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Sample records for risk ii experiments

  1. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  2. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bell, Greg [ESnet; Carlson, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cowley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dart, Eli [ESnet; Erwin, Brock [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Godang, Romulus [Univ. of South Alabama, Mobile, AL (United States); Hara, Takanori [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Johnson, Jerry [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Ron [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Johnston, Bill [ESnet; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaneko, Toshiaki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Yoshihiro [NII; Kuhr, Thomas [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany); McCoy, John [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miyake, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Monga, Inder [ESnet; Nakamura, Motonori [NII; Piilonen, Leo [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Pordes, Ruth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ray, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Russell, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schram, Malachi [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schroeder, Jim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sevior, Martin [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia); Singh, Surya [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suzuki, Soh [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Sasaki, Takashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Williams, Jim [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  3. Experiment CATETO II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, J.A.; Freudenreich, W.E.

    1994-03-01

    In the irradiation experiment CATETO II different reduced activation (RA) steels will be irradiated up to 2.5 dpa at a temperature of 300 C. The results of the calculation of the nuclear constants, the reactivity effect, and the activity of the steel samples are presented. (orig.)

  4. EBR-II: twenty years of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, G.L.; Buschman, H.W.; Smith, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) is an unmoderated, sodium-cooled reactor with a design power of 62.5 MWt. For the last 20 years EBR-II has operated safely, has demonstrated stable operating characteristics, has shown excellent performance of its sodium components, and has had an excellent plant factor. These years of operating experience provide a valuable resource to the nuclear community for the development and design of future liquid metal fast reactors. This report provides a brief description of the EBR-II plant and its early operating experience, describes some recent problems of interest to the nuclear community, and also mentions some of the significant operating achievements of EBR-II. Finally, a few words and speculations on EBR-II's future are offered. 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. SIMMER-II analysis of transition-phase experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, T.R.; Bell, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    Analyses of Los Alamos transition-phase experiments with the SIMMER-II computer code are reported. These transient boilup experiments simulated the recriticality-induced transient motion of a boiling pool of molten fuel, molten steel and steel vapor, within a subassembly duct in a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor during the transition phase of a core-disruptive accident. The two purposes of these experiments were to explore and reach a better understanding of fast reactor safety issues, and to provide data for SIMMER-II verification. Experimental data, consisting of four pressure traces and a high-speed movie, were recorded for four sets of initial conditions. For three of the four cases, SIMMER-II-calculated pressures compared reasonably well with the experimental pressures. After a modification to SIMMER-II's liquid-vapor drag correlation, the comparison for the fourth case was reasonable also. 12 refs., 4 figs

  6. A transient overpower experiment in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, J.P.; Tsai, H.; Dean, E.M.; Aoyama, T.; Yamamoto, K.

    1994-01-01

    The TOPI-IE test was a transient overpower test on irradiate mixed-oxide fuel pins in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The test, the fifth in a series, was part of a cooperative program between the US Department of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan to conduct operational transient testing on mixed-oxide fuel pins in the metal-fueled EBR-II. The principle objective of the TOPI-1E test was to assess breaching margins for irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins over the Plant Protection System (PPS) thresholds during a slow, extended overpower transient. This paper describes the effect of the TOPI-1E experiment on reactor components and the impact of the experiment on the long-term operability of the reactor. The paper discusses the role that SASSYS played in the pre-test safety analysis of the experiment. The ability of SASSYS to model transient overpower events is detailed by comparisons of data from the experiment with computed reactor variables from a SASSYS post-test simulation of the experiment

  7. ERB-II operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.N.; Cissel, D.W.; Smith, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    As originally designed and operated, EBR-II successfully demonstrated the concept of a sodium-cooled fast breeder power plant with a closed fuel reprocessing cycle (mini-nuclear park). Subsequent operation has been as an irradiation facility, a role which will continue into the foreseeable future. Since the beginning of operation in 1961, operating experience of EBR-II has been very satisfactory. Most of the components and systems have performed well. In particular, the mechanical performance of heat-removal systems has been excellent. A review of the operating experience reveals that all the original design objectives have been successfully demonstrated. To date, no failures or incidents resulting in serious in-core or out-of-core consequences have occurred. No water-to-sodium leaks have been detected over the life of the plant. At the present time, the facility is operating very well and continuously except for short shutdowns required by maintenance, refueling, modification, and minor repair. A plant factor of 76.9% was achieved for the calendar year 1976

  8. Analyses of out-of-pile freezing experiments by SIMMER-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tetsuo; Ninokata, Hisashi

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the interpretation of the TRAN Simulation experiments performed by SIMBATH facility of KfK. Two typical TRAN Simulation experiments were analyzed by using the SIMMER-II code. The original TRAN experiments were performed at SNL in order to examine the freezing behavior of molten UO 2 injected into an annular channel. In the TRAN Simulation experiments of SIMBATH series, similar freezing phenomena were investigated for molten thermite, i.e., a mixture of Al 2 O 3 and iron, instead of UO 2 . The analyses of the simulation experiments by SIMMER-II code aimed at clarifying the applicability of the code and interpreting the freezing process during the experiments. Distribution of molten materials that had deposited in the test section was compared between experimental measurements and calculation by SIMMER-II. Through this study, it has been confirmed that SIMMER-II can well reproduce the TRAN Simulation experiments with allowable difference. The calculations by SIMMER-II also suggested that further model improvements, e.g., freezing on a convex surface, would be effective for a better interpretation of the freezing phenomena. (author)

  9. DYNAMIC HYBRIDS UNDER SOLVENCY II: RISK ANALYSIS AND MODIFICATION POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the new and standardized European system of supervisory called Solvency II. In essence, asymmetric distribution of information between policyholder and insurer triggered this new regulation which aims at better protecting policyholders. Its three-pillar model is about to challenge both, insurers as well as policyholders. The first pillar includes quantitative aspects, the second pillar contains qualitative aspects and the third pillar comprises market transparency and reporting obligations. Underwriting risks, the default risk of a bank and market risks can be identified for the dynamic hybrid. Solvency II covers all these risks in the first pillar and insurers shall deposit sufficient risk-bearing capital. In our analysis, we first identify the dynamic hybrid specific risks under the Solvency II regime und then develop product modifications to reduce this risk.

  10. LMFBR operational safety: the EBR-II experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Allen, N.L.; Dean, E.M.; Fryer, R.M.; Larson, H.A.; Lehto, W.K.

    1978-01-01

    The mission of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has evolved from that of a small LMFBR demonstration plant to a major irradiation-test facility. Because of that evolution, many operational-safety issues have been encountered. The paper describes the EBR-II operational-safety experience in four areas: protection-system design, safety-document preparation, tests of off-normal reactor conditions, and tests of elements with breached cladding

  11. Plasma opening switch experiments on the Particle Beam Accelerator II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.A.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Moore, W.B.S.; Mowrer, G.R.; Simpson, W.W.; Zagar, D.M.; Grasser, T.; McDougal, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma opening switch (POS) experiments have been done since 1986 on the PBFA-II ion beam accelerator to develop a rugged POS that will open rapidly ( 80%) into a high impedance (> 10 ohm) load. In a recent series of experiments on PBFA II, the authors have developed and tested three different switch designs that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. All three configurations couple current efficiently to a 5-ohm electron beam diode. In this experimental series, the PBFA-II Delta Series, more extensive diagnostics were used than in previous switch experiments on PBFA II or on the Blackjack 5 accelerator at Maxwell Laboratories. Data from the experiments with these three switch designs is presented

  12. Recent operating experiences and programs at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentz, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor No. II (EBR-II) is a pool-type, unmoderated, sodium-cooled reactor with a design power of 62.5 MWt and an electrical generation capability of 20 MW. It has been operated by Argonne National Laboratory for the US government for almost 20 years. During that time, it has operated safely and has demonstrated stable operating characteristics, high availability, and excellent performance of its sodium components. The 20 years of operating experience of EBR-II is a valuable resource to the nuclear community for the development and design of future LMFBR's. Since past operating experience has been extensively reported, this report will focus on recent programs and events

  13. At-Risk Variant in TCF7L2 for Type II Diabetes Increases Risk of Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Ingason, Andrés; Djurovic, Srdjan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is associated with increased risk of type II diabetes and metabolic disorders. However, it is unclear whether this comorbidity reflects shared genetic risk factors, at-risk lifestyle, or side effects of antipsychotic medication. METHODS: Eleven known risk variants of type...... (SGENE+) using Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: One type II diabetes at-risk allele located in TCF7L2, rs7903146 [T], was associated with schizophrenia in the discovery sample (p = .0052) and in the replication with an odds ratio of 1.07 (95% confidence interval 1.01-1.14, p = .033). CONCLUSION...... II diabetes were genotyped in patients with schizophrenia in a sample of 410 Danish patients, each matched with two healthy control subjects on sex, birth year, and month. Replication was carried out in a large multinational European sample of 4089 patients with schizophrenia and 17,597 controls...

  14. Solvency II approach to the risk management in commercial insurance companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vávrová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2001, the European Comission started to revise the legislation Solvency I and to implement a new approach called Solvency II. The regulation called Solvency II is based on regulation considering management of risks of commercial insurance companies. Changes on financial markets and the contemporary financial crisis made financial authorities to formulate principles of regulation based on risk management. Commercial insurance companies across Europe will face a considerable amount of work to be ready for requirements related with Solvency II implementation in the year 2012. Rating agencies, regulators and investors today are demanding that insurers provide detailed assessments of their risk tolerance and quantify the adequacy of their economic capital. To complete such assessments requires a credible baseline for underwriting volatility. Modern portfolio theory for assets teaches that increasing the number of stocks in a portfolio will diversify and reduce the portfolio risk, but will not eliminate risk completely, the systemic market risk remains. In the same way, insurers can reduce underwriting volatility by increasing account volume, but they cannot reduce their volatility to zero. A certain level of systemic insurance risk will always remain, due to factors such as for example the underwriting cycle, macroeconomic factors, legal changes and weather.This presented scientific paper focuses on an analysis of specific goals of the regulation Solvency II and the structure of second pillar of the three-pillar construction (similarity with Basel II banking regulation of Solvency II. The paper was written as part of research project MSM 6215648904, carried out by the Faculty of Business and Economics, under the title “The Czech Republic in the pro­ces­ses of integration and globalization, and the development of the agriculture and service sector in the new conditions of the integrated European market”, following the goals and

  15. Upgrade for Phase II of the Gerda experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hiller, R.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kermaïdic, Y.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Ransom, C.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-05-01

    The Gerda collaboration is performing a sensitive search for neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Italy. The upgrade of the Gerda experiment from Phase I to Phase II has been concluded in December 2015. The first Phase II data release shows that the goal to suppress the background by one order of magnitude compared to Phase I has been achieved. Gerda is thus the first experiment that will remain "background-free" up to its design exposure (100 kg year). It will reach thereby a half-life sensitivity of more than 10^{26} year within 3 years of data collection. This paper describes in detail the modifications and improvements of the experimental setup for Phase II and discusses the performance of individual detector components.

  16. Status of the Gerda phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, Andrea [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Gerda experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) in {sup 76}Ge. The first phase of the experiment collected 21.6 kg. yr of exposure with a background index (BI) of 0.01 cts/(keV . kg . yr). No signal was observed and a lower limit for the 0νββ half-life was set to T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} < 2.1 . 10{sup 25} yr (90% C.L). The apparatus has now been upgraded to the Phase II configuration. In Phase II 38 kg of HPGe detectors will be operated to reach an exposure of 100 kg . yr. The goal of Gerda Phase II is to lower the BI to 10{sup -3} cts/(keV . kg . y), in order to reach the sensitivity for T{sup 0νββ}{sub 1/2} = O(10{sup 26}) yr. The additional target mass is constituted of 30 custom made BEGe detectors with higher energy resolution and better pulse shape discrimination performance. The detectors are operated in new radio-pure low-mass holders. The liquid argon surrounding the detectors has been instrumented to veto the background events which produce scintillation light. In this talk the current status and the performance of the Gerda Phase II are presented.

  17. Training experience at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.; McCormick, R.P.; McCreery, H.I.

    1978-01-01

    The EBR-II Training Group develops, maintains,and oversees training programs and activities associated with the EBR-II Project. The group originally spent all its time on EBR-II plant-operations training, but has gradually spread its work into other areas. These other areas of training now include mechanical maintenance, fuel manufacturing facility, instrumentation and control, fissile fuel handling, and emergency activities. This report describes each of the programs and gives a statistical breakdown of the time spent by the Training Group for each program. The major training programs for the EBR-II Project are presented by multimedia methods at a pace controlled by the student. The Training Group has much experience in the use of audio-visual techniques and equipment, including video-tapes, 35 mm slides, Super 8 and 16 mm film, models, and filmstrips. The effectiveness of these techniques is evaluated in this report

  18. Global track finder for Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trusov, Viktor; Feindt, Michael; Heck, Martin; Kuhr, Thomas; Goldenzweig, Pablo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IEKP (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    We present an implementation of a method based on the Legendre transformation for reconstruction charged particle tracks in the central drift chamber of the Belle II experiment. The method is designed for fast track finding and restoring circular patterns of track hits in transverse plane. It is done by searching for common tangents to drift circles of hits in the conformal space. With known transverse trajectories longitudinal momentum estimation performed by assigning stereo hits followed by determination of the track parameters. The method includes algorithms responsible for track quality estimation and reduction of rate of fakes. The work is targeting at increasing the efficiency and reducing the execution time because the computing power available to the experiment is limited. The algorithm is developed within the Belle II software environment with using Monte-Carlo simulation for probing its efficiency.

  19. Perturbative Heat Transport Experiments on TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguilor, S.; Castejon, F.; Luna, E. de la; Cappa, A.; Likin, K.; Fernandez, A.; Tj-II, T.

    2002-01-01

    Heat wave experiments are performed on TJ-II stellarator plasmas to estimate both heat diffusivity and power deposition profiles. High frequency ECRH modulation experiments are used to obtain the power deposition profiles, which is observed to be wider and duller than estimated by tracing techniques. The causes of this difference are discussed in the paper. Fourier analysis techniques are used to estimate the heat diffusivity in low frequency ECRH modulation experiments. This include the power deposition profile as a new ingredient. ECHR switch on/off experiments are exploited to obtain power deposition and heat diffusivities profile. Those quantities are compared with the obtained by modulation experiments and transport analysis, showing a good agreement. (Author) 18 refs

  20. Perturbative Heat Transport Experiments on TJ-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguilor, S.; Castejon, F.; Luna, E. de la; Cappa, A.; Likin, K.; Fernandez, A.; Tj-II, T.

    2002-07-01

    Heat wave experiments are performed on TJ-II stellarator plasmas to estimate both heat diffusivity and power deposition profiles. High frequency ECRH modulation experiments are used to obtain the power deposition profiles, which is observed to be wider and duller than estimated by tracing techniques. The causes of this difference are discussed in the paper. Fourier analysis techniques are used to estimate the heat diffusivity in low frequency ECRH modulation experiments. This include the power deposition profile as a new ingredient. ECHR switch on/off experiments are exploited to obtain power deposition and heat diffusivities profile. Those quantities are compared with the obtained by modulation experiments and transport analysis, showing a good agreement. (Author) 18 refs.

  1. Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability, version II (TRIPS-II): a simple and practical neonatal illness severity score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shoo K; Aziz, Khalid; Dunn, Michael; Clarke, Maxine; Kovacs, Lajos; Ojah, Cecil; Ye, Xiang Y

    2013-05-01

    Derive and validate a practical assessment of infant illness severity at admission to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Prospective study involving 17,075 infants admitted to 15 NICUs in 2006 to 2008. Logistic regression was used to derive a prediction model for mortality comprising four empirically weighted items (temperature, blood pressure, respiratory status, response to noxious stimuli). This Transport Risk Index of Physiologic Stability, version II (TRIPS-II) was then validated for prediction of 7-day and total NICU mortality. TRIPS-II discriminated 7-day (receiver operating curve [ROC] area, 0.90) and total NICU mortality (ROC area, 0.87) from survival. Furthermore, there was a direct association between changes in TRIPS-II at 12 and 24 hours and mortality. There was good calibration across the full range of TRIPS-II scores and the gestational age at birth, and addition of TRIPS-II improved performance of prediction models that use gestational age and baseline population risk variables. TRIPS-II is a validated benchmarking tool for assessing infant illness severity at admission and for up to 24 hours after. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. RADLAC II high current electron beam propagation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Shope, S.L.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Wagner, J.S.; Turman, B.N.; Crist, C.E.; Welch, D.R.; Struve, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The resistive hose instability of an electron beam was observed to be convective in recent RADLAC II experiments for higher current shots. The effects of air scattering for these shots were minimal. These experiments and theory suggest low-frequency hose motion which does not appear convective may be due to rapid expansion and subsequent drifting of the beam nose

  3. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Results and insights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1. 6 10 -6 yr -1 , even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The probability of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquake) is 3.6 10 -6 yr -1 . overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double, vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability

  4. SPQR II: A beam-plasma interaction experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Della-Negra, S.; Gardes, D.

    1986-01-01

    SPQR II is an interaction experiment designed to probe energy -and charge-exchange of C/sup n/ + ions at 2 MeV/a.m.u., flowing through a fully ionized plasma column of hydrogen with nl-script = 10 19 e-cm -2 at T = 5 eV

  5. First results of the Auroral Turbulance II rocket experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielides, M.A.; Ranta, A.; Ivchenco, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Auroral Turbulance II sounding rocket was launched on February 11, 1997 into moderately active nightside aurora from the Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, US. The experiment consisted of three independent, completely instrumented payloads launched by a single vehicle. The aim of the experiment...

  6. Operational Experience from LCLS-II Cryomodule Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renzhuo [Fermilab; Hansen, Benjamin [Fermilab; White, Michael [Fermilab; Hurd, Joseph [Fermilab; Atassi, Omar Al [Fermilab; Bossert, Richard [Fermilab; Pei, Liujin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab; Makara, Jerry [Fermilab; Theilacker, Jay [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  7. Operational experience from LCLS-II cryomodule testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Hansen, B.; White, M.; Hurd, J.; Atassi, O. Al; Bossert, R.; Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Makara, J.; Theilacker, J.; Kaluzny, J.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  8. SNEAK-4, a series of physics experiments for KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelmann, P.

    1969-10-01

    At the end of 1968 a three months program of neutron physics experiments was performed at SNEAK for the investigation of some nuclear properties of the KNK II reactor. The experiments were conducted by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center in close cooperation with INTERATOM. The results of the measurements on SNEAK assemblies 4A and 4B are reported and compared with calculations. The experimental results of critical mass and reactivities, control rod worths, Doppler coefficient and power distribution were used to draw conclusions for the KNK II design

  9. LHC Experiments Phase II - TDRs Approval Process

    CERN Document Server

    Forti, F

    2017-01-01

    The overall review process and steps of Phase II were described in CERN-LHCC-2015-077. As experiments submit detailed technical design reports (TDRs), the LHCC and UCG work in close connection to ensure a timely review of the scientific and technical feasibility as well as of the budget and schedule of the upgrade programme.

  10. Prompt Burst Energetics (PBE) experiment analyses using the SIMMER-II computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, J.L.; Hitchcock, J.T.; Young, M.F.

    1979-01-01

    Two of the Prompt Burst Energetics (PBE) in-pile experiments conducted at Sandia Laboratories PBE-5S and PBE-SG2, have been investigated with SIMMER-II. These two tests utilize fresh uranium oxide and fresh uranium carbide pins, respectively, in stagnant sodium. The purpose of the analysis is to investigate the applicability of SIMMER-II to this type of experiment. Qualitative agreement with measured data is seen for PBE-5S. PBE-SG2 results agree somewhat less well but demonstrate SIMMER-II's potential for describing fuel-coolant-interactions with further model development

  11. SPQR II: A beam-plasma interaction experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbot, R.; Della-Negra, S.; Gardès, D.; Rivet, M. F.; Fleurier, C.; Dumax, B.; Hoffman, D. H. H.; Weyrich, K.; Deutsch, C.; Maynard, G.

    1986-01-01

    SPQR II is an interaction experiment designed to probe energy -and charge-exchange of Cn+ ions at 2 MeV/a.m.u., flowing through a fully ionized plasma column of hydrogen with nℓ=1019 e-cm-2 at T=5 eV. One expects a factor of two enhanced stopping over the cold gas case.

  12. Experiment to study K+ → π+ + ''nothing'' at LAMPF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, D.R.

    1985-05-01

    An experiment to measure K + → π + + ''nothing'' (where ''nothing'' denotes unobservable neutral particles) at LAMPF II is described. This experiment is capable of measuring one K + → π + nu anti nu event for branching ratio of 10 -12 . 12 refs

  13. OWR/RTNS-II low exposure spectral effects experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1985-05-01

    The first RTNS-II irradiation of the Low Exposure Spectral Experiment has been completed. The dosimetry has been analyzed, and expressions have been determined that fit the data very well. The effects of including the angular variation of the neutron spectrum were investigated

  14. Regulatory activity based risk model identifies survival of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Dong, Chuanpeng; Wang, Xing; Hou, Guojun; Zheng, Yu; Xu, Huilin; Zhan, Xiaohui; Liu, Lei

    2017-11-17

    Clinical and pathological indicators are inadequate for prognosis of stage II and III colorectal carcinoma (CRC). In this study, we utilized the activity of regulatory factors, univariate Cox regression and random forest for variable selection and developed a multivariate Cox model to predict the overall survival of Stage II/III colorectal carcinoma in GSE39582 datasets (469 samples). Patients in low-risk group showed a significant longer overall survival and recurrence-free survival time than those in high-risk group. This finding was further validated in five other independent datasets (GSE14333, GSE17536, GSE17537, GSE33113, and GSE37892). Besides, associations between clinicopathological information and risk score were analyzed. A nomogram including risk score was plotted to facilitate the utilization of risk score. The risk score model is also demonstrated to be effective on predicting both overall and recurrence-free survival of chemotherapy received patients. After performing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) between high and low risk groups, we found that several cell-cell interaction KEGG pathways were identified. Funnel plot results showed that there was no publication bias in these datasets. In summary, by utilizing the regulatory activity in stage II and III colorectal carcinoma, the risk score successfully predicts the survival of 1021 stage II/III CRC patients in six independent datasets.

  15. [Diagnostic accuracy of malignancy risk index II in post-menopausal women with adnexal tumours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño-Báez, Joaquín Darío; Cantú-Cruz, Javier Alejandro; Medina-Mercado, Javier; Abundis, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the diagnostic evaluation of adnexal tumours is to exclude the possibility of malignancy. The malignancy risk index II identifies patients at high risk for ovarian cancer. The cut-off value is greater than 200. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of malignancy risk index II in post-menopausal women with adnexal tumours in relation to the histopathological results. A total of 138 women with an adnexal mass were studied. The malignancy risk index II was determined in all of them. They were divided into two groups according to the histopathology results; 69 patients with benign tumours and 69 patients with malignant tumours. A diagnostic test type analysis was performed with respect to the results of malignancy risk index II ≤ 200 or greater than this. The percentages and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The accuracy was 81.8% (75.5-88.3), sensitivity 76.8% (66.9-86.7), specificity 87% (79.1-94.9), with a positive predictive value of 85.5% (76.7-94.3), and a negative predictive value of 78.9% (69.7-88.1). The positive likelihood ratio was 590, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.266. The malignancy risk index II has good performance in the proper classification of post-menopausal women with adnexal masses, both benign and malignant, with an accuracy of 81.8%. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Entdeckung elektroschwacher Produktion einzelner Top-Quarks mit dem CDF II Experiment; Discovery electroweak production of single top quarks with the CDF II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luck, Jan [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (KIT) (Germany)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a neural network search for combined as well as separate s- and t-channel single top-quark production with the CDF II experiment at the Tevatron using 3.2 fb-1 of collision data. It is the twelfth thesis dealing with single top-quark production performed within the CDF Collaboration, whereas three have been done in Run I [53–55] and eight in Run II [23, 25, 28, 39, 56–59].

  17. The Impact of EuroSCORE II Risk Factors on Prediction of Long-Term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barili, Fabio; Pacini, Davide; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; Dang, Nicholas C; Alamanni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Grossi, Claudio; Davoli, Marina; Fusco, Danilo; Parolari, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operation Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II has not been tested yet for predicting long-term mortality. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between EuroSCORE II and long-term mortality and to develop a new algorithm based on EuroSCORE II factors to predict long-term survival after cardiac surgery. Complete data on 10,033 patients who underwent major cardiac surgery during a 7-year period were retrieved from three prospective institutional databases and linked with the Italian Tax Register Information System. Mortality at follow-up was analyzed with time-to-event analysis. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival at 1 and 5 were, respectively, 95.0% ± 0.2% and 84.7% ± 0.4%. Both discrimination and calibration of EuroSCORE II decreased in the prediction of 1-year and 5-year mortality. Nonetheless, EuroSCORE II was confirmed to be an independent predictor of long-term mortality with a nonlinear trend. Several EuroSCORE II variables were independent risk factors for long-term mortality in a regression model, most of all very low ejection fraction (less than 20%), salvage operation, and dialysis. In the final model, isolated mitral valve surgery and isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery were associated with improved long-term survival. The EuroSCORE II cannot be considered a direct estimator of long-term risk of death, as its performance fades for mortality at follow-up longer than 30 days. Nonetheless, it is nonlinearly associated with long-term mortality, and most of its variables are risk factors for long-term mortality. Hence, they can be used in a different algorithm to stratify the risk of long-term mortality after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Class II HLA interactions modulate genetic risk for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilthey, Alexander T; Xifara, Dionysia K; Ban, Maria; Shah, Tejas S; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Alfredsson, Lars; Anderson, Carl A; Attfield, Katherine E; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barrett, Jeffrey; Binder, Thomas M C; Booth, David; Buck, Dorothea; Celius, Elisabeth G; Cotsapas, Chris; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Dendrou, Calliope A; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Fugger, Lars; Goris, An; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hillert, Jan; Kockum, Ingrid; Leslie, Stephen; Lill, Christina M; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Olsson, Tomas; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Spurkland, Anne; Taylor, Bruce; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zipp, Frauke; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Spencer, Chris C A; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Harbo, Hanne F; Hauser, Stephen L; De Jager, Philip L; Compston, Alastair; McCauley, Jacob L; Sawcer, Stephen; McVean, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Association studies have greatly refined the understanding of how variation within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes influences risk of multiple sclerosis. However, the extent to which major effects are modulated by interactions is poorly characterized. We analyzed high-density SNP data on 17,465 cases and 30,385 controls from 11 cohorts of European ancestry, in combination with imputation of classical HLA alleles, to build a high-resolution map of HLA genetic risk and assess the evidence for interactions involving classical HLA alleles. Among new and previously identified class II risk alleles (HLA-DRB1*15:01, HLA-DRB1*13:03, HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*08:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:02) and class I protective alleles (HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*44:02, HLA-B*38:01 and HLA-B*55:01), we find evidence for two interactions involving pairs of class II alleles: HLA-DQA1*01:01–HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:01–HLA-DQB1*03:02. We find no evidence for interactions between classical HLA alleles and non-HLA risk-associated variants and estimate a minimal effect of polygenic epistasis in modulating major risk alleles. PMID:26343388

  19. FALSIRE Phase II. CSNI project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (Phase II). Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, J.; Schulz, H.; Bass, R.; Pugh, C.; Keeney, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for Fracture Analysis of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE) is presented. A FALSIRE II Workshop focused on analyses of reference fracture experiments. More than 30 participants representing 22 organizations from 12 countries took part in the workshop. Final results for 45 analyses of the reference experiments were received from the participating analysts. For each experiment, analysis results provided estimates of variables that include temperature, crack-mouth-opening displacement, stress, strain, and applied K and J values. The data were sent electronically to the Organizing Committee, who assembled the results into a comparative data base using a special-purpose computer program. A comparative assessment and discussion of the analysis results are presented in the report. Generally, structural responses of the test specimens were predicted with tolerable scatter bands. (orig./DG)

  20. Overview of TJ-II experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of experimental results and progress made in investigating the role of magnetic configuration on stability and transport in the TJ-II stellarator. Global confinement studies have revealed a positive dependence of energy confinement on the rotational transform and plasma density, together with different parametric dependences for metallic and boronised wall conditions. Spontaneous and biasing-induced improved confinement transitions, with some characteristics that resemble those of previously reported H-mode regimes in other stellarator devices, have been observed. Also, magnetic configuration scan experiments have shown an interplay between magnetic structure (rationals, magnetic shear), transport and electric fields. Although the DC radial electric fields are comparable with those expected from neoclassical calculations, additional mechanisms based on neoclassical/turbulent bifurcations and kinetic effects are needed to explain the impact of magnetic topology on flows and radial electric fields. Local transport studies have demonstrated a dependence of plasma diffusivities and convective velocities on plasma density and heating power in consistency with global confinement properties. Hydrocarbon fuelling experiments in configurations with a low order rational value in the rotational transform located in the proximity of the last close flux surface (n = 4/m = 2) have shown the impurity screening properties related to the expected divertor effect. First experiments in NBI plasmas are reported. (author)

  1. Loss distribution approach for operational risk capital modelling under Basel II: Combining different data sources for risk estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of operational risk in the banking industry has undergone significant changes over the last decade due to substantial changes in operational risk environment. Globalization, deregulation, the use of complex financial products and changes in information technology have resulted in exposure to new risks very different from market and credit risks. In response, Basel Committee for banking Supervision has developed a regulatory framework, referred to as Basel II, that introduced operational risk category and corresponding capital requirements. Over the past five years, major banks in most parts of the world have received accreditation under the Basel II Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA by adopting the loss distribution approach (LDA despite there being a number of unresolved methodological challenges in its implementation. Different approaches and methods are still under hot debate. In this paper, we review methods proposed in the literature for combining different data sources (internal data, external data and scenario analysis which is one of the regulatory requirement for AMA.

  2. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  3. Operating experience of the EBR-II steam generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschman, H.W.; Penney, W.H.; Quilici, M.D.; Radtke, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) with integrated power producing capability. Superheated steam is produced by eight natural circulation evaporators, two superheaters, and a conventional steam drum. Steam throttle conditions are 438 C (820 F) and 8.62 MPa (1250 psi). The designs of the evaporators and superheaters are essentially identical; both are counterflow units with low pressure nonradioactive sodium on the shell side. Safety and reliability are maximized by using duplex tubes and tubesheets. The performance of the system has been excellent and essentially trouble free. The operating experience of EBR-II provides confidence that the technology can be applied to commercial LMFBR's for an abundant supply of energy for the future. 5 refs

  4. Overview of TJ-II experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Acedo, M.; Alonso, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of experimental results and progress made in investigating the link between magnetic topology, electric fields and transport in the TJ-II stellarator. The smooth change from positive to negative electric field observed in the core region as the density is raised is correlated with global and local transport data. A statistical description of transport is emerging as a new way to describe the coupling between profiles, plasma flows and turbulence. TJ-II experiments show that the location of rational surfaces inside the plasma can, in some circumstances, provide a trigger for the development of core transitions, providing a critical test for the various models that have been proposed to explain the appearance of transport barriers in relation to magnetic topology. In the plasma core, perpendicular rotation is strongly coupled to plasma density, showing a reversal consistent with neoclassical expectations. In contrast, spontaneous sheared flows in the plasma edge appear to be coupled strongly to plasma turbulence, consistent with the expectation for turbulent driven flows. The local injection of hydrocarbons through a mobile limiter and the erosion produced by plasmas with well-known edge parameters opens the possibility of performing carbon transport studies, relevant for understanding co-deposit formation in fusion devices

  5. Fracture risk in women with type II diabetes. Results from a historical cohort with fracture follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jakob Præst; Jensen, Thomas; Hyldstrup, Lars

    2018-01-01

    . Prevalent fractures (43.7 vs. 33.2%, p = 0.0010) and prevalent MOF (26.2 vs. 20.5% p = 0.038) were more common among patients with type II diabetes. The unadjusted incident fracture risk was increased with a higher relative risk of 42%. An elevated MOF hazard ratio was present (HR = 1.726, p = 0.......0006). Adjustment for prevalent osteoporosis and other possible confounders did not change this finding (HR = 1.558, p = 0.0207). CONCLUSIONS: An association between type II diabetes and an increased risk of MOF primarily driven by an increased hip fracture risk was documented. This finding was independent......PURPOSE: To examine the independent association between type II diabetes and fracture risk in a population of predominantly postmenopausal women referred to a specialist clinic for osteoporosis evaluation. METHODS: Type II diabetes associated fracture risk were evaluated among to 229 patients...

  6. Cardiovascular risk markers in type II diabetes and hypertension at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular risk markers in type II diabetes and hypertension at the Battor Catholic ... either precedes or is a consequence of the development of these diseases. ... The control group consisted of 62 age-matched healthy individuals.

  7. EBR-II experience with sodium cleaning and radioactivity decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruther, W.E.; Smith, C.R.F.

    1978-01-01

    The EBR-II is now in Its 13th year of operation. During that period more than 2400 subassemblies have been cleaned of sodium without a serious incident of any kind by a two-step process developed at Argonne. Sodium cleaning and decontamination of other reactor components has been performed only on the relatively few occasions in which a repair or replacement has been required. A summary of the EBR-II experience will be presented. A new facility will be described for the improved cleaning and maintenance of sodium-wetted primary components

  8. EBR-II experience with sodium cleaning and radioactivity decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruther, W E; Smith, C R.F. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    1978-08-01

    The EBR-II is now in Its 13th year of operation. During that period more than 2400 subassemblies have been cleaned of sodium without a serious incident of any kind by a two-step process developed at Argonne. Sodium cleaning and decontamination of other reactor components has been performed only on the relatively few occasions in which a repair or replacement has been required. A summary of the EBR-II experience will be presented. A new facility will be described for the improved cleaning and maintenance of sodium-wetted primary components.

  9. ICRF heating experiments on JIPP T-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, M.; Fujita, J.; Hirokura, S.

    1983-10-01

    Data of JIPP T-II ICRF heating experiments are presented. The experiment covers three typical cases: the low concentration hydrogen minority case, the high concentration hydrogen minority case, and the 3 He minority case. The best heating efficiency is obtained for the 3 Heminority case. It is shown through power balance analysis that the two H-minority cases are different in the wave energy deposition profile. The difference is explained by the presence of local cavity mode for the high concentration minority case. The ion temperature stops rising at the power density level of 0.65 W/cm 3 . An analytic solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is derived to interpret the deterioration of heating efficiency. (author)

  10. The Operational Risk in the Outlook of the Basel II Accord Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Tinca

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial scandals în the last two decades have determined the Basel Committee to improve the risk controls for banks în general, and for operational risk in particular. Operational risk covers all non-market or credit risk, therefore including management risk, IT and fraud risk. By the Basel II Accord, the Committee proposes three risk measurement methods, which induce increasing costs, but also greater reductions în a bank’s capital reserve, and thus în its operating costs.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair: A meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Guo

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the current evidence on risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR.A systematic literature search was carried out for studies that evaluated the association of demographic, co-morbidity, and other patient-determined factors with the onset of type II endoleaks. Pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was updated.Among the 504 studies screened, 45 studies with a total of 36,588 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI, 19%-25%]. The main factors consistently associated with type II endoleaks included age [pooled odds ratio (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.31-0.43; P<0.001], smoking (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55-0.92; P<0.001, patent inferior mesenteric artery (pooled OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.06-3.71; P = 0.012, maximum aneurysm diameter (pooled OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17-0.30; P<0.001, and number of patent lumbar arteries (pooled OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.81-3.33; P<0.001. Sex, diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulants, antiplatelet, hyperlipidemia, chronic renal insufficiency, types of graft material, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD did not show any association with the onset of type II endoleaks.Clinicians can use the identified risk factors to detect and manage patients at risk of developing type II endoleaks after EVAR. However, further studies are needed to analyze a number of potential risk factors.

  12. Interaction of CREDO [Centralized Reliability Data Organization] with the EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.; Ragland, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences review of US Department of Energy (DOE) class 1 reactors recommended that the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), develop a level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and make provisions for level 2 and level 3 PRAs based on the results of the level 1 PRA. The PRA analysis group at ANL will utilize the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to support the PRA data needs. CREDO contains many years of empirical liquid-metal reactor component data from EBR-II. CREDO is a mutual data- and cost-sharing system sponsored by DOE and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels Development Corporation of Japan. CREDO is a component based data system; data are collected on components that are liquid-metal specific, associated with a liquid-metal environment, contained in systems that interface with liquid-metal environments, or are safety related for use in reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) analyses of advanced reactors. The links between the EBR-II PRA development effort and the CREDO data collection at EBR-II extend beyond the sharing of data. The PRA provides a measure of the relative contribution to risk of the various components. This information can be used to prioritize future CREDO data collection activities at EBR-II and other sites

  13. ALT-II toroidal belt limiter biasing experiments on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerner, R.; Boedo, J.A.; Gray, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Edge electric fields have been related to H-mode-like behaviour. The experiments reported here are an attempt to control the SOL profiles by electrostatic biasing of the full toroidal-belt limiter ALT-II. The specific goals are: influencing the edge particle flows, particle removal, power deposition and the global confinement. The ALT-II pump limiter is a full toroidal belt located at 45 o below the outer midplane and consisting of eight graphite covered blades which can be independently biased. Particle scoops located behind the limiter neutralize and direct the incoming plasma into the pumping ducts. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs

  14. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: lessons learned regarding passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10 -6 yr -1 , even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10 -6 yr -1 and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10 -5 yr -1 . Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability

  15. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: lessons learned regarding passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D J; Ragland, W A; Roglans, J

    1998-11-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1}, even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1} and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1}. Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability.

  16. The EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment lessons learned regarding passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10 -6 yr -1 , even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10 -6 yr -1 and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10 -5 yr -1 . Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability

  17. 2-Phase NSGA II: An Optimized Reward and Risk Measurements Algorithm in Portfolio Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Elham Eftekharian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio optimization is a serious challenge for financial engineering and has pulled down special attention among investors. It has two objectives: to maximize the reward that is calculated by expected return and to minimize the risk. Variance has been considered as a risk measure. There are many constraints in the world that ultimately lead to a non–convex search space such as cardinality constraint. In conclusion, parametric quadratic programming could not be applied and it seems essential to apply multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA. In this paper, a new efficient multi-objective portfolio optimization algorithm called 2-phase NSGA II algorithm is developed and the results of this algorithm are compared with the NSGA II algorithm. It was found that 2-phase NSGA II significantly outperformed NSGA II algorithm.

  18. Baseball II-T, a new target plasma startup experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargin, A.; Denhoy, B.; Frank, A.; Thomas, S.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description is given of modifications and additions to the existing Baseball II experiment. These changes will make it possible to study target plasma buildup in a steady-state magnetic field. This experiment, now called Baseball II-T + will use a pellet generator to deliver ammonia pellets into the center of the magnetic mirror field where they will be heated with a 300-J, 50-ns, CO 2 laser. The plasma created by this method will have a density of approximately 10 13 cm -3 and a temperature of about 1 keV. This target plasma will be used for neutral beam injection startup studies with a 50-A, 20-keV neutral beam. Later, the beam power will be increased to study buildup. With ion injection energies of up to 50 keV, it may be possible to achieve etatau as high as 10 12 cm -3 s. The new components necessary to achieve these goals are described

  19. Has the Basel II Accord Encouraged Risk Management During the 2008-09 Financial Crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe Basel II Accord requires that banks and other Authorized Deposit-taking Institutions (ADIs) communicate their daily risk forecasts to the appropriate monetary authorities at the beginning of each trading day, using one or more risk models to measure Value-at-Risk (VaR). The risk

  20. The First Year of the BABAR Experiment at PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Barbara

    2000-12-18

    The BABAR detector, situated at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, has been recording data at energies on and around the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance since May 1999. In this paper, we briefly describe the PEP-II B Factory and the BABAR detector. The performance presently achieved by the experiment in the areas of tracking, vertexing, calorimetry and particle identification is reviewed. Analysis concepts that are used in the various papers submitted to this conference are also discussed.

  1. Review process and quality assurance in the EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans, J.; Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), a Department of Energy (DOE) Category A reactor, has recently been completed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Within the scope of the ANL QA Programs, a QA Plan specifically for the EBR-II PRA was developed. The QA Plan covered all aspects of the PRA development, with emphasis on the procedures for document and software control, and the internal and external review process. The effort spent in the quality assurance tasks for the EBR-II PRA has reciprocated by providing acceptance of the work and confidence in the quality of the results

  2. The BEAST II Experiment at Belle II. Characterization of the commissioning detector system for SuperKEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlburg, Patrick; Eyring, Andreas; Filimonov, Viacheslav; Krueger, Hans; Mari, Laura; Marinas, Carlos; Pohl, David-Leon; Wermes, Norbert; Dingfelder, Jochen [University of Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Before the upgraded vertex detector for the Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan will be installed, a dedicated detector system for machine commissioning (BEAST II) will be employed. One of its main objectives is to measure and characterize the different background types in order to ensure a safe environment before the installation of the actual silicon detector systems close to the interaction point. FANGS, a detector system at BEAST II, based on ATLAS-IBL front-end electronics and planar silicon sensors is currently being developed for this purpose. The unique feature of this detector system is the high energy resolution achieved by using an external FPGA clock to sample the time-over-threshold signal, while keeping the excellent timing properties. The complete detector system is presented in this talk.

  3. Safety and operating experience at EBR-II: lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Golden, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    EBR-II is a small LMFBR power plant that has performed safely and reliably for 16 years. Much has been learned from operating it to facilitate the design, licensing, and operation of large commercial LMFBR power plants in the US. EBR-II has been found relatively easy to keep in conformity with evolving safety requirements, largely because of inherent safety features of the plant. Such features reduce dependence on active safety systems to protect against accidents. EBR-II has experienced a number of plant-transient incidents, some planned, others inadvertent; none has resulted in any significant plant damage. The operating experience with EBR-II has led to the formulation of an Operational Reliability Test Program (ORTP), aimed at showing inherently safe performance of fuel and plant systems

  4. HTLV-I/II and blood donors: determinants associated with seropositivity in a low risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Catalan Soares

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Blood donors in Brazil have been routinely screened for HTLV-I/II since 1993. A study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection in a low risk population and to better understand determinants associated with seropositivity. METHODS: HTLV-I/II seropositive (n=135, indeterminate (n=167 and seronegative blood donors (n=116 were enrolled in an open prevalence prospective cohort study. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of positive, indeterminate and seronegative HTLV-I/II subjects was conducted to assess behavioral and environmental risk factors for seropositivity. HTLV-I/II serological status was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA and Western blot (WB. RESULTS: The three groups were not homogeneous. HTLV-I/II seropositivity was associated to past blood transfusion and years of schooling, a marker of socioeconomic status, and use of non-intravenous illegal drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The study results reinforce the importance of continuous monitoring and improvement of blood donor selection process.

  5. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Moeller, R.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Meyer, C.; Lammer, H.; Douki, T.; Cadet, J.

    2008-09-01

    The experiment MARSTOX II on FOTON M-3 mission (September 14 - 26, 2007) was a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to the Martian Environment (ROME) which already started with first ground-based experiments in Mars simulation chambers and with the space experiment MARSTOX I, flown in 2005 in the ESA facility BIOPAN (Fig. 1) on FOTON M-2. The survivability of bacterial spores of B. subtilis, a well-characterized model system for highly resistant microorganisms, was investigated under the extreme environmental conditions as they exist on the surface of Mars. By use of exterrestrial UV radiation and cut-off filters the photoprotection and potential UV-phototoxicity of different minerals of the Martian soil were investigated.In MARSTOX II two further aspects were addressed (i) the influence of different concentrations of dust in the Martian atmosphere, which change the solar irradiance on the surface significantly compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'DUST MARS' and 'DUST SPACE'), and (ii) the survivability of spores under martian atmosphere and pressure exposed to a mars-like spectral irradiance compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'MIXED MARS' and 'MIXED SPACE') (Fig. 2 and 3). After exposure to space during the FOTON M-3 mission the sample analysis was performed at CEA in Grenoble, F, and at DLR in Cologne, D, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the space simulation facilities at DLR. As biological endpoints in these investigations survival and UV-induced DNAphotoproducts were analysed.From the results of MARSTOX II the following conclusions can be drawn: (i) Spores mixed with martian soil analogue are protected only to a low degree against UV radiation. The protective effect of several defined layers of spores mixed with Martian soil analogue were quantified. (ii) The two investigated martian soil analogues, MRS07 (47

  6. Lithium beam characterization of cylindrical PBFA II hohlraum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moats, A.R.; Derzon, M.S.; Chandler, G.A.; Haill, T.A.; Johnson, D.J.; Leeper, R.J.; Ruiz, C.L.; Wenger, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is actively engaged in exploring indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (PBFA II) with pulsed-power accelerated lithium ions as the driver. Experiments utilizing cylindrical hohlraum targets were conducted in 1994. Using the incoming ion beam-induced line radiation from titanium wires surrounding these hohlraums, beam profiles during these experiments have been measured and characterized. These data, their comparison/cross-correlation with particle-based beam diagnostics, and an analysis of the beam parameters that most significantly influence target temperature are presented

  7. Seventeen years of LMFBR experience: Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, W.H.; Lentz, G.L.; Richardson, W.J.; Wolz, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    Operating experience at EBR-II over the past 17 years has shown that a sodium-cooled pool-type reactor can be safely and efficiently operated and maintained. The reactor has performed predictably and benignly during normal operation and during both unplanned and planned plant upsets. The duplex-tube evaporators and superheaters have never experienced a sodium/water leak, and the rest of the steam-generating system has operated without incident. There has been no noticeable degradation of the heat transfer efficiency of the evaporators and superheaters, except for the one superheater replaced in 1981. There has been no need to perform any chemical cleaning of steam-system components

  8. Gestational Age, Infant Birth Weight, and Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses' Health Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Mothers: Nurses’ Health Study II Navigate This Article Abstract Introduction ... Table 1. Pregnancy Complications and Diabetes Risk Factors, Nurses’ Health Study II, 1989–2005 Characteristic All Births ...

  9. Experience with lifetime limits for EBR-II core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Smith, R.N.; Golden, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-II) is operated for the US Department of Energy by Argonne National Laboratory and is located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory where most types of American reactor were originally tested. EBR-II is a complete electricity-producing power plant now in its twenty-fourth year of successful operation. During this long history the reactor has had several concurrent missions, such as demonstration of a closed Liquid-Metal Reactor (LMR) fuel cycle (1964-69); as a steady-state irradiation facility for fuels and materials (1970 onwards); for investigating effects of operational transients on fuel elements (from 1981); for research into the inherent safety aspects of metal-fueled LMR's (from 1983); and, most recently, for demonstration of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept using U-Pu-Zr fuels. This paper describes experience gained at EBR-II in defining lifetime limits for LMR core components, particularly fuel elements

  10. Burn-up TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persic, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zagar, T.

    1998-01-01

    Different reactor codes are used for calculations of reactor parameters. The accuracy of the programs is tested through comparison of the calculated values with the experimental results. Well-defined and accurately measured benchmarks are required. The experimental results of reactivity measurements, fuel element reactivity worth distribution and fuel-up measurements are presented in this paper. The experiments were performed with partly burnt reactor core. The experimental conditions were well defined, so that the results can be used as a burn-up benchmark test case for a TRIGA Mark II reactor calculations.(author)

  11. Fuel element failure detection experiments, evaluation of the experiments at KNK II/1 (Intermediate Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Bruetsch, D

    1983-01-01

    In the frame of the fuel element failure detection experiments at KNK II with its first core the measurement devices of INTERATOM were taken into operation in August 1981 and were in operation almost continuously. Since the start-up until the end of the first KNK II core operation plugs with different fuel test areas were inserted in order to test the efficiency of the different measuring devices. The experimental results determined during this test phase and the gained experiences are described in this report and valuated. All three measuring techniques (Xenon adsorption line XAS, gas-chromatograph GC and precipitator PIT) could fulfil the expectations concerning their susceptibility. For XAS and GC the nuclide specific sensitivities as determined during the preliminary tests could be confirmed. For PIT the influences of different parameters on the signal yield could be determined. The sensitivity of the device could not be measured due to a missing reference measuring point.

  12. Predictive validity of the Hendrich fall risk model II in an acute geriatric unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivziku, Dhurata; Matarese, Maria; Pedone, Claudio

    2011-04-01

    Falls are the most common adverse events reported in acute care hospitals, and older patients are the most likely to fall. The risk of falling cannot be completely eliminated, but it can be reduced through the implementation of a fall prevention program. A major evidence-based intervention to prevent falls has been the use of fall-risk assessment tools. Many tools have been increasingly developed in recent years, but most instruments have not been investigated regarding reliability, validity and clinical usefulness. This study intends to evaluate the predictive validity and inter-rater reliability of Hendrich fall risk model II (HFRM II) in order to identify older patients at risk of falling in geriatric units and recommend its use in clinical practice. A prospective descriptive design was used. The study was carried out in a geriatric acute care unit of an Italian University hospital. All over 65 years old patients consecutively admitted to a geriatric acute care unit of an Italian University hospital over 8-month period were enrolled. The patients enrolled were screened for the falls risk by nurses with the HFRM II within 24h of admission. The falls occurring during the patient's hospital stay were registered. Inter-rater reliability, area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and time for the administration were evaluated. 179 elderly patients were included. The inter-rater reliability was 0.87 (95% CI 0.71-1.00). The administration time was about 1min. The most frequently reported risk factors were depression, incontinence, vertigo. Sensitivity and specificity were respectively 86% and 43%. The optimal cut-off score for screening at risk patients was 5 with an area under the ROC curve of 0.72. The risk factors more strongly associated with falls were confusion and depression. As falls of older patients are a common problem in acute care settings it is necessary that the nurses use specific validate and reliable

  13. TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information. - Highlights: • TOP counter was developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. • The real size prototype was produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons. • The quartz radiator production and assembling with MCP-PMT was successfully carried out. • The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results.

  14. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W. [Univ. for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA`s fourth phase at the original plant. 4 refs.

  15. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, S; Lischke, W [Univ. for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz, Zittau (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA`s fourth phase at the original plant. 4 refs.

  16. Experiments with the HORUS-II test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, S.; Lischke, W.

    1997-01-01

    Within the scope of the German reactor safety research the thermohydraulic computer code ATHLET which was developed for accident analyses of western nuclear power plants is more and more used for the accident analysis of VVER-plants particularly for VVER-440,V-213. The experiments with the HORUS-facilities and the analyses with the ATHLET-code have been realized at the Technical University Zittau/Goerlitz since 1991. The aim of the investigations was to improve and verify the condensation model particularly the correlations for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficients in the ATHLET-code for pure steam and steam-noncondensing gas mixtures in horizontal tubes. About 130 condensation experiments have been performed at the HORUS-II facility. The experiments have been carried out with pure steam as well as with noncondensing gas injections into the steam mass flow. The experimental simulations are characterized as accident simulation tests for SBLOCA for VVER-conditions. The simulation conditions had been adjusted correspondingly to the parameters of a postulated SBLOCA's fourth phase at the original plant

  17. Client experiences with perinatal healthcare for high-risk and low-risk women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stenus, Cherelle M.V.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kerkhof, Erna F.G.M.; Need, Ariana

    2018-01-01

    Problem: It is unknown if client experiences with perinatal healthcare differ between low-risk and high-risk women. Background: In the Netherlands, risk selection divides pregnant women into low- and high-risk groups. Receiving news that a pregnancy or childbirth has an increased likelihood of

  18. Risk communication, public participation and the Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Simmons, P.; Wynne, B.; Irwin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Risk communication and public participation are considered in the context of the forthcoming requirements of the 'Seveso II' Directive. The discussion draws substantially on the findings of a research project which has investigated public perceptions of the risks from major accident hazards in seven communities in the UK. Implications for the Directive's requirements on emergency information provision, public access to safety reports and consultation on emergency plans are considered. Our conclusions stress the need for risk communication to be seen as a long term and ongoing process, involving active listening to public reasoning about risk and a sensitivity to the context in which communication is taking place. In meeting both needs and rights to information and encouraging and enabling public participation, we conclude that the Directive should contribute in some degree to an improved environment for dialogue and the building of trust. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Conditions Database for the Belle II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, L.; Elsethagen, T.; Schram, M.; Stephan, E.

