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Sample records for risk groups based

  1. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  2. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose–response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials’ physical–chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials.

  3. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2012-09-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose-response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials' physical-chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials.

  4. Managing wildfire events: risk-based decision making among a group of federal fire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn S. Wilson; Patricia L. Winter; Lynn A. Maguire; Timothy. Ascher

    2011-01-01

    Managing wildfire events to achieve multiple management objectives involves a high degree of decision complexity and uncertainty, increasing the likelihood that decisions will be informed by experience-based heuristics triggered by available cues at the time of the decision. The research reported here tests the prevalence of three risk-based biases among 206...

  5. Suicide among older psychiatric inpatients: an evidence-based study of a high risk group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Zarit, Steven H; Tu, Xin

    2006-01-01

    .1-0.3). In combination with other types of disorder, affective disorders were found to modify an increased risk of suicide. First versus later admission for depression was a better predictor for suicide than age at first hospitalization for depression (before or after age 60 years). More than half of suicides occurred......OBJECTIVE: Older adults have elevated suicide rates, especially in the presence of a psychiatric disorder, yet not much is known about predictors for suicide within this high-risk group. The current study examines the characteristics associated with suicide among older adults who are admitted...... to a psychiatric hospital. METHOD: All persons aged 60 and older living in Denmark who were hospitalized with psychiatric disorders during 1990-2000 were included in the study. Using a case-control design and logistic regression analysis, the authors calculated the suicide risk associated with specific patient...

  6. Adolescent postabortion groups: risk reduction in a school-based health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Joan Ziegler; Ziegler, Robert; Goldstein, Donna J

    2004-10-01

    A short-term postabortion group for adolescents was developed. Three groups were conducted in an adolescent mental health clinic within an urban high school-based health clinic. The clinical group experiences offered the adolescents an opportunity to integrate the experience of pregnancy and the abortion decision into their lives. At follow up, adolescents who participated in th postabortion counseling group indicated that they chose and used a method of birth control, did not repeat an unplanned pregnancy, and remained in high school.

  7. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  8. Exploring the Life Course Perspective in Maternal and Child Health through Community-Based Participatory Focus Groups: Social Risks Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; King, Lindsey M; Salihu, Hamisu M; Berry, Estrellita; Austin, Deborah; Nash, Susan; Scarborough, Kenneth; Best, Evangeline; Cox, Lillian; King, Georgette; Hepburn, Carrie; Burpee, Conchita; Richardson, Eugene; Ducket, Marlo; Briscoe, Richard; Baldwin, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the patterns of risk factors experienced by communities of color and how diverse community contexts shape the health trajectory of women from the early childhood period to the time of their pregnancies. Thus, we conducted a focus group study to identify social risks over the life course that contribute to maternal and child health from the perspective of community members residing in low income urban areas. Ten community-based participatory focus groups were conducted with residents from selected communities in Tampa, Florida, from September to November 2013. We used the life course perspective to illuminate and explain the experiences reported by the interviewees. A total of 78 residents participated in the focus groups. Children and adolescents' health risks were childhood obesity, lack of physical activity, and low self-esteem. Women's health risks were low self-esteem, low educational level, low health literacy, inadequate parenting skills, and financial problems. Risks during pregnancy included stress, low self-esteem, inadequate eating patterns, lack of physical activity, healthcare issues, lack of social support, and lack of father involvement during pregnancy. Multiple risk factors contribute to maternal and child health in low income communities in Tampa Bay. The intersection of risk factors in different life periods suggest possible pathways, cumulative, and latent effects, which must be considered in future longitudinal studies and when developing effective maternal and child health programs and policies.

  9. SU-F-T-244: Radiotherapy Risk Estimation Based On Expert Group Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J; Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, W; Chung, M; Kim, D [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Gangdong-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of RPN (Risk Priority Number) decided by expert group and to provide preliminary data for adapting FMEA in Korea. Methods: 1163 Incidents reported in ROSIS for 11 years were used as a real data to be compared with, and were categorized into 146 items. The questionnaire was composed of the 146 items and respondents had to valuate ‘occurrence (O)’, ‘severity (S)’, ‘detectability (D)’ of each item on a scale from 1 to 10 according to the proposed AAPM TG-100 rating scales. 19 medical physicists from 19 different organizations in Korea had participated in the survey. Because the number of ROSIS items was not evenly spread enough to be classified into 10 grades, 1–5 scale was chosen instead of 1–10 and survey result was also fit to 5 grades to compare. Results: The average O,S,D were 1.77, 3.50, 2.13, respectively and the item which had the highest RPN(32) was ‘patient movement during treatment’ in the survey. When comparing items ranked in the top 10 of each survey(O) and ROSIS database, two items were duplicated and ‘Simulation’ and ’Treatment’ were the most frequently ranked RT process in top 10 of survey and ROSIS each. The Chronbach α of each RT process were ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 and p-value was <0.001. When comparing O*D, the average difference was 1.4. Conclusion: This work indicates the deviation between actual risk and expectation. Considering that the respondents were Korean and ROSIS is mainly composed of incidents happened in European countries and some of the top 10 items of ROSIS cannot be applied in radiotherapy procedure in Korea, the deviation could have been came from procedural difference. Moreover, if expert group was consisted of experts from various parts, expectation might have been more accurate. Therefore, further research on radiotherapy risk estimation is needed.

  10. SU-F-T-244: Radiotherapy Risk Estimation Based On Expert Group Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J; Yoon, M; Chung, W; Chung, M; Kim, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the reliability of RPN (Risk Priority Number) decided by expert group and to provide preliminary data for adapting FMEA in Korea. Methods: 1163 Incidents reported in ROSIS for 11 years were used as a real data to be compared with, and were categorized into 146 items. The questionnaire was composed of the 146 items and respondents had to valuate ‘occurrence (O)’, ‘severity (S)’, ‘detectability (D)’ of each item on a scale from 1 to 10 according to the proposed AAPM TG-100 rating scales. 19 medical physicists from 19 different organizations in Korea had participated in the survey. Because the number of ROSIS items was not evenly spread enough to be classified into 10 grades, 1–5 scale was chosen instead of 1–10 and survey result was also fit to 5 grades to compare. Results: The average O,S,D were 1.77, 3.50, 2.13, respectively and the item which had the highest RPN(32) was ‘patient movement during treatment’ in the survey. When comparing items ranked in the top 10 of each survey(O) and ROSIS database, two items were duplicated and ‘Simulation’ and ’Treatment’ were the most frequently ranked RT process in top 10 of survey and ROSIS each. The Chronbach α of each RT process were ranged from 0.74 to 0.99 and p-value was <0.001. When comparing O*D, the average difference was 1.4. Conclusion: This work indicates the deviation between actual risk and expectation. Considering that the respondents were Korean and ROSIS is mainly composed of incidents happened in European countries and some of the top 10 items of ROSIS cannot be applied in radiotherapy procedure in Korea, the deviation could have been came from procedural difference. Moreover, if expert group was consisted of experts from various parts, expectation might have been more accurate. Therefore, further research on radiotherapy risk estimation is needed.

  11. Present of occupational accidents dimensions based on risk-injury affinity groups (case study, from1384 to 1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Yari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: correspondence analysis method as the best method to optimize matrix functions that using the risk-injury matrix methods are analyzed. This method reduces the information contained in the risk-injury table and to determine the correlation between the variables in the matrix. The aim of this study is to present accidents and occupational hazards dimensions is dependent to risk-injury groups, using occupational accidents that can be managed. Method: in this study the reports of occupational accidents registered in the social security organization in a period of ten years from the beginning of 1384 until the end of 1393 ( 222,300 incidents were collected and type of Risk and injury related to any accident identified based on criteria, the International Labour Organization and classified in a risk-injury matrix (18 × 18. Using correspondence analysis of dimensions are identified individually, this dimensions Most indicate the most correlation between risk and injury that facilitate decision-making in the risk assessment companies are covered by Social Security.  Results: Hair criteria recommends dimensions with inertia higher than 0.2 are suitable for the study and interpretation of results, based on this study were obtained from the dimensions of inertia (eigenvalue greater than 0.2 include the dim1 ,dim2 ,dim3 to consider and the correlation between variables is obtained based on singular value (variable distance from the centeroid. (Singular value of dim1: 0.750, singular value of dimension 2: 0.647 and singular value dimension3: 0.521

  12. Identification of target risk groups for population-based Clostridium difficile infection prevention strategies using a population attributable risk approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sung-Hee; Kang, Hye-Young

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to determine risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess the contributions of these factors on CDI burden. We conducted a 1:4 matched case-control study using a national claims dataset. Cases were incident CDI without a history of CDI in the previous 84 days, and were age- and sex-matched with control patients. We ascertained exposure, defined as a history of morbidities and drug use within 90 days. The population attributable risk (PAR) percent for risk factors was estimated using odds ratios (ORs) obtained from the case-control study. Overall, the strongest CDI-associated risk factors, which have significant contributions to the CDI burden as well, were the experience of gastroenteritis (OR=5.08, PAR%=17.09%) and use of antibiotics (OR=1.69, PAR%=19.00%), followed by the experiences of female pelvic infection, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and pneumonia, and use of proton-pump inhibitors (OR=1.52-2.37, PAR%=1.95-2.90). The control of risk factors that had strong association with CDI and affected large proportions of total CDI cases would be beneficial for CDI prevention. We suggest performing CDI testing for symptomatic patients with gastroenteritis and implementing antibiotics stewardship. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. "Where are all the lonely people?" A population-based study of high-risk groups across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Friis, Karina; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    and socio-demographic and health-related factors across multiple age groups. Methods. This was a combined population-based questionnaire survey and register data study based on a representative sample, including 33,285 Danish individuals aged 16–102 years. Loneliness was measured using the Three......Item Loneliness Scale. Results. The relation between loneliness and age took a shallow U-shaped distribution. Ethnic minority status, receiving disability pensions or being unemployed, living alone, prolonged mental disorder, and psychiatric treatment were strongly associated with severe loneliness. Socio......-demographic and health-related factors were associated with an increased risk of severe loneliness in specific age groups. Being female, having a low educational level and living in a deprived area were only associated with loneliness in adolescence/emerging adulthood. Receiving disability pensions and living alone (i...

  14. Effect of a group-based rehabilitation programme on glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients: The Copenhagen Type 2 Diabetes Rehabilitation Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Eva Soelberg; Frølich, Anne; Perrild, Hans Jørgen Duckert

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes.......To compare the effectiveness of a group-based rehabilitation programme with an individual counselling programme at improving glycaemic control and cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes....

  15. Routine culture-based screening versus risk-based management for the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcus disease in the neonate: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ella; Davis, Deborah

    2015-04-17

    Early-onset group B streptococcus disease, recognized as the most common cause of early onset neonatal sepsis in developed countries, is transmitted vertically from the group B streptococcus carrier mother to the neonate in the peripartum. Accordingly, early-onset group B streptococcus disease is prevented by halting the transmission of the microorganism from the mother to the infant. Two main methods, routine culture-based screening and risk-based management, may be used in the identification of mothers requiring intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in labor. While there are advantages and disadvantages to each, there is limited high level evidence available as to which method is superior. To identify the effectiveness of risk-based management versus routine culture-based screening in the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcus disease in the neonate. This review considered studies which treated pregnant women with intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis following risk- and culture-based protocols for the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcus disease in the neonate. Types of intervention: This review considered studies that evaluated risk-based management against routine culture-based screening for the prevention of early-onset group B streptococcus disease in the neonate. Types of studies: This review looked for highest evidence available which in this case consisted of one quasi experimental study and eight comparative cohort studies with historical or concurrent control groups. Types of outcomes: Incidence of early-onset group B streptococcus disease in neonates as measured by positive group B streptococcus culture from an otherwise sterile site. Secondary outcomes include neonatal death due to group B streptococcus sepsis and percentage of women who received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. A multi-step search strategy was used to find studies which were limited to the English language and published between January 2000 and June 2013. The quality

  16. Food groups and nutrient intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a hospital-based case-control study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banqué, Marta; Raidó, Blanca; Masuet, Cristina; Ramon, Josep M

    2012-04-01

    Although evidence supports that colorectal cancer (CRC) has an environmental etiology, the potential influence of diet appears to be one of the most important components. We studied the relation between food groups and nutrient intake and the risk of CRC. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Spain between 2007 and 2009. The authors matched 245 patients with incident histologically confirmed CRC by age, gender, and date of admission with 490 controls. Information about nutrient intake was gathered by using a semiquantitative frequency food questionnaire. Univariate analysis was done with individual food items. Odds ratios (ORs) for consecutive tertiles of nutrient intake were computed after allowance for sociodemographic variables and consumption of food groups. Vitamin B6 (OR: 0.26), vitamin D (OR: 0.45), vitamin E (OR: 0.42), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR: 0.57), and fiber (OR: 0.40) were inversely associated with CRC, whereas carbohydrates (OR: 1.82) were significantly associated with CRC risk for the upper tertile. In multivariate analysis adjusting for major covariables (energy, age, and gender), vitamin D (OR:0.45), vitamin E (OR:0.36), and fiber (OR:0.46) remained associated with CRC. Data suggest that the etiology of colorectal cancer is not due to lifestyle and dietary patterns being important the effect of single nutrients.

  17. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefere, Philippe, E-mail: radiologie@skynet.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Silva, Celso, E-mail: caras@uma.pt [Human Anatomy of Medical Course, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Gryspeerdt, Stefaan, E-mail: stefaan@sgryspeerdt.be [VCTC, Virtual Colonoscopy Teaching Centre, Akkerstraat 32c, B-8830 Hooglede (Belgium); Rodrigues, António, E-mail: nucleo@nid.pt [Nucleo Imagem Diagnostica, Rua 5 De Outubro, 9000-216 Funchal (Portugal); Vasconcelos, Rita, E-mail: rita@uma.pt [Department of Engineering and Mathematics, University of Madeira, Praça do Município, 9000-082 Funchal (Portugal); Teixeira, Ricardo, E-mail: j.teixeira1947@gmail.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Central Hospital of Funchal, Avenida Luís de Camões, 9004513 Funchal (Portugal); Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de, E-mail: fhgouveia@netmadeira.com [LANA, Pathology Centre, Rua João Gago, 10, 9000-071 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer.

  18. Teleradiology based CT colonography to screen a population group of a remote island; at average risk for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefere, Philippe; Silva, Celso; Gryspeerdt, Stefaan; Rodrigues, António; Vasconcelos, Rita; Teixeira, Ricardo; Gouveia, Francisco Henriques de

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the performance of teleradiology-based CT colonography to screen a population group of an island, at average risk for colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: A cohort of 514 patients living in Madeira, Portugal, was enrolled in the study. Institutional review board approval was obtained and all patients signed an informed consent. All patients underwent both CT colonography and optical colonoscopy. CT colonography was interpreted by an experienced radiologist at a remote centre using tele-radiology. Per-patient sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for colorectal adenomas and advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm. Results: 510 patients were included in the study. CT colonography obtained a per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV for adenomas ≥6 mm of 98.11% (88.6–99.9% 95% CI), 90.97% (87.8–93.4% 95% CI), 56.52% (45.8–66.7% 95% CI), 99.75% (98.4–99.9% 95% CI). For advanced neoplasia ≥6 mm per-patient sensitivity, specificity, PPV and, NPV were 100% (86.7–100% 95% CI), 87.07% (83.6–89.9% 95% CI), 34.78% (25.3–45.5% 95% CI) and 100% (98.8–100% 95% CI), respectively. Conclusion: In this prospective trial, teleradiology-based CT colonography was accurate to screen a patient cohort of a remote island, at average risk for colorectal cancer

  19. Decision Tree Identified Risk Groups with High Suicidal Ideation in South Korea: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Hyen; Hyoung, Hee Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk groups with high suicidal ideation among South Korean adults. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted using secondary data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5,963 adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2011 KNHANES served as participants. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its related factors, including physical, psychological, health behavioral, and sociodemographic characteristics, were examined. Descriptive statistics and a decision tree were used for data analysis. Nine groups with high suicidal ideation were identified. The coexistence of depression and high levels of stress increased the prevalence of suicidal ideation. The highest risk group was widowed or divorced adults with depression and high levels of stress, and 82.5% of these participants had suicidal ideation (the prevalence rate of this group was 5.7 times higher than the mean suicidal ideation prevalence rate in this study). Public health nurses and community mental health professionals should recognize risk groups with high suicidal ideation, and target these groups when implementing preventive interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Parent Training with High-Risk Immigrant Chinese Families: A Pilot Group Randomized Trial Yielding Practice-Based Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna S.; Fung, Joey J.; Ho, Lorinda Y.; Liu, Lisa L.; Gudino, Omar G.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the efficacy and implementation outcomes of a culturally responsive parent training (PT) program. Fifty-four Chinese American parents participated in a wait-list controlled group randomized trial (32 immediate treatment, 22 delayed treatment) of a 14-week intervention designed to address the needs of high-risk immigrant families.…

  1. Evaluating a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback: what does an expert focus group yield compared to a web-based end-user survey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R; Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique Wm; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-02

    Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their adoption. In current practice, such evaluations are mainly performed with end-user surveys. However, a review approach by experts in a focus group may be easier to administer and might provide similar results. The aim of this study was to assess whether industrial design engineers in a focus group would address the same issues as end users in a Web-based survey when evaluating a commercial Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback. Seven Dutch companies used the HRA as part of their corporate health management strategy. Employees using the HRA (N=2289) and 10 independent industrial designers were invited to participate in the study. The HRA consisted of four components: (1) an electronic health questionnaire, (2) biometric measurements, (3) laboratory evaluation, and (4) individually tailored feedback generated by decision support software. After participating in the HRA as end users, both end users and designers evaluated the program. End users completed an evaluation questionnaire that included a free-text field. Designers participated in a focus group discussion. Constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories were used to categorize and compare the remarks from both evaluations. We assessed and qualitatively analyzed 294 remarks of 189 end users and 337 remarks of 6 industrial designers, pertaining to 295 issues in total. Of those, 137 issues were addressed in the end-user survey and 148 issues in the designer focus group. Only 7.3% (10/137) of the issues addressed in the survey were also addressed in the focus group. End users made more remarks about the usefulness of the HRA and prior expectations that were not met. Designers made

  2. Performance evaluation of inpatient service in Beijing: a horizontal comparison with risk adjustment based on Diagnosis Related Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Huang, Yinmin; Hu, Mu; Zhang, Xiumei

    2009-04-30

    The medical performance evaluation, which provides a basis for rational decision-making, is an important part of medical service research. Current progress with health services reform in China is far from satisfactory, without sufficient regulation. To achieve better progress, an effective tool for evaluating medical performance needs to be established. In view of this, this study attempted to develop such a tool appropriate for the Chinese context. Data was collected from the front pages of medical records (FPMR) of all large general public hospitals (21 hospitals) in the third and fourth quarter of 2007. Locally developed Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) were introduced as a tool for risk adjustment and performance evaluation indicators were established: Charge Efficiency Index (CEI), Time Efficiency Index (TEI) and inpatient mortality of low-risk group cases (IMLRG), to reflect respectively work efficiency and medical service quality. Using these indicators, the inpatient services' performance was horizontally compared among hospitals. Case-mix Index (CMI) was used to adjust efficiency indices and then produce adjusted CEI (aCEI) and adjusted TEI (aTEI). Poisson distribution analysis was used to test the statistical significance of the IMLRG differences between different hospitals. Using the aCEI, aTEI and IMLRG scores for the 21 hospitals, Hospital A and C had relatively good overall performance because their medical charges were lower, LOS shorter and IMLRG smaller. The performance of Hospital P and Q was the worst due to their relatively high charge level, long LOS and high IMLRG. Various performance problems also existed in the other hospitals. It is possible to develop an accurate and easy to run performance evaluation system using Case-Mix as the tool for risk adjustment, choosing indicators close to consumers and managers, and utilizing routine report forms as the basic information source. To keep such a system running effectively, it is necessary to

  3. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts’ knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts’ preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n − 1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  4. Nature Disaster Risk Evaluation with a Group Decision Making Method Based on Incomplete Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ming; Liao, Huchang; Li, Zongmin; Xu, Zeshui

    2018-04-13

    Because the natural disaster system is a very comprehensive and large system, the disaster reduction scheme must rely on risk analysis. Experts' knowledge and experiences play a critical role in disaster risk assessment. The hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is an effective tool to express experts' preference information when comparing pairwise alternatives. Owing to the lack of knowledge or a heavy workload, information may be missed in the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Thus, an incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation is constructed. In this paper, we firstly discuss some properties of the additive consistent hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation. Next, the incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, the normalized hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation, and the acceptable hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation are defined. Afterwards, three procedures to estimate the missing information are proposed. The first one deals with the situation in which there are only n-1 known judgments involving all the alternatives; the second one is used to estimate the missing information of the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relation with more known judgments; while the third procedure is used to deal with ignorance situations in which there is at least one alternative with totally missing information. Furthermore, an algorithm for group decision making with incomplete hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations is given. Finally, we illustrate our model with a case study about flood disaster risk evaluation. A comparative analysis is presented to testify the advantage of our method.

