmitters has not been considered so far in research. There have been no studies evaluating the effects of non-ionising electromagnetic radiation (radiofrequency signals) necessary for tracking, although the problems found were significantly associated with the length of time that animals had been carrying their radio transmitters. Similar problems as those in radiotracked animals have been found in numerous studies with animals exposed to radiofrequency radiation for a sufficient amount of time. Laboratory scientists investigating the orientation of animals know they have to shield the place where experiments are performed to prevent interference from man-made radiation, as anthropogenic signals may distort the results. It is paradoxical that, at the same time, field scientists investigating the movements and other aspects of animal biology are providing animals with radio transmitters that emit the same type of radiation, since this may affect the results concerning their orientation and movement. This paper identifies gaps in the knowledge that should be investigated in-depth. The possibility that the radiofrequency radiation from radiotracking devices is responsible for the findings should be considered. Considering this factor may allow researchers to best understand the long-term effects found. - Highlights: • Radiotracking may induce negative effects that can bias the results. • Effects have been documented on survival, reproduction and behaviour.

  18. Impacts of elevated atmospheric CO2 on forest trees and forest ecosystems: knowledge gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnosky, D.F.

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 is rising rapidly, and options for slowing the CO 2 rise are politically charged as they largely require reductions in industrial CO 2 emissions for most developed countries. As forests cover some 43% of the Earth's surface, account for some 70% of terrestrial net primary production (NPP), and are being bartered for carbon mitigation, it is critically important that we continue to reduce the uncertainties about the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on forest tree growth, productivity, and forest ecosystem function. In this paper, 1 review knowledge gaps and research needs on the effects of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on forest above- and below-ground growth and productivity, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, water relations, wood quality, phonology, community dynamics and biodiversity, antioxidants and stress tolerance, interactions with air pollutants, heterotrophic interactions, and ecosystem functioning. Finally, 1 discuss research needs regarding modelling of the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO 2 on forests. Even though there has been a tremendous amount of research done with elevated CO 2 and forest trees, it remains difficult to predict future forest growth and productivity under elevated atmospheric CO 2 . Likewise, it is not easy to predict how forest ecosystem processes will respond to enriched CO 2 . The more we study the impacts of increasing CO 2 , the more we realize that tree and forest responses are yet largely uncertain due to differences in responsiveness by species, genotype, and functional group, and the complex interactions of elevated atmospheric CO 2 with soil fertility, drought, pests, and co-occurring atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen deposition and O 3 . Furthermore, it is impossible to predict ecosystem-level responses based on short-term studies of young trees grown without interacting stresses and in small spaces without the element of competition. Long-term studies using free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE

  19. Preventing erosive risks after wildfire in Spain: advances and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Filgueira, Cristina; Vega Hidalgo, José A.; Fontúrbel Lliteras, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Galicia (NW Spain) is one of the most wildfire-affected areas in Western Europe and where the highest soil losses following fire are recorded in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade, mitigation of hydrological and erosive risk has been an important objective for researchers and forest managers. For this reason, research carried out has focused on three main issues: i) the development of operational tools to prioritize post-fire soil stabilization actions, based on soil burn severity indicators and remote sensed information, and testing of their ability to reflect degradation risk in relevant soil properties and subsequent soil erosion, ii) the development and testing of different soil stabilization treatments and their effectiveness for reducing erosion, following their application at broad scale, under the specific environmental conditions of Galicia and iii) the assessment of the performance of current erosion models as well as the development of empirical models to predict post-fire soil losses. On the other hand, the use of forest resources is an essential component of the regional incomes in NW Spain and consequently there is a pressing necessity for investigation on techniques suitable for reconciling soil conservation and sustainable use of those resources. In the framework of wildfire impacts this involve many and complex challenges. This scenario contrast with most of the Iberian Peninsula under Mediterranean influence where salvage logging is not a priority. As in other regions, post-fire hydrologic and erosive risk modeling, including threatened resources vulnerability evaluation is also a capital research need, particularly in a climate change context where dramatic changes in drivers such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and fire regime are expected. The study was funded by the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Spain (INIA) through project RTA2014-00011-C06-02, cofunded by FEDER and the Plan de Mejora e Innovación Forestal de

  20. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  1. Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk Management in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 mars 2008 ... Integrating Indigenous Knowledge in Climate Risk Management in support of Community Based Adaptation. Traditionally, African farmers have used indigenous knowledge to understand weather and climate patterns and make decisions about crop and irrigation cycles. However, increased variability ...

  2. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Morocco. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer ...

  3. Conscious worst case definition for risk assessment, part I: a knowledge mapping approach for defining most critical risk factors in integrative risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Peter B; Thomsen, Marianne; Assmuth, Timo; Grieger, Khara D; Baun, Anders

    2010-08-15

    This paper helps bridge the gap between scientists and other stakeholders in the areas of human and environmental risk management of chemicals and engineered nanomaterials. This connection is needed due to the evolution of stakeholder awareness and scientific progress related to human and environmental health which involves complex methodological demands on risk management. At the same time, the available scientific knowledge is also becoming more scattered across multiple scientific disciplines. Hence, the understanding of potentially risky situations is increasingly multifaceted, which again challenges risk assessors in terms of giving the 'right' relative priority to the multitude of contributing risk factors. A critical issue is therefore to develop procedures that can identify and evaluate worst case risk conditions which may be input to risk level predictions. Therefore, this paper suggests a conceptual modelling procedure that is able to define appropriate worst case conditions in complex risk management. The result of the analysis is an assembly of system models, denoted the Worst Case Definition (WCD) model, to set up and evaluate the conditions of multi-dimensional risk identification and risk quantification. The model can help optimize risk assessment planning by initial screening level analyses and guiding quantitative assessment in relation to knowledge needs for better decision support concerning environmental and human health protection or risk reduction. The WCD model facilitates the evaluation of fundamental uncertainty using knowledge mapping principles and techniques in a way that can improve a complete uncertainty analysis. Ultimately, the WCD is applicable for describing risk contributing factors in relation to many different types of risk management problems since it transparently and effectively handles assumptions and definitions and allows the integration of different forms of knowledge, thereby supporting the inclusion of multifaceted risk

  4. Indigenous knowledge for disaster risk reduction: An African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi G. Iloka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge is valuable knowledge that has helped local communities all over the world survive for generations. This knowledge originates from the interaction between members of the community and the environment in which they live. Although much has been written about indigenous knowledge, its documentation in the area of disaster risk reduction and climate change in Africa has been very limited. The wealth of this knowledge has not been well-recognised in the disaster risk reduction field, as policy-makers still rely on mitigation strategies based on scientific knowledge. Colonialism and lack of proper documentation of indigenous knowledge are some of the contributing factors to this. Ignoring the importance of understanding adaptive strategies of the local people has led to failed projects. Understanding how local people in Africa have managed to survive and adapt for generations, before the arrival of Western education, may be the key to developing sustainable policies to mitigate future challenges. Literature used in this article, obtained from the books, papers and publications of various experts in the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, indigenous knowledge and adaptation, highlight the need for more interest to be shown in indigenous knowledge, especially in the developing country context. This would lead to better strategies which originate from the community level but would aim for overall sustainable development in Africa.

  5. Evaluation of a visual risk communication tool: effects on knowledge and perception of blood transfusion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Mehta, M D

    2003-06-01

    Effective risk communication in transfusion medicine is important for health-care consumers, but understanding the numerical magnitude of risks can be difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a visual risk communication tool on the knowledge and perception of transfusion risk. Laypeople were randomly assigned to receive transfusion risk information with either a written or a visual presentation format for communicating and comparing the probabilities of transfusion risks relative to other hazards. Knowledge of transfusion risk was ascertained with a multiple-choice quiz and risk perception was ascertained by psychometric scaling and principal components analysis. Two-hundred subjects were recruited and randomly assigned. Risk communication with both written and visual presentation formats increased knowledge of transfusion risk and decreased the perceived dread and severity of transfusion risk. Neither format changed the perceived knowledge and control of transfusion risk, nor the perceived benefit of transfusion. No differences in knowledge or risk perception outcomes were detected between the groups randomly assigned to written or visual presentation formats. Risk communication that incorporates risk comparisons in either written or visual presentation formats can improve knowledge and reduce the perception of transfusion risk in laypeople.

  6. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Johann W; Musee, Ndeke

    2010-10-01

    The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings

  7. Risk based knowledge assessments: towards a toolbox for managing key knowledge assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Full text: It is now well acknowledged that considerable Knowledge Management (KM) issues are faced by national and international nuclear communities. Much of these problems relate to issues of an ageing workforce and the significantly reduced influx of new generation of nuclear engineers and scientists. The management discipline of KM contains a broad spectrum of methods and techniques. However, the effective implementation of a KM strategy requires the selection and deployment of appropriate and targeted approaches that are pertinent to the particular issues of the technical or business area within an organisation. A clear strategy is contingent upon an assessment of what are the knowledge areas and what are the key (knowledge) risk areas. In particular the following issues have to be addressed: 'what knowledge exists?', 'what is the nature and format of that knowledge?' and 'what knowledge is key to our continued, safe, and effective operation?'. Answers to such questions will enable an organisation to prioritise KM effort and employ subsequent KM approaches that are appropriate. Subsequent approaches ranging from the utilisation of information technologies, such as databases; knowledge retention methods; and the setting up of Community of Practices to share knowledge and experience. This paper considers a risk assessment based approach to KM. In so doing the paper extends work previously reported on an approach to conducting knowledge audits by considering the integration of that approach with approaches to (knowledge) risk assessment. The paper also provides a brief review of the various KM approaches that can act to reduce the level of risk faced by an organisation. The paper concludes by reflecting upon the role, value of deploying such a risk based approach. (author)

  8. Knowledge and Behavioural Factors Associated with Gender Gap in Acquiring HIV Among Youth in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Shraboni; Singh, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-07-16

    The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years) clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years), interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson's Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, Pgap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda. Significance for public healthThe present study represents the evidence of a recent increase in HIV infection in Uganda from the latest round of AIDs indicator survey. This manuscript describes how young women (15-24 years-old) are disproportionately HIV-infected compared to young men in Uganda. They are more vulnerable to HIV than young men. Moreover, it is also observed that young women are at greater risk of acquiring HIV because of their risky sexual behaviour and inappropriate knowledge of HIV transmission. Some educational programmes, growing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and services, dropping violence and coercion, addressing male norms and behaviours, improving women's legal protection, and rising women's access to income and productive resources can be very effective in minimising the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS.

  9. The Knowledge Translation Toolkit: Bridging the Know–Do Gap: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... It presents the theories, tools, and strategies required to encourage and enable ... Toolkit: Bridging the Know–Do Gap: A Resource for Researchers ... violence, and make digital platforms work for inclusive development.

  10. Local air pollution in the Arctic: knowledge gaps, challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K.; Schmale, J.; Anenberg, S.; Arnold, S.; Simpson, W. R.; Mao, J.; Starkweather, S.

    2017-12-01

    It is estimated that about 30 % of the world's undiscovered gas and 13 % of undiscovered oil resources are located in the Arctic. Sea ice loss with climate change is progressing rapidly and by 2050 the Arctic could be nearly sea ice free in summer. This will allow for Arctic industrialization, commercial shipping, fishing and tourism to increase. Given that the world population is projected to grow beyond 9 billion by mid-century needing more resources, partly to be found in the Arctic, it can be expected that the current urbanization trend in the region will accelerate in the future. Against this background, it is likely that new local emission sources emerge which may lead to increased burdens of air pollutants such as particulate matter (PM), reactive nitrogen, and ozone. Typical Arctic emission sources include road transport, domestic fuel burning, diesel emissions, as well as industrial sources such as oil and gas extraction, metallurgical smelting, power generation as well as shipping in coastal areas. These emissions and their impacts remain poorly quantified in the Arctic. Boreal wildfires can already affect summertime air quality and may increase in frequency and size in a warmer climate. Locally produced air pollution, in combination with cold, stagnant weather conditions and inversion layers in winter, can also lead to significant localized pollutant concentrations, often in exceedance of air quality standards. Despite these concerns, very few process studies on local air pollution in or near inhabited areas in the Arctic have been conducted, which significantly limits our understanding of atmospheric chemical reactions involving air pollutants under Arctic conditions (e.g., extremely cold and dry air with little solar radiation in winter) and their impacts on human health and ecosystems. We will provide an overview of our current understanding of local air pollution and its impacts in Arctic urban environments and highlight key gaps. We will discuss a

  11. Knowledge regarding risk factors of hypertension among entry year students of a medical university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwana B Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Hypertension in youth is increasing, but there is a dearth of data about the knowledge of risk factors in this age group. Aims: To assess the knowledge of risk factors of hypertension among university students and associate it with the blood pressure, physical activity, family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and sociodemographic variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey among students enrolled in the first year, in the four academic programs, with the use of a validated, self-administered questionnaire on physical activity in the past 30 days and knowledge of risk factors of hypertension. A score of 6 on 11 was considered as good knowledge for modifiable risk factors. Blood pressure was also measured. The data was analyzed using PASW-17, Chi square test, and binary logistic regression analysis was done. Results: Of the 110 participants, 69.2% were < 20 years of age, 76.4% were females, and 40% were Arabs. Stress, high cholesterol, obesity, and smoking were identified as risk factors by 75.5, 73.6, 77.6, and 71.8%, respectively; 69.1% considered high salt intake and 62.7% considered high calorie diet as risk factors. Energy drink was considered as a risk factor by 64.5%, coffee consumption 35.5%, physical inactivity 47%, and oral contraceptives 13.6%. Half the group did not consider a family history of CVD as a risk factor, 60% did not consider older age as a risk factor, and 88% did not think male gender was a risk factor. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors was better than that of non-modifiable risk factors. Although nationality, course of study, raised blood pressure, and history of diabetes showed significant association with good knowledge, their net effect was not significant by the Adjusted Odd′s Ratio. Conclusions: The study identified some gaps in knowledge regarding both modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors of hypertension among students. A larger study would enable health promotion activities

  12. Condom use, risk perception, and HIV knowledge: a comparison across sexes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lammers J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith Lammers,1 Sweder JG van Wijnbergen,2 Daan Willebrands3 1Academic Medical Center, 2Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam, 3Atradius Credit Insurance, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Background: This paper analyzes how different types of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge influences condom use across the sexes. Methods: The empirical work was based on a household survey conducted among 1979 households of a representative group of stallholders in Lagos, Nigeria in 2008. Condom use during last sexual intercourse was analyzed using a multivariate model corrected for clustering effects. The data included questions on socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge of the existence of HIV, HIV prevention, HIV stigma, intended pregnancy, and risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex. Results: A large HIV knowledge gap between males and females was observed. Across the sexes, different types of knowledge are important in condom use. Low-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex and not knowing that condoms prevent HIV infection appear to be the best predictors for risky sexual behavior among men. For females, stigma leads to lower condom use. Obviously, lack of knowledge on where condoms are available (9.4% and 29.1% of male and female respondents, respectively reduced condom use in both males and females. Conclusion: The results call for programmatic approaches to differentiate between males and females in the focus of HIV prevention campaigns. Moreover, the high predictive power of high-risk perceptions of engaging in unprotected sex (while correcting for other HIV knowledge indicators calls for further exploration on how to influence these risk perceptions in HIV prevention programs. Keywords: Africa, condom, males, females, HIV/AIDS, knowledge, prevention, risk perception

  13. Meeting report: knowledge and gaps in developing microbial criteria for inland recreational waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods, as well as greater clarity about their interpretation. Research needs for the short term and longer term are described.

  14. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

    2014-01-01

    Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  15. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  16. Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology: mapping knowledge and discovering gaps in the mRNA transcription cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Somekh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a Conceptual Model-based Systems Biology framework for qualitative modeling, executing, and eliciting knowledge gaps in molecular biology systems. The framework is an adaptation of Object-Process Methodology (OPM, a graphical and textual executable modeling language. OPM enables concurrent representation of the system's structure-the objects that comprise the system, and behavior-how processes transform objects over time. Applying a top-down approach of recursively zooming into processes, we model a case in point-the mRNA transcription cycle. Starting with this high level cell function, we model increasingly detailed processes along with participating objects. Our modeling approach is capable of modeling molecular processes such as complex formation, localization and trafficking, molecular binding, enzymatic stimulation, and environmental intervention. At the lowest level, similar to the Gene Ontology, all biological processes boil down to three basic molecular functions: catalysis, binding/dissociation, and transporting. During modeling and execution of the mRNA transcription model, we discovered knowledge gaps, which we present and classify into various types. We also show how model execution enhances a coherent model construction. Identification and pinpointing knowledge gaps is an important feature of the framework, as it suggests where research should focus and whether conjectures about uncertain mechanisms fit into the already verified model.

  17. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  18. Expanding the use of empiricism in nursing: can we bridge the gap between knowledge and clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Karen K

    2003-04-01

    The philosophy of Aristotle and its impact on the process of empirical scientific inquiry has been substantial. The influence of the clarity and orderliness of his thinking, when applied to the acquisition of knowledge in nursing, can not be overstated. Traditional empirical approaches have and will continue to have an important influence on the development of nursing knowledge through nursing research. However, as nursing is primarily a practice discipline, the transition from empirical and syllogistic reasoning is problematic. Other types of inquiry are essential in the application of nursing knowledge obtained by empirical scientific approaches and to understand how that knowledge can best be used in the care of patients. This paper reviews the strengths and limitations of syllogistic reasoning by applying it to a recently published study on temperature measurement in nursing. It then discusses possible ways that the empirical knowledge gained from that study and confirmed in its reasoning by logical analysis could be used in the daily care of critically ill patients. It concludes by highlighting the utility of broader approaches to knowledge development, including interpretative approaches and contemporary empiricism, as a way to bridge the gap between factual empirical knowledge and the practical application of that knowledge in everyday clinical nursing practice.

  19. Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities in HIV/AIDS-related knowledge gap: a case of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteraya, Madhu; Kimm, HeeJin; Song, In Han

    2015-05-01

    Caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities are major obstacles to achieving health equity. The authors investigated whether there is any association between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge within caste and ethnic populations. They used the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally represented cross-sectional study data set. The study sample consisted of 11,273 women between 15 and 49 years of age. Univariate and logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between caste- and ethnicity-based inequalities and HIV-related knowledge. The study sample was divided into high Hindu caste (47.9 percent), "untouchable" caste (18.4 percent), and indigenous populations (33.7 percent). Within the study sample, the high-caste population was found to have the greatest knowledge of the means by which HIV is prevented and transmitted. After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, untouchables were the least knowledgeable. The odds ratio for incomplete knowledge about transmission among indigenous populations was 1.27 times higher than that for high Hindu castes, but there was no significant difference in knowledge of preventive measures. The findings suggest the existence of a prevailing HIV knowledge gap. This in turn suggests that appropriate steps need to be implemented to convey complete knowledge to underprivileged populations.

  20. Human resource management in post-conflict health systems: review of research and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roome, Edward; Raven, Joanna; Martineau, Tim

    2014-01-01

    In post-conflict settings, severe disruption to health systems invariably leaves populations at high risk of disease and in greater need of health provision than more stable resource-poor countries. The health workforce is often a direct victim of conflict. Effective human resource management (HRM) strategies and policies are critical to addressing the systemic effects of conflict on the health workforce such as flight of human capital, mismatches between skills and service needs, breakdown of pre-service training, and lack of human resource data. This paper reviews published literatures across three functional areas of HRM in post-conflict settings: workforce supply, workforce distribution, and workforce performance. We searched published literatures for articles published in English between 2003 and 2013. The search used context-specific keywords (e.g. post-conflict, reconstruction) in combination with topic-related keywords based on an analytical framework containing the three functional areas of HRM (supply, distribution, and performance) and several corresponding HRM topic areas under these. In addition, the framework includes a number of cross-cutting topics such as leadership and governance, finance, and gender. The literature is growing but still limited. Many publications have focused on health workforce supply issues, including pre-service education and training, pay, and recruitment. Less is known about workforce distribution, especially governance and administrative systems for deployment and incentive policies to redress geographical workforce imbalances. Apart from in-service training, workforce performance is particularly under-researched in the areas of performance-based incentives, management and supervision, work organisation and job design, and performance appraisal. Research is largely on HRM in the early post-conflict period and has relied on secondary data. More primary research is needed across the areas of workforce supply, workforce

  1. Knowledge of medical imaging radiation dose and risk among doctors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas; Jones, Lee

    2013-01-01

    The growth of computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) scans has revolutionised healthcare but also greatly increased population radiation doses. Overuse of diagnostic radiation is becoming a feature of medical practice, leading to possible unnecessary radiation exposures and lifetime-risks of developing cancer. Doctors across all medical specialties and experience levels were surveyed to determine their knowledge of radiation doses and potential risks associated with some diagnostic imaging. A survey relating to knowledge and understanding of medical imaging radiation was distributed to doctors at 14 major Queensland public hospitals, as well as fellows and trainees in radiology, emergency medicine and general practice. From 608 valid responses, only 17.3% correctly estimated the radiation dose from CT scans and almost 1 in 10 incorrectly believed that CT radiation is not associated with any increased lifetime risk of developing cancer. There is a strong inverse relationship between a clinician's experience and their knowledge of CT radiation dose and risks, even among radiologists. More than a third (35.7%) of doctors incorrectly believed that typical NM imaging either does not use ionising radiation or emits doses equal to or less than a standard chest radiograph. Knowledge of CT and NM radiation doses is poor across all specialties, and there is a significant inverse relationship between experience and awareness of CT dose and risk. Despite having a poor understanding of these concepts, most doctors claim to consider them prior to requesting scans and when discussing potential risks with patients.

  2. Cardiovascular risk-factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioe, Patricia A; Crawford, Sybil L; Stein, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in noninfected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk [F(1, 117) = 0.13, p > .05]. Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly but significantly correlated; r (126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk-factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure knowledge and risk perception of RF EMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik eFreudenstein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented study is part of the EU Project LEXNET (Low EMF Exposure Future Networks, which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF electro-magnetic fields (EMF exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere.We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception. Therefore we evaluated respondents’ risk perceptions of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF risk perception is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features - except distance - do influence people’s general RF EMF risk perceptions. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF risk perception of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher risk perception, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and risk perception. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries.

  4. Bridging the gap between knowledge and health: the epidemiologist as Accountable Health Advocate ("AHA!").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, David W; Pai, Madhukar

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiology occupies a unique role as a knowledge-generating scientific discipline with roots in the knowledge translation of public health practice. As our fund of incompletely-translated knowledge expands and as budgets for health research contract, epidemiology must rediscover and adapt its historical skill set in knowledge translation. The existing incentive structures of academic epidemiology - designed largely for knowledge generation - are ill-equipped to train and develop epidemiologists as knowledge translators. A useful heuristic is the epidemiologist as Accountable Health Advocate (AHA) who enables society to judge the value of research, develops new methods to translate existing knowledge into improved health, and actively engages with policymakers and society. Changes to incentive structures could include novel funding streams (and review), alternative publication practices, and parallel frameworks for professional advancement and promotion.

  5. Physical inactivity among physiotherapy undergraduates: exploring the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Sigera, Chathurani; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Ayodya C R; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a common risk factor for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Increasing physical activity could reduce the burden of disease due to major NCDs and increase life expectancy. Undergraduate physiotherapy students represent a group of young-adults expected to have a good knowledge of physical activity. We evaluated physical activity levels of undergraduate physiotherapy students of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and determined their motives and barriers for participation in physical activity. All physiotherapy undergraduates studying at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka in 2013 were invited for the study. Phase one was a quantitative study to evaluate the physical activity levels and phase two was a qualitative study to identify motives and barriers for physical activity and sports in the same cohort. Physical activity levels (phase 1) were assessed using the interviewer administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long-version). The qualitative study (phase 2) was conducted in the same population using Focus Group Discussions ( n  = 3) and individual In-depth Interviews ( n  = 5). Sample size in phase 1 and phase 2 were 113 (response rate = 98%; [N-115]) and 87 (response rat = 97%; [N-90]) respectively. Mean age (±SD) of participants was 23.4 ± 1 years. The mean weekly total MET minutes (±SD) of the study population was 1791.25 ± 3097. According to the IPAQ categorical score a higher percentage of participants were 'inactive' (48.7%), while only 15.9% were in the 'Highly active' group. Lack of support and encouragement received during childhood to engage in sports activity seem to have played an important role in continuing their exercise behavior through to the adult life. Academic activities were given priority by both parents and teachers. The environment and support from teachers, family and friends were important to initiate and adhere to sports and physical activity. A higher

  6. Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Communication Skills of Accountants: What We Know and the Gaps in Our Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.; Durden, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically reviews 19 studies published between 1972 and 2012 that investigated the written and/or oral communication skills of practicing accountants. The core aim of the review was to identify skills considered important and highlight gaps regarding what is known about existing and desired communication skills in the accounting…

  8. The Knowledge Gap: Examining the Rhetoric and Implementation of Peer Education for HIV Prevention in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…

  9. Major Care Gaps in Asthma, Sleep and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Road Map for Knowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large gaps between best evidence-based care and actual clinical practice exist in respiratory medicine, and carry a significant health burden. The authors reviewed two key care gaps in each of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Using the ‘Knowledge-to-Action Framework’, the nature of each gap, its magnitude, the barriers that cause and perpetuate it, and past and future strategies that might address the problem were considered. In asthma: disease control is ascertained inadequately, leading to a prevalence of poor asthma control of approximately 50%; and asthma action plans, a key component of asthma management, are provided by only 22% of physicians. In obstructive sleep apnea: disease is under-recognized, with sleep histories ascertained in only 10% of patients; and Canadian polysomnography wait times remain longer than recommended, leading to unnecessary morbidity and societal cost. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a large proportion of patients seen in primary care remain undiagnosed, mainly due to underuse of spirometry; and <10% of patients are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation, despite strong evidence demonstrating its cost effectiveness. Given the prevalence of these chronic conditions and the size and nature of these gaps, the latter exact an important toll on patients, the health care system and society. In turn, complex barriers at the patient, provider and health care system levels contribute to each gap. There have been few previous attempts to bridge these gaps. Innovative and multifaceted implementation approaches are needed and have the potential to make a large impact on Canadian respiratory health.

  10. Knowledge Gaps and Rural Development in Tajikistan: Agricultural Advisory Services as a Panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtaltovna, Anastasiya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse knowledge systems and channels of innovation diffusion in Tajikistan. In particular, I look at the formation of agricultural advisory services (AASs) and how these provide a vital source of knowledge and innovation for farmers during the transition process. Methodology: Empirically, this paper draws…

  11. Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Marie Andersson

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: A systematic approach to pupils' training in work environment, which is a basis for a safe and healthy workplace, is lacking. The study findings indicate that pupils are offered knowledge far from that intended by laws and by state-of-the-art occupational health risk research.

  12. Knowledge and prevalence of risk factors for arterial hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High job strain, mental stress, sedentary lifestyle, increase in BMI are among the factors associated with significantly higher incidence of hypertension. The job of bank employees is both sedentary in nature and accompanies high mental stress. The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of risk ...

  13. HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Perceived Risk Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents in Uganda, logistic regression models were fitted to examine the odds that HIV/AIDS related knowledge and perceived risk of HIV infection are associated with condom use among adolescents. After including demographic measures, findings indicated that correct ...

  14. SARS Risk Perception, Knowledge, Precautions, and Information Sources, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aro, Arja R.; Oenema, Anke; de Zwart, Onno; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Bishop, George D.

    2004-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)–related risk perceptions, knowledge, precautionary actions, and information sources were studied in the Netherlands during the 2003 SARS outbreak. Although respondents were highly aware of the SARS outbreak, the outbreak did not result in unnecessary precautionary actions or fears. PMID:15496256

  15. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  16. Knowledge and Attitude of Mothers towards Risk Factors for Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are the fourth major cause of morbidity and mortality among under-five children (U5-C) globally. However, essential information on mothers' belief about risk factors that could predispose U5-C to these infections is scanty in Nigeria. Therefore, this study assessed the level of knowledge and ...

  17. The role of knowledge in students’ flood-risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosschaart, A.; Kuiper, W.; van der Schee, J.A.; Schoonenboom, J.

    2013-01-01

    Until now, flood-risk perception in the Netherlands has been solely studied as it relates to adults. This exploratory study focused on 15-year-old students who have taken geography courses for 3 years. Since geography education focuses on the formation of knowledge and understanding with respect to

  18. HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molatelo Elisa Shikwane

    2014-01-03

    Jan 3, 2014 ... To cite this article: Molatelo Elisa Shikwane, Olga M. Villar-Loubet, Stephen M. Weiss, Karl Peltzer & Deborah L. Jones. (2013) HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access ...

  19. Canopy and knowledge gaps when invasive alien insects remove foundation species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lawrence, John H

    2013-01-01

    The armored scale Aulacaspis yasumatsui invaded the northern range of the cycad Cycas micronesica in 2003, and epidemic tree mortality ensued due to a lack of natural enemies of the insect. We quantified cycad demographic responses to the invasion, but the ecological responses to the selective removal of this foundation species have not been addressed. We use this case to highlight information gaps in our understanding of how alien invasive phytophagous insects force cascading adverse ecosystem changes. The mechanistic role of unique canopy gaps, oceanic island examples and threatened foundation species with distinctive traits are three issues that deserve research efforts in a quest to understand this facet of ecosystem change occurring across multiple settings globally.

  20. Making Invasion models useful for decision makers; incorporating uncertainty, knowledge gaps, and decision-making preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H Koch; Mark Ducey

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in model-based forecasts of ecological invasions. In this chapter, we explore how the perceptions of that uncertainty can be incorporated into the pest risk assessment process. Uncertainty changes a decision maker’s perceptions of risk; therefore, the direct incorporation of uncertainty may provide a more appropriate depiction of risk. Our...

  1. On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaweera, Nadira D; Galappaththy, Gawrie Nl; Wirth, Dyann F

    2014-02-18

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation.

  2. Integration of expert knowledge and uncertainty in natural risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruffini, Mirko; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    Natural hazards occurring in alpine regions during the last decades have clearly shown that interruptions of the Swiss railway power supply and closures of the Gotthard highway due to those events have increased the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability also in Switzerland and illustrate the potential impacts of failures on the performance of infrastructure systems. This asks for a high level of surveillance and preservation along the transalpine lines. Traditional simulation models are only partially capable to predict complex systems behaviours and the subsequently designed and implemented protection strategies are not able to mitigate the full spectrum of risk consequences. They are costly, and maximal protection is most probably not economically feasible. In addition, the quantitative risk assessment approaches such as fault tree analysis, event tree analysis and equivalent annual fatality analysis rely heavily on statistical information. Collecting sufficient data to base a statistical probability of risk is costly and, in many situations, such data does not exist; thus, expert knowledge and experience or engineering judgment can be exploited to estimate risk qualitatively. In order to overcome the statistics lack we used models based on expert's knowledge in order to qualitatively predict based on linguistic appreciation that are more expressive and natural in risk assessment. Fuzzy reasoning (FR) can be used providing a mechanism of computing with words (Zadeh, 1965) for modelling qualitative human thought processes in analyzing complex systems and decisions. Uncertainty in predicting the risk levels arises from such situations because no fully-formalized knowledge are available. Another possibility is to use probability based on triangular probability density function (T-PDF) that can be used to follow the same flow-chart as FR. We implemented the Swiss natural hazard recommendations FR and probability using T-PDF in order to obtain hazard zoning and

  3. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tory M; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T

    2015-01-01

    To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Data on 16,205 women aged 15-49 and 6822 men aged 15-59 from the 2008-2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes.

  4. Population-based study of epilepsy in Cambodia associated factors, measures of impact, stigma, quality of life, knowledge-attitude-practice, and treatment gap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devender Bhalla

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Identify epilepsy-associated factors and calculate measures of impact, stigma, quality of life (QOL, knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP and treatment gap in Prey Veng, Cambodia. METHODS: This first Cambodian population-based case-control study had 96 epileptologist-confirmed epilepsy cases and 192 randomly selected matched healthy controls. Standard questionnaires, which have been used in similar settings, were used for collecting data on various parameters. Univariate and multivariate regression was done to determine odds ratios. Jacoby stigma, 31-item QOL, KAP etc were determined and so were the factors associated with them using STATA software. Treatment gap was measured using direct method. KEY FINDINGS: Multivariate analyses yielded family history of epilepsy, difficult or long delivery, other problems beside seizures (mainly mental retardation, hyperthermia, and eventful pregnancy of the subject's mother as factors associated with epilepsy. There was high frequency of seizure precipitants esp. those related to sleep. Population attributable risk (% was: family history (15.0, eventful pregnancy of subject's mother (14.5, long/difficult birth (6.5, and other problem beside seizures (20.0. Mean stigma (1.9±1.1, on a scale of 3 was mainly related to treatment efficacy. Mean QOL (5.0±1.4 on a scale of 10 was mainly related to treatment regularity. Cause or risk factor could be determined in 56% of cases. Treatment gap was 65.8%. SIGNIFICANCE: Factors in pre- and perinatal period were found to be most crucial for epilepsy risk in Cambodia which inturn provides major prevention opportunities. A global action plan for treatment, stigma reduction and improvement of QOL should be set-up in this country.

  5. Bridging the Nagoya Compliance Gap: The Fundamental Role of Customary Law in Protection of Indigenous Peoples’ Resource and Knowledge Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan M. Tobin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol requires states to ensure that access to and use of genetic resources and traditional knowledge of Indigenous peoples and local communities is subject to their prior informed consent (PIC. It also requires states to take into consideration their customary laws. However, it lacks effective compliance mechanisms, a gap exposed in draft European legislation that sidesteps the Nagoya Protocol’s obligations regarding PIC and customary law, leaving traditional knowledge largely unprotected. This article examines the status of customary law under international, regional and national law, and the challenges and opportunities for securing recognition of its role in the protection of traditional knowledge. The article contends that all commercial and development activities with the potential to impact on Nagoya Protocol rights will in the future need to ensure compliance with relevant customary law. It finds state reluctance to adopt measures to ensure consideration of customary law shortsighted and likely to lead to increased litigation. It concludes that customary law has a key role to play in closing the Nagoya compliance gap but to do so it will need to be supported by enforcement mechanisms such as disclosure of origin regimes in intellectual property law.