    2017-10-01

    The Belle II experiment at KEK is preparing for first collisions in 2017. Processing the large amounts of data that will be produced will require conditions data to be readily available to systems worldwide in a fast and efficient manner that is straightforward for both the user and maintainer. The Belle II conditions database was designed with a straightforward goal: make it as easily maintainable as possible. To this end, HEP-specific software tools were avoided as much as possible and industry standard tools used instead. HTTP REST services were selected as the application interface, which provide a high-level interface to users through the use of standard libraries such as curl. The application interface itself is written in Java and runs in an embedded Payara-Micro Java EE application server. Scalability at the application interface is provided by use of Hazelcast, an open source In-Memory Data Grid (IMDG) providing distributed in-memory computing and supporting the creation and clustering of new application interface instances as demand increases. The IMDG provides fast and efficient access to conditions data via in-memory caching.

  20. Assessment of three risk evaluation systems for patients aged ≥70 in East China: performance of SinoSCORE, EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Lingtong; Ge, Wen; Pu, Yiwei; Cheng, Hong; Cang, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qifan; Xu, Anyang; Wang, Qi; Gu, Chang; Zhang, Yangyang

    2018-01-01

    To assess and compare the predictive ability of three risk evaluation systems (SinoSCORE, EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system) in patients aged ≥70, and who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in East China. Three risk evaluation systems were applied to 1,946 consecutive patients who underwent isolated CABG from January 2004 to September 2016 in two hospitals. Patients were divided into two subsets according to their age: elderly group (age ≥70) with a younger group (age evaluation system were 0.78(0.64)%, 1.43(1.14)% and 0.78(0.77)%, respectively. SinoSCORE achieved the best discrimination (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) = 0.829), followed by the STS risk evaluation system (AUC = 0.790) and EuroSCORE II (AUC = 0.769) in the entire cohort. In the elderly group, the observed mortality rate was 4.82% while it was 1.38% in the younger group. SinoSCORE (AUC = .829) also achieved the best discrimination in the elderly group, followed by the STS risk evaluation system (AUC = .730) and EuroSCORE II (AUC = 0.640) while all three risk evaluation systems all had good performances in the younger group. SinoSCORE, EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system all achieved positive calibrations in the entire cohort and subsets. The performance of the three risk evaluation systems was not ideal in the entire cohort. In the elderly group, SinoSCORE appeared to achieve better predictive efficiency than EuroSCORE II and the STS risk evaluation system.

  1. ETA-II experiments for determining advanced radiographic capabilities of induction linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.T.; Caporaso, G.J.; Clark, J.C.; Kirbie, H.C.; Chen, Y.J.; Lund, S.M.; Westenskow, G.A.; Paul, A.C.

    1997-05-01

    LLNL has proposed a multi-pulsed, multi-line of sight radiographic machine based on induction linac technology to be the core of the advanced hydrotest facility (AHF) being considered by the Department of Energy. In order to test the new technologies being developed for AHF we have recommissioned the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA II). We will conduct our initial experiments using kickers and large angle bending optics at the ETA II facility. Our current status and our proposed experimental schedule will be presented

  2. Bipolar II disorder as a risk factor for postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, Laura; Souery, Daniel; Bartova, Lucie; Kasper, Siegfried; Montgomery, Stuart; Zohar, Joseph; Mendlewicz, Julien; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-11-01

    There is evidence for a bipolar diathesis in postpartum depression (PPD) and women presenting with a first PPD frequently receive a diagnosis of bipolar type II disorder (BD-II). However formal evidence for an association between BD-II and PPD has not yet been reported. In the present study we tested a potential association between BD-II and PPD. Parous women with a diagnosis of bipolar type I disorder (BD-I) (n=93), BD-II (n=36) or major depressive disorder (MDD) (n=444) were considered in the present study. All women were retrospectively evaluated for history of PPD (DSM-IV criteria) and other clinical and socio-demographic features. Women with a history of PDD (n=139, 24%) were younger, younger at illness onset and had more family history for BD compared to women without history of PPD (n=436, 75.9%). Half of BD-II women reported PPD (50%), compared to less than one-third of BD-I and MDD women (respectively 27.5% and 21.6%) (p=0.004). Limitations include the retrospective assessment of PPD and no available data about the timing of postpartum episodes, illness onset or psychiatric care before or after childbirth, and the number of postpartum episodes. BD-II may confer a remarkable risk for PPD, which may be even higher than that of women affected by BD-I disorder. Careful monitoring of BD-II women during the pregnancy and postpartum period, as well as assessment of bipolar features in women with a PPD without a current diagnosis of BD are recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative study of poloidal field systems for the torus II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque, L.; Ghazal, S.; Leloup, C.; Pariente, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1976-11-01

    Three types of transformer for the TORUS II experiment are compared: a saturated iron core transformer with an entire magnetic circuit, an air core transformer and a saturated iron core transformer restricted to the central limb [fr

  4. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith Korsholm, Ulrik; Astrup, Poul; Lauritzen, Bent

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project "Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe". The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere...... spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion....

  5. Results on QCD Physics from the CDF-II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliarone, C.; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2006-12-01

    In this paper the authors review a selection of recent results obtained, in the area of QCD physics, from the CDF-II experiment that studies p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV provided by the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. All results shown correspond to analysis performed using the Tevatron Run II data samples. In particular they will illustrate the progress achieved and the status of the studies on the following QCD processes: jet inclusive production, using different jet clustering algorithm, W({yields} e{nu}{sub e}) + jets and Z({yields} e{sup +}e{sup -}) + jets production, {gamma} + b-jet production, dijet production in double pomeron exchange and finally exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} production. No deviations from the Standard Model have been observed so far.

  6. U-233 fuelled low critical mass solution reactor experiment PURNIMA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Chandramoleshwar, K.; Pasupathy, C.S.; Rasheed, K.K.; Subba Rao, K.

    1987-01-01

    A homogeneous U-233 uranyl nitrate solution fuelled BeO reflected, low critical mass reactor has been built at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. Christened PURNIMA II, the reactor was used for the study of the variation of critical mass as a function of fuel solution concentration to determine the minimum critical mass achievable for this geometry. Other experiments performed include the determination of temperature coefficient of reactivity, study of time behaviour of photoneutrons produced due to interaction between decaying U-233 fission product gammas and the beryllium reflector and reactor noise measurements. Besides being the only operational U-233 fuelled reactor at present, PURNIMA II also has the distinction of having attained the lowest critical mass of 397 g of fissile fuel for any operating reactor at the current time. The paper briefly describes the facility and gives an account of the experiments performed and results achieved. (author)

  7. Latest experiences and future plans on NSLS-II insertion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, T.; Hidaka, Y.; Kitegi, C.; Hidas, D.; Musardo, M.; Harder, D. A.; Rank, J.; Cappadoro, P.; Fernandes, H.; Corwin, T. [Energy Sciences Directorate, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is the latest storage ring of 3 GeV energy at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The horizontal emittance of the electron beam with the currently installed six damping wigglers is 0.9 nm.rad, which could be further reduced to 0.5 nm.rad with more insertion devices (IDs). With only one RF cavity the beam current is restricted to 200 mA. Five hundred mA operation is envisaged for next year with an addition of the second cavity. Six (plus two branches) beamlines have been commissioned in the initial phase of the project. In July 2015, three NIH funded beamlines called “Advanced Beamlines for Biological Investigations with X-rays” (ABBIX) will be added for operation. This paper describes the experiences of ID development, installation, and commissioning for the NSLS-II project as well as our future plans to improve the performance of the facility in terms of source development.

  8. BMFT-CEA-US-DOE Exchange on KNK II-Rapsodie-EBR II operating experience, German contributions for the second expert meeting at Idaho Falls, USA, October 27 and 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The meeting at Idaho Falls was the follow-up meeting of the first expert meeting on EBR II- Rapsodie- KNK II operating experience, which took place at the Karlsruhe Research Center in March 1980. The present report compiles the ten German papers presented at the Idaho Falls meeting, discussing various aspects of experience gained by the operation of KNK II

  9. Database usage and performance for the Fermilab Run II experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonham, D.; Box, D.; Gallas, E.; Guo, Y.; Jetton, R.; Kovich, S.; Kowalkowski, J.; Kumar, A.; Litvintsev, D.; Lueking, L.; Stanfield, N.; Trumbo, J.; Vittone-Wiersma, M.; White, S.P.; Wicklund, E.; Yasuda, T.; Maksimovic, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Run II experiments at Fermilab, CDF and D0, have extensive database needs covering many areas of their online and offline operations. Delivering data to users and processing farms worldwide has represented major challenges to both experiments. The range of applications employing databases includes, calibration (conditions), trigger information, run configuration, run quality, luminosity, data management, and others. Oracle is the primary database product being used for these applications at Fermilab and some of its advanced features have been employed, such as table partitioning and replication. There is also experience with open source database products such as MySQL for secondary databases used, for example, in monitoring. Tools employed for monitoring the operation and diagnosing problems are also described

  10. Risk of recurrence in patients with colon cancer stage II and III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bockelman, C.; Engelmann, Bodil E.; Kaprio, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adjuvant chemotherapy is established routine therapy for colon cancer (CC) patients with radically resected stage III and 'high-risk' stage II disease. The decision on recommending adjuvant chemotherapy, however, is based on data from older patient cohorts not reflecting improvements...

  11. Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    St?rmer, T; Wang-Gohrke, S; Arndt, V; Boeing, H; Kong, X; Kreienberg, R; Brenner, H

    2002-01-01

    MaeIII Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in exon 3 of the alcohol dehydrogenase II was assessed in serum from 467 randomly selected German women and 278 women with invasive breast cancer to evaluate the interaction between a polymorphism of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption and risk for breast cancer. In both groups, usual consumption of different alcoholic beverages was asked for using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable logistic ...

  12. Testing the Predictive Validity of the Hendrich II Fall Risk Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyesil; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2018-03-01

    Cumulative data on patient fall risk have been compiled in electronic medical records systems, and it is possible to test the validity of fall-risk assessment tools using these data between the times of admission and occurrence of a fall. The Hendrich II Fall Risk Model scores assessed during three time points of hospital stays were extracted and used for testing the predictive validity: (a) upon admission, (b) when the maximum fall-risk score from admission to falling or discharge, and (c) immediately before falling or discharge. Predictive validity was examined using seven predictive indicators. In addition, logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors that significantly affect the occurrence of a fall. Among the different time points, the maximum fall-risk score assessed between admission and falling or discharge showed the best predictive performance. Confusion or disorientation and having a poor ability to rise from a sitting position were significant risk factors for a fall.

  13. Conversion of Phase II Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Data to Common Format; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    A vast amount of aerodynamic, structural, and turbine performance data were collected during three phases of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment (UAE). To compare data from the three phases, a similar format of engineering unit data is required. The process of converting Phase II data from a previous engineering unit format to raw integer counts is discussed. The integer count files can then be input to the new post-processing software, MUNCH. The resulting Phase II engineering unit files are in a common format with current and future UAE engineering unit files. An additional objective for changing the file format was to convert the Phase II data from English units to SI units of measurement

  14. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  15. Risking existence: The experience and handling of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygstad-Landro, Marte; Giske, Tove

    2018-02-01

    To gain insight into how people suffering from depression experience and manage life. Depression is the leading cause of incapacitation and constitutes the second largest healthcare burden worldwide, causing considerable discomfort for depression sufferers and their significant others. Depression must be understood against the backdrop of a person's context as well as biological, psychological and social factors. While various studies have been conducted on the process of depression, only a few studies have examined its existential aspects. A classical grounded theory methodology employing open and selective coding was used to identify the participants' main concern and the strategies they used to handle it. Data were collected in 2015-2016 during 18 in-depth interviews with people with current or former moderate depression. The data were analysed through constant comparisons until the grounded theory emerged. The main concern of the participants was Longing for belonging, and they handled their depression through a process named Risking existence. The process comprised four phases: (i) Ungraspable processing; (ii) Giving clues; (iii) Daring dependence; and (iv) Courage to be. The process of risking existence was accompanied from beginning to end by three essentials: to hope, to endure and shame. Working in mental health care involves encountering the pain, suffering and despair that humans endure. This challenges nurses to go beyond the symptoms and to listen for their meaning to each individual person. The grounded theory of risking existence provides a model by which nurses can orient themselves when working with people who are depressed. Each phase describes different strategies that patients use that can help the nurse recognise what is going on, thus enabling him or her to understand and guide his or her patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. X447 EBR-II Experiment Benchmark for Verification of Audit Code of SFR Metal Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moo-Hoon; Shin, Andong; Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety), to prepare audit calculation of PGSFR licensing review, the project has been started to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. To evaluate the fuel integrity and safety during an irradiation, the fuel performance code must be used for audit calculation. In this study, to verify the new code system, the benchmark analysis is performed. In the benchmark, X447 EBR-II experiment data are used. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis according to mass flux change of coolant is performed. In case of LWR fuel performance modeling, various and advanced models have been proposed and validated based on sufficient in-reactor test results. However, due to the lack of experience of SFR operation, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. In this study, X447 EBR-II Experiment data are used for benchmark. The fuel composition of X447 assembly is U-10Zr and PGSFR also uses this composition in initial phase. So we select X447 EBR-II experiment for benchmark analysis. Due to the lack of experience of SFR operation and data, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. However, in order to prepare the licensing of PGSFR, regulatory audit technologies of SFR must be secured. So, in this study, to verify the new audit fuel performance analysis code, the benchmark analysis is performed using X447 EBR-II experiment data. Also, the sensitivity analysis with mass flux change of coolant is performed. In terms of verification, it is considered that the results of benchmark and sensitivity analysis are reasonable.

  17. X447 EBR-II Experiment Benchmark for Verification of Audit Code of SFR Metal Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Won; Bae, Moo-Hoon; Shin, Andong; Suh, Namduk

    2016-01-01

    In KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety), to prepare audit calculation of PGSFR licensing review, the project has been started to develop the regulatory technology for SFR system including a fuel area. To evaluate the fuel integrity and safety during an irradiation, the fuel performance code must be used for audit calculation. In this study, to verify the new code system, the benchmark analysis is performed. In the benchmark, X447 EBR-II experiment data are used. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis according to mass flux change of coolant is performed. In case of LWR fuel performance modeling, various and advanced models have been proposed and validated based on sufficient in-reactor test results. However, due to the lack of experience of SFR operation, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. In this study, X447 EBR-II Experiment data are used for benchmark. The fuel composition of X447 assembly is U-10Zr and PGSFR also uses this composition in initial phase. So we select X447 EBR-II experiment for benchmark analysis. Due to the lack of experience of SFR operation and data, the current understanding of SFR fuel behavior is limited. However, in order to prepare the licensing of PGSFR, regulatory audit technologies of SFR must be secured. So, in this study, to verify the new audit fuel performance analysis code, the benchmark analysis is performed using X447 EBR-II experiment data. Also, the sensitivity analysis with mass flux change of coolant is performed. In terms of verification, it is considered that the results of benchmark and sensitivity analysis are reasonable

  18. RADTRAN II: a computerized model for risk analysis of transportation of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.M.; Daniel, S.L.; Biringer, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    The RADTRAN computer code, which formed the basis for the 1977 US generic transportation risk assessment, has been extensively updated. The updated version of the code, denoted RADTRAN II, includes changes based on findings from other transportation risk studies as well as changes based on reevaluation of earlier assumptions, analyses, and computerization techniques. The environmental impact of the transportation of radioactive material can be envisioned as consisting of five components, incident free transport, non-radiological impacts, vehicular accidents, breaches of security/safeguards, and failures of quality assurance. RADTRAN II is designed to evaluate both the incident-free and the accident contribution directly and can be used to evaluate the contributions of breaches of security and quality assurances deviation if some alterations in coding are made. Non-radiological impacts are not addressed

  19. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schulz, H.; Sievers, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Gemany)

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA`s Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method.

  20. CSNI Project for Fracture Analyses of Large-Scale International Reference Experiments (FALSIRE II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Pugh, C.E.; Keeney, J.; Schulz, H.; Sievers, J.

    1996-11-01

    A summary of Phase II of the Project for FALSIRE is presented. FALSIRE was created by the Fracture Assessment Group (FAG) of the OECD/NEA's Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CNSI) Principal Working Group No. 3. FALSIRE I in 1988 assessed fracture methods through interpretive analyses of 6 large-scale fracture experiments in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels under pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) loading. In FALSIRE II, experiments examined cleavage fracture in RPV steels for a wide range of materials, crack geometries, and constraint and loading conditions. The cracks were relatively shallow, in the transition temperature region. Included were cracks showing either unstable extension or two stages of extensions under transient thermal and mechanical loads. Crack initiation was also investigated in connection with clad surfaces and with biaxial load. Within FALSIRE II, comparative assessments were performed for 7 reference fracture experiments based on 45 analyses received from 22 organizations representing 12 countries. Temperature distributions in thermal shock loaded samples were approximated with high accuracy and small scatter bands. Structural response was predicted reasonably well; discrepancies could usually be traced to the assumed material models and approximated material properties. Almost all participants elected to use the finite element method

  1. Phonons: Theory and experiments II. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruesch, P.

    1986-01-01

    The present second volume titled as ''Phonons: Theory and Experiments II'', contains, a thorough study of experimental techniques and the interpretation of experimental results. This three-volume set tries to bridge the gap between theory and experiment, and is addressed to those working in both camps in the vast field of dynamical properties of solids. Topics presented in the second volume include; infrared-, Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy, interaction of X-rays with phonons, and inelastic neutron scattering. In addition an account is given of some other techniques, including ultrasonic methods, inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy, point contact spectroscopy, and spectroscopy of surface phonons, thin films and adsorbates. Both experimental aspects and theoretical concepts necessary for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed. An attempt is made to present the descriptive as well as the analytical aspects of the topics. Simple models are often used to illustrate the basic concepts and more than 100 figures are included to illustrate both theoretical and experimental results. Many chapters contain a number of problems with hints and results giving additional information

  2. Enhanced, rapid occlusion of carotid and vertebral arteries using the AMPLATZER Vascular Plug II device: the Duke Cerebrovascular Center experience in 8 patients with 22 AMPLATZER Vascular Plug II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihlon, Frank; Agrawal, Abishek; Nimjee, Shahid M; Ferrell, Andrew; Zomorodi, Ali R; Smith, Tony P; Britz, Gavin W

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic embolization of the common carotid artery (CCA), internal carotid artery (ICA), and vertebral artery (VA) is necessary in the treatment of a subset of chronic arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), hemorrhages, highly vascularized neoplasms before resection, and giant aneurysms. There are currently no reports of the use of the AMPLATZER Vascular Plug II (AVP II) device to occlude the CCA, ICA, or VA. The objective of this article is to present the Duke Cerebrovascular Center experience using the AVP II device in neurointerventional applications. This case series is a retrospective review of all of the cases at Duke University Hospital in which an AVP II device was used in the CCA, ICA, or VA up to September 2012. The AVP II device was often used in conjunction with embolization coils or as multiple AVP II devices deployed in tandem. During 2010-2012, 8 cases meeting criteria were performed. These included 2 chronic VA to internal jugular AVFs, 1 hemorrhagic CCA to internal jugular AVF secondary to invasive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, 1 ICA hemorrhage secondary to invasive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, 1 ICA hemorrhage secondary to trauma, 1 ruptured ICA aneurysm, 1 giant petrous ICA aneurysm, and 1 case of cervical vertebral sarcoma requiring preoperative VA embolization. Successful occlusion of the target vessel was achieved in all 8 cases. There was 1 major complication that consisted of a watershed distribution cerebral infarct; however, this was related to emergent occlusion of the ICA in the setting of intracranial hemorrhage and was not a problem intrinsic to the AVP II device. The AVP II device is relatively large, self-expanding vascular occlusion device that safely allows enhanced, rapid take-down of the CCA, ICA, and VA with low risk of distal migration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. EBR-II: summary of operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, W.H.; Leman, J.D.; Lentz, G.L.; Longua, K.J.; Olson, W.H.; Shields, J.A.; Wolz, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is an unmoderated, sodium-cooled reactor with a design power of 62.5 MWt. The primary cooling system is a submerged-pool type. The early operation of the reactor successfully demonstrated the feasibility of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor operating as an integrated reactor, power plant, and fuel-processing facility. In 1967, the role of EBR-II was reoriented from a demonstration plant to an irradiation facility. Many changes have been made and are continuing to be made to increase the usefulness of EBR-II for irradiation and safety tests. A review of EBR-II's operating history reveals a plant that has demonstrated high availability, stable and safe operating characteristics, and excellent performance of sodium components. Levels of radiation exposure to the operating and maintenance workers have been low; and fission-gas releases to the atmosphere have been minimal. Driver-fuel performance has been excellent. The repairability of radioactive sodium components has been successfully demonstrated a number of times. Recent highlights include installation and successful operation of (1) the hydrogen-meter leak detectors for the steam generators, (2) the cover-gas-cleanup system and (3) the cesium trap in the primary sodium. Irradiations now being conducted in EBR-II include the run-beyond-cladding breach fuel tests for mixed-oxide and carbide elements. Studies are in progress to determine EBR-II's capability for conducting important ''operational safety'' tests. These tests would extend the need and usefulness of EBR-II into the 1980's

  4. Flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma: The HYPER-II experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, K.; Tanaka, M. Y.; Yoshimura, S.; Aramaki, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Kawazu, F.; Furuta, K.; Takatsuka, N.; Masuda, M.; Nakano, R.

    2015-01-01

    The HYPER-II device has been constructed in Kyushu University to investigate the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma, which is an intermediate state of plasma and consists of unmagnetized ions and magnetized electrons. High density plasmas are produced by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and the flow field structure in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is investigated with a directional Langmuir probe method and a laser-induced fluorescence method. The experimental setup has been completed and the diagnostic systems have been installed to start the experiments. A set of coaxial electrodes will be introduced to control the azimuthal plasma rotation, and the effect of plasma rotation to generation of rectilinear flow structure will be studied. The HYPER-II experiments will clarify the overall flow structure in the inhomogeneous magnetic field and contribute to understanding characteristic feature of the intermediate state of plasma.

  5. The Basel II Accord on Measuring and Managing a Bank's Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of risk metrics stems from the effort to measure the difference between the expected and actual returns, under a hypothesis of normality. Under the assumption of risk aversion, investors are likely to quantify risk using metrics which measure returns lower than the expected average. These include the semi-variance of returns smaller than the average, the risk of loss – a return under a chosen level, usually 0%, and value-at-risk, for the greatest losses, with a probability of less than 1-5% in a given period of time. The Basel II accord improves on the way risks are measured, by allowing banks greater flexibility. There is an increase in the complexity of measuring credit risks, the market risks measurement methods remain the same, and the measurement of operational risk is introduced for the first time. The most advanced (and widely-used risk metrics are based on VaR. However, it must be noted that VaR calculations are statistical, and therefore unlikely to forecast extraordinary events. So the quality of a VaR calculation must be checked using back-testing, and if the VaR value fails in a percentage of 1-5% of the cases, then the premises of the model must be changed.

  6. Leu7Pro polymorphism of PreproNPY associated with an increased risk for type II diabetes in middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, O; Kesäniemi, Y A

    2007-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays a central in energy homeostasis and potentially in the development of obesity-related comorbidities, like type II diabetes. As the PreproNPY Leu7Pro polymorphism probably changes the intracellular processing of the synthesized preproNPY peptide, we assessed the hypothesis that PreproNPY Leu7Pro polymorphism is a risk factor for type II diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension. Blood pressure recordings and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in the hypertensive (n=515) and control cohorts (n=525) of our well-defined Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis (OPERA) study. The prevalence of type II diabetes was 9% (n=93). The genotypes, insulin and glucose metabolism indexes and plasma ghrelin of the subjects were determined. Pro7 allele frequencies were 5.9, 5.3 and 11.3% in the total cohort, in subjects without and with type II diabetes, respectively. The PreproNPY Pro7 carrier status was a significant risk factor for type II diabetes, and the effect remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference and study group (odds ratio=3.02, confidence interval: 1.67-5.44 and Pghrelin levels compared to non-carriers. The PreproNPY Pro7 allele is associated with an increased risk for type II diabetes. The risk seems to be associated with a higher insulin resistance among Pro7 carriers whereas low ghrelin concentrations in Pro7 carriers are possibly a consequence of high insulin levels.

  7. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  8. PLANS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS AND IFE TARGET EXPERIMENTS ON NDCX-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Friedman, A.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is currently developing design concepts for NDCX-II, the second phase of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, which will use ion beams to explore Warm Dense Matter (WDM) and Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target hydrodynamics. The ion induction accelerator will consist of a new short pulse injector and induction cells from the decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). To fit within an existing building and to meet the energy and temporal requirements of various target experiments, an aggressive beam compression and acceleration schedule is planned. WDM physics and ion-driven direct drive hydrodynamics will initially be explored with 30 nC of lithium ions in experiments involving ion deposition, ablation, acceleration and stability of planar targets. Other ion sources which may deliver higher charge per bunch will be explored. A test stand has been built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to test refurbished ATA induction cells and pulsed power hardware for voltage holding and ability to produce various compression and acceleration waveforms. Another test stand is being used to develop and characterize lithium-doped aluminosilicate ion sources. The first experiments will include heating metallic targets to 10,000 K and hydrodynamics studies with cryogenic hydrogen targets

  9. Experiments with radioactive nuclear beams II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.; Gomez C, A.; Lizcano C, D.; Garcia M, H.; Rosales M, P.

    2001-12-01

    The studies of nuclear reactions with heavy ions have been carried out for years for the group of heavy ions of the laboratory of the Accelerator of the ININ. Especially in the last years the group has intruded in the studies of nuclear reactions with radioactive beams, frontier theme at world level. Presently Technical Report is presented in detailed form the experimental methods and the analysis procedures of the research activities carried out by the group. The chpater II is dedicated to the procedures used in the analysis of the last two experiments with radioactive beams carried out by the group. In the chapter III is presented the procedure followed to carrying out an extended analysis with the CCDEF code, to consider the transfer channel of nucleons in the description of the fusion excitation functions of a good number of previously measured systems by the group. Finally, in the chapter IV the more important steps to continue in the study of the reaction 12 C + 12 C experiment drifted to be carried out using the available resources of the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of the ININ are described. At the end of each chapter some of the more representative results obtained in the analysis are presented and emphasis on the scientific production generated by the group for each case is made. (Author)

  10. Latest experience on insertion devices at the National Synchrotron Light Source-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Toshiya; Cappadoro, Peter; Corwin, Todd

    2016-01-01

    National Synchrotron Light Source-II (NSLS-II) is the latest storage ring of 3 GeV energy with the horizontal emittance of the electron beam being 0.9 nm.rad. Nine In-Vacuum Undulators (IVUs) are utilized at the NSLS-II as of February 2016. All IVUs have a unique side window derived from the experience from the CHESS facility in Cornell University. An R and D activity called 'Vacuum Seal Test' was conducted to ensure the viability of aluminum wire seal. Another R and D activity to develop a measurement system for Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU) was also performed. Other in-air devices, namely damping wigglers (DWs) and elliptically polarizing undulators (EPUs) utilize extruded aluminum chambers with Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) coating. The beam-based integral estimates were obtained from the virtual kicks at the upstream and downstream of the undulator that best fit the measured orbit distortion in a model lattice with Tracy. In some cases, there are fairly large discrepancies between magnetic measurement data and observed integrals by the beam. Beam studies were carried out to explain the discrepancies mentioned earlier. The latest experiences on ID development and commissioning are discussed in conjunction with related activities in the world. (author)

  11. Commissioning and performance studies of a proton recoil detector at the COMPASS-II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerg, Philipp; Buechele, Maximilian; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Grussenmeyer, Tobias; Herrmann, Florian; Koenigsmann, Kay; Kremser, Paul; Schopferer, Sebastian [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The COMPASS-II experiment is a fixed target experiment situated at CERN. A tertiary myon beam from the SPS scattered of protons from a liquid hydrogen target is used to measure Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Hard Exclusive Meson Production (HEMP). These processes offer a unique way to determine Generalized Parton Distributions, which are related to the total angular momentum of quarks, antiquarks and gluons in the nucleon by Ji's Sum Rule. One of the major parts of the COMPASS-II upgrade is the CAMERA detector. CAMERA is a proton recoil detector surrounding the COMPASS-II liquid hydrogen target. Its purpose is to measure the recoiled target proton in DVCS and HEMP reactions and viz to act as a veto to ensure the exclusivity of the measurement. The talk gives an outline of the detector and its readout electronics. It is focused on the commissioning and performance of the CAMERA detector and gives a brief insight into the ongoing DVCS analysis.

  12. Prior storm experience moderates water surge perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D Webster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme water speeds and how does their perception affect perceived risk? Prior research has focused on the characteristics of moving water that can reduce human stability or balance. The current research presents the first experiment on people's perceptions of risk and moving water at different speeds and depths. METHODS: Using a randomized within-person 2 (water depth: 0.45, 0.90 m ×3 (water speed: 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 m/s experiment, we immersed 76 people in moving water and asked them to estimate water speed and the risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people increasingly overestimated water speeds as actual water speeds increased or as water depth increased. Water speed perceptions mediated the direct positive relationship between actual water speeds and perceptions of risk; the faster the moving water, the greater the perceived risk. Participants' prior experience with rip currents and tropical cyclones moderated the strength of the actual-perceived water speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced no rip currents or fewer storms. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a clearer understanding of water speed and risk perception, which may help communicate the risks associated with anticipated floods and tropical cyclones.

  13. Predictive value of pretreatment lymphocyte count in stage II colorectal cancer and in high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Huixun; Huang, Liyong; Li, Dawei; Li, Qingguo; Li, Xinxiang

    2016-01-05

    Pretreatment lymphocyte count (LC) has been associated with prognosis and chemotherapy response in several cancers. The predictive value of LC for stage II colorectal cancer (CRC) and for high-risk patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) has not been determined. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data from 1332 consecutive stage II CRC patients who underwent curative tumor resection was conducted. A pretreatment LC value risk, 459 (62.2%) of whom received AC. Patients with low LCs had significantly worse 5-year OS (74.6% vs. 90.2%, p risk patients with low LCs had the poorest DFS (p value or combined with high-risk status were both independent prognostic factors(p risk, AC-treated patients with high LCs had significantly longer DFS than untreated patients (HR, 0.594; 95% CI, 0.364-0.970; p = 0.035). There was no difference or trend for DFS or OS in patients with low LCs, regardless of the use of AC (DFS, p = 0.692; OS, p = 0.522). Low LC was also independently associated with poorer DFS in high-risk, AC-treated patients (HR, 1.885; 95% CI, 1.112-3.196; p = 0.019). Pretreatment LC is an independent prognostic factor for survival in stage II CRC. Furthermore, pretreatment LC reliably predicts chemotherapeutic efficacy in high-risk patients with stage II CRC.

  14. The cryogenic photon detection system for the ALPS II experiment. Characterization, optimization and background rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastidon, Noemi Alice Chloe

    2017-01-12

    The search for new fundamental bosons at very low mass is the central objective of the ALPS II experiment which is currently set up at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg). This experiment follows the light-shining-through-the-wall concept where photons could oscillate into weakly interacting light bosons in front of a wall and back into photons behind the wall, giving the impression that light can shine through a light tight barrier. In this concept, the background-free detection of near-infrared photons is required to fully exploit the sensitivity of the apparatus. The high efficiency single-photon detection in the near-infrared is challenging and requires a cryogenic detector. In this project, a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) operated below 100mK will be used to detect single photons. This thesis focuses on the characterization and optimization of the ALPS II detector system including an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR) with its two-stage pulse-tube cooler, two TES detectors and their Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) read-out system. Stability of the detection system over time is a priority in the ALPS II experiment. It is in this context that the cooling system has been subjected to many upgrades. In the framework of this thesis, the cooling setup has been studied in detail in order to optimize its cooling performances. Furthermore, the stability of the detector has been studied according to various criteria. Other essential parameters of the ALPS II experiment are its detection efficiency and its background rate. Indeed, the sensitivity of the experiment directly depends on these two characteristics. Both elements have been studied in depth in order to define if the chosen TES detector will meet ALPS IIc specifications.

  15. The cryogenic photon detection system for the ALPS II experiment. Characterization, optimization and background rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidon, Noemi Alice Chloe

    2017-01-01

    The search for new fundamental bosons at very low mass is the central objective of the ALPS II experiment which is currently set up at the Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg). This experiment follows the light-shining-through-the-wall concept where photons could oscillate into weakly interacting light bosons in front of a wall and back into photons behind the wall, giving the impression that light can shine through a light tight barrier. In this concept, the background-free detection of near-infrared photons is required to fully exploit the sensitivity of the apparatus. The high efficiency single-photon detection in the near-infrared is challenging and requires a cryogenic detector. In this project, a Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) operated below 100mK will be used to detect single photons. This thesis focuses on the characterization and optimization of the ALPS II detector system including an Adiabatic Demagnetisation Refrigerator (ADR) with its two-stage pulse-tube cooler, two TES detectors and their Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) read-out system. Stability of the detection system over time is a priority in the ALPS II experiment. It is in this context that the cooling system has been subjected to many upgrades. In the framework of this thesis, the cooling setup has been studied in detail in order to optimize its cooling performances. Furthermore, the stability of the detector has been studied according to various criteria. Other essential parameters of the ALPS II experiment are its detection efficiency and its background rate. Indeed, the sensitivity of the experiment directly depends on these two characteristics. Both elements have been studied in depth in order to define if the chosen TES detector will meet ALPS IIc specifications.

  16. IPROP simulations of the GAMBLE II proton transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    The author has simulated the proton transport of the 6-kA, 1-MV GAMBLE II experiment using a modified version of the IPROP particle-in-cell code. IPROP now uses a hybrid model in which plasma electrons are divided into high-energy macro particle and thermal-fluid components. This model includes open-quotes knock-onclose quotes bound-electron collision and runaway sources for high-energy electrons. Using IPROP, the authors has calculated net currents in reasonable agreement with the experiment ranging from 5-11% of the total current in pressures from 0.25-4 torr helium. In the simulations, the pinch current sample by the 1.5-cm beam was 2-3 times larger than the net current at 4 cm radius. The attenuation of net current at larger radii was the result of a highly-conductive energetic component of plasma electrons surrounding the beam. Having benchmarked IPROP against experiment, the author has examined higher-current ion beams with respect to possible transport for inertial confinement fusion

  17. Parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk affect prey offspring behaviour and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelan, Sarah C; Trussell, Geoffrey C

    2018-03-14

    Because phenotypic plasticity can operate both within and between generations, phenotypic outcomes are often shaped by a complex history of environmental signals. For example, parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk can both independently and interactively influence prey offspring traits early in their life. Parental and embryonic risk experiences can also independently shape offspring phenotypes throughout an offspring's ontogeny, but the persistence of their interactive effects throughout offspring ontogeny is unknown. We examined the effects of parental and embryonic experiences with predation risk on the response of 1-year-old prey (the carnivorous snail, Nucella lapillus ) offspring to current predation risk. We found that parental and embryonic risk experiences had largely independent effects on offspring performance and that these effects were context dependent. Parental experience with risk had strong impacts on multiple offspring traits in the presence of current risk that generally improved offspring performance under risk, but embryonic risk experience had relatively weaker effects and only operated in the absence of current risk to reduce offspring growth. These results illustrate that past environmental experiences can dynamically shape organism phenotypes across ontogeny and that attention to these effects is key to a better understanding of predator/prey dynamics in natural systems. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. A portable data acquisition system on J.I.P.P. T-II ICRF experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidekuma, S.

    1982-03-01

    This system has been developed for the data acquisition in the J.I.P.P. T-II ICRF experiment. It is composed of the LSI-11/2(56KB), a dual floppy disk drive, CAMAC modules, a graphic display and an interface module to the HITAC 10-II system. The operating system is RT-11. This system has functions of the data acquisition through A-D converters (max.32ch), the transfer of the data to the HITAC 10-II system and the preservation of them in its floppy disk. Furthermore, a user can easily develop his application programs with this system. The operating procedures of this system are described. (author)

  19. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutoy, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.

    1994-01-01

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated

  20. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  1. Selection and Mode Effects in Risk Preference Elicitation Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; van Soest, Arthur; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2008-01-01

    experiment is drastically below that of the representative sample in the Internet experiment, and average risk aversion is also lower. Considering the student-like subsample of the Internet subjects and comparing a traditional lab design with an Internet-like design in the lab gives two ways to decompose......We combine data from a risk preference elicitation experiment conducted on a representative sample via the Internet with laboratory data on students for the same experiment to investigate effects of implementation mode and of subject pool selection. We find that the frequency of errors in the lab...... shows that these processes are selective in selecting subjects who make fewer errors, but do not lead to biased conclusions on risk preferences. These findings point at the usefulness of the Internet survey as an alternative to a student pool in the laboratory if the ambition is to use the experiments...

  2. Fluxes at experiment facilities in HEU and LEU designs for the FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, N. A.

    1998-01-01

    An Alternative LEU Design for the FRM-II proposed by the RERTR Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a compact core consisting of a single fuel element that uses LEU silicide fuel with a uranium density of 4.5 g/cm 3 and has a power level of 32 MW. Both the HEU design by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the alternative LEU design by ANL have the same fuel lifetime(50 days) and the same neutron flux performance (8 x 10 14 n/cm 2 -s in the reflector). LEU silicide fuel with 4.5 g/cm 3 has been thoroughly tested and is fully-qualified, licensable, and available now for use in a high flux reactor such as the FRM-II. Several issues that were raised by TUM have been addressed in Refs. 1-3. The conclusions of these analyses are summarized below. This paper addresses four additional issues that have been raised in several forums, including Ref 4: heat generation in the cold neutron source (CNS), the gamma and fast neutron fluxes which are components of the reactor noise in neutron scattering experiments in the experiment hall of the reactor, a fuel cycle length difference, and the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities. The results show that: (a) for the same thermal neutron flux, the neutron and gamma heating in the CNS is smaller in the LEU design than in the HEU design, and cold neutron fluxes as good or better than those of the HEU design can be obtained with the LEU design; (b) the gamma and fast neutron components of the reactor noise in the experiment hall are about the same in both designs; (c) the fuel cycle length is 50 days for both designs; and (d) the absolute value of the reactivity worth of the beam tubes and other experiment facilities is smaller in the LEU design, allowing its fuel cycle length to be increased to 53 or 54 days. Based on the excellent results for the Alternative LEU Design that were obtained in all analyses, the RERTR Program reiterates its conclusion that there are no major technical

  3. RISK MANAGEMENT DISCLOSURE PRACTICESIN ACCORDANCEWITH KING II AND III: THE CASE OF SELECTED JSE LISTEDCOMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Janse van Vuuren

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing collapse of large international companies could have been partiallyprevented if good corporate governance principles and,more specifically,effectiverisk management practices had been implemented and adhered to.Research reveals that the majority offinancial institutions in Europe do notmanage risk effectively and the global financial crisis proved that excessive risk-taking can result in corporate failure. Similar trends are prevalent in South Africa.The aim of this research was to investigate the compliance of Johannesburg StockExchange (JSE listed companies with recommended risk management practicesand disclosure requirements after the introduction of King II and III. To achievethis the annual reports ofselectedJSElisted companies were evaluated toestablish the quality of their reporting on risk management practices asrecommended in King II andIII. The results of the study indicated that theminority of the companies investigated, fully complied with all the recommendedrequirements. This study contributed to literature by showing that althoughdisclosure on risk management practicesimproved significantly since King IIbecame operational in 2002, companies still did not adhere to all the requirementsas stipulated even after King III became effectivein 2010. The finding, therefore,supports the notion that full compliance is an evolutionary process, rather than arevolutionary process and will therefore only be achieved over time.

  4. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. Children’s Experiences of Maternal Incarceration-Specific Risks: Predictions to Psychological Maladaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Zeman, Janice L.; Thrash, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for social and emotional difficulties, yet few studies have investigated potential mechanisms of risk within this population. This research simultaneously examined the association of children’s experience of incarceration-specific risk factors (e.g., witness mother’s arrest) and environmental risks (e.g., low educational attainment) to children’s psychological maladaptation using a multi-informant design and a latent variable analytic approach. Participants were 117 currently incarcerated mothers (64.1% African American), their 151 children (53.6% boys, M age =9.8 years, range =6–12 years, 61.7% African American), and the 118 caregivers (74.8% female, 61.9% grandparents, 62.2% African American) of the children. Mothers, children, and caregivers each provided accounts of children’s experiences related to maternal incarceration and children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Mothers and caregivers each supplied information about 10 environmental risk factors. Findings from structural equation modeling indicate that children’s incarceration-specific risk experiences predict internalizing and externalizing behavior problems whereas the influence of environmental risks was negligible. Follow-up analyses examining the contribution of specific risks indicate that significant predictors differ by reporter and separate into effects of family incarceration history and direct experiences of maternal incarceration. Incarceration-specific experiences place children at higher risk for maladjustment than exposure to general environmental risk factors. These findings indicate the need to critically examine children’s exposure to experiences related to maternal incarceration and family incarceration history to help to clarify the multifaceted stressor of maternal incarceration. PMID:24871820

  6. Streaming-plasma measurements in the Baseball II-T mirror experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.; Foote, J.H.; Futch, A.H.; Goodman, R.K.; Hornady, R.S.; Osher, J.E.; Porter, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The warm plasma from a deuterium-loaded titanium washer gun, streaming along magnetic-field lines through the steady-state magnetic well of Baseball II, has been examined for its suitability in this experimental situation as a target plasma for hot-ion buildup experiments and for microinstability control. The gun was positioned near the magnetic axis outside the mirror region. Measurements were made with gridded, end-loss detectors placed outside the opposite mirror, a microwave interferometer, a beam-attenuation detector, and other diagnostics

  7. Experiences in commissioning and in the first operating cycle of GKN-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauf, E.; Zaiss, W.; Tschannerl, J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989, after only four and a half years of construction, the second unit of the Neckar Joint Nuclear Power Station (GKN-II) was commissioned as the third convoy type nuclear power plant. Its gross power of 1314 MWe makes the pressurized water reactor of GKN-II a unit in the highest power category so far of Siemens/KWU. Delivery to the operators ahead of schedule and observance of the budget are conclusive proof of the advantages of the convoy principle. In addition, GKN-II was able to benefit from the experience accumulated in the construction and commissioning of the two earlier convoy plants. This was reflected in the speedy completion, without major disturbances, of the warranty tests and the trial period of operation. It also has an impact on power operation, the first cycle of which showed the plant to have an availability of 100% throughout and is considered to be a full success by the operators. A special feature of GKN-II is the hybrid cooling tower ensuring that no heated cooling water is returned from the plant into the Neckar river. (orig.) [de

  8. Preliminary optimization experiments of coupled liquid hydrogen moderator for KENS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, N.; Kiyanagi, Y.; Inoue, K.; Furusaka, M.; Ikeda, S.; Arai, M.; Iwasa, H.

    1989-01-01

    As a preliminary optimization experiment on the cold-neutron source for KENS-II, energy and time distributions of cold neutrons emanating from coupled liquid-hydrogen moderators with and without a premoderator in a graphite reflector were measured and compared with those from a decoupled liquid-hydrogen moderator. The results showed that the energy spectra from the coupled liquid-hydrogen moderators are almost the same as those from a decoupled one. Relative gain of the former to the latter is fairly high, more than 5, and further increases with increasing wavelength. The broadening of the neutron pulse width in coupled moderators at the cold-neutron region is not so significant and only 1.5 times compared to the solid methane moderator presently operated at KENS-II. 2 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  9. Technical assessment of continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Franklin, E.M.; Ebner, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    A technical assessment of the continued wet storage of EBR-II fuel has been made. Previous experience has shown that in-basin cladding failure occurs by intergranular attack of sensitized cladding, likely assisted by basin water chlorides. Subsequent fuel oxidation is rapid and leads to loss of configuration and release of fission products. The current inventory of EBR-II fuel stored in the ICPP basins is at risk from similar corrosion reactions

  10. Water/sand flooded and immersed critical experiment and analysis performed in support of the TOPAZ-II safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, E.S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Bubelev, V.G.; Garin, V.P.; Gomin, E.A.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Krutov, A.M.; Lobynstev, V.A.; Maiorov, L.V.; Polyakov, D.N.; Chunyaev, E.I.; Marshall, A.C.; Sapir, J.L.; Pelowitz, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Presented is a brief description of the Narciss-M2 critical assemblies, which simulate accidental water/wet-sand immersion of the TOPAZ-II reactor as well as water-flooding of core cavities. Experimental results obtained from these critical assemblies, including experiments with several fuel elements removed from the core, are shown. These configurations with several extracted fuel elements simulate a proposed fuel-out anticriticality-device modification to the TOPAZ-II reactor. Preliminary computational analysis of these experiments using the Monte Carlo neutron-transport method is outlined. Nuclear criticality safety of the TOPAZ-II reactor with an incorporated anticriticality unit is demonstrated. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Albuminuria and associated risk factors in type II diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, R.; Ahmed, T.A.; Mushtaq, S.; Zafar, L.; Attique, M.; Khalil-ur-Rehman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of microalbuminuria (MA) and its associated medical risk factors in type II diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Study population included 150 type II diabetic patients (70 women, 80 men) attending outpatient department of the hospital. Patients having clinical albuminuria and with other causes of proteinuria were excluded. Results: Women and men were of comparable ages. Women (26.4 kg/m/sup 2/) had higher body mass index (BMI) than men 24.3 kg/m/sup 2/). The frequency of MA was 46.7%, higher in males (50.6%) than females (41.5%). Fasting plasma glucose HbA/sub 1c/ levels were significantly higher in patients with MA compared to those with normo albuminuria (p < 0.001). The microalbuminuria patients had significantly decreased HDL-c levels compared to normoalbuminuric subjects (p< 0.001). However, no relation of MA with age, gender, known duration of diabetes, BMI, history of smoking, hypertension and serum: total cholesterol, LDL-c, triglyceride, urea and creatinine was found. Conclusion: There is a strong association of poor glycaemic control and decreased HDL-c levels with the presence of micro albuminuria. (author)

  12. Experiments with radioactive nuclear beams II; Experimentos con haces nucleares radiactivos II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Martinez Q, E.; Gomez C, A.; Lizcano C, D.; Garcia M, H.; Rosales M, P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-12-15

    The studies of nuclear reactions with heavy ions have been carried out for years for the group of heavy ions of the laboratory of the Accelerator of the ININ. Especially in the last years the group has intruded in the studies of nuclear reactions with radioactive beams, frontier theme at world level. Presently Technical Report is presented in detailed form the experimental methods and the analysis procedures of the research activities carried out by the group. The chpater II is dedicated to the procedures used in the analysis of the last two experiments with radioactive beams carried out by the group. In the chapter III is presented the procedure followed to carrying out an extended analysis with the CCDEF code, to consider the transfer channel of nucleons in the description of the fusion excitation functions of a good number of previously measured systems by the group. Finally, in the chapter IV the more important steps to continue in the study of the reaction {sup 12}C + {sup 12}C experiment drifted to be carried out using the available resources of the Tandem Accelerator Laboratory of the ININ are described. At the end of each chapter some of the more representative results obtained in the analysis are presented and emphasis on the scientific production generated by the group for each case is made. (Author)

  13. Phase II Upgrade of the GERDA Experiment for the Search of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorovits, B.

    Observation of neutrinoless double beta decay could answer the question regarding the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos. The GERDA experiment utilizes HPGe detectors enriched with the isotope 76Ge to search for this process. Recently the GERDA collaboration has unblinded data of Phase I of the experiment. In order to further improve the sensitivity of the experiment, additionally to the coaxial detectors used, 30 BEGe detectors made from germanium enriched in 76Ge will be deployed in GERDA Phase II. BEGe detectors have superior PSD capability, thus the background can be further reduced. The liquid argon surrounding the detector array will be instrumented in order to reject background by detecting scintillation light induced in the liquid argon by radiation. After a short introduction the hardware preparations for GERDA Phase II as well as the processing and characterization of the 30 BEGe detectors are discussed.

  14. DLA Class II Alleles Are Associated with Risk for Canine Symmetrical Lupoid Onychodystropy (SLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbe, Maria; Ziener, Martine Lund; Aronsson, Anita; Harlos, Charlotte; Sundberg, Katarina; Norberg, Elin; Andersson, Lisa; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hedhammar, Åke; Andersson, Göran; Lingaas, Frode

    2010-01-01

    Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802) was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33) was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%). The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis. PMID:20808798

  15. PRESTO-II, Low Level Radioactive Waste Transport and Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PRESTO-II evaluates possible health effects from shallow-land and waste-disposal trenches. The model is intended to serve as a non- site-specific screening model for assessing radionuclide transport, ensuing exposure, and health impacts to a static local population fora 1000-year period following the end of disposal operations. Human exposure scenarios considered include normal releases (including leaching and operational spillage), human intrusion, and limited site farming or reclamation. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to an individual or population include ground-water transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, suspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, external exposure, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. Both population doses and individual doses, as well as doses to the intruder and farmer, may be calculated. Cumulative health effects in terms of cancer deaths are calculated for the population over the 1000-year period using a life-table approach developed by EPA (CCC-422/RADRISK). The DARTAB model is used in modified form to generate human health risk estimates from radionuclide concentrations and intake values. 2 - Method of solution: PRESTO-II tracks radionuclide transport through surface and subsurface pathways and human exposures through external exposure, inhalation, and ingestion with a resolution of 1 y. The methodology is mechanistic, and physical transport processes are modeled separately and in detail. PRESTO-II computes infiltration through the trench cap from experimentally determined permeability and hourly precipitation values. Watershed infiltration is determined using a parametric evapotranspiration equation requiring input values for several site variables. A finite element approach is used to compute trench water balance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The PRESTO-II model is most appropriately used as a

  16. Understanding Credit Risk: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servatka, Maros; Theocharides, George

    2011-01-01

    This classroom experiment introduces students to the notion of credit risk and expected return, by allowing them to trade on comparable corporate bond issues from two types of markets: investment-grade and high-yield markets. Investment-grade issues have a lower probability of default than high-yield issues and thus provide a lower yield.…

  17. Experiment on performance of upper head injection system with ROSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Of the total 10 ROSA-II/UHI performance tests, 6 were reported previously. The rest are presented and discussion is made on the effects of heat generation in the core and UHI injection and repeatability of experiments. In addition, the following are described: (1) Pressure spikes observed in the upper head after sudden stoppage of UHI injection, and (2) discharge flow oscillation possibly due to UHI water injection into the upper plenum. (auth.)

  18. NKS-B NordRisk II: Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe - Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, B.