  5. Blood group AB and factor V Leiden as risk factors for pre-eclampsia: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Leena M; Laivuori, Hannele; Rautanen, Anna; Kaaja, Risto; Kere, Juha; Krusius, Tom; Paunio, Mikko; Rasi, Vesa

    2009-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is still unknown. Clinical symptoms correlate with activation of coagulation and inherited thrombophilia has been associated with pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group has been associated with thrombotic disorders and pre-eclampsia. We assessed ABO blood group, seven thrombophilia associated polymorphisms, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies as risk factors for pre-eclampsia. We performed a population-based nested case-control study of 100,000 consecutive pregnancies in Finland. Cases and controls were identified by combining national registers and medical records were reviewed. We studied 248 cases fulfilling strict criteria for pre-eclampsia and 679 controls. Severe pre-eclampsia, early pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) were analyzed separately. Blood group AB increased the risk for pre-eclampsia as a whole (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and in the three subgroups (OR 2.3, 3.8, 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-3.9, 2.0-7.1, 1.6-7.1). FV Leiden increased the risk as a whole (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.9), and in the three subgroups, although not statistically significantly. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies were not associated with pre-eclampsia. High body mass index, diabetes, first pregnancy, and twin pregnancy increased the risk from 1.5-fold to 8.2-fold. Our results confirm and extend the prior observation of blood group AB being a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group is known from all pregnant women. The value of blood group as risk factor for pre-eclampsia should be further assessed in prospective studies. In this study, FV Leiden was not statistically significant risk factor.

  6. Risk Analysis Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The activities of the Risk Analysis Group at Risoe during 1984 are presented. These include descriptions in some detail of work on general development topics and risk analysis performed as contractor. (author)

  7. Effectiveness of a Group-Based Culturally Tailored Lifestyle Intervention Program on Changes in Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes among Asian Indians in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal M. Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group repeated measures design to evaluate the effectiveness of a community-based culturally appropriate lifestyle intervention program to reduce the risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM among Gujarati Asian Indians (AIs in an urban community in the US. Participants included 70 adult AIs in the greater Houston metropolitan area. The primary outcomes were reduction in weight and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and improvement in physical activity. Participants were screened for risk factors and randomly assigned to a 12-week group-based lifestyle intervention program (n=34 or a control group (n=36 that received standard print material on diabetes prevention. Participants also completed clinical measures and self-reported questionnaires about physical activity, social, and lifestyle habits at 0, 3, and 6 months. No significant baseline differences were noted between groups. While a significant decline in weight and increase in physical activity was observed in all participants, the intervention group lowered their HbA1c (p<0.0005 and waist circumference (p=0.04 significantly as compared to the control group. Findings demonstrated that participation in a culturally tailored, lifestyle intervention program in a community setting can effectively reduce weight, waist circumference, and HbA1c among Gujarati AIs living in the US.

  8. Excessive infant crying: Definitions determine risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed risk groups for excessive infant crying using 10 published definitions, in 3179 children aged 1-6 months (response: 96.5%). Risk groups regarding parental employment, living area, lifestyle, and obstetric history varied by definition. This may explain the existence of conflicting

  9. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness-based group intervention in adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Bruggink, Stephanie; Pivarunas, Bernadette; Skoranski, Amanda; Foss, Jillian; Chaffin, Ella; Dalager, Stephanie; Annameier, Shelly; Quaglia, Jordan; Brown, Kirk Warren; Broderick, Patricia; Bell, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    (1) Evaluate feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness-based group in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with depressive symptoms, and (2) compare efficacy of a mindfulness-based versus cognitive-behavioral group for decreasing depressive symptoms and improving insulin resistance. Parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot trial conducted at a university. Thirty-three girls 12-17y with overweight/obesity, family history of diabetes, and elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a six-week mindfulness-based (n=17) or cognitive-behavioral program (n=16). Both interventions included six, one-hour weekly group sessions. The mindfulness-based program included guided mindfulness awareness practices. The cognitive-behavioral program involved cognitive restructuring and behavioral activation. Adolescents were evaluated at baseline, post-intervention, and six-months. Feasibility/acceptability were measured by attendance and program ratings. Depressive symptoms were assessed by validated survey. Insulin resistance was determined from fasting insulin and glucose, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Most adolescents attended ≥80% sessions (mindfulness: 92% versus cognitive-behavioral: 87%, p=1.00). Acceptability ratings were strong. At post-treatment and six-months, adolescents in the mindfulness condition had greater decreases in depressive symptoms than adolescents in the cognitive-behavioral condition (psmindfulness-based intervention also had greater decreases in insulin resistance and fasting insulin at post-treatment, adjusting for fat mass and other covariates (psmindfulness-based intervention shows feasibility and acceptability in girls at-risk for T2D with depressive symptoms. Compared to a cognitive-behavioral program, after the intervention, adolescents who received mindfulness showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms and better insulin resistance. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02218138

  11. Rational group decision making in risk situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Risk management has received increasing attention recently as methods of quantifying risk have been evolving. This is considered a legitimate tendency in the context of the entirety of risk evaluation which connotes both risk quantification and decisions making thereon. A risk-free society does not appear possible; neither could one have zero competing risks or cost versus benefit resulting out of a risk-abatement effort. What further complicates the risk-decision problem is that there exists more than a single decision maker, who claim their own interests associated with risk decision. Furthermore, their risk perceptions are not at all same that the threshold risk levels for a particular actions are varying. In this dissertation, a brief survey on existing action levels for various sort of risk situations including carcinogens, toxic chemicals, etc., is reported on, with emphasis on nuclear risk situation. A decision theoretic approach is then adopted in both individual and group-level risk management. For the purpose of exemplification, multiplicative utility theory is applied for nuclear power risk; attributes derived for this specific purpose are discussed

  12. Risk-based screening combined with a PCR-based test for group B streptococci diminishes the use of antibiotics in laboring women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed R; Uldbjerg, Niels; Thorsen, Poul B; Henriksen, Birgitte; Møller, Jens K

    2017-08-01

    To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction - group B streptococci test (PCR-GBS test) - in deciding antibiotic prophylaxis in term laboring women. In this observational study, we enrolled 902 unselected Danish term pregnant women. During labor, midwives obtained vaginal swabs that were used for both GBS cultures (reference standard) and for the PCR-GBS test. Furthermore, we recorded the presence of risk factors for EOGBS (Early Onset Group B Streptococcal disease): (1) Bacteriuria during current pregnancy, (2) Prior infant with EOGBS (3) Temperature above 38.0°C during labor, and (4) Rupture of membranes ≥18h. The prevalence of GBS carriers was 12% (104 of 902), the sensitivity of the PCR-GBS test 83% (86 of 104), and the specificity 97% (774 of 798). Among the 108 with one or more EOGBS-risk factors, GBS was present in 23% (25 of 108), the sensitivity 92% (23 of 25), and the specificity 89% (74 of 83). In programs that aim to treat all laboring women with vaginal GBS-colonization (12% in the present study) with penicillin, the PCR-GBS will perform well (sensitivity 83% and specificity 97%). In programs aiming to treat only GBS-carriers among those with risk factors of EOGBS, a reduction of penicillin usage by two-thirds from 12% to 4% may be possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An exposure-based framework for grouping pollutants for a cumulative risk assessment approach: case study of indoor semi-volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Kevin; Glorennec, Philippe; Bonvallot, Nathalie

    2014-04-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of contaminants, many of which may have similar health effects. This paper presents a framework for identifying pollutants to be included in a cumulative risk assessment approach. To account for the possibility of simultaneous exposure to chemicals with common toxic modes of action, the first step of the traditional risk assessment process, i.e. hazard identification, is structured in three sub-steps: (1a) Identification of pollutants people are exposed to, (1b) identification of effects and mechanisms of action of these pollutants, (1c) grouping of pollutants according to similarity of their mechanism of action and health effects. Based on this exposure-based grouping we can derive "multi-pollutant" toxicity reference values, in the "dose-response assessment" step. The approach proposed in this work is original in that it is based on real exposures instead of a limited number of pollutants from a unique chemical family, as traditionally performed. This framework is illustrated by the case study of semi-volatile organic compounds in French dwellings, providing insights into practical considerations regarding the accuracy of the available toxicological information. This case study illustrates the value of the exposure-based approach as opposed to the traditional cumulative framework, in which chemicals with similar health effects were not always included in the same chemical class. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk-adjusted capitation based on the Diagnostic Cost Group Model: an empirical evaluation with health survey information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Lamers (Leida)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the Diagnostic Cost Group (DCG) model using health survey information. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Longitudinal data collected for a sample of members of a Dutch sickness fund. In the Netherlands the sickness

  15. Men's perspectives on fall risk and fall prevention following participation in a group-based programme conducted at Men's Sheds, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Willis, Karen; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Research on older men's views regarding fall prevention is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of older men regarding fall risk and prevention so that fall prevention programmes can better engage older men. Eleven men who had taken part in a group-based fall prevention programme called Stepping On conducted at Men's Sheds in Sydney, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews during June and July 2015 which were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and analysed using constant comparative methods. Over-arching theoretical categories were developed into a conceptual framework linking programme context and content with effects of programme participation on men. Men's Sheds facilitated participation in the programme by being inclusive, male-friendly places, where Stepping On was programmed into regular activities and was conducted in an enjoyable, supportive atmosphere. Programme content challenged participants to think differently about themselves and their personal fall risk, and provided practical options to address fall risk. Two major themes were identified: adjusting the mindset where men adopted a more cautious mindset paying greater attention to potential fall risks, being careful, concentrating and slowing down; and changing the ways where men acted purposefully on environmental hazards at home and incorporated fall prevention exercises into their routine schedules. Practitioners can engage and support older men to address falls by better understanding men's perspectives on personal fall risk and motivations for action. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were......INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  17. Exclusive image guided IMRT vs. radical prostatectomy followed by postoperative IMRT for localized prostate cancer: a matched-pair analysis based on risk-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azelie, Caroline; Créhange, Gilles; Gauthier, Mélanie; Mirjolet, Céline; Cormier, Luc; Martin, Etienne; Peignaux-Casasnovas, Karine; Truc, Gilles; Chamois, Jérôme; Maingon, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether patients treated for a localized prostate cancer (PCa) require a radical prostatectomy followed by postoperative radiotherapy or exclusive radiotherapy, in the modern era of image guided IMRT. 178 patients with PCa were referred for daily exclusive image guided IMRT (IG-IMRT) using an on-line 3D ultra-sound based system and 69 patients were referred for postoperative IMRT without image guidance after radical prostatectomy (RP + IMRT). Patients were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to their baseline risk group before any treatment. Late toxicity was scored using the CTV v3.0 scale. Biochemical failure was defined as a postoperative PSA ≤ 0.1 ng/mL followed by 1 consecutive rising PSA for the postoperative group of patients and by the Phoenix definition (nadir + 2 ng/mL) for the group of patients treated with exclusive radiotherapy. A total of 98 patients were matched (49:49). From the start of any treatment, the median follow-up was 56.6 months (CI 95% = [49.6-61.2], range [18.2-115.1]). No patient had late gastrointestinal grade ≥ 2 toxicity in the IG-IMRT group vs. 4% in the RP + IMRT group. Forty two percent of the patients in both groups had late grade ≥ 2 genitourinary toxicity. The 5-year FFF rates in the IG-IMRT group and in the RP + IMRT groups were 93.1% [80.0-97.8] and 76.5% [58.3-87.5], respectively (p = 0.031). Patients with a localized PCa treated with IG-IMRT had better oncological outcome than patients treated with RP + IMRT. Further improvements in postoperative IMRT using image guidance and dose escalation are urgently needed

  18. Group based prenatal care in a low-and high risk population in the Netherlands: a study protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zwicht, Birgit S; Crone, Matty R; van Lith, Jan M M; Rijnders, Marlies E B

    2016-11-15

    CenteringPregnancy (CP) is a multifaceted group based care-model integrated in routine prenatal care, combining health assessment, education, and support. CP has shown some positive results on perinatal outcomes. However, the effects are less obvious when limited to the results of randomized controlled trials: as there are few trials and there is a variation in reported outcomes. Furthermore, former research was mostly conducted in the United States of America and in specific (often high risk) populations. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of CP in the Netherlands in a general population of pregnant women (low and high risk). Furthermore we aim to explore the mechanisms leading to the eventual effects by measuring potential mediating factors. We will perform a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial, in a Western region in the Netherlands. Inclusion criteria are care, women in the intervention period (starting at the randomized time-point) will be offered the choice between individual care or CP. Primary outcomes are maternal and neonatal morbidity, retrieved from a national routine database. Secondary outcomes are health behavior, psychosocial outcomes, satisfaction, health care utilization and process outcomes, collected through self-administered questionnaires, group-evaluations and individual interviews. We will conduct intention-to-treat analyses. Also a per protocol analysis will be performed comparing the three subgroups: control group, CP-participants and non-CP-participants, using multilevel techniques to account for clustering effects. This study contributes to the evidence regarding the effect of CP and gives a first indication of the effect and implementation of CP in both low and high-risk pregnancies in a high-income Western society other than the USA. Also, measuring factors that are hypothesized to mediate the effect of CP will enable to explain the mechanisms that lead to effects on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Dutch Trial

  19. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years......: These findings suggest that types of work and gender ratio are risk factors in the onset of workplace bullying. Future studies should take into account the type of work and the gender ratio of the organization....

  20. Hepatitis C infection in risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sead Ahmetagić

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C infection is important global health problem with wide spectrum of health, social and economic consequences. The goal of this research was to estimate prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in risk groups, and to determine association hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and risk factors. Research included 4627 subjects divided in two groups. Test group included 2627 subjects divided in 4 subgroups with risk for HCV infection: those who received blood transfusion without screening on HCV (it was introduced in 1995 (700; intravenous drug users (60; patients on hemodialysis (168 and health care workers (1699. Control group included 2000 healthy volunteer blood donors. In all subjects anti-HCV antibodies were tested with third generation ELISA test. Positive serum samples were tested for presence of HCVRNA, using reaction of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. In all anti-HCV positive subjects further epidemiological and clinical workup was performed. Prevalence of HCV infection in risk groups was: 4.6% in subjects who have received blood transfusions without HCV blood screening, 35% in intravenous drug users, 58.9% in patients on chronic dialysis, and 0.4% in health care workers. In control group prevalence was low (0.2%. In the group of 158 anti-HCV positive subjects, 73.4% had HCVRNA. The largest number of subjects with HCV infection was in the age group of 30-49 years (45.8%. This study showed that multiple blood transfusions before introducing the blood screening for HCV, longer duration of intravenous drug abuse, longer duration of hemodialysis treatment, larger number of accidental injuries in health care workers are independent and statistically significant risk factors for those groups examined. Results of this study confirm that general screening for HCV infection is recommended in risk groups for HCV infection in order to identify to prevent and to treat it.