  6. Mother-Youth Acculturation Gaps and Health-Risking/Emotional Problems among Latin-American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Margit; Arbona, Consuelo; Capaldi, Deborah M; Kim, Hyoun K; Kaplan, Charles D

    2015-07-20

    Second-generation Latin-American adolescents tend to show higher levels of various health-risking behaviors and emotional problems than first-generation Latin-American adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 40 mother-adolescent dyads examined the association of mother-youth acculturation gaps to youth adjustment problems. Intergenerational acculturation gaps were assessed as a bidimensional self-report component and a novel observational measurement component. The Latin-American adolescents were predominantly second-generation of Mexican descent (M age = 13.42 years, SD = 0.55). Most of the mothers were born in Mexico (M age = 39.18 years, SD = 5.17). Data were collected from mothers, adolescents, and coders, using questionnaires, structured interviews, and videotaped mother-youth interaction tasks. Findings revealed generally weak support for the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis. In addition, stronger relative adherence to their heritage culture by the adolescents was significantly (p acculturation processes. Mother-youth acculturation gaps in orientation to the heritage culture were the most salient dimension, changing the focus on the original formulation of the acculturation gap-distress hypothesis.

  7. HIV Risk Perception, HIV Knowledge, and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Transgender Women in South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E

    2017-05-01

    Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Knowledge of medical imaging radiation dose and risk among doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas; Jones, Lee

    2013-02-01

    The growth of computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine (NM) scans has revolutionised healthcare but also greatly increased population radiation doses. Overuse of diagnostic radiation is becoming a feature of medical practice, leading to possible unnecessary radiation exposures and lifetime-risks of developing cancer. Doctors across all medical specialties and experience levels were surveyed to determine their knowledge of radiation doses and potential risks associated with some diagnostic imaging. A survey relating to knowledge and understanding of medical imaging radiation was distributed to doctors at 14 major Queensland public hospitals, as well as fellows and trainees in radiology, emergency medicine and general practice. From 608 valid responses, only 17.3% correctly estimated the radiation dose from CT scans and almost 1 in 10 incorrectly believed that CT radiation is not associated with any increased lifetime risk of developing cancer. There is a strong inverse relationship between a clinician's experience and their knowledge of CT radiation dose and risks, even among radiologists. More than a third (35.7%) of doctors incorrectly believed that typical NM imaging either does not use ionising radiation or emits doses equal to or less than a standard chest radiograph. Knowledge of CT and NM radiation doses is poor across all specialties, and there is a significant inverse relationship between experience and awareness of CT dose and risk. Despite having a poor understanding of these concepts, most doctors claim to consider them prior to requesting scans and when discussing potential risks with patients. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  9. Phenomena identification ranking table and knowledge base gaps and needs for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Rink, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. is developing a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP); also known as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The generic MHTGR is a graphite-moderated, gas-cooled reactor (GCR) of either a prismatic modular (block-type, PMR) or pebble-bed (PBR) core configuration. The pebble-bed design requires new attention with respect to neutronics, materials, thermal hydraulic, safety and licensing relative to the set of phenomena and engineering analyses associated with the current fleet of legacy LWRs. In fact, the relative knowledge and experiential base on gas reactors is small in comparison to the LWR. There is a dated body of knowledge from some 25+ years ago on GCRs; recently there is a renewed interest. Thus in the present design and development phase of the NGNP/VHTR, there are relevant thermohydraulic safety issues surrounding the MHTGR with issues impacting foremost the design review process. A common phenomena with respect to PMR and PBR core design, is that concerning 'graphite dust' and its interaction and transport with potential fission products (FP) that may be present within the graphite and subsequently in the primary system. The nature of the graphite and FPs, when circulated or transported in the primary, and possibly beyond, is of concern as potentially an relevant 'source term' (radionuclide inventory) of the MHTGR. Based on NUREG/CR-6944, Volumes 1-5, the author briefly describes the state-of-the art knowledge base on graphite dust and FP transport with respect to the anticipated design of the MHTGR. In addition, from the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) developed in these reports we concurrently identify and describe 'gaps and needs' of the knowledge base. That is, we also present the knowledge base gaps and needs with respect to the following: 1) R and D needs relative to PIRTs, 2) (experimental) database needs relative to PIRTs, and 3) simulation and modeling

  10. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding travel health among Muscat International Airport travelers in Oman: Identifying the gaps and addressing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abdel-Hady, Doaa M; Al-Abaidani, Idris S

    2016-06-01

    Although the majority of travel-associated communicable diseases can be prevented, the public health burden of these diseases remains significant. Relatively little is known about how travelers know and perceive the health risks associated with travel and how they utilize preventive measures before and while traveling abroad. This study was conducted to determine the level of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Muscat International Airport travelers about travel health in order to assess the knowledge gap and the need for travel health services in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1week using a self-administered questionnaire. The overall level of knowledge about vaccine-preventable diseases, food safety, and preventive measures against insect bites of the participants was inadequate. The practice concerning preventive travel health measures, such as the use of specific immunizations and antimalarial prophylaxis, was very limited, and influenced by some personal and travel-related factors. The inadequate level of travelers' knowledge and poor utilization of travel medicine services highlights the need for the provisions of specialized travel medicine services at the national level and to develop educational materials promoting the importance of pre-travel health advice. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Long Chain Saturated and Unsaturated Carboxylic Acids: Filling a Large Gap of Knowledge in Their Enthalpies of Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Donald W; Zavitsas, Andreas A

    2017-01-06

    Despite their abundance in nature and their importance in biology, medicine, nutrition, and in industry, gas phase enthalpies of formation of many long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and of dicarboxylic acids are either unavailable or have been estimated with large uncertainties. Available experimental values for stearic acid show a spread of 68 kJ mol -1 . This work fills the knowledge gap by obtaining reliable values by quantum theoretical calculations using G4 model chemistry. Compounds with up to 20 carbon atoms are treated. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with well established experimental values when such values exist, and they provide a large number of previously unavailable values.

  12. Assessment of physicians' awareness and knowledge of familial hypercholesterolemia in Saudi Arabia: Is there a gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batais, Mohammed Ali; Almigbal, Turky H; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Altaradi, Hani B; AlHabib, Khalid F

    2017-01-01

    The scarcity of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) cases reported in Saudi Arabia might be indicative of a lack of awareness of this common genetic disease among physicians. To assess physicians' awareness, practice, and knowledge of FH in Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among physicians at four tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between March 2016 and May 2016 using a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 294 physicians completed the survey (response rate 90.1%). Overall, 92.9% of the participants have poor knowledge of FH while only 7.1% have acceptable knowledge. The majority (68.7%) of physicians rated their familiarity with FH as average or above average, and these had higher mean knowledge scores than participants with self-reported below average familiarity (mean 3.4 versus 2.6) (P knowledge scores compared to those without FH patients in their care (3.5 versus 2.9) (P = 0.006). In addition, there were statistically significant differences between physicians' mean knowledge scores and their ages, levels of training, and years in practice. Moreover, a substantial deficit was identified in the awareness of various clinical algorithms to diagnose patients with FH, cascade screening, specialist lipid services, and the existence of statin alternatives, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors. A substantial deficit was found in the awareness, knowledge, practice, and detection of FH among physicians in Saudi Arabia. Extensive educational programs are required to raise physician awareness and implement best practices; only then can the impact of these interventions on FH management and patient outcome be assessed.

  13. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation and agricultural crops: knowledge gain and knowledge gap after 40 years of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo; Edited by Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this chapter was to summarize the advances made over last 40+ years, as reported in various chapters of this book, in understanding, modeling, and mapping terrestrial vegetation using hyperspectral remote sensing (or imaging spectroscopy) using sensors that are ground-based, truck-mounted, airborne, and spaceborne. As we have seen in various chapters of this book and synthesized in this chapter, the advances made include: (a) significantly improved characterization and modeling of a wide array of biophysical and biochemical properties of vegetation, (b) ability to discriminate plant species and vegetation types with high degree of accuracies (c) reducing uncertainties in determining net primary productivity or carbon assessments from terrestrial vegetation, (d) improved crop productivity and water productivity models, (b), (e) ability to access stress resulting from causes such as management practices, pests and disease, water deficit or excess; , and (f) establishing more sensitive wavebands and indices to detect plant water\\moisture content. The advent of spaceborne hyperspectral sensors (e.g., NASA’s Hyperion, ESA’s PROBA, and upcoming NASA’s HyspIRI) and numerous methods and techniques espoused in this book to overcome Hughes phenomenon or data redundancy when handling large volumes of hyperspectral data have generated tremendous interest in advancing our hyperspectral applications knowledge base over larger spatial extent such as region, nation, continent, and globe.

  14. Bridging the gap between formal and experience-based knowledge for context-aware laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Darko; Schuck, Jürgen; Wekerle, Anna-Laura; Kenngott, Hannes; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Computer assistance is increasingly common in surgery. However, the amount of information is bound to overload processing abilities of surgeons. We propose methods to recognize the current phase of a surgery for context-aware information filtering. The purpose is to select the most suitable subset of information for surgical situations which require special assistance. We combine formal knowledge, represented by an ontology, and experience-based knowledge, represented by training samples, to recognize phases. For this purpose, we have developed two different methods. Firstly, we use formal knowledge about possible phase transitions to create a composition of random forests. Secondly, we propose a method based on cultural optimization to infer formal rules from experience to recognize phases. The proposed methods are compared with a purely formal knowledge-based approach using rules and a purely experience-based one using regular random forests. The comparative evaluation on laparoscopic pancreas resections and adrenalectomies employs a consistent set of quality criteria on clean and noisy input. The rule-based approaches proved best with noisefree data. The random forest-based ones were more robust in the presence of noise. Formal and experience-based knowledge can be successfully combined for robust phase recognition.

  15. Inter-organizational Collaboration: Product, Knowledge and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Jastroch

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational collaboration is no longer entirely a free choice, but is close to a necessity imposed by economic, technical, and knowledge-related concerns. A deep understanding of collaboration will assist in making intelligent decisions on entering, operating, and evaluating collaborative ventures. The nature of the partners—industrial corporations, consultants, academic institutions and others—and the collaborative structure are important, but so too is the nature of the product. We consider its effects in the collaborative domain on knowledge, intellectual property, and catastrophic risk.

  16. The gap between available knowledge and its use in clinical psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Jørgensen, P; Blanner Kristiansen, C; Uwawke, R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The time span between knowledge becoming available and its integration into daily clinical routine is lengthy. This phenomenon is explored in this study. METHOD: We used the outcomes of our activities for investigating and strengthening the research-based activities to improve physical...... health in the routines of clinical psychiatric wards as examples for our analyses. RESULTS: The time span between new knowledge becoming available and its implementation into general clinical treatment is very long. However, a shortening of this time span is seen through active leadership backup...... is needed in all professions to increase evidence-based practice. Leaders must take responsibility for implementing new knowledge into the routines of the department and must support staff in these activities on a daily basis....

  17. From a supply gap to a demand gap? The risk and consequences of over-indebting the underbanked

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Schicks

    2011-01-01

    In the past, the microfinance industry focused mainly on growth and outreach. Addressing financial exclusion implied a huge supply gap. Recent over-indebtedness crises in several countries have shown that this gap can turn into over-supply. The industry urgently requires research to understand the magnitude and consequences of this shift. This chapter reveals the broad spectrum of consequences over-indebtedness can have on borrowers and other stakeholders, mainly MFIs. It emphasizes that over...

  18. Concussions in Community-Level Rugby: Risk, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R Kyle; Hrubeniuk, Travis J; Witiw, Christopher D; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff

    Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions. Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk. Cross-sectional analysis. Level 3. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to all 464 senior rugby players registered in the province of Manitoba in 2015. Two primary domains were assessed: (1) concussion history from the preceding season including occurrence, symptomatology, and impact on daily activities and (2) knowledge and attitudes toward concussion risks and management. In total, 284 (61.2%) rugby players responded. Concussive symptoms were reported by 106 (37.3%). Of those, 87% were formally diagnosed with a concussion and 27% missed school and/or work as a result. The danger of playing while symptomatic was recognized by 93.7% of participants, yet 29% indicated they would continue while symptomatic. Furthermore, 39% felt they were letting others down if they stopped playing due to a concussion. Concussive symptoms were common among the study cohort and had a notable impact on daily activities. A high proportion of players were willing to continue while experiencing symptoms despite recognizing the danger. The observed discord between knowledge and attitudes implicates a culture of "playing injured." Understanding the risk of injury may affect an individual's decision to participate in community-level rugby. Moreover, evidence of discord between the knowledge and attitudes of players may direct future research initiatives and league governance.

  19. [Approaching the "evidence-practice gap" in pharmaceutical risk management: analysis of healthcare claim data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The concept of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has promulgated among healthcare professionals in recent years, on the other hand, the problem of underuse of useful clinical evidence is coming to be important. This is called as evidence-practice gap. The major concern about evidence-practice gap is insufficient implementation of evidence-based effective treatment, however, the perspective can be extended to measures to improve drug safety and prevention of drug related adverse events. First, this article reviews the characteristics of the database of receipt (healthcare claims) and the usefulness for research purpose of pharmacoepidemiology. Second, as the real example of the study on evidence-practice gap by using the receipt database, the case of ergot-derived anti-Parkinson drugs, of which risk of valvulopathy has been identified, is introduced. The receipt analysis showed that more than 70% of Parkinson's disease patients prescribed with cabergoline or pergolide did not undergo echocardiography despite the revision of the product label recommendation. Afterwards, the issues of pharmaceutical risk management and risk communication will be discussed.

  20. Knowledge gap regarding dementia care among nurses in Taiwanese acute care hospitals: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Chao; Hsieh, Mei-Hui; Chen, Meng-Chin; Yang, Yung-Mei; Lin, Li-Chan

    2018-02-01

    The quality of dementia care in hospitals is typically substandard. Staff members are underprepared for providing care to older people with dementia. The objective of the present study was to examine dementia care knowledge, attitude and behavior regarding self-education about dementia care among nurses working in different wards. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The present study was carried out from July 2013 to December 2013. In total, 387 nurses working in different wards were recruited from two hospitals in Taiwan by using convenience sampling. The nurses completed a self-report questionnaire on demographic data, experience and learning behavior, and attitude towards dementia care, and a 16-item questionnaire on dementia care knowledge. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the status and differences in dementia care knowledge among nurse in different wards. The average dementia care knowledge score was 10.46 (SD 2.13), with a 66.5% mean accuracy among all nurses. Dementia care knowledge was significantly associated with age, nursing experience, possession of a registered nurse license, holding a bachelor's degree, work unit, training courses and learning behavior towards dementia care. The dementia care knowledge of the emergency room nurses was significantly lower than that of the psychiatric and neurology ward nurses. A significantly lower percentage of emergency room nurses underwent dementia care training and actively searched for information on dementia care, compared with the psychiatric and neurology ward nurses. Hospital nurses show a knowledge gap regarding dementia care, especially emergency room nurses. Providing dementia care training to hospital nurses, particularly emergency room nurses, is crucial for improving the quality of care for patients with dementia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 276-285. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. Yield gap mapping as a support tool for risk management in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Ouiam; Imani, Yasmina; Slimani, Imane; Van Wart, Justin; Yang, Haishun

    2016-04-01

    The increasing frequency and magnitude of droughts in Morocco and the mounting losses from extended droughts in the agricultural sector emphasized the need to develop reliable and timely tools to manage drought and to mitigate resulting catastrophic damage. In 2011, Morocco launched a cereals multi-risk insurance with drought as the most threatening and the most frequent hazard in the country. However, and in order to assess the gap and to implement the more suitable compensation, it is essential to quantify the potential yield in each area. In collaboration with the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, a study is carried out in Morocco and aims to determine the yield potentials and the yield gaps in the different agro-climatic zones of the country. It fits into the large project: Global Yield Gap and Water Productivity Atlas: http://www.yieldgap.org/. The yield gap (Yg) is the magnitude and difference between crop yield potential (Yp) or water limited yield potential (Yw) and actual yields, reached by farmers. World Food Studies (WOFOST), which is a Crop simulation mechanistic model, has been used for this purpose. Prior to simulations, reliable information about actual yields, weather data, crop management data and soil data have been collected in 7 Moroccan buffer zones considered, each, within a circle of 100 km around a weather station point, homogenously spread across the country and where cereals are widely grown. The model calibration was also carried out using WOFOST default varieties data. The map-based results represent a robust tool, not only for drought insurance organization, but for agricultural and agricultural risk management. Moreover, accurate and geospatially granular estimates of Yg and Yw will allow to focus on regions with largest unexploited yield gaps and greatest potential to close them, and consequently to improve food security in the country.

  2. Using a research framework to identify knowledge gaps in research on food marketing to children in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley

    2009-06-01

    Research in the field of food marketing to children requires a better understanding of the research gaps in order to inform policy development. The purpose of this paper was to propose a framework for classifying food marketing research, using Australian research on food marketing to children to demonstrate how this framework can be used to determine knowledge gaps. A literature review of research databases and 'grey' material was conducted to identify research from the previous 10 years. Studies were classified according to their research focus, and media type, as either: exposure, including content analyses; effects of exposure, including opinions, attitudes and actions resulting from food marketing exposure; regulations, including the type and level of regulation that applies to food marketing; or breaches of regulations, including instances where marketing regulations have been violated. The majority of Australian research on food marketing to children has focused on television advertising and exposure research. Research has consistently shown that the content of food marketing directed at children is predominately for unhealthy foods. There is a lack of research on the effects of food marketing, which would be valuable to inform policy. The development of a logical framework for food marketing research allows for the identification of research gaps and enables research priorities to be identified.

  3. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbi, Sifat E; Dey, Nepal C

    2013-01-30

    Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC's water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programme areas over time. This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006), midline (2009) and end-line (2011) surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i) 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii) 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey) for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  4. Exploring the gap between hand washing knowledge and practices in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbi Sifat E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. This study compared hand washing knowledge and practices in BRAC’s water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH programme areas over time. Methods This study is a cross-sectional comparative study between baseline (2006, midline (2009 and end-line (2011 surveys in 50 sub-districts from the first phase of the programme. Thirty thousand households from 50 sub-districts were selected in two steps: i 30 villages were selected from each sub-district by cluster sampling, and ii 20 households were chosen systematically from each village. The matched households were considered (26,404 in each survey for analysis. Data were collected from households through face-to-face interview using a pre-tested questionnaire. Respondents were the adult female members of the same households, who had knowledge of day-to-day household activities related to water, sanitation and hygiene. Results A gap between perception and practice of proper hand washing practices with soap was identified in the study areas. Hand washing practice with soap before eating was much lower than after defecation. In baseline data, 8% reported to wash their hands with soap which significantly increased to 22% in end line. Hand washing knowledge and practices before cooking food, before serving food and while handling babies is considerably limited than other critical times. A multivariate analysis shows that socio-economic factors including education of household head and respondent, water availability and access to media have strong positive association with hand washing with soap. Conclusion Gap between knowledge and practice still persists in hand washing practices. Long term and extensive initiatives can aware people about the effectiveness of hand washing.

  5. Knowledge Management (KM) Risk Assessment of Critical Knowledge Loss in an Organization with Expanding Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Risk and KM risk assessment of critical knowledge loss: • Risk is defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK,2004) as an event or unclear situation that will influence the timing, cost and quality of a project. • This study considers attrition due to retirements of its workforce -- A risk for the organization as it has implications of loss of knowledge for the organization and thereby on its quality and output. • This study assesses the magnitude of the anticipated Risk of Knowledge Loss in three Operational NPPs namely CNPGS (C-1 and C-2) and K-1 based on the factor of Time until Retirement

  6. Pedagogical Content Knowledge for World History Teachers: Bridging the Gap between Knowing and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren McArthur; Bain, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors are conducting studies to determine what knowledge world history teachers need and how they can use it to plan instruction. In this article, they report on a small but in-depth study designed to examine how four pre-service and six in-service world history teachers think about, organize, and make meaning of separate world historical…

  7. Knowledge Gaps Exist Among Dentists Regarding Curing Lights and Personal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Wanda G

    2017-09-01

    Light curing procedures - performance, knowledge level and safety awareness among dentists. Kopperud SE, Rukke HV, Kopperud HM, Bruzell EM. J Dent 2017;58:67-73. Information not available TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mini-review of knowledge gaps in salt tolerance of plants applied to willows and poplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Zalesny

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of agricultural crops has been studied since the 1940, but knowledge regarding salt tolerance of woody crops is still in its initial phase. Salt tolerance of agricultural crops has been expressed as the yield decrease due to a certain salt concentration within the root zone as compared to a non-saline control. The most well-known plant response curve to...

  9. A knowledge transfer scheme to bridge the gap between science and practice: an integration of existing research frameworks into a tool for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Evert; Voogt, Nelly; Bruinsma, Anja; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-04-01

    Evidence of effectiveness does not equal successful implementation. To progress the field, practical tools are needed to bridge the gap between research and practice and to truly unite effectiveness and implementation evidence. This paper describes the Knowledge Transfer Scheme integrating existing implementation research frameworks into a tool which has been developed specifically to bridge the gap between knowledge derived from research on the one side and evidence-based usable information and tools for practice on the other.

  10. Knowledge, risk, and policy support: Public perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Sturgess, Shelbi G.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy was becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to air polluting fossil fuel technologies through the latter half of the 2000s. The tragic events of March 11, 2011 in Fukushima, Japan appear to have instantly killed any momentum the nuclear industry had gained. While unfortunate, many argue that nuclear power is still a safe alternative and that the Fukushima disaster resulted from insufficient safety regulations in Japan, a problem that does not exist in the United States. This project examines U.S. public support for nuclear energy one year after the Fukushima tragedy, seeking to understand the influence of knowledge and risk perceptions on policy support. We evaluate public support for nuclear energy policy from several perspectives using risk and attitudinal measurements that are more specific than often found in the literature to obtain a greater understanding of the connection between policy and risk. -- Highlights: •Paper evaluates US public support for nuclear energy1 year after Fukushima tragedy. •Attitudinal indicators are significant predictors of nuclear power policy support. •People more knowledgeable about energy issues are more supportive of nuclear energy. •Perceptions of risk exert varying influence on support for nuclear power. •Specific attitude and risk indicators permit nuanced insight into their influence

  11. Gaps in the knowledge and skills of Portuguese mothers associated with newborn health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Maria Ramos Cardoso

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: assess mothers’ parenting knowledge and skills associated with the parental competence health promotion and monitoring for newborns and infants aged up to six months and determine the key characteristics of mothers who are better prepared for parenting. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in three health centers belonging to a Local Health Unit in the Northern Region of Portugal. Data was collected using clinical interviews conducted with pregnant women or mothers with a child aged up to six months. The tool used contained 21 child health promotion and monitoring indicators associated with different assessment moments: pregnancy, 1st/2nd week, 1st/2nd month, 3rd/4th month, and 5th/6th month. Results: we assessed the knowledge and skills of 629 women. Learning needs were identified for each of the indicators. The mothers who were better prepared for parenting tended to have a higher level of schooling, resided with the child’s father, had other children, had planned pregnancy, and intended to breastfeed. Conclusions: the results showed that knowledge and skills were lacking for each of the periods assessed by this study. First-time single mothers whose pregnancy was unplanned and who did not prepare themselves for parenthood may be considered a vulnerable group.

  12. Integrated Knowledge Translation and Grant Development: Addressing the Research Practice Gap through Stakeholder-informed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joanna; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Rosenkranz, Susan; Chaim, Gloria; Beitchman, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We describe our stakeholder engagement process for grant application development that occurred as part of our integrated knowledge translation plan and make recommendations for researchers. In phase 1, a stakeholder consultation group was developed. In phase 2, surveys regarding knowledge gathering, research agenda, and research collaboration preferences were sent to 333 cross-sectoral youth-serving organizations in Ontario, including family and consumer organizations. In phase 1, 28 stakeholders from six sectors participated in the consultation group and provided input on multiple aspects of the proposal. Through this process, 19 stakeholders adopted formal roles within the project. In phase 2, 206 surveys were received (response rate = 62%). Survey responses supported the grant focus (concurrent youth mental health and substance use problems). Respondents also prioritized project goals and provided specific feedback on research and knowledge translation. Finally, although some stakeholders chose greater involvement, most survey respondents indicated a preference for a moderate level of participation in research rather than full team membership. Despite short timelines and feasibility challenges, stakeholders can be meaningfully engaged in and contribute to the grant proposal development process. Consideration is needed for the practical challenges that stakeholder organizations face in supporting and participating in research.

  13. The quantified self: closing the gap between general knowledge and particular case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornquist, Eline; Kirkengen, Anna Luise

    2015-06-01

    This paper addresses the movements 'evidence-based' (EBM) and 'personalized' (PM) medicine. The former is being criticized for failing to do justice to clinical complexity and human individuality. The latter aims at tailoring medical knowledge for every patient in a personalized fashion. Instrumental to this effort is the technological development engendering unlimited amounts of data about bodily fragments. The aim of this article is to stimulate a debate about the notion of the body and knowledge in medicine. An authentic sickness history is used as a vantage point for a more comprehensive account of biomedicine. The analysis of the sickness history demonstrates how biomedical logic guided all approaches in the care for this particular patient. Each problem was identified and treated separately, whereby neglecting the interaction between body parts and systems, and between the woman's bodily condition and her experiences. The specialists involved seemed to look for phenomena that fit categories of disorders 'belonging' to their field. These approaches engendered unintended effects: chronification, poly-pharmacy and multi-morbidity, leading to an unsustainable increase in medical costs. The article elucidates how the status that professionals ascribe to the body has vital implications for what they regard as relevant and how they interpret the information they have collected. On this ground, we challenge both the prevailing and tacitly accepted separation between the physical body and human experience and the view of knowledge underpinning EBM and PM. The growing molecularization of the body veils decisive sources of human illness. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The gap between available knowledge and its use in clinical psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Jørgensen, P; Blanner Kristiansen, C; Uwawke, R; Larsen, J I; Okkels, N; Christiansen, B; Hjorth, P

    2015-12-01

    The time span between knowledge becoming available and its integration into daily clinical routine is lengthy. This phenomenon is explored in this study. We used the outcomes of our activities for investigating and strengthening the research-based activities to improve physical health in the routines of clinical psychiatric wards as examples for our analyses. The time span between new knowledge becoming available and its implementation into general clinical treatment is very long. However, a shortening of this time span is seen through active leadership backup and clinical research experience among psychiatrists and staff in the wards. In particular, the involvement of medical students interested in clinical research activities seems to have a positive impact. Academia needs to be re-implemented into clinical psychiatry. Staff with research experience is needed in all professions to increase evidence-based practice. Leaders must take responsibility for implementing new knowledge into the routines of the department and must support staff in these activities on a daily basis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Parental Knowledge about Urban Preschool Children’s Oral Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Ganga; Bowen, Felesia

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent and significant health problems in the United States. According to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry, more than one-fourth of children between the ages of two and five years experience early childhood caries before entering kindergarten. The purpose of this study was to explore parent’s knowledge of preschool children’s oral health risk factors. A descriptive design was used with a convenience sample of 87 parents of children who attended day care centers and preschools. Seventeen knowledge questions were used to assess parents’ knowledge of their child’s oral health. Results showed that parents lacked knowledge in some aspects of oral health care. The majority of parents knew that baby teeth are important, and both baby and permanent teeth should be brushed. Fewer, however, perceived that cavities in baby teeth lead to cavities in permanent teeth. Similarly, parents knew the role of food in the dental caries, but fewer perceived that cavities may be caused by using a bottle or infant drinking cup to drink fluid other than water and frequent snacking. Findings illuminate the knowledge gaps in this sample of parents of preschoolers. Pediatric nurses can play a key role in promoting children’s oral health and preventing dental caries by proving anticipatory guidance and education to children and their parents at well child visits, during hospitalization, and in school and community settings.

  16. Review of the effects of protection in marine protected areas: current knowledge and gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojeda–Martínez, C.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs and the conservation of marine environments must be based on reliable information on the quality of the marine environment that can be obtained in a reasonable timeframe. We reviewed studies that evaluated all aspects related to the effectiveness of MPAs in order to describe how the studies were conducted and to detect fields in which research is lacking. Existing parameters used to evaluate the effectiveness of MPAs are summarised. Two-hundred and twenty-two publications were reviewed. We identified the most commonly used study subjects and methodological approaches. Most of the studies concentrated on biological parameters. Peer reviewed studies were based on control vs. impact design. BACI and mBACI designs were used in very few studies. Through this review, we have identified gaps in the objectives assigned to MPAs and the way in which they have been evaluated. We suggest some guidelines aimedat improving the assessment of the effects of protection in MPAs.

  17. Modelling marine sediment biogeochemistry: Current knowledge gaps, challenges, and some methodological advice for advancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Artioli, Yuri; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2018-01-01

    The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological improveme......The benthic environment is a crucial component of marine systems in the provision of ecosystem services, sustaining biodiversity and in climate regulation, and therefore important to human society. With the contemporary increase in computational power, model resolution and technological...... improvements in quality and quantity of benthic data, it is necessary to ensure that benthic systems are appropriately represented in coupled benthic-pelagic biogeochemical and ecological modelling studies. In this paper we focus on five topical challenges related to various aspects of modelling benthic...... environments: organic matter reactivity, dynamics of benthic-pelagic boundary layer, microphytobenthos, biological transport and small-scale heterogeneity, and impacts of episodic events. We discuss current gaps in their understanding and indicate plausible ways ahead. Further, we propose a three...

  18. Knowledge apartheid in disaster risk management discourse: Is marrying indigenous and scientific knowledge the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundi Mutasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK is a key component of disaster risk management (DRM and development planning, yet it is often overlooked, with practitioners preferring to use scientific knowledge. Critics of IK have termed it archaic, primitive, a constraint to development and inferior to scientific knowledge, which has contributed to its widespread marginalisation. However, smallholder farmers in rural Zimbabwe have utilised IK for generations, especially in predicting rainfall patterns and managing drought conditions, showing that IK can be a useful tool in DRM. This article presents findings from research on drought vulnerability and coping conducted in Zimbabwe’s Buhera and Chikomba districts in 2009, particularly relating to utilisation of IK in smallholder farming communities, and argues that unless IK is documented and preserved, its marginalisation will persist. The research followed a mixed-methods approach whereby both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analysed. Whilst smallholder respondents were randomly selected for household surveys, snowball sampling was employed for key informant interviews. Respondents indicated that they utilised some indigenous rainfall pattern predictions gained from observing and interpreting plant and animal behaviour. Some cultural practices that were critical to development and utilisation of certain IK were also threatened with extinction. The article argues for ’marrying’ IK and scientific knowledge, in the hope that the two will offset each other’s weaknesses, resulting in some kind of hybrid knowledge that will be critical for promoting sustainable agricultural production in Zimbabwe. However, this is not for disregard the challenges associated with knowledge hybridisation, as these two types of knowledge are grounded on differing foundations.

  19. Ageing research on vertebrates shows knowledge gaps and opportunities for species conservation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    is constant when species reach maturity. The implications of these assumptions have strong consequences not only in the development of evolutionary theories of ageing and population ecology but also in species conservation. By modeling mortality of different species of vertebrates we show that different...... models are needed to explore the diversity of mortality trajectories in animals. However, our state of demographic knowledge even for vertebrates is by far deficient to incorporate the effects on age. Exploring 13 available datasets on vertebrate life histories traits, our results show surprising figures...

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors among College Students: Knowledge, Perception, and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T.; Zimmerman, Lani M.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Shurmur, Scott W.; Pullen, Carol H.; Yates, Bernice C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess college students' knowledge and perception of cardiovascular risk factors and to screen for their cardiovascular risks. Participants: The final sample that responded to recruitment consisted of 158 college students from a midwestern university. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was performed using convenience…

  1. Identification of gaps in the current knowledge on pulmonary hypertension in extremely preterm infants: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjaans, Sanne; Zwart, Elvira A H; Ploegstra, Mark-Jan; Bos, Arend F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W; Hillege, Hans L; Berger, Rolf M F

    2018-01-17

    Pulmonary hypertension complicates the clinical course of extremely preterm infants and is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of pulmonary hypertension in these infants are insufficiently known. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide an up-to-date overview of available data on prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of pulmonary hypertension and to identify current knowledge gaps. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched in July 2017. Two authors reviewed titles/abstracts and full-texts. Eligible studies reported prevalence, patient characteristics or mortality of infants with/without pulmonary hypertension. Studies were excluded if they did not include extremely preterm infants. Only similar study samples (selected infants with BPD or infants both with/without BPD) were compared in the meta-analyses. Of 1829 unique articles identified, 25 were eligible for inclusion. Pulmonary hypertension was observed in infants with BPD (20%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 14, 25), but also in those without BPD (2%, 95% CI 0, 8). Infants with severe BPD were most at risk of pulmonary hypertension (risk ratio [RR] 2.7, 95% CI 1.7, 4.2). Infants with pulmonary hypertension were more at risk of mortality (RR 4.7, 95% CI 2.7, 8.3). Pulmonary hypertension occurs in particularly in infants with severe BPD, and increases risk of mortality. Due to selected study populations, heterogeneous pulmonary hypertension-definitions and poorly reported timing of pulmonary hypertension assessments, however, data available in current reports are insufficient to allow accurate assessment of true prevalence, risk factors, and time-related outcome. Prospective studies, with standardised methodology and follow-up are needed to determine these factors. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Exposure Knowledge and Risk Perception of RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenstein, Frederik; Wiedemann, Peter M.; Varsier, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The presented study is part of the EU-Project Low EMF Exposure Future Networks (LEXNET), which deals among other things with the issue of whether a reduction of the radiofrequency (RF) electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure will result in more acceptance of wireless communication networks in the public sphere. We assume that the effects of any reduction of EMF exposure will depend on the subjective link between exposure perception and risk perception (RP). Therefore we evaluated respondents’ RP of different RF EMF sources and their subjective knowledge about various exposure characteristics with regard to their impact on potential health risks. The results show that participants are more concerned about base stations than about all other RF EMF sources. Concerning the subjective exposure knowledge the results suggest that people have a quite appropriate impact model. The question how RF EMF RP is actually affected by the knowledge about the various exposure characteristics was tested in a linear regression analysis. The regression indicates that these features – except distance – do influence people’s general RF EMF RP. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the quality of exposure knowledge on RF EMF RP of various sources. The results show a tendency that better exposure knowledge leads to higher RP, especially for mobile phones. The study provides empirical support for models of the relationships between exposure perception and RP. It is not the aim to extrapolate these findings to the whole population because the samples are not exactly representative for the general public in the participating countries. PMID:25629026

  3. Bridging the knowledge-resuscitation gap for children: Still a long way to go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ran D; Ho, Kendall; Peterson, Robert; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2007-01-01

    The American Heart Association, along with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, recently made changes to the paediatric resuscitation guidelines. Knowledge translation (KT) is imperative, but there is a lack of sufficient evidence for appropriate methodologies for implementation of these guidelines. Paediatric resuscitation presents many challenges; cases happen infrequently, affording few opportunities for implementation of the new guidelines, and are highly stressful and filled with uncertainty. Some KT strategies have shown some success in causing a notable degree of change in behaviour, but none have shown a striking difference when used alone. Previous efforts to disseminate current guidelines centred on development of courses for health care providers and preparing paediatric residents and paediatricians for circumstances they could encounter with paediatric acute illness. None of the studies assessing these techniques measured direct patient outcomes, and only a few demonstrated some long-term knowledge acquisition among trainees. The purpose of the present review was to illuminate the challenges, offer future directions for KT and outline potentially more effective methodologies and strategies to overcome current barriers. PMID:19030414

  4. Addressing the knowledge gap: sexual violence and harassment in the UK Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Godier, Lauren; Fossey, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertainin...