    2011-05-01

    The objective of the NordRisk II project has been to derive practical means for assessing the risks from long-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. An atlas over different atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios has been developed using historical numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data. The NWP model data covers three years spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the atlas considers radioactive releases from 16 release sites in and near the Nordic countries. A statistical analysis of the long-range dispersion and deposition patterns is undertaken to quantify the mean dispersion and deposition as well as the variability. Preliminary analyses show that the large-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition is near-isotropic, irrespective of the release site and detailed climatology, and allows for a simple parameterization of the global dispersion and deposition patterns. The atlas and the underlying data are made available in a format compatible with the ARGOS decision support system, and have been implemented in ARGOS. (Author)

  19. NKS-B NordRisk II: Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe - Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-05-15

    The objective of the NordRisk II project has been to derive practical means for assessing the risks from long-range atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials. An atlas over different atmospheric dispersion and deposition scenarios has been developed using historical numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data. The NWP model data covers three years spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the atlas considers radioactive releases from 16 release sites in and near the Nordic countries. A statistical analysis of the long-range dispersion and deposition patterns is undertaken to quantify the mean dispersion and deposition as well as the variability. Preliminary analyses show that the large-scale atmospheric dispersion and deposition is near-isotropic, irrespective of the release site and detailed climatology, and allows for a simple parameterization of the global dispersion and deposition patterns. The atlas and the underlying data are made available in a format compatible with the ARGOS decision support system, and have been implemented in ARGOS. (Author)

  20. [Diabetic foot risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Godínez, S A; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C; Muñoz-Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) seen in a Family Medicine Unit. The study included type II DM patients with a disease duration ≥ 5 years seen in a Family Medicine Unit, Tijuana, Mexico, during September-December 2011. Neuropathy was assessed with the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom questionnaire, and pressure sensation using a 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. A patient had a high risk of diabetic foot if there was sensitivity loss, foot deformities, and non-palpable pedal pulses. We studied 205 patients with an average (± SD) age and DM duration of 59 ± 10 years and 10.7 ± 6.7 years, respectively. Ninety one patients (44%) had a high risk of developing diabetic foot, and it was associated with; an education of less than 6 years (OR 2.3; 95%CI: 1-1-4.1), DM disease duration ≥ 10 years (OR 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.4), female gender (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.6), monthly familiar income diabetic neuropathy, since they have a high risk of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma flow switch and foil implosion experiments on Pegasus II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochrane, J.C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Benage, J.R.; Forman, P.R.; Gribble, R.F.; Ladish, J.S.; Oona, H.; Parker, J.V.; Scudder, D.W.; Shlachter, J.S.; Wysocki, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Pegasus II is the upgraded version of Pegasus, a pulsed power machine used in the Los Alamos AGEX (Above Ground EXperiments) program. A goal of the program is to produce an intense (> 100 TW) source of soft x-rays from the thermalization of the kinetic energy of a 1 to 10 MJ plasma implosion. The radiation pulse should have a maximum duration of several 10's of nanoseconds and will be used in the study of fusion conditions and material properties. The radiating plasma source will be generated by the thermalization of the kinetic energy of an imploding cylindrical, thin, metallic foil. This paper addresses experiments done on a capacitor bank to develop a switch (plasma flow switch) to switch the bank current into the load at peak current. This allows efficient coupling of bank energy into foil kinetic energy

  2. Procedures and instrumentation for sodium boiling experiments in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of instrumentation capable of detecting localized coolant boiling in a liquid metal cooled breeder reactor (LMFBR) has a high priority in fast reactor safety. The detection must be rapid enough to allow corrective action to be taken before significant damage occurs to the core. To develop and test a method of boiling detection, it is desirable to produce boiling in a reactor and thereby introduce a condition in the reactor the original design concepts were chosen to preclude. The proposed boiling experiments are designed to safely produce boiling in the subassembly of a fast reactor and provide the information to develop boiling detection instrumentation without core damage or safety compromise. The experiment consists of the operation of two separate subassemblies, first, a gamma heated boiling subassembly which produces non-typical but highly conservative boiling and then a fission heated subassembly which simulates a prototypical boiling event. The two boiling subassemblies are designed to operate in the instrumentation subassembly test facility (INSAT) of Experiment Breeder Reactor II

  3. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Korsholm, U.; Havskov Soerensen, J.; Astrup, P.; Lauritzen, B.

    2011-04-01

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe'. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere. The atmospheric dispersion model calculations cover a period of 30 days following each release to ensure almost complete deposition of the dispersed material. The atlas contains maps showing the total deposition and time-integrated air concentration of Cs-137 and I-131 based on three years of meteorological data spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion. (Author)

  4. NKS NordRisk II: Atlas of long-range atmospheric dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from selected risk sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith Korsholm, U.; Havskov Soerensen, J. (Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Copenhagen (Denmark)); Astrup, P.; Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Radiation Research Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2011-04-15

    The present atlas has been developed within the NKS/NordRisk-II project 'Nuclear risk from atmospheric dispersion in Northern Europe'. The atlas describes risks from hypothetical long-range dispersion and deposition of radionuclides from 16 nuclear risk sites on the Northern Hemisphere. The atmospheric dispersion model calculations cover a period of 30 days following each release to ensure almost complete deposition of the dispersed material. The atlas contains maps showing the total deposition and time-integrated air concentration of Cs-137 and I-131 based on three years of meteorological data spanning the climate variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation, and corresponding time evolution of the ensemble mean atmospheric dispersion. (Author)

  5. Operating and test experience of EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    EBR-II has operated for 27 years, the longest for any Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) power plant. During that time, much has been learned about successful LMR operation and design. The basic lesson is that conservatism in design can pay significant dividends in operating reliability. Furthermore, such conservatism need not mean high cost. The EBR-II system emphasizes simplicity, minimizing the number of valves in the heat transport system, for example, and simplifying the primary heat-transport-system layout. Another lesson is that emphasizing reliability of the steam generating system at the sodium-water interface (by using duplex tubes in the case of EBR-II) has been well worth the higher initial costs; no problems with leakage have been encountered in EBR-II's operating history. Locating spent fuel storage in the primary tank and providing for decay heat removal by natural connective flow have also been contributors to EBR-II's success. The ability to accommodate loss of forced cooling or loss of heat sink passively has resulted in benefits for simplification, primarily through less reliance on emergency power and in not requiring the secondary sodium or steam systems to be safety grade. Also, the 'piped-pool' arrangement minimizes thermal stress to the primary tank and enhances natural convective flow. These benefits have been realized through a history of operation that has seen EBR-II evolve through four major phases in its test programs, culminating in its present mission as the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) prototype. (author)

  6. Preliminary Results from the PrimEx-II experiment at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparian, Ashot [NCA& T, Greensboro, NC; Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Properties of the neutral pion, as the lightest hadron in Nature, are most sensitive to the basic symmetries and their partial breaking effects in the theory of the strong interaction (QCD). In particular, the po →gg decay width is primarily defined by the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking effect (chiral anomaly) in QCD. The next order corrections to the anomaly have been shown to be small and are known to a 1% precision level. The PrimEx Collaboration at JLab has developed and performed two Primakoff type experiments to measure the po →gg decay width with a similar precision. The published result from the PrimEx-I experiment, G(p0 →gg ) = 7.82±0.14 (stat.)±0.17 (syst.) eV, was a factor of two more precise than the average value quoted in PDG-2010 [1]. The second experiment was performed in 2010 with a goal of 1.4% total uncertainty to address the next-to-leading-order theory calculations. The preliminary results from the PrimEx-II experiment are presented and discussed in this note.

  7. The limitations and risks of transarterial Onyx injections in the treatment of grade I and II DAVFs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Liu Lian; Liu Jie; Wu Zhongxue

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective: Embolization of grade III–V intracranial DAVFs using Onyx is feasible with promising results, indicating stability at the time of mid-term follow-up. This article is to evaluate the role of transarterial Onyx embolization in the treatment of grade I and II intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), including its limitations and risks. Methods: We retrospectively studied consecutive 26 patients (8 women and 18 men) treated for an grade I and II intracranial DAVF since 2006 in whom a transarterial approach was attempted with Onyx-18 embolization. There were 18 transverse-sigmoid sinus, 4 cavernous sinus, 2 superior sagittal sinus, 1 inferior petrosal sinus and 1 intradiploic fistulas. Five fistulas were Type I, 8 were Type IIa, and 13 were Type IIa + b, according to the Cognard classification. The mean clinical follow-up period was 15.6 months. Results: Anatomic cure was proven in 13 patients (50%) and clinical cure was obtained in 17 cases (65.4%). These 13 cures were achieved after a single procedure. All these 13 patients underwent a follow-up angiography, which has confirmed the complete cure. Partial occlusion was obtained in 13 patients. Complications were as follows: 2 cardiac Onyx migration, 2 reflexive bradyarrythmia, 1 transient visual hallucination, 2 transient fifth nerve palsies and 1 permanent seventh nerve palsy in inferior petrosal sinus DAVF. Conclusions: Based on this experience, grade I and II intracranial DAVFs may be treated with transarterial Onyx embolization to reduce the shunted blood flow and to facilitate subsequent transvenous embolization or surgery.

  8. The experiment of affective web risk communication on HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Yoshikawa, Eiwa; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Uda, Akinobu; Ito, Kyoko

    2006-01-01

    Dialog mode web contents regarding the HLW risk is effective to altruism. To make it more effectively, we introduced affective elements such as facial expression of character agents and sympathetic response on the BBS by experts, which brought us smooth risk communication. This paper describes the result of preliminary experiments surrounding the affective ways to communicate on the risk of HLW geological disposal, leading to enhance the social cooperation, and the public open experiment for one month on the Web. (author)

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Robert F; Chapman, Daniel P; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie; Williamson, David F; Croft, Janet B; Giles, Wayne H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common adverse childhood experiences to a male's risk of impregnating a teenager. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man's own age at the time; his history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. At least one adverse childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two adverse childhood experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each adverse childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no adverse childhood experiences, a male with at least five adverse childhood experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the adverse childhood experiences was reduced 64-100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have an important relationship to male involvement in teen pregnancy. This relationship has persisted throughout four

  10. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and As(V) on bacterially produced metal sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-07-01

    The adsorption of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II) and As(V) onto bacterially produced metal sulfide (BPMS) material was investigated using a batch equilibrium method. It was found that the sulfide material had adsorptive properties comparable with those of other adsorbents with respect to the specific uptake of a range of metals and, the levels to which dissolved metal concentrations in solution can be reduced. The percentage of adsorption increased with increasing pH and adsorbent dose, but decreased with increasing initial dissolved metal concentration. The pH of the solution was the most important parameter controlling adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and As(V) by BPMS. The adsorption data were successfully modeled using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Desorption experiments showed that the reversibility of adsorption was low, suggesting high-affinity adsorption governed by chemisorption. The mechanism of adsorption for the divalent metals was thought to be the formation of strong, inner-sphere complexes involving surface hydroxyl groups. However, the mechanism for the adsorption of As(V) by BPMS appears to be distinct from that of surface hydroxyl exchange. These results have important implications to the management of metal sulfide sludge produced by bacterial sulfate reduction.

  11. Theory of electron cyclotron heating in the Constance II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauel, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The bounce-averaged quasi-linear equation for a non-relativistic mirror-confined plasma interacting with electromagnetic waves is derived for use in the study of ECRH of the Constance II mirror experiment. The derivations follows the more formal examples given by Berk for electrostatic waves and Bernstein and Baxter for relativistic plasmas. The validity of the theory is discussed by examining individual particle orbits in an EM field. The local dispersion relation is found while deriving a self-consistent WKB theory which can be used to estimate the power transferred from the launching horn to the plasma

  12. Discharge initiation experiments in the Tokapole II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, D.A.

    1984-06-01

    Experiments in the Tokapole II tokamak demonstrate the benefits of high density (n/sub e//n 0 greater than or equal to 0.01) preionization by reducing four quantities at startup: necessary toroidal loop voltage (V 1 ) (50%), volt-second consumption (40 to 50%), impurity radiation (25 to 50%), and runaway electron production (approx. 80 to 100%). A zero-dimensional code models the loop voltage reduction dependence on preionization density and predicts a similar result for reactor scale devices. The code shows low initial resistivity and a high resistivity time derivative contribute to loop voltage reduction. The power balance of the ECR plasma in a toroidal-field-only case was studied. Langmuir probes and impurity doping were used. The vertical electric field (E/sub v/) and current (I/sub v/), which result from curvature drift, were measured (E/sub v/ approx. 10 V/cm and I/sub v/ approx. 50 Amps) and exceeded expected values for the bulk electron temperature (approx. 10 eV). A series of experiments with external windings to simulate field errors perpendicular to the toroidal field was done. The results imply that an error field of 0.1% of the toroidal field is deleterious to ECR plasma density

  13. DLA class II alleles are associated with risk for canine symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy [corrected](SLO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wilbe

    Full Text Available Symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO is an immune-mediated disease in dogs affecting the claws with a suggested autoimmune aethiology. Sequence-based genotyping of the polymorphic exon 2 from DLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 class II loci were performed in a total of 98 SLO Gordon setter cases and 98 healthy controls. A risk haplotype (DRB1*01801/DQA1*00101/DQB1*00802 was present in 53% of cases and 34% of controls and conferred an elevated risk of developing SLO with an odds ratio (OR of 2.1. When dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to all dogs not carrying the haplotype the OR was 5.4. However, a stronger protective haplotype (DRB1*02001/DQA1*00401/DQB1*01303, OR = 0.03, 1/OR = 33 was present in 16.8% of controls, but only in a single case (0.5%. The effect of the protective haplotype was clearly stronger than the risk haplotype, since 11.2% of the controls were heterozygous for the risk and protective haplotypes, whereas this combination was absent from cases. When the dogs with the protective haplotype were excluded, an OR of 2.5 was obtained when dogs homozygous for the risk haplotype were compared to those heterozygous for the risk haplotype, suggesting a co-dominant effect of the risk haplotype. In smaller sample sizes of the bearded collie and giant schnauzer breeds we found the same or similar haplotypes, sharing the same DQA1 allele, over-represented among the cases suggesting that the risk is associated primarily with DLA-DQ. We obtained conclusive results that DLA class II is significantly associated with risk of developing SLO in Gordon setters, thus supporting that SLO is an immune-mediated disease. Further studies of SLO in dogs may provide important insight into immune privilege of the nail apparatus and also knowledge about a number of inflammatory disorders of the nail apparatus like lichen planus, psoriasis, alopecia areata and onycholysis.

  14. The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; DuBois, David L.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin

    2013-01-01

    "The Role of Risk: Mentoring Experiences and Outcomes for Youth with Varying Risk Profiles" presents findings from the first large-scale study to examine how the levels and types of risk youth face may influence their relationships with program-assigned mentors and the benefits they derive from these relationships. The study looked…

  15. Critical bias fields for tilting stability in the BETA-II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalhed, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The PEST equilibrium code and the GATO ideal MHD stability code have been modified to study stability properties of Spheromak configurations. Of particular interest is the effect on tilting modes of perfectly conducting walls which do not link the plasma. This paper makes use of equilibria and conducting walls specifically designed to model the BETA-II experiment at LLNL. Onset of the tilting mode is determined as a function of the bias magnetic field. Comparison with available experimental data shows promising agreement with the numerical results

  16. Operational-safety advantages of LMFBR's: the EBR-II experience and testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lindsay, R.W.; Golden, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    LMFBR's contain many inherent characteristics that simplify control and improve operating safety and reliability. The EBR-II design is such that good advantage was taken of these characteristics, resulting in a vary favorable operating history and allowing for a program of off-normal testing to further demonstrate the safe response of LMFBR's to upsets. The experience already gained, and that expected from the future testing program, will contribute to further development of design and safety criteria for LMFBR's. Inherently safe characteristics are emphasized and include natural convective flow for decay heat removal, minimal need for emergency power and a large negative reactivity feedback coefficient. These characteristics at EBR-II allow for ready application of computer diagnosis and control to demonstrate their effectiveness in response to simulated plant accidents. This latter testing objective is an important part in improvements in the man-machine interface

  17. 76 FR 37620 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... advanced approaches rules, several commenters, mostly representing the largest U.S. financial institutions... principles for preparing financial statements instead of the statutory accounting principles applicable to...-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework--Basel II; Establishment of a Risk-Based...

  18. Experience with advanced driver fuels in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, C.E.; Koenig, J.F.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) is a complete nuclear power plant, incorporating a pool-type liquid-metal reactor (LMR) with a fuel-power thermal output of 62.5 MW and an electrical output of 20 MW. Initial criticality was in 1961, utilizing a metallic driver fuel design called the Mark-I. The fuel design has evolved over the last 30 yr, and significant progress has been made on improving performance. The first major innovations were incorporated into the Mark-II design, and burnup then increased dramatically. This design performed successfully, and fuel element lifetime was limited by subassembly hardware performance rather than the fuel element itself. Transient performance of the fuel was also acceptable and demonstrated the ability of EBR-II to survive severe upsets such as a loss of flow without scram. In the mid 1980s, with renewed interest in metallic fuels and Argonne's integral fast reactor (IFR) concept, the Mark-II design was used as the basis for new designs, the Mark-III and Mark-IV. In 1987, the Mark-III design began qualification testing to become a driver fuel for EBR-II. This was followed in 1989 by the Mark-IIIA and Mark-IV designs. The next fuel design, the Mark-V, is being planned to demonstrate the utilization of recycled fuel. The fuel cycle facility attached to EBR-II is being refurbished to produce pyroprocessed recycled fuel as part of the demonstration of the IFR

  19. Operating experience and maintenance at the TRIGA Mark II LENA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cingoli, F.; Altieri, S.; Lana, F.; Rosti, G.; Alloni, L.; Meloni, S.

    1988-01-01

    The last two years at the Trigs Mark II LENA plant were characterized by the running of the n-n-bar oscillation NADIR experiment. Consequently reactor operation was positively affected and the running hours rose again above 1000 hours per year. The LENA team was also deeply involved in the procedures for the renewal of the reactor operation license. The new requirements set by the Nuclear Energy Licensing Authority (ENEA for Italy) most of which concerning radiation protection and environmental impact, have been already fulfilled. In some cases the installation of new apparatus is underway

  20. Adolescents' perceived risk and personal experience with natural disasters: an evaluation of cognitive heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, L; Dollinger, S J; Pitz, G

    1996-02-01

    Elevated risk judgments for negative life events have been linked to personal experience with events. We tested the hypothesis that cognitive heuristics are the underlying cognitive mechanism for this relation. The availability (i.e., memory for incidents) and simulation (i.e., imagery) heuristics were evaluated as possible mediators for the relation between personal experience and risk estimates for fatal weather events. Adolescents who had experienced weather disasters estimated their personal risk for weather events. Support was obtained for the simulation heuristic (imagery) as a mediator for the relation. Availability for lightning disaster experience was also found to be a mediator for the relation between personal lightning disaster experience and risk estimate for future events. The implications for risk perception research are discussed.

  1. Perception and acceptance of technological risk sources. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1981-01-01

    Volume II presents a comparative investigation of risk perception and acceptance. It contains the evaluations of the two experiments in social psychology and the analysis of two intensive enquiries concerning risk perception with a view to 12 different risk sources. The data of the two enquiries were acquired from a total of 200 interview partners in two cities in North-Rhine Westphalia. (orig./HP) [de

  2. The relative weights of direct and indirect experiences in the formation of environmental risk beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W Kip; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2015-02-01

    Direct experiences, we find, influence environmental risk beliefs more than the indirect experiences derived from outcomes to others. This disparity could have a rational basis. Or it could be based on behavioral proclivities in accord with the well-established availability heuristic or the vested-interest heuristic, which we introduce in this article. Using original data from a large, nationally representative sample, this article examines the perception of, and responses to, morbidity risks from tap water. Direct experiences have a stronger and more consistent effect on different measures of risk belief. Direct experiences also boost the precautionary response of drinking bottled water and drinking filtered water, while indirect experiences do not. These results are consistent with the hypothesized neglect of indirect experiences in other risk contexts, such as climate change. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Neutrino Oscillation Experiments with J-PARC: T2K, T2K-II and Hyper-Kamiokande

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The T2K experiment started the operation in 2010, and advances neutrino physics with the discovery of electron neutrino appearance in the muon neutrino beam and precision measurements of neutrino oscillation parameters. In 2016, the measurements of anti-neutrino oscillation directly constrain CP violation in neutrino oscillation. In this colloquium, we introduce many physics results from T2K including the most recent one of the CP violation. By utilizing the J-PARC neutrino beam, the upgrade of the T2K experiment (naming T2K-II) is planned and Hyper-Kamiokande is proposed to explore neutrino physics further. In T2K-II, the beam power of J-PARC will be upgraded to 1.3 MW around 2020. Hyper-Kamiokande is the larger Water Cherenkov detector of 520 k...

  4. Beam dynamics of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II),a novel pulse-compressing ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Grote, D.P.; Lund, S.M.; Sharp, W.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J.-Y.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Gilson, E.P.; Kaganovich, I.D.

    2009-01-01

    Intense beams of heavy ions are well suited for heating matter to regimes of emerging interest. A new facility, NDCX-II, will enable studies of warm dense matter at ∼1 eV and near-solid density, and of heavy-ion inertial fusion target physics relevant to electric power production. For these applications the beam must deposit its energy rapidly, before the target can expand significantly. To form such pulses, ion beams are temporally compressed in neutralizing plasma; current amplification factors of ∼50-100 are routinely obtained on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at LBNL. In the NDCX-II physics design, an initial non-neutralized compression renders the pulse short enough that existing high-voltage pulsed power can be employed. This compression is first halted and then reversed by the beam's longitudinal space-charge field. Downstream induction cells provide acceleration and impose the head-to-tail velocity gradient that leads to the final neutralized compression onto the target. This paper describes the discrete-particle simulation models (1-D, 2-D, and 3-D) employed and the space-charge-dominated beam dynamics being realized.

  5. Closure of the patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II: a clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagöz, Tevfik; Akin, Alper; Ertuğrul, Ilker; Aykan, Hayrettin Hakan; Alehan, Dursun; Ozer, Sema; Ozkutlu, Süheyla

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to share our clinical experience on cases with patent ductus arteriosus treated with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Between 2008 and 2012, 26 of 31 patients with patent ductus arteriosus underwent successful transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Mean age was 3.3 years and mean weight was 15.7 kilograms. The presence of a residual shunt, left pulmonary artery or aortic obstruction was explored by administering contrast material during the procedure. The patients were discharged 24 hours after the procedure. The procedure was successful in 26 of 31 patients and failed in five patients. According to the Krichenko classification, 26 patients had type A, one patient had type B and 4 patients had type C ductus. The mean narrowest ductus diameter was 3.2 mm and the mean ductus length was 6.7 mm. Complete angiographic occlusion occurred immediately after the procedure in 22 out of 26 patients in whom the ductus was closed successfully with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Complete occlusion was achieved in the remaining patients with residual shunt one month after the procedure. The procedure was preceded by closure with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder I in two patients and an Amplatzer Vascular Plug I in one patient. Amplatzer Duct Occluder II is highly effective in transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. We think that an alternative closure device and alternative techniques can be attempted in patients with type C ductus. The success rate could increase with accumulating experience.

  6. Does chemotherapy improve survival in high-risk stage I and II Merkel cell carcinoma of the skin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Michael G.; Rischin, Danny; Porter, Ian; Walpole, Euan; Harvey, Jennifer; Hamilton, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The effectiveness of synchronous carboplatin, etoposide, and radiation therapy in improving survival was evaluated by comparison of a matched set of historic control subjects with patients treated in a prospective Phase II study that used synchronous chemotherapy and radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients were included in the analysis if they had disease localized to the primary site and nodes, and they were required to have at least one of the following high-risk features: recurrence after initial therapy, involved nodes, primary size greater than 1 cm, or gross residual disease after surgery. All patients who received chemotherapy were treated in a standardized fashion as part of a Phase II study (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group TROG 96:07) from 1997 to 2001. Radiation was delivered to the primary site and nodes to a dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks, and synchronous carboplatin (AUC 4.5) and etoposide, 80 mg/m 2 i.v. on Days 1 to 3, were given in Weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10. The historic group represents a single institution's experience from 1988 to 1996 and was treated with surgery and radiation alone, and patients were included if they fulfilled the eligibility criteria of TROG 96:07. Patients with occult cutaneous disease were not included for the purpose of this analysis. Because of imbalances in the prognostic variables between the two treatment groups, comparisons were made by application of Cox's proportional hazard modeling. Overall survival, disease-specific survival, locoregional control, and distant control were used as endpoints for the study. Results: Of the 102 patients who had high-risk Stage I and II disease, 40 were treated with chemotherapy (TROG 96:07) and 62 were treated without chemotherapy (historic control subjects). When Cox's proportional hazards modeling was applied, the only significant factors for overall survival were recurrent disease, age, and the presence of residual disease. For

  7. Post-test simulation and analysis of the second full scale CHAN 28-element experiment (validations of CHAN-II (MOD 6) against experiments)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayoumi, M H; Muir, W C [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    An experimental program, the CHAN Thermal Chemical Experimental Program, has been setup at WNRE under COG/CANDEV to assess and verify the physical and mathematical models of the CHAN codes. The program has been progressing from studying separate effects in single-element experiments to a full integrated mode in a CANDU 28-element bundle geometry. The CHAN-II series codes are used in the licensing analysis of CANDU reactors. The basic code provides an efficient tool to predict the thermal response of a fuel channel during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) with and without a loss of emergency coolant injection (LOECI) in which the transport of heat by convection is greatly reduced. The code models the progression of the event including fuel channel geometry deformation due to severe overheating. It is the main objective of this paper to discuss further verification of the CHAN-II (MOD 6) computer code against the second full scale 28-element experiment performed at WNRE under COG/CANDEV, designed to represent a Pickering type bundle geometry. The main models and assumptions used in the code will be briefly described. The objective of the experiments is to provide data for the assessment of the physical and mathematical models of the CHAN codes and produce data for code verification under integrated conditions with significant hydrogen production and flow rates similar to the LOCA/LOECI scenario. The issue of whether the Zr/steam reaction is sustainable in a full bundle geometry at elevated temperatures is also examined. A comparison between the predictions of CHAN-II (MOD 6) and the experimental results is discussed. (author).12 refs., 17 figs.

  8. Post-test simulation and analysis of the second full scale CHAN 28-element experiment (validations of CHAN-II (MOD 6) against experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayoumi, M.H.; Muir, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental program, the CHAN Thermal Chemical Experimental Program, has been setup at WNRE under COG/CANDEV to assess and verify the physical and mathematical models of the CHAN codes. The program has been progressing from studying separate effects in single-element experiments to a full integrated mode in a CANDU 28-element bundle geometry. The CHAN-II series codes are used in the licensing analysis of CANDU reactors. The basic code provides an efficient tool to predict the thermal response of a fuel channel during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) with and without a loss of emergency coolant injection (LOECI) in which the transport of heat by convection is greatly reduced. The code models the progression of the event including fuel channel geometry deformation due to severe overheating. It is the main objective of this paper to discuss further verification of the CHAN-II (MOD 6) computer code against the second full scale 28-element experiment performed at WNRE under COG/CANDEV, designed to represent a Pickering type bundle geometry. The main models and assumptions used in the code will be briefly described. The objective of the experiments is to provide data for the assessment of the physical and mathematical models of the CHAN codes and produce data for code verification under integrated conditions with significant hydrogen production and flow rates similar to the LOCA/LOECI scenario. The issue of whether the Zr/steam reaction is sustainable in a full bundle geometry at elevated temperatures is also examined. A comparison between the predictions of CHAN-II (MOD 6) and the experimental results is discussed. (author).12 refs., 17 figs

  9. Plasma opening switch development for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinnett, R.W.; McDaniel, D.H.; Rochau, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors conducted plasma opening switch (POS) experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' new Particle Beam Fusin Accelerator II (PBFA II) (12 MV, 100 TW, 50 ns), on the Supermite accelerator (2 MV, 2 TW, 50 ns) and on the Naval Research Laboratory's Gamble II accelerator (1.8 MV, 1.6 TW, 70 ns). The POS systems on the PBFA II and Supermite accelerators use a newly developed flashboard plasma source to provide the plasma necessary to conduct the large (> 1 MA) currents produced byu these accelerators. In the Supermite experiments, the plasma opening switch conducted currents up to 1 MA before opening in less than 10 ns into an electron beam load. These experiments achieved significant voltage gain relative to the voltage across a matched load. In experiments on Gamble II, power gains of up to 1.7 were achieved using a POS in a strongly coaxial geometry (r/sub outer//r/sub inner/ = 2) with a large magnetic field at the cathode. The POS system on PBFA II is unique because of its size and voltage. This POS system is designed to conduct over 6 MA before opening. In present experiments it has conducted currents of 4-5 MA for over 50 ns

  10. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  11. Use of a combination of CEA and tumor budding to identify high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Changzheng; Xue, Weicheng; Dou, Fangyuan; Peng, Yifan; Yao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Jun; Gu, Jin

    2017-07-24

    High-risk patients with stage II colon cancer may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy, but identifying this patient population can be difficult. We assessed the prognosis value for predicting tumor progression in patients with stage II colon cancer, of a panel of 2 biomarkers for colon cancer: tumor budding and preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Consecutive patients (N = 134) with stage II colon cancer who underwent curative surgery from 2000 to 2007 were included. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the association of CEA and tumor budding grade with 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). The prognostic accuracy of CEA, tumor budding grade and the combination of both (CEA-budding panel) was determined. The study found that both CEA and tumor budding grade were associated with 5-year DFS. The prognostic accuracy for disease progression was higher for the CEA-budding panel (82.1%) than either CEA (70.9%) or tumor budding grade (72.4%) alone. The findings indicate that the combination of CEA levels and tumor budding grade has greater prognostic value for identifying patients with stage II colon cancer who are at high-risk for disease progression, than either marker alone.

  12. Experience in the chemistry field from the operating cycle of Grohnde and Philippsburg II nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, G.; Ruehle, W.

    1987-01-01

    Experience from the primary section of the plants in relation to the activity pattern of corrosion products, indicates primarily that cobalt-free materials have been used throughout in Philippsburg II nuclear power station, which was no longer economically possible at Grohnde because of the advanced stages of manufacture and installation. Consequently, the activity concentration for Co-60 in Philippsburg was lower from the outset than at a comparable time at Grohnde. The second part of the paper discusses experience from the secondary section of the plants, based on the AVT (all volatile treatment) method of operation and its effect on the deposits in the steam generators. The chemical control is described and a comparison is made between the sampling points at Grohnde and Philippsburg II. (orig.) [de

  13. THE SOLVENCY II APPROACH ON THE CAPITAL CHARGE FOR THE NON-LIFE CATASTROPHIC RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses a current issue: the assessment and the establishment of the capital charge for the non-life catastrophic risk (cat risk in terms of Solvency II Directive. Firstly we’ll present several aspects on the conditions and the defining elements of Solvency II Directive implementation, by positioning us in the underwriting risk module, cat risk being a component of it. Nowadays the cat risk is a concern for the insurance companies and in order to have an harmonized legislation on the insurance industry for all Member States of the European Union this was a sensitive topic being presented various approaches regarding the methods used for determining the level of the capital charge. We’ll present the main methods proposed in the Quantitative Impact Studies QIS4: standard approach, scenarios and personalized scenarios and also those proposed in QIS5: standardised scenarios and factor-based approach. Our purpose is to illustrate the situations when each alternative is most efficient to be used and also the steps taken from one quantitative impact study to another in order to have an accurate method of the cat risk assessment. Taking into account that these are standardised formulas, there are certain cases when the results are not consistent with the reality, especially for the insurers with a different structure of the insured portfolio, for example those having a large part of the insurance policies issued for a single line of business. In these cases it is recommended to use undertaking specific parameters (USP. Once presented these methods we’ll offer an example for the calculation of the capital charge for the earthquake risk using standardised scenarios for Natural Disaster Insurance Pool (PAID. In order to achieve this goal we’ll perform an analysis of the mandatory household insurance policies against natural disasters (PAD policies in force in December 2013, these being grouped on CRESTA zones to determine the total

  14. Women's experience of hospitalized bed rest during high-risk pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubarth, Lori Baas; Schoening, Anne M; Cosimano, Amy; Sandhurst, Holly

    2012-01-01

    To describe the lived experience of the hospitalized pregnant woman on bed rest. A qualitative, phenomenological design. Three high-risk antepartum units in the midwestern United States. A self-selected, convenience sample of 11 high-risk pregnant women. Phenomenological study using thematic analysis of completed handwritten journals and/or online blogs. Women described the battles that they fought each day for the lives of their unborn children. Using an imagery of war, three categories emerged: (a) the war within, (b) fighting each battle, and (c) bringing in reinforcements. Women experience many different emotions and stressors during restricted bed rest. A nurse's understanding of this experience is essential to provide adequate care and coping strategies for women at this time. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  15. Adversarial risks in social experiments with new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Dechesne, Francien; van der Poel, Ibo; Asveld, Lotte; Mehos, Donna C.

    2017-01-01

    Studies that approach the deployment of new technologies as social experiments have mostly focused on unintentional effects, notably safety. We argue for the inclusion of adversarial risks or security aspects that are the result of intentional, strategic behavior of actors, who aim at using the

  16. Implementation and Effects of Risk-Dependent Obstetric Care in the Netherlands (Expect Study II): Protocol for an Impact Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfort, Pim; Willemse, Jessica Ppm; Dirksen, Carmen D; van Dooren, Ivo Ma; Meertens, Linda Je; Spaanderman, Marc Ea; Zelis, Maartje; Zwaan, Iris M; Scheepers, Hubertina Cj; Smits, Luc Jm

    2018-05-04

    Recently, validated risk models predicting adverse obstetric outcomes combined with risk-dependent care paths have been made available for early antenatal care in the southeastern part of the Netherlands. This study will evaluate implementation progress and impact of the new approach in obstetric care. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a study evaluating the impact of implementing risk-dependent care. Validated first-trimester prediction models are embedded in daily clinical practice and combined with risk-dependent obstetric care paths. A multicenter prospective cohort study consisting of women who receive risk-dependent care is being performed from April 2017 to April 2018 (Expect Study II). Obstetric risk profiles will be calculated using a Web-based tool, the Expect prediction tool. The primary outcomes are the adherence of health care professionals and compliance of women. Secondary outcomes are patient satisfaction and cost-effectiveness. Outcome measures will be established using Web-based questionnaires. The secondary outcomes of the risk-dependent care cohort (Expect II) will be compared with the outcomes of a similar prospective cohort (Expect I). Women of this similar cohort received former care-as-usual and were prospectively included between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2015 (Expect I). Currently, women are being recruited for the Expect Study II, and a total of 300 women are enrolled. This study will provide information about the implementation and impact of a new approach in obstetric care using prediction models and risk-dependent obstetric care paths. Netherlands Trial Register NTR4143; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=4143 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6t8ijtpd9). ©Pim van Montfort, Jessica PPM Willemse, Carmen D Dirksen, Ivo MA van Dooren, Linda JE Meertens, Marc EA Spaanderman, Maartje Zelis, Iris M Zwaan, Hubertina CJ Scheepers, Luc JM Smits. Originally published in JMIR

  17. An FPGA-based trigger for the phase II of the MEG experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldini, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Bemporad, C.; Cei, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa (Italy); Galli, L.; Grassi, M.; Morsani, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Nicolò, D., E-mail: donato.nicolo@pi.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa (Italy); Ritt, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen AG (Switzerland); Venturini, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    For the phase II of MEG, we are going to develop a combined trigger and DAQ system. Here we focus on the former side, which operates an on-line reconstruction of detector signals and event selection within 450 μs from event occurrence. Trigger concentrator boards (TCB) are under development to gather data from different crates, each connected to a set of detector channels, to accomplish higher-level algorithms to issue a trigger in the case of a candidate signal event. We describe the major features of the new system, in comparison with phase I, as well as its performances in terms of selection efficiency and background rejection. - Highlights: • A new, two-level trigger scheme for the phase-II of the MEG experiment is presented. • Improvements with respect to phase-I are underlined. • The role of detector upgrades and the use of a new generation of FPGA as well are emphasized.

  18. Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) Risk Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Mary Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Process Modeling and Analysis Group

    2016-05-02

    Risk is a factor, element, constraint, or course of action that introduces an uncertainty of outcome that could impact project objectives. Risk is an inherent part of all activities, whether the activity is simple and small, or large and complex. Risk management is a process that identifies, evaluates, handles, and monitors risks that have the potential to affect project success. The risk management process spans the entire project, from its initiation to its successful completion and closeout, including both technical and programmatic (non-technical) risks. This Risk Management Plan (RMP) defines the process to be used for identifying, evaluating, handling, and monitoring risks as part of the overall management of the Enhanced Capabilities for Subcritical Experiments (ECSE) ‘Project’. Given the changing nature of the project environment, risk management is essentially an ongoing and iterative process, which applies the best efforts of a knowledgeable project staff to a suite of focused and prioritized concerns. The risk management process itself must be continually applied throughout the project life cycle. This document was prepared in accordance with DOE O 413.3B, Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, its associated guide for risk management DOE G 413.3-7, Risk Management Guide, and LANL ADPM AP-350-204, Risk and Opportunity Management.

  19. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hangyu; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Stanciu, Lia A.

    2015-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils

  20. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hangyu, E-mail: hangyuz@uw.edu [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Rochet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Stanciu, Lia A. [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  1. The EBR-II X501 Minor Actinide Burning Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Carmack; M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes; H. Tsai

    2008-01-01

    The X501 experiment was conducted in EBR II as part of the Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate minor actinide burning through the use of a homogeneous recycle scheme. The X501 subassembly contained two metallic fuel elements loaded with relatively small quantities of americium and neptunium. Interest in the behavior of minor actinides (MA) during fuel irradiation has prompted further examination of existing X501 data and generation of new data where needed in support of the U.S. waste transmutation effort. The X501 experiment is one of the few MA bearing fuel irradiation tests conducted worldwide, and knowledge can be gained by understanding the changes in fuel behavior due to addition of MAs. Of primary interest are the effect of the MAs on fuel cladding chemical interaction and the redistribution behavior of americium. The quantity of helium gas release from the fuel and any effects of helium on fuel performance are also of interest. It must be stressed that information presented at this time is based on the limited PIE conducted in 1995–1996 and, currently, represents a set of observations rather than a complete understanding of fuel behavior. This report provides a summary of the X501 fabrication, characterization, irradiation, and post irradiation examination.

  2. Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phases II-IV Test Configurations and Available Data Campaigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, D. A.; Hand, M. M.; Fingersh, L. J.; Jager, D. W.

    1999-08-19

    The main objective of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment is to provide information needed to quantify the full-scale three-dimensional aerodynamic behavior of horizontal axis wind turbines. To accomplish this, an experimental wind turbine configured to meet specific research objectives was assembled and operated at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The turbine was instrumented to characterize rotating blade aerodynamic performance, machine structural responses, and atmospheric inflow conditions. Comprehensive tests were conducted with the turbine operating in an outdoor field environment under diverse conditions. Resulting data are used to validate aerodynamic and structural dynamics models which are an important part of wind turbine design and engineering codes. Improvements in these models are needed to better characterize aerodynamic response in both the steady-state post-stall and dynamic stall regimes. Much of the effort in the earlier phase of the Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment focused on developing required data acquisition systems. Complex instrumentation and equipment was needed to meet stringent data requirements while operating under the harsh environmental conditions of a wind turbine rotor. Once the data systems were developed, subsequent phases of experiments were then conducted to collect data for use in answering specific research questions. A description of the experiment configuration used during Phases II-IV of the experiment is contained in this report.

  3. Hiring a Gay Man, Taking a Risk?: A Lab Experiment on Employment Discrimination and Risk Aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Stijn

    2018-01-01

    We investigate risk aversion as a driver of labor market discrimination against homosexual men. We show that more hiring discrimination by more risk-averse employers is consistent with taste-based and statistical discrimination. To test this hypothesis we conduct a scenario experiment in which experimental employers take a fictitious hiring decision concerning a heterosexual or homosexual male job candidate. In addition, participants are surveyed on their risk aversion and other characteristics that might correlate with this risk aversion. Analysis of the (post-)experimental data confirms our hypothesis. The likelihood of a beneficial hiring decision for homosexual male candidates decreases by 31.7% when employers are a standard deviation more risk-averse.

  4. Evaluation of doses and risks from different decontamination and decommissioning strategies using the PRESTO-II methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    The PRESTO-II methodology may be applied to evaluate doses and health risks from a variety of decontamination and decommissioning activities. This methodology has been implemented in the form of a computer code that has been applied to several sites, and that has been extensively documented. Radionuclide inventories are specified as separate contamination sources either present on the ground surface, covered by non-radioactive soils but lying above the water table, suspended in the atmosphere, or dissolved in surface waters. Hydrologic transport mechanisms considered in the PRESTO-II methodology include chemical exchange, ponding and overflow, surface water transport, groundwater transport, and pumping contaminated groundwater from wells. Varied scenarios of water usage are treated. Atmospheric inputs are based on both resuspension factor and resuspension rate approaches, with inhalation and immersion doses based on a Gaussian plume transport calculation. Site activities that are considered include land clearing, farming, and residing on the site. Exposure and dose calculations are derived from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Reg. Guide 1.109 approach, while risk calculations use a life-table approach developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Internal dose conversion factors are taken from ICRP 26 and 30, while risk conversion factors are values suggested by EPA. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  5. How Often is Employee Aanger an Insider Risk II?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric David Shaw

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research uses two recently introduced observer rating scales, (Author et al. 2012 for the identification and measurement of negative sentiment (the Scale for Negativity in Text or SNIT and insider risk (Scale of Indicators of Risk in Digital Communication or SIRDC in communications to test the performance of psycholinguistic software designed to detect indicators of these risk factors. The psycholinguistic software program, WarmTouch (WT, previously used for investigations, appeared to be an effective means for locating communications scored High or Medium in negative sentiment by the SNIT or High in insider risk by the SIRDC within a randomly selected sample from the Enron archive.WT proved less effective in locating emails Low in negative sentiment on the SNIT and Low in insider risk on the SIRDC.However, WT performed extremely well in identifying communications from actual insiders randomly selected from case files and inserted in this email sample. In addition, it appeared that WT’s measure of perceived Victimization was a significant supplement to using negative sentiment alone, when it came to searching for actual insiders. Previous findings (Author et al. 2013 indicate that this relative weakness in identifying Low levels of negative sentiment may not impair WT’s usefulness for identifying communications containing significant indications of insider risk because of the very low base rate and low severity of insider risk at Low levels of negative sentiment (Author et al. 2013. Although many of the “false positives” acquired in the successful search for actual insiders in this experiment were shown to be true positives for other forms of insider risk, WT still produced fairly high rates of false positives that could burden analysts.As further research and development proceeds to address this problem, we again recommend the use of WT in an integrated multi-disciplinary array of detection methods that will serve

  6. FIX-II. Loca-blowdown heat transfer and pump trip experiments. Summary report of phase 1: Design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaranperae, Y.; Nilsson, L.; Gustafsson, P.Aa.; Jonsson, N.O.

    1979-06-01

    FIX-II is a loss of coolant blowdown heat transfer experiment, performed under contract for The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The purpose of the experiments is to provide measurements from simulations of a pipe rupture on an external recirculation line in a Swedish BWR. Pump trips in BWRs with internal recirculation pumps will also be simulated. The existing FIX-loop at the Thermal Engineering Laboratory of Studsvik Energiteknik AB will be modified and used for the experiments. Components are included to simulate the steam dome, downcomer, two recirculation lines with one pump each, lower plenum, core (36-rod full length bundle), control rod guide tubes, core bypass, upper plenum and steam separators. The results of the first phase of the project are reported here. The following tasks are included in Phase 1: reactor reference analysis, scaling calculations of the FIX loop, development of fuel rod simulators, design of test section and test loop layout and proposal for test program. Further details of the work and results obtained for the different sub-projects are published in a number ofdetailed reports. (author)

  7. Validation of the 12-gene colon cancer recurrence score as a predictor of recurrence risk in stage II and III rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Marlies S; Kuppen, Peter J K; Lee, Mark; Lopatin, Margarita; Tezcan, Haluk; Putter, Hein; Clark-Langone, Kim; Liefers, Gerrit Jan; Shak, Steve; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2014-11-01

    The 12-gene Recurrence Score assay is a validated predictor of recurrence risk in stage II and III colon cancer patients. We conducted a prospectively designed study to validate this assay for prediction of recurrence risk in stage II and III rectal cancer patients from the Dutch Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) trial. RNA was extracted from fixed paraffin-embedded primary rectal tumor tissue from stage II and III patients randomized to TME surgery alone, without (neo)adjuvant treatment. Recurrence Score was assessed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction using previously validated colon cancer genes and algorithm. Data were analysed by Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for stage and resection margin status. All statistical tests were two-sided. Recurrence Score predicted risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11 to 2.21, P = .01), risk of distant recurrence (HR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.04 to 2.17, P = .03), and rectal cancer-specific survival (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.15 to 2.34, P = .007). The effect of Recurrence Score was most prominent in stage II patients and attenuated with more advanced stage (P(interaction) ≤ .007 for each endpoint). In stage II, five-year cumulative incidence of recurrence ranged from 11.1% in the predefined low Recurrence Score group (48.5% of patients) to 43.3% in the high Recurrence Score group (23.1% of patients). The 12-gene Recurrence Score is a predictor of recurrence risk and cancer-specific survival in rectal cancer patients treated with surgery alone, suggesting a similar underlying biology in colon and rectal cancers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Risk preference or financial literacy? Behavioural experiment on index insurance demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awel, Y.; Azomahou, T.T.

    2015-01-01

    We use unique cross-sectional household data from Ethiopia to investigate the effect of risk preference, financial literacy and other socio-economic characteristics on demand for index insurance. We measure risk preference based on survey experiments using lottery choice game with real monetary

  9. The relative influence of individual risk factors for attempted suicide in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Na, Peter J; Geske, Jennifer R; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Biernacka, Joanna M

    2018-01-01

    To compare the relative influence (RI) of individual predictors for lifetime attempted suicide between adults with bipolar I (BDBD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BDBD-II). We conducted an analysis of data from 1465 enrollees in the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank. Demographic and clinical variables and history of attempted suicide were ascertained using standardized questionnaires. Height and weight were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI); obesity was defined as BMI ≥30kg/m 2 . The frequencies of these variables were compared between persons with and without self-reported lifetime suicide attempts both overall, and within BD-I and BD-II subgroups. Gradient boosting machine (GBM) models were used to quantify the RI of study variables on the risk of lifetime attempted suicide. Nearly one-third of patients reported having a lifetime suicide attempt. Attempted suicide rates were higher in patients with BD-I than BD-II, but absolute differences were small. Lifetime attempted suicide was associated with female sex, BD-I subtype, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities, binge eating behavior, lifetime history of rapid cycling, other indicators of adverse illness course, and early age of bipolar illness onset in the entire cohort. Differences in the rank-ordering of RI for predictors of attempted suicide between BD-I and BD-II patients were modest. Rapid cycling was a strong risk factor for attempted suicide, particularly in men with BD-I. Actively psychotic or suicidal patients needing psychiatric hospitalization were initially excluded, but were approached after these acute psychiatric problems resolved. The prevalence of lifetime attempted suicide was significantly higher in BD-I than BD-II in this large, cross-sectional cohort. Predictors of attempted suicide were similar in BD-I and BD-II subgroups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Long-term experiences with pluvial flood risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritsch Kathrina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of pluvial (rain-related flood risk has grown significantly in the past few years but pluvial flooding is not handled with the same intensity throughout Europe. A variety of methods and modelling technologies are used to assess pluvial flood hazard and risk and to develop suggestions for flood mitigation measures. A brief overview of current model approaches is followed by the description of a modelling methodology that has been developed throughout the last 15 years with the focus on processing large scale areas. Experiences from several projects show that only high quality models of whole catchment areas yield results with enough accuracy to gain credibility among stakeholders, planners and the public. As a best practice example shows, the model approach also helps to plan effective decentral flood protection measures. To ensure successful flood risk management, a long-term preservation of flood risk awareness among local authorities and the public is necessary.

  11. Prevention of type II diabetes mellitus in Qatar: Who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christos, Paul J; Chemaitelly, Hiam; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Ali Zirie, Mahmoud; Deleu, Dirk; Mushlin, Alvin I

    2014-01-01

    Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading chronic diseases in Qatar as well as worldwide. However, the risk factors for DM in Qatar and their prevalence are not well understood. We conducted a case-control study with the specific aim of estimating, based on data from outpatients with DM in Qatar (cases) and outpatient/inpatient controls, the association between demographic/lifestyle factors and DM. A total of 459 patients with DM from Hamad General Hospital (HGH) outpatient adult diabetes clinics, and 342 control patients from various outpatient clinics and inpatient departments within Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) (years 2006-2008), were recruited. The association between risk factors and DM was evaluated using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses. In addition to odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), we estimated the population attributable risk fractions for the DM demographic/lifestyle risk factors. Qatari nationality was the strongest risk factor for DM (adjusted OR = 5.5; 95% CI = 3.5-8.6; p 65 years (adjusted OR = 3.3; 95% CI = 0.9-11.4; p = 0.06), male gender (adjusted OR = 2.9; 95% CI = 1.8-4.8; p nationals, obesity was found to be the main risk factor for DM (unadjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.6-5.6; p nationals. Promoting physical activity may reduce the burden of DM by up to 9.4% for the population at large and up to 17.3% for Qatari nationals. Demographic/lifestyle factors appear to be the main risk factors for the high DM levels observed in Qatar, with a contribution that outweighs that of genetic risk factors. While further evaluation of DM risk factors among the Qatari population (as opposed to the resident population) is important and of interest, these findings highlight the need to focus short-term DM interventions on addressing demographic/lifestyle risk factors to achieve substantial and timely declines in DM levels.

  12. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  13. Experience with MODSIM II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streets, J.; Berg, D.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Slimmer, D.

    1992-02-01

    We present results of computer simulations for Data Acquisition systems for large fixed target experiments in an object oriented simulation language, MODSIM. This paper summarizes our experiences and presents preliminary results from the simulation already completed. We also indicate the resources required for this project

  14. The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, T. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bozek, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); and others

    2016-07-11

    The silicon vertex detector of the Belle II experiment, structured in a lantern shape, consists of four layers of ladders, fabricated from two to five silicon sensors. The APV25 readout ASIC chips are mounted on one side of the ladder to minimize the signal path for reducing the capacitive noise; signals from the sensor backside are transmitted to the chip by bent flexible fan-out circuits. The ladder is assembled using several dedicated jigs. Sensor motion on the jig is minimized by vacuum chucking. The gluing procedure provides such a rigid foundation that later leads to the desired wire bonding performance. The full ladder with electrically functional sensors is consistently completed with a fully developed assembly procedure, and its sensor offsets from the design values are found to be less than 200 μm. The potential functionality of the ladder is also demonstrated by the radioactive source test.

  15. Type II diabetes mellitus and the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer in the cancer prevention study-II nutrition cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Patel, Alpa V; Diver, W Ryan; Hildebrand, Janet S; Gaudet, Mia M; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2012-11-01

    Despite consistent associations of type II diabetes mellitus with hormonally related cancers such as breast and endometrium, the relation between type II diabetes mellitus and ovarian cancer risk is unclear. Associations of type II diabetes mellitus status, duration, and insulin use with epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and with serous and nonserous histologic subtypes were examined in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective study of U.S. men and women predominantly aged 50 years and older. Between 1992 and 2007, 524 incident epithelial ovarian cancer cases were identified among 63,440 postmenopausal women. Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using extended Cox regression to update diabetes status and bilateral oophorectomy status during follow-up. Type II diabetes mellitus status (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.75-1.46) and duration were not associated with epithelial ovarian cancer risk. Although not statistically significantly different (P(difference) = 0.39), the RR was higher for type II diabetes mellitus with insulin use (RR = 1.28; 95% CI, 0.74-2.24) than for type II diabetes mellitus without insulin use (RR = 0.96; 95% CI, 0.64-1.43). Diabetes seemed to be more strongly associated with nonserous (RR = 1.41; 95% CI, 0.70-2.85) than serous (RR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.41-1.23) histologic subtypes. Type II diabetes mellitus was not associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, although higher risks with nonserous subtypes and among insulin users cannot be ruled out. Larger studies are needed to clarify associations of type II diabetes mellitus with or without insulin use with risk of ovarian cancer overall and by histologic subtypes. ©2012 AACR.

  16. Optimizing beam transport in rapidly compressing beams on the neutralized drift compression experimentII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton D. Stepanov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II is an induction linac that generates intense pulses of 1.2 MeV helium ions for heating matter to extreme conditions. Here, we present recent results on optimizing beam transport. The NDCX-II beamline includes a 1-m-long drift section downstream of the last transport solenoid, which is filled with charge-neutralizing plasma that enables rapid longitudinal compression of an intense ion beam against space-charge forces. The transport section on NDCX-II consists of 28 solenoids. Finding optimal field settings for a group of solenoids requires knowledge of the envelope parameters of the beam. Imaging the beam on the scintillator gives the radius of the beam, but the envelope angle is not measured directly. We demonstrate how the parameters of the beam envelope (radius, envelop angle, and emittance can be reconstructed from a series of images taken by varying the B-field strengths of a solenoid upstream of the scintillator. We use this technique to evaluate emittance at several points in the NDCX-II beamline and for optimizing the trajectory of the beam at the entry of the plasma-filled drift section. Keywords: Charged-particle beams, Induction accelerators, Beam dynamics, Beam emittance, Ion beam diagnostics, PACS Codes: 41.75.-i, 41.85.Ja, 52.59.Sa, 52.59.Wd, 29.27.Eg

  17. Operational risk and e-banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerbu, R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Banking involves a variety of risks. Under Basel II, the main risks are the monitored credit risk, market risk and operational risk. Frequently, operational risks are underestimated, considering that they would not affect the optimal activity of a bank. However, past experience of some credit institutions have shown that operational risk is an important cause of financial losses in the banking sector. Operational risk is generated by a complex of factors that manifests primarily as a result of direct customer interaction with the credit institution. In this context, the provision of e-banking services reduces direct contact with bank customers and thus reduces potential losses arising from operational risk. In sum, we consider it necessary to be aware of the link between operational risk and e-banking services promoted by banks and of the importance of this connection especially in a financial environment affected by the financial crisis.