  1. An in-depth assessment of a diagnosis-based risk adjustment model based on national health insurance claims: the application of the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group case-mix system in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiner Jonathan P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis-based risk adjustment is becoming an important issue globally as a result of its implications for payment, high-risk predictive modelling and provider performance assessment. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI programme provides universal coverage and maintains a single national computerized claims database, which enables the application of diagnosis-based risk adjustment. However, research regarding risk adjustment is limited. This study aims to examine the performance of the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG case-mix system using claims-based diagnosis information from the Taiwanese NHI programme. Methods A random sample of NHI enrollees was selected. Those continuously enrolled in 2002 were included for concurrent analyses (n = 173,234, while those in both 2002 and 2003 were included for prospective analyses (n = 164,562. Health status measures derived from 2002 diagnoses were used to explain the 2002 and 2003 health expenditure. A multivariate linear regression model was adopted after comparing the performance of seven different statistical models. Split-validation was performed in order to avoid overfitting. The performance measures were adjusted R2 and mean absolute prediction error of five types of expenditure at individual level, and predictive ratio of total expenditure at group level. Results The more comprehensive models performed better when used for explaining resource utilization. Adjusted R2 of total expenditure in concurrent/prospective analyses were 4.2%/4.4% in the demographic model, 15%/10% in the ACGs or ADGs (Aggregated Diagnosis Group model, and 40%/22% in the models containing EDCs (Expanded Diagnosis Cluster. When predicting expenditure for groups based on expenditure quintiles, all models underpredicted the highest expenditure group and overpredicted the four other groups. For groups based on morbidity burden, the ACGs model had the best performance overall. Conclusions Given the

  2. An in-depth assessment of a diagnosis-based risk adjustment model based on national health insurance claims: the application of the Johns Hopkins Adjusted Clinical Group case-mix system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsien-Yen; Weiner, Jonathan P

    2010-01-18

    Diagnosis-based risk adjustment is becoming an important issue globally as a result of its implications for payment, high-risk predictive modelling and provider performance assessment. The Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) programme provides universal coverage and maintains a single national computerized claims database, which enables the application of diagnosis-based risk adjustment. However, research regarding risk adjustment is limited. This study aims to examine the performance of the Adjusted Clinical Group (ACG) case-mix system using claims-based diagnosis information from the Taiwanese NHI programme. A random sample of NHI enrollees was selected. Those continuously enrolled in 2002 were included for concurrent analyses (n = 173,234), while those in both 2002 and 2003 were included for prospective analyses (n = 164,562). Health status measures derived from 2002 diagnoses were used to explain the 2002 and 2003 health expenditure. A multivariate linear regression model was adopted after comparing the performance of seven different statistical models. Split-validation was performed in order to avoid overfitting. The performance measures were adjusted R2 and mean absolute prediction error of five types of expenditure at individual level, and predictive ratio of total expenditure at group level. The more comprehensive models performed better when used for explaining resource utilization. Adjusted R2 of total expenditure in concurrent/prospective analyses were 4.2%/4.4% in the demographic model, 15%/10% in the ACGs or ADGs (Aggregated Diagnosis Group) model, and 40%/22% in the models containing EDCs (Expanded Diagnosis Cluster). When predicting expenditure for groups based on expenditure quintiles, all models underpredicted the highest expenditure group and overpredicted the four other groups. For groups based on morbidity burden, the ACGs model had the best performance overall. Given the widespread availability of claims data and the superior explanatory

  3. Disposal Notifications and Quarterly Membership Updates for the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of PCB Remediation Waste Under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 761.61(c)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal Notifications and Quarterly Membership Updates for the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Remediation Waste Under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 761.61(c)

  4. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  5. A metaanalysis of perceptual organization in schizophrenia, schizotypy, and other high-risk groups based on variants of the Embedded Figures Task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Rebecca Panton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research on perceptual organization in schizophrenia frequently employs shapes with regularly sampled contours (fragmented stimuli, in noise fields composed of similar elements, to elicit visual abnormalities. However, perceptual organization is multi-factorial and, in earlier studies, continuous contours have also been employed in tasks assessing the ability to extract shapes from a background. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies using closed-contour stimuli, including the Embedded Figures Test (EFT and related tasks, both in people with schizophrenia and in healthy schizotypes and relatives, considered at increased risk for psychosis. Eleven studies met the selection criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, including six that used a between-groups study design (i.e. perceptual organization abilities of schizophrenia/high-risk groups were compared to healthy or clinical controls, and five that treated schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits and indices of perceptual organization as continuous variables. Effect sizes and heterogeneity statistics were calculated, and the risk of publication bias was explored. A significant, moderate effect for EFT performance was found with studies that compared performance of schizophrenia/high-risk groups to a healthy or patient comparison group (d = -.523, p<.001. However, significant heterogeneity was also found amongst the schizotypy, but not schizophrenia studies, as well as studies using accuracy, but not reaction time as a measure of performance. A non-significant correlation was found for the studies that examined schizophrenia symptoms or schizotypy traits as continuous variables (r = .012, p = .825. These results suggest that deficits in perceptual organization of non-fragmented stimuli are found when differences between schizophrenia/high-risk groups and comparison groups are maximized. These findings should motivate further investigation of perceptual

  6. Risk based modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, O.J.V.; Baker, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Risk based analysis is a tool becoming available to both engineers and managers to aid decision making concerning plant matters such as In-Service Inspection (ISI). In order to develop a risk based method, some form of Structural Reliability Risk Assessment (SRRA) needs to be performed to provide a probability of failure ranking for all sites around the plant. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can then be carried out to combine these possible events with the capability of plant safety systems and procedures, to establish the consequences of failure for the sites. In this way the probability of failures are converted into a risk based ranking which can be used to assist the process of deciding which sites should be included in an ISI programme. This paper reviews the technique and typical results of a risk based ranking assessment carried out for nuclear power plant pipework. (author)

  7. Agent-based and phylogenetic analyses reveal how HIV-1 moves between risk groups: injecting drug users sustain the heterosexual epidemic in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Frederik; Leitner, Thomas; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) are a driving force for the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia and other Baltic States, accounting for a majority of cases. However, in recent years, heterosexual cases have increased disproportionately. It is unclear how the changes in incidence patterns in Latvia can be explained, and how important IDU are for the heterosexual sub-epidemic. We introduce a novel epidemic model and use phylogenetic analyses in parallel to examine the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia between 1987 and 2010. Using a hybrid framework with a mean-field description for the susceptible population and an agent-based model for the infecteds, we track infected individuals and follow transmission histories dynamically formed during the simulation. The agent-based simulations and the phylogenetic analysis show that more than half of the heterosexual transmissions in Latvia were caused by IDU, which sustain the heterosexual epidemic. Indeed, we find that heterosexual clusters are characterized by short transmission chains with up to 63% of the chains dying out after the first introduction. In the simulations, the distribution of transmission chain sizes follows a power law distribution, which is confirmed by the phylogenetic data. Our models indicate that frequent introductions reduced the extinction probability of an autonomously spreading heterosexual HIV-1 epidemic, which now has the potential to dominate the spread of the overall epidemic in the future. Furthermore, our model shows that social heterogeneity of the susceptible population can explain the shift in HIV-1 incidence in Latvia over the course of the epidemic. Thus, the decrease in IDU incidence may be due to local heterogeneities in transmission, rather than the implementation of control measures. Increases in susceptibles, through social or geographic movement of IDU, could lead to a boost in HIV-1 infections in this risk group. Targeting individuals that bridge social groups would help prevent further spread of the

  8. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors in a group of obese Saudi children and adolescents: A hospital-based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Doris; Ahmed, Omaima; Sadiq Bakr bin

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the distribution of risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in a group of obese Saudi children and adolescents. No previous studies had addressed this issue in the Saudi pediatric population. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients evaluated for obesity between 2004 and 2008 and collected data on age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), BP, fasting lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance based on the homeostasis assessment model-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score. Obesity was defined as a BMI above the 95th percentile for age and gender and metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to standard criteria. We studied 57 obese Saudi children and adolescents with a mean (standard deviation) age of 9.8 (3.5) years. Mean weight and body mass index (BMI) were 63.7 (28.3) kg and 31.6 (8.0) kg/m 2 , respectively. Systolic BP was elevated in 24 (42%) of the 57 subjects. Of the 39 children who had a lipid profile in their records, 10 had hypertriglyceridemia, 8 had hypercholesterolemia, 6 had elevated LDL cholesterol levels, and 6 had low HDL cholesterol levels. Impaired fasting glucose was found in 10 of 38 patients in which it was measured, and 9 of 25 patients had fasting hyperinsulinemia. Eleven of 37 patients (29.7%) met the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Diastolic BP correlated positively with BMI (r=0.440, P =.001), and HDL cholesterol correlated negatively with weight and BMI (r=-0.487, P =.002 and r=-0.317, P =.05). HOMA-IR correlated positively with BMI and triglyceride levels and negatively with HDL cholesterol levels. Obese Saudi children and adolescents have multiple risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. (author)

  9. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  10. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a brief school-based group programme for parents of children at risk of ADHD: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayal, K; Taylor, J A; Valentine, A; Guo, B; Sampson, C J; Sellman, E; James, M; Hollis, C; Daley, D

    2016-07-01

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend a stepped care approach for the identification and management of children with, or at risk of, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We investigated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of a group parenting intervention programme (+/- a teacher session) for children at risk of ADHD. In a three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial, 12 primary schools were randomly assigned to control, parent-only and combined (parent + teacher) intervention arms. Eligible children had high levels of parent-rated hyperactivity/inattention (n = 199). At 6 month follow-up, the primary outcome measure was the parent-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised (ADHD index). Secondary outcomes included the Conners' sub-scales (hyperactivity, cognitive problems/inattention and oppositional behaviour), the teacher-completed Conners' Rating Scale - Revised, child health-related quality of life, parental burden and parental mental health. The cost-effectiveness analyses reflected a health and personal social services perspective. ISRCTN87634685. Follow-up data were obtained from 76 parents and 169 teachers. There was no effect of the parent-only (mean difference = -1.1, 95% CI -5.1,2.9; p = 0.57) or combined interventions (mean difference = -2.1, 95% CI -6.4,2.1; p = 0.31) on the ADHD index. The combined intervention was associated with reduced parent-reported hyperactivity symptoms (mean difference = -5.3; 95% CI -10.5,-0.01; p = 0.05) and the parent-only intervention with improved parental mental health (mean difference = -1.9; 95% CI -3.2,-0.5; p = 0.009). The incremental costs of the parent-only and the combined interventions were £73 and £123, respectively. Above a willingness-to-pay of £31 per one-point improvement in the ADHD index, the parent-only programme had the highest probability of cost-effectiveness. Participants found the

  11. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  12. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  13. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from base stations of DECT cordless phones and the risk of glioma and meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Böhler, Eva; Schlehofer, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to continuous low-level radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) increases the risk of glioma and meningioma. Participants in a population-based case-control study in Germany on the risk of brain tumors in relation...... to cellular phone use were 747 incident brain tumor cases between the ages of 30 and 69 years and 1494 matched controls. The exposure measure of this analysis was the location of a base station of a DECT (Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications) cordless phone close to the bed, which was used as a proxy...

  14. Risk-based screening combined with a PCR-based test for group B streptococci diminishes the use of antibiotics in laboring women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, Mohammed R.; Uldbjerg, Niels; Thorsen, Poul B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction - group B streptococci test (PCR-GBS test) - in deciding antibiotic prophylaxis in term laboring women. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, we enrolled 902 unselected Danish term pregnant women. During labor, midwives......), the sensitivity 92% (23 of 25), and the specificity 89% (74 of 83). CONCLUSION: In programs that aim to treat all laboring women with vaginal GBS-colonization (12% in the present study) with penicillin, the PCR-GBS will perform well (sensitivity 83% and specificity 97%). In programs aiming to treat only GBS...

  15. Evaluating a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback: what does an expert focus group yield compared to a web-based end-user survey?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R.; Laan, Eva K.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Jaspers, Monique Wm; Peek, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their

  16. Four-group classification of left ventricular hypertrophy based on ventricular concentricity and dilatation identifies a low-risk subset of eccentric hypertrophy in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; high LV mass [LVM]) is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on LV relative wall thickness. We evaluated the prediction of subsequent adverse events in a new 4-group LVH classification based on LV dilatation (high LV end...

  17. The SENSE Study: Treatment Mechanisms of a Cognitive Behavioral and Mindfulness-Based Group Sleep Improvement Intervention for At-Risk Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Matthew; Schwartz, Orli; Waloszek, Joanna M; Raniti, Monika; Simmons, Julian G; Murray, Greg; Blake, Laura; Dahl, Ronald E; Bootzin, Richard; McMakin, Dana L; Dudgeon, Paul; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a cognitive behavioral and mindfulness-based group sleep intervention would improve sleep and anxiety on school nights in a sample of at-risk adolescents. We also examined whether benefits to sleep and anxiety would be mediated by improvements in sleep hygiene awareness and presleep hyperarousal. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial conducted with 123 adolescent participants (female = 60%; mean age = 14.48) who had high levels of sleep problems and anxiety symptoms. Participants were randomized into a sleep improvement intervention (n = 63) or active control "study skills" intervention (n = 60). Preintervention and postintervention, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), Sleep Beliefs Scale (SBS), and Presleep Hyperarousal Scale (PSAS) and wore an actiwatch and completed a sleep diary for five school nights. The sleep intervention condition was associated with significantly greater improvements in actigraphy-measured sleep onset latency (SOLobj), sleep diary measured sleep efficiency (SEsubj), PSQI, SCAS, SBS, and PSAS, with medium to large effect sizes. Improvements in the PSQI and SCAS were specifically mediated by the measured improvements in the PSAS that resulted from the intervention. Improvements in SOLobj and SEsubj were not specifically related to improvements in any of the putative treatment mechanisms. This study provides evidence that presleep arousal but not sleep hygiene awareness is important for adolescents' perceived sleep quality and could be a target for new treatments of adolescent sleep problems. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy in intermediate-risk group men increases with the number of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuki Furubayashi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The number of intermediate risk factors is significantly associated with the PSA failure-free survival rate after radical prostatectomy in the intermediate-risk group. Patients classified into the intermediate-risk group based on all three intermediate risk factors are less likely to achieve a complete cure through surgery alone.

  19. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  20. Risk behaviour and group formation in microcredit groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Robert; Mehrteab, Habteab T.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  1. Risk Behaviour and Group Formation in Microcredit Groups in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Mehrteab, H.T.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a survey in 2001 among members and group leaders of borrowers who accessed loans from two microcredit programs in Eritrea. Using the results from this survey, this paper aims to provide new insights into the empirical relevance of the homogeneous matching hypothesis for microcredit

  2. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current enotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Peñuelas-Urquides

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB isolates (120 were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R, spacer oligotyping (S and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%, SM (12.5%, SR (1.67%, MR (0%, S (46.67%, M (5% and R (0%. The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus. S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB.

  3. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current genotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo Raymundo; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Torres-de-la-Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Yazmin Berenice; Ortega-García, Jorge Luis; Garza-Treviño, Elsa Nancy; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2014-09-01

    The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (120) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R), spacer oligotyping (S) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M) methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB) chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%), SM (12.5%), SR (1.67%), MR (0%), S (46.67%), M (5%) and R (0%). The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus). S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB.

  4. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current enotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo Raymundo; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Torres-de-la-Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Yazmin Berenice; Ortega-García, Jorge Luis; Garza-Treviño, Elsa Nancy; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández/, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (120) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R), spacer oligotyping (S) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M) methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB) chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%), SM (12.5%), SR (1.67%), MR (0%), S (46.67%), M (5%) and R (0%). The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus). S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB. PMID:25317710

  5. Phase 2 Study of Temozolomide-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Gliomas: Preliminary Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0424

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Barbara J., E-mail: barbara.fisher@lhsc.on.ca [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Hu, Chen [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Macdonald, David R. [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada); Lesser, Glenn J. [Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina (United States); Coons, Stephen W. [Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Brachman, David G. [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Ryu, Samuel [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Notre Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Liu, Junfeng [GCE Solutions, Inc., Bloomington, Illinois (United States); Chakravarti, Arnab [The Ohio State University, The James, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mehta, Minesh [University of Maryland Medical Systems, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0424 was a phase 2 study of a high-risk low-grade glioma (LGG) population who were treated with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), and outcomes were compared to those of historical controls. This study was designed to detect a 43% increase in median survival time (MST) from 40.5 to 57.9 months and a 20% improvement in 3-year overall survival (OS) rate from 54% to 65% at a 10% significance level (1-sided) and 96% power. Methods and Materials: Patients with LGGs with 3 or more risk factors for recurrence (age ≥40 years, astrocytoma histology, bihemispherical tumor, preoperative tumor diameter of ≥6 cm, or a preoperative neurological function status of >1) were treated with RT (54 Gy in 30 fractions) and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. Results: From 2005 to 2009, 129 evaluable patients (75 males and 54 females) were accrued. Median age was 49 years; 91% had a Zubrod score of 0 or 1; and 69%, 25%, and 6% of patients had 3, 4, and 5 risk factors, respectively. Patients had median and minimum follow-up examinations of 4.1 years and 3 years, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 73.1% (95% confidence interval: 65.3%-80.8%), which was significantly improved compared to that of prespecified historical control values (P<.001). Median survival time has not yet been reached. Three-year progression-free survival was 59.2%. Grades 3 and 4 adverse events occurred in 43% and 10% of patients, respectively. One patient died of herpes encephalitis. Conclusions: The 3-year OS rate of 73.1% for RTOG 0424 high-risk LGG patients is higher than that reported for historical controls (P<.001) and the study-hypothesized rate of 65%.

  6. A mathematical model for stratification of LADA risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Mikhailovna Tikhonova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To stratify risk groups via discriminant analysis based on the most clinically relevant indications of LADA onset derived from medical history. Materials and Methods. Present study included 141 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM of whom 65 had preliminary diagnosis of LADA, 40 patients were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and 36 ? with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Discriminant analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between the clinical onsets in study groups. Results. Aside from torpid onset with early evidence for insulin resistance, clinical characteristics of LADA included diagnosis during random examination, progressive loss of body mass, hyperglycemia greater than 14 mmol/L at the diagnosis and, possibly, ketonuria without history of acute ketoacidosis. Conclusion. Discriminant analysis is beneficial in stratifying risk groups for the development of LADA.

  7. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements

  8. A mathematical model for stratification of LADA risk groups

    OpenAIRE

    Tat'yana Mikhaylovna Tikhonova

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To stratify risk groups via discriminant analysis based on the most clinically relevant indications of LADA onset derived from medical history.Materials and Methods. Present study included 141 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) of whom 65 had preliminary diagnosis of LADA, 40 patients were diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 36 – with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Discriminant analysis was performed to evaluate the differences between the clinical onsets in study grou...