  5. The 'third wave' of HIV prevention: Filling gaps in integrated interventions, knowledge, and funding

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, J

    2012-01-01

    There is growing optimism in the global health community that the HIV epidemic can be halted. After decades of relying primarily on behavior change to prevent HIV transmission, a second generation of prevention efforts based on medical or biological interventions such as male circumcision and preexposure prophylaxis-the use of antiretroviral drugs to protect uninfected, at-risk individuals-has shown promising results. This article calls for a third generation of HIV prevention efforts that wo...

  6. Gaps in Current Knowledge and Priorities for Future Research in Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Ian J; Dickersin, Kay; Hutfless, Susan T; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-12-01

    Dry eye, a common yet underrecognized and evolving field, has few recommended treatment algorithms, mostly based on expert consensus rather than robust research evidence. There are high costs associated with managing dry eye and conducting research to identify effective and safe long-term treatments. To support evidence-based management of dry eye, our purpose was to identify and prioritize important clinical research questions for future clinical research. We translated recommendations from the American Academy of Ophthalmology's 2013 Preferred Practice Patterns for dry eye into answerable clinical research questions about treatment effectiveness. Clinicians around the world who manage patients with dry eye rated each question's importance from 0 (not important) to 10 (very important) using a 2-round online Delphi survey. We considered questions as "important" if ≥75% of respondents assigned a rating of 6 or more in round 2. We mapped the identified important clinical research questions to reliable systematic reviews published up to March 2016. Seventy-five clinicians from at least 21 countries completed both Delphi rounds. Among the 58 questions, 24 met our definition of "important": 9/24 and 7/24 addressed topical and systemic treatments, respectively. All 4 questions with the highest 25th percentiles addressed topical treatments. Although 6/24 "important" questions were associated with 4 existing reliable systematic reviews, none of these reviews came to a definitive conclusion about treatment effectiveness. We identified gaps pertaining to treatment options for dry eye. Future clinical research on the management of dry eye should strongly consider these prioritized questions.

  7. Biological transfer of radionuclides in marine environments - Identifying and filling knowledge gaps for environmental impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.E.; Borretzen, P.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.

    2004-01-01

    A review on concentration factors (CF) for the marine environment was conducted in order to consider the relevance of existing data from the perspective of environmental protection and to identify areas of data paucity. Data have been organised in a format compatible with a reference organism approach, for selected radionuclides, and efforts have been taken to identify the factors that may be of importance in the context of dosimetric and dose-effects analyses. These reference organism categories had been previously selected by identifying organism groups that were likely to experience the highest levels of radiation exposure, owing to high uptake levels or residence in a particular habitat, for defined scenarios. Significant data gaps in the CF database have been identified, notably for marine mammals and birds. Most empirical information pertains to a limit suite of radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, 210 Po and 99 Tc. A methodology has been developed to help bridge this information deficit. This has been based on simple dynamic, biokinetic models that mainly use parameters derived from laboratory-based study and field observation. In some cases, allometric relationships have been employed to allow further model parameterization. Initial testing of the model by comparing model output with empirical data sets suggest that the models provide sensible equilibrium CFs. Furthermore, analyses of modelling results suggest that for some radionuclides, in particularly those with long effective half-lives, the time to equilibrium can be far greater than the life-time of an organism. This clearly emphasises the limitations of applying a universal equilibrium approach. The methodology, therefore, has an added advantage that non-equilibrium scenarios can be considered in a more rigorous manner. Further refinements to the modelling approach might be attained by exploring the importance of various model parameters, through sensitivity analyses, and by identifying those

  8. Filling Terrorism Gaps: VEOs, Evaluating Databases, and Applying Risk Terrain Modeling to Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagan, Ross F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-29

    This paper aims to address three issues: the lack of literature differentiating terrorism and violent extremist organizations (VEOs), terrorism incident databases, and the applicability of Risk Terrain Modeling (RTM) to terrorism. Current open source literature and publicly available government sources do not differentiate between terrorism and VEOs; furthermore, they fail to define them. Addressing the lack of a comprehensive comparison of existing terrorism data sources, a matrix comparing a dozen terrorism databases is constructed, providing insight toward the array of data available. RTM, a method for spatial risk analysis at a micro level, has some applicability to terrorism research, particularly for studies looking at risk indicators of terrorism. Leveraging attack data from multiple databases, combined with RTM, offers one avenue for closing existing research gaps in terrorism literature.

  9. Gaps in Addressing Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Assessing Performance Using Cardiovascular Quality Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Claire E H; Esdaile, John M; Martin, Liam O; Faris, Peter; Barnabe, Cheryl; Guo, Selynne; Lopatina, Elena; Marshall, Deborah A

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major comorbidity for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study sought to determine the performance of 11 recently developed CVD quality indicators (QI) for RA in clinical practice. Medical charts for patients with RA (early disease or biologic-treated) followed at 1 center were retrospectively reviewed. A systematic assessment of adherence to 11 QI over a 2-year period was completed. Performance on the QI was reported as a percentage pass rate. There were 170 charts reviewed (107 early disease and 63 biologic-treated). The most frequent CVD risk factors present at diagnosis (early disease) and biologic start (biologic-treated) included hypertension (26%), obesity (25%), smoking (21%), and dyslipidemia (15%). Performance on the CVD QI was highly variable. Areas of low performance (risk assessment, communication to the primary care physician (PCP) that patients with RA were at increased risk of CVD, body mass index documentation and counseling if overweight, communication to a PCP about an elevated blood pressure, and discussion of risks and benefits of antiinflammatories in patients at CVD risk. Rates of diabetes screening and lipid screening were 67% and 69%, respectively. The area of highest performance was observed for documentation of intent to taper corticosteroids (98%-100% for yrs 1 and 2, respectively). Gaps in CVD risk management were found and highlight the need for quality improvements. Key targets for improvement include coordination of CVD care between rheumatology and primary care, and communication of increased CVD risk in RA.

  10. Neonatal resuscitation: a knowledge gap amongst obstetrical trainees. A cross-sectional survey amongst medical graduates of Civil Hospital Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Tooba; Raza, Natasha; Haq, Gulfishan

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the neonatal resuscitation competence of obstetrical trainees to assess the gap in knowledge and to determine training needs. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2013 and comprised House Officers and Postgraduate trainees. A questionnaire was used to test the evaluation skills of different conditions and choice of appropriate action required during neonatal resuscitation. Data was collected and analysed through SPSS 17.0. Of the 102 obstetrical trainees, 44 (43.1%) were House Officers and 58 (56.9%) were Postgraduate trainees with an overall mean age 25.69 +/- 2.3 years. Only 19 (18.6%) subjects cleared the test; 8 (42.1%) of them were House Officers and 11 (57.9%) were Postgraduate trainees. The result did not show any significant difference between those who had previous training or those who had performed neonatal resuscitation and those who had no such exposure. Majority, 92 (90.2%) considered their knowledge inadequate and 99 (97%) favoured that updated neonatal resuscitation programmes should be periodically arranged. The study showed inadequate level of knowledge on neonatal resuscitation amongst obstetrical trainees. There is urgent need of formal training programmes which can make doctors skilful enough to face any adverse neonatal outcome professionally.

  11. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  12. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  13. Filling the gap: Using fishers' knowledge to map the extent and intensity of fishing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostek, Claire L; Murray, Lee G; Bell, Ewen; Kaiser, Michel J

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the extent and intensity of fishing activities is critical to inform management in relation to fishing impacts on marine conservation features. Such information can also provide insight into the potential socio-economic impacts of closures (or other restrictions) of fishing grounds that could occur through the future designation of Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs). We assessed the accuracy and validity of fishing effort data (spatial extent and relative effort) obtained from Fishers' Local Knowledge (LK) data compared to that derived from Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data for a high-value shellfish fishery, the king scallop (Pecten maximus L.) dredge fishery in the English Channel. The spatial distribution of fishing effort from LK significantly correlated with VMS data and the correlation increased with increasing grid cell resolution. Using a larger grid cell size for data aggregation increases the estimation of the total area of seabed impacted by the fishery. In the absence of historical VMS data for vessels ≤15 m LOA (Length Overall), LK data for the inshore fleet provided important insights into the relative effort of the inshore (<6 NM from land) king scallop fishing fleet in the English Channel. The LK data provided a good representation of the spatial extent of inshore fishing activity, whereas representation of the offshore fishery was more precautionary in terms of defining total impact. Significantly, the data highlighted frequently fished areas of particular importance to the inshore fleet. In the absence of independent sources of geospatial information, the use of LK can inform the development of marine planning in relation to both sustainable fishing and conservation objectives, and has application in both developed and developing countries where VMS technology is not utilised in fisheries management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Kashif Waqar; Sundseth, Antje; Thommessen, Bente; Rønning, Ole Morten

    2018-01-01

    Public campaigns focus primarily on stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge, but patients who correctly recognize stroke symptoms do not necessarily know the reason for urgent hospitalization. The aim of this study was to explore knowledge on stroke risk factors, symptoms and treatment options among acute stroke and transient ischemic attack patients. This prospective study included patients admitted to the stroke unit at the Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Norway. Patients with previous cerebrovascular disease, patients receiving thrombolytic treatment and patients who were not able to answer the questions in the questionnaire were excluded. Patients were asked two closed-ended questions: "Do you believe that stroke is a serious disorder?" and "Do you believe that time is of importance for stroke treatment?". In addition, patients were asked three open-ended questions where they were asked to list as many stroke risk factors, stroke symptoms and stroke treatment options as they could. A total of 173 patients were included, of whom 158 (91.3%) confirmed that they regarded stroke as a serious disorder and 148 patients (85.5%) considered time being of importance. In all, 102 patients (59.0%) could not name any treatment option. Forty-one patients (23.7%) named one or more adequate treatment options, and they were younger ( p options, which may contribute to reduce prehospital delay and onset-to-treatment-time.

  15. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitades Gebre

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barré syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species, but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  16. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities: A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Nikkiah Forbes; Teshome Gebre

    2016-01-01

    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus(ZIKAV) infection and microcephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barre′ syndrome.ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos(Aedes species), but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva,blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical presentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  17. What happens at the gap between knowledge and practice? Spaces of encounter and misencounter between environmental scientists and local people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne H. Toomey

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers studying processes of global environmental change are increasingly interested in their work having impacts that go beyond academia to influence policy and management. Recent scholarship in the conservation sciences has pointed to the existence of a research-action gap and has proposed various solutions for overcoming it. However, most of these studies have been limited to the spaces of dissemination, where the science has already been done and is then to be passed over to users of the information. Much less attention has been paid to encounters that occur between scientists and nonscientists during the practice of doing scientific research, especially in situations that include everyday roles of labor and styles of communication (i.e., fieldwork. This paper builds on theories of contact that have examined encounters and relations between different groups and cultures in diverse settings. I use quantitative and qualitative evidence from Madidi National Park, Bolivia, including an analysis of past research in the protected area, as well as interviews (N = 137 and workshops and focus groups (N = 12 with local inhabitants, scientists, and park guards. The study demonstrates the significance of currently unacknowledged or undervalued components of the research-action gap, such as power, respect, and recognition, to develop a relational and reciprocal notion of impact. I explain why, within such spaces of encounter or misencounter between scientists and local people, knowledge can be exchanged or hidden away, worldviews can be expanded or further entrenched, and scientific research can be welcomed or rejected.

  18. Data from the German Chest Pain Unit Registry: The well known gap between knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    In-hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction with ST segment elevation remains high and is influenced by many factors, some of which are modifiable such as time to treatment initiation and modality of treatment. It is well established that reperfusion therapy is the gold-standard in the management of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Despite recent developments and clear, comprehensible guidelines recommendations, it remains difficult to disseminate this knowledge to medical practitioners. The German Chest Pain Unit shows that the best door-to-balloon time is reached when patients contact the Emergency Medical Systems (EMS) directly, rather than when referred by the general practitioner (GP), or are transferred from another hospital, or present as a self-referral. In order to improve mortality in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction, patients must be able to recognize symptoms and call the EMS as soon as possible, in addition to having an ECG within ten minutes and direct access to reperfusion therapy (PPCI preferred). The German Registry has highlighted the importance of training both patients and doctors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV Prevention Among Transgender Populations: Knowledge Gaps and Evidence for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Malik, Mannat; Scheim, Ayden; Elliott, Ayana

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the available evidence-based HIV prevention interventions tailored for transgender people. A limited number of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions have been tested with transgender populations. Most existing interventions target behavior change among transgender women, with only one HIV prevention program evaluated for transgender men. Studies addressing biomedical interventions for transgender women are ongoing. Few interventions address social and structural barriers to HIV prevention, such as stigma, discrimination, and poverty. Evidence-based multi-level interventions that address the structural, biomedical, and behavioral risks for HIV among transgender populations, including transgender men, are needed to address disparities in HIV prevalence. Future research should address not only pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake and condom use but also structural barriers that limit access to these prevention strategies.

  20. Black guillemot ecology in relation to tidal stream energy generation: An evaluation of current knowledge and information gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Daniel T; Furness, Robert W; Robbins, Alexandra M C; Tyler, Glen; Taggart, Mark A; Masden, Elizabeth A

    2018-03-01

    The black guillemot Cepphus grylle has been identified as a species likely to interact with marine renewable energy devices, specifically tidal turbines, with the potential to experience negative impacts. This likelihood is primarily based on the species being a diving seabird, and an inshore, benthic forager often associating with tidal streams. These behavioural properties may bring them into contact with turbine blades, or make them susceptible to alterations to tidal current speed, and/or changes in benthic habitat structure. We examine the knowledge currently available to assess the potential impacts of tidal stream turbines on black guillemot ecology, highlight knowledge gaps and make recommendations for future research. The key ecological aspects investigated include: foraging movements, diving behaviour, seasonal distribution, other sources of disturbance and colony recovery. Relating to foraging behaviour, between studies there is heterogeneity in black guillemot habitat use in relation to season, tide, diurnal cycles, and bathymetry. Currently, there is also little knowledge regarding the benthic habitats associated with foraging. With respect to diving behaviour, there is currently no available research regarding how black guillemots orientate and manoeuvre within the water column. Black guillemots are considered to be a non-migratory species, however little is known about their winter foraging range and habitat. The effect of human disturbance on breeding habitat and the metapopulation responses to potential mortalities are unknown. It is clear further understanding of black guillemot foraging habitat and behaviour is needed to provide renewable energy developers with the knowledge to sustainably locate tidal turbines and mitigate their impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding the digital divide in the clinical setting: the technology knowledge gap experienced by US safety net patients during teleretinal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Fish, Allison; Ogunyemi, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to everyday technology and healthcare amongst safety net patients is associated with low technological and health literacies, respectively. These low rates of literacy produce a complex patient "knowledge gap" that influences the effectiveness of telehealth technologies. To understand this "knowledge gap", six focus groups (2 African-American and 4 Latino) were conducted with patients who received teleretinal screenings in U.S. urban safety-net settings. Findings indicate that patients' "knowledge gap" is primarily produced at three points: (1) when patients' preexisting personal barriers to care became exacerbated in the clinical setting; (2) through encounters with technology during screening; and (3) in doctor-patient follow-up. This "knowledge gap" can produce confusion and fear, potentially affecting patients' confidence in quality of care and limiting their disease management ability. In rethinking the digital divide to include the consequences of this knowledge gap faced by patients in the clinical setting, we suggest that patient education focus on both their disease and specific telehealth technologies deployed in care delivery.

  2. Patient-centered outcomes research in appendicitis in children: Bridging the knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Danielle B; Ciullo, Sean S; Watson-Smith, Debra; Chun, Thomas H; Kurkchubasche, Arlet G; Luks, Francois I

    2016-01-01

    Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) aims to give patients a better understanding of the treatment options to enable optimal decision-making. As nonoperative alternatives are now being evaluated in children for acute appendicitis, we surveyed patients and their families regarding their knowledge of appendicitis and evaluated whether providing basic medical information would affect their perception of the disease and allow them to more rationally consider the treatment alternatives. Families of children aged 5-18 presenting to the Emergency Department with suspected appendicitis were recruited for a tablet-based interactive educational survey. One hundred subjects (caregivers and patients ≥ 15 years) were questioned before and after an education session about their understanding of appendicitis, including questions on three hypothetical treatment options: urgent appendectomy, antibiotics alone, or initial antibiotics followed by elective appendectomy. Subjects were clearly informed that urgent appendectomy is currently the standard of care. Only 14% of respondents correctly identified the mortality rate of appendicitis (17 deaths/year according to the 2010 US census) when compared with other extremely rare causes of death. Fifty-four and 31% thought it was more common than death from lightning (40/year) and hunting-associated deaths (44/year), respectively. Eighty-two percent of respondents believed it "likely" or "very likely" that the appendix would rupture if operation was at all delayed, and 81% believed that rupture of the appendix would rapidly lead to severe complications and death. In univariate analysis, this perception was significantly more prevalent for mothers (odds ratio, (OR) 5.19, confidence interval (CI) 1.33-21.15), and subjects who knew at least one friend or relative who had a negative experience with appendicitis (OR 5.53, CI 1.40-25.47). Following education, these perceptions changed significantly (53% still believed that immediate

  3. Family Communication, Risk Perception and Cancer Knowledge of Young Adults from BRCA1/2 Families: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alison L; Butow, Phyllis N; Vetsch, Janine; Quinn, Veronica F; Patenaude, Andrea F; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E

    2017-12-01

    Understanding challenges in familial communication of cancer risk has informed genetic service delivery. Parent-child interactions have received considerable attention, but few studies focus on young adulthood experiences within BRCA1/2 families. Young adults are approaching, or at a life stage where awareness of hereditary cancer risk is vital for informed choice of risk management options. This review assesses family communication, risk perception and cancer knowledge held by 18-40 year old individuals who have a parent with a BRCA1/2 gene mutation or carry the gene mutation themselves. Thirteen papers met the inclusion criteria. One utilized a 'mixed methods' methodology and the remaining used a qualitative approach. Findings were synthesized into themes and reported narratively. In general, parents are communicating openly about genetic risk with young adult offspring, but there is evidence that some young adults are withholding information from their parents about their own test results. Risk perception is influenced by a family history of cancer, childbearing plans and health providers' advice. Misconceptions about genetic risk appear to be common and gaps in hereditary cancer knowledge are evident. It is unclear whether incorrect knowledge was passed from parents to offspring. Health providers need to provide developmentally appropriate services for emerging adults (18-25 years old), with particular support in navigating through risk management options.

  4. Health Care Providers' Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemeda, Desta Hiko; Sime, Abiot Girma; Hajito, Kifle Woldemichael; Gelalacha, Benti Deresa; Tafese, Wubit; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde

    2016-01-01

    Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02%) health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8%) of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2%) of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers' knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  5. Health Care Providers’ Knowledge and Practice Gap towards Joint Zoonotic Disease Surveillance System: Challenges and Opportunities, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desta Hiko Gemeda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Health care providers play a crucial role for realization of joint zoonotic diseases surveillance by human and animal health sectors, yet there is limited evidence. Hence, this study aimed to determine knowledge and practice gap of health care providers towards the approach for Rabies and Anthrax in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 16, 2014, to January 14, 2015. Eligible health care providers were considered for the study. Data were entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. A total of 323 (92.02% health care providers participated in the study. Three hundred sixteen (97.8% of participants reported that both human and animal health sectors can work together for zoonotic diseases while 96.9% of them replied that both sectors can jointly conduct surveillance. One hundred seventeen (36.2% of them reported that their respective sectors had conducted joint surveillance for zoonotic diseases. Their involvement was, however, limited to joint outbreak response. Conclusion. There is good opportunity in health care providers’ knowledge even though the practice was unacceptably low and did not address all surveillance components. Therefore, formal joint surveillance structure should be in place for optimal implementation of surveillance.

  6. Perceived cervical cancer risk among women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: The importance of specific knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Andersson

    specific knowledge, for these women at increased risk for developing cervical cancer. Tailored programming to address these knowledge gaps is needed.

  7. EcAMSat and BioSentinel: Autonomous Bio Nanosatellites Addressing Strategic Knowledge Gaps for Manned Spaceflight Beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgen, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Manned missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) require that several strategic knowledge gaps about the effects of space travel on the human body be addressed. NASA Ames Research Center has been the leader in developing autonomous bio nanosatellites, including past successful missions for GeneSat, PharmaSat, and OOREOS, that tackled some of these issues. These nanosatellites provide in situ measurements, which deliver insight into the dynamic changes in cell behavior in microgravity. In this talk, two upcoming bio nanosatellites developed at Ames, the E. coli Antimicrobial Satellite (EcAMSat) and BioSentinel, will be discussed. Both satellites contain microfluidic systems that precisely deliver nutrients to the microorganisms stored within wells of fluidic cards. Each well, in turn, has its own 3-color LED and detector system which is used to monitor changes in metabolic activity with alamarBlue, a redox indicator, and the optical density of the cells. EcAMSat investigates the effects of microgravity on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs, vital knowledge for understanding how to maintain the health of astronauts in long-term and beyond LEO spaceflight. The behavior of wild type and mutant uropathic E. coli will be compared in microgravity and with ground data to help understand the molecular mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance and how these phenotypes might change in space. BioSentinel seeks to directly measure the effects of space radiation on budding yeast S. cerevisiae, particularly double strand breaks (DSB). While hitching a ride on the SLS EM-1 mission (Orions first unmanned mission to the moon) in 2018, BioSentinel will be kicked off and enter into a heliocentric orbit, becoming the first study of the effects of radiation on living organisms outside LEO since the Apollo program. The yeast are stored in eighteen independent 16-well microfluidic cards, which will be individually activated over the 12 month mission duration. In addition to the wild

  8. Beyond bridging the know-do gap: a qualitative study of systemic interaction to foster knowledge exchange in the public health sector in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driessen Mareeuw, Francine; Vaandrager, Lenneke; Klerkx, Laurens; Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Koelen, Maria

    2015-09-19

    Despite considerable attention currently being given to facilitating the use of research results in public health practice, several concerns remain, resulting in the so-called know-do gap. This article aims to identify the key tensions causing the know-do gap from a broad perspective by using a systemic approach and considering the public health sector as an innovation system. An exploratory qualitative design including in-depth semi-structured interviews was used, with 33 interviewees from different actor categories in the Dutch public health innovation system. The analyses employed an innovation system matrix to highlight the principal tensions causing the know-do gap. Seven key tensions were identified, including: research priorities determined by powerful players; no consensus about criteria for knowledge quality; different perceptions about the knowledge broker role; competition engendering fragmentation; thematic funding engendering fragmentation; predominance of passive knowledge sharing; and lack of capacity among users to use and influence research. The identified tensions indicate that bridging the know-do gap requires much more than linking research to practice or translating knowledge. An innovation system perspective is crucial in providing information on the total picture of knowledge exchange within the Dutch public health sector. Such a system includes broader stakeholder involvement as well as the creation of social, economic, and contextual conditions (achieving shared visions, building networks, institutional change, removing financial and infrastructural barriers), as these create conducive factors at several system levels and induce knowledge co-creation and innovation.

  9. Research on Knowledge-Oriented Supply ChainRisk Management System Model

    OpenAIRE

    Yingchun Guo

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the characteristics of supply chain risk management under the influences of knowledge, in this paper integrates basic theories and methods of knowledge management into the process of risk management, builds a knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management system model, and proposes relevant strategies, presenting references for practical application of knowledge-oriented supply chain risk management. By means of acquiring, storing, sharing, and transferring supply chain ri...

  10. Monetary Valuation of Health Risks of Heavy Metals: State-of-the-art and some gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ščasný M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a fundamental part of modern decision-making process, in particular policies that affect releases, exposures or doses of pollutants including heavy metals. Traditionally, HIA focus is on risk assessment and securing safe levels of pollution exposure or dose. Only recently HIA has extended its focus to include evaluation of health effects in monetary terms that allows for a comprehensive Cost-Benefit Analysis, a widely used quantitative decision support tool to assess desirability of policies and projects based on economic rationale. The aim of this contribution is to review the state-of-the-art in valuation of health impacts related to heavy metals and discuss some gaps faced here. We start by introducing concept of risk in valuation literature, related mortality denominator, Value of Statistical Life (VSL and difficulties in deriving values for chronic health conditions. We then overview valuation of various health outcomes in five broad impact categories – carcinogenicity, dose toxicity, sensitization, effects on fertility and developmental toxicity and discuss difficulties in translating risk assessment and toxicological research findings of human health effects of heavy metal exposure/dose to changes in welfare in such a way that is comprehensible for general population. We briefly examine and discuss numerous issues and gaps in establishing such links between exposure and welfare impacts in the context of a study commissioned by European Chemicals Agency. The study’s goal is to deliver EU-wide values of willingness to pay for avoiding adverse health outcomes due to exposure to chemicals. We emphasize the necessity of such discussion among experts from different areas for the results to be useful for decision-making related to regulation of (not only heavy metals releases to the environment.

  11. Filling gaps in biodiversity knowledge for macrofungi: contributions and assessment of an herbarium collection DNA barcode sequencing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W; Robert, Vincent A; Schoch, Conrad L; Baker, Lydia J; Smith, Amy; Robich, Giovanni; Mizzan, Luca; Garbelotto, Matteo M

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances spearheaded by molecular approaches and novel technologies, species description and DNA sequence information are significantly lagging for fungi compared to many other groups of organisms. Large scale sequencing of vouchered herbarium material can aid in closing this gap. Here, we describe an effort to obtain broad ITS sequence coverage of the approximately 6000 macrofungal-species-rich herbarium of the Museum of Natural History in Venice, Italy. Our goals were to investigate issues related to large sequencing projects, develop heuristic methods for assessing the overall performance of such a project, and evaluate the prospects of such efforts to reduce the current gap in fungal biodiversity knowledge. The effort generated 1107 sequences submitted to GenBank, including 416 previously unrepresented taxa and 398 sequences exhibiting a best BLAST match to an unidentified environmental sequence. Specimen age and taxon affected sequencing success, and subsequent work on failed specimens showed that an ITS1 mini-barcode greatly increased sequencing success without greatly reducing the discriminating power of the barcode. Similarity comparisons and nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordinations based on pairwise distance matrices proved to be useful heuristic tools for validating the overall accuracy of specimen identifications, flagging potential misidentifications, and identifying taxa in need of additional species-level revision. Comparison of within- and among-species nucleotide variation showed a strong increase in species discriminating power at 1-2% dissimilarity, and identified potential barcoding issues (same sequence for different species and vice-versa). All sequences are linked to a vouchered specimen, and results from this study have already prompted revisions of species-sequence assignments in several taxa.

  12. Toward a knowledge infrastructure for traits-based ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Donald J; Baker, Christopher J O; Brua, Robert B; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad; McNicol, Kearon; Pascoe, Timothy J; de Zwart, Dick

    2011-04-01

    The trait approach has already indicated significant potential as a tool in understanding natural variation among species in sensitivity to contaminants in the process of ecological risk assessment. However, to realize its full potential, a defined nomenclature for traits is urgently required, and significant effort is required to populate databases of species-trait relationships. Recently, there have been significant advances in the area of information management and discovery in the area of the semantic web. Combined with continuing progress in biological trait knowledge, these suggest that the time is right for a reevaluation of how trait information from divergent research traditions is collated and made available for end users in the field of environmental management. Although there has already been a great deal of work on traits, the information is scattered throughout databases, literature, and undiscovered sources. Further progress will require better leverage of this existing data and research to fill in the gaps. We review and discuss a number of technical and social challenges to bringing together existing information and moving toward a new, collaborative approach. Finally, we outline a path toward enhanced knowledge discovery within the traits domain space, showing that, by linking knowledge management infrastructure, semantic metadata (trait ontologies), and Web 2.0 and 3.0 technologies, we can begin to construct a dedicated platform for TERA science. Copyright © 2010 SETAC.

  13. Knowledge and awareness of and perception towards cardiovascular disease risk in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesah, Frederick; Browne, Joyce L.; Agyemang, Charles; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Aikins, Ama de-Graft; Smit, Henriette A.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the most common cause of non-communicable disease mortality in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Gaps in knowledge of CVD conditions and their risk factors are important barriers in effective prevention and treatment. Yet, evidence on the awareness and knowledge level of CVD and associated risk factors among populations of SSA is scarce. This review aimed to synthesize available evidence of the level of knowledge of and perceptions towards CVDs and risk factors in the SSA region. Methods Five databases were searched for publications up to December 2016. Narrative synthesis was conducted for knowledge level of CVDs, knowledge of risk factors and clinical signs, factors influencing knowledge of CVDs and source of health information on CVDs. The review was registered with Prospero (CRD42016049165). Results Of 2212 titles and abstracts screened, 45 full-text papers were retrieved and reviewed and 20 were included: eighteen quantitative and two qualitative studies. Levels of knowledge and awareness for CVD and risk factors were generally low, coupled with poor perception. Most studies reported less than half of their study participants having good knowledge of CVDs and/or risk factors. Proportion of participants who were unable to identify a single risk factor and clinical symptom for CVDs ranged from 1.8% in a study among hospital staff in Nigeria to a high of 73% in a population-based survey in Uganda and 7% among University staff in Nigeria to 75.1% in a general population in Uganda respectively. High educational attainment and place of residence had a significant influence on the levels of knowledge for CVDs among SSA populations. Conclusion Low knowledge of CVDs, risk factors and clinical symptoms is strongly associated with the low levels of educational attainment and rural residency in the region. These findings provide useful information for implementers of interventions targeted at the prevention and control of

  14. Dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an area of public interest in which Stakeholder involvement has largely proven itself to be beneficial to all parties and processes concerned. With growing experience, sharing best practice can be useful at the international level. These workshop proceedings deal with the local partnership methodology employed in Belgium in order to develop an integrated proposal to the national Government to construct and operate a disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste that is adapted to local conditions. The partnerships are formed amongst representatives of local organisations in affected communities and representatives of the Belgian national radioactive waste management agency. Insights are provided into a unique - and so far very successful - governance approach to dealing with interests, values and knowledge in managing risk. (author)

  15. VGB congress 'power plants 2003'. Generation gap - risk and challenge for the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The VGB Congress 'Power Plants 2003' took place in Copenhagen from 15th to 17th September 2003. The motto of this year's Congress was 'Generation Gap - Risk and Challenge for the Electricity Market'. More than 800 participants took the opportunity for discussion and information in the plenary and technical lectures 'Market and Competition' and 'Technology, Operation and Environment'. Apart from the special features of the Scandinavian and Baltic electricity market, the main focus was on papers reflecting the situation of nuclear power (Finland), operating experience with new power plants, new materials for power plant construction, application of renewables and issues of climate protection. The Congress was again rounded off by technical visits and a side programme. (orig.) [de

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in different economic sectors: Mitigation measures, health co-benefits, knowledge gaps, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Hou, Hongli; Zhai, Yunkai; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; Li, Liping; Song, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lei; Meng, Bohan; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Qiyong

    2018-05-15

    To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related health co-benefits has been observed at regional, national and global levels, involving both low- and high-income societies. GHG mitigation actions have mainly been taken in five sectors: energy generation, transport, food and agriculture, household and industry, consistent with the main sources of GHG emissions. GHGs and air pollutants to a large extent stem from the same sources and are inseparable in terms of their atmospheric evolution and effects on ecosystem; thus, GHG reductions are usually, although not always, estimated to have cost effective co-benefits for public health. Some integrated mitigation strategies involving multiple sectors, which tend to create greater health benefits. The pros and cons of different mitigation measures, issues with existing knowledge, priorities for research, and potential policy implications were also discussed. Findings from this study can play a role not only in motivating large GHG emitters to make decisive changes in GHG emissions, but also in facilitating cooperation at international, national and regional levels, to promote GHG mitigation policies that protect public health from climate change and air pollution simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bridging the gaps: An early integrated support collaborative for at risk mothers in rural Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennifer; Withers, Marjorie; Konrad, Shelley Cohen; Buterbaugh, Carry; Spence, RuthAnne

    2015-01-01

    The antecedents that contribute to health disparities in maternal child health populations begin before birth and extend into the early prenatal and gestational growth periods. Mothers and infants living in rural poverty in particular are at considerable risk for problems associated with reproductive health, including pregnancy complications and premature births. The aim of this manuscript is thus two-fold, to describe the epidemiologic makeup of the community and the intervention model of the Community Caring Collaborative. Innovative models of early-integrated care for high-risk mothers and children are showing promise for long-term outcomes. They foster environments that enable mothers to trust health systems while maintaining a workforce of high functioning health workers who understand the mechanisms that underpin maternal and child health disparities. The Community Caring Collaborative in Washington County, Maine developed one such model that has made inroads in bridging such gaps. This manuscript explicates a case study of how the Community Caring Collaborative came into being and why it established the Bridging model of comprehensive care. The focus of this manuscript is thus two-fold, the community and the intervention model. The "bridging model" develops trust-based relationships between high-risk mothers with the health system and its multiple resources. Community members with advanced training provide the support and care linkages that are critical for family success. Innovative models of collaborative care impact the health of vulnerable mothers and their children working toward a marked decrease in health related disparities.