  18. Antecedents of Young Women's Sexual Risk Taking in Tourist Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdychevsky, Liza

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.

  19. Experiments in a 600m borehole in the Asse II salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijdra, J.J.

    1992-07-01

    In the design and fabrication of underground disposal sites for radio-active waste in salt formations and the assessment of the safety of such disposal facilities, the thermo-mechanical behaviour of rock salt plays an important role. In previous research programmes models have been developed which need to be verified by in-situ experiments. It has been proven during the COSA project that computations based on laboratory scale experiments do not agree with in-situ measurements. Based on the experiments performed already and on the associated validation work, two items were considered to be of special concern, viz. the consecutive behaviour of rock salt and the rock pressure in the Asse salt mine. A particular problem in the constitutive relations is the elastic or apparent elastic behaviour of rock salt. It appeared that the salt around openings is weaker than could be expected on the basis of laboratory experiments. Possible explanations are primary creep and the weakening effect of micro cracks. In the research programme discussed here, in-situ experiments will be carried out in the Asse II salt mine in the Federal Republic of Germany. The measurements will be carried out in dry drilled boreholes. The development of the drilling technique was part of a related programme carried out under supervision of GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit (Research Centre for Environment and Health). (author). 3 refs

  20. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II measurements of the quasi-biennial oscillations in ozone and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Joseph M.; Mccormick, M. P.

    1991-01-01

    The first measurements ever to show a quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in NO2 have been made by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II) (SAGE II) and are presented in this work along with observations of the well-known QBO in stratospheric ozone. The SAGE II instrument was launched aboard the Earth Radiation Budget satellite near the end of 1984. Measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide through early 1990 are analyzed for the presence of a quasi-biennial oscillation. The measurements show the global extent of both the O3 and NO2 QBO in the 25- to 40-km region of the stratosphere. The SAGE II QBO results for ozone compare favorably to theory and previous measurements. The QBO in NO2 is found to be consistent with the vertical and horizontal transport of NOy. Both species exhibit a QBO at extratropical latitudes consistent with strong meridional transport into the winter hemisphere.

  1. The same ELA class II risk factors confer equine insect bite hypersensitivity in two distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Lisa S; Swinburne, June E; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Broström, Hans; Eriksson, Susanne; Fikse, W Freddy; Frey, Rebecka; Sundquist, Marie; Tseng, Chia T; Mikko, Sofia; Lindgren, Gabriella

    2012-03-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) is a chronic allergic dermatitis common in horses. Affected horses mainly react against antigens present in the saliva from the biting midges, Culicoides ssp, and occasionally black flies, Simulium ssp. Because of this insect dependency, the disease is clearly seasonal and prevalence varies between geographical locations. For two distinct horse breeds, we genotyped four microsatellite markers positioned within the MHC class II region and sequenced the highly polymorphic exons two from DRA and DRB3, respectively. Initially, 94 IBH-affected and 93 unaffected Swedish born Icelandic horses were tested for genetic association. These horses had previously been genotyped on the Illumina Equine SNP50 BeadChip, which made it possible to ensure that our study did not suffer from the effects of stratification. The second population consisted of 106 unaffected and 80 IBH-affected Exmoor ponies. We show that variants in the MHC class II region are associated with disease susceptibility (p (raw) = 2.34 × 10(-5)), with the same allele (COR112:274) associated in two separate populations. In addition, we combined microsatellite and sequencing data in order to investigate the pattern of homozygosity and show that homozygosity across the entire MHC class II region is associated with a higher risk of developing IBH (p = 0.0013). To our knowledge this is the first time in any atopic dermatitis suffering species, including man, where the same risk allele has been identified in two distinct populations.

  2. Quantile uncertainty and value-at-risk model risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carol; Sarabia, José María

    2012-08-01

    This article develops a methodology for quantifying model risk in quantile risk estimates. The application of quantile estimates to risk assessment has become common practice in many disciplines, including hydrology, climate change, statistical process control, insurance and actuarial science, and the uncertainty surrounding these estimates has long been recognized. Our work is particularly important in finance, where quantile estimates (called Value-at-Risk) have been the cornerstone of banking risk management since the mid 1980s. A recent amendment to the Basel II Accord recommends additional market risk capital to cover all sources of "model risk" in the estimation of these quantiles. We provide a novel and elegant framework whereby quantile estimates are adjusted for model risk, relative to a benchmark which represents the state of knowledge of the authority that is responsible for model risk. A simulation experiment in which the degree of model risk is controlled illustrates how to quantify Value-at-Risk model risk and compute the required regulatory capital add-on for banks. An empirical example based on real data shows how the methodology can be put into practice, using only two time series (daily Value-at-Risk and daily profit and loss) from a large bank. We conclude with a discussion of potential applications to nonfinancial risks. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. School-Related Stress Experience as a Risk Factor for Bullying Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natvig, Gerd Karin; Albrektsen, Grethe; Qvarnstrom, Ulla

    2001-01-01

    Studied associations between bullying behavior and school-related stress experience, self-efficacy, social support, and decision control in a sample of 885 Norwegian adolescents aged 13-15 years. Increasing school alienation was associated with an increased risk of bullying, while increasing support from teachers and peers decreased the risk.…

  4. Designing the KNK II-TOAST irradiation experiment with the saturn-FS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritzhaupt-Kleissl, H.J.; Elbel, H.; Heck, M.

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the existing specification of FBR fuel with respect to allowable fabrication tolerances with the objective to reduce the expense of fabrication and quality control, the TOAST irradiation experiment will be carried out in the 3 rd core of the KNK II. This experiment shall investigate the influence of the following fuel specification parameters on the operational behaviour: - Fuel diameter - Stoichiometry - Sintering atmosphere - Fill gas in the fuel pin. The combination of these test parameters led to a fabrication of 6 types of fuel pellets, giving together with two fill gas mixtures a total of 9 fuel pin types. Design calculations in the frame of the standard licensing procedure have been performed with the SATURN-FS fuel pin behaviour code. These calculations have been done for the steady-state behaviour as well as for some defined design transients, such as startup procedures and overpower ramps

  5. Elite athletes experiences with risk related to cardiac screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jonas Schmidt; Thing, Lone Friis

    Society of Cardiology as well as major sports federations such as the International Olympic Committee, however, these recommendations seem to be based on an inadequate empirical foundation, just as the costs of performing cardiac screening on a larger scale seem out of proportion. Additionally, the field...... perspective on risk (Foucault 1988). For most elite athletes participation in cardiac screening is done out of a wish to obtain an acquittal from risks. Symptomatic of the risk society cardiac screening can from an athlete perspective at the same time be seen as an attempt to gain control over......Elite Athletes experiences with risks related to Cardiac Screening Jonas Schmidt Christensen1, Lone Friis Thing1 1University of Copenhagen - Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Cardiac screening of elite athletes are recommended by both the American Heart Association & the European...

  6. Developing of risk-hedging CO2-emission policy. Part II: risks associated with measures to limit emissions, synthesis and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is Part II of a two-part series in which the risk associated with unrestrained greenhouse-gas emissions, and with measures to limit emissions, are reviewed. The following risks associated with these efforts to limit CO 2 emissions are reviewed here: (1) resources might be diverted from other urgent needs; (2) economic growth might be reduced; (3) reduction measures might cost more than expected; (4) early action might cost more than later action; (5) reduction measures might have undesired side effects; (6) reduction measures might require heavy-handed government intervention; and (7) reduction measures might not work. With gradual implementation of a diversified portfolio of measures, these risks can be greatly reduced. Based on the review of risks associated with measures to limit emissions here, and the review of the risk associated with unrestrained emissions presented in Part I, it is concluded that a reasonable near-term (20-30 year) risk hedging strategy is one which seeks to stabilize global fossil CO 2 emissions at the present (early 1990s) level. This is turn implies an emission reduction of 26% for industrialized countries as a whole and 40-50% for Canada and the USA if developing country emissions are to increase by no more than 60%, which in itself would require major assistance from the industrialized countries. The framework and conclusions presented here are critically compared with so-called optimization frameworks. 82 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  7. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS-II) Experiment: First Results from the Soudan Mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Clarence Leeder [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    There is an abundance of evidence that the majority of the mass of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic non-luminous matter that was non-relativistic at the time when matter began to dominate the energy density. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, are attractive cold dark matter candidates because they would have a relic abundance today of ~0.1 which is consistent with precision cosmological measurements. WIMPs are also well motivated theoretically. Many minimal supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model have WIMPs in the form of the lightest supersymmetric partner, typically taken to be the neutralino. The CDMS II experiment searches for WIMPs via their elastic scattering off of nuclei. The experiment uses Ge and Si ZIP detectors, operated at <50 mK, which simultaneously measure the ionization and athermal phonons produced by the scattering of an external particle. The dominant background for the experiment comes from electromagnetic interactions taking place very close to the detector surface. Analysis of the phonon signal from these interactions makes it possible to discriminate them from interactions caused by WIMPs. This thesis presents the details of an important aspect of the phonon pulse shape analysis known as the ''Lookup Table Correction''. The Lookup Table Correction is a position dependent calibration of the ZIP phonon response which improves the rejection of events scattering near the detector surface. The CDMS collaboration has recently commissioned its experimental installation at the Soudan Mine. This thesis presents an analysis of the data from the first WIMP search at the Soudan Mine. The results of this analysis set the world's lowest exclusion limit making the CDMS II experiment at Soudan the most sensitive WIMP search to this date.

  8. Removal of cadmium, copper, nickel, cobalt and mercury from water by Apatite II{sup TM}: Column experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Josep [Department of Mining Engineering and Natural Resou-rces, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Bases de Manresa 61-73, 08242 Manresa, Catalonia (Spain); De Pablo, Joan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cortina, Jose-Luis, E-mail: jose.luis.cortina@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Water Technology Center, CETaqua, Paseo de los Tilos 3, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Cama, Jordi; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA, CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} The efficiency of Apatite II{sup TM} increases as the acidity decreases, then the application of apatite-based materials for metal removal treatments should be restricted to slightly acid to neutral waters. {yields} Because of the preferred process of using phosphate ions to form metal-phosphate precipitates, the mixture with other sources of alkalinity, such as limestone, is proposed to extend the duration of Apatite II{sup TM}. {yields} Compared with other reactive materials such as limestone and caustic magnesia that exhibit a reduction of porosity Apatite II{sup TM} showed stable hydraulic performance. {yields} The extrapolation of the column durabilities to a 1-m-thick passive treatment suggests that the Apatite II{sup TM} filling can be active between 5 and 10 years for an inflow pH exceeding 5. - Abstract: Apatite II{sup TM}, a biogenic hydroxyapatite, was evaluated as a reactive material for heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni and Hg) removal in passive treatments. Apatite II{sup TM} reacts with acid water by releasing phosphates that increase the pH up to 6.5-7.5, complexing and inducing metals to precipitate as metal phosphates. The evolution of the solution concentration of calcium, phosphate and metals together with SEM-EDS and XRD examinations were used to identify the retention mechanisms. SEM observation shows low-crystalline precipitate layers composed of P, O and M. Only in the case of Hg and Co were small amounts of crystalline phases detected. Solubility data values were used to predict the measured column experiment values and to support the removal process based on the dissolution of hydroxyapatite, the formation of metal-phosphate species in solution and the precipitation of metal phosphate. Cd{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}OH(s), Cu{sub 2}(PO{sub 4})OH(s), Ni{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s), Co{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}8H{sub 2}O(s) and Hg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) are proposed as the possible mineral phases responsible for the removal

  9. Genetic Risk by Experience Interaction for Childhood Internalizing Problems: Converging Evidence across Multiple Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew K.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    Background: Identifying how genetic risk interacts with experience to predict psychopathology is an important step toward understanding the etiology of mental health problems. Few studies have examined genetic risk by experience interaction (GxE) in the development of childhood psychopathology. Methods: We used both co-twin and parent mental…

  10. Perception of earthquake risk in Taiwan: effects of gender and past earthquake experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Yi-Wen; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2012-09-01

    This study explored how individuals in Taiwan perceive the risk of earthquake and the relationship of past earthquake experience and gender to risk perception. Participants (n= 1,405), including earthquake survivors and those in the general population without prior direct earthquake exposure, were selected and interviewed through a computer-assisted telephone interviewing procedure using a random sampling and stratification method covering all 24 regions of Taiwan. A factor analysis of the interview data yielded a two-factor structure of risk perception in regard to earthquake. The first factor, "personal impact," encompassed perception of threat and fear related to earthquakes. The second factor, "controllability," encompassed a sense of efficacy of self-protection in regard to earthquakes. The findings indicated prior earthquake survivors and females reported higher scores on the personal impact factor than males and those with no prior direct earthquake experience, although there were no group differences on the controllability factor. The findings support that risk perception has multiple components, and suggest that past experience (survivor status) and gender (female) affect the perception of risk. Exploration of potential contributions of other demographic factors such as age, education, and marital status to personal impact, especially for females and survivors, is discussed. Future research on and intervention program with regard to risk perception are suggested accordingly. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part I: Impact of Salinity, Initial pH and Initial Zn(II Concentration in Atmospheric Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of inorganic elements on carbonate minerals is well known in strictly controlled conditions which limit the impact of other phenomena such as dissolution and/or precipitation. In this study, we evidence the behavior of Zn(II (initially in solution and two trace elements, Mn(II and Sr(II (released by carbonate dissolution in the context of a leakage from a CO2 storage site. The initial pH chosen are either equal to the pH of the water-CO2 equilibrium (~ 2.98 or equal to the pH of the water-CO2-calcite system (~ 4.8 in CO2 storage conditions. From this initial influx of liquid, saturated or not with respect to calcite, the batch experiments evolve freely to their equilibrium, as it would occur in a natural context after a perturbation. The batch experiments are carried out on two natural carbonates (from Lavoux and St-Emilion with PCO2 = 10−3.5 bar, with different initial conditions ([Zn(II]i from 10−4 to 10−6 M, either with pure water or 100 g/L NaCl brine. The equilibrium regarding calcite dissolution is confirmed in all experiments, while the zinc sorption evidenced does not always correspond to the two-step mechanism described in the literature. A preferential sorption of about 10% of the concentration is evidenced for Mn(II in aqueous experiments, while Sr(II is more sorbed in saline conditions. This study also shows that this preferential sorption, depending on the salinity, is independent of the natural carbonate considered. Then, the simulations carried out with PHREEQC show that experiments and simulations match well concerning the equilibrium of dissolution and the sole zinc sorption, with log KZn(II ~ 2 in pure water and close to 4 in high salinity conditions. When the simulations were possible, the log K values for Mn(II and Sr(II were much different from those in the literature obtained by sorption in controlled conditions. It is shown that a new conceptual model regarding multiple Trace Elements (TE sorption is

  12. Biosorption of Fe (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution using a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Biosorption of Fe (II) and Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution using a low cost ... human activities in the environment poses a lot of risk ... ion exchange or reverse osmosis, electrochemical treatment ..... is the adsorption coefficient, n indicates the.

  13. EU Kids Online II Dataset: A Cross-National Study of Children's Use of the Internet and Its Associated Opportunities and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia; Cagiltay, Kursat; Ólafsson, Kjartan

    2015-01-01

    In the EU Kids Online II project, data were collected from children and parents via in-home face-to-face interviews in 25 European countries to examine children's Internet use, activities and skills, the risk of harm they encountered, parental awareness, and safety strategies regarding children's Internet use and risks. The project provides…

  14. LEVIS lithium ion source experiments on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Lopez, M.; Clark, B.F.; Schroeder, J.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Carlson, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    PBFA-II is a pulsed power generator designed to apply up to a 25 MV, 20 ns pulse to a focusing 15 cm-radius Applied-B ion diode for inertial confinement fusion applications. Several different approaches have been pursued to produce a high-purity (> 90%), high-current density (5--10 kA/cm 2 ) singly ionized lithium ion source for acceleration in this diode. In addition to having high source purity, such a source should be active, i.e. the ions should be produced before the power pulse arrives, to provide better electrical coupling from the accelerator to the diode. In the LEVIS (Laser EVaporation Ion Source) process, energy from two lasers impinges on a thin (500 nm) lithium or lithium-bearing film on an insulating substrate. The authors will discuss a new series of LEVIS experiments, with a number of improvements: (1) the laser distribution cone was redesigned, resulting in a more uniform illumination of the 4 cm-tall Li-producing surface; (2) the anode surface is being slow-heated to 120--150 C to help drive off contaminants; and (3) they have expanded the number of source and beam diagnostics

  15. Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The standard model of elementary particle physics (SM) predicts, besides the top-quark pair production via the strong interaction, also the electroweak production of single top-quarks (19). Up to now, the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton-collider is the only place to produce and study top quarks emerging from hadron-hadron-collisions. Top quarks were directly observed in 1995 during the Tevatron Run I at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.8 TeV simultaneously by the CDF and D0 Collaborations via the strong production of top-quark pairs. Run II of the Tevatron data taking period started 2001 at √s = 1.96 TeV after a five year upgrade of the Tevatron accelerator complex and of both experiments. One main component of its physics program is the determination of the properties of the top quark including its electroweak production. Even though Run II is still ongoing, the study of the top quark is already a successful endeavor, confirmed by dozens of publications from both Tevatron experiments. A comprehensive review of top-quark physics can be found in reference. The reasons for searching for single top-quark production are compelling. As the electroweak top-quark production proceeds via a Wtb vertex, it provides the unique opportunity of the direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |V tb |, which is expected to be |V tb | ∼ 1 in the SM. Significant deviations from unity could be an indication of a fourth quark generation, a production mode via flavor-changing neutral currents, and other new phenomena, respectively. There are two dominating electroweak top-quark production modes at the Fermilab Tevatron: the t-channel exchange of a virtual W boson striking a b quark and the s-channel production of a timelike W boson via the fusion of two quarks. In proton-antiproton-collisions the third electroweak production mode, the associated Wt production of an on-shell W boson in conjunction with a top quark has a comparatively negligible small predicted cross section

  16. Observation of Electroweak Single Top-Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, Jan [Karlsruhe Inst. of Technology (Germany)

    2009-07-24

    The standard model of elementary particle physics (SM) predicts, besides the top-quark pair production via the strong interaction, also the electroweak production of single top-quarks [19]. Up to now, the Fermilab Tevatron proton-antiproton-collider is the only place to produce and study top quarks emerging from hadron-hadron-collisions. Top quarks were directly observed in 1995 during the Tevatron Run I at a center-of-mass energy of √s = 1.8 TeV simultaneously by the CDF and D0 Collaborations via the strong production of top-quark pairs. Run II of the Tevatron data taking period started 2001 at √s = 1.96 TeV after a five year upgrade of the Tevatron accelerator complex and of both experiments. One main component of its physics program is the determination of the properties of the top quark including its electroweak production. Even though Run II is still ongoing, the study of the top quark is already a successful endeavor, confirmed by dozens of publications from both Tevatron experiments. A comprehensive review of top-quark physics can be found in reference. The reasons for searching for single top-quark production are compelling. As the electroweak top-quark production proceeds via a Wtb vertex, it provides the unique opportunity of the direct measurement of the CKM matrix element |Vtb|, which is expected to be |Vtb| ~ 1 in the SM. Significant deviations from unity could be an indication of a fourth quark generation, a production mode via flavor-changing neutral currents, and other new phenomena, respectively. There are two dominating electroweak top-quark production modes at the Fermilab Tevatron: the t-channel exchange of a virtual W boson striking a b quark and the s-channel production of a timelike W boson via the fusion of two quarks. In proton-antiproton-collisions the third electroweak production mode, the associated Wt production of an on-shell W boson in conjunction with a top quark has a comparatively negligible small

  17. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Giacaman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years. Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to complete the Cariogram: caries experience, diet (content and frequency, stimulated salivary flow, hygiene index, related diseases and fluoride usage. The percentages of "chances of avoiding new lesions" (caries risk were obtained from Cariogram, and the subjects were classified into five risk groups. Results were compared for each variable with ANOVA, and a correlation between caries and Cariogram variables was calculated by Pearson's correlation coefficient. A multivariate regression model was also used. Only three patients were classified as low risk, and none were classified as very low risk. Thus, only the four upper quintiles were considered for the analysis, and the lower quintile was not considered in the study. Neither DMFT nor the number of lesions were significantly different among the Cariogram's risk categories (p > 0.05. Only diet content was significantly correlated with caries experience (p = 0.006. Caries lesions failed to correlate with any Cariogram variable (p > 0.05. Age, not sex or caries risk scores, showed a strong and positive association with DMFT (p < 0.01. Caries risk from Cariogram appears to be unrelated with caries experience or caries lesions in a high-caries adult population.

  18. Li+ alumino-silicate ion source development for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Greenway, W.; Kwan, J.W.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2011-01-01

    To heat targets to electron-volt temperatures for the study of warm dense matter with intense ion beams, low mass ions, such as lithium, have an energy loss peak (dE/dx) at a suitable kinetic energy. The Heavy Ion Fusion Sciences (HIFS) program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory will carry out warm dense matter experiments using Li + ion beam with energy 1.2-4 MeV in order to achieve uniform heating up to 0.1-1 eV. The accelerator physics design of Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) has a pulse length at the ion source of about 0.5 (micro)s. Thus for producing 50 nC of beam charge, the required beam current is about 100 mA. Focusability requires a normalized (edge) emittance ∼2 π-mm-mrad. Here, lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, of β-eucryptite, are being studied within the scope of NDCX-II construction. Several small (0.64 cm diameter) lithium aluminosilicate ion sources, on 70%-80% porous tungsten substrate, were operated in a pulsed mode. The distance between the source surface and the mid-plane of the extraction electrode (1 cm diameter aperture) was 1.48 cm. The source surface temperature was at 1220 C to 1300 C. A 5-6 (micro)s long beam pulsed was recorded by a Faraday cup (+300 V on the collector plate and -300 V on the suppressor ring). Figure 1 shows measured beam current density (J) vs. V 3/2 . A space-charge limited beam density of ∼1 mA/cm 2 was measured at 1275 C temperature, after allowing a conditioning time of about ∼ 12 hours. Maximum emission limited beam current density of (ge) 1.8mA/cm 2 was recorded at 1300 C with 10-kV extractions. Figure 2 shows the lifetime of two typical sources with space-charge limited beam current emission at a lower extraction voltage (1.75 kV) and at temperature of 1265 ± 7 C. These data demonstrate a constant, space-charge limited beam current for 20-50 hours. The lifetime of a source is determined by the loss of lithium from the alumino-silicate material either as ions or as neutral

  19. Preparation of a Cobalt(II) Cage: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment That Produces a ParaSHIFT Agent for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick J.; Tsitovich, Pavel B.; Morrow, Janet R.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory experiments that demonstrate the effect of paramagnetic complexes on chemical shifts and relaxation times of protons are a useful way to introduce magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) probes or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. In this undergraduate inorganic chemistry experiment, a paramagnetic Co(II) cage complex is…

  20. Clinical assessment of class II resin-based composites versus preformed metal crowns performed on primary molars in patients at high risk of caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyahya, A; Khanum, A; Qudeimat, M

    2018-02-01

    To compare class II resin composite with preformed metal crowns (PMC) in the treatment of proximal dentinal caries in high caries-risk patients. The charts (270) of paediatric patients with proximal caries of their primary molars were reviewed. Success or failure of a procedure was assessed using the dental notes. Survival analysis was used to calculate the mean survival time (MST) for both procedures. The influence of variables on the mean survival time was investigated. A total of 593 class II resin composites and 243 PMCs were placed in patients ranging between 4-13 years of age. The failure percentage of class II resin composites was 22.6% with the majority having been due to recurrent caries, while the failure percentage of PMCs was 15.2% with the majority due to loss of the crown. There was no significant difference between the MST of class II resin composites and PMCs, 41.3 and 45.6 months respectively (p value = 0.06). In class II resin composites, mesial restorations were associated with lower MST compared to distal restorations (p-value composites and PMCs were comparable when performed on high caries-risk patients.

  1. Relationship between adverse childhood experiences and homelessness and the impact of axis I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Katz, Laurence Y; Distasio, Jino; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, and included 34,653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%-60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways.

  2. RTNS-II: experience at 14-MeV source strengths between 1 x 1013 and 4 x 1013 n/s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    The design concepts, operational experience, and modifications of the two RTNS-II (Rotating Target Neutron Source-II) 14 MeV neutron sources are reviewed. The original design called for operation at a peak neutron source strength of 4 x 10 13 n/cm 2 s. The facility was to operate at high plant factor and at an acceptable cost in both dose delivered to operating staff and releases to the environment. The possibilities of higher source strengths are discussed in light of the operating experience to date and of new technologies that may be applied to the problems of high flux generators of this type. Changes in ancillary equipment that would provide more efficient or safe operation are also indicated

  3. Validating the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II) Using Set-ESEM: Identifying Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Sample of School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicke, Theresa; Marsh, Herbert W; Riley, Philip; Parker, Philip D; Guo, Jiesi; Horwood, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    School principals world-wide report high levels of strain and attrition resulting in a shortage of qualified principals. It is thus crucial to identify psychosocial risk factors that reflect principals' occupational wellbeing. For this purpose, we used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ-II), a widely used self-report measure covering multiple psychosocial factors identified by leading occupational stress theories. We evaluated the COPSOQ-II regarding factor structure and longitudinal, discriminant, and convergent validity using latent structural equation modeling in a large sample of Australian school principals ( N = 2,049). Results reveal that confirmatory factor analysis produced marginally acceptable model fit. A novel approach we call set exploratory structural equation modeling (set-ESEM), where cross-loadings were only allowed within a priori defined sets of factors, fit well, and was more parsimonious than a full ESEM. Further multitrait-multimethod models based on the set-ESEM confirm the importance of a principal's psychosocial risk factors; Stressors and depression were related to demands and ill-being, while confidence and autonomy were related to wellbeing. We also show that working in the private sector was beneficial for showing a low psychosocial risk, while other demographics have little effects. Finally, we identify five latent risk profiles (high risk to no risk) of school principals based on all psychosocial factors. Overall the research presented here closes the theory application gap of a strong multi-dimensional measure of psychosocial risk-factors.

  4. SAMGrid experiences with the Condor technology in Run II computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranovski, A.; Loebel-Carpenter, L.; Garzoglio, G.; Herber, R.; Illingworth, R.; Kennedy, R.; Kreymer, A.; Kumar, A.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A.; Merritt, W.; Terekhov, I.; Trumbo, J.; Veseli, S.; White, S.; St. Denis, R.; Jain, S.; Nishandar, A.

    2004-01-01

    SAMGrid is a globally distributed system for data handling and job management, developed at Fermilab for the D0 and CDF experiments in Run II. The Condor system is being developed at the University of Wisconsin for management of distributed resources, computational and otherwise. We briefly review the SAMGrid architecture and its interaction with Condor, which was presented earlier. We then present our experiences using the system in production, which have two distinct aspects. At the global level, we deployed Condor-G, the Grid-extended Condor, for the resource brokering and global scheduling of our jobs. At the heart of the system is Condor's Matchmaking Service. As a more recent work at the computing element level, we have been benefiting from the large computing cluster at the University of Wisconsin campus. The architecture of the computing facility and the philosophy of Condor's resource management have prompted us to improve the application infrastructure for D0 and CDF, in aspects such as parting with the shared file system or reliance on resources being dedicated. As a result, we have increased productivity and made our applications more portable and Grid-ready. Our fruitful collaboration with the Condor team has been made possible by the Particle Physics Data Grid

  5. Does Market Experience Attenuate Risk Aversion? Evidence from Landed Farm Households in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melesse, Mequanint Biset; Cecchi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Risk preferences are important drivers of many relevant economic decisions of farm households. High risk aversion is a well-known trigger of "poverty traps" for farm households in developing countries. This paper analyzes the effect of market experience on risk aversion for a relatively large sample

  6. Does Market Experience Attenuate Risk Aversion? Evidence from Landed Farm Households in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melesse, Mequanint B.; Cecchi, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Risk preferences are important drivers of many relevant economic decisions of farm households. High risk aversion is a well-known trigger of "poverty traps" for farm households in developing countries. This paper analyzes the effect of market experience on risk aversion for a relatively large

  7. Imaging radar observations of Farley Buneman waves during the JOULE II experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Hysell

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Vector electric fields and associated E×B drifts measured by a sounding rocket in the auroral zone during the NASA JOULE II experiment in January 2007, are compared with coherent scatter spectra measured by a 30 MHz radar imager in a common volume. Radar imaging permits precise collocation of the spectra with the background electric field. The Doppler shifts and spectral widths appear to be governed by the cosine and sine of the convection flow angle, respectively, and also proportional to the presumptive ion acoustic speed. The neutral wind also contributes to the Doppler shifts. These findings are consistent with those from the JOULE I experiment and also with recent numerical simulations of Farley Buneman waves and instabilities carried out by Oppenheim et al. (2008. Simple linear analysis of the waves offers some insights into the spectral moments. A formula relating the spectral width to the flow angle, ion acoustic speed, and other ionospheric parameters is derived.

  8. Using Discrete Choice Experiments to Inform the Benefit-Risk Assessment of Medicines: Are We Ready Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vass, Caroline M; Payne, Katherine

    2017-09-01

    There is emerging interest in the use of discrete choice experiments as a means of quantifying the perceived balance between benefits and risks (quantitative benefit-risk assessment) of new healthcare interventions, such as medicines, under assessment by regulatory agencies. For stated preference data on benefit-risk assessment to be used in regulatory decision making, the methods to generate these data must be valid, reliable and capable of producing meaningful estimates understood by decision makers. Some reporting guidelines exist for discrete choice experiments, and for related methods such as conjoint analysis. However, existing guidelines focus on reporting standards, are general in focus and do not consider the requirements for using discrete choice experiments specifically for quantifying benefit-risk assessments in the context of regulatory decision making. This opinion piece outlines the current state of play in using discrete choice experiments for benefit-risk assessment and proposes key areas needing to be addressed to demonstrate that discrete choice experiments are an appropriate and valid stated preference elicitation method in this context. Methodological research is required to establish: how robust the results of discrete choice experiments are to formats and methods of risk communication; how information in the discrete choice experiment can be presented effectually to respondents; whose preferences should be elicited; the correct underlying utility function and analytical model; the impact of heterogeneity in preferences; and the generalisability of the results. We believe these methodological issues should be addressed, alongside developing a 'reference case', before agencies can safely and confidently use discrete choice experiments for quantitative benefit-risk assessment in the context of regulatory decision making for new medicines and healthcare products.

  9. Measurements of plasma profiles using a fast swept Langmuir probe in the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shesterikov, I.; Von Stechow, A.; Grulke, O.; Stenzel, R.; Klinger, T.

    2017-07-01

    A fast-swept Langmuir probe capable to be biased at a high voltages has been constructed and successfully operated at the VINETA-II magnetic reconnection experiment. The presented circuit has two main features beneficial for fast transient parameter changes in laboratory experiments as, e.g., plasma guns or magnetic reconnection: the implementation simplicity and the high voltage sweep range. This work presents its design and performance for time-dependent measurements of VINETA-II plasmas. The probe is biased with a sinusoidal voltage at a fixed frequency. Current - voltage characteristics are measured along the falling and rising slopes of the probe bias. The sweep frequency is fsweep= 150 kHz. The spatiotemporal evolution of radial plasma profiles is obtained by evaluation of the probe characteristics. The plasma density measurements agree with those derived from a microwave interferometer, demonstrating the reliability of the measurements. As a model plasma system, a plasma gun discharge with typical pulse times of 60 μ s is chosen.

  10. Mobility problems at the KNK II shut-down systems, cause investigations and valuation in comparison with the experience at other plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.

    1992-12-01

    During the operation of the second core of the fast test reactor KNK II the shutdown systems showed repeatedly problems with their mobility, which also caused to be reported events. The present report gives a summary description of the events in chronological order. The investigations to remove the mobility problems and the resulting design modifications are described together with the comments of the licensing authorities on the way to the restart of the plant. The results of the post-irradiation investigations in the hot cells and of sodium-chemical investigations are also described. In addition to the comparison of the events at the KNK plant itself and a review of the experiences at comparable plants it will be shown that all known cases of mobility problems did only influence the availability of the plant but that the safe shut-down of the plant was never at risk [de

  11. Experiment on performance of upper head injection system with ROSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Thermo-hydraulic behavior in the primary cooling system of a pressurized water reactor with an upper head injection system (UHI) in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been studied with ROSA-II test facility. Simulated UHI and internal structures of the pressure vessel were installed to the facility for the experiment. Nine maximum-sized double-ended break tests and one medium-sized split break test were performed for the cold-leg break condition. The results are as follows: (1) Fluid mixing in the upper head is not perfect. (2) Cold water injection into the steam or two-phase fluid causes violent depressurization due to the condensation. Flow pattern in the primary cooling system is largely influenced by the above two. (auth.)

  12. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Al-Rawahi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  13. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yongjie; Hou Haobo; Zhu Shujing

    2009-01-01

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01 M NaNO 3 . In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84 mM in the single element system and 0.21 mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH 50 (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd in single-element systems, but Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems

  14. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue Yongjie [School of Resource and Environment Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan (China); Wuhan Kaidi Electric Power Environmental Protection Co. Ltd., Hubei, Wuhan (China)], E-mail: xueyj@mail.whut.edu.cn; Hou Haobo; Zhu Shujing [School of Resource and Environment Science, Wuhan University, Hubei, Wuhan (China)

    2009-02-15

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01 M NaNO{sub 3}. In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84 mM in the single element system and 0.21 mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH{sub 50} (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd in single-element systems, but Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems.

  15. Competitive adsorption of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongjie; Hou, Haobo; Zhu, Shujing

    2009-02-15

    Polluted and contaminated water can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a solution system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto basic oxygen furnace slag (BOF slag) in single- and multi-element solution systems as a function of pH and concentration, in a background solution of 0.01M NaNO(3). In adsorption edge experiments, the pH was varied from 2.0 to 13.0 with total metal concentration 0.84mM in the single element system and 0.21mM each of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in the multi-element system. The value of pH(50) (the pH at which 50% adsorption occurs) was found to follow the sequence Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd in single-element systems, but Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd in the multi-element system. Adsorption isotherms at pH 6.0 in the multi-element systems showed that there is competition among various metals for adsorption sites on BOF slag. The adsorption and potentiometric titrations data for various slag-metal systems were modeled using an extended constant-capacitance surface complexation model that assumed an ion-exchange process below pH 6.5 and the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes at higher pH. Inner-sphere complexation was more dominant for the Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) systems.

  16. Indirect-drive ablative Rayleigh-Taylor growth experiments on the Shenguang-II laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J. F.; Fan, Z. F.; Zheng, W. D.; Wang, M.; Pei, W. B.; Zhu, S. P.; Zhang, W. Y. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Miao, W. Y.; Yuan, Y. T.; Cao, Z. R.; Deng, B.; Jiang, S. E.; Liu, S. Y.; Ding, Y. K. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H., E-mail: ye-wenhua@iapcm.ac.cn; He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-04-15

    In this research, a series of single-mode, indirect-drive, ablative Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability experiments performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility [X. T. He and W. Y. Zhang, Eur. Phys. J. D 44, 227 (2007)] using planar target is reported. The simulation results from the one-dimensional hydrocode for the planar foil trajectory experiment indicate that the energy flux at the hohlraum wall is obviously less than that at the laser entrance hole. Furthermore, the non-Planckian spectra of x-ray source can strikingly affect the dynamics of the foil flight and the perturbation growth. Clear images recorded by an x-ray framing camera for the RT growth initiated by small- and large-amplitude perturbations are obtained. The observed onset of harmonic generation and transition from linear to nonlinear growth regime is well predicted by two-dimensional hydrocode simulations.

  17. Spinning cylinder experiments SC-I and SC-II: A review of results and analyses provided to the FALSIRE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morland, E.; Sherry, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    A series of six large-scale experiments have been carried out at AEA Technology using the Spinning Cylinder test facility. Results from two of those experiments (SC-I and SC-II) have been provided to Project FALSIRE and are reviewed in this paper. The Spinning Cylinder tests were carried out using hollow cylinders of 1.4m outer diameter, 0.2m wall thickness and 1.3m length, containing full-length axial defects and fabricated from a modified A508 Class 3 steel. The first Spinning Cylinder test (SC-I) was an investigation of stable ductile growth induced via mechanical (primary) loading and under conditions of contained yielding. Mechanical loading was provided in the hoop direction by rotating the cylinder about its major axis within an enclosed oven. The second test (SC-II) investigated stable ductile growth under severe thermal shock (secondary) loading again under conditions of contained yielding. In this case thermal shock was produced by spraying cold water on the inside surface of the heated cylinder whilst it was rotating. For each experiment, results are presented in terms of a number of variables, eg. crack growth, temperature, stress, strain and applied K and J. In addition, an overview of the analyses of the FALSIRE Phase-1 report is also presented with respect to test SC-I and SC-II. 4 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs

  18. Dissociative experiences in bipolar disorder II: Are they related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Eryilmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of dissociative symptoms and whether they are related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in bipolar disorder type II (BD-II. Methods Thirty-three euthymic patients (HDRS<8, YMRS<5 and 50 healthy subjects were evaluated by SCID-I and SCID-NP. We excluded all first and second-axis comorbidities. All patients and healthy subjects were examined with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-53, and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scale (Y-BOCS. Results In pairwise comparisons between the BD-II and control groups, the total CTQ, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, DES, and total Y-BOCS scores in the BD-II group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05. There were five cases with DES scores over 30 (15.2% and one case (2% in the control group. DES was weakly correlated with total CTQ and Y-BOCS in patients diagnosed with BD-II (r = 0.278, p < 0.05 and r = 0.217, p < 0.05, respectively. While there was no correlation between total CTQ and Y-BOCS, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale was found to be related to Y-BOCS (r = 0.330, p < 0.05. Discussion These results suggest that there is a relation between childhood traumas and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or that dissociative symptoms are more associated with anxiety than obsessive symptoms, which prevents the increase of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in BD-II.

  19. Why some women have an optimistic or a pessimistic bias about their breast cancer risk: experiences, heuristics, and knowledge of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katapodi, Maria C; Dodd, Marylin J; Facione, Noreen C; Humphreys, Janice C; Lee, Kathryn A

    2010-01-01

    Perceived risk to a health problem is formed by inferential rules called heuristics and by comparative judgments that assess how one's risk compares to the risk of others. The purpose of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to examine how experiences with breast cancer, knowledge of risk factors, and specific heuristics inform risk judgments for oneself, for friends/peers, and comparative judgments for breast cancer (risk friends/peers - risk self). We recruited an English-speaking, multicultural (57% nonwhite) sample of 184 middle-aged (47 + or - 12 years old), well-educated women. Fifty percent of participants perceived that their breast cancer risk was the same as the risk of their friends/peers; 10% were pessimistic (risk friends/peers - risk self 0). Family history of breast cancer and worry informed risk judgments for oneself. The availability and cultural heuristics specific for black women informed risk judgments for friends/peers. Knowledge of risk factors and interactions of knowledge with the availability, representativeness, and simulation heuristics informed comparative judgments (risk friends/peers - risk self). We discuss cognitive mechanisms with which experiences, knowledge, and heuristics influence comparative breast cancer risk judgments. Risk communication interventions should assess knowledge deficits, contextual variables, and specific heuristics that activate differential information processing mechanisms.

  20. Combustion of Solids in Microgravity: Results from the BASS-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkul, Paul V.; Bhattacharjee, Subrata; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos; Miller, Fletcher; Olson, Sandra L.; Takahashi, Fumiaki; T’ien, James S.

    2014-01-01

    The Burning and Suppression of Solids-II (BASS-II) experiment was performed on the International Space Station. Microgravity combustion tests burned thin and thick flat samples, acrylic slabs, spheres, and cylinders. The samples were mounted inside a small wind tunnel which could impose air flow speeds up to 53 cms. The wind tunnel was installed in the Microgravity Science Glovebox which supplied power, imaging, and a level of containment. The effects of air flow speed, fuel thickness, fuel preheating, and oxygen concentration on flame appearance, growth, spread rate, and extinction were examined in both the opposed and concurrent flow configuration. The flames are quite sensitive to air flow speed in the range 0 to 5 cms. They can be sustained at very low flow speeds of less than 1 cms, when they become dim blue and stable. In this state they are not particularly dangerous from a fire safety perspective, but they can flare up quickly with a sudden increase in air flow speed. Including earlier BASS-I results, well over one hundred tests have been conducted of the various samples in the different geometries, flow speeds, and oxygen concentrations. There are several important implications related to fundamental combustion research as well as spacecraft fire safety. This work was supported by the NASA Space Life and Physical Sciences Research and Applications Division (SLPSRA).

  1. Risk Factors Accompanied with Nephropathy in Patients with Type II Diabetes; Test of the Biopsychosocial Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Rahimian Boogar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The study of biopsychosocial factors influencing nephropathy as a most serious complication of type II diabetes is important. This study aimed to investigate risk factors accompanied with nephropathy in patients with type II diabetes based on the biopsychosocial model. Materials & Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, 295 patients with type II diabetes were selected by convenience sampling in Tehran Shariati hospital outpatient clinics. The data were collected by demographical information questionnaire along with disease characteristics and depression anxiety stress scales (dass, quality of life scale (who- qol- bref, diabetes self-management scale (dsms, and diabetes knowledge scale (dks, then analyzed by chi-square, independent t-test and logistic regression with pasw software. Results: Hypertension (OR=3.841 & P0.05.Conclusion: It is important to pay attention to hypertension, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index, diabetes self-management, depression, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge for therapeutic intervention programming and diabetes complications control protocols for diabetic patients.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:44-53

  2. Performance of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II: a meta-analysis of 22 studies involving 145,592 cardiac surgery procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Pietro; Mastro, Florinda; Scrascia, Giuseppe; Whitlock, Richard; Paparella, Domenico

    2014-12-01

    A systematic review of the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (euroSCORE) II performance for prediction of operative mortality after cardiac surgery has not been performed. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies based on the predictive accuracy of the euroSCORE II. We searched the Embase and PubMed databases for all English-only articles reporting performance characteristics of the euroSCORE II. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, the observed/expected mortality ratio, and observed-expected mortality difference with their 95% confidence intervals were analyzed. Twenty-two articles were selected, including 145,592 procedures. Operative mortality occurred in 4293 (2.95%), whereas the expected events according to euroSCORE II were 4802 (3.30%). Meta-analysis of these studies provided an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.792 (95% confidence interval, 0.773-0.811), an estimated observed/expected ratio of 1.019 (95% confidence interval, 0.899-1.139), and observed-expected difference of 0.125 (95% confidence interval, -0.269 to 0.519). Statistical heterogeneity was detected among retrospective studies including less recent procedures. Subgroups analysis confirmed the robustness of combined estimates for isolated valve procedures and those combined with revascularization surgery. A significant overestimation of the euroSCORE II with an observed/expected ratio of 0.829 (95% confidence interval, 0.677-0.982) was observed in isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and a slight underestimation of predictions in high-risk patients (observed/expected ratio 1.253 and observed-expected difference 1.859). Despite the heterogeneity, the results from this meta-analysis show a good overall performance of the euroSCORE II in terms of discrimination and accuracy of model predictions for operative mortality. Validation of the euroSCORE II in prospective populations needs to be further studied for a continuous

  3. The histologic risk model is a useful and inexpensive tool to assess risk of recurrence and death in stage I or II squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and floor of mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Namita; Rigby, Matthew H; McNeil, Michael L; Taylor, S Mark; Trites, Jonathan Rb; Hart, Robert D; Bullock, Martin J

    2018-02-02

    Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for low-stage (stage I/II, ie, T1N0/T2N0) squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity. However, a significant percentage of low-stage squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity will develop local recurrence and disease-related mortality. In this study, we stratified 64 patients with low-stage of oral tongue and floor of mouth patients into high-, intermediate- and low-risk categories based on existing histologic risk model. The classification of these risk categories was based on presence or absence of perineural invasion and evaluation of tumor-host junction for worst pattern of invasion and lymphocytic host response. We correlated risk category and other variables with recurrence and death. In a univariate model, high-risk category tumors had a significantly higher rate of recurrence and death due to recurrence compared with low/intermediate-risk categories (P=0.000 and P=0.047, respectively). Controlling for margin status and T-stage, high-risk category had a 12.4 odds ratio of later recurrence when compared with low/intermediate-risk categories, with a P-value of 0.001. In conclusion, we found low-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients with high-risk category have a significantly higher risk for recurrence when compared with patients in the low- or intermediate-risk category, even when controlling for margin status and T-stage. These patients may be suitable candidates for adjuvant treatment to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with a recurrence. Our results indicate that the histologic risk model is a useful and simple tool to assess risk of recurrence in stage I or II squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 2 February 2018; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.183.

  4. Extraction studies of Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) using N, N', N, N' -Bis((2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl) (2-pyridylmethyl)) -ethylenediamine as a novel ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laus, R.; Anjos, A.D.; Naves, A.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the use of N,N',N,N'-bis((2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl) (2- pyridylmethyl))-ethylenediamine (H2L) as ligand was evaluated in the liquid-liquid (water- chloroform) extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). Experiments were carried out to determine the pH for maximum extraction for each metal ion by ligand, maximum extraction capacity, extraction kinetics and extraction selectivity. The results revealed that the extraction of metal ions is dependent on the pH: maximum extraction maximum was obtained in the pH range of 4.5 - 6.0 for Cu(II) and 8.0 - 9.0 for Zn(II). Cd(II) and Mn(II) were best extracted at pH 9.0 and Ni(II) at 10.0. The ligand H2L was effective for the extraction of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) (extraction efficient, %E equal 100%), whereas %E of 76% and 23.5% were observed for Mn(II) and Ni(II), respectively. The ligand presented high selectivity for the extraction of Cu(II) at pH 4.0. (author)

  5. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel; Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan; Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells; Queiro Verdes, Teresa; Natal Ramos, Carmen; Sanz, Maria Ederra; Salas Trejo, Dolores

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p 14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  6. Discharge initiation experiments in the Tokapole II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in the Tokapole II tokamak demonstrate the benefits of high density (n/sub e//n/sub o/ greater than or equal to 0.01) preionization by reducing four quantities at startup: necessary toroidal loop voltage (V 1 ) (50%), volt-second consumption (40-50%), impurity radiation (25-50%), and runaway electron production (approx. 80-100%). A zero-dimensional code models the loop voltage reduction dependence on preionization density and predicts a similar result for reactor scale devices. The code shows low initial resistivity and a high resistivity time derivative contribute to loop voltage reduction. Microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) frequency and plasma gun injection produce high density preionization, which reduces the initial V 1 , volt-second consumption, and runaways. The ECR preionization also reduces impurity radiation by shortening the time from voltage application to current channel formation. This, evidently, reduces the total plasma-wall interaction at startup. The power balance of the ECR plasma in a toroidal-field-only case was studied using Langmuir probes and impurity doping. The vertical electric field and current, which result from curvature drift, were measured as approx. 10 V/cm and 50 amps, respectively, and exceeded expected values for the bulk electron temperature (approx. 10 eV)

  7. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II); Suche nach solaren Axionen mit dem Roentgenteleskop des CAST-Experiments (Phase II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-10-14

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ({sup 4}He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with {sup 4}He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g{sub {alpha}}{sub {gamma}}{sub {gamma}}<1.6-6.0 x 10{sup -10} GeV{sup -1} (95%C.L.) for m{sub a}=0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  8. cobalt(II), nickel(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    procedures. The supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 used in the voltammetric experiment was purchased from. Sigma. IR spectra were recorded in KBr medium on .... (13⋅6). L = Schiff base ligand form of one broad band envelope. The electronic spectra of Co(II) complex showed two spin-allowed transitions at 17856 and ...

  9. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohr, J.

    2011-01-01

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that LCLS-II only

  10. Parental incarceration and multiple risk experiences: effects on family dynamics and children's delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H

    2010-12-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental incarceration on children. The present study examines an archival dataset, in which children aged 10-14 years and their parents/guardians reported children's risk experiences (e.g., exposure to poverty, parental substance use), family processes (e.g., level of family victimization, family conflict), and children's delinquent behaviors at two time points. Parents also reported their recent and past incarceration history. Hierarchical linear regression analyses show that a history of parental incarceration predicted family victimization, delinquent behaviors of children's older siblings, and delinquent behaviors of the child participants, over and above children's demographic characteristics and other risk experiences. Recent parental incarceration predicted family conflict, family victimization, and parent-reports of children's delinquency after also controlling for previous parental incarceration. The role of family processes in research and intervention directions involving children of incarcerated parents is discussed.

  11. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  12. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  13. Does exposure to lahars risk affect people's risk-preferences and other attitudes? Field data from incentivized experiments and surveys in Arequipa - Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, C.; Bchir, M. A.; Willinger, M.

    2012-04-01

    Many individuals are exposed to risks which are either difficult to insure or hard to mitigate, such as tsunamis, floods, volcanic eruption,... Little is known about how exposure to such risks shapes individuals' risk-preferences. Are they more (less) risk-averse than people who are unexposed to such hazard risk? We provide empirical evidence about this question for the case of individuals exposed to lahars risk. Lahars are sediments laden flows from volcanic origin. We compare the risk-attitude of people exposed - versus non-exposed ones - to lahars risk. The originality of our approach is that we combine standard survey data to behavioural data collected by means of incentivized experiments. We collected data in various locations of the city of Arequipa (Peru), a densely populated area down the volcano El Misti. Participants in our experiment were identified as (non-)exposed to lahars risk based on risk zoning. Our survey questionnaire allows us to compare assessed exposure and the perceived exposure. We elicit risk-preference, time-preference, and trusting behaviour (a measure of social capital) for each respondent in addition to standard survey data. Our field experiment involved a total of 209 respondents from exposed and non-exposed areas. While respondents endow legitimacy in risk reduction (more than 74%) to a national authority (Defensa Civil) in charge of the management of risk in the city, more than 64% of them consider that they are not sufficiently informed about the behaviours to adopt in case of a disaster. Respondents are therefore poorly motivated to adopt initiatives of self-protection (23%) and express instead high expectations with respect to authorities' actions for decreasing their vulnerability (73%). The experimental data show that participants who live in exposed areas are not significantly more risk-averse than those living in non-exposed ones. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in time-preference between exposed and non

  14. Computing at Belle II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Belle II, a next-generation B-factory experiment, will search for new physics effects in a data sample about 50 times larger than the one collected by its predecessor, the Belle experiment. To match the advances in accelerator and detector technology, the computing system and the software have to be upgraded as well. The Belle II computing model is presented and an overview of the distributed computing system and the offline software framework is given.

  15. Validation study of a quantitative multigene reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for assessment of recurrence risk in patients with stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard G; Quirke, Philip; Handley, Kelly; Lopatin, Margarita; Magill, Laura; Baehner, Frederick L; Beaumont, Claire; Clark-Langone, Kim M; Yoshizawa, Carl N; Lee, Mark; Watson, Drew; Shak, Steven; Kerr, David J

    2011-12-10

    We developed quantitative gene expression assays to assess recurrence risk and benefits from chemotherapy in patients with stage II colon cancer. We sought validation by using RNA extracted from fixed paraffin-embedded primary colon tumor blocks from 1,436 patients with stage II colon cancer in the QUASAR (Quick and Simple and Reliable) study of adjuvant fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy versus surgery alone. A recurrence score (RS) and a treatment score (TS) were calculated from gene expression levels of 13 cancer-related genes (n = 7 recurrence genes and n = 6 treatment benefit genes) and from five reference genes with prespecified algorithms. Cox proportional hazards regression models and log-rank methods were used to analyze the relationship between the RS and risk of recurrence in patients treated with surgery alone and between TS and benefits of chemotherapy. Risk of recurrence was significantly associated with RS (hazard ratio [HR] per interquartile range, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.74; P = .004). Recurrence risks at 3 years were 12%, 18%, and 22% for predefined low, intermediate, and high recurrence risk groups, respectively. T stage (HR, 1.94; P < .001) and mismatch repair (MMR) status (HR, 0.31; P < .001) were the strongest histopathologic prognostic factors. The continuous RS was associated with risk of recurrence (P = .006) beyond these and other covariates. There was no trend for increased benefit from chemotherapy at higher TS (P = .95). The continuous 12-gene RS has been validated in a prospective study for assessment of recurrence risk in patients with stage II colon cancer after surgery and provides prognostic value that complements T stage and MMR. The TS was not predictive of chemotherapy benefit.