  9. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly consists of a presentation of the

  10. Focusing on SSI's risk and radiation protection criteria. A report based on discussions in focus groups in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drottz-Sjoeberg, Britt-Marie [BMD Research (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    The project was a result of the authority's continued work on the 1998 regulations on protection of human health and the environment in final disposal of spent nuclear fuel and nuclear waste. The idea behind the project, to involve persons from the municipalities participating in SKB's site selection investigation in focus group discussions, was that the questions and points of views that emerged in the discussions could serve as a basis for the authority's work of producing general guidelines associated with the regulations. The finished report would then be handed over to an expert group at the authority which answered or commented on the issues raised, and made a report on this to the participating municipalities Oskarshamn and Oesthammar. The result of discussions in two focus groups in Oskarshamn municipality and two in Oesthammar municipality in October 2002 is presented here, together with a presentation of the project's purpose and organisation. The results are presented in three main sections. The first concentrates on radiation and radioactivity since the task in the discussion groups was to attempt to clarify the issues and problems observed in this area in order to contribute to the authority's work of developing the general guidelines. The second section, on understanding of concepts, measurement, risk and safety, illustrates that the frequently asked and 'simple' knowledge related questions are only the tip of the iceberg where many of the participants have also thought about the more complex contexts and the fundamental problems in the risk and safety analysis, its validity and use. The third section of the report focuses primarily on content and information aspects. It provides a number of ideas about how information on current problems and important issues can be improved, how knowledge can be deepened in the site selection municipalities and how working methods in the process can be developed. The report mainly

  11. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2...... (Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions) database of blood donors linked with other nationwide health data registers to investigate the association between ABO blood groups and the incidence of first and recurrent venous thromboembolic and arterial events. Blood donors in Denmark and Sweden between 1987......-up. Compared with blood group O, non-O blood groups were associated with higher incidence of both venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The highest rate ratios were observed for pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism (incidence rate ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.79), deep vein thrombosis...

  12. A group randomized trial of a complexity-based organizational intervention to improve risk factors for diabetes complications in primary care settings: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Polly H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most patients with type 2 diabetes have suboptimal control of their glucose, blood pressure (BP, and lipids – three risk factors for diabetes complications. Although the chronic care model (CCM provides a roadmap for improving these outcomes, developing theoretically sound implementation strategies that will work across diverse primary care settings has been challenging. One explanation for this difficulty may be that most strategies do not account for the complex adaptive system (CAS characteristics of the primary care setting. A CAS is comprised of individuals who can learn, interconnect, self-organize, and interact with their environment in a way that demonstrates non-linear dynamic behavior. One implementation strategy that may be used to leverage these properties is practice facilitation (PF. PF creates time for learning and reflection by members of the team in each clinic, improves their communication, and promotes an individualized approach to implement a strategy to improve patient outcomes. Specific objectives The specific objectives of this protocol are to: evaluate the effectiveness and sustainability of PF to improve risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes across a variety of primary care settings; assess the implementation of the CCM in response to the intervention; examine the relationship between communication within the practice team and the implementation of the CCM; and determine the cost of the intervention both from the perspective of the organization conducting the PF intervention and from the perspective of the primary care practice. Intervention The study will be a group randomized trial conducted in 40 primary care clinics. Data will be collected on all clinics, with 60 patients in each clinic, using a multi-method assessment process at baseline, 12, and 24 months. The intervention, PF, will consist of a series of practice improvement team meetings led by trained facilitators over 12

  13. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  14. Biomechanics/risk management (Working Group 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanz, Mariano; Naert, Ignace; Gotfredsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The remit of this workgroup was to update the existing knowledge base in biomechanical factors, navigation systems and medications that may affect the outcome of implant therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The literature was systematically searched and critically reviewed. Five manuscripts...... were produced in five specific topics identified as areas where innovative approaches have been developed in biomechanical factors, navigation systems and medications that may affect the outcome of implant therapy. RESULTS: The results and conclusions of the review process are presented...... survival and complications of implant supported restorations? * A systematic review on the accuracy and the clinical outcome of computer-guided template based implant dentistry. * What is the impact of systemic bisphosphonates on patients undergoing oral implant therapy? * What is the impact...

  15. Adding an alcohol-related risk score to an existing categorical risk classification for older adults: sensitivity to group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sandra R; Fink, Arlene; Verghese, Shinu; Beck, John C; Nguyen, Khue; Lavori, Philip

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate a new alcohol-related risk score for research use. Using data from a previously reported trial of a screening and education system for older adults (Computerized Alcohol-Related Problems Survey), secondary analyses were conducted comparing the ability of two different measures of risk to detect post-intervention group differences: the original categorical outcome measure and a new, finely grained quantitative risk score based on the same research-based risk factors. Three primary care group practices in southern California. Six hundred sixty-five patients aged 65 and older. A previously calculated, three-level categorical classification of alcohol-related risk and a newly developed quantitative risk score. Mean post-intervention risk scores differed between the three experimental conditions: usual care, patient report, and combined report (Ptrinary risk classification. The additional clinical value of the risk score relative to the categorical measure needs to be determined.

  16. A group randomized trial of a complexity-based organizational intervention to improve risk factors for diabetes complications in primary care settings: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Noel Polly H; Culler Steven D; Pugh Jacqueline A; Parchman Michael L; Arar Nedal H; Romero Raquel L; Palmer Raymond F

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Most patients with type 2 diabetes have suboptimal control of their glucose, blood pressure (BP), and lipids – three risk factors for diabetes complications. Although the chronic care model (CCM) provides a roadmap for improving these outcomes, developing theoretically sound implementation strategies that will work across diverse primary care settings has been challenging. One explanation for this difficulty may be that most strategies do not account for the complex adapti...

  17. Use of focus groups in explaining environmental risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessors need to remember their job is to determine risks which are then balanced against the cost of remediation. Since the ultimate customer is the public, they must be an integral part of both key risk assessment as well as remediation decisions. Focus groups offer a cost effective means to open-quotes get a feelclose quotes for what publics want and don't want. This paper is a kit for using focus groups to test and translate into common language, the risk assessor's ideas and methods. Explaining Monte Carlo methods for a simple aspect of ecological risk assessment is included as an example along with practical tips and a list of what the public equates to risk as they perceive it

  18. Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-15

    Feb 15, 2016 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. Abstract. Aims:Zoonotic ... Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in ..... of Cystic Echinococcosis in Veterinary Surgeons. Turkish ...

  19. Postoperative Chemoradiation Therapy in High-Risk Cervical Cancer: Re-evaluating the Findings of Gynecologic Oncology Group Study 109 in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifiletti, Daniel M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Swisher-McClure, Samuel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Showalter, Timothy N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Hegarty, Sarah E. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grover, Surbhi, E-mail: Surbhi.grover@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Purpose: To review the National Cancer Database (NCDB) to evaluate postoperative high-risk cervical cancer patients for factors associated with a benefit from chemoradiation therapy (CRT) over external beam radiation therapy alone (EBRT). Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Database was queried for women with cervical cancer treated with hysterectomy and adjuvant EBRT from 2002 to 2012. Only patients with pathologic lymph node involvement (LN+), positive surgical margins, and/or parametrial invasion were included in our analysis (on the basis of Peter's criteria). Univariable and multivariable analyses (MVA) were performed, and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to investigate for factors associated with of CRT utilization and overall survival (OS). Results: A total of 3053 patients met inclusion criteria, and 2479 received adjuvant CRT (81%), whereas 574 (19%) received EBRT alone. Factors associated with increased CRT utilization on MVA included age <69 years, year of diagnosis ≥2008, non-adenocarcinoma histology, and LN+. Use of CRT improved OS among the entire cohort on MVA (HR 0.76, CI 0.601-0.962; P=.022). On MVA, CRT improved OS in patients with LN+ as their sole Peter's criteria (HR 0.58, CI 0.413-0.814; P=.002). Chemoradiation therapy did not improve OS in patients with only positive margins (P=.73), only parametrial invasion (P=.95), or any combination of these 2 factors without LN+ (P=.63). Conclusions: The use of adjuvant CRT after hysterectomy improves OS in patients with high-risk cervical cancer compared with EBRT alone, but this benefit seems to be restricted to patients with LN+. The benefits of adjuvant CRT over EBRT alone in patients with parametrial invasion and/or positive margins (without nodal involvement) are unknown.

  20. Evaluation of risk management and financial performance of BMW Group

    OpenAIRE

    Mysina, Amira

    2017-01-01

    Effective risk and financial management possess a great challenge for the multinational companies operating globally. Despite the increasing development of diverse hedging strategies against foreign exchange risk, global firms cannot fully foresee and measure the degree of the impact of foreign currency fluctuations. This paper aims to evaluate the exchange risk management and financial performance of the BMW Group from the year 2005 to 2016. Moreover, this paper is devoted to provide explana...

  1. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: 1. Risk-based safety indicators: Typology of risk-based indicators (RBIs); Tools for defining RBIs; Requirements for the PSA model; Data sources for RBIs; Types of risks monitored; RBIs and operational safety indicators; Feedback from operating experience; PSO model modification for RBIs; RBI categorization; RBI assessment; RBI applications; Suitable RBI applications. 2. Proposal for risk-based indicators: Acquiring information from operational experience; Method of acquiring safety relevance coefficients for the systems from a PSA model; Indicator definitions; On-line indicators. 3. Annex: Application of RBIs worldwide. (P.A.)

  2. Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard; Brown, C Hendricks; Ford, Carla; Windham, Amy; Keegan, Natalie; Wang, Wei

    2009-09-02

    While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD), aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC). Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. NCT00257088.

  3. Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Natalie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD, aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. Methods The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC. Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. Discussion The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00257088

  4. An approach to grouping species for ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, N.L.; VanHorn, R.L.; Morris, R.; Brewer, R.

    1994-01-01

    The ecological risk assessment (ERA) paradigm acknowledges all levels of ecological organization as having potential for defining assessment and measurement endpoints. However, assessment goals and endpoints are generally concentrated at individual species and population levels. As part of a sitewide, screening-level ERA process at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), a ''functional group'' approach was developed to incorporate assessment at a higher level of ecological organization into the risk analysis process. Functional groups demonstrating biological similarity and similar potential for contaminant exposure were developed using taxonomic, trophic and habitat parameters. As defined, all species are potential surrogates for the other members of the same functional group. Measurement endpoint data for several species may be integrated to address the risk to the group as a whole. The functional group concept was applied throughout the problem formulation, analysis, and risk characterization phases of the assessment process. This approach allows the ERA to be focused on risk to the integrity of individual functional groups, which can subsequently be related to guild and community integrity

  5. Group representations, error bases and quantum codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knill, E

    1996-01-01

    This report continues the discussion of unitary error bases and quantum codes. Nice error bases are characterized in terms of the existence of certain characters in a group. A general construction for error bases which are non-abelian over the center is given. The method for obtaining codes due to Calderbank et al. is generalized and expressed purely in representation theoretic terms. The significance of the inertia subgroup both for constructing codes and obtaining the set of transversally implementable operations is demonstrated.

  6. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? : A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y.

    2014-01-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions,

  7. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  8. [Making up tuberculosis risk groups from decreed contingents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherov, A L; Il'icheva, E Iu

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides materials to make up risk groups from decreed contingents by using the database developed and introduced in the Novomoskovsk district, as well as a programme for rapid determination of the risk of tuberculosis. This procedure reduces a scope of fluorographic surveys among the decreed contingents, as well as their expenditures by 60%. Moreover, it may be useful for professional choice in the employment of the decreed persons, which may promote a decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis among them.

  9. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-10-11

    © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Frequently, models are required to combine information obtained from different data sources and on different scales. In this work, we are interested in estimating the risk of wildfire ignition in the USA for a particular time and location by merging two levels of data, namely, individual points and aggregate count of points into areas. The data for federal lands consist of the point location and time of each fire. Nonfederal fires are aggregated by county for a particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence of a latent process, and fuel conditions are included as a covariate. The model assessment is based on a residual analysis, while the False Discovery Rate detects spatial patterns. A benefit of the proposed model is that there is no need of arbitrary aggregation of individual fires into counts. A map of predicted probability of ignition for the Midwest US in 1990 is included. The predicted ignition probabilities and the estimated total number of expected fires are required for the allocation of resources.

  10. Culture and group-based emotions? : Could group-based emotions be dialectical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, M.; Hamamura, T.; Doosje, B.; Suzuki, S.; Takemura, K.

    2016-01-01

    Group-based emotions are experienced when individuals are engaged in emotion-provoking events that implicate the in-group. This research examines the complexity of group-based emotions, specifically a concurrence of positive and negative emotions, focusing on the role of dialecticism, or a set of

  11. Group recommendation strategies based on collaborative filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo de Melo Queiroz, Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Ricardo de Melo Queiroz, Sérgio; de Assis Tenório Carvalho, Francisco. Group recommendation strategies based on collaborative filtering. 2003. Dissertação (Mestrado). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência da Computação, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, 2003.

  12. Comparing the Central Eight Risk Factors: Do They Differ Across Age Groups of Sex Offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilpert, Julia; van Horn, Joan E; Boonmann, Cyril

    2018-02-01

    Following the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model, cognitive-behavioral therapy is considered most effective in reducing recidivism when based on dynamic risk factors. As studies have found differences of these factors across age, exploring this seems beneficial. The current study investigates the Central Eight (C8) risk factors across six age groups of outpatient sex offenders ( N = 650). Results showed that recidivism rates and age were inversely related from 19 years and up. Half of the C8 did not predict general recidivism at all, substance abuse, antisocial cognition, antisocial associates, and history of antisocial behavior in only one or several age groups. However, factors differed between age groups, with the youngest group demonstrating the most dysfunction in several areas and the oldest group the least. It is concluded that the C8 risk factors seem to lose significance in the older age groups. Results may benefit targeting treatment goals.

  13. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-01

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  14. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  15. Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University Hospital, Turkey. ... Aims: Zoonotic diseases, which are a major public health problem in our city, have a negative impact on public health and also cause economic losses due to yield losses of animals and deaths. This study was carried out to determine ...

  16. 7 CFR 407.13 - Group risk plan for forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... acres of hay in the county, as specified in the actuarial documents. The actuarial documents will... a period for forage regrowth. 2. Crop Insured The insured crop will be the forage types shown on the... the Group Risk Plan Common Policy, acreage seeded to forage after July 1 of the previous crop year...

  17. LDEF materials special investigation group's data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, John W.; Funk, Joan G.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of and contained a wide array of materials, representing the largest collection of materials flown for space exposure and returned for ground-based analyses to date. The results and implications of the data from these materials are the foundation on which future space missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been tasked with establishing and developing data bases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the space user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. The format and content of the data bases developed or being developed to accomplish this task are discussed. The hardware and software requirements for each of the three data bases are discussed along with current availability of the data bases.

  18. Culture and group-based emotions: could group-based emotions be dialectical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Minjie; Hamamura, Takeshi; Doosje, Bertjan; Suzuki, Satoko; Takemura, Kosuke

    2017-08-01

    Group-based emotions are experienced when individuals are engaged in emotion-provoking events that implicate the in-group. This research examines the complexity of group-based emotions, specifically a concurrence of positive and negative emotions, focusing on the role of dialecticism, or a set of folk beliefs prevalent in Asian cultures that views nature and objects as constantly changing, inherently contradictory, and fundamentally interconnected. Study 1 found that dialecticism is positively associated with the complexity of Chinese participants' group-based emotions after reading a scenario depicting a positive intergroup experience. Study 2 found that Chinese participants experienced more complex group-based emotions compared with Dutch participants in an intergroup situation and that this cultural difference was mediated by dialecticism. Study 3 manipulated dialecticism and confirmed its causal effect on complex group-based emotions. These studies also suggested the role of a balanced appraisal of an intergroup situation as a mediating factor.

  19. 77 FR 53059 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...'' framework that includes (1) Risk-based capital requirements for credit risk, market risk, and operational... default and credit quality migration risk for non-securitization credit products. With respect to... securitization positions, the revisions assign a specific risk- weighting factor based on the credit rating of a...

  20. 76 FR 1889 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... ``three-pillar'' framework that includes (i) risk-based capital requirements for credit risk, market risk... incremental risk capital requirement to capture default and credit quality migration risk for non... (advanced approaches rules) (collectively, the credit risk capital rules) \\8\\ by requiring any bank subject...

  1. Citizen involvement in flood risk governance: flood groups and networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Twigger-Ross Clare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade has been a policy shift withinUK flood risk management towards localism with an emphasis on communities taking ownership of flood risk. There is also an increased focus on resilience and, more specifically, on community resilience to flooding. This paper draws on research carried out for UK Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs to evaluate the Flood Resilience Community Pathfinder (FRCP scheme in England. Resilience is conceptualised as multidimensional and linked to exisiting capacities within a community. Creating resilience to flooding is an ongoing process of adaptation, learning from past events and preparing for future risks. This paper focusses on the development of formal and informal institutions to support improved flood risk management: institutional resilience capacity. It includes new institutions: e.g. flood groups, as well as activities that help to build inter- and intra- institutional resilience capacity e.g. community flood planning. The pathfinder scheme consisted of 13 projects across England led by local authorities aimed at developing community resilience to flood risk between 2013 – 2015. This paper discusses the nature and structure of flood groups, the process of their development, and the extent of their linkages with formal institutions, drawing out the barriers and facilitators to developing institutional resilience at the local level.

  2. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1 - 2) and sexual risk groups (S3 - 4). S1 - Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2 - Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3 - Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4 - STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and

  3. Risk profiles and corporate social responsibility for socially disadvantaged groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbanescu Cosmin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a suitable mechanism to stimulate the effective redeployment of capital to social activities can be designed using the corporate social responsibility (CSR concept. Informational asymmetry about the real state of social risks influences the effectiveness of allocations in social protection. Reducing information asymmetries can be achieved by providing the corporations with socially determined risk profiles based on predetermined patterns. Offering concrete lines of action following the risk profiles approach which to base investment decisions of companies in CSR can maximize the results of such a mechanism. In a previous study the authors have developed a theoretical model for determining the poverty risk profile. This study aims to present the practical application of the theoretical model and to provide comments on some errors. Hence, the authors analyzed Buzau county municipalities in presenting the highest risk level determined by the theoretical model and related causes and performed an impact assessment of an investment in CSR based on a model. Specifically, the authors evaluated the impact of reducing the risk of poverty for a suitable investment in CSR. In the second part of the study, the authors analyzed the types of errors that can be found in the municipalities risk profile model due to the granularity of the data. Thus, for the error of over-inclusion, the authors assessed social allocative efficiency at the community level using benchmarking analysis, Data Envelopment respectively and analyzed the data of the under-inclusion error in Buzau county villages. The paper aims to analyze the relative limits on quantitative models and risk of poverty and the practical implementation of these types of models in the development of corporate social responsibility. The study provides also a useful tool which can be made available to companies in order to increase the vulnerable groups’ life quality and the satisfaction of

  4. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-01-01

    particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence

  6. Risk and culture: variations in dioxin risk perceptions, behavioral preferences among social groups in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seohyun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study examined variations in the perceptions of dioxin risk among social groups defined by geographical living location, environmental education, and occupation. Dioxin risk perceptions were analyzed according to values, risk awareness, knowledge, and behavioral preferences. Methods A quasi-experimental survey was designed and conducted on individuals from seven experimental groups in Jeonju city, South Korea, including: people living near incineration facilities; people living far from incineration facilities; governmental experts; nongovernmental organization members; office workers in developmental institutes or banks; students who were enrolled in environmental-related classes; and students who were enrolled in business-related classes. Results The results show variations among groups in values, awareness and behavioral preferences. Particular attention should be given to the result that groups with higher connectedness- to-nature values show higher willingness-to-act (WTA for risk reduction. Result s can be summarized as follows. First, awareness is associated with one’s geographical setting. Second, values and WTA behaviors are related to one’s environmental-related education and occupation. Third, values are significantly related to WTA behaviors. Conclusions Different cultures, in terms of values or worldview, among groups influence their perceptions of dioxin risk and choices of risk reduction behaviors. It is important to consider values in communicating complicated long-term risk management involving public participation. Further research should be continuously conducted on the effects of multiple dimensions of values on one’s WTA for risk reduction behaviors.