  18. Imbalances in the knowledge about infant mental health in rich and poor countries: too little progress in bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Mark; Bornstein, Marc H; Marlow, Marguerite; Swartz, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of infants are born in poor countries, but most of our knowledge about infants and children has emerged from high-income countries. In 2003, M. Tomlinson and L. Swartz conducted a survey of articles on infancy between 1996 and 2001 from major international journals, reporting that a meager 5% of articles emanated from parts of the world other than North America, Europe, or Australasia. In this article, we conducted a similar review of articles on infancy published between 2002 and 2012 to assess whether the status of cross-national research has changed in the subsequent decade. Results indicate that despite slight improvements in research output from the rest of world, only 2.3% of articles published in 11 years included data from low- and middle-income countries--where 90% of the world's infants live. These discrepancies are indicative of the progress still needed to bridge the so-called 10/90 gap (S. Saxena, G. Paraje, P. Sharan, G. Karam, & R. Sadana,) in infant mental health research. Cross-national collaboration is urgently required to ensure expansion of research production in low-resource settings. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Addressing the Knowledge Gaps in Agroecology and Identifying Guiding Principles for Transforming Conventional Agri-Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Sanderson Bellamy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Today’s society faces many challenges when it comes to food production: producing food sustainably, producing enough of it, distributing food, consuming enough calories, consuming too many calories, consuming culturally-appropriate foods, and reducing the amount of food wasted. The distribution of power within the current mainstream agri-food system is dominated by multinational agri-businesses that control the flow of goods and wealth through the system. This hegemony has implemented a regime whose structures reinforce its control. A growing response to the current agri-food regime is the rise of agroecology, in both developed and developing country contexts. This is not a new phenomenon, but it has evolved over time from its Latin American origins. However, agroecology is not a monolithic block and represents many different perceptions of what it means to advance agroecology and ways in which it can help today’s society tackle the crisis of the agri-food system. This paper addresses these sometimes discordant view points, as well as the gaps in our knowledge regarding agroecology in an effort to lay out some guiding principles for how we can move forward in transforming the current agri-food system to achieve sustainability and a more equitable distribution of power and resources.

  20. Plant phenomics and the need for physiological phenotyping across scales to narrow the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian; Svensgaard, Jesper; Christensen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    Plants are affected by complex genome×environment×management interactions which determine phenotypic plasticity as a result of the variability of genetic components. Whereas great advances have been made in the cost-efficient and high-throughput analyses of genetic information and non-invasive ph......Plants are affected by complex genome×environment×management interactions which determine phenotypic plasticity as a result of the variability of genetic components. Whereas great advances have been made in the cost-efficient and high-throughput analyses of genetic information and non......-invasive phenotyping, the large-scale analyses of the underlying physiological mechanisms lag behind. The external phenotype is determined by the sum of the complex interactions of metabolic pathways and intracellular regulatory networks that is reflected in an internal, physiological, and biochemical phenotype......, ultimately enabling the in silico assessment of responses under defined environments with advanced crop models. This will allow generation of robust physiological predictors also for complex traits to bridge the knowledge gap between genotype and phenotype for applications in breeding, precision farming...

  1. Managing risk and knowledge in the internationalisation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rodríguez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The internationalisation process in a company embodies a series of projects that are performed in different geographical regions. In some cases, especially in SMEs, companies are not capable of predicting the risks that will be faced during the process and they do not have suitable tools to manage the knowledge acquired in previous internationalisation experiences. Therefore, they fail to turn internationalisation into a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper reports the conclusions of a study based on both a bibliographic research and a comprehensive study of a group of industrial companies. This study includes the analysis of 37 internal reports about internationalisation experiences and the carrying out of semi-structured interviews with managers responsible for international operations. We have identified the main factors (risks that prevent successful internationalisation processes and we have proposed a taxonomy of them. Furthermore, we have proposed a general framework (model which provides a common perspective for all internationalisation projects, bringing coherence, and also a certain level of systematisation, to the decisions made in regards to different internationalisation projects. The model provides a systemic vision of the whole internationalisation process and we believe that companies can develop efficient learning systems based on this framework. It would give them differentiation and, therefore, help them to turn internationalisation into a sustainable competitive advantage.

  2. A study of cardiovascular risk factors and its knowledge among school children of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mary George

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among school children. Importantly, school children lack adequate knowledge regarding cardiovascular risk factors. School based interventions are required for cardiovascular risk reduction in childhood.

  3. Zika Virus Prevention: U.S. Travelers' Knowledge, Risk Perceptions, and Behavioral Intentions-A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squiers, Linda; Herrington, James; Kelly, Bridget; Bann, Carla; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Stamm, Lola; Johnson, Mihaela; McCormack, Lauren

    2018-06-01

    Limited data exist about U.S. travelers' knowledge, risk perceptions, and behaviors related to the Zika virus (ZIKV). Using an internet research panel, in March 2017, we surveyed 1,202 Americans in the continental United States and Puerto Rico who planned to travel to a ZIKV-affected country, state, or U.S. territory in 2017. We compared levels of knowledge and perceived risk of ZIKV, and intentions to practice ZIKV prevention behaviors across respondents from three regions: Puerto Rico, at-risk states, and other states. More than 80% of respondents correctly understood that a person could acquire ZIKV through a bite from an infected mosquito, and over 64% of respondents knew that a pregnant woman could pass the virus to her fetus. Less than half of the respondents from at-risk states and other states knew that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually, as compared with three-quarters of respondents from Puerto Rico. Compared with respondents from at-risk and other states, respondents from Puerto Rico were the most knowledgeable for almost all types of knowledge assessed. Knowledge about post-travel precautions was low across all three regions. Differences in perceived risk and intentions to practice specific prevention behaviors also varied among regions. Significant gaps exist in U.S. travelers' knowledge about how to prevent ZIKV transmission both during and after travel. Input and collaboration from the travel industry, health care providers, and the media are needed to help educate travelers about how to prevent ZIKV infection and transmission.

  4. Bridging the Gap between Scientific and Indigenous knowledge to Better Understand Social Impacts of Changing Rainfall Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, A. H.; Joachim, L.; Zhu, X.; Hammer, C.; Harris, M.; Griggs, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin incorporates Australia's three longest rivers and is important for an agricultural industry worth more than $9 billion per annum, a rich biodiversity of habitat and species, and the very life of its traditional owners. The complex and sometimes enigmatic relationships between modes of variability and Australian regional rainfall distribution means that reliable projections of future water availability remain highly uncertain. Persistent drought, with associated heat stress and high fire danger, and episodic flooding rains present further challenges. Indeed, recent extremes likely herald a tipping point for the communities and ecosystems that rely on the river system. The Barmah-Millewa region in the Murray-Darling Basin is the heart of Yorta Yorta Traditional Tribal Lands. The Yorta Yorta continue to assert their inherent rights to country and have shown through oral, documentary and material evidence, that their social, spiritual, economic and cultural links with country have never been broken. Current water policy and practice, highly contested community consultation processes, cross-border governance issues and a changing social landscape create in this region a microcosm for understanding the complex demands of economic, environmental and cultural security along the Murray-Darling Basin as the climate changes. New approaches to bridging the gap between scientific and Indigenous epistemologies have emerged in recent years, including for example ecosystem-based adaptation (Vignola et al. 2009) and the analysis of cultural water flows (Weir 2010). The potential for innovation using these approaches has informed a study that investigates how the deep knowledge of country of the Yorta Yorta people can be combined with state of the art climate science to develop a better understanding of the competing demands on water resources in the Barmah-Millewa region now and in the future. An important dimension of this collaborative work with the Yorta

  5. First-Time Knowledge Brokers in Health Care: The Experiences of Nurses and Allied Health Professionals of Bridging the Research-Practice Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the experiences of nurses and allied health professionals as first-time knowledge brokers, attempting to bridge the research-practice gap within health care. A qualitative study using in-depth interviews and documentary analysis was conducted. The data was analysed using a thematic analysis strategy. Participants were 17…

  6. A Knowledge-Base for a Personalized Infectious Disease Risk Prediction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinarti, Retno; Hederman, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    We present a knowledge-base to represent collated infectious disease risk (IDR) knowledge. The knowledge is about personal and contextual risk of contracting an infectious disease obtained from declarative sources (e.g. Atlas of Human Infectious Diseases). Automated prediction requires encoding this knowledge in a form that can produce risk probabilities (e.g. Bayesian Network - BN). The knowledge-base presented in this paper feeds an algorithm that can auto-generate the BN. The knowledge from 234 infectious diseases was compiled. From this compilation, we designed an ontology and five rule types for modelling IDR knowledge in general. The evaluation aims to assess whether the knowledge-base structure, and its application to three disease-country contexts, meets the needs of personalized IDR prediction system. From the evaluation results, the knowledge-base conforms to the system's purpose: personalization of infectious disease risk.

  7. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H. Noden

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  8. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrobičić, Ana; Chaudhry, Nauman; Ghaffar, Abdul; Marušić, Ana

    2012-05-11

    Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006-2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006-2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient's privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community.

  9. Bridging knowledge translation gap in health in developing countries: visibility, impact and publishing standards in journals from the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Local and regional scientific journals are important factors in bridging gaps in health knowledge translation in low-and middle-income countries. We assessed indexing, citations and publishing standards of journals from the Eastern Mediterranean region. Methods For journals from 22 countries in the collection of the Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), we analyzed indexing in bibliographical databases and citations during 2006–2009 to published items in 2006 in Web of Science (WoS) and SCOPUS. Adherence to editorial and publishing standards was assessed using a special checklist. Results Out of 419 journals in IMEMR, 19 were indexed in MEDLINE, 23 in WoS and 46 in SCOPUS. Their impact factors ranged from 0.016 to 1.417. For a subset of 175 journals with available tables of contents from 2006, articles published in 2006 from 93 journals received 2068 citations in SCOPUS (23.5% self-citations) and articles in 86 journals received 1579 citations in WoS (24.3% self-citations) during 2006–2009. Citations to articles came mostly from outside of the Eastern Mediterranean region (76.8% in WoS and 75.4% in SCOPUS). Articles receiving highest number of citations presented topics specific for the region. Many journals did not follow editorial and publishing standards, such addressing requirements about the patient’s privacy rights (68.0% out of 244 analyzed), policy on managing conflicts of interest (66.4%), and ethical conduct in clinical and animal research (66.4%). Conclusion Journals from the Eastern Mediterranean are visible in and have impact on global scientific community. Coordinated effort of all stakeholders in journal publishing, including researchers, journal editors and owners, policy makers and citation databases, is needed to further promote local journals as windows to the research in the developing world and the doors for valuable regional research to the global scientific community. PMID:22577965

  10. Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Lundin

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%, involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%, and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%. Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines.

  11. Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Their Impacts on Bees: A Systematic Review of Research Approaches and Identification of Knowledge Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Fries, Ingemar; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides threatens bees, but research on this topic has been surrounded by controversy. In order to synthesize which research approaches have been used to examine the effect of neonicotinoids on bees and to identify knowledge gaps, we systematically reviewed research on this subject that was available on the Web of Science and PubMed in June 2015. Most of the 216 primary research studies were conducted in Europe or North America (82%), involved the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (78%), and concerned the western honey bee Apis mellifera (75%). Thus, little seems to be known about neonicotinoids and bees in areas outside Europe and North America. Furthermore, because there is considerable variation in ecological traits among bee taxa, studies on honey bees are not likely to fully predict impacts of neonicotinoids on other species. Studies on crops were dominated by seed-treated maize, oilseed rape (canola) and sunflower, whereas less is known about potential side effects on bees from the use of other application methods on insect pollinated fruit and vegetable crops, or on lawns and ornamental plants. Laboratory approaches were most common, and we suggest that their capability to infer real-world consequences are improved when combined with information from field studies about realistic exposures to neonicotinoids. Studies using field approaches often examined only bee exposure to neonicotinoids and more field studies are needed that measure impacts of exposure. Most studies measured effects on individual bees. We suggest that effects on the individual bee should be linked to both mechanisms at the sub-individual level and also to the consequences for the colony and wider bee populations. As bees are increasingly facing multiple interacting pressures future research needs to clarify the role of neonicotinoids in relative to other drivers of bee declines.

  12. A critical assessment of the photodegradation of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments: defining our current understanding and identifying knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challis, Jonathan K; Hanson, Mark L; Friesen, Ken J; Wong, Charles S

    2014-04-01

    This work presents a critical assessment of the state and quality of knowledge around the aquatic photochemistry of human- and veterinary-use pharmaceuticals from laboratory experiments and field observations. A standardized scoring rubric was used to assess relevant studies within four categories: experimental design, laboratory-based direct and indirect photolysis, and field/solar photolysis. Specific metrics for each category are defined to evaluate various aspects of experimental design (e.g., higher scores are given for more appropriate characterization of light source wavelength distribution). This weight of evidence-style approach allowed for identification of knowledge strengths and gaps covering three areas: first, the general extent of photochemical data for specific pharmaceuticals and classes; second, the overall quality of existing data (i.e., strong versus weak); and finally, trends in the photochemistry research around these specific compounds, e.g. the observation of specific and consistent oversights in experimental design. In general, those drugs that were most studied also had relatively good quality data. The four pharmaceuticals studied experimentally at least ten times in the literature had average total scores (lab and field combined) of ≥29, considered decent quality; carbamazepine (13 studies; average score of 31), diclofenac (12 studies; average score of 31), sulfamethoxazole (11 studies; average score of 34), and propranolol (11 studies; average score of 29). Major oversights and errors in data reporting and/or experimental design included: lack of measurement and reporting of incident light source intensity, lack of appropriate controls, use of organic co-solvents in irradiation solutions, and failure to consider solution pH. Consequently, a number of these experimental parameters were likely a cause of inconsistent measurements of direct photolysis rate constants and quantum yields, two photochemical properties that were highly

  13. Scalability of a Methodology for Generating Technical Trading Rules with GAPs Based on Risk-Return Adjustment and Incremental Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Cal, E. A.; Fernández, E. M.; Quiroga, R.; Villar, J. R.; Sedano, J.

    In previous works a methodology was defined, based on the design of a genetic algorithm GAP and an incremental training technique adapted to the learning of series of stock market values. The GAP technique consists in a fusion of GP and GA. The GAP algorithm implements the automatic search for crisp trading rules taking as objectives of the training both the optimization of the return obtained and the minimization of the assumed risk. Applying the proposed methodology, rules have been obtained for a period of eight years of the S&P500 index. The achieved adjustment of the relation return-risk has generated rules with returns very superior in the testing period to those obtained applying habitual methodologies and even clearly superior to Buy&Hold. This work probes that the proposed methodology is valid for different assets in a different market than previous work.

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH: CHANGES IN KNOWLEDGE MAPS

    OpenAIRE

    Iwona Gorzeń-Mitka

    2017-01-01

    One of the leading trends in modern academic research is risk management. Over the years, the approach to risk management has changed and affected many different areas. This study aims to investigate changes in risk management and trends of risk management in the past 20 years. Risk management related publications from 1990 to 2016 were retrieved from the Web of Science and Scopus databases. VOS viewer software was used to analyse the research trend. Literature growth related to risk manageme...

  15. Living with epilepsy in Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic of Congo): epidemiology, risk factors and treatment gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba Bora, Béatrice; Lez, Didier Malamba; Luwa, Daniel Okitundu; Baguma, Marcellin Bugeme; Katumbay, Désiré Tshala; Kalula, Tharcisse Kayembe; Mesu'a Kabwa, Pierre Luabeya

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common of serious neurological disorders, yet despite considerable efforts, good access to medication, appropriate social and societal acceptance and acceptable quality of life (QoL) are difficult to achieve especially in developing countries. It is estimated that over 500,000 people suffer from epilepsy in the DRC. There is no report, in our knowledge on the epilepsy in Lubumbashi. A descriptive study was undertaken in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of epilepsy who presented at the CNPJG outpatient clinic in Lubumbashi over a 12 months period. A 64-item questionnaire was used to collect information from the patients. Case records were reviewed and relevant demographic, social, professional, medical history, medical condition data were extracted. Among 3,540 patients who presented to a neuropsychiatric clinic run by the Fracarita charity over a 1-year period, 423 (11.9%) were identified as having epilepsy, and 179 were subsequently included in the survey after they (or their parent/guardian) provided informed consent and completed an EEG investigation. Data were collected using a standardized, 64-item questionnaire. Epilepsy had negative impact on the lives of individuals with the condition; 40.8% had either no education or had completed primary education only, 38.0% were unemployed and the majority (64.6%; n = 113) were unmarried or divorced. Family history of epilepsy (first or second degree) was present in 23.5% of cases. Other reported factors that could potentially precipitate epilepsy included obstetric and perinatal factors (15.1%) and central nervous system infections during infancy (8.4%). Consumption of alcohol or recreational drugs accounted for 10.6%. The treatment gap was above 67% and the delay between first seizure and first consultation was 15 months. When asked to describe their condition, or its cause, 55.3% of participants (or their families) considered epilepsy to be of spiritual/ religious origin, while 25.1% had

  16. The Role of Knowledge and Risk Beliefs in Adolescent E-Cigarette Use: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob A. Rohde; Seth M. Noar; Casey Horvitz; Allison J. Lazard; Jennifer Cornacchione Ross; Erin L. Sutfin

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-cigarettes and other vaping devices among adolescents is an urgent public health problem due to the concern about adolescent exposure to nicotine. This study examined: (1) adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarette risks; and (2) whether knowledge and risk beliefs were associated with e-cigarette use. N = 69 adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey about e-cigarette knowledge, attitudes (i.e., risk beliefs), and behavior (KAB). Nearly half (47%) of the sampl...

  17. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  18. Nuclear Knowledge Loss Risk Management (Lessons Learned, Implementation Experiences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Květoňová, Romana

    2014-01-01

    In the years 2007/2008 the Knowledge Management has emerged as one of the prime concerns in our HRM system. Based on the KM best practice data gathering, surveys and analyses, the detailed concept has been proposed and implemented primarily in our nuclear production units. Main objectives: • To identify, maintain and develop the unique knowledge; • To share the critical knowledge and the best practices; • To save the organization from critical capabilities and minimize the duplication effort; • To set up the succession planning system for the knowledge holders with potential knowledge loss; • To create effective system for the knowledge record sharing and its updating; • Further implementation of KM within production division as well as extension into another divisions

  19. Risk perception and risk management: on knowledge, resource allocation and equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, David

    1998-01-01

    This article is an outgrowth of the opening article given at a pair of invited sessions on 'Risk Perception versus Risk Analysis' at the PSAM 3 Conference held on Crete in June 1996. The first introductory section provides some review of the relevant issues and raises some general questions about possible changes in the emphasis and directions of research on risk perception and related social science studies. The second section looks in a little more detail at issues related to public participation in the deliberations and decision-making concerning significant societal ventures involving risk. Section 3 examines the role and importance of knowledge in risk perception. the relatively brief fourth section raises questions about the public's perception of geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes as something catastrophic, to be 'dreaded'. Section 5 looks at the bases for allocation of resources for improving the public health and safety. And the sixth section examines intragenerational equity and the conflict which can arise between it and intergenerational equity

  20. Microplastics in freshwater systems: a review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritisation of research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerkes-Medrano, Dafne; Thompson, Richard C; Aldridge, David C

    2015-05-15

    Plastic contamination is an increasing environmental problem in marine systems where it has spread globally to even the most remote habitats. Plastic pieces in smaller size scales, microplastics (particles microplastic presence and interactions are equally as far reaching as are being observed in marine systems. Microplastics are being detected in freshwaters of Europe, North America, and Asia, and the first organismal studies are finding that freshwater fauna across a range of feeding guilds ingest microplastics. Drawing from the marine literature and these initial freshwater studies, we review the issue of microplastics in freshwater systems to summarise current understanding, identify knowledge gaps and suggest future research priorities. Evidence suggests that freshwater systems may share similarities to marine systems in the types of forces that transport microplastics (e.g. surface currents); the prevalence of microplastics (e.g. numerically abundant and ubiquitous); the approaches used for detection, identification and quantification (e.g. density separation, filtration, sieving and infrared spectroscopy); and the potential impacts (e.g. physical damage to organisms that ingest them, chemical transfer of toxicants). Differences between freshwater and marine systems include the closer proximity to point sources in freshwaters, the typically smaller sizes of freshwater systems, and spatial and temporal differences in the mixing/transport of particles by physical forces. These differences between marine and freshwater systems may lead to differences in the type of microplastics present. For example, rivers may show a predictable pattern in microplastic characteristics (size, shape, relative abundance) based on waste sources (e.g. household vs. industrial) adjacent to the river, and distance downstream from a point source. Given that the study of microplastics in freshwaters has only arisen in the last few years, we are still limited in our understanding of 1

  1. Risk Factors for Falls in Older Adults with Lower Extremity Arthritis: A Conceptual Framework of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurcsik, Nancy C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: As the numbers of Canadians aged 65 years and over increases over the next 20 years, the prevalence of chronic conditions, including arthritis, will rise as will the number of falls. Although known fall-risk factors are associated with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), minimal research has evaluated fall and fracture risk and/or rates in this population. Thus, the purpose was to summarize research on fall and fracture risk in older adults with hip or knee OA and to develop a conceptual framework of fall-risk screening and assessment. Method: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, clinical practice guidelines for fall-risk screening, and a selected literature review were used. Results: Gaps exist in our knowledge of fall and fracture risk for this population. Muscle performance, balance, and mobility impairments have been identified, but little is known about whether personal and environmental contextual factors impact fall and fracture risk. Physical activity may help to prevent falls, but non-adherence is a problem. Conclusion: A need exists to assess fall risk in older adults with hip and knee OA. Promoting regular physical activity by focusing on disease- and activity-specific personal contextual factors may help direct treatment planning. PMID:23729967

  2. The role of scientific knowledge in the public's perceptions of energy technology risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    It is important for policy makers to have an accurate understanding of public attitudes toward pressing issues to help inform their decision making. Researchers consistently find that the public’s receipt of and correct processing of scientific information and knowledge are essential for its problem solving. Different levels of understanding of specific energy technologies may produce different risk assessments across technologies within this issue domain. How this differential risk assessment occurs and the role that scientific information may play in it is not yet well known. This project seeks to determine the role that perceived and objective scientific knowledge may play in the public’s risk assessments of different energy technologies. Our findings suggest that scientific knowledge does temper public risk evaluations of different energy technologies, therefore linking more clearly the connection between science knowledge, scientific trust, and issue problem identification. - Highlights: •We examine influence of assessed and perceived knowledge on public risk perceptions. •We model effect of knowledge type on publics’ perceptions of three energy risks. •All models show those with higher assessed knowledge see risks more like experts do. •Perceived knowledge is less reliable predictor of public rating risk like experts. •Greater scientific grasp of issues by public needed for accurate risk assessment.

  3. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  4. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  5. A Knowledge-Based Model of Audit Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Vasant; Lewis, Barry; Peters, James

    1988-01-01

    Within the academic and professional auditing communities, there has been growing concern about how to accurately assess the various risks associated with performing an audit. These risks are difficult to conceptualize in terms of numeric estimates. This article discusses the development of a prototype computational model (computer program) that assesses one of the major audit risks -- inherent risk. This program bases most of its inferencing activities on a qualitative model of a typical bus...

  6. The Northern Climate Exchange Gap Analysis Project : an assessment of the current state of knowledge about the impacts of climate change in northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Northern Climate ExChange (NCE) Gap Analysis Project was launched in 1999 with an objective to assess the state of knowledge on climate change in northern Canada. Resulting products of the project have included the Infosource Database, an on-line database of published climate change research related to the Canadian North, the Directory of Contacts, another on-line database of interested parties to climate change issues, and a set of tables that rate the level of available information on climate change as it relates to natural, economic and community systems. Other products include a report of a workshop on climate change research, 2 reports assessing the level of traditional northern knowledge about climate change, 2 reports assessing the completeness and value of the Infosource Database, a web site for NCE, and this report. All products are available to the public on the Internet or on a CD-ROM. The NCE Gap Analysis Project has shown there are inequalities in the amount of information across different systems, and that there is more knowledge on predicted temperature changes than for other climate components. The study notes that there are strong regional trends for compiled knowledge, with some regions having been better studied than others. The project revealed that traditional knowledge of climate change has not been well documented, and that more information exists about climate change impacts on biological systems with an economic component than those without economic significance. refs., tabs., figs

  7. A Gap in Time: Extending our Knowledge of Temporal Processing Deficits in the HIV-1 Transgenic Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, Kristen A; Moran, Landhing M; Li, Hailong; Booze, Rosemarie M; Mactutus, Charles F

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 50 % of HIV-1 seropositive individuals develop HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), which commonly include alterations in executive functions, such as inhibition, set shifting, and complex problem solving. Executive function deficits in HIV-1 are fairly well characterized, however, relatively few studies have explored the elemental dimensions of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-1. Deficits in temporal processing, caused by HIV-1, may underlie the symptoms of impairment in higher level cognitive processes. Translational measures of temporal processing, including cross-modal prepulse inhibition (PPI), gap-prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI), and gap threshold detection, were studied in mature (ovariectomized) female HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats, which express 7 of the 9 HIV-1 genes constitutively throughout development. Cross-modal PPI revealed a relative insensitivity to the manipulation of interstimulus interval (ISI) in HIV-1 Tg animals in comparison to control animals, extending previously reported temporal processing deficits in HIV-1 Tg rats to a more advanced age, suggesting the permanence of temporal processing deficits. In gap-PPI, HIV-1 Tg animals exhibited a relative insensitivity to the manipulation of ISI in comparison to control animals. In gap-threshold detection, HIV-1 Tg animals displayed a profound differential sensitivity to the manipulation of gap duration. Presence of the HIV-1 transgene was diagnosed with 91.1 % accuracy using gap threshold detection measures. Understanding the generality and permanence of temporal processing deficits in the HIV-1 Tg rat is vital to modeling neurocognitive deficits observed in HAND and provides a key target for the development of a diagnostic screening tool.

  8. Stroke awareness in the general population: knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs in older adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hickey, Anne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and functional impairment. While older people are particularly vulnerable to stroke, research suggests that they have the poorest awareness of stroke warning signs and risk factors. This study examined knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Randomly selected community-dwelling older people (aged 65+) in Ireland (n = 2,033; 68% response rate). Participants completed home interviews. Questions assessed knowledge of stroke warning signs and risk factors, and personal risk factors for stroke. RESULTS: Of the overall sample, 6% had previously experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack. When asked to identify stroke risk factors from a provided list, less than half of the overall sample identified established risk factors (e.g., smoking, hypercholesterolaemia), hypertension being the only exception (identified by 74%). Similarly, less than half identified established warning signs (e.g., weakness, headache), with slurred speech (54%) as the exception. Overall, there were considerable gaps in awareness with poorest levels evident in those with primary level education only and in those living in Northern Ireland (compared with Republic of Ireland). CONCLUSION: Knowledge deficits in this study suggest that most of the common early symptoms or signs of stroke were recognized as such by less than half of the older adults surveyed. As such, many older adults may not recognise early symptoms of stroke in themselves or others. Thus, they may lose vital time in presenting for medical attention. Lack of public awareness about stroke warning signs and risk factors must be addressed as one important contribution to reducing mortality and morbidity from stroke.

  9. Moving Evolution Education Forward: A Systematic Analysis of Literature to Identify Gaps in Collective Knowledge for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadie, M. A.; Andrews, T. C.

    2018-01-01

    Evolution is a unifying theory in biology and is challenging for undergraduates to learn. An instructor's ability to help students learn is influenced by pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), which is topic-specific knowledge of teaching and learning. Instructors need PCK for every topic they teach, which is a tremendous body of knowledge to…

  10. Knowledge loss risk assessment in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Minodora; Constantin, Marin; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method developed in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti for knowledge loss risk assessment in nuclear sector, in order to obtain a risk map at departmental and organizational level, by analyzing each position/people. The method starts from the classical method for knowledge loss risk assessment but takes into account the INR characteristics, the particularities of Romanian nuclear market and the difficulties of the classical method to estimate correctly the risk at the job level. A short description of the classical method of knowledge loss risk assessment, the improved method by introducing five new parameters for risk factor of vacant job are presented, how this last method has been applied in some departments from INR Pitesti and the preliminary risk matrix for knowledge loss at organization level is discussed. (authors)

  11. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported...... a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association...... between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception...

  12. Cernavoda NPP Knowledge Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valache, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a description of the Knowledge Transfer (KT) process implemented at Cernavoda NPP, its designing and implementation. It is underlined that applying a KT approach should improve the value of existing processes of the organization through: • Identifying business, operational and safety risks due to knowledge gaps, • Transfer of knowledge from the ageing workforce to the peers and/or the organization, • Continually learning from successes and failures of individual or teams, • Convert tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge, • Improving operational and safety performance through creating both new knowledge and better access to existing knowledge. (author

  13. HIV/AIDS Related Knowledge and Perceived Risk Associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    knowledge base of policy-relevant evidence that would provide new ... coded as 1, and negative attitudes as 0. The questions ..... decision making and vulnerability to STD and HIV/AIDS ... Framing HIV prevention discourse to encompass the ...

  14. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  15. Tacit Knowledge Sharing Modes of University Teachers from the Perspectives of Psychological Risk and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dengke; Zhou, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Tacit knowledge sharing (TKS) is important to improve the teaching skill and researching knowledge of university teachers. In this paper, the tacit knowledge sharing of university teachers is catalogued as four modes from perspectives of the psychological risk and psychological value which are measured by two grades--high and low. The four modes…

  16. Calculated and perceived cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic subjects submitted to a routine medical evaluation: The perception gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Marcelo; Laurinavicius, Antonio G; Franco, Fabio G M; Conceicao, Raquel D; Carvalho, Jose A M; Pesaro, Antonio E P; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Santos, Raul D

    2015-08-01

    Poor adherence to medical treatment represents a major health problem. A subject's misperception of his own cardiovascular risk has been indicated as a key driver for low compliance with preventive measures. This study analysed the relationship between objectively calculated short- and long-term cardiovascular risk and its subjective perception. Cross-sectional study in asymptomatic Brazilian subjects. Individuals (N = 6544, mean age 49.1 ± 7 years, 22.2% female) who underwent a routine mandatory health evaluation were studied. A questionnaire in which each individual rated his own cardiovascular risk as low, intermediate or high according to his own perception was used. The 10-year and lifetime cardiovascular risk were calculated respectively using the Framingham risk (FRS) and Lifetime risk (LRS) scores. Individuals were classified as hypo-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk lower than estimated risk), normo-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk coincident with estimated risk) and hyper-perceivers (i.e. perceived risk higher than estimated risk). Cardiovascular risk, using the FRS, was low in 77.9% (N = 5071), intermediate in 14.4% (N = 939) and high in 7.7% (N = 499) of subjects. Cardiovascular risk, using the LRS, was low in 7.6% (N = 492), intermediate in 43.1% (N = 2787) and high in 49.3% (N = 3184) of the study population. The prevalence of normo-perceivers was 57.6% using the FRS and only 20.6% using the LRS. Using the LRS, 72.3% of the intermediate and 91.2% of the high-risk subjects were hypo-perceivers. In a large sample of asymptomatic individuals, there was a gap between calculated and perceived cardiovascular risk. Using a long-term risk score, most of the intermediate- and high-risk subjects were hypo-perceivers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. Knowledge translation in Africa for 21st century integrative biology: the "know-do gap" in family planning with contraceptive use among Somali women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Abdullahi A; Guled, Ibrahim A; Elamin, Hayfa M; Abou-Zeid, Alaa H

    2014-11-01

    An emerging dimension of 21(st) century integrative biology is knowledge translation in global health. The maternal mortality rate in Somalia is amongst the highest in the world. We set out to study the "know-do" gap in family planning measures in Somalia, with a view to inform future interventions for knowledge integration between theory and practice. We interviewed 360 Somali females of reproductive age and compared university-educated females to women with less or no education, using structured interviews, with a validated questionnaire. The mean age of marriage was 18 years, with 4.5 pregnancies per marriage. The mean for the desired family size was 9.3 and 10.5 children for the university-educated group and the less-educated group, respectively. Importantly, nearly 90% of the university-educated group knew about family planning, compared to 45.6% of the less-educated group. All of the less-educated group indicated that they would never use contraceptives, as compared to 43.5% of the university-educated group. Prevalence of contraceptive use among ever-married women was 4.3%. In the less-educated group, 80.6% indicated that they would not recommend contraceptives to other women as compared to 66.0% of the university-educated group. There is a huge gap between knowledge and practice regarding family planning in Somalia. The attendant reasons for this gap, such as level of education, expressed personal religious beliefs and others, are examined here. For primary health care to gain traction in Africa, we need to address the existing "know-do" gaps that are endemic and adversely impacting on global health. This is the first independent research study examining the knowledge gaps for family planning in Somalia in the last 20 years, with a view to understanding knowledge integration in a global world. The results shall guide policy makers, donors, and implementers to develop a sound family planning policy and program to improve maternal and child health in 21(st

  18. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences…

  19. Knowledge, Risk Perception and Vaccination against Hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Health Journal ... Primary healthcare workers are at an even greater risk due to poorer ... Only 7 (12.9%) respondents perceived their work as putting them at high risk of contracting HB infection and 85 (29.5%) believed they were at ...