  16. Plasma carotenoids and breast cancer risk in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-09-01

    Several circulating carotenoids have been inversely associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk in large cohort studies and a pooled analysis. Whether associations differ by tumor or participant characteristics remains unclear. We investigated the associations of plasma carotenoids with postmenopausal breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor stage, smoking status, and body mass index, in a case-control study nested in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. A total of 496 invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed between blood draw in 1998-2001 and June 30, 2007 and matched 1:1 with controls on race, birth date, and blood draw date were included. Multivariable-adjusted conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Plasma α-carotene above the lowest quartile was associated with significant 40-43% lower risk of invasive breast cancer risk (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.87, P-trend = 0.037) after adjustment for multiple covariates. This inverse association was strengthened after further adjustment for other plasma carotenoids and total fruit and vegetable intake (fourth vs. first quartile OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.29-0.85, P-trend = 0.041). Other plasma carotenoids or total carotenoids were not associated with breast cancer risk. The inverse association of α-carotene with breast cancer remained for ER+, but not for ER- tumors, although test for heterogeneity was not statistically significant (P-heterogeneity = 0.49). These results suggest that higher plasma α-carotene is associated with lower risk of invasive breast cancer.

  17. Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, P M

    1999-01-01

    Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest

  18. Why some women have an optimistic or a pessimistic bias about their breast cancer risk? Experiences, heuristics, and knowledge of risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Katapodi, Maria C.; Dodd, Marylin J.; Facione, Noreen C.; Humphreys, Janice C.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    Perceived risk to a health problem is formed by inferential rules called heuristics and by comparative judgments that assess how one's risk compares to the risk of others. The purpose of this cross-sectional, community-based survey was to examine how experiences with breast cancer, knowledge of risk factors, and specific heuristics inform risk judgments for oneself, for friends/peers, and comparative judgments for breast cancer (risk friends/peers - risk self). We recruited an English-speakin...

  19. Appetite For Risk Of The Bank (Ii)

    OpenAIRE

    Manolescu, Gheorghe

    2011-01-01

    Representing the "amount" of risk that a bank is able and willing to accept in pursuit of its objectives, so as to balance the needs of all interested parties the risk appetite (propensity) is expressed in terms of both quantitative and qualitative, and covers all risks and not just financial risk, as understood in recent years. Risk appetite problems include issues such as the context and relationship of the risk appetite to the appetite risk aversion, fair and transparent declaration and co...

  20. Sambot II: A self-assembly modular swarm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Wei, Hongxing; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Cancan

    2018-04-01

    The new generation of self-assembly modular swarm robot Sambot II, based on the original generation of self-assembly modular swarm robot Sambot, adopting laser and camera module for information collecting, is introduced in this manuscript. The visual control algorithm of Sambot II is detailed and feasibility of the algorithm is verified by the laser and camera experiments. At the end of this manuscript, autonomous docking experiments of two Sambot II robots are presented. The results of experiments are showed and analyzed to verify the feasibility of whole scheme of Sambot II.

  1. Valuing health risk in agriculture: a choice experiment approach to pesticide use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Wenyu; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a choice experiment approach to investigate farmers' valuations for health risk changes associated with pesticide use in Anqiu County, China. An empirical comparison on the disparity between farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health risk reduction and willingness to accept (WTA) for the same risk increase is also conducted. Respondents were randomly assigned into the WTP group or the WTA group. Four attributes (health consequence, baseline risk, risk change size, and price) were identified and included. The results show that cancer consequence due to pesticide use decreases the utility of the farmer. A higher baseline risk has a higher WTP to reduce the risk and a higher probability of receiving compensation. If the health risk change size is bigger, it will result in a higher WTP and higher compensation. Household income, education, and age have significant and positive impacts on farmers' WTP. Farmers who are more educated or female are more likely to accept the compensation scheme if health risks increase. The marginal WTA for the same risk change is about two times higher than the marginal WTP. The findings of this study can contribute to the literature comparing people's WTP and WTA in a discrete choice experiment on valuing health risk changes associated with pesticide use.

  2. Interaction between U(VI) and Fe(II) in aqueous solution under anaerobic conditions. Closed system experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllykylae, E.; Ollila, K.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of these experiments is to investigate the potential reduction of U(VI) carbonate and hydroxide complexes by aqueous Fe(II). This reduction phenomenon could be important under the disposal conditions of spent fuel. If groundwater enters the copper/iron canister, alpha radiolysis of the water may locally induce oxidizing conditions on the surface of UO 2 fuel, leading to the dissolution of UO 2 as more soluble U(VI) species. A potential reducing agent in the intruding water is Fe(II)(aq) from anaerobic corrosion of the copper/iron canister. The reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) would substantially decrease the solubility of U as well as co-precipitate other actinides and radionuclides. The interaction experiments were conducted in 0.01 M NaCl and 0.002 M NaHCO 3 solutions using an initial uranium concentration of either 8.4 x 10 -8 or 4.2 x 10 -7 mol/L with an initial Fe(II) concentration of 1.8 x 10 -6 in the NaCl solutions and 1.3 x 10 -6 mol/L in the NaHCO 3 solutions. Only after an equilibration period for U(VI) complexation was Fe(II) added to the solutions. The reaction times varied from 1 week to 5 months. For extra protection against O 2 , even inside a glove-box (N 2 atmosphere), the plastic reaction vessels were closed in metallic containers. The concentrations of U, Fe TOT and Fe(II) were analysed as a function of time for unfiltered, micro- and ultrafiltered samples. In addition, the precipitate on the ultrafilters was analysed with ESEM-EDS. The evolution of pH and Eh values was measured. The oxidation state of U in solution was preliminarily analysed for chosen periods. The results of the tests in 0.01 M NaCl showed an initial rapid decrease in U concentration after the addition of Fe(II) to the solution. The U found on test vessel walls at the end of the reaction periods, as well as the ESEM-EDS analyses of the filtered precipitates from the test solutions, showed that precipitation of U had occurred. The oxidation state analyses showed the presence

  3. Risk factors for periodontal diseases among Yemeni type II diabetic patients. A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic periodontal diseases are one of diabetes mellitus complications. The present study aims to compare the periodontal status of type II diabetic patients to a control group and assess the role of risk factors in both groups. Materials and methods: A case-control study was conducted of 270 individuals (132 type II diabetics and 138 non-diabetics. Full mouth periodontal examination including plaque index, gingival bleeding, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss (CAL, tooth mobility, furcation involvement and the number of missing teeth. The case group was subdivided according to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c status (poorly controlled HbA1c >8 and well controlled HbA1c≤8 Likewise, the duration of diabetes mellitus as short or long duration (DM≤10 or >10. The diabetic group was also subdivided according to smoking and Khat chewing habits. Result: The severity of periodontal disease among type II diabetic patients were significantly higher compared to the control group regarding the plaque index 2.6 (1.6-4.3, bleeding on probing 3.5 (2.3-13.0, gingival recession 2.0 (1.2-3.4, furcation involvement 4.0 (2.3-6.7, clinical attachment loss 5.7 (3.1-10.5, tooth mobility 2.0 (1.2-3.4, and number of missing teeth 4.4 (2.3-8.5. In addition, poorly controlled type II DM and long duration had higher CAL and number of missing teeth than well-controlled DM and short duration. No significant differences were found between smokers/nonsmokers and Khat chewers/non-chewers among the diabetic group. Conclusion: Type II diabetic patients have severe periodontal destruction and tooth loss compared to non-diabetic people and there were no differences within the diabetic group in regards to smoking and Khat chewing habits.

  4. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Hinshelwood, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed

  5. IAEA experience in communicating radiation risks through the RPOP web site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehani, M.M.; Holmberg, O.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report here their successful experience of communicating information to health professionals, patients and the public on benefits and risks of ionising radiation in medical applications. The approaches used have been based on giving importance to clinical benefits against risks, as well as safety in use against risk of use. Communicating brief messages against catchy questions with positive and pragmatic approach resulted in making web site on radiation protection of patients (RPOP) as the top web site of the world in this area. Credibility of information has been maintained. The results show immense outreach in 213 countries/territories. (authors)

  6. Context dependency and consumer acceptance of risk reducing strategies - a choice experiment study on salmonella risks in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates to what extent context dependency is present, when consumers are introduced to different risk reducing technologies and how this will affect their preferences for reductions in food risks. In particular, choice experiments are used to elicit consumer preferences for reducin...... findings of bad news having greater effect than good news – now applied to context dependency of preferences for food safety technologies....

  7. When do traumatic experiences alter risk-taking behavior? A machine learning analysis of reports from refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augsburger, Mareike; Elbert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to traumatic stressors and subsequent trauma-related mental changes may alter a person's risk-taking behavior. It is unclear whether this relationship depends on the specific types of traumatic experiences. Moreover, the association has never been tested in displaced individuals with substantial levels of traumatic experiences. The present study assessed risk-taking behavior in 56 displaced individuals by means of the balloon analogue risk task (BART). Exposure to traumatic events, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were assessed by means of semi-structured interviews. Using a novel statistical approach (stochastic gradient boosting machines), we analyzed predictors of risk-taking behavior. Exposure to organized violence was associated with less risk-taking, as indicated by fewer adjusted pumps in the BART, as was the reported experience of physical abuse and neglect, emotional abuse, and peer violence in childhood. However, civil traumatic stressors, as well as other events during childhood were associated with lower risk taking. This suggests that the association between global risk-taking behavior and exposure to traumatic stress depends on the particular type of the stressors that have been experienced.

  8. Irradiation experience with KNK II Fast Breeder Fuel Subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.

    1993-02-01

    During the operation of the second core of KNK II fuel pin failures occurred, which were caused by local cladding weakening due to mechanical interaction between fuel pins and pin spacers. The present report gives a summarizing presentation of the consequences of these interactions, of the experimental and theoretical investigations to clarify the reason for the interactions and of measures to reduce their consequences in the extended residence time of the second core of KNK II. This type of interaction is caused by thermo-elastic instabilities of the fuel pin bundle, and its strength depends sensitively on the geometry of the pin bundle and the pin power. Finally, measures are described, which were taken for the fuel subassemblies of the third core of KNK II to avoid the wear causing instabilities [de

  9. Early Experience with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug II for Occlusive Purposes in Arteriovenous Hemodialysis Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Steven; Narlawar, Ranjeet; Odetoyinbo, Tolulola; Littler, Peter; Oweis, Deyana; Sharma, Ajay; Bakran, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug Type II (AVP II) has proven effective in the therapeutic embolization of various vascular lesions. It benefits from very rapid occlusion of the target lesion and can be deployed, retrieved, and redeployed if required. There is no literature available on use of the AVP II in the maintenance, closure, and management of complicated arteriovenous access in hemodialysis patients. In this series, we present our clinical experience with the use of the AVP II for embolization of problematic hemodialysis access. The AVP II is a self-expandable Nitinol wire-mesh device. Mounted on a delivery wire it has the capability to be deployed, recaptured, and redeployed. In total seven patients (four males: one diabetic, all nonsmokers), with ages ranging from 44 to 81 years (mean, 63 years), were treated between July 2008 and January 2009. One patient had not started dialysis. The remaining six patients had varied histories, with the time on hemodialysis ranging from 1 to 21 years. Retrospective review of clinical notes revealed patient demographics, type of access, device size, deployment site, and outcomes. Indications for embolization included steal syndrome (one patient), high-flow tributaries (two patients), and limb swelling (four patients). All patients had clinical and sonographical follow-up to 3 months. Surgical ligation had either failed, was considered a contraindication due to concerns regarding wound healing, or was considered difficult due to complex venous anatomy. Only one device was used in each patient, ranging from 6 to 16 mm in diameter. Immediate technical success was seen in 100%. All these patients were followed up clinically in the vascular access radiology clinic at 4 weeks and 3 months. Occlusion of the treated vessel and resolution of symptoms were reconfirmed in 100% of cases at 3 months. It was also noted whether patients were having successful dialysis, if required. There were no complications. Average procedural time was 19

  10. Mitigation of ^{42}Ar/^{42}K background for the GERDA Phase II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubashevskiy, A.; Agostini, M.; Budjáš, D.; Gangapshev, A.; Gusev, K.; Heisel, M.; Klimenko, A.; Lazzaro, A.; Lehnert, B.; Pelczar, K.; Schönert, S.; Smolnikov, A.; Walter, M.; Zuzel, G.

    2018-01-01

    Background coming from the ^{42}Ar decay chain is considered to be one of the most relevant for the Gerda experiment, which searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of ^{76}Ge. The sensitivity strongly relies on the absence of background around the Q-value of the decay. Background coming from ^{42}K, a progeny of ^{42}Ar, can contribute to that background via electrons from the continuous spectrum with an endpoint at 3.5 MeV. Research and development on the suppression methods targeting this source of background were performed at the low-background test facility LArGe . It was demonstrated that by reducing ^{42}K ion collection on the surfaces of the broad energy germanium detectors in combination with pulse shape discrimination techniques and an argon scintillation veto, it is possible to suppress ^{42}K background by three orders of magnitude. This is sufficient for Phase II of the Gerda experiment.

  11. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2016-01-19

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to violence in childhood, as measured by the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), compared to HC. Within the AD group, individuals with history of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior reported higher levels of violence experience compared to AD individuals without such history. AD patients with previous suicidal ideation scored higher on self-reported impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Our main finding was that experience of trauma and expression of violent behavior, coupled with increased impulsivity are associated with an elevated suicide risk in AD patients. Future longitudinal studies assessing these traits are needed to evaluate their potential role in identifying AD patients at risk of future suicide.

  12. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  13. Missing in space: an evaluation of imputation methods for missing data in spatial analysis of risk factors for type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jannah; White, Nicole; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2014-11-20

    Spatial analysis is increasingly important for identifying modifiable geographic risk factors for disease. However, spatial health data from surveys are often incomplete, ranging from missing data for only a few variables, to missing data for many variables. For spatial analyses of health outcomes, selection of an appropriate imputation method is critical in order to produce the most accurate inferences. We present a cross-validation approach to select between three imputation methods for health survey data with correlated lifestyle covariates, using as a case study, type II diabetes mellitus (DM II) risk across 71 Queensland Local Government Areas (LGAs). We compare the accuracy of mean imputation to imputation using multivariate normal and conditional autoregressive prior distributions. Choice of imputation method depends upon the application and is not necessarily the most complex method. Mean imputation was selected as the most accurate method in this application. Selecting an appropriate imputation method for health survey data, after accounting for spatial correlation and correlation between covariates, allows more complete analysis of geographic risk factors for disease with more confidence in the results to inform public policy decision-making.

  14. Risk-Based Fire Safety Experiment Definition for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, G. E.; Ho, V. S.; Marcus, E.; Perry, A. T.; Thompson, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    Risk methodology is used to define experiments to be conducted in space which will help to construct and test the models required for accident sequence identification. The development of accident scenarios is based on the realization that whether damage occurs depends on the time competition of two processes: the ignition and creation of an adverse environment, and the detection and suppression activities. If the fire grows and causes damage faster than it is detected and suppressed, then an accident occurred. The proposed integrated experiments will provide information on individual models that apply to each of the above processes, as well as previously unidentified interactions and processes, if any. Initially, models that are used in terrestrial fire risk assessments are considered. These include heat and smoke release models, detection and suppression models, as well as damage models. In cases where the absence of gravity substantially invalidates a model, alternate models will be developed. Models that depend on buoyancy effects, such as the multizone compartment fire models, are included in these cases. The experiments will be performed in a variety of geometries simulating habitable areas, racks, and other spaces. These simulations will necessitate theoretical studies of scaling effects. Sensitivity studies will also be carried out including the effects of varying oxygen concentrations, pressures, fuel orientation and geometry, and air flow rates. The experimental apparatus described herein includes three major modules: the combustion, the fluids, and the command and power modules.

  15. A Foreground Masking Strategy for [C II] Intensity Mapping Experiments Using Galaxies Selected by Stellar Mass and Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, G.; Moncelsi, L.; Viero, M. P.; Silva, M. B.; Bock, J.; Bradford, C. M.; Chang, T.-C.; Cheng, Y.-T.; Cooray, A. R.; Crites, A.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Uzgil, B.; Hunacek, J. R.; Zemcov, M.

    2018-04-01

    Intensity mapping provides a unique means to probe the epoch of reionization (EoR), when the neutral intergalactic medium was ionized by energetic photons emitted from the first galaxies. The [C II] 158 μm fine-structure line is typically one of the brightest emission lines of star-forming galaxies and thus a promising tracer of the global EoR star formation activity. However, [C II] intensity maps at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 are contaminated by interloping CO rotational line emission (3 ≤ J upp ≤ 6) from lower-redshift galaxies. Here we present a strategy to remove the foreground contamination in upcoming [C II] intensity mapping experiments, guided by a model of CO emission from foreground galaxies. The model is based on empirical measurements of the mean and scatter of the total infrared luminosities of galaxies at z {10}8 {M}ȯ selected in the K-band from the COSMOS/UltraVISTA survey, which can be converted to CO line strengths. For a mock field of the Tomographic Ionized-carbon Mapping Experiment, we find that masking out the “voxels” (spectral–spatial elements) containing foreground galaxies identified using an optimized CO flux threshold results in a z-dependent criterion {m}{{K}}AB}≲ 22 (or {M}* ≳ {10}9 {M}ȯ ) at z cost of a moderate ≲8% loss of total survey volume.

  16. Optimization of a coherent soft x-ray beamline for coherent scattering experiments at NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro D.; Chubar, O.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Reininger, R.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Wang, S.

    2011-08-21

    The coherent soft x-ray and full polarization control (CSX) beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source - II (NSLS-II) will deliver 1013 coherent photons per second in the energy range of 0.2-2 keV with a resolving power of 2000. The source, a dual elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and beamline optics should be optimized to deliver the highest possible coherent flux in a 10-30 {micro}m spot for use in coherent scattering experiments. Using the computer code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW), we simulate the photon source and focusing optics in order to investigate the conditions which provide the highest usable coherent intensity on the sample. In particular, we find that an intermediate phasing magnet is needed to correct for the relative phase between the two EPUs and that the optimum phase setting produces a spectrum in which the desired wavelength is slightly red-shifted thus requiring a larger aperture than originally anticipated. This setting is distinct from that which produces an on-axis spectrum similar to a single long undulator. Furthermore, partial coherence calculations, utilizing a multiple electron approach, indicate that a high degree of spatial coherence is still obtained at the sample location when such an aperture is used. The aperture size which maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a double-slit experiment is explored. This combination of high coherence and intensity is ideally suited for x-ray ptychography experiments which reconstruct the scattering density from micro-diffraction patterns. This technique is briefly reviewed and the effects on the image quality of proximity to the beamline focus are explored.

  17. Monitoring complex detectors: the uSOP approach in the Belle II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capua, F. Di; Aloisio, A.; Giordano, R.; Ameli, F.; Anastasio, A.; Izzo, V.; Tortone, G.; Branchini, P.

    2017-01-01

    uSOP is a general purpose single board computer designed for deep embedded applications in control and monitoring of detectors, sensors and complex laboratory equipments. It is based on the AM3358 (1 GHz ARM Cortex A8 processor), equipped with USB and Ethernet interfaces. On-board RAM and solid state storage allows hosting a full LINUX distribution. In this paper we discuss the main aspects of the hardware and software design and the expandable peripheral architecture built around field busses. We report on several applications of uSOP system in the Belle II experiment, presently under construction at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). In particular we will report the deployment of uSOP in the monitoring system framework of the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

  18. Monitoring complex detectors: the uSOP approach in the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, F.; Aloisio, A.; Ameli, F.; Anastasio, A.; Branchini, P.; Giordano, R.; Izzo, V.; Tortone, G.

    2017-08-01

    uSOP is a general purpose single board computer designed for deep embedded applications in control and monitoring of detectors, sensors and complex laboratory equipments. It is based on the AM3358 (1 GHz ARM Cortex A8 processor), equipped with USB and Ethernet interfaces. On-board RAM and solid state storage allows hosting a full LINUX distribution. In this paper we discuss the main aspects of the hardware and software design and the expandable peripheral architecture built around field busses. We report on several applications of uSOP system in the Belle II experiment, presently under construction at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan). In particular we will report the deployment of uSOP in the monitoring system framework of the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

  19. Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stohr, J

    2011-11-16

    The LCLS-II Project is designed to support the DOE Office of Science mission, as described in the 22 April 2010 Mission Need Statement. The scope of the Project was chosen to provide an increase in capabilities and capacity for the facility both at project completion in 2017 and in the subsequent decade. The Project is designed to address all points of the Mission Need Statement (MNS): (1) Expanded spectral reach; (2) Capability to provide x-ray beams with controllable polarization; (3) Capability to provide 'pump' pulses over a vastly extended range of photon energies to a sample, synchronized to LCLS-II x-ray probe pulses with controllable inter-pulse time delay; and (4) Increase of user access through parallel rather than serial x-ray beam use within the constraint of a $300M-$400M Total Project Cost (TPC) range. The LCLS-II Project will construct: (1) A hard x-ray undulator source (2-13 keV); (2) A soft x-ray undulator source (250-2,000 eV); (3) A dedicated, independent electron source for these new undulators, using sectors 10-20 of the SLAC linac; (4) Modifications to existing SLAC facilities for the injector and new shielded enclosures for the undulator sources, beam dumps and x-ray front ends; (5) A new experiment hall capable of accommodating four experiment stations; and (6) Relocation of the two soft x-ray instruments in the existing Near Experiment Hall (NEH) to the new experiment hall (Experiment Hall-II). A key objective of LCLS-II is to maintain near-term international leadership in the study of matter on the fundamental atomic length scale and the associated ultrafast time scales of atomic motion and electronic transformation. Clearly, such studies promise scientific breakthroughs in key areas of societal needs like energy, environment, health and technology, and they are uniquely enabled by forefront X-ray Free Electron Laser (X-FEL) facilities. While the implementation of LCLS-II extends to about 2017, it is important to realize that

  20. Evaluation of water transport behavior in sodium fire experiment-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagiri, Toshio [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    2000-02-01

    Evaluation of water transport behavior in Sodium Fire-II (Run-D4) was performed. Results of other experiments performed in Oarai-Engineering Center were considered in the evaluation, and the results of the evaluation were compared with the calculated results of ASSCOPS code. The main conclusions are described below. (1) It was estimated that aerosol hydrates were not formed in the test cell in the experiment, because of high gas temperatures (200degC - 300degC), but water vapor absorption by the formation of aerosol hydrates and water vapor condensation were occurred in humility measure line, because of low gas temperature (20degC - 40degC). Therefore, it was considered appropriate that measured water vapor concentration in the humidity measure line was different from the real concentration in the test cell. (2) Water vapor concentration in the test cell was assumed to be about 35,000 ppm during sodium leak, and reached to about 70,000 ppm because of water release from heated concrete (over 100degC) walls after 190 min from sodium leak started. The assumed value of about 35,000 ppm during sodium leak almost agree with assumed value from the quantity of aerosol in the humidity measure line, but no support for the value of about 70,000 ppm after 190 min could be found. Therefore, water release rate from heated concrete walls can change with their temperature history. (author)

  1. Cooperation under Predation Risk: Experiments on Costs and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinski, Manfred; Luthi, Jean H.; Eggler, Rolf; Parker, Geoffrey A.

    1997-06-01

    Two fish that cooperatively inspect a predator may have negotiated the share of the risk that each takes. A test of both the costs of predator inspection dependent on the distance from which the predator is approached and the potential benefits of cooperation was carried out strictly experimentally. We made either singletons or pairs of dead sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, approach hungry pike, Esox lucius, by remote control according to an algorithm that mimicked natural inspection. The predation risk of both single inspectors and parallel inspecting pairs increased with closer inspection distances. A member of an inspecting pair had only about half the risk of that of a single inspector. In pairs, a companion diluted the lead fish's risk of being caught, depending on its distance behind the leader. The absolute risk difference between leader and follower was greatest for close inspection distances and decreased further away from the predator. The leader's relative risk increased with its distance ahead of the laggard. However, for a given distance between leader and laggard, the relative risks to the two fish remained similar with distance from the predator. The cost side of the inequalities that define a 'Prisoner's Dilemma' has thus been measured for this system. In a second experiment the 'attack deterrence hypothesis' of predator inspection (i.e. inspection decreases attack probability) was tested. The pike was offered a choice between two sticklebacks, one of which had carried out a predator inspection visit. There was no indication of attack deterrence through predator inspection.

  2. Kreditní rizika z pohledu Basel II

    OpenAIRE

    Čabrada, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    The thesis "Credit risk from Basel II point of view" deals with new capital concept with main focus on the credit risk. The particular emphasis is laid on the chief issue of Basel II concept i.e. internal models. The thesis quite in detail describes the usage of basel parameters - LGD particularly - in various day-to-day business processes of credit institutions. An individual part of the thesis is devoted to credit risk mitigants and their impacts on the amount of capital requirements. The a...

  3. Experience with advanced driver fuels in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahm, C.E.; Koenig, J.F.; Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Crawford, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses several metallic fuel element designs which have been tested and used as driver fuel in Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The most recent advanced designs have all performed acceptably in EBR-H and can provide reliable performance to high burnups. Fuel elements tested have included use of U-l0Zr metallic fuel with either D9, 316 or HT9 stainless steel cladding; the D9 and 316-clad designs have been used as standard driver fuel. Experimental data indicate that fuel performance characteristics are very similar for the various designs tested. Cladding materials can be selected that optimize performance based on reactor design and operational goals

  4. A qualitative study of laymens' experiences of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Gunnar; Ljungberg, Anneli

    1990-12-01

    This study aims at investigating laymens' experiences of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste. The data consisted of interviews. To begin with, a pilot study was conducted using 14 subjects, with the aim of generating issues that could be further penetrated in the main study. The main study consisted of interviews with 30 subjects. The final data analysis was based on 25 subjects' answers to the interviews, with 5 of the 30 persons omitted due to contradictory and extremely vague answers, making any coherent interpretation impossible. The results section is divided into 3 parts. The first clarifies the conditions for the possibility of experiencing risk. These conditions are so general that they are most likely valid as conditions for any kind of risk experience. The second part of the results section consists of a presentation and clarification of the components which made up the subjects experiences of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste. The third and final part of the results section consists of a presentation of the two main profiles in the experience of risk in connection with storage of nuclear waste. These two main profiles can be conceived of as opposites. One of the risk profiles was constituted in the following way; a perception of the risk as high, a negative attitude to nuclear energy, presence of emotional expression, distrust towards significant people, an assumption that experts lacked sufficient knowledge and a focusing or widening frame of reference. The other main profile was constituted as follows; a perception of the risk as not high, an absence of emotional expression, trust towards significant people, an assumption that experts possessed sufficient knowledge and a focusing or weighing frame of reference

  5. FEBEX II Project THG Laboratory Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missana, T.

    2004-01-01

    The main roles of the bentonite in a radioactive waste repository is to act as a geochemical barrier against the radionuclides migration. The effectiveness of this geochemical barrier depends on the surface properties of the solid phases and on the physico-chemical environment generated by the interaction of the solid phases with the groundwater. Within the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers Experiment) project, a program of laboratory tests was designed to study and to understand the processes taking place in the clay barrier. Since the first stages of the project, these laboratory tests enabled to isolate different processes, making easier their interpretation, and provided fundamental parameters to be used in the Thermo Hydro Mechanical (THM) and Thermo Hydro Geochemical (THG) models. Additionally, experimental data enabled to check the predictive capability of these models. In the second phase of the project, laboratory tests focused on all those relevant aspects not sufficiently covered during FEBEX I. Particularly, the following main objectives were proposed for the THG investigations during FEBEX II : Attainment of a reliable description of the pore water chemistry at different geochemical conditions. Identification of the different types of water present in the bentonite and to determine the amount of available water for the solute transport.Evaluation of the potential effects of the extraction pressure in the chemical composition of the water obtained by squeezing methods.Study of the effects of the exchange complex in the rheological properties of the clay.Identification and modelling of the surface processes occurring in smectite, determination of the solubility constants of smectite and the formation constants of the surface complexes.Understanding of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of different radionuclides in the bentonite. Investigation of the diffusion mechanisms of conservative neutral and anionic species to have a deeper insight on the

  6. FEBEX II Project THG Laboratory Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missana, T.

    2004-07-01

    The main roles of the bentonite in a radioactive waste repository is to act as a geochemical barrier against the radionuclides migration. The effectiveness of this geochemical barrier depends on the surface properties of the solid phases and on the physico-chemical environment generated by the interaction of the solid phases with the groundwater. Within the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers Experiment) project, a program of laboratory tests was designed to study and to understand the processes taking place in the clay barrier. Since the first stages of the project, these laboratory tests enabled to isolate different processes, making easier their interpretation, and provided fundamental parameters to be used in the Thermo Hydro Mechanical (THM) and Thermo Hydro Geochemical (THG) models. Additionally, experimental data enabled to check the predictive capability of these models. In the second phase of the project, laboratory tests focused on all those relevant aspects not sufficiently covered during FEBEX I. Particularly, the following main objectives were proposed for the THG investigations during FEBEX II : Attainment of a reliable description of the pore water chemistry at different geochemical conditions. Identification of the different types of water present in the bentonite and to determine the amount of available water for the solute transport.Evaluation of the potential effects of the extraction pressure in the chemical composition of the water obtained by squeezing methods.Study of the effects of the exchange complex in the rheological properties of the clay.Identification and modelling of the surface processes occurring in smectite, determination of the solubility constants of smectite and the formation constants of the surface complexes.Understanding of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of different radionuclides in the bentonite. Investigation of the diffusion mechanisms of conservative neutral and anionic species to have a deeper insight on the

  7. When do traumatic experiences alter risk-taking behavior? A machine learning analysis of reports from refugees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Augsburger

    Full Text Available Exposure to traumatic stressors and subsequent trauma-related mental changes may alter a person's risk-taking behavior. It is unclear whether this relationship depends on the specific types of traumatic experiences. Moreover, the association has never been tested in displaced individuals with substantial levels of traumatic experiences. The present study assessed risk-taking behavior in 56 displaced individuals by means of the balloon analogue risk task (BART. Exposure to traumatic events, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were assessed by means of semi-structured interviews. Using a novel statistical approach (stochastic gradient boosting machines, we analyzed predictors of risk-taking behavior. Exposure to organized violence was associated with less risk-taking, as indicated by fewer adjusted pumps in the BART, as was the reported experience of physical abuse and neglect, emotional abuse, and peer violence in childhood. However, civil traumatic stressors, as well as other events during childhood were associated with lower risk taking. This suggests that the association between global risk-taking behavior and exposure to traumatic stress depends on the particular type of the stressors that have been experienced.

  8. EDELWEISS-II, direct Dark Matter search experiment: first data analysis and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorza, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    relies in the measurement of nuclear recoils that produce measurable effects in the crystal such ionization and heat. My PhD thesis is organized as follows. The first chapter aims to provide an introduction to the theoretical framework and the scientific motivation for the following work. The nature of DM has been one of the most challenging topics in contemporary physics since the first evidences of its existence had been found in the 1930's. Cosmologists and astrophysicists on one side, together with particle theorists on the other have put a lot of effort into this field: I will briefly account for their achievements and for the experimental strategies which can be set in this scenario. Since this thesis work was carried out within the EDELWEISS-II direct dark matter experiment, I will focus the next chapter on this topic, describing the main features. The second chapter is related to the set-up of the EDELWEISS-II, the current stage of the EDELWEISS experiment necessary after a first phase that achieved the best upper limit on the WIMP elastic scattering on nucleon as a function of WIMP mass in 2004. The set-up was conceived to reduce radioactive background observed in the first experiment phase. Thus, describing the starting point for this second stage, I will present detectors involved in, with a peculiar regard to the Ge-NTD type, the same implied in EDELWEISS-I, on which I have focused my thesis work. In the third chapter the performed Ge-NTD analysis chain is presented. Starting with the signal processing of the recorded data, I will enter in the essential analysis steps from calibration signals passing through measurements of thresholds and resolutions in order to predict nuclear and electronic recoil band and definition of fiducial zone to conclude determining a selection for likely WIMP candidate. These suggestions are applied in the fourth chapter, which presents the analysis and the results of the 8. cool down that takes places from November 2007 to March

  9. Surgeon Experience is Strongly Associated with Biochemical Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy for all Preoperative Risk Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eric A; Bianco, Fernando J; Serio, Angel M; Eastham, James A; Kattan, Michael W; Pontes, J. Edson; Vickers, Andrew J; Scardino, Peter T

    2013-01-01

    Background We have previously demonstrated that there is a learning curve for open radical prostatectomy. In this study we sought to determine whether the effects of the learning curve are modified by patient risk as defined by preoperative tumor characteristics. Methods The study included 7,683 eligible prostate cancer patients treated with open radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons. Surgeon experience was coded as the total prior number of radical prostatectomies conducted by the surgeon prior to a patient’s surgery. Multivariable survival-time regression models were used to evaluate the association between surgeon experience and biochemical recurrence, separately for each preoperative risk group. Results We saw no evidence that patient risk affects the learning curve: there was a statistically significant association between biochemical recurrence and surgeon experience in all analyses. The absolute risk difference for a patient receiving treatment from a surgeon with 10 compared to 250 prior radical prostatectomies was 6.6% (95% C.I. 3.4%, 10.3%), 12.0% (6.9%, 18.2%) and 9.7% (1.2%, 18.2%) for patients at low, medium and high preoperative risk patients. Recurrence-free probability for patients with low risk disease approached 100% for the most experienced surgeons Conclusions Cancer control after radical prostatectomy improves with increasing surgeon experience irrespective of patient risk. Excellent rates of cancer control for patients with low risk disease treated by the most experienced surgeons suggests that the primary reason such patients recur is inadequate surgical technique. The results have significant implications for clinical care. PMID:18423716

  10. Plasma-filled diode experiments on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Rochau, G.E.; McDaniel, D.H.; Moore, W.B.; Zuchowski, N.; Padilla, R.

    1987-01-01

    The PBFA-II accelerator is designed to use a Plasma Opening Switch (POS) for pulse shaping and voltage multiplication using inductive storage. The vacuum section of the machine consists of a set of short magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) that both act as a voltage adder for series stacking of the pulses out of the 72 parallel plate water lines, and as a 100 nH (total) storage inductor upstream of a biconically shaped POS region. There are two POS plasma injection areas, located above and below an equatorial load, which has consisted of either a short circuit, a blade (electron beam) diode, or an Applied B magnetically insulated ion diode. The POS is designed to conduct up to 6 MA, and open into a 5 ohm diode load in 10 ns or less. Under these conditions, the voltage at the load is predicted to exceed 24 MV. Initial POS experiments using these loads have produced 1) opening times of typically 20 ns or longer, 2) poor current transfer efficiency (less than 50%) when load impedances averaged 2 ohms or more, and 3) differential switch opening in azimuthal segments of the power feed, thought to be caused by poor plasma uniformity across the flashboard plasma source. One possible explanation for 2) is that efficient transfer out of the POS requires that the current carried to the load be magnetically insulated, or else considerable energy will be deposited in the feed region between the POS and load. This had indeed been observed. The problem is further exacerbated by the longer current turn-on times that occur when an ion diode is used as the load

  11. Key technologies and risk management of deep tunnel construction at Jinping II hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The four diversion tunnels at Jinping II hydropower station represent the deepest underground project yet conducted in China, with an overburden depth of 1500–2000 m and a maximum depth of 2525 m. The tunnel structure was subjected to a maximum external water pressure of 10.22 MPa and the maximum single-point groundwater inflow of 7.3 m3/s. The success of the project construction was related to numerous challenging issues such as the stability of the rock mass surrounding the deep tunnels, strong rockburst prevention and control, and the treatment of high-pressure, large-volume groundwater infiltration. During the construction period, a series of new technologies was developed for the purpose of risk control in the deep tunnel project. Nondestructive sampling and in-situ measurement technologies were employed to fully characterize the formation and development of excavation damaged zones (EDZs, and to evaluate the mechanical behaviors of deep rocks. The time effect of marble fracture propagation, the brittle–ductile–plastic transition of marble, and the temporal development of rock mass fracture and damage induced by high geostress were characterized. The safe construction of deep tunnels was achieved under a high risk of strong rockburst using active measures, a support system comprised of lining, grouting, and external water pressure reduction techniques that addressed the coupled effect of high geostress, high external water pressure, and a comprehensive early-warning system. A complete set of technologies for the treatment of high-pressure and large-volume groundwater infiltration was developed. Monitoring results indicated that the Jinping II hydropower station has been generally stable since it was put into operation in 2014.

  12. Respiratory Infections in the U.S. Military: Recent Experience and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael J.; Myers, Christopher A.; Cummings, James F.; Vest, Kelly G.; Russell, Kevin L.; Sanchez, Joyce L.; Hiser, Michelle J.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This comprehensive review outlines the impact of military-relevant respiratory infections, with special attention to recruit training environments, influenza pandemics in 1918 to 1919 and 2009 to 2010, and peacetime operations and conflicts in the past 25 years. Outbreaks and epidemiologic investigations of viral and bacterial infections among high-risk groups are presented, including (i) experience by recruits at training centers, (ii) impact on advanced trainees in special settings, (iii) morbidity sustained by shipboard personnel at sea, and (iv) experience of deployed personnel. Utilizing a pathogen-by-pathogen approach, we examine (i) epidemiology, (ii) impact in terms of morbidity and operational readiness, (iii) clinical presentation and outbreak potential, (iv) diagnostic modalities, (v) treatment approaches, and (vi) vaccine and other control measures. We also outline military-specific initiatives in (i) surveillance, (ii) vaccine development and policy, (iii) novel influenza and coronavirus diagnostic test development and surveillance methods, (iv) influenza virus transmission and severity prediction modeling efforts, and (v) evaluation and implementation of nonvaccine, nonpharmacologic interventions. PMID:26085551

  13. Experience with EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Porter, D.L.; Walters, L.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The exceptional performance of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) metallic driver fuel has been demonstrated by the irradiation of a large number of elements under steady-state, transient overpower, and loss-of-flow conditions. High burnup with high reliability has been achieved by a close coupling of element design and materials selection. Quantification of reliability has allowed full utilization of element lifetime. Improved design and duct materials currently under test are expected to increase the burnup from 8 to 14 at.%

  14. Simulations of the muon-induced neutron background of the EDELWEISS-II experiment for Dark Matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    In modern astroparticle physics and cosmology, the nature of Dark Matter is one of the central problems. Particle Dark Matter in form of WIMPs is favoured among many proposed candidates. The EDELWEISS direct Dark Matter search uses Germanium bolometers to detect these particles by nuclear recoils. Here, the use of two signal channels on an event-by-event basis, namely the heat and ionisation signal, enables the detectors to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils. This technique leaves neutrons in the underground laboratory as the main background for the experiment. Besides (α,n) reactions of natural radioactivity, neutrons are produced in electromagnetic and hadronic showers induced by cosmic ray muons in the surrounding rock and shielding material of the Germanium crystals. To reach high sensitivities, the EDELWEISS-II experiment, as well as other direct Dark Matter searches, has to efficiently suppress this neutron background. The present work is devoted to study the muon-induced neutron flux in the underground laboratory LSM and the interaction rate within the Germanium crystals by using the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4. To ensure reliable results, the implemented physics in the toolkit regarding neutron production is tested in a benchmark geometry and results are compared to experimental data and other simulation codes. Also, the specific energy and angular distribution of the muon flux in the underground laboratory as a consequence of the asymmetric mountain overburden is implemented. A good agreement of the simulated muon flux is shown in a comparison to preliminary experimental data obtained with the EDELWEISS-II muon veto system. Furthermore, within a detailed geometry of the experimental setup, the muon-induced background rate of nuclear recoils in the bolometers is simulated. Coincidences of recoil events in the Germanium with an energy deposit of the muoninduced shower in the plastic scintillators of the veto system are studied to

  15. Simulations of the muon-induced neutron background of the EDELWEISS-II experiment for Dark Matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, O M

    2007-12-21

    In modern astroparticle physics and cosmology, the nature of Dark Matter is one of the central problems. Particle Dark Matter in form of WIMPs is favoured among many proposed candidates. The EDELWEISS direct Dark Matter search uses Germanium bolometers to detect these particles by nuclear recoils. Here, the use of two signal channels on an event-by-event basis, namely the heat and ionisation signal, enables the detectors to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils. This technique leaves neutrons in the underground laboratory as the main background for the experiment. Besides ({alpha},n) reactions of natural radioactivity, neutrons are produced in electromagnetic and hadronic showers induced by cosmic ray muons in the surrounding rock and shielding material of the Germanium crystals. To reach high sensitivities, the EDELWEISS-II experiment, as well as other direct Dark Matter searches, has to efficiently suppress this neutron background. The present work is devoted to study the muon-induced neutron flux in the underground laboratory LSM and the interaction rate within the Germanium crystals by using the Monte Carlo simulation toolkit Geant4. To ensure reliable results, the implemented physics in the toolkit regarding neutron production is tested in a benchmark geometry and results are compared to experimental data and other simulation codes. Also, the specific energy and angular distribution of the muon flux in the underground laboratory as a consequence of the asymmetric mountain overburden is implemented. A good agreement of the simulated muon flux is shown in a comparison to preliminary experimental data obtained with the EDELWEISS-II muon veto system. Furthermore, within a detailed geometry of the experimental setup, the muon-induced background rate of nuclear recoils in the bolometers is simulated. Coincidences of recoil events in the Germanium with an energy deposit of the muoninduced shower in the plastic scintillators of the veto system are studied

  16. Parental Incarceration and Multiple Risk Experiences: Effects on Family Dynamics and Children's Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Lauren; Dallaire, Danielle H.

    2010-01-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are exposed to factors that place them at risk for delinquency. Few studies have examined the effects of having an incarcerated parent after controlling for other experiences such as contextual risk factors and family processes. Past studies have also not examined effects of recent, but not current, parental…

  17. Having a Go: Looking at Teachers' Experience of Risk-Taking in Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.; Gigliotti, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Risk is an integral part of change. Technology-related change in teachers' practice is guided by confidence engaging in and beliefs about integration. However, it is also affected by how teachers feel about taking risks, experimenting and change. This paper presents a theoretical framework of affect and emotion to understand how teachers…

  18. Final project report: TA-35 Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiment No. II (LAPRE II) decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.

    1993-02-01

    This final report addresses the decommissioning of the LAPRE II Reactor, safety enclosure, fuel reservoir tanks, emergency fuel recovery system, primary pump pit, secondary loop, associated piping, and the post-remediation activities. Post-remedial action measurements are also included. The cost of the project including, Phase I assessment and Phase II remediation was approximately $496K. The decommissioning operation produced 533 M 3 of mixed waste

  19. The impact of stigma, experience, and group referent on HIV risk assessments and HIV testing intentions in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Morrison, Daniel

    2006-11-01

    People often perceive risks for others and themselves differently. This study examines whether personal beliefs about HIV and experience with those living with HIV influence personal risk assessments of contracting HIV in an interview sample of northern Namibians (N=400), but not others' assessments as explained by singular-distribution theory [Klar, Medding, & Sarel (1996). Nonunique invulnerability: Singular versus distributional probabilities and unrealistic optimism in comparative risk judgments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 229-245]. Findings indicate that personal risk perceptions decrease with more HIV stigmatizing beliefs and increase with greater experience, but that those characteristics had no impact on assessments for others' risk. The study also examines whether the size and characteristics of the referent group, peers and the general Namibian population, influence others' risk assessments. Optimistic biases for personal risk versus others' risk appear with the highest discrepancy emerging between personal and general population risk assessments. Further, we found that personal risk perceptions did not mediate the relationship between personal characteristics, beliefs and experiences, and intentions to seek HIV testing.

  20. Building and validating a prediction model for paediatric type 1 diabetes risk using next generation targeted sequencing of class II HLA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lue Ping; Carlsson, Annelie; Larsson, Helena Elding; Forsander, Gun; Ivarsson, Sten A; Kockum, Ingrid; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Marcus, Claude; Persson, Martina; Samuelsson, Ulf; Örtqvist, Eva; Pyo, Chul-Woo; Bolouri, Hamid; Zhao, Michael; Nelson, Wyatt C; Geraghty, Daniel E; Lernmark, Åke

    2017-11-01

    It is of interest to predict possible lifetime risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children for recruiting high-risk subjects into longitudinal studies of effective prevention strategies. Utilizing a case-control study in Sweden, we applied a recently developed next generation targeted sequencing technology to genotype class II genes and applied an object-oriented regression to build and validate a prediction model for T1D. In the training set, estimated risk scores were significantly different between patients and controls (P = 8.12 × 10 -92 ), and the area under the curve (AUC) from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was 0.917. Using the validation data set, we validated the result with AUC of 0.886. Combining both training and validation data resulted in a predictive model with AUC of 0.903. Further, we performed a "biological validation" by correlating risk scores with 6 islet autoantibodies, and found that the risk score was significantly correlated with IA-2A (Z-score = 3.628, P < 0.001). When applying this prediction model to the Swedish population, where the lifetime T1D risk ranges from 0.5% to 2%, we anticipate identifying approximately 20 000 high-risk subjects after testing all newborns, and this calculation would identify approximately 80% of all patients expected to develop T1D in their lifetime. Through both empirical and biological validation, we have established a prediction model for estimating lifetime T1D risk, using class II HLA. This prediction model should prove useful for future investigations to identify high-risk subjects for prevention research in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The behavior of a type-II superconductor Nb in a magnetic field as investigated in polarized-neutron transmission experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Dokukin, E.B.; Kozhevnikov, S.V.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.; Petrenko, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The type-II superconducting polycrystal Nb was investigated on the SPN-1 polarized-neutron spectrometer at the high-intensity pulsed reactor IBR-2 at Dubna. In polarized-neutron transmission experiments the magnetic-field dependence of the neutron beam polarization was measured. Experiments were performed over a wide magnetic-field range from 0 to H c2 at a temperature of 4.8 K. A quasiperiodic variation of the neutron depolarization as a function of magnetic-field strength was observed. (orig.)

  2. Effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubizarreta Alberdi, Raquel [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Edificio Administrativo da Conselleria de Sanidade, Servicio de Programas Poboacionais de Cribado, Direccion Xeral de Saude Publica e Planificacion, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain); Llanes, Ana B.F.; Ortega, Raquel Almazan [Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Exposito, Ruben Roman; Collado, Jose M.V.; Oliveres, Xavier Castells [Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Institut Municipal d' Investigacio Medica-Parc de Salut Mar. CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); Queiro Verdes, Teresa [Galician Agency for Health Technology Assessment, Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galicia (Spain); Natal Ramos, Carmen [Principality of Asturias Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Principality of Asturias (Spain); Sanz, Maria Ederra [Public Health Institute, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Salas Trejo, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    To evaluate the effect of radiologist experience on the risk of false-positive results in population-based breast cancer screening programmes. We evaluated 1,440,384 single-read screening mammograms, corresponding to 471,112 women aged 45-69 years participating in four Spanish programmes between 1990 and 2006. The mammograms were interpreted by 72 radiologists. The overall percentage of false-positive results was 5.85% and that for false-positives resulting in an invasive procedure was 0.38%. Both the risk of false-positives overall and of false-positives leading to an invasive procedure significantly decreased (p < 0.001) with greater reading volume in the previous year: OR 0.77 and OR 0.78, respectively, for a reading volume 500-1,999 mammograms and OR 0.59 and OR 0.60 for a reading volume of >14,999 mammograms with respect to the reference category (<500). The risk of both categories of false-positives was also significantly reduced (p < 0.001) as radiologists' years of experience increased: OR 0.96 and OR 0.84, respectively, for 1 year's experience and OR 0.72 and OR 0.73, respectively, for more than 4 years' experience with regard to the category of <1 year's experience. Radiologist experience is a determining factor in the risk of a false-positive result in breast cancer screening. (orig.)

  3. Canadian nuclear risk experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, P.E.

    1982-05-01

    Risk assessment in the Canadian nuclear fuel cycle is a very important and complex subject. Many levels of government are involved in deciding the acceptable limits for the risks, taking into account the benefits for society [fr

  4. Remote, under-sodium fuel handling experience at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Planchon, H.P.

    1995-01-01

    The EBR-II is a pool-type design; the reactor fuel handling components and entire primary-sodium coolant system are submerged in the primary tank, which is 26 feet in diameter, 26 feet high, and contains 86,000 gallons of sodium. Since the reactor is submerged in sodium, fuel handling operations must be performed blind, making exact positioning and precision control of the fuel handling system components essential. EBR-II operated for 30 years, and the fuel handling system has performed approximately 25,000 fuel transfer operations in that time. Due to termination of the IFR program, EBR-II was shut down on September 30, 1994. In preparation for decommissioning, all fuel in the reactor will be transferred out of EBR-II to interim storage. This intensive fuel handling campaign will last approximately two years, and the number of transfers will be equivalent to the fuel handling done over about nine years of normal reactor operation. With this demand on the system, system reliability will be extremely important. Because of this increased demand, and considering that the system has been operating for about 32 years, system upgrades to increase reliability and efficiency are proceeding. Upgrades to the system to install new digital, solid state controls, and to take advantage of new visualization technology, are underway. Future reactor designs using liquid metal coolant will be able to incorporate imaging technology now being investigated, such as ultraviolet laser imaging and ultrasonic imaging

  5. Anal sexual experience and HIV risk awareness among female sex workers in Dire Dawa, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeingia, Yohannes Teka; Olijjira, Lemessa; Dessie, Yadeta

    2017-01-01

    Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia. Qualitative study with thematic analysis approach was conducted among 18 female sex workers and recruitment of study participants performed until saturation of information. The principal investigator conducted in-depth interviews using local language (Amharic) and it was recorded on audio recorder. Tape recorded data was transcribed and translated to English and entered into open code version 3.4 for coding and theme identification. Data collection conducted simultaneously with data analysis. Female sex workers practiced anal sex for different themes like financial influence, coercion, intentionally, peer pressure and as a sign of intimacy and love. Coercion, negative attitudes, poor awareness about HIV transmission risks of anal sex and protection capacity of condom and proper lubricants are the identified themes for not using condom and proper lubricants during anal sex by female sex workers. Inaccessibility and unavailability of health services for issues related to anal sex was the core reason for female sex workers' misperception and risk anal sexual experience. Female sex workers practiced anal sex without risk reduction approaches and they did not understand exacerbated risk of anal sex to HIV transmission. Stakeholders including ministry of health need to incorporate potential awareness raising tasks and programs about risk of anal sex and methods of risk

  6. BES-II fast data reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Gang; Zhang Jiawen; Guo Yiqing; Zhang Shaoqiang; Zhao Dixin

    2002-01-01

    The BES-II fast data reconstruction is reported. Based on PC FARM and/or a 'Distributed Clustered Linux PC System', BES-II fast data reconstruction system is set up. With this system the BES-II data can be fully reconstructed in about 20 minutes after data collection. It takes only 12 minutes to fully reconstruct 30000 events, collected with BES-II detector at BEPC Collider, with a P III-800 PC. The detector performance can be examined based on fully reconstructed data in about 20 minutes after data taking in the BES-II experiment

  7. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  8. UltraSail Solar Sail Flight Experiment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A team of CU Aerospace, the University of Illinois, and ManTech SRS Technologies proposes Phase II development of a 3 kg CubeSat spacecraft for initial flight test...

  9. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background:The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients.Methods:A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based...... on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves.Results:High miRNA-21 expression...... was associated with an unfavourable recurrence-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS), hazard ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.76) (P=0.028). The generated RF-CSS index divided the traditional high-risk patients into subgroups with 5-year RF-CSS rates of 87% and 73%, respectively (P...