  7. Gambling Risk Groups are Not All the Same: Risk Factors Amongst Sports Bettors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alex M T; Hing, Nerilee; Li, En; Vitartas, Peter

    2018-03-20

    Sports betting is increasing worldwide, with an associated increase in sports betting-related problems. Previous studies have examined risk factors for problem gambling amongst sports bettors and have identified demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness factors. These studies have generally compared those in problem gambling, or a combination of moderate risk and problem gambling, groups to non-problem gamblers, often due to statistical power issues. However, recent evidence suggests that, at a population level, the bulk of gambling-related harm stems from low risk and moderate risk gamblers, rather than problem gamblers. Thus it is essential to understand the risk factors for each level of gambling-related problems (low risk, moderate risk, problem) separately. The present study used a large sample (N = 1813) to compare each gambling risk group to non-problem gamblers, first using bivariate and then multivariate statistical techniques. A range of demographic, behavioural, marketing, normative and impulsiveness variables were included as possible risk factors. The results indicated that some variables, such as gambling expenditure, number of accounts with different operators, number of different types of promotions used and impulsiveness were significantly higher for all risk groups, while others such as some normative factors, age, gender and particular sports betting variables only applied to those with the highest level of gambling-related problems. The results generally supported findings from previous literature for problem gamblers, and extended these findings to low risk and moderate risk groups. In the future, where statistical power allows, risk factors should be assessed separately for all levels of gambling problems.

  8. Vaccination rates among the general adult population and high-risk groups in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Annunziata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations. METHODS: The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS: 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables. RESULTS: The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05. Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%, all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease; however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal. Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations

  9. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bil, Janneke P.; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G.; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B.; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the

  10. Waste area Grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purucker, S.T.; Douthat, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    This report is one of five reports issued in 1996 that provide follow- up information to the Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The five reports address areas of concern that could cause potential human health risk and ecological risk within WAG2 at ORNL. The purpose of this report is to present a summary of the human health risk assessment results based on the data collected for the WAG 2 Phase 1 RI. Estimates of risk are provided based on measured concentrations in the surface water, floodplain soil, and sediment of White Oak Creek, Melton Branch, and their tributaries. The human health risk assessment methodology used in this risk assessment is based on Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS). First, the data for the different media are elevated to determine usability for risk assessment. Second, through the process of selecting chemicals of potential concern (COPCs), contaminants to be considered in the risk assessment are identified for each assessment of exposure potential is performed, and exposure pathways are identified. Subsequently, exposure is estimated quantitatively, and the toxicity of each of the COPCs is determined. The results of these analyses are combined and summarized in a risk characterization

  11. Risk-based performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of risk-based indicators is to monitor plant safety. Safety is measured by monitoring the potential for core melt (core-melt frequency) and the public risk. Targets for these measures can be set consistent with NRC safety goals. In this process, the performance of safety systems, support systems, major components, and initiating events can be monitored using measures such as unavailability, failure or occurrence frequency. The changes in performance measures and their trends are determined from the time behavior of monitored measures by differentiation between stochastical and actual variations. Therefore, degradation, as well as improvement in the plant safety performance, can be determined. The development of risk-based performance indicators will also provide the means to trace a change in the safety measures to specific problem areas which are amenable to root cause analysis and inspection audits. In addition, systematic methods will be developed to identify specific improvement policies using the plant information system for the identified problem areas. The final product of the performance indicator project will be a methodology, and an integrated and validated set of software packages which, if properly interfaced with the logic model software of a plant, can monitor the plant performance as plant information is provided as input

  12. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...... in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  13. Risks identification and ranking using AHP and group decision making technique: Presenting “R index”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safar Fazli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in project development is to detect all sorts of risks associated with a particular project. The main objective of this article is to identify the risks in the construction project and to grade them based on their importance on the project. The designed indicator in this paper is the combinational model of the Analytical Hierarchal Process (AHP method and the group decision – making applied for risks measurement and ranking. This indicator is called "R" which includes three main steps: creating the risks broken structure (RBS, obtaining each risk weight and efficacy, and finally performing the model to rank the risks. A questionnaire is used for gathering data. Based on the results of this survey, there are important risks associated with construction projects. There we need to use some guidelines to reduce the inherent risks including recognition of the common risks beside the political risks; suggestion of a simple, understandable, and practical model; and using plenty of the experts and specialists' opinions through applying step. After analyzing data, the final result from applying R index showed that the risk “economic changes / currency rate and inflation change" has the most importance for the analysis. In the other words, if these risks occur, the project may face with the more threats and it is suggested that an organization should centralize its equipment, personnel, cost, and time on the risk more than ever. The most obvious issue in this paper is a tremendous difference between an importance of the financial risks and the other risks.

  14. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  15. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, Tommi, E-mail: t.p.tervonen@rug.n [University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor, E-mail: igor.linkov@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Figueira, Jose Rui, E-mail: figueira@ist.utl.p [Technical University of Lisbon, CEG-IST, Centre for Management Studies, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: jeffery.a.steevens@usace.army.mil; Chappell, Mark, E-mail: mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Merad, Myriam, E-mail: myriam.merad@ineris.f [INERIS BP 2, Societal Management of Risks Unit/Accidental Risks Division (France)

    2009-05-15

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  16. Perception of radiation related risks among three population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, L.T.; Milu, C.; Voicu, B.; Enachescu, D.

    2003-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted among three groups that mainly differ in socioeconomic status and professional exposure to ionizing radiations. Seventy-seven (26.3%) of the respondents were professionally exposed to radiation, 35 (11.9%) were medical doctors without professional exposure and 177 (68.4%) belonged to the general population group. The level of anxiety toward radiation, expressed as a concernedness index, is significantly lower in people who are professionally exposed to radiation compared to medical doctors and general population (0.81±0.94, 1.42±1.21 and 1.72±1.34 respectively, p < 0.001). In a similar manner, concernedness index values varied with the education status, with lowest values among medical university graduates and highest among public school graduates (p < 0.001). Both university-graduated groups significantly differ from the non-university groups (p < 0.05). Knowledge about radiation and knowledge about emergency plans in nuclear accident/incident were also checked in relation with concernedness, the results confirming the hypothesis that better knowledge associates lower concernedness. The extent to which people accept the civil utilization of nuclear power is also related to concernedness and knowledge, significant associations having been found. The results suggest that a political decision in radiation matter requires a valid analysis of the public's understanding and acceptance. For that reason, it is important that radiological protection authorities develop new plans and materials for communicating with people, in order to improve knowledge upon ionizing radiation, irradiation risks and safety of nuclear energy application for civil purposes. (author)

  17. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  18. Cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a detailed analysis and position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk groups for yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J

    2014-10-07

    Although previously considered as the safest of the live virus vaccines, reports published since 2001 indicate that live yellow fever virus vaccine can cause a severe, often fatal, multisystemic illness, yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), that resembles the disease it was designed to prevent. This review was prompted by the availability of a listing of the cumulative cases of YEL-AVD, insights from a statistical method for analyzing risk factors and re-evaluation of previously published data. The purpose of this review is to identify and analyze risk groups based on gender, age, outcome and predisposing illnesses. Using a passive surveillance system in the US, the incidence was reported as 0.3 to 0.4 cases per 100,000. However, other estimates range from 0 to 12 per 100,000. Identified and potential risk groups for YEL-AVD include elderly males, women between the ages of 19 and 34, people with a variety of autoimmune diseases, individuals who have been thymectomized because of thymoma, and infants and children ≤11 years old. All but the last group are supported by statistical analysis. The confirmed risk groups account for 77% (49/64) of known cases and 76% (32/42) of the deaths. The overall case fatality rate is 66% (42/64) with a rate of 80% (12/15) in young women, in contrast to 50% (13/26) in men ≥56 years old. Recognition of YEL-AVD raises the possibility that similar reactions to live chimeric flavivirus vaccines that contain a yellow fever virus vaccine backbone could occur in susceptible individuals. Delineation of risk groups focuses the search for genetic mutations resulting in immune defects associated with a given risk group. Lastly, identification of risk groups encourages concentration on measures to decrease both the incidence and the severity of YEL-AVD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk assessment. Report of a Royal Society study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines).

  1. Formation of potential radiation risk groups to render timely targeted medical care: Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Kashcheev, V. V.; Zamulaeva, I. A.; Saenko, A. S.; Orlova, N. V.; Smirnova, S. G.; Korelo, A. M.; Gorsky, A. I.; Maksioutov, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses technology for establishing potential cancer risk groups, based on methods of molecular and radiation epidemiology. Assay of gene mutations at the T-cell receptor (TCR) locus as the method of molecular epidemiology was used for measuring the frequency of TCR-mutations in 320 nuclear workers of the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). The method of radiation epidemiology was applied to the estimation of attributable risk fraction (ARF) for solid cancers in these groups. The main estimates of radiation risk after the Chernobyl accident are in close agreement with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication, 103 models published in 2007. In nuclear workers of the IPPE with ARF ≥ 10%, the increased level of TCR-mutations occurs more often (risk ratio=9.7; 95% CI: 2.9; 32.1). (authors)

  2. Taxonomic analysis of perceived risk: modeling individual and group perceptions within homogeneous hazard domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, N.N.; Slovic, P.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of risk perception have typically focused on the mean judgments of a group of people regarding the riskiness (or safety) of a diverse set of hazardous activities, substances, and technologies. This paper reports the results of two studies that take a different path. Study 1 investigated whether models within a single technological domain were similar to previous models based on group means and diverse hazards. Study 2 created a group taxonomy of perceived risk for only one technological domain, railroads, and examined whether the structure of that taxonomy corresponded with taxonomies derived from prior studies of diverse hazards. Results from Study 1 indicated that the importance of various risk characteristics in determining perceived risk differed across individuals and across hazards, but not so much as to invalidate the results of earlier studies based on group means and diverse hazards. In Study 2, the detailed analysis of railroad hazards produced a structure that had both important similarities to, and dissimilarities from, the structure obtained in prior research with diverse hazard domains. The data also indicated that railroad hazards are really quite diverse, with some approaching nuclear reactors in their perceived seriousness. These results suggest that information about the diversity of perceptions within a single domain of hazards could provide valuable input to risk-management decisions

  3. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  4. A procedure for grouping food consumption data for use in food allergen risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G.

    2017-01-01

    Food allergic subjects need to avoid the allergenic food that triggers their allergy. However, foods can also contain unintended allergens. Food manufacturers or authorities need to perform a risk assessment to be able to decide if unintended allergen presence constitutes a risk to food allergic...... consumers. One of the input parameters in risk assessment is the amount of a given food consumed in a meal. There has been little emphasis on how food consumption data can be used in food allergen risk assessment. The aim of the study was to organize the complex datasets from National Food Consumption...... Surveys from different countries (France, Netherlands and Denmark) to be manageable in food allergen risk assessment. To do this, a two-step method was developed. First, based on initial groups of similar food items, the homogeneity of consumption was evaluated using a customized clustering method. Then...

  5. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  6. The third spatial dimension risk approach for individual risk and group risk in multiple use of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam

  7. Risk-based regulation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, man has witnessed a gradual but steady movement toward increased usage of risk-based methods and results in the regulatory process. The ''risk perspective'' as a supportive view to existing (non-risk-based or deterministic) information used in decision making has a firm foothold now in most countries that regulate nuclear power. Furthermore, in the areas outside the nuclear power field, such as health risk assessment, risk-based information is used increasingly to make decisions on potential impacts of chemical, biological, and radiological exposures. Some of the principal concepts and issues that are pertinent to risk-based regulation are reviewed. There is a growing interest in most countries in the use of risk-based methods and results to facilitate decision-making associated with regulatory processes. A summary is presented of the challenges and opportunities related to expanded use of risk-based regulation

  8. A re-examination of the effect of contextual group size on people's attitude to risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazumi Shimizu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Using Kahneman and Tversky's life-death decision paradigm, Wang and colleagues (e.g., Wang and Johnston, 1995; Wang, 1996a, 1996b, 1996c, 2008; Wang et al., 2001 have shown two characteristic phenomena regarding people's attitude to risk when the contextual group size is manipulated. In both positive and negative frames, people tend to take greater risks in life-death decisions as the contextual group size becomes smaller; this risk-seeking attitude is greater when framed positively than negatively. (This second characteristic often leads to the disappearance of the framing effect in small group contexts comprising of 6 or 60 people. Their results could shed new light on the effect of contextual group size on people's risk choice. However these results are usually observed in laboratory experiments with university student samples. This study aims to examine the external validity of these results through different ways of experimentation and with a different sample base. The first characteristic was replicated in both a face-to-face interview with a randomly selected sample of the Japanese general public, and a web-based experiment with a non-student sample, but not the second.

  9. The Patient-Reported Information Multidimensional Exploration (PRIME) Framework for Investigating Emotions and Other Factors of Prostate Cancer Patients with Low Intermediate Risk Based on Online Cancer Support Group Discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, Tharindu; Ranasinghe, Weranja; Adikari, Achini; de Silva, Daswin; Lawrentschuk, Nathan; Alahakoon, Damminda; Persad, Raj; Bolton, Damien

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to use the Patient Reported Information Multidimensional Exploration (PRIME) framework, a novel ensemble of machine-learning and deep-learning algorithms, to extract, analyze, and correlate self-reported information from Online Cancer Support Groups (OCSG) by patients (and partners of patients) with low intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa) undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and active surveillance (AS), and to investigate its efficacy in quality-of-life (QoL) and emotion measures. From patient-reported information on 10 OCSG, the PRIME framework automatically filtered and extracted conversations on low intermediate-risk PCa with active user participation. Side effects as well as emotional and QoL outcomes for 6084 patients were analyzed. Side-effect profiles differed between the methods analyzed, with men after RP having more urinary and sexual side effects and men after EBRT having more bowel symptoms. Key findings from the analysis of emotional expressions showed that PCa patients younger than 40 years expressed significantly high positive and negative emotions compared with other age groups, that partners of patients expressed more negative emotions than the patients, and that selected cohorts ( 70 years, partners of patients) have frequently used the same terms to express their emotions, which is indicative of QoL issues specific to those cohorts. Despite recent advances in patient-centerd care, patient emotions are largely overlooked, especially in younger men with a diagnosis of PCa and their partners. The authors present a novel approach, the PRIME framework, to extract, analyze, and correlate key patient factors. This framework improves understanding of QoL and identifies low intermediate-risk PCa patients who require additional support.

  10. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, a target group in general practice for preventive interventions: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Daly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated with developing type 2 diabetes, but very few studies have examined its effect on developing cardiovascular disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. From 1 February 1990 to 15 May 2016, 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM were identified and randomly matched with 37,281 control women by age and timing of pregnancy (up to 3 months. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Women with GDM were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (IRR = 21.96; 95% CI 18.31-26.34 and hypertension (IRR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.59-2.16 after adjusting for age, Townsend (deprivation quintile, body mass index, and smoking. For ischemic heart disease (IHD, the IRR was 2.78 (95% CI 1.37-5.66, and for cerebrovascular disease 0.95 (95% CI 0.51-1.77; p-value = 0.87, after adjusting for the above covariates and lipid-lowering medication and hypertension at baseline. Follow-up screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors was poor. Limitations include potential selective documentation of severe GDM for women in primary care, higher surveillance for outcomes in women diagnosed with GDM than control women, and a short median follow-up postpartum period, with a small number of outcomes for IHD and cerebrovascular disease.Women diagnosed with GDM were at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and had a significantly increased incidence of hypertension and IHD. Identifying this group of women in general practice and targeting cardiovascular risk factors could improve long-term outcomes.

  11. Group-ID based RFID Mutual Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For passive type RFID tags, EPCglobal Class 1 Generation-2 Revision is used widely as a de facto standard. As it was designed for low cost, it is quite vulnerable to security issues, such as privacy concerns. This paper presents a new RFID mutual authentication protocol, which is designed to be configured on EPC Gen2 platform and to meet various security requirements while providing efficiency using PRNG (Pseudo Random Number Generator. Group-ID is used to minimize the authentication time. Security analysis of the proposed protocol is discussed.