  20. Knowledge of modifiable risk factors of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD among a sample in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ku Melvin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of Coronary Atherosclerotic Heart Disease (CASHD is increasing in India. Several modifiable risk factors contribute directly to this disease burden. Public knowledge of such risk factors among the urban Indian population is largely unknown. This investigation attempts to quantify knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD as sampled among an Indian population at a large metropolitan hospital. Methods A hospital-based, cross sectional study was conducted at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, a major tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. Participants (n = 217 recruited from patient waiting areas in the emergency room were provided with standardized questionnaires to assess their knowledge of modifiable risk factors of CASHD. The risk factors specifically included smoking, hypertension, elevated cholesterol levels, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Identifying 3 or less risk factors was regarded as a poor knowledge level, whereas identifying 4 or more risk factors was regarded as a good knowledge level. A multiple logistic regression model was used to isolate independent demographic markers predictive of a participant's level of knowledge. Results 41% of the sample surveyed had a good level of knowledge. 68%, 72%, 73% and 57% of the population identified smoking, obesity, hypertension, and high cholesterol correctly, respectively. 30% identified diabetes mellitus as a modifiable risk factor of CASHD. In multiple logistic regression analysis independent demographic predictors of a good knowledge level with a statistically significant (p Conclusion An Indian population in a hospital setting shows a lack of knowledge pertaining to modifiable risk factors of CASHD. By isolating demographic predictors of poor knowledge, such as current smokers and persons who do not exercise regularly, educational interventions can be effectively targeted and implemented as primary and secondary prevention strategies

  1. Risk Factors for Gaps in Care during Transfer from Pediatric to Adult Cystic Fibrosis Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Gregory S; Ostrenga, Joshua; Petren, Kristofer; Fink, Aliza K; D'Agostino, Emma; Strassle, Camila; Schechter, Michael S; Rosenfeld, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    pediatric care were not associated with the length of gap in care during transfer. In the United States, the majority of individuals transferring from pediatric to adult CF care do so between ages 18 and 21 years. A minority had a gap greater than or equal to 365 days during transfer to adult care, suggesting that most did not have a disruption in recommended quarterly care visits during the transfer period. Risk factors for prolonged gaps in care include younger age at transfer, lack of health insurance, and relocation. Care coordination during transition in CF may minimize lapses in care by identifying and more closely addressing the needs of individuals at highest risk.

  2. Maximizing the Nutritional Value of Produce Post-Harvest: Consumer Knowledge Gaps, Interests, and Opinions Regarding Nutrition Education Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remley, Dan; Goard, Linnette Mizer; Taylor, Christopher A.; Ralston, Robin A.

    2015-01-01

    Although many consumers perceive locally produced, fresh fruits and vegetables to be healthier, they might not have the knowledge and skills to retain optimal nutritional quality following harvest or purchase. We surveyed Ohio farmers market consumers' and managers' knowledge and interests related to maximizing nutritional value of produce.…

  3. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  4. Knowledge of breast density and awareness of related breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Mark A; Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Bey-Knight, Lisa; Penner, Louis; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about women's knowledge of breast density or between-race differences in this knowledge. In the current study, we examined knowledge of breast density and awareness of its role as a breast cancer risk factor among women who had previously taken part in a breast imaging study. Seventy-seven women (54.5 % Black) returned a survey assessing perceptions and accuracy of breast density knowledge, knowledge of one's own breast density, and breast cancer risk awareness. White women had greater perceived knowledge of breast density compared to Black women; however, differences in the accuracy of definitions of breast density were due to education. Black women were less likely to know how dense their own breasts were. Black and White women both lacked awareness that having dense breast increased breast cancer risk. The results highlight the need to disseminate information regarding breast density to women, while ensuring that the information is equally accessible to both Black and White women.

  5. Dual conception of risk in the Iowa Gambling Task: Effects of sleep deprivation and test-retest gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha eSingh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT is often understood in terms of intertemporal choices, i.e., preference for immediate outcomes in favor of delayed outcomes is considered risky. According to behavioral economics, decision makers refrain from choosing the short-sighted immediate gain because, over time (10 trials, the immediate gains result in a net loss. Instead decision makers are expected to maximize their gains by choosing options that, over time (10 trials, result in net gain. However, task choices are sometimes made on the basis of the frequency of reward and punishment such that infrequent punishments are favored over frequent punishments. The presence of these two attributes (intertemporality and frequency may correspond to the emotion-cognition dichotomy and reflect a dual conception of risk. Decision making on the basis of the two attributes was tested under two conditions: test-retest gap and sleep deprivation. An interaction between these two was expected to attenuate the difference between the two attributes (n=40 male. Analysis of the effects of IGT attribute type (intertemporal vs. frequency, sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation vs. no sleep deprivation, and test-retest gap (short vs. long showed a significant effect of IGT attribute type thus confirming the difference between the two attributes. Sleep deprivation had no effect on the attributes, but test-retest gap and the three-way interaction between attribute type, test-retest gap, and sleep deprivation were significant. Post-hoc tests showed sleep deprivation and short test-retest gap to attenuate the difference between the two attributes. As expected intertemporal decision making benefited from repeated task exposure. The findings add to understanding of the emotion-cognition dichotomy and show a time-dependent effect of a universally experienced constraint (sleep deprivation.

  6. Harnessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers' knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to ex...

  7. Harnessing Farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernhard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to ex...

  8. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Ghanem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available le doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses.

  9. EVOLUTION OF LEGAL ADDED VALUE FOR ECONOMY BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE AND RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I, GĂF-DEAC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the management of welfare maximization problems about New Economy etween knowledge and risk. Integrative systemic perspectives are analyzed between knowledge economy and risk. Also describes the prerequisites for formalization utilitarian jurisprudence regarding integrative systems outlook for the economy between knowledge and risk. In this context, it is estimated that in management, economics and law may be formalized utilitarian jurisprudence. Freedom and efficiency of governance, distribution of rights and obligations regarding registration report completes the study of phase between freedom of cyber-space and legal normativity.

  10. Addressing the common pathway underlying hypertension and diabetes in people who are obese by maximizing health: the ultimate knowledge translation gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Elizabeth; Lomi, Constantina; Bruno, Selma; Awad, Hamzeh; O'Donoghue, Grainne

    2011-03-06

    In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug) compared with invasive (drug) interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  11. Addressing the Common Pathway Underlying Hypertension and Diabetes in People Who Are Obese by Maximizing Health: The Ultimate Knowledge Translation Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the WHO definition of health, this article examines the alarming discord between the epidemiology of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and obesity and the low profile of noninvasive (nondrug compared with invasive (drug interventions with respect to their prevention, reversal and management. Herein lies the ultimate knowledge translation gap and challenge in 21st century health care. Although lifestyle modification has long appeared in guidelines for medically managing these conditions, this evidence-based strategy is seldom implemented as rigorously as drug prescription. Biomedicine focuses largely on reducing signs and symptoms; the effects of the problem rather than the problem. This article highlights the evidence-based rationale supporting prioritizing the underlying causes and contributing factors for hypertension and T2DM, and, in turn, obesity. We argue that a primary focus on maximizing health could eliminate all three conditions, at best, or, at worst, minimize their severity, complications, and medication needs. To enable such knowledge translation and maximizing health outcome, the health care community needs to practice as an integrated team, and address barriers to effecting maximal health in all patients. Addressing the ultimate knowledge translation gap, by aligning the health care paradigm to 21st century needs, would constitute a major advance.

  12. Assessments of the Veteran Medication Allergy Knowledge Gap and Potential Safety Improvements with the Veteran Health Information Exchange (VHIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Eric; Botts, Nathan; Jordan, Harmon; Olinger, Lois; Donahue, Margaret; Hsing, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Veteran Health Information Exchange (VHIE, formerly Virtual Lifetime Electronic Record, or VLER) had been deployed at all VA sites and used to exchange clinical information with private sector healthcare partners nationally. This paper examined VHIE's effect on allergy documentation. Review of all inbound VHIE transactions in FY14 showed that VHIE use was associated with a nearly eight-fold increase in allergy documentation rate. Preliminary manual document review further showed that VA and partners had shared knowledge of only 38% ofpatient allergies, while VA had exclusive knowledge of another 58% ofpatient allergies, and partners had exclusive knowledge of the last 5% of patient allergies. To our knowledge, this is the first study that examined the effect of HIE on allergy documentation.

  13. Exploring the Effects of Financial Aid on the Gap in Student Dropout Risks by Income Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rong; DesJardins, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    Using national survey data and discrete-time logit modeling, this research seeks to understand whether student aid mediates the relationship between parental income and student dropout behavior. Our analysis confirms that there is a gap in dropout rates for low-income students compared with their upper income peers, and suggests that some types of…

  14. Is knowledge important? Empirical research on nuclear risk communication in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja; Zeleznik, Nadja; Turcanu, Catrinel; Thijssen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Increasing audience knowledge is often set as a primary objective of risk communication efforts. But is it worthwhile focusing risk communication strategies solely on enhancing specific knowledge? The main research questions tackled in this paper were: (1) if prior audience knowledge related to specific radiation risks is influential for the perception of these risks and the acceptance of communicated messages and (2) if gender, attitudes, risk perception of other radiation risks, confidence in authorities, and living in the vicinity of nuclear/radiological installations may also play an important role in this matter. The goal of this study was to test empirically the mentioned predictors in two independent case studies in different countries. The first case study was an information campaign for iodine pre-distribution in Belgium (N = 1035). The second was the information campaign on long-term radioactive waste disposal in Slovenia (N = 1,200). In both cases, recurrent and intensive communication campaigns were carried out by the authorities aiming, among other things, at increasing specific audience knowledge. Results show that higher prior audience knowledge leads to more willingness to accept communicated messages, but it does not affect people’s perception of the specific risk communicated. In addition, the influence of prior audience knowledge on the acceptance of communicated messages is shown to be no stronger than that of general radiation risk perception. The results in both case studies suggest that effective risk communication has to focus not only on knowledge but also on other more heuristic predictors, such as risk perception or attitudes toward communicated risks.

  15. Correlates and geographic patterns of knowledge that physical activity decreases cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Vanderpool, Robin C; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-04-01

    While many lifestyle-related cancer risk factors including tobacco use, poor diet, and sun exposure are well recognized by the general public, the role of physical activity in decreasing cancer risk is less recognized. Studies have demonstrated gender-, race/ethnicity-, and age-based disparities in cancer risk factor knowledge; however, beliefs and geographic factors that may be related to knowledge are under-examined. In this study, we analyzed data from the 2008 Health Information National Trends Survey to determine correlates of knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and reduced cancer risk in the adult US population. We generated geographic information system maps to examine the geographic distribution of this knowledge. Results revealed that there is confusion among US adults about the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk: Respondents who believed that cancer is not preventable had significantly lower odds of knowing that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical activity guidelines were also significantly more likely to know that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical inactivity. Correlates of cancer risk factor knowledge point to opportunities for targeted interventions.

  16. Construction and application research of knowledge graph in aviation risk field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the causes of aviation accidents and risks are complicated, concealed, unpredictable and difficult to be investigated, in order to achieve the efficient organization and knowledge sharing of the historical cases of aviation risk events, this paper put forward the method of constructing vertical knowledge graph for aviation risk field. Firstly, the data-driven incremental construction technology is used to build aviation risk event ontology model. Secondly, the pattern-based knowledge mapping mechanism, which transform structured data into RDF (Resource Description Framework data for storage, is proposed. And then the application, update and maintenance of the knowledge graph are described. Finally, knowledge graph construction system in aviation risk field is developed; and the data from American Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS is used as an example to verify the rationality and validity of the knowledge graph construction method. Practice has proved that the construction of knowledge graph has a guiding significance for the case information organization and sharing on the field of aviation risk.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Towards Risk Factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    reported to be doing physical exercises were 52.35%, smoking 9.54% and drinking alcohol 29.56%. ... necessary to provide education to people so that they can avoid the risk factors hence reduce the .... blood and because parents do.

  18. Major knowledge gaps and system barriers to guideline implementation among European physicians treating patients with atrial fibrillation: a European Society of Cardiology international educational needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Dagres, Nikolaos; Antz, Matthias; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Lazure, Patrice; Murray, Suzanne; Carrera, Céline; Hindricks, Gerhard; Vahanian, Alec

    2018-03-12

    Guideline-adherent treatment is associated with improved prognosis in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients but is insufficiently implemented in clinical practice. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) performed a multinational educational needs assessment study among cardiologists, general practitioners/family physicians (GPs/FPs), and neurologists in order to evaluate knowledge and skills of physicians and system factors related to AF care delivery. A total of 561 physicians (294 cardiologists, 131 neurologists, and 136 GPs/FPs) from six European countries participated. This mixed-methods study included exploratory semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 30) and a quantitative survey that included two clinical cases (n = 531). We identified eight key knowledge gaps and system barriers across all domains of AF care. A majority across all specialties reported skills needing improvement to classify AF pathophysiologically, rather than based on duration of episodes, and reported lack of availability of long-term electrocardiogram recording. Skills interpreting the CHA2DS2-VASc and the HAS-BLED scores were reported as needing improvement by the majority of neurologists (52% and 60%, respectively) and GPs/FPs (65% and 74%). Cardiologists calculated the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores in 94%/70% in a presented case patient, but only 60%/49% of neurologists and 58%/42% of GPs/FPs did. There was much uncertainty on how to deal with anticoagulant therapy in complex patients. There was also a high disparity in using rate or rhythm control strategies, and indications for ablation. Information delivery to patients and communication between different specialties was often considered suboptimal, while national regulations and restrictions often hamper international guideline implementation. We identified major gaps in physicians' knowledge and skills across all domains of AF care, as well as system factors hampering guideline-compliant care implementation and

  19. Extensive gaps and biases in our knowledge of a well-known fauna: Implications for integrating biological traits into macroecology

    KAUST Repository

    Tyler, Elizabeth

    2011-12-09

    Aim Ecologists seeking to describe patterns at ever larger scales require compilations of data on the global abundance and distribution of species. Comparable compilations of biological data are needed to elucidate the mechanisms behind these patterns, but have received far less attention. We assess the availability of biological data across an entire assemblage: the well-documented demersal marine fauna of the United Kingdom. We also test whether data availability for a species depends on its taxonomic group, maximum body size, the number of times it has been recorded in a global biogeographic database, or its commercial and conservation importance. Location Seas of the United Kingdom. Methods We defined a demersal marine fauna of 973 species from 15 phyla and 40 classes using five extensive surveys around the British Isles. We then quantified the availability of data on eight key biological traits (termed biological knowledge) for each species from online databases. Relationships between biological knowledge and our predictors were tested with generalized linear models. Results Full data on eight fundamental biological traits exist for only 9% (n= 88) of the UK demersal marine fauna, and 20% of species completely lack data. Clear trends in our knowledge exist: fish (median biological knowledge score = six traits) are much better known than invertebrates (one trait). Biological knowledge increases with biogeographic knowledge and (to a lesser extent) with body size, and is greater in species that are commercially exploited or of conservation concern. Main conclusions Our analysis reveals deep ignorance of the basic biology of a well-studied fauna, highlighting the need for far greater efforts to compile biological trait data. Clear biases in our knowledge, relating to how well sampled or \\'important\\' species are suggests that caution is required in extrapolating small subsets of biologically well-known species to ecosystem-level studies. © 2011 Blackwell

  20. The theory-practice relationship: reflective skills and theoretical knowledge as key factors in bridging the gap between theory and practice in initial nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatlevik, Ida Katrine Riksaasen

    2012-04-01

    This paper is a report of a correlational study of the relations of nursing students' acquired reflective skills, practical skills and theoretical knowledge on their perception of coherence between theory and practice. Reflection is considered a key factor in bridging the gap between theory and practice. However, it is not evident whether reflective skills are primarily generic in nature or whether they develop from a theoretical knowledge base or the acquisition of practical skills. This study is a secondary analysis of existing data. The data are part of a student survey that was conducted among third-year nursing students in Norway during the spring of 2007. A total of 446 nursing students participated in this study and the response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed. The results indicate that students' perception of coherence between theory and practice during initial nursing education is directly influenced by reflective skills and theoretical knowledge. The results also reveal that reflective skills have mediating effects and that practical skills have a fully mediated and theoretical knowledge a partially mediated influence on students' perception of coherence. The findings imply that helping students perceive coherence between theory and practice in nursing education, developing students' reflective skills and strengthening the theoretical components of the initial nursing education programme might be beneficial. The results suggest that reflective thinking is not merely a generic skill but rather a skill that depends on the acquisition of relevant professional knowledge and experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Screening and Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past one week, 40(14.3%) said they were totally physically inactive for at least 30 minutes per day, while 69(24.6%) and 82(29.3%) of respondents took fast food confectionaries and sugar containing drinks respectively for at least more than once a day. Conclusion: The study group is at risk of developing DM. There is ...

  2. Knowledge of Men and Women about Infertility Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With technological developments, creation of new industries and changing lifestyles, infertility risk factors (IRF increased. Therefore creation of suitable solutions in society is crucial for the prevention of infertility. Since prevention of infertility in a society is directly related to awareness about infertility, in the present study the awareness of people about infertility risk factors was assessed. In this study, a survey questionnaire containing 24 factors related to IRF was developed and 170 persons (62 men and 108 women from Fooladshahr, Najafabad and Mobarakeh participated and data were extracted from these questionnaires and were statistically analyzed. Our study showed that average infertility awareness for men and women is 38% and 49% respectively. Also overall awareness was 44%. Also results showed that women’s awareness about mobile radiation and fast foods is significantly higher than men. On the other hand men have significantly higher awareness about adverse effects of chlorine in swimming pool on fertility. Higher women awareness may be related to their higher sensitivity for fertility. Also, generally a higher level of awareness was observed relating to mobile, air pollution, stress, fast foods, smoking and alcohol. Women have a higher level of awareness about infertility risk factors. Higher awareness about some IRFs may be results from widespread media coverage.

  3. Air travel and radiation risks - review of current knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeeb, H.; Blettner, M.

    2004-01-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to cosmic radiation, in particular when travelling routes close to the poles and in high altitudes. The paper reviews current radiation measurement and estimation approaches as well as the actual level of cosmic radiation that personnel and travellers receive and summarizes the available epidemiological evidence on health effects of cosmic radiation. On average, German aircrew is exposed to les than 5 mSv per annum, and even frequent travellers only rarely reach values above 1 mSv/year. Cohort studies among aircrew have found very little evidence for an increased incidence or mortality of radiation-associated cancers. Only malignant melanoma rates have consistently found to be increased among male aircrew. Socioeconomic and reproductive aspects are likely to contribute to the slightly elevated breast cancer risk of female aircrew. Cytogenetic studies have not yielded consistent results. Based on these data overall risk increases for cancer among occupationally exposed aircrew appear unlikely. This also applies to air travellers who are usually exposed to much lower radiation levels. Occasional air travel during pregnancy does not pose a significant radiation risk, but further considerations apply in this situation. The currently available studies are limited with regard to methodological issues and case numbers so that a continuation of cohort studies in several European countries is being planned. (orig.) [de

  4. The state of knowledge about the potential risks associated to depleted uranium used in weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document brigs back the actual knowledge on uranium and its chemical and radiological toxicity. It pays particular attention to discuss the elements allowing to assess the risks linked to the man exposure to depleted uranium. (N.C.)

  5. Knowledge of community pharmacists about the risks of medication use during pregnancy in central region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad Alrabiah

    2017-11-01

    Conclusion: Community Pharmacists are the most accessible health care providers who can help pregnant women with their medications use there are still gaps in knowledge where educational interventions are needed.

  6. Evaluation of knowledge loss risk in nuclear industry and research organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Apostol, Minodora; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Institutional knowledge is defined as a collective knowledge of all employees in an organization or institution. The necessity to maintain organizational competency for nuclear power has been widely recognized given the nature of the business and the life cycle of 100 years or more. Our paper is intended to perform the first step in the knowledge loss risk assessment in nuclear organizations in Romania. Generally a three step procedure is needed for the evaluation process: - conducting the knowledge loss risk assessment; - determination of the approach needed to capture critical knowledge; - monitoring and evaluation. Taking into account the specificity of problems at organizational/institutional level, the difficulty of finding of a common approach, and the necessity to harmonize different interests at national level, a National Nuclear Knowledge Strategy is compulsory needed. (authors)

  7. Executive summary of NIH workshop on the Use and Biology of Energy Drinks: Current Knowledge and Critical Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Barbara C; Camp, Kathryn M; Haggans, Carol J; Deuster, Patricia A; Haverkos, Lynne; Maruvada, Padma; Witt, Ellen; Coates, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Sales of energy drinks in the United States reached $12.5 billion in 2012. Emergency department visits related to consumption of these products have increased sharply, and while these numbers remain small relative to product sales, they raise important questions regarding biological and behavioral effects. Although some common ingredients of energy drinks have been extensively studied (e.g., caffeine, B vitamins, sugars, inositol), data on other ingredients (e.g., taurine) are limited. Summarized here are data presented elsewhere in this issue on the prevalence and patterns of caffeine-containing energy drink use, the effects of these products on alertness, fatigue, cognitive functions, sleep, mood, homeostasis, as well as on exercise physiology and metabolism, and the biological mechanisms mediating the observed effects. There are substantial data on the effects of some energy drink ingredients, such as caffeine and sugars, on many of these outcomes; however, even for these ingredients many controversies and gaps remain, and data on other ingredients in caffeine-containing energy drinks, and on ingredient interactions, are sparse. This summary concludes with a discussion of critical gaps in the data and potential next steps. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Using prior risk-related knowledge to support risk management decisions: lessons learnt from a tunneling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van de Linde, Wim; Kaalberg, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The authors of this article have developed six probabilistic causal models for critical risks in tunnel works. The details of the models' development and evaluation were reported in two earlier publications of this journal. Accordingly, as a remaining step, this article is focused on the investigation into the use of these models in a real case study project. The use of the models is challenging given the need to provide information on risks that usually are both project and context dependent. The latter is of particular concern in underground construction projects. Tunnel risks are the consequences of interactions between site- and project-specific factors. Large variations and uncertainties in ground conditions as well as project singularities give rise to particular risk factors with very specific impacts. These circumstances mean that existing risk information, gathered from previous projects, is extremely difficult to use in other projects. This article considers these issues and addresses the extent to which prior risk-related knowledge, in the form of causal models, as the models developed for the investigation, can be used to provide useful risk information for the case study project. The identification and characterization of the causes and conditions that lead to failures and their interactions as well as their associated probabilistic information is assumed to be risk-related knowledge in this article. It is shown that, irrespective of existing constraints on using information and knowledge from past experiences, construction risk-related knowledge can be transferred and used from project to project in the form of comprehensive models based on probabilistic-causal relationships. The article also shows that the developed models provide guidance as to the use of specific remedial measures by means of the identification of critical risk factors, and therefore they support risk management decisions. Similarly, a number of limitations of the models are

  9. Mind the gap! Lay and medical perceptions of risks associated with the use of alternative treatment and conventional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) demonstrate that CAM users base their treatment decisions on both subjective, experience-based knowledge and medical knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore lay and medical risk perceptions associated with CAM and conventional medicine. In this explorative qualitative study, we conducted in-depth interviews with 25 Norwegian CAM users with cancer or multiple sclerosis and 12 doctors. The interviews revealed fundamental differences in risk perceptions influencing treatment decisions and risk communication in a clinical setting. While CAM users considered conventional medicine as potentially risky and related this to experiences of severe adverse effects, CAM was perceived as natural and safe. Doctors' risk perceptions were quite the contrary, mainly because of lack of scientific evidence for CAM as a safe and beneficial treatment option. For the safety of CAM users, such divergent risk perceptions may have far-reaching consequences. CAM users should be taken seriously with their self-perception as decision-makers considering their approaches to experiences, knowledge, and science. An awareness of differing lay and medical risk perceptions associated with CAM and conventional medicine in research, doctor-patient communication, and education of patients and doctors is thus important to optimize patient safety in complex health care systems. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Microbiological risk factors in dentistry. Current status of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2005-01-01

    Dentists belong to a professional group potentially exposed to harmful biological factors which most often are infectious microorganisms, less frequently - allergenic or toxic microorganisms. The fundamental routes of spreading harmful microorganisms in a dental surgery are: blood-borne, saliva-droplet, direct contact with a patient and with infected equipment, and water-droplet infections. In this paper, the current status of knowledge on microbiological hazards in a dentist's work is presented. Groups of microorganisms, such as prions, viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa, to which a dentist is, or may be exposed, are discussed. Epidemiological assessment of microbiological hazards in a dentist's work was performed and the basic principles of prevention formulated. Special attention was given to microflora in dental unit waterlines, and the biofilm persisting in them, as a source of occupational hazards specific for a dentist's workplace.

  11. Current research in risk-aware business process management - overview, comparison, and gap analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suriadi, S.; Weiss, B. (Burkhard); Winkelmann, A.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Adams, M.; Conforti, R.; Fidge, C.J.; La Rosa, Marcello; Ouyang, C.; Pika, A.; Rosemann, M.; Wynn, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The management of risks in business processes has been a subject of active research in the past few years. Many benefits can potentially be obtained by integrating the two traditionally-separated fields of risk management and business process management, including the ability to minimize risks in

  12. Bats - findings and knowledge gaps in the field of bat behaviour; Perspektive Fledermaeuse - Erkenntnisse und Wissensluecken zum Verhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergen, F. [ecoda Umweltgutachten GbR, Dortmund (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    There may be conflicts between wind power utilisation and the behaviour patterns of bats resp. the need for bat protection. The subject should be discussed free of emotions. Research is still required as there is still a lack of knowledge concerning the effects of wind power systems on bats. (orig.)

  13. Gap Between Clinical Practice and Guidelines: A National Survey of the Knowledge of Recommended Heart Failure Guidelines Among Chinese Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tianyi; Zhang, Yuhui; Liu, Nini; Huang, Yuhui; Liang, Tuo; Zhao, Xuemei; Zhang, Jian

    We investigated the current level of knowledge of Chinese heart failure (HF) guidelines among physicians, as a reference for the promotion and transformation of HF knowledge. Physicians from 88 hospitals in 27 provinces of China completed our survey between July and December 2014. The questions covered the main points included in the Chinese HF diagnosis and treatment guidelines (2014). A total of 2146 physicians, aged 20 to 62 years (35.6 ± 7.6 years), completed the survey. The correctness rate of their answers to the 15 multiple-choice questions in the HF questionnaire was generally low (mean 32.6%). The mean correctness rate for 10 blank-filling questions about the target doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and β-blockers was 42.5%. On the basis of their responses, physicians whose knowledge of the guidelines was "excellent," "good," "medium," and "bad" accounted for 1.1%, 11.4%, 14.2%, and 73.4%, respectively. Physicians who possessed a higher level of qualifications had significantly greater awareness of HF guidelines than those with relatively low qualifications (P knowledge about HF. There is a need to improve physicians' education about HF in China.

  14. WIC nutrition risk criteria: a scientific assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Scientific Evaluation of WIC Nutrition Risk Criteria, Institute of Medicine

    ...). The volume also examines the specific segments of the WIC population at risk for each criterion, identifies gaps in the scientific knowledge base, formulates recommendations regarding appropriate...

  15. Patients with psoriasis have insufficient knowledge of their risk of atherothrombotic disease and metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, J; Philipsen, P; Therming, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Knowledge is crucial to allow patients to increase their level of self-care. OBJECTIVES: To examine the extent to which patients with moderate to severe psoriasis feel informed about their disease, to investigate their level of knowledge about psoriasis and the associated risk...... to a questionnaire. RESULTS: Patients were well informed about their skin disease, but were less well informed about their risk of atherothrombotic disease/metabolic syndrome (visual analogue scale values of 6.91 and 5.15, respectively). Patients' knowledge of the disease was reflected by 74.2-99.1% correct answers...... (CA). The risk of arthritis elicited 88% CA and of depression 41.7% CA, while the risk of atherothrombotic disease and metabolic syndrome produced only 11.9-15.3% CA. Patients treated with biological drugs had a significantly stronger sense of being more well informed about the risk of disease (P = 0...

  16. The Role of Knowledge and Risk Beliefs in Adolescent E-Cigarette Use: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Rohde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of e-cigarettes and other vaping devices among adolescents is an urgent public health problem due to the concern about adolescent exposure to nicotine. This study examined: (1 adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarette risks; and (2 whether knowledge and risk beliefs were associated with e-cigarette use. N = 69 adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey about e-cigarette knowledge, attitudes (i.e., risk beliefs, and behavior (KAB. Nearly half (47% of the sample reported ever using e-cigarettes. The majority of adolescents knew about many of the risks of e-cigarettes, with no differences between never- and ever-users. However, risk beliefs, such as worrying about health risks of using e-cigarettes, varied across groups. Compared to never-users, e-cigarette ever-users were significantly less likely to worry about e-cigarette health risks, less likely to think that e-cigarettes would cause them negative health consequences, and less likely to believe that e-cigarette use would lead to addiction. In a multivariable logistic regression, prior combustible cigarette use, mother’s education, and addiction risk beliefs about e-cigarettes emerged as significant predictors of adolescents’ e-cigarette use. This study reveals that while knowledge is not associated with adolescent e-cigarette use, risk beliefs do predict use.

  17. The Role of Knowledge and Risk Beliefs in Adolescent E-Cigarette Use: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jacob A; Noar, Seth M; Horvitz, Casey; Lazard, Allison J; Cornacchione Ross, Jennifer; Sutfin, Erin L

    2018-04-23

    The use of e-cigarettes and other vaping devices among adolescents is an urgent public health problem due to the concern about adolescent exposure to nicotine. This study examined: (1) adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarette risks; and (2) whether knowledge and risk beliefs were associated with e-cigarette use. N = 69 adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey about e-cigarette knowledge, attitudes (i.e., risk beliefs), and behavior (KAB). Nearly half (47%) of the sample reported ever using e-cigarettes. The majority of adolescents knew about many of the risks of e-cigarettes, with no differences between never- and ever-users. However, risk beliefs, such as worrying about health risks of using e-cigarettes, varied across groups. Compared to never-users, e-cigarette ever-users were significantly less likely to worry about e-cigarette health risks, less likely to think that e-cigarettes would cause them negative health consequences, and less likely to believe that e-cigarette use would lead to addiction. In a multivariable logistic regression, prior combustible cigarette use, mother’s education, and addiction risk beliefs about e-cigarettes emerged as significant predictors of adolescents’ e-cigarette use. This study reveals that while knowledge is not associated with adolescent e-cigarette use, risk beliefs do predict use.

  18. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina; Ruehm, Werner; Lecomte, Jean-Francois; Harrison, John; Breckow, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m -3 ). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  19. Current knowledge on radon risk. Implications for practical radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Wolfgang-Ulrich [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie, Essen (Germany); Giussani, Augusto; Kreuzer, Michaela; Sobotzki, Christina [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Ruehm, Werner [German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lecomte, Jean-Francois [International Affaires Directorate, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, P.O. Box 17, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Harrison, John [Oxford Brookes University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford (United Kingdom); Breckow, Joachim [THM University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    ICRP suggested a strategy based on the distinction between a protection approach for dwellings and one for workplaces in the previous recommendations on radon. Now, the Commission recommends an integrated approach for the protection against radon exposure in all buildings irrespective of their purpose and the status of their occupants. The strategy of protection in buildings, implemented through a national action plan, is based on the application of the optimisation principle below a derived reference level in concentration (maximum 300 Bq m{sup -3}). A problem, however, arises that due to new epidemiological findings and application of dosimetric models, ICRP 115 (Ann ICRP 40, 2010) presents nominal probability coefficients for radon exposure that are approximately by a factor of 2 larger than in the former recommendations of ICRP 65 (Ann ICRP 23, 1993). On the basis of the so-called epidemiological approach and the dosimetric approach, the doubling of risk per unit exposure is represented by a doubling of the dose coefficients, while the risk coefficient of ICRP 103 (2007) remains unchanged. Thus, an identical given radon exposure situation with the new dose coefficients would result in a doubling of dose compared with the former values. This is of serious conceptual implications. A possible solution of this problem was presented during the workshop. (orig.)

  20. RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis on veterinary CPR. Part 1: Evidence analysis and consensus process: collaborative path toward small animal CPR guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Manuel; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2012-06-01

    To describe the methodology used by the Reassessment Campaign on Veterinary Resuscitation (RECOVER) to evaluate the scientific evidence relevant to small animal CPR and to compose consensus-based clinical CPR guidelines for dogs and cats. This report is part of a series of 7 articles on the RECOVER evidence and knowledge gap analysis and consensus-based small animal CPR guidelines. It describes the organizational structure of RECOVER, the evaluation process employed, consisting of standardized literature searches, the analysis of relevant articles according to study design, species and predefined quality markers, and the drafting of clinical CPR guidelines based on these data. Therefore, this article serves as the methodology section for the subsequent 6 RECOVER articles. Academia, referral practice. RECOVER is a collaborative initiative that systematically evaluated the evidence on 74 topics relevant to small animal CPR and generated 101 clinical CPR guidelines from this analysis. All primary contributors were veterinary specialists, approximately evenly split between academic institutions and private referral practices. The evidence evaluation and guideline drafting processes were conducted according to a predefined sequence of steps designed to reduce bias and increase the repeatability of the findings, including multiple levels of review, culminating in a consensus process. Many knowledge gaps were identified that will allow prioritization of research efforts in veterinary CPR. Collaborative systematic evidence review is organizationally challenging but feasible and effective in veterinary medicine. More experience is needed to refine the process. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  1. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In September 2013, EPA announced the availability of the final report, Comprehensive Environmental Assessment Applied to Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Flame-Retardant Coatings in Upholstery Textiles: A Case Study Presenting Priority Research Gaps for Future Risk Assessments...

  3. [Translation of knowledge on cervical cancer: is there a gap between research on causes and research on patient care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ochoa, Héctor; García, Luis; Castaño, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    This article constructs a map on the translation of knowledge concerning cervical cancer, based on citation networks analysis and the use of Gene Ontology terms and Medical Subject Headings. We identified two areas of research that are poorly interconnected and differ in structure, content, and evolution. One focuses on causes of cancer and the other on patient care. The first research area showed a knowledge translation process where basic research and clinical research are communicated through a set of articles that consolidate human papillomavirus infection as the necessary cause of cervical cancer. The first area aims to prevent HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer, while the second aims to stage and treat the disease.