  10. The experience of fear in high-risk sport | Miesel | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An additional quantitative measure, Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, was used to complement the interview findings. The results were presented in the delineation of 26 meaning cluster groups and seven themes. High-risk sport participants indicated frequent experiences with "peak" and "ultimate" athletic moments ...

  11. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin; Takiah Mohd Iskandar; Norman Mohd Saleh; Romlah Jaffar

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2) Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 a...

  12. FIX-II/2032, BWR Pump Trip Experiment 2032, Simulation Mass Flow and Power Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: In the FIX-II pump trip experiments, mass flow and power transients were simulated subsequent to a total loss of power to the recirculation pumps in an internal pump boiling water reactor. The aim was to determine the initial power limit to give dryout in the fuel bundle for the specified transient. In addition, the peak cladding temperature was measured and the rewetting was studied. 2 - Description of test: Pump trip experiment 2032 was a part of test group 2, i.e. the mass flow transient was to simulate the pump coast down with a pump inertia of 11.3 kg.m -2 . The initial power in the 36-rod bundle was 4.44 MW which gave dryout after 1.4 s from the start of the flow transient. A maximum rod cladding temperature of 457 degrees C was measured. Rewetting was obtained after 7.6 s. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: No ECCS injection systems

  13. Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.; Vontobel, P.

    1989-01-01

    The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction,are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE results for the k ∞ void coefficient agree very well with the experiment, whereas other codes give larger deviations

  14. Priority setting for risk assessment-The benefit of human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonzo, Cristina; Laborde, Amalia

    2005-01-01

    The chemical risk assessment process plays an essential role in the potential human health risk evaluation. Setting priorities for this purpose is critical for better use of the available human and material resources. It has been generally accepted that all new chemicals require safety evaluation before manufacture and sale. This is a difficult task due to the large number of chemicals directly consumed by man, as well as those that are widely used. At present, more than 50% of chemicals do not have the minimum data requirements for risk assessment. Production and release volumes are well-established prioritization criteria, although volume itself does not directly reflect the likelihood of human exposure. This quantitative approach applied in setting priorities may be influenced by human experience. Human data provided by epidemiological investigations have been accepted as the most credible evidence for human toxicity although analytical studies are expensive and require long-term follow up. Unfortunately, some epidemiological studies continue to have difficulties with exposure documentation, controlling bias and confounding, and are not able to provide predictions of risk until humans are exposed. Clinical toxicology services and Poison Centres around the world accumulate a great amount of toxicological-related information that may contribute to the evidence-based medicine and research and so collaborate with all the risk assessment disciplines. The information obtained from these services and centers has the potential to prioritize existing chemical assessment processes or to influence scheduling of classes of chemicals. Prioritization process may be improved by evaluating Poisons Centres statistics about frequency of cases, severity of effects, detection of unusual circumstances of exposure, as well as vulnerable sub-populations. International efforts for the harmonization of these data offer a useful tool to take advantage of this global information. Case

  15. Final project report, TA-35 Los Alamos Power Reactor Experiment No. II (LAPRE II) decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This final report addresses the decommissioning of the LAPRE II Reactor, safety enclosure, fuel reservoir tanks, emergency fuel recovery system, primary pump pit, secondary loop, associated piping, and the post-remediation activities. Post-remedial action measurements are also included. The cost of the project, including Phase I assessment and Phase II remediation was approximately $496K. The decommissioning operation produced 533 m 3 of low-level solid radioactive waste and 5 m 3 of mixed waste

  16. Angiotensin II, hypertension and angiotensin II receptor antagonism: Roles in the behavioural and brain pathology of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, M.; Roelofs, M.; Lugt, R. Van Der; Heerschap, A.; Kiliaan, A.J.; Claassen, J.A.H.R.

    2017-01-01

    Elevated angiotensin II causes hypertension and contributes to Alzheimer's disease by affecting cerebral blood flow. Angiotensin II receptor blockers may provide candidates to reduce (vascular) risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We studied effects of two months of angiotensin II-induced

  17. Experience with automatic reactor control at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, W.K.; Larson, H.A.; Christensen, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Satisfactory operation of the ACRDS has extended the capabilities of EBR-II to a transient test facility, achieving automatic transient control. Test assemblies can now be irradiated in transient conditions overlapping the slower transient capability of the TREAT reactor

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk for First-Episode Major Depression During the Menopause Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, C Neill; Sammel, Mary D; Bale, Tracy L; Kim, Deborah R; Conlin, Sarah; Scalice, Stephanie; Freeman, Katharine; Freeman, Ellen W

    2017-03-01

    Stress exposures may have a differential impact on risk and resilience for depression depending on their timing across development. We sought to determine whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their onset with respect to puberty contribute to the increased risk observed in first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD) during the menopause transition. Participants were from the Penn Ovarian Aging Study cohort, which is composed of women from Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, who underwent behavioral, cognitive, and endocrine evaluations approximately yearly from 1996 to 2012 and completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire at study end point (n = 243). ACEs that first occurred 2 or more years before menarche were considered prepubertal. Incident menopause MDD was defined as first observed onset of the disorder in the perimenopause to postmenopause transition using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Incident menopause MDD occurred in 48% of the 100 women who reported lifetime MDD. Women reporting ≥ 2 total ACEs were at significantly greater risk for lifetime MDD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.05, P = .034) and incident menopause MDD (aOR = 2.58, P = .03) compared to those reporting 0 ACEs; women with ≥ 2 postpubertal ACEs were 2.3 times more likely to experience incidence menopause MDD (P = .024) after controlling for race, smoking, body mass index, and employment. Experiencing only 1 ACE in the prepubertal window, regardless of additional ACEs in postpuberty, was associated with reduced risk for lifetime and incident menopause MDD. Timing and number of adverse experiences with respect to puberty differentially impacted risk and resilience for MDD across the female life span and during the menopause transition in this community cohort. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. Risk based inspection experience from the European chemical- and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, Hans; Jeppesen, Leif; Larsen, Bjarne; Kim, Na Yon

    2001-01-01

    As an inspection vendor with 60 years of experience and with more than 25 years of experience as manufacturer of the Automated Ultrasonic NDT systems, the P-scan systems, FORCE Institute is continuously analysing the market for NDT. This is done to assure that both the equipment product line and the service mix provided by FORCE Institute are meeting the requirements from the industry today and in the future. The concept of Risk Based Inspection Programmes were adopted early by the offshore industry and has in the recent years been adopted by many other industries as a reliable and cost efficient way of maintaining a production facility. A Risk/Reliability Based Inspection Programme is a 'living organism' that constantly needs information if it shall be of any value and NDT information is only one type of information that is required. The NDT information required is normally related to corrosion/base material information and weld integrity information. NDT as an integrated part of a plants maintenance system is, in Europe, currently influenced by the following tendencies which all are related to 'Risk Based Inspection': · Increased use of Base-Line Inspections · Reduction in the use of repeated inspections(qualitative- instead of quantitative Inspections). · Inspection results are fed directly into the plant maintenance system. · Fitness-for-Purpose acceptance criteria instead of conventional acceptance criteria. As repeatability and accuracy is a key issue for the data, automated ultrasonic inspection is increasingly used as an alternative to manual ultrasonic inspection, but due to the physical size of most automated ultrasonic inspection systems the gain in productivity has not been as significant as the gain in repeatability and accuracy. In this paper some of FORCE Institute's practical experiences with examinations carried out in connection with Risk Based Inspection is used to illustrate the above described tendencies. Not only examples using automated

  20. Drug safety in pregnancy: utopia or achievable prospect? Risk information, risk research and advocacy in Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Christof

    2011-03-01

    Even though from preclinical testing to drug risk labeling, the situation with drugs in pregnancy has improved substantially since the thalidomide scandal, there is still an increasing need to provide healthcare professionals and patients with updated individualized risk information for clinical decision making. For the majority of drugs, clinical experience is still insufficient with respect to their safety in pregnancy. There is often uncertainty in how to interpret the available scientific data. Based on 20 years of experience with Teratology Information Services (TIS) cooperating in the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) methods of risk interpretation, follow-up of exposed pregnancies through the consultation process and their evaluation is discussed. Vitamin K antagonists, isotretinoin and angiotensin (AT) II-receptor-antagonists are presented as examples of misinterpretation of drug risks and subjects of research based on observational clinical data recorded in TIS. As many TIS are poorly funded, advocacy is necessary by establishing contacts with decision makers in health politics and administration, informing them of the high return in terms of health outcomes and cost savings provided by TIS as reference institutions in clinical teratology. © 2011 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  1. Association of estrogen receptor α PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms with prostate cancer susceptibility and risk stratification: a meta-analysis from case-control studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao YN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Yining Zhao,1,* Xi Zheng,2,* Lijie Zhang,3 Qiang Hu,3 Yitian Guo,3 Hua Jiang,3 Shennan Shi,4 Xiang Zhang1 1Department of Urology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, 2Department of Urology, Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 3Department of Urology, Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, 4Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Studies on the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in estrogen receptor α (ERα, PvuII (rs2234693 T>C and XbaI (rs9340799 A>G, and the prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to derive a more accurate estimation of this relationship. Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science databases until October 1, 2016, was conducted. Crude odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to assess the strength of this association. Results: Eighteen case-control studies, with a total of 3,317 prostate cancer patients and 8,324 controls, were included. Results showed that both PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with a higher prostate cancer risk in overall populations. To derive a more accurate estimation, subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity revealed that this relationship existed only in Caucasians, but not in Asians. Furthermore, PvuII polymorphism was significantly associated with high Gleason grade (Gleason score ≥7 cancers. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis demonstrates that ERα PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk in Caucasians, but not in Asians, and PvuII polymorphism is significantly associated with high Gleason grade tumors, indicating the probability of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer arising from different genomic ERα SNPs

  2. NT-proBNP in unstable coronary artery disease--experiences from the FAST, GUSTO IV and FRISC II trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernberg, Tomas; James, Stefan; Lindahl, Bertil; Stridsberg, Mats; Venge, Per; Wallentin, Lars

    2004-03-15

    Risk stratification is important in patients with unstable coronary artery disease (CAD), i.e. unstable angina or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. This article focuses on the emerging role of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and the results from the FAST, GUSTO IV and FRISC II trials. In the FAST study, NT-proBNP was measured on admission in 755 patients admitted because of symptoms suggestive of unstable CAD. Follow up was performed after 40 months. The GUSTO IV and the FRISC II-trials included patients with unstable CAD and NT-proBNP was analyzed in 6806 and 2019 patients, with follow up after 1 and 2 years, respectively. In the FAST study, patients in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th NT-proBNP quartile had a relative risk of subsequent death of 4.2 (1.6-11.1), 10.7 (4.2-26.8) and 26.6 (10.8-65.5), respectively. In the GUSTO IV trial, increasing quartiles of NT-proBNP were related to short and long term mortality which at 1 year was; 1.8%, 3.9%, 7.7% and 19.2% (P<0.001), respectively. In multivariable analyses including well-known predictors of outcome, NT-proBNP level was independently associated to mortality in all three studies. In the FRISC II trial, the NT-proBNP level, especially if combined with a marker of inflammation, identified those with the greatest benefit from an early invasive strategy. NT-proBNP is strongly associated with mortality in patients with suspected or confirmed unstable CAD and, combined with a marker of inflammation, seems helpful in identifying those with greatest benefit from an early invasive strategy.

  3. A comparison between the implementations of risk regulations in The Netherlands and France under the framework of the EC SEVESO II directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, J.M.; Meulenbrugge, J.J.; Versloot, N.H.A.; Dechy, N.; Lecoze, J.-C.; Salvi, O.

    2006-01-01

    The SEVESO II directive has created a common framework for the European state members for the implementation of risk management strategies that require the introduction of various dimensions ranging from technical to organisational ones. Local regulations in countries have however diverse histories

  4. [Increased risk of type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease after gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmans, Tara-Eileen J P; van Houten, Chantal B; Kasius, Annemieke; Kouznetsova, Ouliana I; Nguyen, Ly A; Rooijmans, Sanne V; Voormolen, Daphne N; van Vliet, Elvira O G; Franx, Arie; Koster, M P H Wendy

    2015-01-01

    To determine the long-term risk of developing type II diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) for women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Two search strategies were used in PubMed and Embase to determine the long-term risks of developing T2D and CVD after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus. After critical appraisal of the papers found, 11 papers were included, involving a total of 328,423 patients. Absolute and relative risks (RRs) were calculated. Eight studies (n=276,829) reported on the long-term risk of T2D and 4 (n=141,048) on the long-term risk of CVD. Follow-up ranged from 3.5 to 11.5 years for T2D and from 1.2 to 74.0 years for CVD. Women with gestational diabetes had a risk of T2D varying between 9.5% and 37.0% and a risk of CVD of between 0.28% and 15.5%. Women with gestational diabetes were at increased risk of T2D (weighted RR: 13.2; 95% CI: 8.5-20.7) and CVD (weighted RR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.7) compared to women without gestational diabetes. Women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus have a significantly increased risk of developing T2D and CVD. It is very important that gestational diabetes is recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor in daily practice. It would be desirable to screen this group of women for the presence of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk factors. Further research is required to be able to specify the long-term risk of T2D and CVD and to demonstrate whether such screening is cost-effective.

  5. Experiences and future plan for risk-informed decision making in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.W.; Ryu, Y.H.

    2001-01-01

    A program for establishing regulatory framework on the use of risk information has been underway since 1995, and several trial applications have been done to evaluate the applicability and usefulness of risk-informed approach to nuclear power plant regulation. The program consists of fifteen general and/or specific items of interest and pilot applications will be initiated in 2003. In parallel, research and development program has been continued to support the regulatory implementation. A task force team has been formed and the official channel has also been opened for cooperation between regulatory body and utility-related organizations. Specifically, a couple of trial applications have been done up to now. First, the risk-based inspection (RBI) program has been implemented to improve regulatory inspection framework by utilizing risk information obtained from plant specific PSA and worldwide operating experiences. Next, optimization of technical specifications has been applied for surveillance test intervals (STIs) and allowed outage time (AOT). (author)

  6. Monitoring, field experiments, and geochemical modeling of Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in a stream dominated by net-alkaline coal-mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta,, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Watershed-scale monitoring, field aeration experiments, and geochemical equilibrium and kinetic modeling were conducted to evaluate interdependent changes in pH, dissolved CO2, O2, and Fe(II) concentrations that typically take place downstream of net-alkaline, circumneutral coal-mine drainage (CMD) outfalls and during aerobic treatment of such CMD. The kinetic modeling approach, using PHREEQC, accurately simulates observed variations in pH, Fe(II) oxidation, alkalinity consumption, and associated dissolved gas concentrations during transport downstream of the CMD outfalls (natural attenuation) and during 6-h batch aeration tests on the CMD using bubble diffusers (enhanced attenuation). The batch aeration experiments demonstrated that aeration promoted CO2 outgassing, thereby increasing pH and the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was accurately estimated by the abiotic homogeneous oxidation rate law −d[Fe(II)]/dt = k1·[O2]·[H+]−2·[Fe(II)] that indicates an increase in pH by 1 unit at pH 5–8 and at constant dissolved O2 (DO) concentration results in a 100-fold increase in the rate of Fe(II) oxidation. Adjusting for sample temperature, a narrow range of values for the apparent homogeneous Fe(II) oxidation rate constant (k1′) of 0.5–1.7 times the reference value of k1 = 3 × 10−12 mol/L/min (for pH 5–8 and 20 °C), reported by Stumm and Morgan (1996), was indicated by the calibrated models for the 5-km stream reach below the CMD outfalls and the aerated CMD. The rates of CO2 outgassing and O2ingassing in the model were estimated with first-order asymptotic functions, whereby the driving force is the gradient of the dissolved gas concentration relative to equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Although the progressive increase in DO concentration to saturation could be accurately modeled as a kinetic function for the conditions evaluated, the simulation of DO as an instantaneous equilibrium process did not affect the

  7. Forced convection heat transfer in He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashani, A.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of forced convection heat transfer in He II is conducted. The study includes both experimental and theoretical treatments of the problem. The experiment consists of a hydraulic pump and a copper flow tube, 3 mm in ID and 2m long. The system allows measurements of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in He II. The heat transfer experiments are performed by applying heat at the midpoint along the length of the flow tube. Two modes of heat input are employed, i.e., step function heat input and square pulse heat input. The heat transfer results are discussed in terms of temperature distribution in the tube. The experimental temperature profiles are compared with numerical solutions of an analytical model developed from the He II energy equation. The bath temperature is set at three different values of 1.65, 1.80, and 1.95 K. The He II flow velocity is varied up to 90 cm/s. Pressure is monitored at each end of the flow tube, and the He II pressure drop is obtained for different flow velocities. Results indicate that He II heat transfer by forced convention is considerably higher than that by internal convection. The theoretical model is in close agreement with the experiment. He II pressure drop and friction factor are very similar to those of an ordinary fluid

  8. RTNS-II 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    RTNS-II was built to provide a deuterium-tritium neutron source for the study of fusion neutron effects. In the quest to apply fusion to commercial power production, the specific mission of RTNS-II is threefold: to acquire direct engineering data for near-term confinement experiments and for materials that will see moderate neutron dose in future reactor systems; to measure production rates of transmutants and to develop appropriate radiation-resistant instrumentation for fusion systems; and to study the radiation-induced property changes caused by fusion neutrons. RTNS-II comprises two independent sources of 14-MeV neutrons. This is the third annual report summarizing irradiation experiments at RTNS-II. It covers calendar year 1983, and includes reports of all irradiation results, both fusion and non-fusion related. These comprise both secondary (or ''add-on'') and primary irradiations. Each summary article has been submitted by the investigator and has been altered only to meet the style and format requirements of this report

  9. Professional Skepticism and Auditors’ Assessment of Misstatement Risks: The Moderating Effect of Experience and Time Budget Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Alwee Hussnie Sayed Hussin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study employs a field experiment to examine the relationship between professional skepticism, experience, and time budget pressure on auditors’ assessment of risk of misstatement. In addition, the study examines the moderating effect of experience and time budget pressure on the relationship between professional skepticism and auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; 2 Method: This study employs a multiple regression analysis on 248 auditors from both Big4 and non-Big4 firms; 3 The results indicate that professional skepticism and experience have positive effects while time budget pressure has a negative effect on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatements; and 4 The positive effect of professional skepticism on auditors’ assessment of risk from material misstatement is stronger among more experienced auditors than that among less experienced. On the other hand, the positive effect of professional skepticism on risk assessment is weaker when auditors work under high time budget pressure than that when they work under low time budget pressure. Additional analysis on the samples from the two selected areas, Kuala Lumpur and Selangor, produces consistent results indicating that the use of separate models for different samples is not necessary. Hence, the study uses a single model for the final analysis. The results provide a better understanding on whether the auditors are able to sustain professional skepticism with a given amount of relevant audit experience and under different levels of time budget pressure.

  10. Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II sorption by Lagenaria vulgaris shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić-Stojanović Dragana-Linda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions from aqueous solution by Lagenaria vulgaris shell biosorbent (LVB in batch system was investigated. The effect of relevant parameters such as contact time, biosorbent dosage and initial metal ions concentration was evaluated. The Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II sorption equilibrium (when 98% of initial metal ions were sorbed was attained within 15, 20 and 25 min, respectively. The pseudo first, pseudo-second order, Chrastil’s and intra-particle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data fitted the pseudo-second order kinetic model and intra-particle diffusion model. Removal efficiency of lead(II, cadmium(II and zinc(II ions rapidly increased with increasing biosorbent dose from 0.5 to 8.0 g dm-3. Optimal biosorbent dose was set to 4.0 g dm-3. An increase in the initial metal concentration increases the sorption capacity. The sorption data of investigated metal ions are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Langmuir model best fitted the equilibrium data (r2 > 0.99. Maximal sorption capacities of LVB for Pb(II, Cd(II and Zn(II at 25.0±0.5°C were 0.130, 0.103 and 0.098 mM g-1, respectively. The desorption experiments showed that the LVB could be reused for six cycles with a minimum loss of the initial sorption capacity.

  11. Comprehensive diagnostic set for intense lithium ion hohlraum experiments on PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Bailey, J.E.; Carlson, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    A review of the comprehensive diagnostic package developed at Sandia National Laboratories for intense lithium ion hohlraum target experiments on PBFA II will be presented. This package contains an extensive suite of x-ray spectral and imaging diagnostics that enable measurements of target radiation smoothing, hydro-motion, and temperature. The x-ray diagnostics include time-integrated and time-resolved pinhole cameras, energy-resolved 1-D streaked imaging diagnostics that enable measurements of target radiation smoothing, hydro-motion, and temperature. The x-ray diagnostics include time-integrated and time-resolved pinhole cameras, energy-resolved 1-D streaked imaging diagnostics, time-integrated and time-resolved grazing incidence spectrographs, a transmission grating spectrography, an elliptical crystal spectrograph, a bolometer array, an eleven element x-ray diode (XRD) array, and an eleven element PIN diode detector array. A hohlraum temperature measurement technique under development is a shock breakout diagnostic that measures the radiation pressure at the hohlraum wall. The incident Li beam symmetry and an estimate of incident Li beam power density are measured from ion beam-induced characteristic x-ray line and neutron emissions. An attempt to measure the Li beam intensity directly on target used Rutherford scattered ions into an ion movie camera and a magnetic spectrograph. The philosophy used in designing all the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurements of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the performance of the target. Details of each diagnostic, its integration, data reduction procedures, and recent PBFA-II data will be discussed

  12. Assessing the Risk of Occult Cancer and 30-day Morbidity in Women Undergoing Risk-reducing Surgery: A Prospective Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Giorgio; Tagliabue, Elena; Signorelli, Mauro; Chiappa, Valentina; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Paolini, Biagio; Casarin, Jvan; Scaffa, Cono; Gennaro, Massimiliano; Martinelli, Fabio; Borghi, Chiara; Ditto, Antonino; Lorusso, Domenica; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    To investigate the incidence and predictive factors of 30-day surgery-related morbidity and occult precancerous and cancerous conditions for women undergoing risk-reducing surgery. A prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). A gynecologic oncology referral center. Breast-related cancer antigen (BRCA) mutation carriers and BRCAX patients (those with a significant family history of breast and ovarian cancer). Minimally invasive risk-reduction surgery. Overall, 85 women underwent risk-reducing surgery: 30 (35%) and 55 (65%) had hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) and BSO alone, respectively. Overall, in 6 (7%) patients, the final pathology revealed unexpected cancer: 3 early-stage ovarian/fallopian tube cancers, 2 advanced-stage ovarian cancers (stage IIIA and IIIB), and 1 serous endometrial carcinoma. Additionally, 3 (3.6%) patients had incidental finding of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. Four (4.7%) postoperative complications within 30 days from surgery were registered, including fever (n = 3) and postoperative ileus (n = 1); no severe (grade 3 or more) complications were observed. All complications were managed conservatively. The presence of occult cancer was the only factor predicting the development of postoperative complications (p = .02). Minimally invasive risk-reducing surgery is a safe and effective strategy to manage BRCA mutation carriers. Patients should benefit from an appropriate counseling about the high prevalence of undiagnosed cancers observed at the time of surgery. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) - II Quarterly Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    LBNL has received American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding to construct a new accelerator at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to significantly increase the energy on target, which will allow both the Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) and Warm Dense Matter (WDM) research communities to explore scientific conditions that have not been available in any other device. For NDCX-II, a new induction linear accelerator (linac) will be constructed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). NDCX-II will produce nano-second long ion beam bunches to hit thin foil targets. The final kinetic energy of the ions arriving at the target varies according to the ion mass. For atomic mass unit of 6 or 7 (Lithium ions), useful kinetic energies range from 1.5 to 5 or more MeV. The expected beam charge in the 1 ns (or shorter) pulse is about 20 nanoCoulombs. The pulse repetition rate will be about once or twice per minute (of course, target considerations will often reduce this rate). Our approach to building the NDCX-II ion accelerator is to make use of the available induction modules and 200 kV pulsers from the retired ATA electron linac at LLNL. Reusing this hardware will maximize the ion energy on target at a minimum cost. Some modification of the cells (e.g., reduce the bore diameter and replace with higher field pulsed solenoids) are needed in order to meet the requirements of this project. The NDCX-II project will include the following tasks: (1) Physics design to determine the required ion current density at the ion source, the injector beam optics, the layout of accelerator cells along the beam line, the voltage waveforms for beam acceleration and compression, the solenoid focusing, the neutralized drift compression and the final focus on target; (2) Engineering design and fabrication of the accelerator components, pulsed power system, diagnostic system, and control and data acquisition system; (3) Conventional facilities; and (4) Installation and integration

  14. Neoadjuvant FOLFOX 4 versus FOLFOX 4 with Cetuximab versus immediate surgery for high-risk stage II and III colon cancers: a multicentre randomised controlled phase II trial--the PRODIGE 22--ECKINOXE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoui, Mehdi; Rullier, Anne; Luciani, Alain; Bonnetain, Franck; Auriault, Marie-Luce; Sarran, Antony; Monges, Geneviève; Trillaud, Hervé; Le Malicot, Karine; Leroy, Karen; Sobhani, Iradj; Bardier, Armelle; Moreau, Marie; Brindel, Isabelle; Seitz, Jean François; Taieb, Julien

    2015-07-10

    In patients with high risk stage II and stage III colon cancer (CC), curative surgery followed by adjuvant FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy has become the standard of care. However, for 20 to 30% of these patients, the current curative treatment strategy of surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy fails either to clear locoregional spread or to eradicate distant micrometastases, leading to disease recurrence. Preoperative chemotherapy is an attractive concept for these CCs and has the potential to impact upon both of these causes of failure. Optimum systemic therapy at the earliest possible opportunity may be more effective at eradicating distant metastases than the same treatment given after the delay and immunological stress of surgery. Added to this, shrinking the primary tumor before surgery may reduce the risk of incomplete surgical excision, and the risk of tumor cell shedding during surgery. PRODIGE 22--ECKINOXE is a multicenter randomized phase II trial designed to evaluate efficacy and feasibility of two chemotherapy regimens (FOLFOX-4 alone and FOLFOX-4 + Cetuximab) in a peri-operative strategy in patients with bulky CCs. Patients with CC deemed as high risk T3, T4 and/or N2 on initial abdominopelvic CT scan are randomized to either colectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy (control arm), or 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX-4 (for RAS mutated patients). In RAS wild-type patients a third arm testing FOLFOX+ cetuximab has been added prior to colectomy. Patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy arms will receive postoperative treatment for 4 months (8 cycles) to complete their therapeutic schedule. The primary endpoint of the study is the histological Tumor Regression Grade (TRG) as defined by Ryan. The secondary endpoints are: treatment strategy safety (toxicity, primary tumor related complications under chemotherapy, peri-operative morbidity), disease-free and recurrence free survivals at 3 years, quality of life, carcinologic quality and

  15. Indirect Reciprocity, Resource Sharing, and Environmental Risk: Evidence from Field Experiments in Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, E. Lance; Murphy, James J.; Gerkey, Drew; West, Colin Thor

    2016-01-01

    Integrating information from existing research, qualitative ethnographic interviews, and participant observation, we designed a field experiment that introduces idiosyncratic environmental risk and a voluntary sharing decision into a standard public goods game. Conducted with subsistence resource users in rural villages on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Northeast Siberia, we find evidence consistent with a model of indirect reciprocity and local social norms of helping the needy. When participants are allowed to develop reputations in the experiments, as is the case in most small-scale societies, we find that sharing is increasingly directed toward individuals experiencing hardship, good reputations increase aid, and the pooling of resources through voluntary sharing becomes more effective. We also find high levels of voluntary sharing without a strong commitment device; however, this form of cooperation does not increase contributions to the public good. Our results are consistent with previous experiments and theoretical models, suggesting strategic risks tied to rewards, punishments, and reputations are important. However, unlike studies that focus solely on strategic risks, we find the effects of rewards, punishments, and reputations are altered by the presence of environmental factors. Unexpected changes in resource abundance increase interdependence and may alter the costs and benefits of cooperation, relative to defection. We suggest environmental factors that increase interdependence are critically important to consider when developing and testing theories of cooperation PMID:27442434

  16. Measuring risk in a Philippine power plant: the Philippine experience in transfer of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savellano, R.A.; Leon, G.C. de; Azanon, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Philippine experience in risk assessment and management is more pronounced in the field of energy systems. This particular study focuses on the evaluation and management of pollutant emission from a geothermal power plant. It embraces two main methodologies 1) the systematic calculation of the risks impacts of the energy systems to human health and to the environment, and 2) the evaluation of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction schemes. Presented in detail is how the researchers resolve the problems and the approach perceived as necessary for an effective risk management. (ELC). 12 refs.; 5 tabs.; 3 figs

  17. Redefining high-risk patients with stage II colon cancer by risk index and microRNA-21: results from a population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T F; Kjær-Frifeldt, S; Christensen, R D

    2014-01-01

    Background:The aim of the present study was to analyse the prognostic value of microRNA-21 (miRNA-21) in patients with stage II colon cancer aiming at a risk index for this group of patients.Methods:A population-based cohort of 554 patients was included. MicroRNA-21 was analysed by qPCR based.......001). The overall survival (OS) index identified three different subgroups (Pcolon cancer. Furthermore...... on tumour tissue. An index was created using the coefficients obtained from a collective multiple Cox regression. The entire procedure was cross-validated (10-fold). The performance of the index was quantified by time-dependent receiver operating characteristics curves.Results:High miRNA-21 expression...

  18. Hazard Experience, Geophysical Vulnerability, and Flood Risk Perceptions in a Postdisaster City, the Case of New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Kevin Fox; Campanella, Richard; Lauve-Moon, Katie; Powers, Bradford

    2018-02-01

    This article investigates the determinants of flood risk perceptions in New Orleans, Louisiana (United States), a deltaic coastal city highly vulnerable to seasonal nuisance flooding and hurricane-induced deluges and storm surges. Few studies have investigated the influence of hazard experience, geophysical vulnerability (hazard proximity), and risk perceptions in cities undergoing postdisaster recovery and rebuilding. We use ordinal logistic regression techniques to analyze experiential, geophysical, and sociodemographic variables derived from a survey of 384 residents in seven neighborhoods. We find that residents living in neighborhoods that flooded during Hurricane Katrina exhibit higher levels of perceived risk than those residents living in neighborhoods that did not flood. In addition, findings suggest that flood risk perception is positively associated with female gender, lower income, and direct flood experiences. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings for theoretical and empirical research on environmental risk, flood risk communication strategies, and flood hazards planning. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Exposure to hazardous air pollutants and risk of incident breast cancer in the nurses' health study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jaime E; Bertrand, Kimberly A; DuPre, Natalie; James, Peter; Vieira, Verónica M; VoPham, Trang; Mittleman, Maggie R; Tamimi, Rulla M; Laden, Francine

    2018-03-27

    Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). However, to date, no nationwide studies have evaluated these possible associations. Our objective was to examine the impacts of mammary carcinogen and estrogen disrupting HAPs on risk of invasive breast cancer in a nationwide cohort. We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). Risk of overall invasive, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER+), and ER-negative (ER-) breast cancer with increasing quartiles of exposure were assessed in time-varying multivariable proportional hazards models, adjusted for traditional breast cancer risk factors. A total of 3321 invasive cases occurred (2160 ER+, 558 ER-) during follow-up 1989-2011. Overall, there was no consistent pattern of elevated risk of the HAPs with risk of breast cancer. Suggestive elevations were only seen with increasing 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane exposures (multivariable adjusted HR of overall breast cancer = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.98-1.29; ER+ breast cancer HR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.30; ER- breast cancer HR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; each in the top exposure quartile compared to the lowest). Exposures to HAPs during adulthood were not consistently associated with an increased risk of overall or estrogen-receptor subtypes of invasive breast cancer in this nationwide cohort of women.

  20. Mitigation of {sup 42}Ar/{sup 42}K background for the GERDA Phase II experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubashevskiy, A.; Klimenko, A.; Smolnikov, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Agostini, M. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Budjas, D.; Lazzaro, A.; Schoenert, S. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, Munich (Germany); Gangapshev, A. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gusev, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E15, Munich (Germany); Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Heisel, M. [Max Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Lehnert, B. [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Carleton University, Physics Department, Ottawa (Canada); Pelczar, K. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, LNGS, Assergi (Italy); Walter, M. [Physik Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Zuzel, G. [Jagellonian University, Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    2018-01-15

    Background coming from the {sup 42}Ar decay chain is considered to be one of the most relevant for the Gerda experiment, which searches for the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The sensitivity strongly relies on the absence of background around the Q-value of the decay. Background coming from {sup 42}K, a progeny of {sup 42}Ar, can contribute to that background via electrons from the continuous spectrum with an endpoint at 3.5 MeV. Research and development on the suppression methods targeting this source of background were performed at the low-background test facility LArGe. It was demonstrated that by reducing {sup 42}K ion collection on the surfaces of the broad energy germanium detectors in combination with pulse shape discrimination techniques and an argon scintillation veto, it is possible to suppress {sup 42}K background by three orders of magnitude. This is sufficient for Phase II of the Gerda experiment. (orig.)

  1. Coordination chemistry of sugar-phosphate complexes with palladium(II), rhenium(V) and zinc(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinborn, Christian Martin

    2013-05-21

    As described before, some studies dealing with coordination chemistry of sugar phosphates are available but no analogous complexes of Zn{sup II} have been investigated yet. The primary goal of this work is, therefore, to fill this gap. In order to stay close to the active sites of enzymes such as class-II-aldolase, the simple metal fragment Zn{sup II}(dien) is used. NMR spectroscopy is used primarily as analytical method since it enables the investigation of both complex equilibria in solution and pH dependence of metal-binding sites. Since this approach is challenging due to the fast metal-ligand exchange and the absence of CIS values, it is necessary to improve the significance of NMR data collected from sugar-phosphate complexes with Zn{sup II}. Hence, further experiments are performed with molecules similar to sugar phosphates such as reducing and methylated sugars or polyols. Beside NMR spectroscopy, crystal-structure analysis will be used to get more detailed information about the binding pattern of the complexes. Additionally, sugar-phosphate complexes of Pd{sup II} are investigated. Further experiments are conducted, on the one hand, to synthesise more sugarphosphate complexes with ReVON2 fragments, and, on the other hand, to grow crystals confirming the theory about mixed sugar-core-phosphate chelation.

  2. Assessment of perioperative mortality risk in patients with infective endocarditis undergoing cardiac surgery: performance of the EuroSCORE I and II logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Sérgio; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Tralhão, António; Santos, Miguel; Almeida, Carla; Marques, Marta; Ferreira, Jorge; Raposo, Luís; Neves, José; Mendes, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) has been established as a tool for assisting decision-making in surgical patients and as a benchmark for quality assessment. Infective endocarditis often requires surgical treatment and is associated with high mortality. This study was undertaken to (i) validate both versions of the EuroSCORE, the older logistic EuroSCORE I and the recently developed EuroSCORE II and to compare their performances; (ii) identify predictors other than those included in the EuroSCORE models that might further improve their performance. We retrospectively studied 128 patients from a single-centre registry who underwent heart surgery for active infective endocarditis between January 2007 and November 2014. Binary logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of mortality and to create a new prediction model. Discrimination and calibration of models were assessed by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration curves and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The observed perioperative mortality was 16.4% (n = 21). The median EuroSCORE I and EuroSCORE II were 13.9% interquartile range (IQ) (7.0-35.0) and 6.6% IQ (3.5-18.2), respectively. Discriminative power was numerically higher for EuroSCORE II {area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.91]} than for EuroSCORE I [0.75 (95% CI, 0.66-0.85), P = 0.09]. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed good calibration for EuroSCORE II (P = 0.08) but not for EuroSCORE I (P = 0.04). EuroSCORE I tended to over-predict and EuroSCORE II to under-predict mortality. Among the variables known to be associated with greater infective endocarditis severity, only prosthetic valve infective endocarditis remained an independent predictor of mortality [odds ratio (OR) 6.6; 95% CI, 1.1-39.5; P = 0.04]. The new model including the EuroSCORE II variables and variables known to be associated with greater infective endocarditis severity showed an AUC of 0

  3. Considerations for advanced reactor design based on EBR-II experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The long-term success of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) provides several insights into fundamental characteristics and design features of a nuclear generating station that enhance safety, operability, and maintainability. Some of these same characteristics, together with other features, offer the potential for operational lifetimes well beyond the current licensing time frame, and improved reliability that could potentially reduce amortized capital costs as well as overall operation and maintenance costs if incorporated into advanced plant designs. These features and characteristics are described and the associated benefits are discussed

  4. Experience of the use of comparative evaluations of risks in the public discussion about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsch, P.

    1983-01-01

    In the nuclear controversy the risks of nuclear facilities play a major role. An evaluation of these risks is possible only by comparison with other risks to which people are exposed. For this purpose the selection of suitable comparative risk sources is important. But even if appropriate risk sources have been chosen, there will always be some rest dimensions which are difficult to encompass into the comparison. Among these problems are: the maximum damage, the time frame, the practical experience with a risk source, the different composition of the risk (death, injuries, cancers etc.), the uncertainty of risk assessment results, especially for chronic and late effects. One has to pay attention to these obstacles of comparing risks in the public discussion. Experience shows that risk comparison will be easier accepted if one explicitly refers to this difficulty. Also the different components of risks have to be presented, at least from its basic concept. An interesting possibility is the comparison of different risks with regard to their shortening of life expectancy. This common delimiter has to be used with care, since some comparisons decrease the probability of public acceptance for this method. Nevertheless this method provides a good illustration, of how small e.g. the risk of low doses of ionizing radiation is in comparison to smoking cigarettes. In any case it has to be pointed out that risk is not the only criterion for decisions about a technology, but that other factors like economics, fuel supply, degree of technical development have to be taken into account

  5. Irradiation of microphones in the EBR-II core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, A.P.; Anderson, T.T.; Bobis, J.P.

    1976-06-01

    Six ANL developed high temperature microphone (acoustic detectors) have been exposed in flowing sodium in the In-Core Instrument Test Facility (INCOT) in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for seven months without any indications of serious degradation of signal output due to the exposure. The YY05 experiment (EBR-II INCOT experiment designation) was performed to obtain data which would be useful in evaluating the ability of the microphones whose active elements are lithium niobate to serve as sensors for acoustic surveillance of fast breeder reactors. The reactor was at full power for 136 days of the experiment exposure period. The microphone temperatures varied from 371 0 C (700 0 F) to 621 0 C (1150 0 F). Neutron exposure varied from 2.64 x 10 22 nvt for the microphone at the elevation of the bottom of the EBR-II core to 0.24 x 10 22 nvt for the microphone at the elevation of the top of an EBR-II fuel assembly. The maximum gamma dose was 5 x 10 12 rads

  6. Neoadjuvant FOLFOX 4 versus FOLFOX 4 with Cetuximab versus immediate surgery for high-risk stage II and III colon cancers: a multicentre randomised controlled phase II trial – the PRODIGE 22 - ECKINOXE trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karoui, Mehdi; Rullier, Anne; Luciani, Alain; Bonnetain, Franck; Auriault, Marie-Luce; Sarran, Antony; Monges, Geneviève; Trillaud, Hervé; Le Malicot, Karine; Leroy, Karen; Sobhani, Iradj; Bardier, Armelle; Moreau, Marie; Brindel, Isabelle; Seitz, Jean François; Taieb, Julien

    2015-01-01

    In patients with high risk stage II and stage III colon cancer (CC), curative surgery followed by adjuvant FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy has become the standard of care. However, for 20 to 30 % of these patients, the current curative treatment strategy of surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy fails either to clear locoregional spread or to eradicate distant micrometastases, leading to disease recurrence. Preoperative chemotherapy is an attractive concept for these CCs and has the potential to impact upon both of these causes of failure. Optimum systemic therapy at the earliest possible opportunity may be more effective at eradicating distant metastases than the same treatment given after the delay and immunological stress of surgery. Added to this, shrinking the primary tumor before surgery may reduce the risk of incomplete surgical excision, and the risk of tumor cell shedding during surgery. PRODIGE 22 - ECKINOXE is a multicenter randomized phase II trial designed to evaluate efficacy and feasibility of two chemotherapy regimens (FOLFOX-4 alone and FOLFOX-4 + Cetuximab) in a peri-operative strategy in patients with bulky CCs. Patients with CC deemed as high risk T3, T4 and/or N2 on initial abdominopelvic CT scan are randomized to either colectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy (control arm), or 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX-4 (for RAS mutated patients). In RAS wild-type patients a third arm testing FOLFOX+ cetuximab has been added prior to colectomy. Patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy arms will receive postoperative treatment for 4 months (8 cycles) to complete their therapeutic schedule. The primary endpoint of the study is the histological Tumor Regression Grade (TRG) as defined by Ryan. The secondary endpoints are: treatment strategy safety (toxicity, primary tumor related complications under chemotherapy, peri-operative morbidity), disease-free and recurrence free survivals at 3 years, quality of life, carcinologic quality and

  7. Dark Matter Results from 54-Ton-Day Exposure of PandaX-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangyi; Abdukerim, Abdusalam; Chen, Wei; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Dong, Binbin; Fang, Deqing; Fu, Changbo; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Gu, Linhui; Gu, Yikun; Guo, Xuyuan; Guo, Zhifan; Han, Ke; He, Changda; Huang, Di; He, Shengming; Huang, Xingtao; Huang, Zhou; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Li, Shaoli; Li, Yao; Lin, Heng; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ni, Kaixiang; Ning, Jinhua; Ren, Xiangxiang; Shi, Fang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Xuming; Wu, Qinyu; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Tianqi; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Jifang; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Xiaopeng; PandaX-II Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    We report a new search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the combined low background data sets acquired in 2016 and 2017 from the PandaX-II experiment in China. The latest data set contains a new exposure of 77.1 live days, with the background reduced to a level of 0.8 ×10-3 evt /kg /day , improved by a factor of 2.5 in comparison to the previous run in 2016. No excess events are found above the expected background. With a total exposure of 5.4 ×104 kg day , the most stringent upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section is set for a WIMP with mass larger than 100 GeV /c2 , with the lowest 90% C.L. exclusion at 8.6 ×10-47 cm2 at 40 GeV /c2 .

  8. The data analysis of the single well injection-withdraw tracer experiment using the MACRO II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakawa, Toshihiko; Kanazawa, Yasuo; Hatanaka, Koichiro

    2001-04-01

    On understanding the radionuclide transport in natural barrier in radioactive waste isolation research, the macroscopic dispersion in heterogeneous permeability field in the underground rock is regarded as an important process. Therefore, we have conducted lots of tracer experiments by the MACRO II facility with an artificially constructed heterogeneous permeability field. In order to study the scale dependence of dispersion coefficients in case of laboratory experiments, we placed the flow cell horizontally, and conducted injection-withdraw tracer experiment with a single well. We have conducted 15 cases experiments. These cases were prepared by changing a position of single well and the injection-withdraw time. At each position we have conducted 9 cases and 6 cases experiments. In this report, we evaluated the macroscopic dispersion coefficients by the fitting of analytical solution to breakthrough curve measured by the 15 cases pumping tracer experiment. Consequently, we could evaluate the dispersion coefficients for 12 cases of 15 cases. Then, we discussed the relation between a injection-withdraw flow rate and a property of heterogeneous media and dispersion coefficient. The conclusions obtained from the results of the evaluation are summarized as follows, It was found that the macroscopic dispersion coefficients tend to be increased with increase of the average radius of tracer front spread around a single well. We have conducted any experiments with s single well settled at two positions. In case of that there is low permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are large. In case of that there is high permeability around a single well, we found dispersion coefficients are small. In three cases that we could not evaluate because of incorrect accuracy of fitting, we have found it possible that there is some points that dispersion coefficients were strikingly small in tracer front. (author)

  9. The overvoltage protection module for the power supply system for the pixel detector at Belle II experiment at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, P.; Kisielewski, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the overvoltage protection modules (OVP) for the power supply (PS) system of the Belle II pixel detector (PXD) are described. The aim of the OVP is to protect the detector and associated electronics against overvoltage conditions. Most critical in the system are voltages supplying the front-end ASICs. The PXD detector consists of the DEPFET sensor modules with integrated chips like the Drain Current Digitizer, the Switcher and the Data Handling Processor. These chips, implemented in modern sub-micron technologies, are quite vulnerable to variations in the supply voltages. The PXD will be placed in the Belle II experiment as close as possible to the interaction point, where access during experiment is very limited or even impossible, thus the PS and OVP systems exploit the remote-sensing method. Overvoltage conditions are due to failures of the PS itself, wrong setting of the output voltages or transient voltages coming out of hard noisy environment of the experiment. The OVP modules are parts of the PS modules. For powering the PXD 40 PS modules are placed 15 m outside the Belle II spectrometer. Each one is equipped with the OVP board. All voltages (22) are grouped in 4 domains: Analog, Digital, Steering and Gate which have independent grounds. The OVP boards are designed from integrated circuits from Linear Technology. All configurations were simulated with the Spice program. The control electronics is designed in a Xilinx CPLD. Two types of integrated circuits were used. LT4356 surge stopper protects loads from high voltage transients. The output voltages are limited to a safe value and also protect loads against over current faults. For less critical voltages, the LTC2912 voltage monitors are used that detect under-voltage and overvoltage events. It has to be noted that the OVP system is working independently of any other protection of the PS system, which increases its overall reliability. (authors)

  10. The overvoltage protection module for the power supply system for the pixel detector at Belle II experiment at KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, P.; Kisielewski, B. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-875 Krakow, (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the overvoltage protection modules (OVP) for the power supply (PS) system of the Belle II pixel detector (PXD) are described. The aim of the OVP is to protect the detector and associated electronics against overvoltage conditions. Most critical in the system are voltages supplying the front-end ASICs. The PXD detector consists of the DEPFET sensor modules with integrated chips like the Drain Current Digitizer, the Switcher and the Data Handling Processor. These chips, implemented in modern sub-micron technologies, are quite vulnerable to variations in the supply voltages. The PXD will be placed in the Belle II experiment as close as possible to the interaction point, where access during experiment is very limited or even impossible, thus the PS and OVP systems exploit the remote-sensing method. Overvoltage conditions are due to failures of the PS itself, wrong setting of the output voltages or transient voltages coming out of hard noisy environment of the experiment. The OVP modules are parts of the PS modules. For powering the PXD 40 PS modules are placed 15 m outside the Belle II spectrometer. Each one is equipped with the OVP board. All voltages (22) are grouped in 4 domains: Analog, Digital, Steering and Gate which have independent grounds. The OVP boards are designed from integrated circuits from Linear Technology. All configurations were simulated with the Spice program. The control electronics is designed in a Xilinx CPLD. Two types of integrated circuits were used. LT4356 surge stopper protects loads from high voltage transients. The output voltages are limited to a safe value and also protect loads against over current faults. For less critical voltages, the LTC2912 voltage monitors are used that detect under-voltage and overvoltage events. It has to be noted that the OVP system is working independently of any other protection of the PS system, which increases its overall reliability. (authors)

  11. Australia; Basel II Implementation Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    The key findings of Australia’s BASEL II implementation assessment are presented. The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority (APRA) allocated sufficient resources, including highly skilled staff, prior to the Basel II start date, and the outcome has been a robust and high-quality implementation that has built upon and substantially strengthened the risk-management capabilities of major banks. The quality of leadership and commitment by all involved has been instrumental in the success of ...

  12. Recent results from AMANDA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, K.; Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; De Young, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstroem, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herque, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Koci, B.; Koepke, L.; Kuehn, K.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Neunhoeffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present new data taken with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope array. The AMANDA-II upgrade was completed at the beginning of 2000. It significantly extends the sensitivity of the 10-string AMANDA-B10 detector to high- and ultrahigh-energy neutrino fluxes into regions of interest for probing current astrophysical models which remain unexplored by other experiments

  13. Spiral chain structure of high pressure selenium-II' and sulfur-II from powder x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihisa, Hiroshi; Yamawaki, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Mami; Yamada, Takahiro; Honda, Kazumasa; Akahama, Yuichi; Kawamura, Haruki; Le Bihan, Tristan

    2004-01-01

    The structure of high pressure phases, selenium-II ' (Se-II ' ) and sulfur-II (S-II), for α-Se 8 (monoclinic Se-I) and α-S 8 (orthorhombic S-I) was studied by powder x-ray diffraction experiments. Se-II ' and S-II were found to be isostructural and to belong to the tetragonal space group I4 1 /acd, which is made up of 16 atoms in the unit cell. The structure consisted of unique spiral chains with both 4 1 and 4 3 screws. The results confirmed that the structure sequence of the pressure-induced phase transitions for the group VIb elements depended on the initial molecular form. The chemical bonds of the phases are also discussed from the interatomic distances that were obtained

  14. FIX-II/3025, BWR FIX-II Pump Trip Experiment 3025, Immediate Split Size Break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NILSSON, Lars; GUSTAFSSON, Per-Ake; GUSTAFSON, Lennart; JANCZAK, Rajmund; OESTERLUNDH, Ingrid

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The FIX-II facility is a volume scaled 1:777 representation of a Swedish BWR with external pumps. The pressure vessel contains a 36 rod full length bundle and a spray condenser at the top to allow steady state operation. The downcomer, bypass channels and guide tube volumes are represented by external piping. The intact loop represents three of the four external reactor loops. The broken loop is constructed such that both guillotine breaks and split breaks may be simulated. The facility is equipped with ADS-simulation, but no ECCS injection are included. The FIX-II loop is also suited to investigate response of pump trips and MSIV closures in internal pump reactors. 2 - Description of test: Test 3025 simulates an intermediate size split break in one of the four main recirculation lines. The break area was 31 per cent of the scaled down pipe area of the reactor. The initial power of the 36-rod bundle was 3.38 MW, corresponding to the hot channel power of the reactor

  15. The physics design of EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewenstein, W.B.

    1962-01-01

    The physics design oi EBR-II. Calculations of the static, dynamic and long-term reactivity behaviour of EBR-II are reported together with results and analysis of EBR-II dry critical and ZPR-III mock-up experiments. Particular emphasis is given to reactor-physics design problems which arise after the conceptual design is established and before the reactor is built or placed into operation. Reactor-safety analyses and hazards-evaluation considerations are described with their influence on the reactor design. The manner of utilizing the EBR-II mock-up on ZPR-III data and the EBR-II dry critical data is described. These experiments, their analysis and theoretical predictions are the basis for predetermining the physics behaviour of the reactor system. The limitations inherent in applying the experimental data to the performance of the power-reactor system are explored in some detail. This includes the specification of reactor core size and/or fuel-alloy enrichment, provisions for adequate operating and shut-down reactivity, determination of operative temperature and power coefficients of reactivity, and details of power- and flux-distribution as a function of position within the reactor structure. The overall problem of transferring information from simple idealized analytical or experimental geometry to actual hexagonal reactor geometry is described. Nuclear performance, including breeding, of the actual reactor system is compared with that of the idealized conceptual system. The long-term reactivity and power behaviour of the reactor blanket is described within the framework of the proposed cycling of the fuel and blanket alloy. Safety considerations, including normal and abnormal rates of reactivity-insertion, the implication of postulated reactivity effects based on the physical behaviour of the fuel alloy and reactor structure as well as extrapolation of TREAT experiments to the EBR-II system are analysed. The EBR-II core melt-down problem is reviewed. (author

  16. Flatland optics. II. Basic experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, A W; Wang, D; Pe'er, A; Friesem, A A

    2001-05-01

    In "Flatland optics: fundamentals" [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 1755 (2000)] we described the basic principles of two-dimensional (2D) optics and showed that a wavelength lambda in three-dimensional (3D) space (x,y,z) may appear in Flatland (x,z) as a wave with another wavelength, lambda = lambda/cosalpha. The tilt angle alpha can be modified by a 3D (Spaceland) individual who then is able to influence the 2D optics in a way that must appear to be magical to 2D Flatland individuals-in the spirit of E. A. Abbott's science fiction story [Flatland, a Romance of Many Dimensions, 6th ed. (Dover, New York, 1952)] of 1884. We now want to establish the reality or objectivity of the 2D wavelength lambda by some basic experiments similar to those that demonstrated roughly 200 years ago the wave nature of light. Specifically, we describe how to measure the 2D wavelength lambda by mean of five different arrangements that involve Young's biprism configuration, Talbot's self-imaging effect, measuring the focal length of a Fresnel zone plate, and letting light be diffracted by a double slit and by a grating. We also performed experiments with most of these arrangements. The results reveal that the theoretical wavelength, as predicted by our Flatland optics theory, does indeed coincide with the wavelength lambda as measured by Flatland experiments. Finally, we present an alternative way to understand Flatland optics in the spatial frequency domains of Flatland and Spaceland.