  12. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  13. Modified risk stratification grouping using standard clinical and biopsy information for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy: Results from SEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Chen, Zinan; Howard, Lauren E; Amling, Christopher L; Aronson, William J; Cooperberg, Matthew R; Kane, Christopher J; Terris, Martha K; Spratt, Daniel E; Sandler, Howard M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and risk stratification systems have been proposed to guide treatment decisions. However, significant heterogeneity remains for those with unfavorable-risk disease. This study included 3335 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy in the SEARCH database. High-risk patients were dichotomized into standard and very high-risk (VHR) groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Similarly, intermediate-risk prostate cancer was separated into favorable and unfavorable groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Median follow-up was 78 months. Patients with VHR prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P < 0.001), distant metastasis (DM, P = 0.004), and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P = 0.015) in comparison to standard high-risk (SHR) patients in multivariable analyses. By contrast, there was no significant difference in PSA-RFS, DM, or PCSM between SHR and unfavorable intermediate-risk (UIR) patients. Therefore, we propose a novel risk stratification system: Group 1 (low-risk), Group 2 (favorable intermediate-risk), Group 3 (UIR and SHR), and Group 4 (VHR). The c-index of this new grouping was 0.683 for PSA-RFS and 0.800 for metastases, compared to NCCN-risk groups which yield 0.666 for PSA-RFS and 0.764 for metastases. Patients classified as VHR have markedly increased rates of PSA relapse, DM, and PCSM in comparison to SHR patients, whereas UIR and SHR patients have similar prognosis. Novel therapeutic strategies are needed for patients with VHR, likely involving multimodality therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  15. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  16. The Association between ABO and Rh Blood Groups and Risk of Endometriosis in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzadeh, Farideh; Moini, Ashraf; Amirchaghmaghi, Elham; Daliri, Leila; Akhoond, Mohammad Reza; Talebi, Mehrak; Hosseini, Rihaneh

    2018-06-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological disease that affects quality of life for women. Several studies have revealed that both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of endometriosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in Iranian women with endometriosis who presented to two referral infertility centers in Tehran, Iran. In this case-control study, women who referred to Royan Institute and Arash Women's Hospital for diagnostic laparoscopy between 2013 and 2014 were assessed. Based on the laparoscopy findings, we categorized the women into two groups: endometriosis and control (women without endometriosis and normal pelvis). Chi-square and logistic regression tests were used for data analysis. In this study, we assessed 433 women, of which 213 patients were assigned to the endometriosis group while the remaining 220 subjects comprised the control group. The most frequent ABO blood group was O (40.6%). The least frequent blood group was AB (4.8%). In terms of Rh blood group, Rh+ (90.1%) was more frequent than Rh- (9.9%). There was no significant correlation between ABO (P=0.091) and Rh (P=0.55) blood groups and risk of endometriosis. Also, there was no significant difference between the two groups with regards to the stage of endometriosis and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Although the O blood group was less dominant in Iranian women with endometriosis, we observed no significant correlation between the risk of endometriosis and the ABO and Rh blood groups. Endometriosis severity was not correlated to any of these blood groups. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  17. Which population groups are most unaware of CVD risks associated with sitting time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Mitch J; Gilson, Nicholas; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2014-08-01

    Prolonged sitting is an emerging risk factor for poor health yet few studies have examined awareness of the risks associated with sitting behaviours. This study identifies the population subgroups with the highest levels of unawareness regarding the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks associated with sitting behaviours. Adults (n=1256) living in Queensland, Australia completed a telephone-based survey in 2011, analysis conducted in 2013. The survey assessed participant's socio-demographic characteristics, physical activity, sitting behaviours and awareness of CVD risks associated with three sitting behaviours: 1) sitting for prolonged periods, 2), sitting for prolonged periods whilst also engaging in regular physical activity, and 3) breaking up periods of prolonged sitting with short activity breaks. Population sub-groups with the highest levels of unawareness were identified based on socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics using signal detection analysis. Unawareness ranged from 23.3% to 67.0%. Age was the most important variable in differentiating awareness levels; younger adults had higher levels of unawareness. Body mass index, physical activity, TV viewing, employment status and time spent at work also identified population sub-groups. Unawareness of CVD risk for prolonged sitting was moderately high overall. Younger adults had high levels of unawareness on all of the outcomes examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Group versus individual risk choices in female workgroups in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayissa, F.W.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2017-01-01

    A lottery choice task was conducted to examine the risk attitudes of 352 Ethiopian women who were members of 72 female workgroups in the spices processing business in Addis Ababa. The women were asked to make risk choices on their own, and the same choices together with the other members of their

  19. Risk-based methodology for USNRC inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.M.; Holahan, G.M.; Chung, J.W.; Johnson, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the development and trial applications of a risk-based methodology to enhance the inspection processes for US nuclear power plants. Objectives of risk-based methods to complement prescriptive engineering approaches in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) inspection programs are presented. Insights from time-dependent risk profiles of plant configurational from Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE) studies were integrated to develop a framework for optimizing inspection efforts in NRC regulatory initiatives. Lessons learned from NRC pilot applications of the risk-based methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of operational risk management programs at US nuclear power plant sites are also discussed

  20. ABO blood group and esophageal carcinoma risk: from a case-control study in Chinese population to meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Xiaopeng; Wei, Min; Lin, Tianlong; Zhang, Yixin; Jiang, Songqi; Wang, Qiang; Cao, Ziang; Shi, Minxin

    2014-10-01

    The association between ABO blood group and the risk of esophageal carcinoma (EC) in previously published studies is uncertain and conflicting. The aim of the current study was to determine the correlation of ABO blood group with EC risk via a case-control study and meta-analysis. We performed a population-based case-control study of 3,595 cases and 41,788 controls in Chinese population to evaluate the association between ABO blood group and EC risk. Then, a comprehensive meta-analysis combining our original data and previously published data was conducted to clearly discern the real relationship. The strength of association was measured by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In our case-control study, the risk of EC in blood group B was significantly higher than that in non-B groups (A, O, and AB) (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21). Compared with non-O groups (A, B, and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of EC (OR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.85-0.94). The meta-analysis also indicated that blood group B was associated with significantly higher EC risk (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.10-1.31), and people with blood group O had a decreased EC risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.99). Neither the case-control study nor the meta-analysis produced any significant association of blood group A or AB with EC risk. Results from our case-control study and the followed meta-analysis confirmed that there was an increased risk of EC in blood group B individuals, whereas a decreased risk of EC was observed in blood group O individuals.

  1. RISK LOAN PORTFOLIO OPTIMIZATION MODEL BASED ON CVAR RISK MEASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang LEE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve commercial banks liquidity, safety and profitability objective requirements, loan portfolio risk analysis based optimization decisions are rational allocation of assets.  The risk analysis and asset allocation are the key technology of banking and risk management.  The aim of this paper, build a loan portfolio optimization model based on risk analysis.  Loan portfolio rate of return by using Value-at-Risk (VaR and Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR constraint optimization decision model reflects the bank's risk tolerance, and the potential loss of direct control of the bank.  In this paper, it analyze a general risk management model applied to portfolio problems with VaR and CVaR risk measures by using Using the Lagrangian Algorithm.  This paper solves the highly difficult problem by matrix operation method.  Therefore, the combination of this paper is easy understanding the portfolio problems with VaR and CVaR risk model is a hyperbola in mean-standard deviation space.  It is easy calculation in proposed method.

  2. Risk Transfer Formula for Individual and Small Group Markets

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research Review includes three articles describing the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) developed risk...

  3. Differences in conventional cardiovascular risk factors in two ethnic groups in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Priyanka Rani; Kabita, Salam; Singh, Huidrom Suraj; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Sinha, Ekata; Kalla, Aloke Kumar; Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been carried out at national and international levels to assess ethnic variations in the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors. However, ethnic variations in the contribution of various risk factors to complex diseases have been scarcely studied. Our study examined such variations in two ethnic groups in India, namely, Meiteis of Manipur (northeast India) and Aggarwals of Delhi (north India). Through random sampling, we selected 635 participants from the Meitei community and 181 Aggarwals from the Aggarwal Dharmarth Hospital, Delhi. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension were identified based on their recent medical diagnostic history. Anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist and hip circumferences along with physiological parameters (blood pressures, both systolic and diastolic) and biochemical parameter (lipid profile) were measured for all study participants. Patient parameters were available from the medical reports recorded when patients were first diagnosed. Among CAD individuals, the Aggarwals showed higher mean values of weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) but had lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels than the Meiteis. The same trend for weight, BMI and lipid parameters could be seen among hypertensive individuals. In step-wise regression analysis, SBP, LDL and TG were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD in the Aggarwals; whereas in the Meiteis, SBP, VLDL, HDL, TC and LDL were found to significantly contribute to the risk for CAD. In hypertensive Aggarwal participants, SBP, DBP and waist-to-hip ratio were significant contributors for hypertension; whereas SBP, DBP, and height contributed significantly to risk for hypertension among the Meiteis. We found marked differences in conventional risk

  4. Use of nonstatistical techniques for pattern recognition to detect risk groups among liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident aftereffects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinov, N.N.; Guslistyj, V.P.; Misyurev, A.V.; Novitskaya, N.N.; Snigireva, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Attempt of using of the nonstatistical techniques for pattern recognition to detect the risk groups among liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident aftereffects was described. 14 hematologic, biochemical and biophysical blood serum parameters of the group of liquidators of the Chernobyl NPP accident impact as well as the group of donors free of any radiation dose (controlled group) were taken as the diagnostic parameters. Modification of the nonstatistical techniques for pattern recognition based on the assessment calculations were used. The patients were divided into risk group at the truth ∼ 80%

  5. Artificial intelligence on the identification of risk groups for osteoporosis, a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Agnaldo S; Lins, Hertz C; Medeiros, Ricardo V A; Filho, José M F; da Silva, Sandro G

    2018-01-29

    The goal of this paper is to present a critical review on the main systems that use artificial intelligence to identify groups at risk for osteoporosis or fractures. The systems considered for this study were those that fulfilled the following requirements: range of coverage in diagnosis, low cost and capability to identify more significant somatic factors. A bibliographic research was done in the databases, PubMed, IEEExplorer Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (LILACS), Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct searching the terms "Neural Network", "Osteoporosis Machine Learning" and "Osteoporosis Neural Network". Studies with titles not directly related to the research topic and older data that reported repeated strategies were excluded. The search was carried out with the descriptors in German, Spanish, French, Italian, Mandarin, Portuguese and English; but only studies written in English were found to meet the established criteria. Articles covering the period 2000-2017 were selected; however, articles prior to this period with great relevance were included in this study. Based on the collected research, it was identified that there are several methods in the use of artificial intelligence to help the screening of risk groups of osteoporosis or fractures. However, such systems were limited to a specific ethnic group, gender or age. For future research, new challenges are presented. It is necessary to develop research with the unification of different databases and grouping of the various attributes and clinical factors, in order to reach a greater comprehensiveness in the identification of risk groups of osteoporosis. For this purpose, the use of any predictive tool should be performed in different populations with greater participation of male patients and inclusion of a larger age range for the

  6. Backtesting for Risk-Based Regulatory Capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, F.L.J.; Melenberg, B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for backtesting all currently popular risk measurement methods (including value-at-risk and expected shortfall) using the functional delta method.Estimation risk can be taken explicitly into account.Based on a simulation study we provide evidence that tests for

  7. Childhood Risk Factors in Substance Abuse Among a Group of Abuser 20-30 Year-Old Group in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Zahiredin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance use disorder is the second most common psychiatric disorders and is far more prevalent among young adults (ages;18-34y/0. Because of its importance and main effect in society, this study performed for evaluation of association fourteen childhood and adoleseence pathologic factors with substance use disorder among a group of abuser (20-30/0that referred to five addiction center in Tehran . The sample consist 100 patient: including 50 case and 50 control who were selected by DSM- IV based semi-structured diagnostic interviews for decrease memory biases in this retrospective cohart study. The patient’s parents also evaluated by DSM- IV based Semi-structured diagnostic interviews. The analysis showed significant relation between: parents control on the siblings, addiction in relatives of pt (except parents, addicted peers and friends, to be affected with the peers and friends and substance use disorder at the ages (20-30y/o. There wasn’t any association between: Disruptive childhood behaviors (under 11y/o, diagnosed medical illness (under 11y/o diagnosed Psychiatric illness (under 6 mo , family size, socio economic state and substance use disorder at the age(20-30y/0 . Finally some childhood and adolescence pathologic factors has association with Substance use disorder at the ages ( 20-30y/5 that these can be used for education all planning , prevention , design high risk group and remedical plans.

  8. Identifying critical nutrient intake in groups at risk of poverty in Europe: the CHANCE project approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-04-02

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project's objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  9. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Marina; Glibetić, Maria; Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Khokhar, Santosh; Chillo, Stefania; Abaravicius, Jonas Algis; Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP). This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe. PMID:24699195

  10. Identifying Critical Nutrient Intake in Groups at Risk of Poverty in Europe: The CHANCE Project Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Nikolić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the CHANCE project is to develop novel and affordable nutritious foods to optimize the diet and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases among groups at risk of poverty (ROP. This paper describes the methodology used in the two initial steps to accomplish the project’s objective as follows: 1. a literature review of existing data and 2. an identification of ROP groups with which to design and perform the CHANCE nutritional survey, which will supply new data that is useful for formulating the new CHANCE food. Based on the literature review, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, whole grain products, fish, energy, fiber, vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C, folate, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and zinc and a high intake of starchy foods, processed meat and sodium were apparent. However, the available data appeared fragmented because of the different methodologies used in the studies. A more global vision of the main nutritional problems that are present among low-income people in Europe is needed, and the first step to achieve this goal is the use of common criteria to define the risk of poverty. The scoring system described here represents novel criteria for defining at-risk-of-poverty groups not only in the CHANCE-participating countries but also all over Europe.

  11. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group.Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons.These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to statistically indistinguishable reductions in risk

  12. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Agnes G; Bleeker, Eric A J; Bos, Peter M J; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Gottardo, Stefania; Groenewold, Monique; Hristozov, Danail; Hund-Rinke, Kerstin; Irfan, Muhammad-Adeel; Marcomini, Antonio; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Rasmussen, Kirsten; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck J; van Tongeren, Martie; Wiench, Karin; Wohlleben, Wendel; Landsiedel, Robert

    2015-10-26

    Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS), as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-)activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics) and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

  13. Grouping and Read-Across Approaches for Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes G. Oomen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of chemicals affect their exposure, toxicokinetics/fate and hazard, and for nanomaterials, the variation of these properties results in a wide variety of materials with potentially different risks. To limit the amount of testing for risk assessment, the information gathering process for nanomaterials needs to be efficient. At the same time, sufficient information to assess the safety of human health and the environment should be available for each nanomaterial. Grouping and read-across approaches can be utilised to meet these goals. This article presents different possible applications of grouping and read-across for nanomaterials within the broader perspective of the MARINA Risk Assessment Strategy (RAS, as developed in the EU FP7 project MARINA. Firstly, nanomaterials can be grouped based on limited variation in physicochemical properties to subsequently design an efficient testing strategy that covers the entire group. Secondly, knowledge about exposure, toxicokinetics/fate or hazard, for example via properties such as dissolution rate, aspect ratio, chemical (non-activity, can be used to organise similar materials in generic groups to frame issues that need further attention, or potentially to read-across. Thirdly, when data related to specific endpoints is required, read-across can be considered, using data from a source material for the target nanomaterial. Read-across could be based on a scientifically sound justification that exposure, distribution to the target (fate/toxicokinetics and hazard of the target material are similar to, or less than, the source material. These grouping and read-across approaches pave the way for better use of available information on nanomaterials and are flexible enough to allow future adaptations related to scientific developments.

  14. Strategy for distribution of influenza vaccine to high-risk groups and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longini, Ira M; Halloran, M Elizabeth

    2005-02-15

    Despite evidence that vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza is effective in limiting community-level transmission, the United States has had a long-standing government strategy of recommending that vaccine be concentrated primarily in high-risk groups and distributed to those people who keep the health system and social infrastructure operating. Because of this year's influenza vaccine shortage, a plan was enacted to distribute the limited vaccine stock to these groups first. This vaccination strategy, based on direct protection of those most at risk, has not been very effective in reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. Although it is too late to make changes this year, the current influenza vaccine crisis affords the opportunity to examine an alternative for future years. The alternative plan, supported by mathematical models and influenza field studies, would be to concentrate vaccine in schoolchildren, the population group most responsible for transmission, while also covering the reachable high-risk groups, who would also receive considerable indirect protection. In conjunction with a plan to ensure an adequate vaccine supply, this alternative influenza vaccination strategy would help control interpandemic influenza and be instrumental in preparing for pandemic influenza. The effectiveness of the alternative plan could be assessed through nationwide community studies.

  15. Affirmation, acknowledgment of in-group responsibility, group-based guilt, and support for reparative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cehajić-Clancy, Sabina; Effron, Daniel A; Halperin, Eran; Liberman, Varda; Ross, Lee D

    2011-08-01

    Three studies, 2 conducted in Israel and 1 conducted in Bosnia and Herzegovina, demonstrated that affirming a positive aspect of the self can increase one's willingness to acknowledge in-group responsibility for wrongdoing against others, express feelings of group-based guilt, and consequently provide greater support for reparation policies. By contrast, affirming one's group, although similarly boosting feelings of pride, failed to increase willingness to acknowledge and redress in-group wrongdoing. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrated the mediating role of group-based guilt. That is, increased acknowledgment of in-group responsibility for out-group victimization produced increased feelings of guilt, which in turn increased support for reparation policies to the victimized group. Theoretical and applied implications are discussed.

  16. Vitamin D Deficiency in Risk Groups Living in Tropical Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, T. J. M.; van Eijndhoven, F. H. A.; van der Veer, E.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    Objective: Curacao (12 degrees 10N, 69 degrees 0W) is characterized by whole year abundant sunshine (8-10 hours/day). We challenged the automatic assumption that people living in tropical countries do not have a high risk of vitamin D deficiency, and investigated the vitamin D status in a tropical

  17. Risk-Taking and Large-Group Dance (Improvisation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueira da Silva Jr., João

    2016-01-01

    Improvisation in dance is often conceived of as a practice that involves a kind of risk-taking that is occasioned by spontaneity and a ‘stepping into the unknown’. Choreography, usually considered to be the ‘other’ of improvisation, on the contrary, is associated with ‘knowing’ and repetition, and

  18. Association of Gleason Risk Groups with Metastatic Sites in Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prostate cancer is the second most common non cutaneous male malignancy worldwide. Gleason composite score is used for risk classification. The most common site of metastasis in prostate cancer is the bone among others. The site and number of metastasis affect overall survival. The ability to predict the metastatic site ...

  19. Food groups for allergen risk assessment: Combining food consumption data from different countries in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G

    2018-01-01

    To prevent allergic reactions, food producers have to be able to make a knowledge based decision on whether to label their products with precautionary labelling. As many manufactured food products are sold in different countries across Europe, the allergen risk assessment should be estimated...... at the European levels. As currently, there are no pan-European food data suitable for food allergy risk assessment. The aim of this paper is to investigate if consumption data, at a meal level, from National Food Consumption Surveys, can be combined to form a common Food Consumption database. In this first...... attempt we developed a procedure to investigate, if national food consumption data can be combined and grouped using data from Netherlands, France and Denmark. The homogeneity of consumption patterns and the relevance of difference in risk of allergic reaction were compared, using a fixed framework...

  20. Risk-matching behavior in microcredit group formation: evidence from northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.; Gardebroek, C.; Moll, H.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Theoretical models on group lending assume the formation of groups of homogenous risk types. Recent theoretical and empirical findings challenge this view arguing that when markets for insurance are missing, risk homogeneity may not hold any more and risk heterogeneity can be the optimal outcome.

  1. Risk-based SMA for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conveys an approach for risk-based safety and mission assurance applied to cubesats. This presentation accompanies a NASA Goddard standard in development that provides guidance for building a mission success plan for cubesats based on the risk tolerance and resources available.