  4. Knowledge about fish consumption advisories: a risk communication failure within a university population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2008-02-15

    Considerable attention has focused on whether people are aware of fish consumption advisories, particularly among fishermen and as a function of demographic variables. Yet little attention has been directed at the messages people are receiving from fish consumption advisories. This study examines knowledge about the benefits and risks of fish in relation to ethnicity and the degree of knowledge in a general university population in New Jersey. Subjects were asked open-ended questions about risks and benefits and responses were grouped into categories. A far greater percent of people had heard something about the risks and benefits of eating fish than could report specific information about the risks or benefits. While only 16% of subjects did not know what the benefits of eating fish were, 62% did not have any specific information about why there were warnings. However, for people who had some specific information, a higher proportion (57%) could identify the chemicals (PCBs, mercury) causing the risks, than could identify omega-3 fatty acids as contributing to benefits (40%). Much of the knowledge was very general, such as eating fish is "good for the heart", "good for you", or "brain food". Less than half of the subjects could name species of fish that were either high or low in contaminants. There were ethnic disparities in knowledge about both the benefits and the risks from fish consumption. A higher percentage of whites knew about both the benefits and risks of fish consumption than others; Asians knew the least about the risks, and blacks and hispanics knew the least about the benefits. There were also ethnic differences in ability to name fish that are low in contaminants, or high in contaminants. Minorities, particularly hispanics, were unable to list species that are high in contaminants. We identified three levels of knowledge about fish consumption: 1) whether people are aware of the risks or benefits of fish consumption, 2) whether they have any

  5. ParticipACTION: Awareness of the participACTION campaign among Canadian adults - Examining the knowledge gap hypothesis and a hierarchy-of-effects model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Guy EJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ParticipACTION was a pervasive communication campaign that promoted physical activity in the Canadian population for three decades. According to McGuire's hierarchy-of-effects model (HOEM, this campaign should influence physical activity through intermediate mediators such as beliefs and intention. Also, when such media campaigns occur, knowledge gaps often develop within the population about the messages being conveyed. The purposes of this study were to (a determine the current awareness of ParticipACTION campaigns among Canadians; (b confirm if awareness of the ParticipACTION initiative varied as a function of levels of education and household income; and, (c to examine whether awareness of ParticipACTION was associated with physical activity related beliefs, intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA as suggested by the HOEM. Specifically, we tested a model including awareness of ParticipACTION (unprompted, prompted, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and physical activity status. Methods A population-based survey was conducted on 4,650 Canadians over a period of 6 months from August, 2007 to February, 2008 (response rate = 49%. The survey consisted of a set of additional questions on the 2007 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM. Our module on the PAM included questions related to awareness and knowledge of ParticipACTION. Weighted logistic models were constructed to test the knowledge gap hypotheses and to examine whether awareness was associated with physical activity related beliefs (i.e., outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and LTPA. All analyses included those respondents who were 20 years of age and older in 2007/2008 (N = 4424. Results Approximately 8% of Canadians were still aware of ParticipACTION unprompted and 82% were aware when prompted. Both education and income were significant correlates of awareness among Canadians. The odds of people being aware of ParticipACTION were

  6. ParticipACTION: awareness of the participACTION campaign among Canadian adults--examining the knowledge gap hypothesis and a hierarchy-of-effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Brawley, Lawrence R; Craig, Cora Lynn; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Tremblay, Mark S; Bauman, Adrian; Faulkner, Guy Ej; Chad, Karen; Clark, Marianne I

    2009-12-09

    ParticipACTION was a pervasive communication campaign that promoted physical activity in the Canadian population for three decades. According to McGuire's hierarchy-of-effects model (HOEM), this campaign should influence physical activity through intermediate mediators such as beliefs and intention. Also, when such media campaigns occur, knowledge gaps often develop within the population about the messages being conveyed. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the current awareness of ParticipACTION campaigns among Canadians; (b) confirm if awareness of the ParticipACTION initiative varied as a function of levels of education and household income; and, (c) to examine whether awareness of ParticipACTION was associated with physical activity related beliefs, intentions, and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) as suggested by the HOEM. Specifically, we tested a model including awareness of ParticipACTION (unprompted, prompted), outcome expectations, self-efficacy, intention, and physical activity status. A population-based survey was conducted on 4,650 Canadians over a period of 6 months from August, 2007 to February, 2008 (response rate = 49%). The survey consisted of a set of additional questions on the 2007 Physical Activity Monitor (PAM). Our module on the PAM included questions related to awareness and knowledge of ParticipACTION. Weighted logistic models were constructed to test the knowledge gap hypotheses and to examine whether awareness was associated with physical activity related beliefs (i.e., outcome expectations, self-efficacy), intention, and LTPA. All analyses included those respondents who were 20 years of age and older in 2007/2008 (N = 4424). Approximately 8% of Canadians were still aware of ParticipACTION unprompted and 82% were aware when prompted. Both education and income were significant correlates of awareness among Canadians. The odds of people being aware of ParticipACTION were greater if they were more educated and reported

  7. The Influence of Instruction, Prior Knowledge, and Values on Climate Change Risk Perception among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Osman; McNeal, Karen S.; Gold, Anne U.; Libarkin, Julie C.; Harris, Sara

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated influences on the climate change risk perceptions of undergraduate students in an introductory Earth Science course. For this sample, domain-specific content knowledge about climate change was a significant predictor of students' risk perception of climate change while cultural worldviews (individualism, hierarchy) and political…

  8. Knowledge of the risks associated with skin bleaching among Togolese users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kpanake, L; Sastre, M T Munoz; Sorum, P C; Mullet, E

    2008-01-01

    We examined the extent of Togolese users' knowledge of the health risks associated with the regular use of bleaching agents. A massive underestimation of some of the main risks was discovered. The more frequent the use of bleaching agents, the higher the underestimation.

  9. Risk perception: The social construction of spatial knowledge around climate change-related scenarios in Lima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.

    2016-01-01

    Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities

  10. Risk at Low Doses: Scientific knowledge, uncertainties and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusssani, A.; Ballarini, F.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the applications of ionizing radiation in the medical field, for the exposed workers as well as the majority of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations, can be seen as low situations. Epidemiological information is however available for dose and dose rates higher than the values typical of most medical situation. Main source of information is the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese. A-bomb survivors, supplemented by studies of selected groups of exposed workers (uranium miners, radium painters) or radiotherapy patients with a detailed follow-up history. All of these group studies, however, suffer from one or more of the following limitations: - lack of adequate dosimetry - lack of a reliable control group for the necessary comparison - influence of concomitant factors (not always easy to find out) - influence of social conditions. In addition exposed study populations are different than the population of patients for which the risk estimates are needed in the medical situation. Recent studies aimed to evaluate the available data on the cohorts of the inhabitants of the Techa river settlements as well as of the workers of the Mayak nuclear facilities may provide in the future useful information on large populations chronically exposed to relatively low doses. (Author)

  11. Assessment of Gap between Knowledge and Practices among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients at a Tertiary-Care Hospital in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2 DM patients who do not receive diabetes education (DE have average knowledge on DM, and their practices about diabetes need to be improved. This prompted us to evaluate what happens when old diagnosed patients receive DE. The study therefore assessed the association between knowledge and practices in terms of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference (WC among 500 diagnosed T2 DM using a cross-sectional design. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for assessing their knowledge. The mean knowledge score of the patients was 15.29 ± 3.6. A significant negative association was found between the knowledge score and the HbA1c level. Age was positively associated with HbA1c and WC. Duration of DM was positively and education was negatively associated with HbA1c. Gender was negatively associated with BMI while income was positively associated with BMI and WC. All the associations were significant. The diagnosed T2 DM patients are deficient of sufficient knowledge; the knowledge score and HbA1c have a significant negative relationship, not other actions. The risk factors for the patients’ outcome include old age, female gender, years of education, economic status, and duration of DM.

  12. AN OVERVIEW ON STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMICS FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a history and an evolution of concepts of risk and risk management in economic, respectively financial fields, highlighting the usefulness (or not and complexity of tools for risk assessment developed over time. The main objective of risk management is to reduce costs and increase the value of company and stakeholders gains; also, a coherent risk management strategy may improve entity capital structure which will derive in a healthy financing policy. The risk and risk management field has been developed merely after the second world war and creates the favourable context of a new C position in business chart – Chief Risk Officer. The paper will explore the etymology of term risk correlated with the uncertainty. Research on risk and risk management is not possible without taking into account the derivatives market.

  13. Greenhouse effect: gaps of knowledge and perception; Effet de serre: les lacunes du savoir et de la perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorius, C. [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, CNRS, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2003-07-01

    The anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases should result in a marked warming of the Planet. Although quantitatively uncertain, this message is well apprehended by the society. Development of more investigations upon future climate and sources of energy should help to limit the extensiveness of this risk. (author)

  14. Assessing Genetic Literacy Awareness and Knowledge Gaps in the US Population: Results from the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Melinda; Ratcliff, Chelsea L; Hesse, Bradford W; Greenberg-Worisek, Alexandra J

    2018-05-31

    Public understanding of the role of genetics in disease risk is key to appropriate disease prevention and detection. This study assessed the current extent of awareness and use of genetic testing in the US population. Additionally, the study identified characteristics of subgroups more likely to be at risk for low genetic literacy. The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's 2017 Health Information National Trends Survey, including measures of genetic testing awareness, genetic testing applications and genetic testing usage. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated associations between sociodemographics, genetic testing awareness, and genetic testing use. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were aware of genetic tests. Testing awareness differed by age, household income, and race/ethnicity. Most participants had heard of using tests to determine personal disease risk (82.58%) or inherited disease risk in children (81.41%), but less were familiar with determining treatment (38.29%) or drug efficacy (40.76%). Among those with genetic testing awareness, actual testing uptake was low. A large portion of the general public lacks genetic testing awareness and may benefit from educational campaigns. As precision medicine expands, increasing public awareness about genetic testing applications for disease prevention and treatment will be important to support population health. This is a work of the US Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Knowledge of stroke risk factors amongst black diabetic, hypertensive and stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bogoshi

    2003-01-01

    knowledge of black patients diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes and stroke about the risk factors for stroke.  Four groups made up of 33 subjects (hypertensive, diabetic, stroke and control group were interviewed using open-ended questions and a structured questionnaire. Qualitative coding, frequencies and proportions were used to determine their knowledge.  Groups were compared with respect to percentage knowledge using the chi-square statistic at a 0.05 level of significance.  Stress was mentioned as the most important risk factor in all groups.  Although identification of stroke risk factors was  inadequate, the diabetic group was found to be significantly better in  identifying some of the risk factors (salt - p =0,05; sugar - p = 0,001; fat - p = 0,004; moderate smoking - p = 0,05; weight - p = 0,002

  16. Knowledge management and safety compliance in a high-risk distributed organizational system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressgård, Leif Jarle

    2014-06-01

    In a safety perspective, efficient knowledge management is important for learning purposes and thus to prevent errors from occurring repeatedly. The relationship between knowledge exchange among employees and safety behavior may be of particular importance in distributed organizational systems where similar high-risk activities take place at several locations. This study develops and tests hypotheses concerning the relationship between knowledge exchange systems usage, knowledge exchange in the organizational system, and safety compliance. The operational context of the study is petroleum drilling and well operations involving distributed high-risk activities. The hypotheses are tested by use of survey data collected from a large petroleum operator company and eight of its main contractors. The results show that safety compliance is influenced by use of knowledge exchange systems and degree of knowledge exchange in the organizational system, both within and between units. System usage is the most important predictor, and safety compliance seems to be more strongly related to knowledge exchange within units than knowledge exchange between units. Overall, the study shows that knowledge management is central for safety behavior.

  17. Navigating complexity through knowledge coproduction: Mainstreaming ecosystem services into disaster risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Belinda; Nel, Jeanne L; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Sitas, Nadia; Nel, Deon C

    2015-06-16

    Achieving the policy and practice shifts needed to secure ecosystem services is hampered by the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their management. Methods for the participatory production and exchange of knowledge offer an avenue to navigate this complexity together with the beneficiaries and managers of ecosystem services. We develop and apply a knowledge coproduction approach based on social-ecological systems research and assess its utility in generating shared knowledge and action for ecosystem services. The approach was piloted in South Africa across four case studies aimed at reducing the risk of disasters associated with floods, wildfires, storm waves, and droughts. Different configurations of stakeholders (knowledge brokers, assessment teams, implementers, and bridging agents) were involved in collaboratively designing each study, generating and exchanging knowledge, and planning for implementation. The approach proved useful in the development of shared knowledge on the sizable contribution of ecosystem services to disaster risk reduction. This knowledge was used by stakeholders to design and implement several actions to enhance ecosystem services, including new investments in ecosystem restoration, institutional changes in the private and public sector, and innovative partnerships of science, practice, and policy. By bringing together multiple disciplines, sectors, and stakeholders to jointly produce the knowledge needed to understand and manage a complex system, knowledge coproduction approaches offer an effective avenue for the improved integration of ecosystem services into decision making.

  18. Gender Gap in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM): Current Knowledge, Implications for Practice, Policy, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica L

    2017-03-01

    Although the gender gap in math course-taking and performance has narrowed in recent decades, females continue to be underrepresented in math-intensive fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Career pathways encompass the ability to pursue a career as well as the motivation to employ that ability. Individual differences in cognitive capacity and motivation are also influenced by broader sociocultural factors. After reviewing research from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, and education over the past 30 years, we summarize six explanations for US women's underrepresentation in math-intensive STEM fields: (a) cognitive ability, (b) relative cognitive strengths, (c) occupational interests or preferences, (d) lifestyle values or work-family balance preferences, (e) field-specific ability beliefs, and (f) gender-related stereotypes and biases. We then describe the potential biological and sociocultural explanations for observed gender differences on cognitive and motivational factors and demonstrate the developmental period(s) during which each factor becomes most relevant. We then propose evidence-based recommendations for policy and practice to improve STEM diversity and recommendations for future research directions.

  19. Knowledge and Risk Perceptions of Occupational Infections Among Health-care Workers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian, Ganesh Chidambar; Arip, Masita; Saraswathy Subramaniam, T.S.

    2017-01-01

    Health-care workers are at risk of exposure to occupational infections with subsequent risk of contracting diseases, disability, and even death. A systematic collection of occupational disease data is useful for monitoring current trends in work situations and disease exposures; however, these data are usually limited due to under-reporting. The objective of this study was to review literature related to knowledge, risk perceptions, and practices regarding occupational exposures to infectious...

  20. Knowledge and risk perception of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer among non-medical university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Tutlam, Nhial T

    2016-01-28

    To assess non-medical university students' knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among non-medical students of a private Midwestern university in the United States in May 2012. Questionnaire assessed demographic information and contained 21 previously validated questions regarding knowledge and perceived risk of developing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Knowledge scale was categorized into low and high. Risk level was estimated based on smoking, drinking, and sexual habits. Bivariate associations between continuous and categorical variables were assessed using Pearson correlation and Chi-square tests, respectively. The response rate was 87% (100 out of 115 students approached). Eighty-one percent (81%) had low oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge; and only 2% perceived that their oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer risk was high. Risk perception was negatively correlated with age at sexual debut, r (64) = -0.26, p = 0.037; one-way ANOVA showed a marginally significant association between risk perception and number of sexual partners, F(4, 60) = 2.48, p = 0.05. There was no significant association between knowledge and perception of risk; however, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer knowledge was significantly associated with frequency of prevention of STDs (p risk perception is low among this student population. Since oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence is increasingly shifting towards younger adults, interventions must be tailored to this group in order to improve prevention and control.

  1. Knowledge of heart disease risk in a multicultural community sample of people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Lacey, Kimberly; Abbott, Gina; de Groot, Mary; Chyun, Deborah

    2006-06-01

    Prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) is a primary goal of diabetes management. Unfortunately, CHD risk knowledge is poor among people with diabetes. The objective is to determine predictors of CHD risk knowledge in a community sample of people with diabetes. A total of 678 people with diabetes completed the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire (HDFQ), a valid and reliable measure of knowledge about the relationship between diabetes and heart disease. In regression analysis with demographics predicting HDFQ scores, sex, annual income, education, and health insurance status predicted HDFQ scores. In a separate regression analysis, having CHD risk factors did not predict HDFQ scores, however, taking medication for CHD risk factors did predict higher HDFQ scores. An analysis of variance showed significant differences between ethnic groups for HDFQ scores; Whites (M = 20.9) showed more CHD risk knowledge than African Americans (M = 19.6), who in turn showed more than Latinos (M = 18.2). Asians scored near Whites (M = 20.4) but did not differ significantly from any other group. Controlling for numerous demographic, socioeconomic, health care, diabetes, and cardiovascular health variables, the magnitude of ethnic differences was attenuated, but persisted. Education regarding modifiable risk factors must be delivered in a timely fashion so that lifestyle modification can be implemented and evaluated before pharmacotherapy is deemed necessary. African Americans and Latinos with diabetes are in the greatest need of education regarding CHD risk.

  2. Trends and Knowledge Gaps in the Study of Nature-Based Participation by Latinos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Pooja S; Kuehne, Lauren M; Olden, Julian D

    2018-06-19

    Mounting evidence supports health and well-being benefits associated with nature experiences, while also highlighting race- and class-based inequalities in access and exposure. We synthesized the literature on nature contact by Latinos in the United States to assess the state of knowledge and strategically identify research needs to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for this rapidly growing ethnic group. Our systematic review revealed 108 articles with a notable increase in number of papers over the past 3 decades. We noted that the body of research is focused on certain demographic targets (adults in urban areas) with a relative dearth of knowledge for others (children, seniors, and rural areas). Our analysis also revealed strong compartmentalizing of studies into research “clusters” based on nonoverlapping topics and types of outcomes that are measured. Although one-third of studies explored health outcomes, these studies rarely examined other outcomes or research topics. Moreover, less than 7% of studies reported on interventions. Given the potential for nature contact to enhance health and well-being, there is substantial need for multidisciplinary research that explores interactions between social, cultural, and economic factors, and how those ultimately relate to nature contact and outcomes for Latinos in the United States.

  3. Trends and Knowledge Gaps in the Study of Nature-Based Participation by Latinos in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja S. Tandon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence supports health and well-being benefits associated with nature experiences, while also highlighting race- and class-based inequalities in access and exposure. We synthesized the literature on nature contact by Latinos in the United States to assess the state of knowledge and strategically identify research needs to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for this rapidly growing ethnic group. Our systematic review revealed 108 articles with a notable increase in number of papers over the past 3 decades. We noted that the body of research is focused on certain demographic targets (adults in urban areas with a relative dearth of knowledge for others (children, seniors, and rural areas. Our analysis also revealed strong compartmentalizing of studies into research “clusters” based on nonoverlapping topics and types of outcomes that are measured. Although one-third of studies explored health outcomes, these studies rarely examined other outcomes or research topics. Moreover, less than 7% of studies reported on interventions. Given the potential for nature contact to enhance health and well-being, there is substantial need for multidisciplinary research that explores interactions between social, cultural, and economic factors, and how those ultimately relate to nature contact and outcomes for Latinos in the United States.

  4. Bridging the gap: a descriptive study of knowledge and skill needs in the first year of oncology nurse practitioner practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Margaret; Giblin, Joan; Mickle, Marsha; Morse, Allison; Sheehy, Patricia; Sommer, Valerie; Bridging The Gap Working Group

    2012-03-01

    To identify the knowledge and skill needs of oncology nurse practitioners (ONPs) as they enter cancer care practice, and to identify necessary educational resources. Cross-sectional, descriptive. A national e-mail survey. 610 self-described ONPs from the Oncology Nursing Society's database. The project team developed a 28-item electronic survey. The survey was randomly distributed via e-mail. ONPs' feelings of preparedness in the first year of ONP practice. In the first year of practice, 90% of ONPs rated themselves as prepared or very prepared in obtaining patient history, performing physical examination, and documenting findings. ONPs rated themselves as not at all or somewhat prepared in clinical issues of chemotherapy/biotherapy competency (n = 81, 78%), recognizing and managing oncologic emergencies, (n = 77, 70%), and recognizing and managing drug toxicities (n = 63, 61%). The primary source of oncology education for ONPs new to practice was almost exclusively the collaborating or supervising physician (n = 84, 81%). Specific knowledge and skills, such as information about chemotherapy, oncologic emergencies, and side effects of therapy, are needed before an ONP enters a cancer care practice. Cancer-specific education should be made available to new ONPs as they begin independent practice.

  5. Current (Food) Allergenic Risk Assessment: Is It Fit for Novel Foods? Status Quo and Identification of Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Holzhauser, Thomas; Cirkovic Velickovic, Tanja; Diaz-Perales, Araceli; Molina, Elena; Roncada, Paola; Rodrigues, Pedro; Verhoeckx, Kitty; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Food allergies are recognized as a global health concern. In order to protect allergic consumers from severe symptoms, allergenic risk assessment for well-known foods and foods containing genetically modified ingredients is installed. However, population is steadily growing and there is a rising need to provide adequate protein-based foods, including novel sources, not yet used for human consumption. In this context safety issues such as a potential increased allergenic risk need to be assessed before marketing novel food sources. Therefore, the established allergenic risk assessment for genetically modified organisms needs to be re-evaluated for its applicability for risk assessment of novel food proteins. Two different scenarios of allergic sensitization have to be assessed. The first scenario is the presence of already known allergenic structures in novel foods. For this, a comparative assessment can be performed and the range of cross-reactivity can be explored, while in the second scenario allergic reactions are observed toward so far novel allergenic structures and no reference material is available. This review summarizes the current analytical methods for allergenic risk assessment, highlighting the strengths and limitations of each method and discussing the gaps in this assessment that need to be addressed in the near future. © 2017 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. AN OVERVIEW ON STATE OF KNOWLEDGE OF RISK AND RISK MANAGEMENT IN ECONOMICS FIELDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela NICHITA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a history and an evolution of concepts of risk and risk management in economic, respectively financial fields, highlighting the usefulness (or not) and complexity of tools for risk assessment developed over time. The main objective of risk management is to reduce costs and increase the value of company and stakeholders gains; also, a coherent risk management strategy may improve entity capital structure which will derive in a healthy financing policy. T...

  7. Can Cardiovascular Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Close the Risk Management Gap Between Diabetes and Prediabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perreault, Leigh; Færch, Kristine; Gregg, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed published literature to determine the relationship between A1c and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and summarize the need and implications for CVD risk reduction with interventions, focusing in the prediabetic A1c range (... a continuous relationship between A1c and CVD-even below the current levels of A1c-defined prediabetes and after adjustment for known risk factors for CVD. Clinical trials have demonstrated a reduction in CV morbidity and/or mortality when interventions are invoked in the prediabetic A1c range. Guidelines...... advocating CV risk factor management in prediabetes have not been widely adopted, subsequently leading to comparable coronary heart disease risk between people with prediabetes (HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.1 vs normoglycemia) and diabetes itself (HR=2.0, 95% CI 1.8-2.2 vs no diabetes). This review highlights...

  8. Pertussis Maternal Immunization: Narrowing the Knowledge Gaps on the Duration of Transferred Protective Immunity and on Vaccination Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, María Emilia; Bottero, Daniela; Zurita, María Eugenia; Carriquiriborde, Francisco; Martin Aispuro, Pablo; Bartel, Erika; Sabater-Martínez, David; Bravo, María Sol; Castuma, Celina; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2017-01-01

    Maternal safety through pertussis vaccination and subsequent maternal–fetal-antibody transfer are well documented, but information on infant protection from pertussis by such antibodies and by subsequent vaccinations is scarce. Since mice are used extensively for maternal-vaccination studies, we adopted that model to narrow those gaps in our understanding of maternal pertussis immunization. Accordingly, we vaccinated female mice with commercial acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine and measured offspring protection against Bordetella pertussis challenge and specific-antibody levels with or without revaccination. Maternal immunization protected the offspring against pertussis, with that immune protection transferred to the offspring lasting for several weeks, as evidenced by a reduction (4–5 logs, p protection to offspring up to the fourth pregnancy. Under the conditions of our experimental protocol, protection to offspring from the aP-induced immunity is transferred both transplacentally and through breastfeeding. Adoptive-transfer experiments demonstrated that transferred antibodies were more responsible for the protection detected in offspring than transferred whole spleen cells. In contrast to reported findings, the protection transferred was not lost after the vaccination of infant mice with the same or other vaccine preparations, and conversely, the immunity transferred from mothers did not interfere with the protection conferred by infant vaccination with the same or different vaccines. These results indicated that aP-vaccine immunization of pregnant female mice conferred protective immunity that is transferred both transplacentally and via offspring breastfeeding without compromising the protection boostered by subsequent infant vaccination. These results—though admittedly not necessarily immediately extrapolatable to humans—nevertheless enabled us to test hypotheses under controlled conditions through detailed sampling and data collection. These

  9. Pertussis Maternal Immunization: Narrowing the Knowledge Gaps on the Duration of Transferred Protective Immunity and on Vaccination Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Emilia Gaillard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Maternal safety through pertussis vaccination and subsequent maternal–fetal-antibody transfer are well documented, but information on infant protection from pertussis by such antibodies and by subsequent vaccinations is scarce. Since mice are used extensively for maternal-vaccination studies, we adopted that model to narrow those gaps in our understanding of maternal pertussis immunization. Accordingly, we vaccinated female mice with commercial acellular pertussis (aP vaccine and measured offspring protection against Bordetella pertussis challenge and specific-antibody levels with or without revaccination. Maternal immunization protected the offspring against pertussis, with that immune protection transferred to the offspring lasting for several weeks, as evidenced by a reduction (4–5 logs, p < 0.001 in the colony-forming-units recovered from the lungs of 16-week-old offspring. Moreover, maternal-vaccination-acquired immunity from the first pregnancy still conferred protection to offspring up to the fourth pregnancy. Under the conditions of our experimental protocol, protection to offspring from the aP-induced immunity is transferred both transplacentally and through breastfeeding. Adoptive-transfer experiments demonstrated that transferred antibodies were more responsible for the protection detected in offspring than transferred whole spleen cells. In contrast to reported findings, the protection transferred was not lost after the vaccination of infant mice with the same or other vaccine preparations, and conversely, the immunity transferred from mothers did not interfere with the protection conferred by infant vaccination with the same or different vaccines. These results indicated that aP-vaccine immunization of pregnant female mice conferred protective immunity that is transferred both transplacentally and via offspring breastfeeding without compromising the protection boostered by subsequent infant vaccination. These results

  10. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  11. The gap between behavioral risk status and willingness to change behavior among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasila, K; Hallman, M; Kautiainen, H; Vanhala, M; Kettunen, T

    2018-01-01

    This study explored behavioral health risk factors among healthcare professionals and investigated the at-risk persons' satisfaction with their health habits and ongoing change attempts. The study was based on a cross-sectional web-based survey directed at the nurses and physicians ( N = 1233) in Finnish healthcare. Obesity, low physical activity, smoking, and risky alcohol drinking were used as behavioral health risk factors. In all, 70% of the participants had at least one behavioral risk factor, and a significant number of at-risk persons were satisfied with their health habits and had no ongoing change process. Good self-rated health and good self-rated work ability were significantly associated with whether a participant had a behavioral health risk factor. Overall, unhealthy behaviors and a lack of ongoing change attempts were commonly observed among healthcare professionals. Work in healthcare is demanding, and healthy lifestyles can support coping. Thus, healthy lifestyle programs should also be targeted to healthcare professionals.

  12. Knowledge and Attitude on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Their Relationship with Obesity and Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Toupchian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs in developing countries as well as high treatment expenses for patients and health-care systems, CVDs prevention in such societies has a great importance. One of the most effective strategies is improvement of knowledge and attitude towards the CVDs risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of females on CVDs risk factors and also the relationship between knowledge and attitude with obesity indices and biochemical parameters. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 89 women with the age range of 11 to 67 y old and body mass index (BMI of 24 to 51 kg/m2. Participants were interviewed face to face using a valid questionnaire in order to evaluate their knowledge and attitude on CVDs risk factors. Blood sampling was implemented after 12 h of overnight fasting. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and lipid profile were assessed by enzymatic methods. Anthropometric measurements were performed and obesity indices were calculated. Results: More than 70% of participants had moderate or good knowledge and attitude about CVDs risk factors. Participant's knowledge and attitude had a significant positive association with educational level and a significant reverse relationship with age, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and obesity indices. Conclusions: Results of this study indicated that knowledge and attitude levels on CVDs risk factors affect the obesity indices and metabolic profile. Hence, knowledge and attitude enhancement is the main target and initial step in improving life quality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Knowledge of Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors among a Community Sample in Oman; Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali A. Ammouri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of Omani adults regarding conventional coronary heart disease (CHD risk factors and to identify demographic variables associated with these knowledge levels. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional pilot study was carried out among a convenience sample of 130 adults attending a health awareness fair held in a local shopping mall in Muscat, Oman, in November 2012. A modified version of the Heart Disease Facts Questionnaire in both English and Arabic was used to assess knowledge of CHD risk factors. Scores were calculated by summing the correct answers for each item (range: 0–21. Inadequate knowledge was indicated by a mean score of <70%. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to establish the participants’ knowledge levels and identify associated demographic variables. Results: A total of 114 subjects participated in the study (response rate: 87.7%. Of these, 69 participants (60.5% had inadequate mean CHD knowledge scores. Knowledge of CHD risk factors was significantly associated with body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 0.739; P = 0.023, marital status (OR = 0.057; P = 0.036 and education level (OR = 9.243; P = 0.006. Conclusion: Low knowledge levels of CHD risk factors were observed among the studied community sample in Oman; this is likely to limit the participants’ ability to engage in preventative practices. These findings support the need for education programmes to enhance awareness of risk factors and prevention of CHD in Oman.

  14. Decisional role preferences, risk knowledge and information interests in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesen, Christoph; Kasper, Jürgen; Segal, Julia; Köpke, Sascha; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2004-12-01

    Shared decision making is increasingly recognized as the ideal model of patient-physician communication especially in chronic diseases with partially effective treatments as multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate prerequisite factors for this kind of decision making we studied patients' decisional role preferences in medical decision making, knowledge on risks, information interests and the relations between these factors in MS. After conducting focus groups to generate hypotheses, 219 randomly selected patients from the MS Outpatient Clinic register (n = 1374) of the University Hospital Hamburg received mailed questionnaires on their knowledge of risks in MS, their perception of their own level of knowledge, information interests and role preferences. Most patients (79%) indicated that they preferred an active role in treatment decisions giving the shared decision and the informed choice model the highest priority. MS risk knowledge was low but questionnaire results depended on disease course, disease duration and ongoing immune therapy. Measured knowledge as well as perceived knowledge was only weakly correlated with preferences of active roles. Major information interests were related to symptom alleviation, diagnostic procedures and prognosis. Patients with MS claimed autonomous roles in their health care decisions. The weak correlation between knowledge and preferences for active roles implicates that other factors largely influence role preferences.

  15. American Psychiatric Nurses Association-Transitions in Practice Certificate Program: Bridging the Knowledge Gap in Caring for Psychiatric Patients Within the General Nursing Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Susie M; Black, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to publicize an important new Web-based educational program. Recognizing the growing gap in psychiatric-mental health knowledge and the need to better prepare new graduates and nurses transitioning from other service lines into psychiatric inpatient nursing settings, the American Psychiatric Nurses Association developed a 15-hour, modularized curriculum to provide foundational psychiatric-mental health knowledge. This modularized curriculum, called American Psychiatric Nurses Association Transitions in Practice (ATP) focuses on the knowledge and skills to insure the success of nurses new to psychiatric-mental health nursing settings and to improve the overall care for persons with mental health and substance use disorders. The ATP program is also proving to be useful content for nurses in emergency departments, hospitals, and other health settings to improve their care of patients with psychiatric and mental health needs. A summary of the program modules and a toolkit with suggested measures for nurses, patients, and agency outcomes is described. Feedback from participants completing the ATP program within the first 6 months is overwhelmingly positive and holds promise for widespread application across a variety of health care settings.

  16. Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Capoccia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken husbandry to assess how they relate to risk of disease acquisition, hypothesizing that certain practices associated with a lower knowledge base may heighten the risk. This study used a survey distributed via social media to examine the self-reported knowledge base of individuals involved in chicken husbandry as they relate to beliefs and behaviors associated with the care of these animals. These results identify key factors that may heighten the risk of disease transmission and demonstrate that an increased knowledge base could act to lessen this risk.

  17. HIV/AIDS knowledge and occupational risk in primary care health workers from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Baltica Cabieses; Lagunas, Lilian Ferrer; Villarroel, Luis Antonio; Acosta, Rosina Cianelli; Miner, Sarah; Silva, Margarita Bernales

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between knowledge level and occupational risk exposure to HIV/AIDS in primary care health workers. Methodology Analytical cross-sectional study. 720 health workers from Santiago answered a survey about HIV/AIDS that included: knowledge level (appropriate, inappropriate), occupational risk (with or without risk), and control variables (age, gender, health center, education and marital status). Descriptive and association analysis were performed. Odds Ratio (OR) was estimated through simple and multiple regressions logistics. Results 58.7% of the participants reported HIV occupational risk. 63.8% of the participants from the exposed group reported an appropriate level of knowledge, versus 36.1% of the non-exposed group (Adjusted OR of 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p<0.0001). Technicians and cleaning staff reported a lower proportion of appropriate level of knowledge compared to the employees with college education (p<0.0001). Conclusion The level of HIV/AID occupational risk is directly associated with the level of knowledge of the disease. PMID:25284913

  18. Preventing Australian bat lyssavirus: community knowledge and risk perception of bats in South East Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; El Saadi, Debra; McCall, Bradley J

    2014-04-01

    Ongoing potential exposure of members of the public to Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) in South East Queensland, Australia, prompted investigation of community knowledge, risk perception, and intention to handle bats to inform future prevention efforts. After pilot testing, a computer-assisted telephone survey of a representative sample of 700 adults without previous potential exposure to ABLV was undertaken in the defined geographic region. Twenty-four percent of eligible contacted individuals participated. Basic knowledge of bats and ABLV was generally high, with 65% of participants answering nine or more of 12 knowledge questions correctly. The perceived risk that bats pose to human health was also high, with 93% indicating some degree of risk. Although 88% of participants indicated they would handle bats in one or more of the scripted situations, overall intention to handle bats was low, with 59% indicating they would handle a bat in four or less of the 12 scenarios. Younger males with lower risk perception of bats most frequently indicated intention to handle bats in varying situations. Knowledge score was not associated with intention to handle bats on multivariate modeling. Future public health prevention efforts, both in Australia and overseas, should focus further on conveying the risk to humans and to bats when nontrained, nonvaccinated people attempt to handle bats rather than attempting to purely convey knowledge about bats and ABLV or rabies. Suitable alternative measures to handling should be included. Younger adult males are a particular target group for prevention efforts.