  17. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  18. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  19. Analyses in Support of Risk-Informed Natural Gas Vehicle Maintenance Facility Codes and Standards: Phase II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, Myra L.; LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter; Muna, Alice Baca; Ehrhart, Brian David

    2018-03-01

    Safety standards development for maintenance facilities of liquid and compressed natural gas fueled vehicles is required to ensure proper facility design and operating procedures. Standard development organizations are utilizing risk-informed concepts to develop natural gas vehicle (NGV) codes and standards so that maintenance facilities meet acceptable risk levels. The present report summarizes Phase II work for existing NGV repair facility code requirements and highlights inconsistencies that need quantitative analysis into their effectiveness. A Hazardous and Operability study was performed to identify key scenarios of interest using risk ranking. Detailed simulations and modeling were performed to estimate the location and behavior of natural gas releases based on these scenarios. Specific code conflicts were identified, and ineffective code requirements were highlighted and resolutions proposed. These include ventilation rate basis on area or volume, as well as a ceiling offset which seems ineffective at protecting against flammable gas concentrations. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge Bill Houf (SNL -- Retired) for his assistance with the set-up and post-processing of the numerical simulations. The authors also acknowledge Doug Horne (retired) for his helpful discussions. We would also like to acknowledge the support from the Clean Cities program of DOE's Vehicle Technology Office.

  20. Fall-related experiences of stroke survivors: a meta-ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary; Galvin, Rose; Horgan, N Frances

    2017-04-01

    Health professionals view falls after stroke as common adverse events with both physical and psychological consequences. Stroke survivors' experiences are less well understood. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the perception of falls-risk within the stroke recovery experience from the perspective of people with stroke. A systematic literature search was conducted. Papers that used qualitative methods to explore the experiences of individuals with stroke around falls, falls-risk and fear of falling were included. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of papers. Meta-ethnography was conducted. Concepts from each study were translated into each other to form theories that were combined through a "lines-of-argument" synthesis. Four themes emerged from the six included qualitative studies: (i) Fall circumstances, (ii) perception of fall consequences, (iii) barriers to community participation and (iv) coping strategies. The synthesis revealed that stroke survivors' perceived consequences of falls exist on a continuum. Cognitive and emotional adjustment may be required in the successful adoption of coping strategies to overcome fall-related barriers to participation. Stroke survivors' fall-related experiences appear to exist within the context of activity and community participation. Further research is warranted due to the small number of substantive studies available for synthesis. Implications for Rehabilitation Health care professionals should recognize that cognitive and emotional adjustment may berequired for stroke survivors to accept strategies for overcoming falls-risk, including dependenceon carers and assistive devices. Several factors in addition to physical interventions may be needed to minimize falls-risk whileincreasing activity participation. These factors could include increasing public awareness about the effects of stroke and falls-risk,and ensuring access to psychological services for stroke survivors

  1. IGF-II receptors and IGF-II-stimulated glucose transport in human fat cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, M.K.; Buchanan, C.; Raineri-Maldonado, C.; Khazanie, P.; Atkinson, S.; DiMarchi, R.; Caro, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) receptors have been described in rat but not in human adipocytes. In both species, IGF-II has been reported to stimulate glucose transport by interacting with the insulin receptor. In this study, we have unequivocally demonstrated the presence of IGF-II receptors in human adipocytes. 125I-labeled IGF-II specifically binds to intact adipocytes, membranes, and lectin-purified detergent solubilized extracts. Through the use of 0.5 mM disuccinimidyl suberate, 125I-IGF-II is cross-linked to a 260-kDa protein that is identified as the IGF-II receptor by displacement experiments with unlabeled IGF-II, IGF-I, and insulin and either by immunoprecipitation or by Western blot analysis with mannose 6-phosphate receptor antibodies. The concentrations of IGF-II required for half-maximal and maximal stimulation of glucose transport in human adipocytes are 35 and 100 times more than that of insulin. The possibility of IGF-II stimulating glucose transport by interacting predominantly with the insulin receptor is suggested by the following: (1) the concentration of IGF-II that inhibits half of insulin binding is only 20 times more than that of insulin; (2) the lack of an additive effect of IGF-II and insulin for maximal stimulation of glucose transport; (3) the ability of monoclonal insulin receptor antibodies to decrease glucose transport stimulated by submaximal concentrations of both IGF-II and insulin; and (4) the ability of IGF-II to stimulate insulin receptor autophosphorylation albeit at a reduced potency when compared with insulin

  2. Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Stage II Colon Cancer: A Clinical Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannarkatt, Joseph; Joseph, Joe; Kurniali, Peter C; Al-Janadi, Anas; Hrinczenko, Borys

    2017-04-01

    The decision to treat a patient with stage II colon cancer with adjuvant chemotherapy can be challenging. Although the benefit of treatment is clear in most patients with stage III disease, the decision to provide chemotherapy after surgical resection in stage II disease must be made on an individual basis. Several trials have demonstrated the small but absolute benefits of receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer for disease-free survival and overall survival. In an attempt to better understand the role of chemotherapy, several studies were performed that identified high-risk characteristics that can be used prognostically and predictively to aid in the clinical decision making process. ASCO, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and the European Society of Medical Oncology have published guidelines describing these high-risk characteristics. Since then, several other molecular markers have emerged that may offer more information on a given patient's risk for recurrence. The decision to treat a patient with stage II colon cancer must be made on an individual basis, considering the risks and benefits of treatment. In this short review, we will present the available evidence and offer possible directions for future study.

  3. [Developing indices for caloric restriction related to World War II--a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, Neomi; Dekel, Rachel; Barchana, Micha; Linn, Shi; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2011-04-01

    The vast numbers of studies regarding caloric restriction (CR) and breast cancer risk are based on war-related extreme situations. Studying the impact of CR in Jews during World War II (WW II) is challenging due to its variance and duration. To develop novel research tools in order to assess CR exposure in Jews that occurred more than 60 years ago during WW II. A pilot study based on Israeli women born in Europe in 1926-45, who lived there during WWII. Primary incident breast cancer patients and population-based controls were interviewed using a detailed questionnaire referring to demographic, obstetric factors and WW II experiences. Exposure to WWII-related CR was assessed by several proxy variables based on this information. The individual hunger score was higher in the exposed cases [mean score 141.06 vs. 130.07 in the controls). The same trend was observed for self perceived hunger score (mean score 2.75 in cases vs. 2.40 in controls) and hunger symptoms score (4.89 vs. 3.56, respectively). The novel research tools are appropriate for comparative assessment of CR exposure in case control studies.

  4. Toward Reanalysis of the Tight-Pitch HCLWR-PROTEUS Phase II Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Grégory; Vlassopoulos, Efstathios; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The HCLWR-Proteus Phase II experiments were conducted from 1985 to 1990 in the zero-power reactor Proteus at PSI in Switzerland. The experimental program was dedicated to the physics of high conversion light water reactors and in particular to the measurement of reactor parameters such as reaction rate traverses, spectral indices, absorber reactivity worths and void coefficients. The HCLWR experiments are especially interesting because they generated knowledge in the epithermal range of the neutron flux spectrum, for which little integral experimental data is available. In an effort to assess the interest of this experimental data to validate modern nuclear data and improve their uncertainties, a preliminary re-analysis of selected configurations was conducted with Monte-Carlo codes (MCNP6/SERPENT2) and modern nuclear data libraries (ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1.1 and JENDL-4.0). The spectral ndices, flux spectra and sensitivity coefficients on k∞ were calculated using cell models representative of the tight-pitch measurement configurations containing 11% PuO2-UO2 fuel rods in different moderation conditions (air, water and dowtherm). Spectral index predictions using the three nuclear data libraries agreed within two standard deviations with the measured values. The only exception is the Pu-242-capture-to-Pu-239-fission ratio, which was overestimated with all libraries by more than four standard deviations, i.e. 13%, in the non-moderated configuration. In this configuration, Pu-242 captures are few since the flux spectrum in the Pu-242 capture resonance region (between 1eV and 1keV) is small making this spectral index hard to measure. Sensitivity coefficient predictions with both MCNP6 and SERPENT2 were in good agreement.

  5. PARALLEL MEASUREMENT AND MODELING OF TRANSPORT IN THE DARHT II BEAMLINE ON ETA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F W; Raymond, B A; Falabella, S; Lee, B S; Richardson, R A; Weir, J T; Davis, H A; Schultze, M E

    2005-01-01

    To successfully tune the DARHT II transport beamline requires the close coupling of a model of the beam transport and the measurement of the beam observables as the beam conditions and magnet settings are varied. For the ETA II experiment using the DARHT II beamline components this was achieved using the SUICIDE (Simple User Interface Connecting to an Integrated Data Environment) data analysis environment and the FITS (Fully Integrated Transport Simulation) model. The SUICIDE environment has direct access to the experimental beam transport data at acquisition and the FITS predictions of the transport for immediate comparison. The FITS model is coupled into the control system where it can read magnet current settings for real time modeling. We find this integrated coupling is essential for model verification and the successful development of a tuning aid for the efficient convergence on a useable tune. We show the real time comparisons of simulation and experiment and explore the successes and limitations of this close coupled approach

  6. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  7. Technical realisation of the VISA-II project, phase I, part IV, IZ-165-o268-1962

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicevic, M.

    1962-12-01

    Project VISA-II is described in IX chapters as follows: introduction, definition of experiments and possibilities of performance; VISA-II channel, new experimental space in the RA reactor; hydraulic tests in the VISA-II channel; measurement of fast neutron and gamma flux in VISA-II channels; measurement of water flow through different VISA-2 irradiation capsules; fabrication of VISA-II capsules; corrosion and heavy water purity problems; safety problems of experiment VISA-2; experimental operation of VISA-II. This chapter VI includes documentation for each type of capsule, review about each experiment within the VISA-II project, the objective and purpose of the experiment as well as experimental device [sr

  8. E-st@r-I experience: Valuable knowledge for improving the e-st@r-II design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpino, S.; Obiols-Rabasa, G.; Mozzillo, R.; Nichele, F.

    2016-04-01

    Many universities all over the world have now established hands-on education programs based on CubeSats. These small and cheap platforms are becoming more and more attractive also for other-than-educational missions, such as technology demonstration, science applications, and Earth observation. This new paradigm requires the development of adequate technology to increase CubeSat performance and mission reliability, because educationally-driven missions have often failed. In 2013 the ESA Education Office launched the Fly Your Satellite! Programme which aims at increasing CubeSat mission reliability through several actions: to improve design implementation, to define best practices for conducting the verification process, and to make the CubeSat community aware of the importance of verification. Within this framework, the CubeSat team at Politecnico di Torino developed the e-st@r-II CubeSat as follow-on of the e-st@r-I satellite, launched in 2012 on the VEGA Maiden Flight. E-st@r-I and e-st@r-II are both 1U satellites with educational and technology demonstration objectives: to give hands-on experience to university students and to test an active attitude determination and control system based on inertial and magnetic measurements with magnetic actuation. This paper describes the know-how gained thanks to the e-st@r-I mission, and how this heritage has been translated into the improvement of the new CubeSat in several areas and lifecycle phases. The CubeSat design has been reviewed to reduce the complexity of the assembly procedure and to deal with possible failures of the on-board computer, for example re-coding the software in the communications subsystem. New procedures have been designed and assessed for the verification campaign accordingly to ECSS rules and with the support of ESA specialists. Different operative modes have been implemented to handle some anomalies observed during the operations of the first satellite. A new version of the on-board software is

  9. Role for DNA topoisomerase II in prostatic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.G. V.

    1987-01-01

    In the studies presented the role of the mammalian type II topoisomerase in the proliferation of normal and neoplastic rat prostate cells in vitro and in vivo was evaluated. First, the utility of mammalian type II topoisomerase inhibitors for the study of the biologic functions of the enzyme was assessed. Novobiocin inhibited rat topoisomerase II, but also interacted directly with chromatin in rat ventral prostate nuclei as well. Teniposide and amsacrine both trapped topoisomerase II in a covalent enzyme-DNA reaction intermediate that could be recovered using a K-SDS precipitation assay. The specific trapping of covalent topoisomerase II-DNA complexes by teniposide was exploited to implicate topoisomerase II in DNA replication in cultured Dunning R3327-G rat prostatic adenocarcinoma cells. In 3 H-thymidine pulse and pulse-chase labelling experiments, newly replicated DNA was found to be enriched among DNA linked topoisomerase II following teniposide treatment. Additional experiments demonstrated that topoisomerase II formed covalent complexes in the presence of teniposide directly with nascent DNA chains. On the basis of this data, a model for topoisomerase II function in untangling intertwined daughter DNA strands during replication by acting in the wake of the DNA replication fork near the site of DNA synthesis was proposed

  10. Foam separation of Cu (II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions and simulated wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, K.; Beheir, Sh.G.; Aziz, M.

    2003-01-01

    Batch experiments on the removal of Cu(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solutions were performed through two foam separation techniques: precipitate flotation (PTF) an adsorbing colloid flotation (ACF). In ACF, Fe(III), oxyhydroxide was used as co precipitant and/or adsorbing colloid and sodium lauryl sulfate was used as a collector. ACF required a lower collector concentration than PTF. foreign ions were found to decrease the percent removal, the extent of decrease being higher by divalent ions than that by monovalent ones. However, the percent removal could be improved, even in presence of foreign ions, by addition of Al(II) as an activator. High removals could be attained for Cu(II) and Ni(II) from simulated wastewaters containing different concentrations of both metal ions. The addition of concentrations below the limits recommended by the egyptian regulations for environmental discharge

  11. Target-plasma production by laser irradiation of a pellet in the Baseball II-T experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, C.C.; Foote, J.H.; Futch, A.H.; Goodman, R.K.; Hornady, R.S.; Osher, J.E.; Porter, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    One way to generate a plasma target that can be used in conjunction with an injected neutral beam to initiate a high-energy plasma in a steady-state, magnetic-mirror field is by the laser irradiation of a solid pellet located within the confinement region. In the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Baseball II-T experiment, a CO 2 laser was used to provide a two-sided irradiation of an ammonia pellet; the maximum laser intensity on the pellet was approximately 4 x 10 12 W/cm 2 . The 150-μm-dia pellets were guided to the laser focal spot in the Baseball II-T magnetic field using steering voltages controlled by a microcomputer-based system. Diagnostics showed complete ionization of the pellet, average ion energies in the keV range, synchronized triggering of the laser and the neutral beam, and rapid expansion of the plasma to a diameter that was a good match to the diameter of the neutral beam. Predictions obtained from the LASNEX code compared well with measured results. Although the laser-pellet approach was proven usable as a target-plasma startup system, it would be much more complicated and expensive than the method in which streaming plasma is used to trap the neutal beams

  12. Search for solar axions with the X-ray telescope of the CAST experiment (phase II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordt, Annika

    2009-01-01

    The CAST (CERN Solar Axion Telescope) experiment is searching for solar axions by their conversion into photons inside a transverse magnetic field. So far, no solar axionsignal has been detected, but a new upper limit could be given (CAST Phase I). Since 2005, CAST entered in its second phase where it operates with a buffer gas ( 4 He) in the conversion region to extend the sensitivity of the experiment to higher axionmasses. For the first time it is possible to enter the theoretically favored axion massrange and to give an upper limit for this solar axion mass-range (>0.02 eV). This thesis is about the analysis of the X-ray telescope data Phase II with 4 He inside the magnet. The result for the coupling constant of axions to photons is: g αγγ -10 GeV -1 (95%C.L.) for m a =0.02-0.4 eV. (2) This result is better than any result that has been given before in this mass range for solar axions. (orig.)

  13. Diagnostic performance of increased overjet in Class II division 1 malocclusion and incisor trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Giuntini, Veronica; Vangelisti, Andrea; Darendeliler, M Ali; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the associations between an increased overjet (IO) and other dentoskeletal characteristics of Class II division 1 malocclusions in the mixed dentition; 2) to assess whether Class II division 1 malocclusions or rather an increased overjet per se is a risk factor for upper incisor trauma (UIT). A sample of 900 mixed dentition subjects, was observed by clinical inspection, analysis of dental casts, and lateral cephalograms. The diagnostic performance of IO (overjet ≥ 7 mm) was evaluated in relation to other Class II dentoskeletal features (Class II molar and canine relationships, and skeletal Class II relationships). Secondly, the diagnostic performance of IO and of the other Class II dentoskeletal components was tested with regard to the prevalence of UIT. Diagnostic performance was assessed by odds ratio and positive likelihood ratio. The diagnostic performance of IO with regard to the other dentoskeletal components of Class II malocclusions was not significant. The only Class II features associated significantly with an increased risk of UIT was IO. When used as an isolated occlusal feature, IO is not a valid diagnostic indicator for Class II division 1 malocclusions. An increased overjet per se, and not Class II malocclusions, appears to be a significant risk factor for UIT. These findings recommend discrimination between clinical conditions showing an isolated IO from comprehensive Class II malocclusions during diagnosis, analysis of treatment outcomes, and evaluation of the risk of upper incisor trauma. Copyright © 2010 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  14. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Ulinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Method: Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years. Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. Conclusions: A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  15. High-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulinski, Sandra L; Moysés, Simone T; Werneck, Renata I; Moysés, Samuel J

    2016-01-08

    To explore high-risk behaviors and experiences with traffic law among night drivers in Curitiba, Brazil. Data from 398 drivers on sociodemographic parameters, high-risk behaviors, experiences with traffic law, and traffic law violations were collected through interviews conducted at sobriety checkpoints. Exploratory-descriptive and analytical statistics were used. The mean age of the participants was 32.6±11.2 years (range, 18 to 75 years). Half of the drivers reported having driven after drinking in the last year, predominantly single men aged 18 to 29 years who drive cars and drink alcohol frequently. Only 55% of the drivers who had driven after drinking in the last year self-reported some concern about being detected in a police operation. A significant association was found between sociodemographic variables and behavior, which can help tailor public interventions to a specific group of drivers: young men who exhibit high-risk behaviors in traffic, such as driving after drinking alcohol, some of whom report heavy alcohol consumption. This group represents a challenge for educational and enforcement interventions, particularly because they admit to violating current laws and have a low perception of punishment due to the low risk of being detected by the police.

  16. SVX II a silicon vertex detector for run II of the tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoletto, D.

    1994-11-01

    A microstrip silicon detector SVX II has been proposed for the upgrade of the vertex detector of the CDF experiment to be installed for run II of the Tevatron in 1998. Three barrels of four layers of double sided detectors will cover the interaction region. The requirement of the silicon tracker and the specification of the sensors are discussed together with the proposed R ampersand D to verify the performance of the prototypes detectors produced by Sintef, Micron and Hamamatsu

  17. Biophysics and the microscopic theory of He II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.; Ghassib, H.B.

    1985-08-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation and solitonic propagation have recently been shown to be intimately related in biosystems. From our previous demonstration of the existence of solitons in a dilute Bose gas we set out the basis for a full microscopic theory of He II. This is used to understand recent experiments in He II, which are in apparent contradiction. New experiments are suggested by the microscopic theory. (author)

  18. Are genetic risk factors for psychosis also associated with dimension-specific psychotic experiences in adolescence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Sieradzka

    Full Text Available Psychosis has been hypothesised to be a continuously distributed quantitative phenotype and disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder represent its extreme manifestations. Evidence suggests that common genetic variants play an important role in liability to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Here we tested the hypothesis that these common variants would also influence psychotic experiences measured dimensionally in adolescents in the general population. Our aim was to test whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder polygenic risk scores (PRS, as well as specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs previously identified as risk variants for schizophrenia, were associated with adolescent dimension-specific psychotic experiences. Self-reported Paranoia, Hallucinations, Cognitive Disorganisation, Grandiosity, Anhedonia, and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms, as measured by the Specific Psychotic Experiences Questionnaire (SPEQ, were assessed in a community sample of 2,152 16-year-olds. Polygenic risk scores were calculated using estimates of the log of odds ratios from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS stage-1 mega-analysis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The polygenic risk analyses yielded no significant associations between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder PRS and the SPEQ measures. The analyses on the 28 individual SNPs previously associated with schizophrenia found that two SNPs in TCF4 returned a significant association with the SPEQ Paranoia dimension, rs17512836 (p-value = 2.57×10⁻⁴ and rs9960767 (p-value = 6.23×10⁻⁴. Replication in an independent sample of 16-year-olds (N = 3,427 assessed using the Psychotic-Like Symptoms Questionnaire (PLIKS-Q, a composite measure of multiple positive psychotic experiences, failed to yield significant results. Future research with PRS derived from larger samples, as well as larger adolescent validation samples, would improve the predictive power to test

  19. Why operational risk modelling creates inverse incentives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, R.

    2015-01-01

    Operational risk modelling has become commonplace in large international banks and is gaining popularity in the insurance industry as well. This is partly due to financial regulation (Basel II, Solvency II). This article argues that operational risk modelling is fundamentally flawed, despite efforts

  20. Association of Lifecourse Socioeconomic Status with Chronic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The Whitehall II Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringhini, Silvia; Batty, G. David; Bovet, Pascal; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.; Kumari, Meena; Tabak, Adam G.; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic adversity in early life has been hypothesized to “program” a vulnerable phenotype with exaggerated inflammatory responses, so increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The aim of this study is to test this hypothesis by assessing the extent to which the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes incidence is explained by chronic inflammation. Methods and Findings We use data from the British Whitehall II study, a prospective occupational cohort of adults established in 1985. The inflammatory markers C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were measured repeatedly and type 2 diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over an 18-year follow-up (from 1991–1993 until 2007–2009). Our analytical sample consisted of 6,387 non-diabetic participants (1,818 women), of whom 731 (207 women) developed type 2 diabetes over the follow-up. Cumulative exposure to low socioeconomic status from childhood to middle age was associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in adulthood (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.48–2.58 for low cumulative lifecourse socioeconomic score and HR = 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.91 for low-low socioeconomic trajectory). 25% of the excess risk associated with cumulative socioeconomic adversity across the lifecourse and 32% of the excess risk associated with low-low socioeconomic trajectory was attributable to chronically elevated inflammation (95% confidence intervals 16%–58%). Conclusions In the present study, chronic inflammation explained a substantial part of the association between lifecourse socioeconomic disadvantage and type 2 diabetes. Further studies should be performed to confirm these findings in population-based samples, as the Whitehall II cohort is not representative of the general population, and to examine the extent to which social inequalities attributable to chronic inflammation are reversible

  1. Persistent flow and third-sound waves in the He-II film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeek, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes experiments performed on persistent film-flow in He-II film. Data obtained using the third-sound technique is presented. The experiments demonstrate unequivocally the reality of persistent currents in the He-II film. (Auth.)

  2. Objectives and methodology of Romanian SEPHAR II Survey. Project for comparing the prevalence and control of cardiovascular risk factors in two East-European countries: Romania and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorobantu, Maria; Tautu, Oana-Florentina; Darabont, Roxana; Ghiorghe, Silviu; Badila, Elisabeta; Dana, Minca; Dobreanu, Minodora; Baila, Ilarie; Rutkowski, Marcin; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2015-08-12

    Comparing results of representative surveys conducted in different East-European countries could contribute to a better understanding and management of cardiovascular risk factors, offering grounds for the development of health policies addressing the special needs of this high cardiovascular risk region of Europe. The aim of this paper was to describe the methodology on which the comparison between the Romanian survey SEPHAR II and the Polish survey NATPOL 2011 results is based. SEPHAR II, like NATPOL 2011, is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a representative sample of the adult Romanian population (18 to 80 years) and encompasses two visits with the following components: completing the study questionnaire, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and collection of blood and urine samples. From a total of 2223 subjects found at 2860 visited addresses, 2044 subjects gave written consent but only 1975 subjects had eligible data for the analysis, accounting for a response rate of 69.06%. Additionally we excluded 11 subjects who were 80 years of age (NATPOL 2011 included adult subjects up to 79 years). Therefore, the sample size included in the statistical analysis is 1964. It has similar age groups and gender structure as the Romanian population aged 18-79 years from the last census available at the moment of conducting the survey (weight adjustments for epidemiological analyses range from 0.48 to 8.7). Sharing many similarities, the results of SEPHAR II and NATPOL 2011 surveys can be compared by a proper statistical method offering crucial information regarding cardiovascular risk factors in a high-cardiovascular risk European region.

  3. A Moderated Mediation Model of Parent-Child Communication, Risk Taking, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Experience in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, Cassandra; Cho, Jaeho

    2018-05-11

    The relationship between risk-taking personality and health-risk behaviors has been widely established, where people who like to take risks are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors such as having multiple casual partners and having unprotected sex. Drawing on a national U.S. sample from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, the present study examined the relationship between risk-taking personality and sexual experience among adults in early adulthood, and the role of family (parent-child) communication in moderating this relationship. Findings indicated that, for both males and females, the effect of risk taking on sexual experience through alcohol use dissipated at high levels of father-child communication. However, mother-child communication did not have such moderating effects. Implications for the way in which we study parent-child communication are discussed.

  4. The JESSICA experiment. Part II. Results from the JESSICA-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Ch.; Conrad, H.; Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Neef, R.D.; Nuenighoff, K.; Schaal, H.; Stelzer, H.; Tietze-Jaensch, H.; Paul, N.; Wohlmuther, W.; Ninaus, W.; Smirnov, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we like to report on the latest results of the JESSICA experiment. We focus on the experiments with an ice moderator at 20 K and 70 K. The measured time of flight spectra and the derived energy spectra will be presented. For the ice moderator we will show also the time of flight spectra for specific wavelengths. For the first time we investigated the moderation properties of a methane-hydrate moderator in a realistic environment. We compared this new data with the previous obtained ice data. (orig.)

  5. Determination of static and dynamic reactivity effects in KNK II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, C.

    1987-11-01

    In the frame of a pre-study of the KNK II test program two series of experiments related to inherent safety characteristics of sodium cooled breeder reactors have been elaborated, which are one basis for the performance of experiments of the Loss Of Flow (LOF) type and the Loss Of Heat Sink (LOHS) type. Tests of this type at KNK II would -different from the earlier tests at RAPSODIE and EBR-II- provide a demonstration of the inherently safe performance in case of a significantly non-zero Doppler effect. With a suitable execution, the foreseen series of experiments allow, as explained in this report, a substantial separation of the reactivity contributions and the determination of reactivity effects, i.e. the time constants of the recouplings. The performance and evaluation of these experiments with respect to the inherent safety potential will once more underline the distinguished role of KNK II for the development of fast breeders [de

  6. Simulation of TRIGA Mark II Benchmark Experiment using WIMSD4 and CITATION codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle, Hugo Moura; Pereira, Claubia

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of the TRIGA Mark II Benchmark Experiment, Part I: Steady-State Operation and is part of the calculation methodology validation developed to the neutronic calculation of the CDTN's TRIGA IPR - R1 reactor. A version of the WIMSD4, obtained in the Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, in Cuba, was used in the cells calculation. In the core calculations was adopted the diffusion code CITATION. Was adopted a 3D representation of the core and the calculations were carried out at two energy groups. Many of the experiments were simulated, including, K eff , control rods reactivity worth, fuel elements reactivity worth distribution and the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient. The comparison of the obtained results, with the experimental results, shows differences in the range of the accuracy of the measurements, to the control rods worth and fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, or on an acceptable range, following the literature, to the K eff and fuel elements reactivity worth distribution and the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient. The comparison of the obtained results, with the experimental. results, shows differences in the range of the accuracy of the measurements, to the control rods worth and fuel temperature reactivity coefficient, or in an acceptable range, following the literature, to the K eff and fuel elements reactivity worth distribution. (author)

  7. Adjuvant Therapy for Stage II Colorectal Cancer: Who and with What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki-Young Y; Kelsen, David

    2006-06-01

    The role of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage II colon adenocarcinoma remains controversial. The high surgical cure rate for patients with "low-risk" stage II colon cancer, ranging from 75% to 80%, and the available clinical trials and meta-analyses provide conflicting recommendations for or against adjuvant chemotherapy for this group of patients. For fit "high-risk" stage II patients with clinical obstruction or perforation at presentation, in which the 5-year survival rate is 60% to 70%, there is little controversy, as these patients are routinely treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Other potential high-risk factors, including high histologic grade, microsatellite instability, and loss of 18q, have yet to be validated in prospective trials. Patients with fewer than 12 regional lymph nodes identified in the surgical specimen have a statistically unclear risk of lymph node involvement. These patients may have stage III disease and should receive adjuvant therapy. The decision to use adjuvant chemotherapy to treat low-risk stage II colon cancer patients (no obstruction or perforation) should be an informed decision weighing the magnitude of a net 2% to 5% survival benefit, a 0.5% to 1.0% risk of mortality with chemotherapy in addition to 6 months of chemotherapy-related toxicities, other coexisting patient morbidities, and the anticipated life expectancy of each patient. As adjuvant chemotherapy is therapy addressing local or metastatic microscopic disease, and the effectiveness of systemic and biologically targeted therapy for advanced macroscopic colon cancer continues to improve rapidly, it remains to be determined by clinical trials whether therapies including newer agents such as cetuximab and bevacizumab administered in the adjuvant setting may affect survival for stage II cancer patients.

  8. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teras, Lauren R., E-mail: lauren.teras@cancer.org [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Diver, W. Ryan [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Turner, Michelle C. [Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); Krewski, Daniel [McLaughlin Centre for Population Health Risk Assessment, University of Ottawa, Ottawa (Canada); School of Epidemiology, Public Health and Disease Prevention, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Sahar, Liora [Statistics and Evaluation Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ward, Elizabeth [Intramural Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gapstur, Susan M. [Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m{sup 3}) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m{sup 3}) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR{sub continuous}=1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m{sup 3}; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor

  9. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  10. Prenatal drug exposure and teratological risk: one-year experience of an Italian Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Straface, Gianluca; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-02-01

    Concern about exposure to drugs, radiation, or infection during pregnancy occur often because pregnancy is not always planned. A teratology information service offers rapid scientific counseling to all those worried about prenatal exposure. The aim of this study is to present data on the most common pharmaceutical products responsible for teratogenic risk in the one-year experience of a teratology information service in Italy. The survey was conducted among 8664 callers who contacted our Teratology Information Service in Rome between January and December 2006. Data on maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal health status, and details of exposure (dose and timing) were collected and stored in a specific data base. Scientific counseling on prenatal exposure was given to the caller by a specialized service operator, specifying the type of risk and suggesting appropriate tests for prenatal diagnosis. Most of the people called regarding drug exposure; increased risk was present in only 5% of the pregnant women calling during pregnancy. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the first category that are actually considered of increased risk to the fetus. The second category is represented by antiepileptic drugs. This experience confirms previous data that there is a high teratological risk perception among both women and physicians. The drugs estimated to present increased risk are medications used for chronic neurological diseases, mainly mood disorders and epilepsy. Preconceptional counseling for these women could be an effective strategy to prevent such exposure and to improve maternal and fetal outcome.

  11. Operation experience of the UE44 fixed gap APPLE II at SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T; Calvi, M; Schmitt, T; Strocov, V N; Zimoch, D

    2013-01-01

    All soft x-ray beamlines at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) are served with variable polarization from APPLE II [1] type and electromagnetic undulators. Three APPLE II type undulators are used: a twin and a single standard APPLE II (UE56 and UE54) and a fixed gap APPLE II (UE44) which follows the adjustable-phase undulator approach by R. Carr [2], [3]. The demand to rotate the linear polarization vector from 0 – 180° required all four magnet arrays to be shiftable. This opened the possibility to also vary the energy by a suitable shift of the magnet arrays with a simplified support structure lacking in any gap drive system [4], [5]. The current photon beam quality in linear and circular mode and the pros and cons of the operation of the UE44 will be discussed, namely the underestimated influence of gradients in the complex field distribution. As a consequence the spectra are degraded, but can be recovered by use of distributed coils or by a simple change in the operation mode.

  12. Caries risk assessment in chilean adolescents and adults and its association with caries experience

    OpenAIRE

    Giacaman,Rodrigo Andrés; Miranda Reyes,Paulina; Bravo León,Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Cariogram is a computer program that uses an algorithm to assess caries risk. Although the use of Cariogram has recently increased, little information is available regarding its effectiveness in adults. This study aimed to determine whether caries risk from Cariogram relates to caries experience in adults. One hundred and eighty Cariogram files were completed from patients aged ten to fifty-six years (mean: 23.28 years). Seven factors from the software were included from patient records to co...

  13. Risk Preferences and Demand for Insurance in Peru: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Galarza; Michael Carter

    2011-01-01

    "This paper reports the results of behavioral economic experiments conducted in Peru to examine the relationship amongst risk preferences, loan take-up, and insurance purchase decisions. This area-based yield insurance can help reduce people's vulnerability to large scale covariate shocks, and can also lower the loan default probability under extreme negative covariate shocks. In a context of collateralized formal credit markets, we provide suggestive evidence that insurance may help reduce t...

  14. 'Her cry is my cry': resettlement experiences of refugee women at risk recently resettled in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromans, L; Schweitzer, R D; Farrell, L; Correa-Velez, I; Brough, M; Murray, K; Lenette, C

    2018-05-01

    Refugee women entering resettlement countries on woman-at-risk visas represent a particularly vulnerable population. While their specific gender-based resettlement will likely differ from the general refugee population, little is known about their experiences of early resettlement, with which to inform resettlement policy and practice. This research aimed to explore lived experiences of recently resettled refugee women at risk in Australia. Qualitative research used focus groups and a framework approach to identify and explicate common themes in participants' experience. Two focus groups with a purposive sample of African and Afghan refugee women at risk (N = 10), aged 22-53 years, were conducted in South East Queensland, Australia (October 2016), recruited with the assistance of a local resettlement service. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and themes explicated. Six superordinate themes emerged: (1) sentiment of gratitude; (2) sense of loneliness and disconnection; (3) feeling incapable; (4) experiencing distress and help-seeking; (5) experiencing financial hardship; and (6) anticipating the future. Findings indicate that resettlement policy, programs, and practice that explicitly target the needs of women-at-risk refugees are warranted, including a longer period of active service provision with specific attention to strategies that address the women's social connection, self-efficacy, emotional well-being, and financial hardships. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amany M; Sayd, Heba A; Hamza, Hesham M; Salem, Mohamed A

    2011-03-29

    Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI), Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15). Thirty patients (86%) presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66%) presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34%) presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%). The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%). Ten (28.5%) stage II (group A) and 25 (71.5%) stage III (group B). Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%), debulking in 6 (17%) and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%). A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months). The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  16. Role of Surgery in Stages II and III Pediatric Abdominal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A 5-Years Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Salem

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL are the most common extra nodal presentation of pediatric NHL. Our aim is to assess the role of surgery as a risk factor and to evaluate the impact of risk-adjusted systemic chemotherapy on survival of patients with stages II and III disease. This study included 35 pediatric patients with abdominal NHL treated over five years at South Egypt Cancer Institute (SECI, Assiut University, between January 2005 and January 2010. The data of every patient included: Age, sex, and presentation, staging work up to determine extent of the disease and the type of resection performed, histopathological examination, details of chemotherapy, disease free survival and overall survival. The study included 25 boys and 10 girls with a median age of six years (range: 2.5:15. Thirty patients (86% presented with abdominal pain, 23 patients (66% presented with abdominal mass and distention, 13 patients (34% presented with weight loss, and intestinal obstruction occurred in six patients (17%. The ileo-cecal region and abdominal lymph nodes were the commonest sites (48.5%, 21% respectively. Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common histological type in 29 patients (83%. Ten (28.5% stage II (group A and 25 (71.5% stage III (group B. Complete resections were performed in 10 (28.5%, debulking in 6 (17% and imaging guided biopsy in 19 (54%. A11 patients received systemic chemotherapy. The median follow up duration was 63 months (range 51-78 months. The parameters that significantly affect the overall survival were stage at presentation complete resection for localized disease. In conclusion, the extent of disease at presentation is the most important prognostic factor in pediatric abdominal NHL. Surgery is restricted to defined situations such as; abdominal emergencies, diagnostic biopsy and total tumor extirpation in localized disease. Chemotherapy is the cornerstone in the management of pediatric abdominal NHL.

  17. The physics design of EBR-II; Physique du reacteur EBR-II; Fizicheskij raschet ehksperimental'nogo reaktora - razmnozhitelya EVR-II; Aspectos fisicos del reactor EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W. B. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1962-03-15

    The physics design oi EBR-II. Calculations of the static, dynamic and long-term reactivity behaviour of EBR-II are reported together with results and analysis of EBR-II dry critical and ZPR-III mock-up experiments. Particular emphasis is given to reactor-physics design problems which arise after the conceptual design is established and before the reactor is built or placed into operation. Reactor-safety analyses and hazards-evaluation considerations are described with their influence on the reactor design. The manner of utilizing the EBR-II mock-up on ZPR-III data and the EBR-II dry critical data is described. These experiments, their analysis and theoretical predictions are the basis for predetermining the physics behaviour of the reactor system. The limitations inherent in applying the experimental data to the performance of the power-reactor system are explored in some detail. This includes the specification of reactor core size and/or fuel-alloy enrichment, provisions for adequate operating and shut-down reactivity, determination of operative temperature and power coefficients of reactivity, and details of power- and flux-distribution as a function of position within the reactor structure. The overall problem of transferring information from simple idealized analytical or experimental geometry to actual hexagonal reactor geometry is described. Nuclear performance, including breeding, of the actual reactor system is compared with that of the idealized conceptual system. The long-term reactivity and power behaviour of the reactor blanket is described within the framework of the proposed cycling of the fuel and blanket alloy. Safety considerations, including normal and abnormal rates of reactivity-insertion, the implication of postulated reactivity effects based on the physical behaviour of the fuel alloy and reactor structure as well as extrapolation of TREAT experiments to the EBR-II system are analysed. The EBR-II core melt-down problem is reviewed. (author

  18. Health care experiences of pregnant, birthing and postnatal women of color at risk for preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Monica R; Altman, Molly R; Cooper, Norlissa; Williams, Shanell; Rand, Larry; Franck, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Chronic stress is a known risk factor for preterm birth, yet little is known about how healthcare experiences add to or mitigate perceived stress. In this study, we described the pregnancy-related healthcare experiences of 54 women of color from Fresno, Oakland, and San Francisco, California, with social and/or medical risk factors for preterm birth. This study was a secondary analysis of focus group data generated as part of a larger project focused on patient and community involvement in preterm birth research. English and Spanish speaking women, age 18 or greater with social and/or medical risk factors for preterm birth participated in two focus groups, six weeks apart. Data from the first focus groups are included in this analysis. Five themes emerged from thematic analysis of the transcripts. Participants described disrespect during healthcare encounters, including experiences of racism and discrimination; stressful interactions with all levels of staff; unmet information needs; and inconsistent social support. Despite these adverse experiences, women felt confidence in parenting and newborn care. Participant recommendations for healthcare systems improvement included: greater attention to birth plans, better communication among multiple healthcare providers, more careful listening to patients during clinical encounters, increased support for social programs such as California's Black Infant Health, and less reliance on past carceral history and/or child protective services involvement. The women in this study perceived their prenatal healthcare as a largely disrespectful and stressful experience. Our findings add to the growing literature that women of color experience discrimination, racism and disrespect in healthcare encounters and that they believe this affects their health and that of their infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of personality traits and driving experience in self-reported risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Da; Zhang, Rui; Qu, Xingda

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of personality traits and driving experience in the prediction of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese population. A convenience sample of drivers (n=511; mean (SD) age=34.2 (8.8) years) completed a self-report questionnaire that was designed based on validated scales for measuring personality traits, risky driving behaviors and self-reported accident risk. Results from structural equation modeling analysis demonstrated that the data fit well with our theoretical model. While showing no direct effects on accident risk, personality traits had direct effects on risky driving behaviors, and yielded indirect effects on accident risk mediated by risky driving behaviors. Both driving experience and risky driving behaviors directly predicted accident risk and accounted for 15% of its variance. There was little gender difference in personality traits, risky driving behaviors and accident risk. The findings emphasized the importance of personality traits and driving experience in the understanding of risky driving behaviors and accident risk among Chinese drivers and provided new insight into the design of evidence-based driving education and accident prevention interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sizing Up a Superstorm: Exploring the Role of Recalled Experience and Attribution of Responsibility in Judgments of Future Hurricane Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N; Yang, Z Janet; Schuldt, Jonathon P; Eosco, Gina M; Scherer, Clifford W; Daziano, Ricardo A

    2017-12-01

    Research suggests that hurricane-related risk perception is a critical predictor of behavioral response, such as evacuation. Less is known, however, about the precursors of these subjective risk judgments, especially when time has elapsed from a focal event. Drawing broadly from the risk communication, social psychology, and natural hazards literature, and specifically from concepts adapted from the risk information seeking and processing model and the protective action decision model, we examine how individuals' distant recollections, including attribution of responsibility for the effects of a storm, attitude toward relevant information, and past hurricane experience, relate to risk judgment for a future, similar event. The present study reports on a survey involving U.S. residents in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York (n = 619) impacted by Hurricane Sandy. While some results confirm past findings, such as that hurricane experience increases risk judgment, others suggest additional complexity, such as how various types of experience (e.g., having evacuated vs. having experienced losses) may heighten or attenuate individual-level judgments of responsibility. We suggest avenues for future research, as well as implications for federal agencies involved in severe weather/natural hazard forecasting and communication with public audiences. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Teasing Experiences and Risk-Taking: Gender and Self-Esteem as Moderator and Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, David H.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Pernice-Duca, Francesca; Van Dale, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the roles of gender and self-esteem in the relations between various teasing experiences and externalizing behavior. Externalizing behavior was measured as reported risk-taking and alcohol consumption. Within a sample of 651 high school students located in the Midwest, males reported significantly more externalizing behavior…

  2. Test of GERDA Phase II detector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bode, Tobias; Gusev, Konstantin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Schwingenheuer, Bernhard; Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the lepton number violating neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of {sup 76}Ge. The experiment uses HPGe detectors enriched in {sup 76}Ge as source and detection material. In GERDA Phase I five BEGe detectors were operated successfully. These detectors are distinguished for improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination (PSD) against background events. In Phase II additional 25 BEGe detectors will be installed. New electronics and radio-pure low-mass holders were specially designed for Phase II. Prior to the installation in GERDA all BEGe detectors are tested in their final assembly in the LNGS underground laboratory. This talk presents the mechanics and performance of the GERDA Phase II detector assembly.

  3. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and

  4. From experience : applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, J.A.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, X.M.

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and

  5. Migraine and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II and the Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Megan S; Rist, Pamela M; Winter, Anke C; Kurth, Tobias; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2018-02-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder, which predominantly impacts women. Recently, migraine has been hypothesized to be associated with hormonally related cancers; however, the potential association between migraine and ovarian cancer has not been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the association between migraine and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) and the Women's Health Study (WHS). Our prospective analysis included 113,124 NHSII participants aged 25-42 at study baseline as well as 33,490 participants in the WHS who were 45 years or older at study entry. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between migraine and ovarian cancer risk in each cohort. In secondary analyses, we stratified by age and menopausal status. After adjusting for potential covariates, there was no statistically significant association between migraine and ovarian cancer risk in either the NHSII (HR = 1.29, 95%CI: 0.96, 1.74) or the WHS (HR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.34, 1.06). In stratified analysis in the NHSII, there was a statistically significant positive association between migraine and ovarian cancer risk among women <45 years of age (HR = 1.76, 95%CI: 1.01, 3.07). We did not observe a clear association between migraine and ovarian cancer risk in two large prospective cohort studies. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Military Message Experiment. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    elements of the Department of Defense. This resulted in a memorandum from the Director, Telecomunications and Comand and Control, OSD, in June 1975...1978 to April 1979 and provides a discussion of the telecomunications inter- face aspects of the experiment. This Final Report covers the period of...arise in the telecomunication system which require A retransmission of an outgoing message. A "service" message may be created within the

  7. Women’s perspectives and experiences on screening for osteoporosis (Risk-stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation, ROSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, Mette Juel; Huniche, Lotte; Ammentorp, Jette

    2014-01-01

    main themes: knowledge about osteoporosis, psychological aspects of screening, and moral duty. The women viewed the program in the context of their everyday life and life trajectories. Age, lifestyle, and knowledge about osteoporosis were important to how women ascribed meaning to the program, how......This study aimed to investigate women's perspectives and experiences with screening for osteoporosis. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted. Three main themes emerged: knowledge about osteoporosis, psychological aspects of screening, and moral duty. Generally, screening was accepted...... due to life experiences, self-perceived risk, and the preventive nature of screening. PURPOSE: The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation (ROSE) study is a randomized prospective population-based trial investigating the efficacy of a screening program to prevent fractures in women aged 65...

  8. A global view on ARAMIS, a risk assessment methodology for industries in the framework of the SEVESO II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, Olivier; Debray, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    The ARAMIS methodology was developed in an European project co-funded in the fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission with the objective to answer the specific requirements of the SEVESO II directive. It offers an alternative to purely deterministic and probabilistic approaches to risk assessment of process plants. It also answers the needs of the various stakeholders interested by the results of the risk assessment for land use or emergency planning, enforcement or, more generally, public decision-making. The methodology is divided into the following major steps: identification of major accident hazards (MIMAH), identification of the safety barriers and assessment of their performances, evaluation of safety management efficiency to barrier reliability, identification of reference accident scenarios (MIRAS), assessment and mapping of the risk severity of reference scenarios and of the vulnerability of the plant surroundings. The methodology was tested during five case studies, which provided useful information about the applicability of the method and, by identifying the most sensitive parts of it opened way to new research activity for an improved industrial safety

  9. Hazarding health: experiences of body, work, and risk among factory women in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Robin

    2009-10-01

    In the 1970s, Malaysia launched an export-oriented development strategy as a means of financing the nation's modernization. The success of the strategy hinged significantly on intensive recruitment of women for factory employment. I draw on descriptive qualitative research, including interviews (51), surveys (106), and ethnography in Malaysia to investigate factory women's experiences of work and work-related health risks. Discourse analysis surfaced a latent consciousness of bodily changes in relation to work. A grounded theory analysis showed a compromised access to occupational risk knowledge that may bear negatively on women's well-being and the role women's new labor identities played in mediating the meanings of work and risks. Given the predominance of women workers in low-end manufacturing globally, I aimed to contribute to theoretical and applied understandings of gender, globalization, and health.

  10. Status of the calibration and alignment framework at the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossett, D.; Sevior, M.; Ritter, M.; Kuhr, T.; Bilka, T.; Yaschenko, S.; Belle Software Group, II

    2017-10-01

    The Belle II detector at the Super KEKB e+e-collider plans to take first collision data in 2018. The monetary and CPU time costs associated with storing and processing the data mean that it is crucial for the detector components at Belle II to be calibrated quickly and accurately. A fast and accurate calibration system would allow the high level trigger to increase the efficiency of event selection, and can give users analysis-quality reconstruction promptly. A flexible framework to automate the fast production of calibration constants is being developed in the Belle II Analysis Software Framework (basf2). Detector experts only need to create two components from C++ base classes in order to use the automation system. The first collects data from Belle II event data files and outputs much smaller files to pass to the second component. This runs the main calibration algorithm to produce calibration constants ready for upload into the conditions database. A Python framework coordinates the input files, order of processing, and submission of jobs. Splitting the operation into collection and algorithm processing stages allows the framework to optionally parallelize the collection stage on a batch system.

  11. História de uma experiência singular de ensino – Parte II: o caso das disciplinas “Físicas Básicas”, da UFBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Moura Rocha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7941.2016v33n2p527   Neste trabalho relata-se uma experiência singular de ensino, realizada no Curso de Física, Licenciatura, noturno, na Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA, envolvendo o conteúdo da física universitária básica. Nesta experiência, os conteúdos foram estruturados em bases históricas, pelo menos em sua maior parte, e ministrados através das disciplinas Físicas Básicas I, II, III e IV, segundo uma abordagem simultaneamente histórica, fenomenológica (experimental, matemática e conceitual. Estas disciplinas são oferecidas paralelamente às tradicionais Físicas Gerais e Experimentais I, II, III e IV, que são destinadas aos alunos da área de ciências exatas, inclusive aos alunos da Licenciatura em Física, noturno.

  12. Over Twenty Years Of Experience In ITU TRIGA MARK-II Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Hasbi

    2008-01-01

    I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor, rated at 250 kW steady-state and 1200 MW pulsing power is the only research and training reactor owned and operated by a university in Turkey. Reactor has been operating since March 11, 1979; therefore the reactor has been operating successfully for more than twenty years. Over the twenty years of operation: - The tangential beam tube was equipped with a neutron radiography facility, which consists of a divergent collimator and exposure room; - A computerized data acquisition system was designed and installed such that all parameters of the reactor, which are observed from the console, could be monitored both in normal and pulse operations; - An electrical power calibration system was built for the thermal power calibration of the reactor; - Publications related with I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor are listed in Appendix; - Two majors undesired shutdown occurred; - The I.T.U. TRIGA MARK-II Training and Research Reactor is still in operation at the moment. (authors)

  13. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom

  14. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  15. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R

    2009-01-01

    (i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N RAMAN*, Y PITCHAIKANI RAJA and A KULANDAISAMY. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001, India e-mail: ra_man@123india.com.

  17. Experiences of Black MSM at an HBCU Regarding Stigma and HIV Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, Natasha Harden

    2016-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) on Historically Black College/University (HBCU) campuses face a unique set of challenges. In addition to being disproportionately affected by HIV, Black MSM are impacted by risk behavior, stigma, and environmental policies and practices that adversely influence their experiences. The purpose of this study was…

  18. RTNS-II: present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, D.W.; Logan, C.M.

    1980-10-01

    The present status of the RTNS-II facility is described and typical operating parameters are given. A brief discussion is given of the methods used in production of the TiT 2 targets as well as their performance and tritium handling at RTNS-II. The various types of non-interactive beam diagnostics presently in use at the neutron sources are outlined. The on-line computer system which provides a time history of an irradiation and records target performance is described. Examples are listed of several representative experimental programs which have been carried out thus far at RTNS-II. These include both active and passive experiments. Finally, several of the major improvements to the facility made since the beginning of the experimental program are given

  19. The regulatory treatment of liquidity risk in South Africa / Johann R.G. Jacobs

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Johann Renier Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    South Africa will be implementing Basel II on 1 January 2008. Basel II provides regulatory capital requirements for credit risk, market risk and operational risk. The purpose of capital requirements is to level the playing field for all internationally active banks and to protect consumers against these risks. Although there is an obvious threat of liquidity risk and it is important to correctly measure and manage liquidity risk, it is almost glaringly omitted from Basel II. The result of...

  20. Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036

  1. Performance-Based Risk-Sharing Arrangements: U.S. Payer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Joseph A; Ung, Brian; van Boemmel-Wegmann, Sascha; Navarro, Robert P; Parece, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    As a result of global concern about rising drug costs, many U.S. payers and European agencies such as the National Health Service have partnered with pharmaceutical companies in performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs) by which manufacturers share financial risk with health care purchasing entities and authorities. However, PBRSAs present many administrative and legal challenges that have minimized successful contract experiences in the United States. To (a) identify drug and disease characteristics and contract components that contribute to successful PBRSA experiences and the primary barriers to PBRSA execution and (b) explore solutions to facilitate contract negotiation and execution. A 37-item, web-based survey instrument (Qualtrics), approximately 20 minutes in duration, was open during July and August 2016. The survey was emailed to 90 pharmacy and medical directors of various health care organizations. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-square tests to examine differences among payer responses. Survey responses were anonymized and data were aggregated. Twenty-seven individuals completed the survey (30% completion rate). The majority of respondents worked for regional health plans (52%, n = 14), covering at least 1 million lives (63%, n = 17), with at least 7 years of managed care experience (81%, n = 22). A total of 51 PBRSAs were active among respondents at the time of the survey. Easily obtainable and evaluable drug data and medical data were the most important drug and disease attributes for successful PBRSAs, respectively. Pharmacy claims and patient demographic data were assessed as "very easy and inexpensive" to collect. Type and amount of manufacturer payment for drug outcome performance failure, endpoint measurement, and necessary clinical data for drug performance measurement were all critical factors for successful PBRSAs. Standardized contract templates and transparent contract financial risk evaluation and

  2. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  3. 78 FR 3824 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    .... FDA-2012-N-1258] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for... entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Food Combinations for Activities (Outside... defined in the regulation promulgated under section 418(n) of the FD&C Act. II. Qualitative Risk...