  2. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  3. Identifying HIV most-at-risk groups in Malawi for targeted interventions. A classification tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques B O; Madise, Nyovani; Kuepie, Mathias; Zulu, Eliya M; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-05-28

    To identify HIV-socioeconomic predictors as well as the most-at-risk groups of women in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey. Malawi The study used a sample of 6395 women aged 15-49 years from the 2010 Malawi Health and Demographic Surveys. Individual HIV status: positive or not. Findings from the Pearson χ(2) and χ(2) Automatic Interaction Detector analyses revealed that marital status is the most significant predictor of HIV. Women who are no longer in union and living in the highest wealth quintiles households constitute the most-at-risk group, whereas the less-at-risk group includes young women (15-24) never married or in union and living in rural areas. In the light of these findings, this study recommends: (1) that the design and implementation of targeted interventions should consider the magnitude of HIV prevalence and demographic size of most-at-risk groups. Preventive interventions should prioritise couples and never married people aged 25-49 years and living in rural areas because this group accounts for 49% of the study population and 40% of women living with HIV in Malawi; (2) with reference to treatment and care, higher priority must be given to promoting HIV test, monitoring and evaluation of equity in access to treatment among women in union disruption and never married or women in union aged 30-49 years and living in urban areas; (3) community health workers, households-based campaign, reproductive-health services and reproductive-health courses at school could be used as canons to achieve universal prevention strategy, testing, counselling and treatment.

  4. Multispectral iris recognition based on group selection and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition

  5. Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance

  6. Risk Probability Estimating Based on Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yong; Jensen, Christian D.; Gray, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    of prior experiences, recommendations from a trusted entity or the reputation of the other entity. In this paper we propose a dynamic mechanism for estimating the risk probability of a certain interaction in a given environment using hybrid neural networks. We argue that traditional risk assessment models...... from the insurance industry do not directly apply to ubiquitous computing environments. Instead, we propose a dynamic mechanism for risk assessment, which is based on pattern matching, classification and prediction procedures. This mechanism uses an estimator of risk probability, which is based...

  7. The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) staging system: an INRG Task Force report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclair, Tom; Brodeur, Garrett M; Ambros, Peter F; Brisse, Hervé J; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Holmes, Keith; Kaneko, Michio; London, Wendy B; Matthay, Katherine K; Nuchtern, Jed G; von Schweinitz, Dietrich; Simon, Thorsten; Cohn, Susan L; Pearson, Andrew D J

    2009-01-10

    The International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) classification system was developed to establish a consensus approach for pretreatment risk stratification. Because the International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) is a postsurgical staging system, a new clinical staging system was required for the INRG pretreatment risk classification system. To stage patients before any treatment, the INRG Task Force, consisting of neuroblastoma experts from Australia/New Zealand, China, Europe, Japan, and North America, developed a new INRG staging system (INRGSS) based on clinical criteria and image-defined risk factors (IDRFs). To investigate the impact of IDRFs on outcome, survival analyses were performed on 661 European patients with INSS stages 1, 2, or 3 disease for whom IDRFs were known. In the INGRSS, locoregional tumors are staged L1 or L2 based on the absence or presence of one or more of 20 IDRFs, respectively. Metastatic tumors are defined as stage M, except for stage MS, in which metastases are confined to the skin, liver, and/or bone marrow in children younger than 18 months of age. Within the 661-patient cohort, IDRFs were present (ie, stage L2) in 21% of patients with stage 1, 45% of patients with stage 2, and 94% of patients with stage 3 disease. Patients with INRGSS stage L2 disease had significantly lower 5-year event-free survival than those with INRGSS stage L1 disease (78% +/- 4% v 90% +/- 3%; P = .0010). Use of the new staging (INRGSS) and risk classification (INRG) of neuroblastoma will greatly facilitate the comparison of risk-based clinical trials conducted in different regions of the world.

  8. Study design, intervention, and baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial involving a faith-based healthy eating and physical activity intervention (Walk by Faith) to reduce weight and cancer risk among overweight and obese Appalachian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltic, Ryan D; Weier, Rory C; Katz, Mira L; Kennedy, Stephenie K; Lengerich, Eugene J; Lesko, Samuel M; Reese, David; Roberto, Karen A; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Young, Gregory S; Dignan, Mark B; Paskett, Electra D

    2015-09-01

    Increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents may contribute to increased cancer rates in this region. This manuscript describes the design, components, and participant baseline characteristics of a faith-based study to decrease overweight and obesity among Appalachian residents. A group randomized study design was used to assign 13 churches to an intervention to reduce overweight and obesity (Walk by Faith) and 15 churches to a cancer screening intervention (Ribbons of Faith). Church members with a body mass index (BMI) ?25 were recruited from these churches in Appalachian counties in five states to participate in the study. A standard protocol was used to measure participant characteristics at baseline. The same protocol will be followed to obtain measurements after completion of the active intervention phase (12months) and the sustainability phase (24months). Primary outcome is change in BMI from baseline to 12months. Secondary outcomes include changes in blood pressure, waist-to-hip ratio, and fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as intervention sustainability. Church members (n=664) from 28 churches enrolled in the study. At baseline 64.3% of the participants were obese (BMI?30), less than half (41.6%) reported regular exercise, and 85.5% reported consuming less than 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Church members recruited to participate in a faith-based study across the Appalachian region reported high rates of unhealthy behaviors. We have demonstrated the feasibility of developing and recruiting participants to a faith-based intervention aimed at improving diet and increasing exercise among underserved populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts

  10. Early Detection of Risk Taking in Groups and Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    analysis  to   twitter  content  in  the... analysis  indicated  that   Twitter  messages  correspond  closely  in   tone  to  similarly  codified  results  from  news...Yardi, S., & Boyd, D. (2010). Dynamic debates: An analysis of group polarization over time on Twitter . Bulletin of Science, Technology &

  11. International consensus for neuroblastoma molecular diagnostics: report from the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Biology Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros, P F; Ambros, I M; Brodeur, G M; Haber, M; Khan, J; Nakagawara, A; Schleiermacher, G; Speleman, F; Spitz, R; London, W B; Cohn, S L; Pearson, A D J; Maris, J M

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma serves as a paradigm for utilising tumour genomic data for determining patient prognosis and treatment allocation. However, before the establishment of the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Task Force in 2004, international consensus on markers, methodology, and data interpretation did not exist, compromising the reliability of decisive genetic markers and inhibiting translational research efforts. The objectives of the INRG Biology Committee were to identify highly prognostic genetic aberrations to be included in the new INRG risk classification schema and to develop precise definitions, decisive biomarkers, and technique standardisation. The review of the INRG database (n=8800 patients) by the INRG Task Force finally enabled the identification of the most significant neuroblastoma biomarkers. In addition, the Biology Committee compared the standard operating procedures of different cooperative groups to arrive at international consensus for methodology, nomenclature, and future directions. Consensus was reached to include MYCN status, 11q23 allelic status, and ploidy in the INRG classification system on the basis of an evidence-based review of the INRG database. Standardised operating procedures for analysing these genetic factors were adopted, and criteria for proper nomenclature were developed. Neuroblastoma treatment planning is highly dependant on tumour cell genomic features, and it is likely that a comprehensive panel of DNA-based biomarkers will be used in future risk assignment algorithms applying genome-wide techniques. Consensus on methodology and interpretation is essential for uniform INRG classification and will greatly facilitate international and cooperative clinical and translational research studies. PMID:19401703

  12. Development of new risk based regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.

    1999-01-01

    A short presentation of the oil and gas industry in Norway, and a brief overview of the regulatory regime in the petroleum sector in Norway is given. Risk analysis has been performed in Norway since 1981 and the various applications will be described. These risk analyses are quite different from a nuclear PSA and some of these differences will be commented. Risk based optimisation techniques such as RCM (Reliability Centred Maintenance) and Risk Based Inspection is used in the industry, with very limited support from the risk analysis. Some of the limitation that exist when such techniques are imported from other industries will be commented on. NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) is revising our regulations and some of the future plants when it comes to risk informed regulatory requirements will be presented. (au)

  13. Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Risk Factors Related to High Risk Occupational Groups in Kazeroon, South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Beheshti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a major zoonosis worldwide. Many people for their professions are at higher risk of contracting the disease. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in a group of high risk professions. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all personnel or students of veterinary schools, slaughters and butchers working in the city were invited to participate (n=141. A comparison group (n=44 randomly selected from patients who were selected at random from people attended our healthcare center for reasons other than the infectious diseases. Results: 4 veterinarians, 15 veterinary assistants, 42 veterinarian students, 52 butchers, 17 slaughters, 8 slaughterhouse workers and 3 chefs made the first group and 14 storekeepers, 5 students of engineering, 11 clerks, 13 freelance workers, and 1 high school student made the comparison group. While the rate of consumption of most of the studied dairy products was almost similar in both groups, comparison group patients consumed more often milk (p<0.001 and cream (p<0.001 than the high risk group. 11 (7.8%; 95% CI: 3.4%–12.2% cases from high risk group and none of the comparison group were found seropositive for Brucella. Conclusion: Profession is the main factor in seropositivity. Consumption of dairy products and raw milk is not associated with a higher risk of seropositivity.

  14. Risk based limits for Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    OSR limits are designed to protect the assumptions made in the facility safety analysis in order to preserve the safety envelope during facility operation. Normally, limits are set based on ''worst case conditions'' without regard to the likelihood (frequency) of a credible event occurring. In special cases where the accident analyses are based on ''time at risk'' arguments, it may be desirable to control the time at which the facility is at risk. A methodology has been developed to use OSR limits to control the source terms and the times these source terms would be available, thus controlling the acceptable risk to a nuclear process facility. The methodology defines a new term ''gram-days''. This term represents the area under a source term (inventory) vs time curve which represents the risk to the facility. Using the concept of gram-days (normalized to one year) allows the use of an accounting scheme to control the risk under the inventory vs time curve. The methodology results in at least three OSR limits: (1) control of the maximum inventory or source term, (2) control of the maximum gram-days for the period based on a source term weighted average, and (3) control of the maximum gram-days at the individual source term levels. Basing OSR limits on risk based safety analysis is feasible, and a basis for development of risk based limits is defensible. However, monitoring inventories and the frequencies required to maintain facility operation within the safety envelope may be complex and time consuming

  15. Coronary risk assessment by point-based vs. equation-based Framingham models: significant implications for clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, William J; Polansky, Jesse M; Boscardin, W John; Fung, Kathy Z; Steinman, Michael A

    2010-11-01

    US cholesterol guidelines use original and simplified versions of the Framingham model to estimate future coronary risk and thereby classify patients into risk groups with different treatment strategies. We sought to compare risk estimates and risk group classification generated by the original, complex Framingham model and the simplified, point-based version. We assessed 2,543 subjects age 20-79 from the 2001-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) for whom Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) guidelines recommend formal risk stratification. For each subject, we calculated the 10-year risk of major coronary events using the original and point-based Framingham models, and then compared differences in these risk estimates and whether these differences would place subjects into different ATP-III risk groups (20% risk). Using standard procedures, all analyses were adjusted for survey weights, clustering, and stratification to make our results nationally representative. Among 39 million eligible adults, the original Framingham model categorized 71% of subjects as having "moderate" risk (20%) risk. Estimates of coronary risk by the original and point-based models often differed substantially. The point-based system classified 15% of adults (5.7 million) into different risk groups than the original model, with 10% (3.9 million) misclassified into higher risk groups and 5% (1.8 million) into lower risk groups, for a net impact of classifying 2.1 million adults into higher risk groups. These risk group misclassifications would impact guideline-recommended drug treatment strategies for 25-46% of affected subjects. Patterns of misclassifications varied significantly by gender, age, and underlying CHD risk. Compared to the original Framingham model, the point-based version misclassifies millions of Americans into risk groups for which guidelines recommend different treatment strategies.

  16. Risk based inspection for atmospheric storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agus; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is an attack that occurs on a metallic material as a result of environment's reaction.Thus, it causes atmospheric storage tank's leakage, material loss, environmental pollution, equipment failure and affects the age of process equipment then finally financial damage. Corrosion risk measurement becomesa vital part of Asset Management at the plant for operating any aging asset.This paper provides six case studies dealing with high speed diesel atmospheric storage tank parts at a power plant. A summary of the basic principles and procedures of corrosion risk analysis and RBI applicable to the Process Industries were discussed prior to the study. Semi quantitative method based onAPI 58I Base-Resource Document was employed. The risk associated with corrosion on the equipment in terms of its likelihood and its consequences were discussed. The corrosion risk analysis outcome used to formulate Risk Based Inspection (RBI) method that should be a part of the atmospheric storage tank operation at the plant. RBI gives more concern to inspection resources which are mostly on `High Risk' and `Medium Risk' criteria and less on `Low Risk' shell. Risk categories of the evaluated equipment were illustrated through case study analysis outcome.

  17. An Automatic User Grouping Model for a Group Recommender System in Location-Based Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Khazaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial group recommendation refers to suggesting places to a given set of users. In a group recommender system, members of a group should have similar preferences in order to increase the level of satisfaction. Location-based social networks (LBSNs provide rich content, such as user interactions and location/event descriptions, which can be leveraged for group recommendations. In this paper, an automatic user grouping model is introduced that obtains information about users and their preferences through an LBSN. The preferences of the users, proximity of the places the users have visited in terms of spatial range, users’ free days, and the social relationships among users are extracted automatically from location histories and users’ profiles in the LBSN. These factors are combined to determine the similarities among users. The users are partitioned into groups based on these similarities. Group size is the key to coordinating group members and enhancing their satisfaction. Therefore, a modified k-medoids method is developed to cluster users into groups with specific sizes. To evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method, its mean intra-cluster distance and its distribution of cluster sizes are compared to those of general clustering algorithms. The results reveal that the proposed method compares favourably with general clustering approaches, such as k-medoids and spectral clustering, in separating users into groups of a specific size with a lower mean intra-cluster distance.

  18. Risk Based Optimal Fatigue Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M.H.; Kroon, I.B.

    1992-01-01

    Optimal fatigue life testing of materials is considered. Based on minimization of the total expected costs of a mechanical component a strategy is suggested to determine the optimal stress range levels for which additional experiments are to be performed together with an optimal value...

  19. A model-based risk management framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gran, Bjoern Axel; Fredriksen, Rune

    2002-08-15

    The ongoing research activity addresses these issues through two co-operative activities. The first is the IST funded research project CORAS, where Institutt for energiteknikk takes part as responsible for the work package for Risk Analysis. The main objective of the CORAS project is to develop a framework to support risk assessment of security critical systems. The second, called the Halden Open Dependability Demonstrator (HODD), is established in cooperation between Oestfold University College, local companies and HRP. The objective of HODD is to provide an open-source test bed for testing, teaching and learning about risk analysis methods, risk analysis tools, and fault tolerance techniques. The Inverted Pendulum Control System (IPCON), which main task is to keep a pendulum balanced and controlled, is the first system that has been established. In order to make risk assessment one need to know what a system does, or is intended to do. Furthermore, the risk assessment requires correct descriptions of the system, its context and all relevant features. A basic assumption is that a precise model of this knowledge, based on formal or semi-formal descriptions, such as UML, will facilitate a systematic risk assessment. It is also necessary to have a framework to integrate the different risk assessment methods. The experiences so far support this hypothesis. This report presents CORAS and the CORAS model-based risk management framework, including a preliminary guideline for model-based risk assessment. The CORAS framework for model-based risk analysis offers a structured and systematic approach to identify and assess security issues of ICT systems. From the initial assessment of IPCON, we also believe that the framework is applicable in a safety context. Further work on IPCON, as well as the experiences from the CORAS trials, will provide insight and feedback for further improvements. (Author)

  20. WTS - Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) application supports a new SMS-structured process designed to focus on safety oversight of systems and processes rather than...

  1. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  2. The relationship between health risks and health and productivity costs among employees at Pepsi Bottling Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Carls, Ginger S; Short, Meghan E; Pei, Xiaofei; Wang, Shaohung; Moley, Susan; Sullivan, Mark; Goetzel, Ron Z

    2010-05-01

    To evaluate relationships between modifiable health risks and costs and measure potential cost savings from risk reduction programs. Health risk information from active Pepsi Bottling Group employees who completed health risk assessments between 2004 and 2006 (N = 11,217) were linked to medical care, workers' compensation, and short-term disability cost data. Ten health risks were examined. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate costs associated with having high risk, holding demographics, and other risks constant. Potential savings from risk reduction were estimated. High risk for weight, blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol had the greatest impact on total costs. A one-percentage point annual reduction in the health risks assessed would yield annual per capita savings of $83.02 to $103.39. Targeted programs that address modifiable health risks are expected to produce substantial cost reductions in multiple benefit categories.

  3. Group-Based Active Learning of Classification Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhipeng; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2017-05-01

    Learning of classification models from real-world data often requires additional human expert effort to annotate the data. However, this process can be rather costly and finding ways of reducing the human annotation effort is critical for this task. The objective of this paper is to develop and study new ways of providing human feedback for efficient learning of classification models by labeling groups of examples. Briefly, unlike traditional active learning methods that seek feedback on individual examples, we develop a new group-based active learning framework that solicits label information on groups of multiple examples. In order to describe groups in a user-friendly way, conjunctive patterns are used to compactly represent groups. Our empirical study on 12 UCI data sets demonstrates the advantages and superiority of our approach over both classic instance-based active learning work, as well as existing group-based active-learning methods.

  4. Community Savings Groups, Financial Security, and HIV Risk Among Female Sex Workers in Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantsios, Andrea; Galai, Noya; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Shembilu, Catherine; Mwampashi, Ard; Beckham, S W; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Sherman, Susan; Kennedy, Caitlin; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2018-02-24

    This study assessed the association between community savings group participation and consistent condom use (CCU) among female sex workers (FSW) in Iringa, Tanzania. Using cross-sectional data from a survey of venue-based FSW (n = 496), logistic regression was used to examine the associations between financial indicators including community savings group participation and CCU. Over one-third (35%) of the women participated in a savings group. Multivariable regression results indicated that participating in a savings group was significantly associated with nearly two times greater odds of CCU with new clients in the last 30 days (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.10-2.86). Exploratory mediation analysis indicated that the relationship between savings group participation and CCU was partially mediated by financial security, as measured by monthly income. Findings indicate that community savings groups may play an important role in reducing sexual risk behaviors of FSW and hold promise as part of comprehensive, community-led HIV prevention strategies among FSW.