  19. A Synthesis Of Knowledge About Caregiver Decision Making Finds Gaps In Support For Those Who Care For Aging Loved Ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvelink, Mirjam M; Ngangue, Patrice A G; Adekpedjou, Rheda; Diouf, Ndeye T; Goh, Larissa; Blair, Louisa; Légaré, France

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a mixed-methods knowledge synthesis to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve caregivers' involvement in decision making with seniors, and to describe caregivers' experiences of decision making in the absence of interventions. We analyzed forty-nine qualitative, fourteen quantitative, and three mixed-methods studies. The qualitative studies indicated that caregivers had unmet needs for information, discussions of values and needs, and decision support, which led to negative sentiments after decision making. Our results indicate that there have been insufficient quantitative evaluations of interventions to involve caregivers in decision making with seniors and that the evaluations that do exist found few clinically significant effects. Elements of usual care that received positive evaluations were the availability of a decision coach and a supportive decision-making environment. Additional rigorously evaluated interventions are needed to help caregivers be more involved in decision making with seniors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Knowledge Gaps in Rodent Pancreas Biology: Taking Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells into Our Own Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Munirah Mohamad; Low, Blaise Su Jun; Pek, Nicole Min Qian; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong

    2015-01-01

    In the field of stem cell biology and diabetes, we and others seek to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells for disease modeling and cell replacement therapy. Traditionally, knowledge gathered from rodents is extended to human pancreas developmental biology research involving human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). While much has been learnt from rodent pancreas biology in the early steps toward Pdx1(+) pancreatic progenitors, much less is known about the transition toward Ngn3(+) pancreatic endocrine progenitors. Essentially, the later steps of pancreatic β cell development and maturation remain elusive to date. As a result, the most recent advances in the stem cell and diabetes field have relied upon combinatorial testing of numerous growth factors and chemical compounds in an arbitrary trial-and-error fashion to derive mature and functional human pancreatic β cells from hPSCs. Although this hit-or-miss approach appears to have made some headway in maturing human pancreatic β cells in vitro, its underlying biology is vaguely understood. Therefore, in this mini-review, we discuss some of these late-stage signaling pathways that are involved in human pancreatic β cell differentiation and highlight our current understanding of their relevance in rodent pancreas biology. Our efforts here unravel several novel signaling pathways that can be further studied to shed light on unexplored aspects of rodent pancreas biology. New investigations into these signaling pathways are expected to advance our knowledge in human pancreas developmental biology and to aid in the translation of stem cell biology in the context of diabetes treatments.

  1. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations (Russian edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  2. TOSCA - first international registry to address knowledge gaps in the natural history and management of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingswood, John C; Bruzzi, Paolo; Curatolo, Paolo; de Vries, Petrus J; Fladrowski, Carla; Hertzberg, Christoph; Jansen, Anna C; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Nabbout, Rima; Sauter, Matthias; Touraine, Renaud; O'Callaghan, Finbar; Zonnenberg, Bernard; Crippa, Stefania; Comis, Silvia; d'Augères, Guillaume Beaure; Belousova, Elena; Carter, Tom; Cottin, Vincent; Dahlin, Maria; Ferreira, José Carlos; Macaya, Alfons; Benedik, Mirjana Perkovic; Sander, Valentin; Youroukos, Sotirios; Castellana, Ramon; Ulker, Bulent; Feucht, Martha

    2014-11-26

    data availability in 2014. The results of TOSCA will assist in filling the gaps in understanding the natural history of TSC and help in planning better management and surveillance strategies. This large-scale international registry to study TSC could serve as a model to encourage planning of similar registries for other rare diseases.

  3. Dual conception of risk in the Iowa Gambling Task: effects of sleep deprivation and test-retest gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Risk in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is often understood in terms of intertemporal choices, i.e., preference for immediate outcomes in favor of delayed outcomes is considered risky decision making. According to behavioral economics, healthy decision makers are expected to refrain from choosing the short-sighted immediate gain because, over time (10 trials of the IGT), the immediate gains result in a long term loss (net loss). Instead decision makers are expected to maximize their gains by choosing options that, over time (10 trials), result in delayed or long term gains (net gain). However, task choices are sometimes made on the basis of the frequency of reward and punishment such that frequent rewards/infrequent punishments are favored over infrequent rewards/frequent punishments. The presence of these two attributes (intertemporality and frequency of reward) in IGT decision making may correspond to the emotion-cognition dichotomy and reflect a dual conception of risk. Decision making on the basis of the two attributes was tested under two conditions: delay in retest and sleep deprivation. An interaction between sleep deprivation and time delay was expected to attenuate the difference between the two attributes. Participants were 40 male university students. Analysis of the effects of IGT attribute type (intertemporal vs. frequency of reinforcement), sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation vs. no sleep deprivation), and test-retest gap (short vs. long delay) showed a significant within-subjects effect of IGT attribute type thus confirming the difference between the two attributes. Sleep deprivation had no effect on the attributes, but test-retest gap and the three-way interaction between attribute type, test-retest gap, and sleep deprivation were significantly different. Post-hoc tests revealed that sleep deprivation and short test-retest gap attenuated the difference between the two attributes. Furthermore, the results showed an expected trend of increase in

  4. Validity and reliability of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors for use in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Lumertz Saffi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a sample of patients with coronary artery disease, this methodological study aimed to conduct a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of a questionnaire on knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors (Q-FARCS, lifestyle changes, and treatment adherence for use in Brazil. The questionnaire has three scales: general knowledge of risk factors (RFs; specific knowledge of these RFs; and lifestyle changes achieved. Cross-cultural adaptation included translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretesting. Face and content validity, reliability, and construct validity were measured. Cronbach’s alpha for the total sample (n = 240 was 0.75. Assessment of psychometric properties revealed adequate face and content validity, and the construct revealed seven components. It was concluded that the Brazilian version of Q-FARCS had adequate reliability and validity for the assessment of knowledge of cardiovascular RFs.

  5. Addressing knowledge gaps in molecular, sero-surveillance and monitoring approaches on Zika epidemics and other arbovirus co-infections: A structured review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Tambo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Globalization, with consequent increased travel and trade, rapid urbanization and growing weather variation events due to climate change has contributed to the recent unprecedented Zika virus (ZIKV pandemic. This has emphasized the pressing need for local, national, regional and global community collaborative proactiveness, leadership and financial investment resilience in research and development. This paper addresses the potential knowledge gaps and impact of early detection and monitoring approaches on ZIKV epidemics and related arboviral infections steered towards effective prevention and smart response strategies. We advocate for the development and validation of robust field and point of care diagnostic tools that are more sensitive, specific and cost effective for use in ZIKV epidemics and routine pathophysiology surveillance and monitoring systems as an imperative avenue in understanding Zika-related and other arbovirus trends and apply genomic and proteomic characterisation approaches in guiding annotation efforts in order to design and implement public health burden mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  6. Zika virus infection, transmission, associated neurological disorders and birth abnormalities:A review of progress in research, priorities and knowledge gaps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitades Gebre; Nikkiah Forbes; Teshome Gebre

    2016-01-01

    On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization declared that the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders constitute public health emergency of international concern. Furthermore, few studies demonstrated that there was an increased evidence of causal relationship of Zika virus (ZIKAV) infection and micro-cephaly, birth abnormalities and neurological disorders such as Guillain–Barr ´e syndrome. ZIKAV transmission occurs mainly by the bite of infected mosquitos (Aedes species), but there are also reports that infections could occur via the placenta, breast milk, saliva, blood transfusion and sex. This article reviews the global efforts, progress in scientific research to understand the pathogenesis of ZIKAV infection & disease, clinical pre-sentations, congenital transmission and autoimmune neurological disorders. The paper further explores the knowledge gaps, future priority research agenda for strategic response including vector control and prevention. We conducted a systematic literature review to synthesise available evidence on ZIKAV infection and its vector and host interaction from electronic databases.

  7. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  8. Hanford Site cleanup and transition: Risk data needs for decision making (Hanford risk data gap analysis decision guide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, S.; Glantz, C.; Harper, B.; Bilyard, G.; Miller, P.

    1995-10-01

    Given the broad array of environmental problems, technical alternatives, and outcomes desired by different stakeholders at Hanford, DOE will have to make difficult resource allocations over the next few decades. Although some of these allocations will be driven purely by legal requirements, almost all of the major objectives of the cleanup and economic transition missions involve choices among alternative pathways. This study examined the following questions: what risk information is needed to make good decisions at Hanford; how do those data needs compare to the set(s) of risk data that will be generated by regulatory compliance activities and various non-compliance studies that are also concerned with risk? This analysis examined the Hanford Site missions, the Hanford Strategic Plan, known stakeholder values, and the most important decisions that have to be made at Hanford to determine a minimum domain of risk information required to make good decisions that will withstand legal, political, and technical scrutiny. The primary risk categories include (1) public health, (2) occupational health and safety, (3) ecological integrity, (4) cultural-religious welfare, and (5) socio-economic welfare

  9. Mind the (knowledge) gap: the effect of a communication instrument on emergency department patients' comprehension of and satisfaction with care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Stefanie; Sharp, Brian; Fowler, Jennifer; Fowkes, Hope; Paz-Arabo, Patricia; Dilt-Skaggs, Mary Kate; Singal, Bonita; Carter, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    We developed a communication instrument to be used in the Emergency Department (ED) and hypothesized that use of this guide would increase patient comprehension of and satisfaction with care. This multi-site trial enrolled 643 patients in treatment and control groups. Comprehension of care was assessed by chart review and satisfaction measured via validated survey. Use of the instrument was not associated with improvements in patient knowledge about their care, with a mean of 4.6 (95% CI: 4.8-5.8) comprehension defects in the control group and 4.4 (95% CI: 3.9-4.9) in the treatment group. There was no significant effect on patient satisfaction 76.4% versus 76.9%, p=0.34. Elderly patients in both groups were found to have 1.1 (ppatients. Patients frequently misunderstand medical care in the ED. Comprehension decreases with increasing age. An isolated communication instrument does not improve satisfaction with or understanding of the care received. Providing a structured place for providers and patients to record details of care does not seem to improve satisfaction with or comprehension of care. Interventions that focus on communication skills and face time with patients may prove more effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Innovative nuclear fuels and applications. Part 1: limits of today's fuels and concepts for innovative fuels. Part 2: materials properties, irradiation performance and gaps in our knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzke, H.

    2000-01-01

    Part I of this contribution on innovative nuclear fuels gives a summary of current developments and problems of today's fuels, i.e. enriched UO 2 and UO 2 with a few % of PUO 2 (MOX fuel) or Gd 2 O 3 (as burnable neutron poison). The problems and property changes caused by high burnups (e.g. degradation of the thermal conductivity, polygonization or formation of the rim-structure) are discussed. Subsequently, the concepts for new fuels to burn excess Pu and to achieve an effective transmutation of the minor actinides Np, Am and Cm are treated. The criteria for the choice of suitable fuels and different fuel types (high Pu-content fuels, nitrides, U-free fuels, inert matrix supported fuels, cercers, cermets, etc.) are discussed. Part II of this contribution on innovative nuclear fuels deals with the properties of relevance of the different materials suggested to be used in innovative fuels which range from pure actinide fuel such as PuN and AmO 2 to spinel MgAl 2 O 4 and zircon ZrSiO 4 for inert matrix-based fuels, etc. The available knowledge on materials research aspects is summarized with emphasis on the physics of radiation damage. It is shown that significant gaps in the present knowledge exist, e.g. for the minor actinide compounds, and suggestions are made to fill these gaps in order to achieve a sufficient data base to design and operate suitable innovative fuels in a near future. (author)

  11. WhatsApp: A Real-Time Tool to Reduce the Knowledge Gap and Share the Best Clinical Practices in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzuoccolo, Luis D; Esposito, Maria Noel; Luna, Paula C; Seiref, Sharon; Dominguez, Mirtha; Echeverria, Cristina M

    2018-06-20

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects around 100 million people worldwide. The burden of disease is high, but more recent therapies show promising results. Clinicians need, however, more training in the use of such therapies. Project ECHO ® (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) is structured around the promise of delivering medical education at a distance, empowering clinicians who operate in remote areas. The use of instant messaging services, such as WhatsApp ® Messenger, has the potential to improve on the existing framework and bridge the existing gap of knowledge. This article reports on a study concerning the implementation of a WhatsApp discussion group in Project ECHO Psoriasis in Argentina. One hundred thirty-two dermatologists in Argentina were invited to participate in the WhatsApp discussion group. After 1 year of participation, a follow-up questionnaire was used to assess the effectiveness of the project. Eighty dermatologists participated. All questions placed in the discussion were answered by a psoriasis specialist, 79% of which were answered within the first 5 min. Clinicians report significant improvement in diagnosis, comorbidities, and treatment with both conventional and biological therapies. Preliminary results are promising. This new cost-effective solution builds on the existing Project ECHO Psoriasis in Argentina and shows potential in bridging the gap of knowledge, promoting better clinical decisions through empowerment of medical doctors operating in remote locations. Further research is needed to increase generalization of the results. Moreover, it would be interesting to match the data from the discussion group with follow-up questionnaires.

  12. Medication knowledge, certainty, and risk of errors in health care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Inger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication errors are often involved in reported adverse events. Drug therapy, prescribed by physicians, is mostly carried out by nurses, who are expected to master all aspects of medication. Research has revealed the need for improved knowledge in drug dose calculation, and medication knowledge as a whole is poorly investigated. The purpose of this survey was to study registered nurses' medication knowledge, certainty and estimated risk of errors, and to explore factors associated with good results. Methods Nurses from hospitals and primary health care establishments were invited to carry out a multiple-choice test in pharmacology, drug management and drug dose calculations (score range 0-14. Self-estimated certainty in each answer was recorded, graded from 0 = very uncertain to 3 = very certain. Background characteristics and sense of coping were recorded. Risk of error was estimated by combining knowledge and certainty scores. The results are presented as mean (±SD. Results Two-hundred and three registered nurses participated (including 16 males, aged 42.0 (9.3 years with a working experience of 12.4 (9.2 years. Knowledge scores in pharmacology, drug management and drug dose calculations were 10.3 (1.6, 7.5 (1.6, and 11.2 (2.0, respectively, and certainty scores were 1.8 (0.4, 1.9 (0.5, and 2.0 (0.6, respectively. Fifteen percent of the total answers showed a high risk of error, with 25% in drug management. Independent factors associated with high medication knowledge were working in hospitals (p Conclusions Medication knowledge was found to be unsatisfactory among practicing nurses, with a significant risk for medication errors. The study revealed a need to improve the nurses' basic knowledge, especially when referring to drug management.

  13. Urban Chickens as a Pathway for Human Illness: An Examination of Knowledge, Behavior and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Capoccia; Michael Masters; Scott Risser

    2018-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships between human knowledge, behavior and risk as they relate to urban chicken husbandry in the United States. Concern over zoonotic diseases has been on the rise, especially with increasing contact between birds and humans. In particular, avian influenza—or bird flu—and Salmonella enterica (Salmonella) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) can all cross species lines between people and poultry. This study analyzed knowledge and practices in urban chicken hus...

  14. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  15. Cross-sectional study to examine evidence-based practice skills and behaviors of physical therapy graduates: is there a knowledge-to-practice gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, Patricia J; Norton, Amy V; Darrah, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Curricula changes in physical therapist education programs in Canada emphasize evidence-based practice skills, including literature retrieval and evaluation. Do graduates use these skills in practice? The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of research information in the clinical decision making of therapists with different years of experience and evidence-based practice preparation. Perceptions about evidence-based practice were explored qualitatively. A cross-sectional study with 4 graduating cohorts was conducted. Eighty physical therapists representing 4 different graduating cohorts participated in interviews focused on 2 clinical scenarios. Participants had varying years of clinical experience (range=1-15 years) and academic knowledge of evidence-based practice skills. Therapists discussed the effectiveness of interventions related to the scenarios and identified the sources of information used to reach decisions. Participants also answered general questions related to evidence-based practice knowledge. Recent graduates demonstrated better knowledge of evidence-based practice skills compared with therapists with 6 to 15 years of clinical experience. However, all groups used clinical experience most frequently as their source of information for clinical decisions. Research evidence was infrequently included in decision making. This study used a convenience sample of therapists who agreed to volunteer for the study. The results suggest a knowledge-to-practice gap; graduates are not using the new skills to inform their practice. Tailoring academic evidence-based activities more to the time constraints of clinical practice may help students to be more successful in applying evidence in practice. Academic programs need to do more to create and nurture environments in both academic and clinical settings to ensure students practice using evidence-based practice skills across settings. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  16. The Soil Program of the Restoration Seedbank Initiative: addressing knowledge gaps in degraded soils for use in dryland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Bateman, Amber; Erickson, Todd E.; Turner, Shane; Merritt, David J.

    2017-04-01

    Global environmental changes and other anthropogenic impacts are rapidly transforming the structure and functioning of ecosystems worldwide. These changes are leading to land degradation with an estimated 25 % of the global land surface being affected. Landscape-scale restoration of these degraded ecosystems has therefore been recognised globally as an international priority. In the resource-rich biodiverse semi-arid Pilbara region of north-west Western Australia hundreds of thousands of hectares are disturbed due to established and emerging iron-ore mine operations. At this scale, the need to develop cost-effective large-scale solutions to restore these landscapes becomes imperative to preserve biodiversity and achieve functionality and sustainability of these ecosystems. The Restoration Seedbank Initiative (RSB) (http://www.plants.uwa.edu.au/ research/restoration-seedbank-initiative) is a five-year multidisciplinary research project that aims to build knowledge and design strategies to restore mine-impacted landscapes in the Pilbara and other arid and semi-arid landscapes worldwide (Kildiseheva et al., 2016). The RSB comprises four research programs that focus on seedbank management and curation, seed storage, seed enhancement, and the use of alternative soil substrates (soil or growing medium program) respectively. These multi-disciplinary programs address the significant challenges of landscape scale restoration in arid systems. In the soil program we follow an integrated approach that includes the characterization of undisturbed ecosystems, assessment of restored soils with the use of soil quality indicators, and design of alternative soil substrates to support the establishment of native plant communities. A series of glasshouse studies and field trials have been conducted in the last three years to advance our knowledge on soil limitations and to provide solutions to effectively overcome these challenges in arid ecosystem restoration. These studies include

  17. Competence in metered dose inhaler technique among community pharmacy professionals in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia: Knowledge and skill gap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Tilahun, Fasil; Ketsela, Tirsit; Achaw Ayele, Asnakew; Kassie Netere, Adeladlew; Getnet Mersha, Amanual; Befekadu Abebe, Tamrat; Melaku Gebresillassie, Begashaw; Getachew Tegegn, Henok; Asfaw Erku, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    When compared to systemic administration, if used correctly inhalers deliver a smaller enough percent of the drug right to the site of action in the lungs, with a faster onset of effect and with reduced systemic availability that minimizes adverse effects. However, the health professionals' and patients' use of metered dose inhaler is poor. This study was aimed to explore community pharmacy professionals' (pharmacists' and druggists') competency on metered dose inhaler (MDI) technique. A cross sectional study was employed on pharmacy professionals working in community drug retail outlets in Gondar town, northwest Ethiopia from March to May 2017. Evaluation tool was originally taken and adapted from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Programmes of America (NAEPP) step criteria for the demonstration of a metered dose inhaler to score the knowledge/proficiency of using the inhaler. Among 70 community pharmacy professionals approached, 62 (32 pharmacists and 30 druggists/Pharmacy technicians) completed the survey with a response rate of 85.6%. Only three (4.8%) respondents were competent by demonstrating the vital steps correctly. Overall, only 13 participants got score seven or above, but most of them had missed the essential steps which included steps 1, 2, 5, 6, 7 or 8. There was a significant difference (P = 0.015) in competency of demonstrating adequate inhalational technique among respondents who took training on basic inhalational techniques and who did not. This study shown that, community pharmacy professionals' competency of MDI technique was very poor. So as to better incorporate community pharmacies into future asthma illness management and optimize the contribution of pharmacists, interventions would emphasis to improve the total competence of community pharmacy professionals through establishing and providing regular educational programs.

  18. Evidence of an excessive gender gap in the risk of psychotic disorder among North African immigrants in Europe : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, E.; Veling, W.; Tortelli, A.; Tarricone, I.; Berardi, D.; Bourque, F.; Selten, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies in the Netherlands have reported an excessive gender gap in the risk for non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) among immigrants from Morocco with a higher risk elevation in males compared to females. We examined the consistency of these findings and their

  19. Evidence of an excessive gender gap in the risk of psychotic disorder among North African immigrants in Europe : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ven, E.; Veling, W.; Tortelli, A.; Tarricone, I.; Berardi, D.; Bourque, F.; Selten, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in the Netherlands have reported an excessive gender gap in the risk for non-affective psychotic disorder (NAPD) among immigrants from Morocco with a higher risk elevation in males compared to females. We examined the consistency of these findings and their generalizability

  20. Public support for alcohol policies associated with knowledge of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Gilligan, Conor; Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Several options are advocated by policy experts to mitigate alcohol-related harms, although the most effective strategies often have the least public support. While knowledge of tobacco-related health risks predicts support for relevant public health measures, it is not known whether knowledge of alcohol health risks is similarly associated with the acceptability of policies intended to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. This study aims to gauge public support for a range of alcohol policies and to determine whether or not support is associated with knowledge of a long-term health risk of alcohol consumption, specifically cancer. 2482 adults in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, participated in an online survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between demographic data, alcohol consumption, smoking status, knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer and support for alcohol-related policies. Most participants were supportive of health warnings, restricting access to internet alcohol advertising to young people, and requiring information on national drinking guidelines on alcohol containers. Almost half of participants supported a ban on sport sponsorship, while less than 41% supported price increases, volumetric taxation, or reducing the number of retail outlets. Only 47% of participants identified drinking too much alcohol as a risk factor for cancer. Knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer was a significant predictor of support for all policies, while level of alcohol consumption had a significant inverse relationship with policy support. The finding that support for alcohol management policies is associated with awareness that drinking too much alcohol may contribute to cancer could assist in the planning of future public health interventions. Improving awareness of the long term health risks of alcohol consumption may be one avenue to increasing public support for effective alcohol harm-reduction policies

  1. A Qualitative Study to Appraise Patients and Family Members Perceptions, Knowledge, and Attitudes towards Venous Thromboembolism Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudie Haxaire

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine perception, knowledge and concerns developed by patients and their family as regards venous thromboembolism (VTE risk.We conducted a qualitative study. Participants were: (1 patients with unprovoked VTE with either factor V Leiden mutation or G20210A prothrombin gene mutation or not; and (2 their first-degree relatives. Interviews took place mostly at Brest University Hospital. Participants produced narratives of the patient's illness, stressing their perception of the disorder, its mechanisms, etiology, circumstances and risk factors. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. On an ongoing basis, central themes were identified and data from narratives were categorized by these themes.A total of ten patients and 25 first-degree relatives were interviewed. Analyses of patient's narratives suggested 4 main themes: (1 concerns about initial symptoms and suspicion of VTE. The longer the duration of the initial phase, the more likely anxiety took place and persisted after diagnosis; (2 underestimation of potential life-threatening episode once being managed in emergency; (3 possible biographical disruption with inability to cope with the event; and (4 secondary prevention attitudes motivated by remains of the episode and favoring general prevention attitudes. Analyses of the first-degree relatives narratives suggested 3 main themes: (1 common interpretation of the VTE episode shared within the family; (2 diverse and sometimes confusing interpretation of the genetic status; and, (3 interpretation of clinical signs linked to VTE transmission within the family.Construction of the risk of VTE is based on patient's initial experience and shared within the family. Collection of narratives illustrates the gap between these perceptions and current medical knowledge. These results support the need to collect the perceptions of the VTE episode and its consequences, as a prerequisite to any health education process.

  2. Patient knowledge of risk factors 18 months after a nurse-led vascular intervention

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tone, J M

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims: Eighteen months after the completion of a vascular risk intervention study, the authors aimed to ascertain whether participants who attended the intensive, nurse-led group had better retention of knowledge of diabetes and heart disease compared with those who had undergone standard diabetes care. Method: A knowledge-based questionnaire was sent to participants who completed the vascular risk intervention study, 94 from the intensive, nurse-led group and 94 from the standard care group. Results: A response rate of 75% was achieved. Although more participants in the intensive group achieved recommended vascular risk targets, there was no increase in retained knowledge of vascular risks. A high proportion of the total cohort could not quantify targets for blood pressure (67.2%), cholesterol (65.1%) or HbA1c (68.1%). Conclusion: In this cohort of people with type 2 diabetes, knowledge retention regarding treatment targets was poor. Education programmes should stress awareness of vascular risk factors and diabetes.

  3. Anti-nuclear behavioral intentions: The role of perceived knowledge, information processing, and risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Weiwei; Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the key factors underlying people's anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. The protective action decision model and the heuristic–systematic model were integrated and adapted from a risk information perspective to construct a hypothetical model. A questionnaire study was conducted on a sample of residents near the Haiyang Nuclear Power Plant, which is under construction in Shandong Province, China (N=487). Results show that, as expected, perceived knowledge is vital in predicting people's information insufficiency, information seeking, systematic processing, and risk perception. Moreover, the inverted U relationship between perceived knowledge and anti-nuclear behavioral intentions is indicated in the study. Information insufficiency and information seeking also significantly predict systematic processing. Furthermore, people's behavioral intentions are motivated by risk perception but fail to be stimulated by systematic processing. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. - Highlights: • The study explores anti-nuclear behavior from a risk information perspective. • Risk perception and knowledge matter to anti-nuclear behavioral intentions. • Inverted U relationship between knowledge and behavioral intentions is indicated. • More understanding of nuclear power could reduce public opposition.

  4. Bridging the knowledge gap: an innovative surveillance system to monitor the health of British Columbia's healthcare workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Tony; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare workers are exposed to a variety of work-related hazards including biological, chemical, physical, ergonomic, psychological hazards; and workplace violence. The Occupational Health and Safety Agency for Healthcare in British Columbia (OHSAH), in conjunction with British Columbia (BC) health regions, developed and implemented a comprehensive surveillance system that tracks occupational exposures and stressors as well as injuries and illnesses among a defined population of healthcare workers. Workplace Health Indicator Tracking and Evaluation (WHITE) is a secure operational database, used for data entry and transaction reporting. It has five modules: Incident Investigation, Case Management, Employee Health, Health and Safety, and Early Intervention/Return to Work. Since the WHITE database was first introduced into BC in 2004, it has tracked the health of 84,318 healthcare workers (120,244 jobs), representing 35,927 recorded incidents, resulting in 18,322 workers' compensation claims. Currently, four of BC's six healthcare regions are tracking and analyzing incidents and the health of healthcare workers using WHITE, providing OHSAH and healthcare stakeholders with comparative performance indicators on workplace health and safety. A number of scientific manuscripts have also been published in peer-reviewed journals. The WHITE database has been very useful for descriptive epidemiological studies, monitoring health risk factors, benchmarking, and evaluating interventions.

  5. Generic learning skills in academically-at-risk medical students: a development programme bridges the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Vanessa C; Sikakana, Cynthia N T; Gunston, Geney D; Shamley, Delva R; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2013-08-01

    Widening access to medical students from diverse educational backgrounds is a global educational mandate. The impact, on students' generic learning skills profiles, of development programmes designed for students at risk of attrition is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a 12-month Intervention Programme (IP) on the generic learning skills profile of academically-at-risk students who, after failing at the end of the first semester, completed the IP before entering the second semester of a conventional medical training programme. This prospective study surveyed medical students admitted in 2009 and 2010, on entry and on completion of first year, on their reported practice and confidence in information handling, managing own learning, technical and numeracy, computer, organisational and presentation skills. Of 414 first year students, 80 (19%) entered the IP. Levels of practice and confidence for five of the six skills categories were significantly poorer at entry for IP students compared to conventional stream students. In four categories these differences were no longer statistically significant after students had completed the IP; 62 IP students (77.5%) progressed to second year. A 12-month development programme, the IP, effectively addressed generic learning skills deficiencies present in academically-at-risk students entering medical school.

  6. Knowledge and Risk Perceptions of Occupational Infections Among Health-care Workers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Chidambar Subramanian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Health-care workers are at risk of exposure to occupational infections with subsequent risk of contracting diseases, disability, and even death. A systematic collection of occupational disease data is useful for monitoring current trends in work situations and disease exposures; however, these data are usually limited due to under-reporting. The objective of this study was to review literature related to knowledge, risk perceptions, and practices regarding occupational exposures to infectious diseases in Malaysian health-care settings, in particular regarding blood-borne infections, universal precautions, use of personal protective equipment, and clinical waste management. The data are useful for determining improvements in knowledge and risk perceptions among health-care workers with developments of health policies and essential interventions for prevention and control of occupational diseases.

  7. Addressing social barriers and closing the gender knowledge gap: exposure to road shows is associated with more knowledge and more positive beliefs, attitudes and social norms regarding exclusive breastfeeding in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Alison L; Tavengwa, Naume V; Chasekwa, Bernard; Chatora, Kumbirai; Taruberekera, Noah; Mushayi, Wellington; Madzima, Rufaro C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N

    2012-10-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is rarely practiced despite its significant child survival benefits. A key constraint to increasing EBF rates in Zimbabwe and most of the developing world is that key decision makers (fathers/partners and other family members) are often poorly informed about EBF and do not attend antenatal clinics where health information is routinely provided. Informed by formative research, a district-wide campaign was conducted in rural Zimbabwe to encourage EBF and expressing and heat treating (EHT) breast milk as a means to maintain EBF. The campaign combined traditional strategies of education, counselling and outreach through health service delivery with a novel road show 'edutainment' intervention to reach men and other community members. A post campaign evaluation measured the association of road show exposure with 20 knowledge items and summative scores of social norms, beliefs and attitudes obtained through exploratory factor analysis. In adjusted models, road show exposure was associated with correct EBF knowledge (β=1.0, 0.001), EHT knowledge (β=1.3, Pbenefits of condom use during pregnancy and breastfeeding (β=0.5, P<0.001), and more positive EBF social norms (β=0.6, P<0.001), EBF beliefs and attitudes (β=1.0, P<0.001) and attitudes towards condom use during breastfeeding (β=0.6, P<0.001). Road show exposure was more strongly associated with EBF knowledge among men (P-value for gender×exposure group interaction=0.03), suggesting that it also closed the knowledge gap between men and women. Longitudinal studies will determine whether road shows were associated with changes in EBF practices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Risk assessment of pesticides and other stressors in bees: Principles, data gaps and perspectives from the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, Agnès; Arnold, Gérard; Dorne, Jean-Lou; More, Simon J; Sperandio, Giorgio; Streissl, Franz; Szentes, Csaba; Verdonck, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Current approaches to risk assessment in bees do not take into account co-exposures from multiple stressors. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is deploying resources and efforts to move towards a holistic risk assessment approach of multiple stressors in bees. This paper describes the general principles of pesticide risk assessment in bees, including recent developments at EFSA dealing with risk assessment of single and multiple pesticide residues and biological hazards. The EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products in bees highlights the need for the inclusion of an uncertainty analysis, other routes of exposures and multiple stressors such as chemical mixtures and biological agents. The EFSA risk assessment on the survival, spread and establishment of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, an invasive alien species, is provided with potential insights for other bee pests such as the Asian hornet, Vespa velutina. Furthermore, data gaps are identified at each step of the risk assessment, and recommendations are made for future research that could be supported under the framework of Horizon 2020. Finally, the recent work conducted at EFSA is presented, under the overarching MUST-B project ("EU efforts towards the development of a holistic approach for the risk assessment on MUltiple STressors in Bees") comprising a toolbox for harmonised data collection under field conditions and a mechanistic model to assess effects from pesticides and other stressors such as biological agents and beekeeping management practices, at the colony level and in a spatially complex landscape. Future perspectives at EFSA include the development of a data model to collate high quality data to calibrate and validate the model to be used as a regulatory tool. Finally, the evidence collected within the framework of MUST-B will support EFSA's activities on the development of a holistic approach to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in bees. In

  9. A Review of Current Research and Knowledge Gaps in the Epidemiology of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Persad

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne disease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within the Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the larger countries in the Caribbean, has an estimated annual foodborne disease burden of over 100,000 cases and, similar to other countries, the etiology of most of these cases is unknown. Both pathogens can reside as part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora of many wild and domestic animals, with animals acting as reservoirs, spillover hosts, or dead-end hosts. Carriage in animal species can be asymptomatic or, in the case of Salmonella in particular, there may be clinical manifestation in animals, which resemble the disease seen in humans. In this review, we will focus on the epidemiology of these two foodborne pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago and identify any knowledge gaps in the published literature. The filling of this critical knowledge void is essential for the development and implementation of appropriate mechanisms to reduce the dissemination and transmission of these pathogens, not only in Trinidad and Tobago, but also in the wider Caribbean.

  10. A Review of Current Research and Knowledge Gaps in the Epidemiology of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Anil K; LeJeune, Jeffrey

    2018-04-17

    Salmonella and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are two of the main causes of foodborne disease globally, and while they have been implicated as possible causes of foodborne disease within the Caribbean region, the actual incidence is unknown. Trinidad and Tobago, one of the larger countries in the Caribbean, has an estimated annual foodborne disease burden of over 100,000 cases and, similar to other countries, the etiology of most of these cases is unknown. Both pathogens can reside as part of the normal gastrointestinal microflora of many wild and domestic animals, with animals acting as reservoirs, spillover hosts, or dead-end hosts. Carriage in animal species can be asymptomatic or, in the case of Salmonella in particular, there may be clinical manifestation in animals, which resemble the disease seen in humans. In this review, we will focus on the epidemiology of these two foodborne pathogens in Trinidad and Tobago and identify any knowledge gaps in the published literature. The filling of this critical knowledge void is essential for the development and implementation of appropriate mechanisms to reduce the dissemination and transmission of these pathogens, not only in Trinidad and Tobago, but also in the wider Caribbean.