  4. Association of interleukin 17 / angiotensin II with refractory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Table 2 Multiple linear regression analysis showing relationship between IL 17, Ang II and mean arterial pressure in hemodialysis patients. Variables. B t value. P value. IL 17. 6.320. 10.221. 0.000. Ang II. 0.143. 2.442. 0.017. Discussion. This study aimed to investigate the association between. IL 17 and the risk of refractory ...

  5. How Flood Experience and Risk Perception Influences Protective Actions and Behaviours among Canadian Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thistlethwaite, Jason; Henstra, Daniel; Brown, Craig; Scott, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Canada is a country in the midst of a flood management policy transition that is shifting part of the flood damage burden from the state to homeowners. This transition—as well as the large financial losses resulting from flooding—have created a window of opportunity for Canada to implement strategies that increase property owners' capacity to avoid and absorb the financial and physical risks associated with flooding. This work presents foundational research into the extent to which Canadians' flood experience, perceptions of flood risks and socio-demographics shape their intentions and adoption of property level flood protection (PLFP). A bilingual, national survey was deployed in Spring 2016 and was completed by 2300 respondents across all 10 Canadian provinces. The survey was developed using assumptions in existing literature on flood risk behaviours and the determinants of flood risk management in similar jurisdictions. The paper argues that property owners are not willing to accept greater responsibility for flood risk as envisioned by recent policy changes. This finding is consistent with other OECD jurisdictions, where flood risk engagement strategies have been developed that could be replicated in Canada to encourage risk-sharing behaviour.

  6. Ensemble and Bias-Correction Techniques for Air-Quality Model Forecasts of Surface O3 and PM2.5 during the TEXAQS-II Experiment of 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several air quality forecasting ensembles were created from seven models, running in real-time during the 2006 Texas Air Quality (TEXAQS-II) experiment. These multi-model ensembles incorporated a diverse set of meteorological models, chemical mechanisms, and emission inventories...

  7. Economic behavior under the influence of alcohol: an experiment on time preferences, risk-taking, and altruism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Corazzini

    Full Text Available We report results from an incentivized laboratory experiment undertaken with the purpose of providing controlled evidence on the causal effects of alcohol consumption on risk-taking, time preferences and altruism. Our design disentangles the pharmacological effects of alcohol intoxication from those mediated by expectations, as we compare the behavior of three groups of subjects: those who participated in an experiment with no reference to alcohol, those who were exposed to the possibility of consuming alcohol but were given a placebo and those who effectively consumed alcohol. All subjects participated in a series of economic tasks administered in the same sequence across treatments. After controlling for both the willingness to pay for an object and the potential misperception of probabilities as elicited in the experiment, we detect no effect of alcohol in depleting subjects' risk tolerance. However, we find that alcohol intoxication increases impatience and makes subjects less altruistic.

  8. Nuclear instrumentation system operating experience and nuclear instrument testing in the EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yingling, G.E.; Curran, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    In March of 1972 three wide range nuclear channels were purchased from Gulf Atomics Corporation and installed in EBR-II as a test. The three channels were operated as a test until April 1975 when they became a permanent part of the reactor shutdown system. Also described are the activities involved in evaluating and qualifying neutron detectors for LMFBR applications. Included are descriptions of the ANL Components Technology Division Test Program and the EBR-II Nuclear Instrument Test Facilities (NITF) used for the in-reactor testing and a summary of program test results from EBR-II

  9. The interaction between radiation and complexes of cis-Pt(II) and Rh(II): studies at the molecular and cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibber, R.

    1985-01-01

    As a first step in gaining an understanding of the relative cellular effects of the transition metal/nitroimidazole complexes the authors have examined the effect of radiation given to cells in the presence of metal complexes not containing a nitroimidazole ligand. The compounds used in the cellular work are a series of Rh(II) carboxylates, cisplatin and JM8 (CBDCA, cis-diammine-1, 1-cyclobutane dicarboxylate platinum (II)). In radiation chemical experiments, Rh(II) acetate and cisplatin were chosen to represent model systems. Results from these radiation chemical and cellular experiments then allow interpretation of the changes in biological response caused by these agents, which are discussed in terms of the mechanism(s) thought to be operative in radiosensitization. (author)

  10. Fall Risk Index predicts functional decline regardless of fall experiences among community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Yasuko; Wada, Taizo; Kasahara, Yoriko; Kimura, Yumi; Fukutomi, Eriko; Chen, Wenling; Hirosaki, Mayumi; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Fujisawa, Michiko; Sakamoto, Ryota; Ishine, Masayuki; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Matsubayashi, Kozo

    2012-10-01

    The 21-item Fall Risk Index (FRI-21) has been used to detect elderly persons at risk for falls. The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the FRI-21 as a predictor of decline in basic activities of daily living (BADL) among Japanese community-dwelling elderly persons independent of fall risk. The study population consisted of 518 elderly participants aged 65 years and older who were BADL independent at baseline in Tosa, Japan. We examined risk factors for BADL decline from 2008 to 2009 by multiple logistic regression analysis on the FRI-21 and other functional status measures in all participants. We carried out the same analysis in selected participants who had no experience of falls to remove the effect of falls. A total of 45 of 518 participants showed decline in BADL within 1 year. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.20), FRI-21 ≥ 10 (OR 3.81, 95% CI 1.49-9.27), intellectual activity dependence (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.42-7.44) and history of osteoarthropathy (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.40-7.21) were significant independent risk factors for BADL decline within 1 year. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence (≤ 3) remained significant predictors, even in selected non-fallers. FRI-21 ≥ 10 and intellectual activity dependence were significant predictive factors of BADL decline, regardless of fall experience, after adjustment for confounding variables. The FRI-21 is a brief, useful tool not only for predicting falls, but also future decline in functional ability in community-dwelling elderly persons. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. 78 FR 64428 - Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    .... FDA-2013-N-1043] Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for... entitled ``Draft Qualitative Risk Assessment of Risk of Activity/Animal Food Combinations for Activities...(n) of the FD&C Act. II. Qualitative Risk Assessment As explained in the draft RA, we conducted the...

  12. Cd(II and Pb(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II and lead(II. Results New metal(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II and Pb(II ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II ions to form [Cd(Sal2(H2O2] (1 and [Pb(Sal(NO3] (2, respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock

  13. Cd(II) and Pb(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II) ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II)-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II) and lead(II). Results New metal(II) complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa) undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II) ions to form [Cd(Sal)2(H2O)2] (1) and [Pb(Sal)(NO3)] (2), respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II) ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II) center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II) cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II) complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock farming

  14. Complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and dioxouranium(II) with thiophene-2-aldehydethiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balwan; Misra, Harihar

    1986-01-01

    Metal complexes of thiosemicarbazides have been known for their pharmacological applications. Significant antitubercular, fungicidal and antiviral activities have been reported for thiosemicarbazides and their derivatives. The present study describes the systhesis and characterisation of complexes of Co II , Cu II , Zn II ,Cd II and UO II with thiosemicarbazone obtained by condensing thiophene-2-aldehyde with thiosemicarbazide. 17 refs., 2 tables. (author)

  15. The prevalence of microalbuminuria among patients with type II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional community-based study was carried out to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria among patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting, and to study the association between various risk factors and the presence of microalbuminuria. All patients with type II diabetes mellitus who ...

  16. The federations' agreement II on network utilisation; Die Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkner, P. [Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG, Augsburg (Germany)

    2001-06-18

    Against the background of the experience of the regional supplier Lech Elektrizitaetswerke AG (LEW AG) and in the view of the operator of a regional distribution network the author deals with three complexes of themes: 1. Federations' Agreement II on network utilisation - Flexible instrument for competition or unsuited attempt? 2. What progress and obstacles are identifiable on route towards the implementation of the Federations' Agreement II on network utilisation? 3. What adjustment of existing sets of rules towards the requirements of competition is necessary? (orig.) [German] Vor dem Erfahrungshintergrund des Erfahrungsbereiches des Regionalversorgers Lech-Elektrizitaetswerke AG (LEW AG) und aus der Sicht des Betreibers eines regionalen Verteilungsnetzes behandelt der Verfasser die drei Themenkomplexe: 1. Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung - Flexibles Instrument fuer den Wettbewerb oder ungeeigneter Versuch? 2. Welche Fortschritte und Hindernisse sind auf dem Wege der Umsetzung der Verbaendevereinbarung II zur Netznutzung erkennbar? 3. Welche Anpassung vorhandener Regelwerke an die Erfordernisse des Wettbewerbs sind notwendig? (orig.)

  17. EARLY HEAD START FAMILIES' EXPERIENCES WITH STRESS: UNDERSTANDING VARIATIONS WITHIN A HIGH-RISK, LOW-INCOME SAMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Jason T; Vu, Jennifer A; Bargreen, Kaitlin N; Hallam, Rena A; Han, Myae

    2017-09-01

    The federal Early Head Start program provides a relevant context to examine families' experiences with stress since participants qualify on the basis of poverty and risk. Building on previous research that has shown variations in demographic and economic risks even among qualifying families, we examined possible variations in families' perceptions of stress. Family, parent, and child data were collected to measure stressors and risk across a variety of domains in families' everyday lives, primarily from self-report measures, but also including assay results from child cortisol samples. A cluster analysis was employed to examine potential differences among groups of Early Head Start families. Results showed that there were three distinct subgroups of families, with some families perceiving that they experienced very high levels of stress while others perceived much lower levels of stress despite also experiencing poverty and heightened risk. These findings have important implications in that they provide an initial step toward distinguishing differences in low-income families' experiences with stress, thereby informing interventions focused on promoting responsive caregiving as a possible mechanism to buffer the effects of family and social stressors on young children. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk Taking : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, government guarantees for savings banks in Germany were removed following a law suit. We use this natural experiment to examine the effect of government guarantees on bank risk taking, using a large data set of matched bank/borrower information. The results suggest that banks whose

  19. CCF analysis of BWR reactor shutdown systems based on the operating experience at the TVO I/II in 1981-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.

    1996-04-01

    The work constitutes a part of the project conducted within the research program of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate SKI, aimed to develop the methods and data base for the Common Cause Failure (CCF) analysis of highly redundant reactor scram systems. The data analysis for the TVO I/II plant is focused on the hydraulic scram system, and control rods and drives. It covers operating experiences from 1981 through 1993. (9 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.)

  20. Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part II: Numerical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Turinsky, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attribute predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins, and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e., in-core instrumentation readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. The companion paper, ''Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part I: Theory,'' describes in detail the theoretical background of the proposed adaptive techniques. This paper, Part II, demonstrates several computational experiments conducted to assess the fidelity and robustness of the proposed techniques. The intent is to check the ability of the adapted core simulator model to predict future core observables that are not included in the adaption or core observables that are recorded at core conditions that differ from those at which adaption is completed. Also, this paper demonstrates successful utilization of an efficient sensitivity analysis approach to calculate the sensitivity information required to perform the adaption for millions of input core parameters. Finally, this paper illustrates a useful application for adaptive simulation - reducing the inconsistencies between two different core simulator code systems, where the multitudes of input data to one code are adjusted to enhance the agreement between both codes for important core attributes, i.e., core reactivity and power distribution. Also demonstrated is the robustness of such an application

  1. Radiative parameters for some transitions in Cu(II) and Ag(II) spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biemont, E.; Blagoev, K.; Campos, J.; Mayo, R.; Malcheva, G.; Ortiz, M.; Quinet, P.

    2005-01-01

    Radiative parameters for transitions depopulating the levels belonging to the 3d 8 4s 2 configuration of Cu(II) and 4d 9 6s and 4d 9 5d configurations of Ag(II) have been obtained both theoretically and experimentally. On the experimental side, a laser-produced plasma was used as a source of Cu(II) and Ag(II) spectra. The light emitted by the plasma was focused on the input slit of a grating monochromator coupled with a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer system. Spectral response calibration of the experimental system was made using a deuterium lamp in the wavelength range extending from 200 to 400-bar nm, and a standard tungsten lamp in the range from 350 to 600-bar nm. The transition probabilities were obtained using measured branching fractions and available radiative lifetimes of the corresponding states. On the theoretical side, a relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) approach, including core-polarization effects, has been used for the calculations. A reasonable agreement theory-experiment has been observed

  2. THE LIMITS OF BASEL II ACCORD

    OpenAIRE

    Zapodeanu Daniela; Gall Raluca Dorina

    2009-01-01

    Even though the actual Basel II Settlement has many advantages like: more transparent and detailed bank information, the rating systems, the internal models of evaluation for risks, the three pillars which represent a whole, an equitable bank competition,

  3. Design, construction and tests of the power crowbar and predischarge circuit of the SPICA II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingen, A.M. van; Manintveld, P.; Sterk, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 28 Farad, 1.8 MJ electrolytic capacitor power-crowbar battery and a flexible predischarge circuit for the SPICA II screw-pinch experiment is described. The battery is capable of delivering the toroidal and poloidal currents of more than 2.5 MA, during at least 1 ms after crowbarring of the high-voltage capacitor banks. To obtain a low short-circuit impedance a very compact construction was chosen, which resulted in seven modules of about 1 m 3 each, Rsub(i) = 100 μΩ, Lsub(i) = 7 nH, connected by plate systems to the main circuit. The predischarge circuit consists of a fast capacitor bank to start the predischarge and a slow circuit with a clamp switch to preheat the discharge. (author)

  4. Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 3. Synthesis and characterisation of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) and VO(II) Schiff base complexes derived from o-phenylenediamine and acetoacetanilide. N Raman Y Pitchaikani Raja A Kulandaisamy. Inorganic Volume 113 Issue 3 June 2001 pp 183-189 ...

  5. Maternal adverse childhood experiences and antepartum risks: the moderating role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Nicole; Madigan, Sheri; Plamondon, Andre; Hetherington, Erin; McDonald, Sheila; Tough, Suzanne

    2018-03-28

    The aims of the current study were to examine the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and antepartum health risks, and to investigate whether social support moderated this association. It was hypothesized that ACEs would be associated with antepartum health risks; however, social support in the prenatal period would buffer mothers from the deleterious consequences of ACEs. Data from 1994 women (mean age = 31 years) and their infants were collected from a longitudinal cohort recruited in health care offices in Alberta, Canada. Pregnant women completed questionnaires related to ACEs prior to the age of 18 and prenatal social support, and a health care professional assessed the mother's antepartum health risk. ACEs included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, exposure to domestic violence, as well as exposure to household dysfunction such as parental substance use, mental illness, or incarceration. Regression analyses demonstrated a positive association between ACEs and antepartum health risks. However, a significant interaction between maternal ACEs and social support was also observed. Specifically, women exposed to high ACEs and low social support in pregnancy had high antepartum health risks. However, among mothers who had high ACEs but also high levels of social support, there was no association between ACEs and antepartum health risk. A history of ACEs can place mothers at risk of antepartum health complications. However, a resiliency effect was observed: women with a history of ACEs were buffered from experiencing antepartum health risks if they reported high levels of social support in pregnancy.

  6. Search for Electroweak Single-Top Quark Production with the CDF II Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Matthias; /Karlsruhe U., EKP

    2006-08-01

    The CDF II experiment and the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider are parts of the Fermi National Laboratories (Fermilab). The Fermilab is located in the vicinity of Chicago, USA. Today, the Tevatron is the only collider which is able to produce the heaviest known elementary particle, the top quark. The top quark was discovered at the Tevatron by the CDF and the D0 collaborations in 1995 [1]. So far, all the top quarks found are produced via the strong interaction as top-antitop pairs. The Standard Model of elementary particle physics also predicts single-top quark production via the electroweak interaction. This production mode has not yet been observed. The CDF and the D0 collaborations have set upper limits on the cross section for that process in Run I [2, 3] and improved those results in Run II [4, 5]. Single-top quark production is one of the major interests in Run II of the Tevatron as it offers several ways to test the Standard Model and to search for potential physics beyond the Standard Model. The measurement of the cross section of singly produced top quarks via the electroweak interaction offers the possibility to determine the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element V{sub tb} directly. The CKM matrix defines the transformation from the eigenstates of the electroweak interactions to the mass eigenstates of the quarks. V{sub tb} gives the strength of the coupling at the Wtb vertex. The single-top quark is produced at this vertex and therefore the cross section of the single-top quark production is directly proportional to |V{sub tb}|{sup 2}. In the Standard Model, three generations of quarks and the unitarity of the CKM matrix are predicted. This leads to V{sub tb} {approx} 1. Up to now, there is no possibility to measure V{sub tb} without using the assumption that there are a certain number of quark generations. Since the measurement of the cross section of single-top quark production is independent of this assumption it could verify another

  7. Confinement studies in the TJ-II stellarator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.; Ascasibar, E.; Baciero, A.; Balbin, R.; Blaumoser, M.; Botija, J.; Branas, B.; De La Cal, E.; Cappa, A.; Carrasco, R.; Castejon, F.; Cepero, J. R.; Cremy, C.; Delgrado, J. M.; Doncel, J.; Dulya, C.; Estrada, T.; Fernandez, A.; Fuentes, C.; Garcia, A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Jimenez, J. A.; Kirpitchev, I.; Krivenski, V.; Labrador, I.; Lapayese, F.; Likin, K.; Linier, M.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.; de la Luna, E.; Martin, R.; Martinez, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Medrano, M.; Mendez, P.; McCarthy, K. J.; Medina, F.; van Milligen, B.; Ochando, M.; Pacios, L.; Pastor, I.; Pedrosa, M. A.; de la Pena, A.; Portas, A.; Qin, J.; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, L.; Salas, A.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchez, J.; Tabares, F.; Tafalla, D.; Tribaldos, V.; Vega, J.; Zurro, B.; Akulina, D.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Grebenshchikov, S.; Kharchev, N.; Meshcheryakov, A.; Sarksian, K. A.; Barth, R.; van Dijk, G.; van der Meiden, H.

    1999-01-01

    ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) heated plasmas have been studied in the low magnetic shear TJ-II stellarator (R = 1.5 m, a < 0.22 m, B = 1 T, f = 53.2 GHz, P-ECRH = 300 kW, power density = 1-25 W cm(-3)). Recent experiments have explored the flexibility of the TJ-II across a wide range of

  8. Evaluation of Oral Hygiene in Patients with Generalized Periodontitis of II Degree and Stage II Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vivcharenko

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions. The level of oral hygiene in patients of both groups was low due to incorrect selection of personal hygiene products or their untimely replacement. In patients with generalized periodontitis of II degree and stage II hypertension, the level of oral hygiene was lower than in somatically healthy persons: the worse status of oral cavity hygiene – the more pronounced changes in the periodontal tissues. We can suppose that high blood pressure affects the status of the oral cavity, creates a higher risk and exacerbates the periodontal diseases.

  9. Belle II Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, T; Ritter, M

    2016-01-01

    Belle II is a next generation B factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle. The higher luminosity at the SuperKEKB accelerator leads to higher background levels and requires a major upgrade of the detector. As a consequence, the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software must also be upgraded substantially. Most of the software has been redesigned from scratch, taking into account the experience from Belle and other experiments and utilizing new technologies. The large amount of experimental and simulated data requires a high level of reliability and reproducibility, even in parallel environments. Several technologies, tools, and organizational measures are employed to evaluate and monitor the performance of the software during development. (paper)

  10. Effects of Lifetime Unemployment Experience and Job Insecurity on Two-Year Risk of Physician-Diagnosed Incident Depression in the German Working Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wege, Natalia; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2017-08-11

    Unemployment and job insecurity have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of lifetime unemployment experience and job insecurity on the incidence of depression in an unselected working population in Germany. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study were used, as was a final sample of those currently employed, with complete data at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) restricted to those free of depression in 2009 ( n = 7073). Poisson regression analysis was applied to test the prospective associations between unemployment, job insecurity, and a two-year incident of depression. Results showed that the experience of unemployment and perceived job insecurity were significantly associated with a higher risk of depression during the two-year follow-up (risk ratios 1.64; 95% confidence intervals (1.16, 2.31) and risk ratios 1.48; 95% confidence intervals (1.13, 1.92), respectively). Notably, the strongest risk was observed among participants with insecure jobs and past long-term unemployment (risk ratios 2.15; 95% confidence intervals (1.32; 3.52)). In conclusion, even during employment, the experience of lifetime unemployment led to a higher risk of depression. The combination of previous unemployment experience and anticipated job insecurity increased the risk of developing depression. Results support health promotion with special emphasis on unemployment and precarious working conditions.

  11. Recent results of high p(T) physics at the CDF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Soushi; /Okayama U.

    2005-02-01

    The Tevatron Run II program has been in progress since 2001. The CDF experiment has accumulated roughly five times as much data as did Run I, with much improved detectors. Preliminary results from the CDF experiment are presented. The authors focus on recent high p{sub T} physics results in the Tevatron Run II program.

  12. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. II: Graded testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a graded approach to the testing of crop-derived genetically modified (GM) foods based on concern levels in a proposed risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) and currently available testing methods. A graded approach offers the potential for more efficient use of testing resources by focusing less on lower concern GM foods, and more on higher concern foods. In this proposed approach to graded testing, products that are classified as Level I would have met baseline testing requirements that are comparable to what is widely applied to premarket assessment of GM foods at present. In most cases, Level I products would require no further testing, or very limited confirmatory analyses. For products classified as Level II or higher, additional testing would be required, depending on the type of the substance, prior dietary history, estimated exposure level, prior knowledge of toxicity of the substance, and the nature of the concern related to unintended changes in the modified food. Level III testing applies only to the assessment of toxic and antinutritional effects from intended changes and is tailored to the nature of the substance in question. Since appropriate test methods are not currently available for all effects of concern, future research to strengthen the testing of GM foods is discussed.

  13. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  14. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, S.

    1997-05-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunchspacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II

  15. Computing Models of CDF and D0 in Run II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammel, S.

    1997-01-01

    The next collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron, Run II, is scheduled for autumn of 1999. Both experiments, the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and the D0 experiment are being modified to cope with the higher luminosity and shorter bunch spacing of the Tevatron. New detector components, higher event complexity, and an increased data volume require changes from the data acquisition systems up to the analysis systems. In this paper we present a summary of the computing models of the two experiments for Run II

  16. Explicating Experience: Development of a Valid Scale of Past Hazard Experience for Tornadoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Julie L

    2018-03-23

    People's past experiences with a hazard theoretically influence how they approach future risks. Yet, past hazard experience has been conceptualized and measured in wide-ranging, often simplistic, ways, resulting in mixed findings about its relationship with risk perception. This study develops a scale of past hazard experiences, in the context of tornadoes, that is content and construct valid. A conceptual definition was developed, a set of items were created to measure one's most memorable and multiple tornado experiences, and the measures were evaluated through two surveys of the public who reside in tornado-prone areas. Four dimensions emerged of people's most memorable experience, reflecting their awareness of the tornado risk that day, their personalization of the risk, the intrusive impacts on them personally, and impacts experienced vicariously through others. Two dimensions emerged of people's multiple experiences, reflecting common types of communication received and negative emotional responses. These six dimensions are novel in that they capture people's experience across the timeline of a hazard as well as intangible experiences that are both direct and indirect. The six tornado experience dimensions were correlated with tornado risk perceptions measured as cognitive-affective and as perceived probability of consequences. The varied experience-risk perception results suggest that it is important to understand the nuances of these concepts and their relationships. This study provides a foundation for future work to continue explicating past hazard experience, across different risk contexts, and for understanding its effect on risk assessment and responses. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools: an ecological examination of adolescent risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Brown, Larry K; Houck, Christopher; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2012-09-01

    This study examined gender differences in family, peer, partner, and mental health characteristics related to sexual experience among emotionally and behaviorally disordered students in therapeutic day schools, a population at elevated risk for negative sexual health outcomes. A total of 417 13- to 20-year-old adolescents reported on their family functioning, peer and partner relationship characteristics, mental health problems, and self-reported sexual behavior. For boys and girls, peer influence and conduct problems predicted sexual experience, and family dysfunction was related to negative peer influence. Greater rejection sensitivity was related to less sexual experience for boys and girls. The final path model revealed indirect effects of family dysfunction on boys' but not girls' sexual experiences. Findings underscore the utility of an ecological approach to understand social and personal mechanisms that increase risk and mitigate negative outcomes among emotionally and behaviorally disordered boys and girls in therapeutic day schools.

  18. Quantitative coronary plaque analysis predicts high-risk plaque morphology on coronary computed tomography angiography: results from the ROMICAT II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Mayrhofer, Thomas; Puchner, Stefan B; Lu, Michael T; Ghemigian, Khristine; Kitslaar, Pieter H; Broersen, Alexander; Pursnani, Amit; Hoffmann, Udo; Ferencik, Maros

    2018-02-01

    Semi-automated software can provide quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic plaques on coronary CT angiography (CTA). The relationship between established qualitative high-risk plaque features and quantitative plaque measurements has not been studied. We analyzed the association between quantitative plaque measurements and qualitative high-risk plaque features on coronary CTA. We included 260 patients with plaque who underwent coronary CTA in the Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT) II trial. Quantitative plaque assessment and qualitative plaque characterization were performed on a per coronary segment basis. Quantitative coronary plaque measurements included plaque volume, plaque burden, remodeling index, and diameter stenosis. In qualitative analysis, high-risk plaque was present if positive remodeling, low CT attenuation plaque, napkin-ring sign or spotty calcium were detected. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between quantitative and qualitative high-risk plaque assessment. Among 888 segments with coronary plaque, high-risk plaque was present in 391 (44.0%) segments by qualitative analysis. In quantitative analysis, segments with high-risk plaque had higher total plaque volume, low CT attenuation plaque volume, plaque burden and remodeling index. Quantitatively assessed low CT attenuation plaque volume (odds ratio 1.12 per 1 mm 3 , 95% CI 1.04-1.21), positive remodeling (odds ratio 1.25 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.10-1.41) and plaque burden (odds ratio 1.53 per 0.1, 95% CI 1.08-2.16) were associated with high-risk plaque. Quantitative coronary plaque characteristics (low CT attenuation plaque volume, positive remodeling and plaque burden) measured by semi-automated software correlated with qualitative assessment of high-risk plaque features.

  19. THE LIMITS OF BASEL II ACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gall Raluca Dorina

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Even though the actual Basel II Settlement has many advantages like: more transparent and detailed bank information, the rating systems, the internal models of evaluation for risks, the three pillars which represent a whole, an equitable bank competition,

  20. Predictive value of SAPS II and APACHE II scoring systems for patient outcome in a medical intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Godinjak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim is to determine SAPS II and APACHE II scores in medical intensive care unit (MICU patients, to compare them for prediction of patient outcome, and to compare with actual hospital mortality rates for different subgroups of patients. Methods. One hundred and seventy-four patients were included in this analysis over a oneyear period in the MICU, Clinical Center, University of Sarajevo. The following patient data were obtained: demographics, admission diagnosis, SAPS II, APACHE II scores and final outcome. Results. Out of 174 patients, 70 patients (40.2% died. Mean SAPS II and APACHE II scores in all patients were 48.4±17.0 and 21.6±10.3 respectively, and they were significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. SAPS II >50.5 and APACHE II >27.5 can predict the risk of mortality in these patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II vs APACHE II (p=0.501. A statistically significant positive correlation was established between the values of SAPS II and APACHE II (r=0.708; p=0.001. Patients with an admission diagnosis of sepsis/septic shock had the highest values of both SAPS II and APACHE II scores, and also the highest hospital mortality rate of 55.1%. Conclusion. Both APACHE II and SAPS II had an excellent ability to discriminate between survivors and non-survivors. There was no significant difference in the clinical values of SAPS II and APACHE II. A positive correlation was established between them. Sepsis/septic shock patients had the highest predicted and observed hospital mortality rate.

  1. Severe caloric restriction in young women during World War II and subsequent breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vin-Raviv, N; Barchana, M; Linn, S; Keinan-Boker, L

    2012-10-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the impact of WWII-related caloric restriction (CR) on subsequent breast cancer (BC) risk based on individual exposure experiences and whether this effect was modified by age at exposure. We compared 65 breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2005-2010 to 200 controls without breast cancer who were all members of various organizations for Jewish WWII survivors in Israel. All participants were Jewish women born in Europe prior to 1945 who lived at least 6 months under Nazi rule during WWII and immigrated to Israel after the war. We estimated CR using a combined index for hunger and used logistic regression models to estimate the association between CR and BC, adjusting for potential confounders. Women who were severely exposed to hunger had an increased risk of BC (OR=5.0, 95% CI= 2.3-10.8) compared to women who were mildly exposed. The association between CR and BC risk was stronger for women who were exposed at a younger age (0-7 years) compared to the risk of BC in women exposed at ≥ 14 years (OR= 2.8, 95% CI=1.3-6.3). Severe exposure to CR is associated with a higher risk for BC decades later, and may be generalized to other cases of severe starvation during childhood that may have long-term effects on cancer in adulthood. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Raven-II: an open platform for surgical robotics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Blake; Rosen, Jacob; Friedman, Diana W; King, Hawkeye; Roan, Phillip; Cheng, Lei; Glozman, Daniel; Ma, Ji; Kosari, Sina Nia; White, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The Raven-II is a platform for collaborative research on advances in surgical robotics. Seven universities have begun research using this platform. The Raven-II system has two 3-DOF spherical positioning mechanisms capable of attaching interchangeable four DOF instruments. The Raven-II software is based on open standards such as Linux and ROS to maximally facilitate software development. The mechanism is robust enough for repeated experiments and animal surgery experiments, but is not engineered to sufficient safety standards for human use. Mechanisms in place for interaction among the user community and dissemination of results include an electronic forum, an online software SVN repository, and meetings and workshops at major robotics conferences.

  3. Biosorption of copper(II) and lead(II) onto potassium hydroxide treated pine cone powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofomaja, A E; Naidoo, E B; Modise, S J

    2010-08-01

    Pine cone powder surface was treated with potassium hydroxide and applied for copper(II) and lead(II) removal from solution. Isotherm experiments and desorption tests were conducted and kinetic analysis was performed with increasing temperatures. As solution pH increased, the biosorption capacity and the change in hydrogen ion concentration in solution increased. The change in hydrogen ion concentration for lead(II) biosorption was slightly higher than for copper(II) biosorption. The results revealed that ion-exchange is the main mechanism for biosorption for both metal ions. The pseudo-first order kinetic model was unable to describe the biosorption process throughout the effective biosorption period while the modified pseudo-first order kinetics gave a better fit but could not predict the experimentally observed equilibrium capacities. The pseudo-second order kinetics gave a better fit to the experimental data over the temperature range from 291 to 347 K and the equilibrium capacity increased from 15.73 to 19.22 mg g(-1) for copper(II) and from 23.74 to 26.27 for lead(II). Activation energy was higher for lead(II) (22.40 kJ mol(-1)) than for copper(II) (20.36 kJ mol(-1)). The free energy of activation was higher for lead(II) than for copper(II) and the values of DeltaH* and DeltaS* indicate that the contribution of reorientation to the activation stage is higher for lead(II) than copper(II). This implies that lead(II) biosorption is more spontaneous than copper(II) biosorption. Equilibrium studies showed that the Langmuir isotherm gave a better fit for the equilibrium data indicating monolayer coverage of the biosorbent surface. There was only a small interaction between metal ions when simultaneously biosorbed and cation competition was higher for the Cu-Pb system than for the Pb-Cu system. Desorption studies and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm and energy parameter, E, also support the ion-exchange mechanism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of Gerda Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Victoria [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The GERDA experiment is designed to search for neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. In Phase I of the experiment a background index (BI) of 10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.yr) was reached. No signal has been found and a lower limit on the half-life of 2.1.10{sup 25} yr (at 90% C.L.) is extracted. The aim of Phase II is to double the Ge mass and further reduce the BI by an order of magnitude to explore half-lives of about 10{sup 26} yr. Thirty new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors have been produced. These detectors are distinct for their improved energy resolution and enhanced pulse shape discrimination of signal from background events. Further background reduction will be reached by an active veto to read out argon scintillation light. The Phase II commissioning showed that two of the major background components, external γ-rays from {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl decays, can be suppressed up to two orders of magnitude. This talk presents the current status of the GERDA Phase II upgrade.

  5. The Layout and Performance of the Phase-II upgrade of the tracking detector of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ai, Xiaocong; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    HL-LHC will deliver about 3000 fb-1 of integrated luminosity in over 10 year. This will present an extremely challenging environment to the ATLAS experiment, well beyond that for which it was designed. In ATLAS Phase II upgrade, the Inner Detector will be replace by a new all-silicon Inner Tracker to maintain tracking performance in this high-occupancy environment and to cope with the increase of approximately a factor of ten in the integrated radiation dose. The ITk Detector layout is designed to meet the requirement for identifying charged particles with high efficiency and measuring their properties with high precision in the denser environment. The Layout and performance of the ITk is presented.

  6. DO SELF-THEORIES EXPLAIN OVERCONFIDENCE AND FINANCIAL RISK TAKING? A field experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand Koebel; André Schmitt; Sandrine Spaeter

    2015-01-01

    How people develop beliefs about themselves (self-theories) plays an important role on motivation and achievement as shown by Carol Dweck’s life-long research. In this paper, we conduct a field experiment to investigate whether self-theories impact overconfidence and risk taking. Self-theories deal with how an individual perceives some of her attributes such as intelligence, personality or moral character. In this paper, we are interested by how people perceive their mindset (fixed or growth)...

  7. The development of adolescents’ online sexual risk behavior and its relationship to negative online experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumgartner, S.; Sumter, S.; Valkenburg, P.; Peter, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate developmental pathways of online sexual risk behavior from early to late adolescence. Moreover, this study examined how these trajectories are related to negative online experiences, such as online sexual solicitation, online harassment, and online

  8. PRESTO-PREP: a data preprocessor for the PRESTO-II code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    PRESTO-II is a computer code developed to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes. PRESTO-PREP is a data preprocessor that has been developed to expedite the formation of input data sets for PRESTO-II. PRESTO-PREP utilizes a library of nuclide and risk-specific data. Given an initial waste inventory, the code creates the radionuclide portion of the associated input data set for PRESTO-II. 2 references.

  9. PRESTO-PREP: a data preprocessor for the PRESTO-II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.A.; Emerson, C.J.; Fields, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    PRESTO-II is a computer code developed to evaluate possible health effects from shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes. PRESTO-PREP is a data preprocessor that has been developed to expedite the formation of input data sets for PRESTO-II. PRESTO-PREP utilizes a library of nuclide and risk-specific data. Given an initial waste inventory, the code creates the radionuclide portion of the associated input data set for PRESTO-II. 2 references

  10. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Cotae, Vlad

    2005-01-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 mul/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 mul/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  11. First plasmas in the TJ-II flexible Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.

    1999-01-01

    First plasmas have been successfully achieved in the TJ-II stellarator using electron cyclotron resonance heating (f = 53.2 GHz, P ECRH = 250 kW). Initial experiments have explored the TJ-II flexibility in a wide range of plasma volumes, different rotational transform and magnetic well values. In this paper, the main results of this campaign are presented and, in particular, the influence of plasma wall interaction phenomena on TJ-II operation is discussed briefly. (author)

  12. The prognostic importance of miR-21 in stage II colon cancer: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, S.; Hansen, T. F.; Nielsen, B. S.

    2012-01-01

    that increasing miR-21 expression levels were significantly correlated to decreasing RF-CSS. Further investigations of the clinical importance of miR-21 in the selection of high-risk stage II colon cancer patients are merited. British Journal of Cancer (2012) 107, 1169-1174. doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.365 www......BACKGROUND: Despite several years of research and attempts to develop prognostic models a considerable fraction of stage II colon cancer patients will experience relapse within few years from their operation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic importance of miRNA-21 (mi......-free cancer-specific survival (RF-CSS): HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.15-1.60; P importance and was found to be significantly related to poor RF-CSS: HR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.19-1.67; P

  13. Experience gathered from the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastorini, A.; Belinco, C.G.; El Bis, E.D.; Sacchi, M.A.; Mayans, C.O.; Martin Ghiselli, A.; Marcora, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    This work describes the needs to materialize the transport of a fuel element prototype of the CNA-II (Atucha-II nuclear power plant) type, under special conditions, from the Fabrication Pilot Plant sited at the Constituyentes Atomic Center and the Ezeiza Atomic Center, for its subsequent analysis at the High Pressure Experimental Loop. The special conditions under which the transport has been made responded to the fact that the prototype presents a fragile adjustment between rods and separators, necessary to be preserved. (Author) [es

  14. Atlantic Coastal experiment III, FRV Delaware II cruise, 17-27 May 1977 and R/V ONRUST cruise, 28-30, June 1977. Data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, S.; Stoddard, A.; von Bock, K. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The DELAWARE II and ONRUST cruises, continuations of Atlantic Coastal Experiment III, were made during May and late June, 1977, to compare seasonal changes in chlorophyll a, nitrogen nutrient, dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton composition within the mid-Atlantic and New York Bights. Data from 106 stations and 3300 km of surface mapping are reported as classical hydrographic listings, areal and/or vertical contours of chlorophyll a, inorganic nitrogen and salinity, and listings of phytoplankton species abun- dance. Temperature profiles from 100 stations are included, as well as res- piration experiments [ETS assay] for the dinoflagellate, Ceratium tripos.

  15. A New Chicane Experiment In PEP-II to Test Mitigations of the Electron Cloud Effect for Linear Colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pivi, M

    2008-01-01

    Beam instability caused by the electron cloud has been observed in positron and proton storage rings, and it is expected to be a limiting factor in the performance of future colliders [1-3]. The effect is expected to be particularly severe in magnetic field regions. To test possible mitigation methods in magnetic fields, we have installed a new 4-dipole chicane experiment in the PEP-II Low Energy Ring (LER) at SLAC with both bare and TiN-coated aluminum chambers. In particular, we have observed a large variation of the electron flux at the chamber wall as a function of the chicane dipole field. We infer this is a new high order resonance effect where the energy gained by the electrons in the positron beam depends on the phase of the electron cyclotron motion with respect to the bunch crossing, leading to a modulation of the secondary electron production. Presumably the cloud density is modulated as well and this resonance effect could be used to reduce its magnitude in future colliders. We present the experimental results obtained during January 2008 until the April final shut-down of the PEP-II machine

  16. dE/dx electronics for MARK II experiment at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.; Boyarski, A.; Coupal, D.; Feldman, G.; Paffrath, L.

    1985-10-01

    This paper describes a 100 MHz pulse digitizer for dE/dx measurements on the MARK II drift chamber at SLAC. The electronics provides the read-out of the detector's 5832 sense based on a 16-channel FASTBUS module. The basic element of the module is the TRW 6-bit Flash-ADC

  17. Maintenance risk management in Dayabay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xuhong; Tong Jiejuan

    2005-01-01

    The importance of proper maintenance to safe and reliable nuclear plant operation has long been recognized by the nuclear utility and regulatory body. This paper presents a process of maintenance risk management developed for a Chinese Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The process includes three phases: (I) long term maintenance plan risk management, (II) monthly maintenance plan risk management, and (III) detailed risk management for high risk configuration. A risk matrix is developed for phase I whose purpose is to provide a rough guide for risk management in the making of the annual maintenance plan. For Phase II and Phase III, a software tool named Maintenance- Risk-Monitor is developed based on the internal initiating event, level 1 PSA model. The results of Phase II are the risk information of the all plant configurations caused by the unavailability of the components included the monthly maintenance plan. When the increase of core damage frequency (CDF) or the incremental core damage probability (ICDP) of a configuration is higher than the corresponding thresholds, Phase III is needed for this high risk configuration to get the useful information such as risk-importance components, human actions and initial events, from which appropriate preventive measurements could be derived. It is hoped that the provided process of maintenance risk management, together with the developed software tool, could facilitate the maintenance activities in the NPPs of China. (authors)

  18. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  19. Preferences for breast cancer risk reduction among BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers: a discrete-choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liede, Alexander; Mansfield, Carol A; Metcalfe, Kelly A; Price, Melanie A; Snyder, Carrie; Lynch, Henry T; Friedman, Sue; Amelio, Justyna; Posner, Joshua; Narod, Steven A; Lindeman, Geoffrey J; Evans, D Gareth

    2017-09-01

    Unaffected women who carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations face difficult choices about reducing their breast cancer risk. Understanding their treatment preferences could help us improve patient counseling and inform drug trials. The objective was to explore preferences for various risk-reducing options among women with germline BRCA1/2 mutations using a discrete-choice experiment survey and to compare expressed preferences with actual behaviors. A discrete-choice experiment survey was designed wherein women choose between hypothetical treatments to reduce breast cancer risk. The hypothetical treatments were characterized by the extent of breast cancer risk reduction, treatment duration, impact on fertility, hormone levels, risk of uterine cancer, and ease and mode of administration. Data were analyzed using a random-parameters logit model. Women were also asked to express their preference between surgical and chemoprevention options and to report on their actual risk-reduction actions. Women aged 25-55 years with germline BRCA1/2 mutations who were unaffected with breast or ovarian cancer were recruited through research registries at five clinics and a patient advocacy group. Between January 2015 and March 2016, 622 women completed the survey. Breast cancer risk reduction was the most important consideration expressed, followed by maintaining fertility. Among the subset of women who wished to have children in future, the ability to maintain fertility was the most important factor, followed by the extent of risk reduction. Many more women said they would take a chemoprevention drug than had actually taken chemoprevention. Women with BRCA1/2 mutations indicated strong preferences for breast cancer risk reduction and maintaining fertility. The expressed desire to have a safe chemoprevention drug available to them was not met by current chemoprevention options.

  20. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  1. Dual repressive effect of angiotensin II-type 1 receptor blocker telmisartan on angiotensin II-induced and estradiol-induced uterine leiomyoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Aki; Takeda, Takashi; Sakata, Masahiro; Miyake, Asako; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Minekawa, Ryoko; Nishimoto, Fumihito; Oskamoto, Yoko; Walker, Cheryl Lyn; Kimura, Tadashi

    2008-02-01

    Although uterine leiomyomas or fibroids are the most common gynecological benign tumor and greatly affect reproductive health and well-being, the pathophysiology and epidemiology of uterine leiomyomas are poorly understood. Elevated blood pressure has an independent, positive association with risk for clinically detected uterine leiomyoma. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a key biological peptide in the renin-angiotensin system that regulates blood pressure. In this study, we investigated the potential role of Ang II (1-1000 nM) in the proliferation of rat ELT-3 leiomyoma cells in vitro. RT-PCR and western blot analysis with cell proliferation and DNA transfection assays were performed to determine the mechanism of action of Ang II. Ang II induced ELT-3 leiomyoma cell proliferation (P estradiol-induced cell proliferation (P < 0.01). AT(1)R, but not AT(2)R, plays a role in Ang II-induced ELT-3 cell proliferation. These experimental findings in vitro highlight the potential role of Ang II in the proliferation of leiomyoma cells.

  2. Risk as an attribute in discrete choice experiments: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark; Rigby, Dan; Vass, Caroline; Flynn, Terry; Louviere, Jordan; Payne, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are used to elicit preferences of current and future patients and healthcare professionals about how they value different aspects of healthcare. Risk is an integral part of most healthcare decisions. Despite the use of risk attributes in DCEs consistently being highlighted as an area for further research, current methods of incorporating risk attributes in DCEs have not been reviewed explicitly. This study aimed to systematically identify published healthcare DCEs that incorporated a risk attribute, summarise and appraise methods used to present and analyse risk attributes, and recommend best practice regarding including, analysing and transparently reporting the methodology supporting risk attributes in future DCEs. The Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Econlit databases were searched on 18 April 2013 for DCEs that included a risk attribute published since 1995, and on 23 April 2013 to identify studies assessing risk communication in the general (non-DCE) health literature. Healthcare-related DCEs with a risk attribute mentioned or suggested in the title/abstract were obtained and retained in the final review if a risk attribute meeting our definition was included. Extracted data were tabulated and critically appraised to summarise the quality of reporting, and the format, presentation and interpretation of the risk attribute were summarised. This review identified 117 healthcare DCEs that incorporated at least one risk attribute. Whilst there was some evidence of good practice incorporated into the presentation of risk attributes, little evidence was found that developing methods and recommendations from other disciplines about effective methods and validation of risk communication were systematically applied to DCEs. In general, the reviewed DCE studies did not thoroughly report the methodology supporting the explanation of risk in training materials, the impact of framing risk, or exploring the validity of risk

  3. The PIP-II Conceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Burov, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chase, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chakravarty, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chen, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dixon, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Edelen, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Johnson, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Holmes, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kazakov, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Klebaner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Kourbanis, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Leveling, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Melnychuk, O. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Nicol, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostiguy, J. -F. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasquinelli, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Passarelli, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ristori, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pellico, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patrick, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rakhno, I. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Saini, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Schappert, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Steimel, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Scarpine, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Vivoli, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Warner, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Yakovlev, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Ostroumov, P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Conway, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) encompasses a set of upgrades and improvements to the Fermilab accelerator complex aimed at supporting a world-leading neutrino program over the next several decades. PIP-II is an integral part of the strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 and formalized through the Mission Need Statement approved in November 2015. As an immediate goal, PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing proton beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility/Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (LBNF/DUNE) program, currently anticipated for the mid- 2020s. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term goal of establishing a high-intensity proton facility that is unique within the world, ultimately leading to multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab....

  4. The new German neutron source FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuding, M.

    2003-01-01

    The 'Technische Universitaet Muenchen' has built a new high-flux research reactor, the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II. This new reactor will replace the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen' which has been operated very successfully for about 43 years. The 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II has been developed with first priority for beam-tube experiments, but it will also provide possibilities for irradiation experiments or isotope production. The reactor was designed to obtain a high and spectrally pure thermal neutron flux is available in a large volume outside of the core, where it is accessible for experimental use. In addition to beam-tubes which will end in the thermal neutron field there will be beam-tubes that will provide - with the help of 'spectrum shifters' -cold; hot and fast neutrons. Even through the thermal power of the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II was limited to 20 MW an unperturbed maximum thermal neutron flux of about 8 x 10 14 cm -2 s -1 will be reached. Because of its 'compact-core-concept' the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II will have the best flux-to-power-ratio worldwide: The fuel element and its highly enriched U 3 Si 2 -Al-fuel were tested during the licensing procedure of the 'Forschungsreaktor Muenchen'-II. Within the scope of this 'hydraulic test' the stability and the vibration behavior of the fuel plates as well as the long-tem behavior of the fuel element were investigated (Authors)

  5. Recent results from DORIS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into γγ physics. 18 refs., 10 figs

  6. First results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76 -18 +21 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74 -12 +13 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  7. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Thomas; Lehner, Burkhard; Kasper, Bernd; Bischof, Marc; Roeder, Falk; Dietrich, Sascha; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Strauss, Ludwig G; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Wuchter, Patrick; Ho, Anthony D; Egerer, Gerlinde

    2011-12-07

    The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX) has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC]) were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m(2) iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5), definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years) were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%), 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3), 24% PR (n = 12), 62% SD (n = 31) and 8% PD (n = 4). Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%). Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%). Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50), cardiac toxicity (2/50), and CNS toxicity (4/50) leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS and DFS comparable to previously published

  8. A phase II study evaluating neo-/adjuvant EIA chemotherapy, surgical resection and radiotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of chemotherapy in high-risk soft tissue sarcoma is controversial. Though many patients undergo initial curative resection, distant metastasis is a frequent event, resulting in 5-year overall survival rates of only 50-60%. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX has been applied to achieve pre-operative cytoreduction, assess chemosensitivity, and to eliminate occult metastasis. Here we report on the results of our non-randomized phase II study on neo-adjuvant treatment for high-risk STS. Method Patients with potentially curative high-risk STS (size ≥ 5 cm, deep/extracompartimental localization, tumor grades II-III [FNCLCC] were included. The protocol comprised 4 cycles of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (EIA, etoposide 125 mg/m2 iv days 1 and 4, ifosfamide 1500 mg/m2 iv days 1 - 4, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, pegfilgrastim 6 mg sc day 5, definitive surgery with intra-operative radiotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy and 4 adjuvant cycles of EIA. Result Between 06/2005 and 03/2010 a total of 50 subjects (male = 33, female = 17, median age 50.1 years were enrolled. Median follow-up was 30.5 months. The majority of primary tumors were located in the extremities or trunk (92%, 6% originated in the abdomen/retroperitoneum. Response by RECIST criteria to neo-adjuvant CTX was 6% CR (n = 3, 24% PR (n = 12, 62% SD (n = 31 and 8% PD (n = 4. Local recurrence occurred in 3 subjects (6%. Distant metastasis was observed in 12 patients (24%. Overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS at 2 years was 83% and 68%, respectively. Multivariate analysis failed to prove influence of resection status or grade of histological necrosis on OS or DFS. Severe toxicities included neutropenic fever (4/50, cardiac toxicity (2/50, and CNS toxicity (4/50 leading to CTX dose reductions in 4 subjects. No cases of secondary leukemias were observed so far. Conclusion The current protocol is feasible for achieving local control rates, as well as OS

  9. Flibe-D2 Permeation Experiment and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.; Smolik, G.R.; Schuetz, S.T.; O'Brien, J.E.; Nishimura, H.; Hatano, Y.; Terai, T.; Petti, D.A.; Sze, D.-K.; Tanaka, S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiment of D 2 permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment is proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ni/Flibe/D 2 permeation experiment, and (vii) Ni/Flibe/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describes results of the single and dual Ni/D 2 permeation experiments in detail

  10. An Analysis Plan for the ARCOMS II (Armor Combat Operations Model Support II) Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    In order to facilitate Armor Combat Modeling, the data analysis shculd focus upon the methods which transform the data intc descriptive or predictive ...discussed in Chapter III tc predict the Farameter for probability of detection in time ŕt. This should be compared with the results of the N.4gh -t Vision...J 6A 46.) I-I 0 f U-CL 0~ z o -Z 06 09 03 v 0 0 SJldnYS 10 ON Ipgr Cp o LSTm n at emn itgas 4AA rI z ;A (AZ - 090.0 UlA0 -O ON 404 Fiur CAd &P CC

  11. Methodology to obtain exchange properties of the calcite surface-Application to major and trace elements: Ca(II), HCO3-, and Zn(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertre, E.; Beaucaire, C.; Juery, A.; Ly, J.; Tertre, E.; Beaucaire, C.; Juery, A.; Ly, J.

    2010-01-01

    Sorption of inorganic elements onto carbonate minerals has been intensively described in the literature by two reaction steps: (1) a first one rapid and completed within a few hours and (2) a second one slower, eventually irreversible, and occurring at a constant rate. The first step is often attributed to an ion-exchange process, but its reversibility is rarely investigated. Consequently, discrimination of the global sorption phenomenon into two different mechanisms is not always justified. In this study, we investigated, by batch experiments, both sorption and desorption of Ca(II), HCO 3 - , and Zn(II), radiolabeled with isotopes 45 Ca(II), H 14 CO 3 - , and 65 Zn(II), respectively, onto synthetic pure calcite. Solutions were pre-equilibrated with atmospheric p(CO 2 ) and saturated with respect to calcite. Therefore, our purpose was to: (1) obtain experimental distribution coefficients of major elements (Ca(II) and HCO 3 - ) and a trace element (Zn(II)) onto calcite from sorption and desorption experiments, (2) test the validity of a first-occurring ion-exchange process generally noted in the literature, by calculating distribution coefficients for the 'sole' exchange process, and (3) quantify the amounts of Ca(II), HCO 3 - , and Zn(II) sorbed on the calcite surface by the sole 'exchange process' and compare them with surface crystallochemical data. Ca(II) or HCO 3 - sorption experimental data suggest that a significant fraction of these two elements was sorbed irreversibly onto or in the calcite. By using a method based on isotopic ratios, the Ca(II) or HCO 3 - concentrations, which are reversibly adsorbed on the calcite, have been quantified. These concentrations are respectively estimated at 4. 0 ± 2. 0 * 10 -4 and 7. 0 ± 1. 5 * 10 -4 mol/kg. The obtained Ca(II) surface concentration value is one order of magnitude lower than the one obtained from isotopic measurement by former authors [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55 (1991) 1549; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51