  11. Why some women have an optimistic or a pessimistic bias about their breast cancer risk: experiences, heuristics, and knowledge of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Dodd, Marylin J; Facione, Noreen C; Humphreys, Janice C; Lee, Kathryn A

    2010-01-01

    Perceived risk to a health problem is formed by inferential rules called heuristics and by comparative judgments that assess how one's risk compares to the risk of others. The purpose of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to examine how experiences with breast cancer, knowledge of risk factors, and specific heuristics inform risk judgments for oneself, for friends/peers, and comparative judgments for breast cancer (risk friends/peers - risk self). We recruited an English-speaking, multicultural (57% nonwhite) sample of 184 middle-aged (47 + or - 12 years old), well-educated women. Fifty percent of participants perceived that their breast cancer risk was the same as the risk of their friends/peers; 10% were pessimistic (risk friends/peers - risk self 0). Family history of breast cancer and worry informed risk judgments for oneself. The availability and cultural heuristics specific for black women informed risk judgments for friends/peers. Knowledge of risk factors and interactions of knowledge with the availability, representativeness, and simulation heuristics informed comparative judgments (risk friends/peers - risk self). We discuss cognitive mechanisms with which experiences, knowledge, and heuristics influence comparative breast cancer risk judgments. Risk communication interventions should assess knowledge deficits, contextual variables, and specific heuristics that activate differential information processing mechanisms.

  12. Knowledge of risk factors and the periodontal disease-systemic link in dental students' clinical decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Lynn Roosa; Walker, Mary P; Kisling, Rebecca E; Liu, Ying; Williams, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated second-, third-, and fourth-year dental students' ability to identify systemic conditions associated with periodontal disease, risk factors most important for referral, and medications with an effect on the periodontium and their ability to apply this knowledge to make clinical decisions regarding treatment and referral of periodontal patients. A twenty-one question survey was administered at one U.S. dental school in the spring semester of 2012 to elicit the students' knowledge and confidence regarding clinical reasoning. The response rate was 86 percent. Periodontal risk factors were accurately selected by at least 50 percent of students in all three classes; these were poorly controlled diabetes, ≥6 mm pockets posteriorly, and lack of response to previous non-surgical therapy. Confidence in knowledge, knowledge of risk factors, and knowledge of medications with an effect on the periodontium improved with training and were predictive of better referral decision making. The greatest impact of training was seen on the students' ability to make correct decisions about referral and treatment for seven clinical scenarios. Although the study found a large increase in the students' abilities from the second through fourth years, the mean of 4.6 (out of 7) for the fourth-year students shows that, on average, those students missed correct treatment or referral on more than two of seven clinical cases. These results suggest that dental curricula should emphasize more critical decision making with respect to referral and treatment criteria in managing the periodontal patient.

  13. HIV Knowledge and Risk among Zambian Adolescent and Younger Adolescent Girls: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Stefani A.; Kayukwa, Annette; Langlie, Jake; Rodriguez, Violeta J.; Alcaide, Maria L.; Chitalu, Ndashi; Weiss, Stephen M.; Jones, Deborah L.

    2018-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, young women are at the highest risk of HIV infection. Comprehensive sexuality education and open parent-child communication about sex have been shown to mitigate risky sexual practices associated with HIV. This study aimed to identify sources of HIV prevention knowledge among young women aged 10-14 years and community-based…

  14. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  15. Coronary Heart Disease Knowledge and Risk Factors among Tri-Ethnic College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutoubi, Samer; Huffman, Fatma G.; Ciccazzo, Michele W.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States and Europe. This study identified and compared nutritional knowledge associated with CHD risk factors among tri-ethnic college students. Design: A quantitative, cross-sectional, observational study using questionnaires. Setting: University laboratory.…

  16. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and Risk Behaviour among Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the knowledge and risk behaviours on HIV/AIDS of students in colleges of Education in Osun State. The study sampled 1600 students (male and female) from two colleges of Education. A descriptive survey was adopted for the study using stratified random sampling techniques. A self- developed ...

  17. The role of contextual risk, impulsivity, and parental knowledge in the development of adolescent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, A.; Barker, E.D.; Koot, H.M.; Maughan, B.

    2010-01-01

    The present study (a) tests main and moderational effects of neighborhood and family risk, and adolescent impulsivity on the development of male and female antisocial behavior (ASB) and (b) examines the extent to which these effects work indirectly through parental knowledge. Adolescents (N = 4,597;

  18. KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING IN TERMS OF OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE FINANCIAL AND BANKING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoica Luburic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of the author`s wider research that examines the impact of operational risks on the functioning of financial organisations, with particular reference to central banks. The research clearly demonstrates the importance of the human factor in the timely identification and efficient management of operational risks. People are the basic strength of organisations; they are the source of innovation, as well as of good relations with customers and other interested parties. The paper highlights the illusion that people can be successful in improving products or providing better services without improving themselves as well. Any assessment of the impact of the human factor on the appearance, identification, and efficient management of operational risks is a very complex process. This has to be an ongoing process that develops through the development of the organisation, staff competences and motivation, as well as organisational culture. In particular, emphasis must be placed on the importance of learning and knowledge in both the recognition and the efficient management of operational risks. The paper identifies education as the foundation of knowledge and knowledge as the foundation of the long-term development of organisations. They grow in significance when employing a process approach to risk management, especially the connected roles of ?process owners? and ?risk owners? in effective process and risk management. It is also clearly shown that any defence against risk, is as strong as its weakest link, and the weakest link in the chain of defence is an untrained, demotivated or dissatisfied employee or team, who are unable to recognize risk on time.

  19. The role of Indigenous knowledge in environmental health risk management in Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn A. Friendship

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This project aimed to gain better understandings of northern Indigenous risk perception related to food safety and to identify the role that Indigenous knowledge (IK plays in risk management processes to support more effective and culturally relevant benefit-risk (B-R management strategies. Study design. The project used an exploratory qualitative case study design to investigate the role and place of IK in the management of environmental contaminants exposure via consumption of traditional foods in Yukon First Nations (YFNs. Methods. Forty-one semi-directive interviews with Traditional Food Knowledge Holders and Health and Environment Decision-makers were conducted. A review and analysis of organizational documents related to past risk management events for the issue was conducted. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze transcripts and documents for key themes related to the research question. Results. There was a recognized need by all participants for better collaboration between scientists and YFN communities. YFNs have been involved in identifying and defining community concerns about past risk issues, setting a local context, and participating in communications strategies. Interviewees stressed the need to commit adequate time for building relationships, physically being in the community, and facilitating open communication. Conducting community-based projects was identified as critical for collaboration and for cooperative learning and management of these issues. Conclusions. The perception of “effective” benefit-risk management is significantly influenced by the efforts made to include local communities in the process. A set of common guiding principles within a process that brings together people and knowledge systems may provide a more effective way forward in cross-cultural, multiple knowledge system contexts for complex benefit-risk issues than a prescriptive rigid framework.

  20. Exploring Issues Limiting the Use of Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Norton

    2015-10-01

    A final conclusion is that no matter how useful, knowledge itself is not a panacea for DRR. Decision-making is invariably influenced by conflicting priorities, objectives and constraints, and not necessarily in all stakeholders’ interests or even reflecting their objectives. For example in the midst of the Greek economic crisis, disaster risk awareness and acceptability are becoming less a matter of DRR information and knowledge and must rather be addressed with a view to the new hierarchy of risks (socio-economic, health, emerging generated by the crisis. However, acknowledging the complexity of the issue should not stand in the way of much needed efforts towards enabling knowledge for DRR with all the tools available in today’s changing world.

  1. The hazard of Sea Level Rise (SLR) in Greece: from scientific knowledge towards risk awareness of main actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandoulaki, Miranda; Karymbalis, Efthimios; Yorgos, Melissourgos; Skordili, Sophia; Valkanou, Kanella

    2014-05-01

    A natural hazard that is expected to affect coastal areas in the near future is Sea-Level Rise (SLR) due to climate change. According to recent reports the eustatic sea-level rise caused by global warming will reach approximately 18-59 cm by the year 2100. Potential impacts of future sea-level rise include coastal erosion, frequent and intensified cyclonic activity and associated storm surge flooding that may affect the coastal zones, saltwater intrusion into groundwater aquifers, the inundation of ecologically significant wetlands, and threats to cultural and historical resources, as well as to infrastructure. The identification of sensitive sections of coasts and the assessment of potential impacts of SLR on these is therefore a fundamental, yet initial, step towards their protection. Greece has the most extensive coastline among all Mediterranean countries with most of the socio-economic activities concentrated along the coastal zone. Almost all big urban centres are coastal ones and the same stands for a great part of infrastructure (ports, airports, roads, electricity and telecommunications network etc). As a result, the impacts of a potential rise of the sea level are expected to seriously affect the entire country. The paper examines the vulnerability to SLR of coastal zones in Greece; however its main focus is how knowledge can lead to policy making and the protection of coastal areas. The main actors in respect to protection from SLR in Greece are identified and there is an attempt to pin point how the knowledge is communicated and shared between them. Barriers, bridges and gaps are detected as regards how information and knowledge lead to risk awareness and finally to the implementation of protection policies. A main finding of the paper is that SLR risk is far from becoming a policy priority in Greece, although steps are taken for addressing impacts attributed to SLR such as coastal erosion. In order to address this risk, there are many potential

  2. Knowledge and tools formalization in the accidental risks domain (DRA-35) Ω-13 Boilover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patej, S.

    2003-03-01

    Since 2000 the Ministry of the environment is financing a studies and researches program, called since 2003 ''formalization of the knowledge and tools in the domain of the major risks'' DRA-35. The aim of this program is to realize a document formalizing the INERIS expertise in the domain of the accidental risks: the physical phenomenon implied in the accidents, the risks analysis and control, the methodological aspects for the realization of regulations. This report presents the study of the boilover physical phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  3. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Samia; Glaoui, Meriem; Elkhoyaali, Siham; Mesmoudi, Mohamed; Boutayeb, Saber; Errihani, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Morocco. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that female healthcare professionals have greater influence on women's positive perception of breast cancer and motivation to practice screening methods for early detection of the disease. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among a cohort of female healthcare professionals in Morocco. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among 136 female doctors and nurses working in the university hospital of Rabat, Morocco. Stratified random sampling method was employed. Chi square test, analysis of variance and Mantel-Haenszel test were performed in data analysis using SPSS v19.0. Female doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses.

  4. Risk Perception, Knowledge and Safety Attitude and Hearing Protector Use in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jahangiri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing protectors (HP are widely employed as the only measure against noise exposure. However, it is well known that unless do workers wear HP continuously, its efficacy will be very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of risk perception, knowledge and safety attitude on hearing protection use in petrochemical industry's workers.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a structural questionnaire was administrated to 236 randomly selected workers in Iranian petrochemical industry who had been to 85 dBA noise and some influencing factors including risk perception, knowledge and general attitude to safety on using of HP had been investigated.Results: This study showed that only 20.3% of employees claimed to wear hearing protection all the time when they exposed to noise. There was a significant relationship between use of hearing protector and worker's risk perception (p=0.048 and also their knowledge about hearing protection(p=0.009. Also, the relationship between general attitude of workers to safety and risk perception was statistically significant (p=0.046. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that for promoting the use of hearing protectors, two main strategy should be followed. First, removing the barriers to make hearing protectors compliant, and second enhancing the workers’ risk perception about hearing loss and proper use of ear protectors.

  5. Predicting hydrological and erosional risks in fire-affected watersheds: recent advances and research gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2017-04-01

    Models can be invaluable tools to assess and manage the impacts of forest fires on hydrological and erosion processes. Immediately after fires, models can be used to identify priority areas for post-fire interventions or assess the risks of flooding and downstream contamination. In the long term, models can be used to evaluate the long-term implications of a fire regime for soil protection, surface water quality and potential management risks, or determine how changes to fire regimes, caused e.g. by climate change, can impact soil and water quality. However, several challenges make post-fire modelling particularly difficult: • Fires change vegetation cover and properties, such as by changing soil water repellency or by adding an ash layer over the soil; these processes, however are not described in currently used models, so that existing models need to be modified and tested. • Vegetation and soils recover with time since fire, changing important model parameters, so that the recovery processes themselves also need to be simulated, including the role of post-fire interventions. • During the window of vegetation and soil disturbance, particular weather conditions, such as the occurrence of severe droughts or extreme rainfall events, can have a large impact on the amount of runoff and erosion produced in burnt areas, so that models that smooth out these peak responses and rather simulate "long-term" average processes are less useful. • While existing models can simulate reasonable well slope-scale runoff generation and associated sediment losses and their catchment-scale routing, few models can accommodate the role of the ash layer or its transport by overland flow, in spite of its importance for soil fertility losses and downstream contamination. This presentation will provide an overview of the importance of post-fire hydrological and erosion modelling as well as of the challenges it faces and of recent efforts made to overcome these challenges. It will

  6. Why some women have an optimistic or a pessimistic bias about their breast cancer risk? Experiences, heuristics, and knowledge of risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Katapodi, Maria C.; Dodd, Marylin J.; Facione, Noreen C.; Humphreys, Janice C.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived risk to a health problem is formed by inferential rules called heuristics and by comparative judgments that assess how one's risk compares to the risk of others. The purpose of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to examine how experiences with breast cancer, knowledge of risk factors, and specific heuristics inform risk judgments for oneself, for friends/peers, and comparative judgments for breast cancer (risk friends/peers - risk self). We recruited an English-speakin...

  7. Knowledge of breast cancer and its risk and protective factors among women in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Awatif Ali

    2006-01-01

    We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)

  8. A risk perception gap? Comparing expert, producer and consumer prioritization of food hazard controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Hübner, Philipp; Siegrist, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Using a survey approach, the study examined how experts (i.e. food control representatives), producers (i.e. food industry representatives) and consumers prioritized control activities for 28 hazards related to food and other everyday items. The investigated hazards encompassed a wide range of safety issues, including health risks, consumer deception and poor food hygiene behaviour. The participants included 41 experts, 138 producers and 243 consumers from the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland. Based on detailed descriptions of the hazards, they were asked to rank these on a score sheet in terms of the perceived importance of monitoring by food control authorities. A between-group comparison of average rankings showed that consumers and experts differed significantly in relation to 17 of the 28 hazards. While the experts assigned higher priority to hazards related to everyday items such as nitrosamine in mascara and chromium VI in leather products, producers and consumers tended to prioritize products related to plant treatment and genetic modification of food and feeds. Producer and consumer rankings of the hazards were highly correlated (r = .96, p < .001). Rankings were also similar among participants from the two cultural regions (i.e. German and French-speaking parts of Switzerland). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty: case from automotive battery supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, I. A.; Sugiarto, D.; Surjasa, D.; Witonohadi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Automotive battery supply chain include battery manufacturer, sulphuric acid suppliers, polypropylene suppliers, lead suppliers, transportation service providers, warehouses, retailers and even customers. Due to the increasingly dynamic condition of the environment, supply chain actors were required to improve their ability to overcome various uncertainty issues in the environment. This paper aims to describe the process of designing a knowledge management system for risk mitigation in supply chain uncertainty. The design methodology began with the identification of the knowledge needed to solve the problems associated with uncertainty and analysis of system requirements. The design of the knowledge management system was described in the form of a data flow diagram. The results of the study indicated that key knowledge area that needs to be managed were the knowledge to maintain the stability of process in sulphuric acid process and knowledge to overcome the wastes in battery manufacturing process. The system was expected to be a media acquisition, dissemination and storage of knowledge associated with the uncertainty in the battery supply chain and increase the supply chain performance.

  10. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Factors of risk perception and risk acceptability: a contribution for the knowledge of the perception of the risk associated with blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergon, E; Moutel, G; Bellier, L; Hervé, C; Rouger, P

    2004-07-01

    The concept of risk cannot be limited to simply knowing the probability of occurrence and the seriousness of the damages caused. It's a matter of social construction and numerous elements contribute towards its perception and acceptability. These elements have been studied for 20 years or so. Some of these elements influence risk perception such as awfulness, unfamiliarity, the number of people exposed to it, other elements influence its acceptance such as individual perceptions, social factors, ethics and equity. Their knowledge allows a better understanding of the evolution of perception and of the risk acceptability in general and transfusion risk in particular.

  12. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Menzel-Severing, Johannes; Schubert, Kirsten; Tinnemann, Peter

    2010-10-08

    In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053).In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students' mobility, and participation in tropical medicine and global health courses. The knowledge assessment revealed deficits and outlined needs to further analyse education gaps in global health. Developing concerted educational interventions aimed at fostering students' engagement with SDH

  13. Effectiveness of health education on Toxoplasma-related knowledge, behaviour, and risk of seroconversion in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L; Leroy, Valériane; Gilbert, Ruth; Chêne, Geneviève; Wallon, Martine

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a bibliographic literature search using MEDLINE to review the effectiveness of health education on Toxoplasma-related knowledge, behaviour, and risk of seroconversion in pregnant women. We pre-selected studies that used comparative study designs (randomized clinical trial, quasi-experimental design or historical control), that were conducted among pregnant women, and which employed specific, Toxoplasma-related outcome measures: knowledge, behaviour, or Toxoplasma infection rate. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. All had serious methodological flaws. A Belgian study reported a significant decrease in the incidence of Toxoplasma seroconversion after the introduction of intensive counselling for pregnant women about toxoplasmosis. In Poland, a significant increase in knowledge was observed after a multi-pronged, public health educational program was launched. In Canada, an increase in knowledge and prevention behaviours was reported in the intervention group receiving counselling by trained facilitators compared with the control group. In France, no significant changes in risk behaviour were observed following a physician-delivered intervention. This review highlights the weakness of the literature in the area and the lack of studies measuring actual seroconversion. There is suggestive evidence that health education approaches may help reduce risk of congenital toxoplasmosis but this problem requires further study using more rigorous research design and methodology.

  14. Using XML and XSLT for flexible elicitation of mental-health risk knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, C D; Ahmed, A; Adams, A E

    2007-03-01

    Current tools for assessing risks associated with mental-health problems require assessors to make high-level judgements based on clinical experience. This paper describes how new technologies can enhance qualitative research methods to identify lower-level cues underlying these judgements, which can be collected by people without a specialist mental-health background. Content analysis of interviews with 46 multidisciplinary mental-health experts exposed the cues and their interrelationships, which were represented by a mind map using software that stores maps as XML. All 46 mind maps were integrated into a single XML knowledge structure and analysed by a Lisp program to generate quantitative information about the numbers of experts associated with each part of it. The knowledge was refined by the experts, using software developed in Flash to record their collective views within the XML itself. These views specified how the XML should be transformed by XSLT, a technology for rendering XML, which resulted in a validated hierarchical knowledge structure associating patient cues with risks. Changing knowledge elicitation requirements were accommodated by flexible transformations of XML data using XSLT, which also facilitated generation of multiple data-gathering tools suiting different assessment circumstances and levels of mental-health knowledge.

  15. Safety knowledge and risk behaviour of injured and uninjured young skiers and snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, A J; Cadman, R E; Greenlaw, J V

    1998-09-01

    Earlier studies of ski injury indicated that youths were at increased risk of injury, that males were most likely to injure the head or face, and that females were most likely to injure the knee. To obtain information about safety knowledge and risk behaviour that might contribute to injury among young skiers and snow-boarders. Survey of knowledge and behaviour in injured and noninjured cohorts. Blackcomb Mountain, Whistler, British Columbia. A total of 863 noninjured and 118 injured skiers and snowboarders aged five to 17 years using Blackcomb during 1993/94. Skier Knowledge Inventory Questionnaire. The injured cohort had less knowledge of the Skiers Responsibility Code. In both groups, almost half had had no lessons, 31% had had bindings adjusted by nonprofessionals and chair lift safety bars were used one ride in four by children age 13 to 17 years. The injuried cohort wore helmets slightly less often. Both groups regularly skied through the trees (60% to 70%), and one-thirds had skied on closed runs. Excessive speed was identified as the major cause of injury. Skiers did not recognize jumping as contributing to injury. Lack of knowledge of safety rules was more prevalent among the injured cohort. Skiing without due care - including skiing through tress, skiing on closed runs, skiing with excessive speed and jumping, particularly by snowboarders - were identified as potential causes of injury.

  16. Risk perception and knowledge about osteoporosis: well informed but not aware? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Patricia; Lavielle, Pilar

    2015-04-01

    Identify the level of knowledge and risk perception of developing osteoporosis (OP) and its association with socio-demographic variables and risk factors. Individuals older than 18 years living in Mexico City were surveyed. The sample, which was designed to be representative of this population, was randomly selected and stratified by socioeconomic level, age, and sex. The Multiple Osteoporosis Prevention Survey, designed to assess OP-related knowledge, risk perception, was used. Four hundred and fifty-five individuals, homogeneously distributed according to defined strata, were surveyed. Almost 29 % (28.9 %) of subjects consumed tobacco, and 13.4 % had a family history of OP. Most subjects reported a lower-than-recommended calcium daily intake. Fifty-three and a half percent identified most risk factors adequately, and almost all (97.9 %) had received some sort of information about OP. Sixty-six and a half percent of subjects perceived OP as a serious disease; 51.5 % considered themselves to be personally responsible for acquiring it; 50.2 % were concerned about suffering from it; and 47.1 % considered it likely they would develop it. The most important variables associated with the perception of risk were age (perception of their risk in developing it. Interventions should aim at raising awareness about personal responsibility and about the likelihood of developing this condition.

  17. The Role of Knowledge in the prevention of natural hazards and related risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Miccadei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, especially over the last two centuries, have had a huge impact on the environment and the landscape. Mankind is able to control and induce landscape changes but is subject to natural processes and hazards due to severe and extreme events (particularly earthquakes but also landslides and flooding and related risks. Risks are the result of hazards, exposed elements and vulnerability and they are consequently not only an expression of the natural environment, but also related to human interaction with nature. Risks need to be addressed regularly by means of a high level of knowledge in order to provide most up­to­date information for any decision which needs to be taken by any party involved. A high level of knowledge concerning natural hazards and related risks stems from the geological and geomorphological history and from the historical records of the natural processes and grows with multi­scale, multi­temporal and multidisciplinary studies and investigations, which include land management, economic and social issues. A strong effort has to be made in this way to improve risk assessment and the enforcement of existing laws and ­ if necessary ­ new laws, really stem from recent disasters. This will help to achieve improved and effective land management, based on an interdisciplinary approach in which expert geologists and land managers will play a role, because of the importance of natural processes in inducing risks.

  18. Perception of stroke in Croatia--knowledge of stroke signs and risk factors amongst neurological outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, V; Mikula, I; Kesić, M J; Bedeković, M R; Morović, S; Lovrencić-Huzjan, A; Demarin, V

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this hospital-based survey was to determine baseline stroke knowledge in Croatian population attending the outpatient services at the Department of Neurology. A multiple choice questionnaire was designed, divided into three sections: (i) demographic data, (ii) knowledge of stroke risk factors and stroke signs and (iii) actions the patients would undertake if confronted with risk of stroke and information resources regarding health. The analysis included 720 respondents (54.9% women). The respondents most frequently indicated stroke symptoms as following: speech disorder 82%, paresthesiae on one side of the body 71%, weakness of arm or leg 55%, unsteady gait 55%, malaise 53%, monocular loss of vision 44%. The risk factors most frequently identified were hypertension 64%, stress 61%, smoking 59%, elevated lipids 53%, obesity 52%, coagulation disorder 47%, alcoholism 45%, low-physical activity 42%, elderly age 39%, cardiac diseases 38%, weather changes 34%, drugs 33% and diabetes 32%. If confronted with stroke signs 37% of respondents would consult the general practitioner and 31% would call 911 or go to a neurologist. Amongst patients with a risk factor, only diabetics were aware that their risk factor might cause stroke (P risk factors for stroke. The results of our study will help to create and plan programmes for improvement of public health in Croatia.

  19. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  20. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Self-Efficacy for Limiting Sexual Risk Behavior and Parental Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Scoloveno, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy for sexual risk behaviors, and parental monitoring in a sample of 140 7th and 9th grade adolescents studying in an urban high school in the United States. Further, the study examined differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and parental monitoring by grade and gender. This study also investigated the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS peer education program, Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP), on improving adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine effects of the peer education program (TAP) on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among the variables. Independent t-tests were used to compare adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and parental monitoring scores by grade and gender. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention HIV/AIDS knowledge. The results showed that HIV/AIDS knowledge improved significantly in both 7th and 9th grade students after the intervention. HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with self-efficacy; however it was not associated with parental monitoring. There were no significant differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-efficacy by gender. However, there was a significant difference in parental monitoring by gender. Pediatric nurses are well-positioned to develop and implement evidence-based programs for adolescents. It is essential that pediatric nurses, in conjunction with other professionals and parent groups, take the initiative in implementing peer education programs in schools and community centers to promote healthy behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Overcoming the knowledge-behavior gap: The effect of evidence-based HPV vaccination leaflets on understanding, intention, and actual vaccination decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegwarth, O; Kurzenhäuser-Carstens, S; Gigerenzer, G

    2014-03-10

    Informed decision making requires transparent and evidence-based (=balanced) information on the potential benefit and harms of medical preventions. An analysis of German HPV vaccination leaflets revealed, however, that none met the standards of balanced risk communication. We surveyed a sample of 225 girl-parent pairs in a before-after design on the effects of balanced and unbalanced risk communication on participants' knowledge about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccination, their perceived risk, their intention to have the vaccine, and their actual vaccination decision. The balanced leaflet increased the number of participants who were correctly informed about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine by 33 to 66 absolute percentage points. In contrast, the unbalanced leaflet decreased the number of participants who were correctly informed about these facts by 0 to 18 absolute percentage points. Whereas the actual uptake of the HPV vaccination 14 months after the initial study did not differ between the two groups (22% balanced leaflet vs. 23% unbalanced leaflet; p=.93, r=.01), the originally stated intention to have the vaccine reliably predicted the actual vaccination decision for the balanced leaflet group only (concordance between intention and actual uptake: 97% in the balanced leaflet group, rs=.92, p=.00; 60% in the unbalanced leaflet group, rs=.37, p=.08). In contrast to a unbalanced leaflet, a balanced leaflet increased people's knowledge of the HPV vaccination, improved perceived risk judgments, and led to an actual vaccination uptake, which first was robustly predicted by people's intention and second did not differ from the uptake in the unbalanced leaflet group. These findings suggest that balanced reporting about HPV vaccination increases informed decisions about whether to be vaccinated and does not undermine actual uptake. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Research Infrastructure: Risk and Vulnerability Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim; Rogers, Annabelle

    2017-04-01

    IPCC for translating climate science into policy - (IPCC, 2007), or less formally - such as the move to develop Essential Biodiversity Variables, loosely designed to support Aichi Targets (Pereira et al., 2013) or the UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN, 2016). In the paper, we examine a number of these frameworks, map them onto a generic framework for the translation of research output into policy and decision support, and discuss an example from the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas in detail. References Craig R. Fox & Sim B. Sitkin (2015). Bridging the divide between behavioral science & policy, Behavioral Science & Policy, Spring 2015, https://behavioralpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/1-1/Bridging-the-divide-between-behavioral-science-and-policy.pdf IPCC (2007). Conceptual framework for the identification and assessment of key vulnerabilities, https://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-1-2.html Pereira et al. (2013). Essential Biodiversity Variables, Science 18 Jan 2013: Vol. 339, Issue 6117, pp. 277-278 DOI: 10.1126/science.1229931 Preston, B.L., Mustelin, J. & Maloney, M.C. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change (2015) 20: 467. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9503-x Reid WV (2004) Bridging the Science-Policy Divide. PLoS Biol 2(2): e27. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020027 UN (2016). Sustainable Development Goals, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/

  3. Knowledge and perceptions of polio and polio immunization in polio high-risk areas of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid Bashir; Ali, Noshad; Hussain, Imtiaz; Tabassum, Farhana; Suhag, Zamir; Anwar, Saeed; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only countries where polio is endemic, and Pakistan reports the most cases in the world. Although the rate is lower than in previous years, the situation remains alarming. We conducted a mixed methods study in high-risk areas of Pakistan to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of target populations about polio vaccine and its eradication, and to estimate coverage of routine immunization and oral polio vaccine. We surveyed 10,685 households in Karachi, 2522 in Pishin, and 2005 in Bajaur. Some knowledge of polio is universal, but important misconceptions persist. The findings of this study carry strategic importance for program direction and implementation.

  4. Modification to knowledge on breast cancer in the workers with risk factors for this disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo Montannez, Susel; Ramirez Aleman, Ileana; Selva Capdesunner, Ana; Cuza Palacios, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    An educative intervention of 30 workers with risk factors for breast cancer was carried out in 'Ramon Lopez Penna' University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2008 to March 2009, in order to increase some knowledge on the topic. Two subgroups with 15 participants each were created to develop the different activities of the educative project, which will be assessed before the instructive action and 6 months after its onset. A Mc Nemar text was used to validate the information and a significant modification to knowledge on the topic was obtained. (author)

  5. Mind the gap: knowledge and practice of providers treating uncomplicated malaria at public and mission health facilities, pharmacies and drug stores in Cameroon and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangham-Jefferies, Lindsay; Hanson, Kara; Mbacham, Wilfred; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Wiseman, Virginia

    2015-11-01

    Artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has been the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Cameroon since 2004 and Nigeria since 2005, though many febrile patients receive less effective antimalarials. Patients often rely on providers to select treatment, and interventions are needed to improve providers' practice and encourage them to adhere to clinical guidelines. Providers' adherence to malaria treatment guidelines was examined using data collected in Cameroon and Nigeria at public and mission facilities, pharmacies and drug stores. Providers' choice of antimalarial was investigated separately for each country. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether providers were more likely to choose ACT if they knew it was the first-line antimalarial. Multiple imputation was used to impute missing data that arose when linking exit survey responses to details of the provider responsible for selecting treatment. There was a gap between providers' knowledge and their practice in both countries, as providers' decision to supply ACT was not significantly associated with knowledge of the first-line antimalarial. Providers were, however, more likely to supply ACT if it was the type of antimalarial they prefer. Other factors were country-specific, and indicated providers can be influenced by what they perceived their patients prefer or could afford, as well as information about their symptoms, previous treatment, the type of outlet and availability of ACT. Public health interventions to improve the treatment of uncomplicated malaria should strive to change what providers prefer, rather than focus on what they know. Interventions to improve adherence to malaria treatment guidelines should emphasize that ACT is the recommended antimalarial, and it should be used for all patients with uncomplicated malaria. Interventions should also be tailored to the local setting, as there were differences between the two countries in providers' choice of antimalarial

  6. Integrating scientific and local knowledge to inform risk-based management approaches for climate adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan P. Kettle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based management approaches to climate adaptation depend on the assessment of potential threats, and their causes, vulnerabilities, and impacts. The refinement of these approaches relies heavily on detailed local knowledge of places and priorities, such as infrastructure, governance structures, and socio-economic conditions, as well as scientific understanding of climate projections and trends. Developing processes that integrate local and scientific knowledge will enhance the value of risk-based management approaches, facilitate group learning and planning processes, and support the capacity of communities to prepare for change. This study uses the Vulnerability, Consequences, and Adaptation Planning Scenarios (VCAPS process, a form of analytic-deliberative dialogue, and the conceptual frameworks of hazard management and climate vulnerability, to integrate scientific and local knowledge. We worked with local government staff in an urbanized barrier island community (Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina to consider climate risks, impacts, and adaptation challenges associated with sea level rise and wastewater and stormwater management. The findings discuss how the process increases understanding of town officials’ views of risks and climate change impacts to barrier islands, the management actions being considered to address of the multiple impacts of concern, and the local tradeoffs and challenges in adaptation planning. We also comment on group learning and specific adaptation tasks, strategies, and needs identified.

  7. Knowledge and perception about health risks of cigarette smoking among Iraqi smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Thanoon Dawood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.

  8. Occupational biological risk knowledge and perception: results from a large survey in Rome, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria De Giusti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional survey on knowledge and perception of occupational biological risk among workers in several occupations was carried out in the industrial area of Rome. METHODS: The study was carried out in the period of March-April 2010 using a questionnaire with 33 items on the following areas: a socio-demographic data; b perception of the biological risks in ordinary occupational activity; c knowledge about biological risks; d biological risks in the working environment. The questionnaire was submitted to a convenience sample of workers of an industrial area in Southern Rome. RESULTS: 729 participants entered the study from the following work activities: food, catering, service, farming and breeding, healthcare, school and research (males 57.2%; mean age 37.4 years, SD = 10.9. Significant associations were found between different activity areas with respect to the relevance of the biological risk (p = 0.044 and the perception of the biological risk (p < 0.001. With respect to vehicles of infectious agents, the highest percentages of the most common biological risk exposures were: air and physical contact for the catering and food group, 66.7% and 61.90% respectively; air and blood for the health and research group, with 73.50% and 57.00% respectively; and physical contact and blood for the service group, 63.10 % and 48.30%. Significant difference of proportions were found about the prevalent effect caused by the biological agents was the occurrence of infectious diseases (59.90% food group, 91.60% health and research and 79.30% service group (p < 0.001. The perception of knowledge resulted in a good rank (sufficient, many or complete in the food and catering group, 78.3% with significant difference compared to other professions (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: All participants show good knowledge the effects induced by biological agents and it is significant that almost half of the respondents are aware of the risks concerning allergies

  9. What works in managing MAM? A review of the evidence from recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and remaining knowledge gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Patrick; Rosenberg, Irwin; Rogers, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Options for effective management of MAM have improved in the past decade as new products have been rolled out and coverage has increased through community-based treatment. As a result, the Lancet series on nutrition of 2013 included attention to the management of MAM, whereas it had not in 2008. The Lancet authors concluded that MAM interventions should be included in modelling exercises aimed at estimating the potential impact of packages of interventions to prevent child mortality. However, they also noted that while some evidence of effectiveness exists, sound empirical data on outcomes achieved in emergency and non-emergency settings alike need to be much better documented and appropriately costed. Since the Lancet series of 2013 was published, at least three separate reviews of the evidence have emerged, involving slightly differing approaches (systematic review, meta-analysis and/or Delphic assessment). This paper for IAEA CN-217 offers an overview of the findings of the Lancet 2013 paper and the content of the three subsequent evidence reviews. It presents a critique of differences in their approaches and findings, and highlights areas where significant gaps in knowledge remain. Lessons for future systematic reviews will be underlined, and priority areas for new research that has operational relevance will be specified. (author)

  10. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students' awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Khan, Zainab; Whitten, Amanda N; Remes, Olivia; Phillips, Karen P

    2013-08-20

    Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students' awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women's awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female in