  5. Financial risk relationships and adoption of management strategies in physician groups for self-administered injectable drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Jonathan D; Stebbins, Marilyn R; Hickman, David E; Lipton, Helene Levins

    2003-01-01

    To consider the extent, nature, and range of risk arrangements between physician groups and health maintenance organizations (HMOs) for self-administered injectable (SAI) drugs; to examine types and frequencies of SAI drug-use management strategies adopted by physician groups; and to explore the relationship between locus and level of financial risk for SAIs and physician group strategy adoption. We used a multiple case-study design to select physician groups and their health maintenance organization (HMO) contractual partners in 4 markets in the United States (Northwest, Northeast, Midwest, Southwest). Physician groups in these markets were chosen based on size (e50 physicians) and experience with drug risk (e1 year). Physician groups were asked to identify their 3 major HMO contractual partners in each market. Telephone interviews were conducted from January 2000 to June 2001, with the resulting purposive sample of 37 individuals representing 20 physician groups. We found that the level and locus of SAI financial risk were related to the adoption of management strategies. Physician groups with higher financial risk for SAIs adopted more strategies than lower-risk groups. Groups with SAI financial risk in the medical services capitation (MSC) adopted 9.2 strategies per group. In contrast, groups with SAI financial risk in the pharmacy-risk budget (PRB) averaged 1.5 strategies per group. Groups with SAI financial risk in both the MSC and PRB fell in-between, averaging 4.5 strategies per group. The most frequently adopted strategy was designing evidenced-based therapeutic guidelines, i.e., protocols based on evidence from the peer-reviewed literature used to guide physicians in the treatment of typically chronic conditions (9 groups, 45% of sample). The second most common strategy involved adapting the existing utilization management system to process SAIs (7 groups, 35%) and the establishment of office procedures for internal authorization (5 groups, 25%). The

  6. The self-regulatory role of anticipated group-based shame and guilt in inhibiting in-group favoritism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shepherd, Lee; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In three studies, we examined whether the anticipation of group-based guilt and shame inhibits in-group favoritism. In Studies 1 and 2, anticipated group-based shame negatively predicted in-group favoritism; in neither study did anticipated group-based guilt uniquely predict in-group favoritism. In

  7. Combining social and genetic networks to study HIV transmission in mixing risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarrabi, N.; Prosperi, M.C.F.; Belleman, R.G.; Di Giambenedetto, S.; Fabbiani, M.; De Luca, A.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstruction of HIV transmission networks is important for understanding and preventing the spread of the virus and drug resistant variants. Mixing risk groups is important in network analysis of HIV in order to assess the role of transmission between risk groups in the HIV epidemic. Most of the

  8. Group Recommendation Systems Based on External Social-Trust Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of social networks and online mobile communities, group recommendation systems support users’ interaction with similar interests or purposes with others. We often provide some advices to the close friends, such as listening to favorite music and sharing favorite dishes. However, users’ personalities have been ignored by the traditional group recommendation systems while the majority is satisfied. In this paper, a method of group recommendation based on external social-trust networks is proposed, which builds a group profile by analyzing not only users’ preferences, but also the social relationships between members inside and outside of the group. We employ the users’ degree of disagreement to adjust group preference rating by external information of social-trust network. Moreover, having a discussion about different social network utilization ratio, we proposed a method to work for smaller group size. The experimental results show that the proposed method has consistently higher precision and leads to satisfactory recommendations for groups.

  9. Identifying groups at risk for 1-year membership termination from a fitness center at enrollment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Hooker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans do not engage in adequate regular physical activity despite its well-known health benefits. Even when individuals attempt to become more active by joining a fitness center, estimates suggest that nearly half terminate their membership within the first 6 months. A better understanding of who is at risk for early membership termination upon joining may help researchers develop targeted interventions to improve the likelihood that individuals will successfully maintain memberships and physical activity. This study's purpose was to identify, based on a wellness assessment (WA used in fitness centers, individuals at risk for fitness membership termination prior to 1-year. Center members (N = 441; Mage = 41.9, SD = 13.1; 74.4% female completed a comprehensive WA of stress, life satisfaction, physical fitness, metabolic health, and sleep quality at the beginning of their memberships and were followed for one year. Latent class analyses utilized the WA to identify four groups: (a healthy, (b unhealthy, (c poor psychological wellness, and (d poor physical wellness. Participants in the poor psychological wellness group (OR = 2.24, p = 0.007 and the unhealthy group (OR = 2.40, p = 0.037 were significantly more likely to terminate their memberships at 1-year as compared to the healthy group. Participants with poor physical wellness visited the fitness center less frequently than healthy participants (p < 0.01. Results suggest that poor psychological wellness is a risk factor for terminating memberships, whereas poor physical wellness is not. Future studies should replicate these latent classes and develop targeted interventions to address psychological wellness as a method to improve fitness membership retention.

  10. Understanding personal risk of oropharyngeal cancer: risk-groups for oncogenic oral HPV infection and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, G; McNeel, T S; Fakhry, C

    2017-12-01

    Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer is increasing. There is interest in identifying healthy individuals most at risk for development of oropharyngeal cancer to inform screening strategies. All data are from 2009 to 2014, including 13 089 people ages 20-69 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), oropharyngeal cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER 18) registries (representing ∼28% of the US population), and oropharyngeal cancer mortality from National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Primary study outcomes are (i) prevalence of oncogenic HPV DNA in an oral rinse and gargle sample, and (ii) incident oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer. Oncogenic oral HPV DNA is detected in 3.5% of all adults age 20-69 years; however, the lifetime risk of oropharyngeal cancer is low (37 per 10 000). Among men 50-59 years old, 8.1% have an oncogenic oral HPV infection, 2.1% have an oral HPV16 infection, yet only 0.7% will 'ever' develop oropharyngeal cancer in their lifetime. Oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was higher in men than women, and increased with number of lifetime oral sexual partners and tobacco use. Men who currently smoked and had ≥5 lifetime oral sexual partners had 'elevated risk' (prevalence = 14.9%). Men with only one of these risk factors (i.e. either smoked and had 2-4 partners or did not smoke and had ≥5 partners) had 'medium risk' (7.3%). Regardless of what other risk factors participants had, oncogenic oral HPV prevalence was 'low' among those with only ≤1 lifetime oral sexual partner (women = 0.7% and men = 1.7%). Screening based upon oncogenic oral HPV detection would be challenging. Most groups have low oncogenic oral HPV prevalence. In addition to the large numbers of individuals who would need to be screened to identify prevalent oncogenic oral HPV, the lifetime risk of developing oropharyngeal caner among those with infection remains

  11. Risk Assessment Review Group report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, H.W.; Budnitz, R.J.; Kouts, H.J.C.; Loewenstein, W.B.; Rowe, W.D.; von Hippel, F.; Zachariasen, F.

    1978-09-01

    The Risk Assessment Review Group was organized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on July 1, 1977, with four elements to its charter: clarify the achievements and limitations of WASH-1400, the ''Rasmussen Report''; assess the peer comments thereon, and responses to those comments; study the present state of such risk assessment methodology; and recommend to the Commission how (and whether) such methodology can be used in the regulatory and licensing process. Areas of study include: risk assessment methodologies; statistical issues; completeness; the data base; and the WASH-1400 assessment of the damage to human health from radiation after a postulated accident. Specific items discussed include: Browns Ferry; common cause failure; human factors; format and scrutability; the peer review process; earthquakes; risk perception; allegations by UCS concerning WASH-1400 treatment of quality assurance and quality control; current role of probabilistic methods in the regulatory process; acts of violence; ATWS; influence of design defects in quality assurance failures; and calculation of population doses from given releases of radionuclides

  12. Group dynamics of zebra and wildebeest in a woodland savanna: effects of predation risk and habitat density.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Thaker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group dynamics of gregarious ungulates in the grasslands of the African savanna have been well studied, but the trade-offs that affect grouping of these ungulates in woodland habitats or dense vegetation are less well understood. We examined the landscape-level distribution of groups of blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, and Burchell's zebra, Equus burchelli, in a predominantly woodland area (Karongwe Game Reserve, South Africa; KGR to test the hypothesis that group dynamics are a function of minimizing predation risk from their primary predator, lion, Panthera leo. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using generalized linear models, we examined the relative importance of habitat type (differing in vegetation density, probability of encountering lion (based on utilization distribution of all individual lions in the reserve, and season in predicting group size and composition. We found that only in open scrub habitat, group size for both ungulate species increased with the probability of encountering lion. Group composition differed between the two species and was driven by habitat selection as well as predation risk. For both species, composition of groups was, however, dominated by males in open scrub habitats, irrespective of the probability of encountering lion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Distribution patterns of wildebeest and zebra groups at the landscape level directly support the theoretical and empirical evidence from a range of taxa predicting that grouping is favored in open habitats and when predation risk is high. Group composition reflected species-specific social, physiological and foraging constraints, as well as the importance of predation risk. Avoidance of high resource open scrub habitat by females can lead to loss of foraging opportunities, which can be particularly costly in areas such as KGR, where this resource is limited. Thus, landscape-level grouping dynamics are species specific and particular to the

  13. Determinants of Mental Health Care Utilization in a Suicide High-risk Group With Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The suicide rate in Korea is increasing every year, and is the highest among the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries. Psychiatric patients in particular have a higher risk of suicide than other patients. This study was performed to evaluate determinants of mental health care utilization among individuals at high risk for suicide. Methods: Korea Health Panel data from 2009 to 2011 were used. Subjects were individuals at high risk of suicide who had suicidal ideation, a past history of psychiatric illness, or had utilized outpatient services for a psychiatric disorder associated with suicidal ideation within the past year. The chi-square test and hierarchical logistic regression were used to identify significant determinants of mental health care utilization. Results: The total number of subjects with complete data on the variables in our model was 989. Individuals suffering from three or more chronic diseases used mental health care more frequently. Mental health care utilization was higher in subjects who had middle or high levels of educational attainment, were receiving Medical Aid, or had a large family size. Conclusions: It is important to control risk factors in high-risk groups as part of suicide prevention strategies. The clinical approach, which includes community-based intervention, entails the management of reduction of suicidal risk. Our study identified demographic characteristics that have a significant impact on mental health care utilization and should be considered in the development of suicide prevention strategies. Further studies should examine the effect of mental health care utilization on reducing suicidal ideation.

  14. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  15. Group-Based Life Design Counseling in an Italian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Maree, Jacobus Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of group-based Life Design Counseling using the Career-Story Interview. Written exercises were used to implement the seven topics in the Career-Story Interview. The present study employed an experimental design that involved two groups of Italian entrepreneurs from the agricultural and trade sectors, namely an…

  16. School-Based Adolescent Groups: The Sail Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John L.; And Others

    The manual outlines the processes, policies, and actual program implementation of one component of a Minnesota program for emotionally disturbed adolescents (Project SAIL): the development of school-based therapy/intervention groups. The characteristics of SAIL students are described, and some considerations involved in providing group services…

  17. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  18. GROUP POLICY BASED AUTHENTICATION ON INCOMING CALLS FOR ANDROID SMARTPHONES

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita M. Kumbhar, Prof. Z.M Shaikh

    2016-01-01

    The numbers of Smartphone users increasing day by day. Hence, there is need to propose advanced Group Policy based Authentication for incoming calls for Android phone. Android platform provides a variety of functions that support the programming of face recognition, as in image processing. Group policy based authentication scheme increases the security which restricts the access of incoming call form un-authorized user. To solve problems, related to face recognition should be applied in the p...

  19. Risk-based and deterministic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Brown, N.W.

    1995-07-01

    Both risk-based and deterministic methods are used for regulating the nuclear industry to protect the public safety and health from undue risk. The deterministic method is one where performance standards are specified for each kind of nuclear system or facility. The deterministic performance standards address normal operations and design basis events which include transient and accident conditions. The risk-based method uses probabilistic risk assessment methods to supplement the deterministic one by (1) addressing all possible events (including those beyond the design basis events), (2) using a systematic, logical process for identifying and evaluating accidents, and (3) considering alternative means to reduce accident frequency and/or consequences. Although both deterministic and risk-based methods have been successfully applied, there is need for a better understanding of their applications and supportive roles. This paper describes the relationship between the two methods and how they are used to develop and assess regulations in the nuclear industry. Preliminary guidance is suggested for determining the need for using risk based methods to supplement deterministic ones. However, it is recommended that more detailed guidance and criteria be developed for this purpose

  20. Risk-based remediation: Approach and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana

  1. Visual training improves perceptual grouping based on basic stimulus features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Waxman, Richard; Kidron, Rachel; Silverstein, Steven M

    2017-10-01

    Training on visual tasks improves performance on basic and higher order visual capacities. Such improvement has been linked to changes in connectivity among mediating neurons. We investigated whether training effects occur for perceptual grouping. It was hypothesized that repeated engagement of integration mechanisms would enhance grouping processes. Thirty-six participants underwent 15 sessions of training on a visual discrimination task that required perceptual grouping. Participants viewed 20 × 20 arrays of dots or Gabor patches and indicated whether the array appeared grouped as vertical or horizontal lines. Across trials stimuli became progressively disorganized, contingent upon successful discrimination. Four visual dimensions were examined, in which grouping was based on similarity in luminance, color, orientation, and motion. Psychophysical thresholds of grouping were assessed before and after training. Results indicate that performance in all four dimensions improved with training. Training on a control condition, which paralleled the discrimination task but without a grouping component, produced no improvement. In addition, training on only the luminance and orientation dimensions improved performance for those conditions as well as for grouping by color, on which training had not occurred. However, improvement from partial training did not generalize to motion. Results demonstrate that a training protocol emphasizing stimulus integration enhanced perceptual grouping. Results suggest that neural mechanisms mediating grouping by common luminance and/or orientation contribute to those mediating grouping by color but do not share resources for grouping by common motion. Results are consistent with theories of perceptual learning emphasizing plasticity in early visual processing regions.

  2. Depression evaluation in an attendance group for high-risk pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Said Daher Baptista; Makilim Nunes Baptista

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study was to verify the variation of depression symptomatology in an informative high-risk post-partum group of pregnant (GAGER). Six high-risk pregnant women, from a University Hospital participated in this research, and they were evaluated four times: first, before forming the group; second, after two participations in this group; third, 24 to 36 hours after partum; and, four weeks post-partum. The instruments used were a Psychological Clinic Interview and, the Edinburgh Po...

  3. Risk transfer formula for individual and small group markets under the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Gregory C; Bachofer, Henry; Pearlman, Andrew; Kautter, John; Hunter, Elizabeth; Miller, Daniel; Keenan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act provides for a program of risk adjustment in the individual and small group health insurance markets in 2014 as Marketplaces are implemented and new market reforms take effect. The purpose of risk adjustment is to lessen or eliminate the influence of risk selection on the premiums that plans charge. The risk adjustment methodology includes the risk adjustment model and the risk transfer formula. This article is the third of three in this issue of the Medicare & Medicaid Research Review that describe the ACA risk adjustment methodology and focuses on the risk transfer formula. In our first companion article, we discussed the key issues and choices in developing the methodology. In our second companion paper, we described the risk adjustment model that is used to calculate risk scores. In this article we present the risk transfer formula. We first describe how the plan risk score is combined with factors for the plan allowable premium rating, actuarial value, induced demand, geographic cost, and the statewide average premium in a formula that calculates transfers among plans. We then show how each plan factor is determined, as well as how the factors relate to each other in the risk transfer formula. The goal of risk transfers is to offset the effects of risk selection on plan costs while preserving premium differences due to factors such as actuarial value differences. Illustrative numerical simulations show the risk transfer formula operating as anticipated in hypothetical scenarios.

  4. Risk selection and risk adjustment: improving insurance in the individual and small group markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicker, Katherine; Dow, William H

    2009-01-01

    Insurance market reforms face the key challenge of addressing the threat that risk selection poses to the availability, of stable, high-value insurance policies that provide long-term risk protection. Many of the strategies in use today fail to address this breakdown in risk pooling, and some even exacerbate it. Flexible risk adjustment schemes are a promising avenue for promoting market stability and limiting insurer cream-skimming, potentially providing greater benefits at lower cost. Reforms intended to increase insurance coverage and the value of care delivered will be much more effective if implemented in conjunction with policies that address these fundamental selection issues.

  5. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...

  6. Group Contribution Based Process Flowsheet Synthesis, Design and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Anterroches, Loïc; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process-group-contribution Method to model. simulate and synthesize a flowsheet. The process-group based representation of a flowsheet together with a process "property" model are presented. The process-group based synthesis method is developed on the basis of the computer...... aided molecular design methods and gives the ability to screen numerous process alternatives without the need to use the rigorous process simulation models. The process "property" model calculates the design targets for the generated flowsheet alternatives while a reverse modelling method (also...... developed) determines the design variables matching the target. A simple illustrative example highlighting the main features of the methodology is also presented....

  7. How young people communicate risks of snowmobiling in northern Norway: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Grete; Germeten, Sidsel; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand how the risks of snowmobiling are communicated among northern Norwegian youths. Study design. A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen. Interviews centred on safety precautions and estimation of risks related to snowmobiling and driving patterns. Eighty-one students (31 girls and 50 boys) aged between 16 and 23 years from 8 high schools were interviewed in 17 focus groups that were segregated by gender. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Boys and girls communicated differently about risks. Peer-group conformity appeared stronger among boys than girls. Boys did not spontaneously relate risks to their snowmobile activities, while girls did. Boys focused upon training, coping and balance between control and lack of control while driving. Girls talked about risks, were aware of risks and sought to avoid risky situations, in contrast to boys. Boys' risk communication in groups was about how to manage challenging situations. Their focus overall was on trying to maintain control while simultaneously testing their limits. Three risk categories emerged: those who drive as they ought to (mostly girls), those who occasionally take some risks (boys and girls) and those who are extreme risk-takers (a smaller number of boys). Perceptions of and communication about risk are related to gender, peer group and familiarity with risk-taking when snowmobiling. Northern Norwegian boys' driving behaviour highlights a specific need for risk reduction, but this must also draw upon factors such as acceptance of social and cultural codes and common sense related to snowmobiling.

  8. Perioperative treatment of hemophilia A patients: blood group O patients are at risk of bleeding complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, H C A M; Lock, J; Mathôt, R A A; Meijer, K; Peters, M; Laros-van Gorkom, B A P; van der Meer, F J M; Driessens, M H E; Leebeek, F W G; Fijnvandraat, K; Cnossen, M H

    2016-03-01

    ESSENTIALS: Targeting of factor VIII values is a challenge during perioperative replacement therapy in hemophilia. This study aims to identify the extent and predictors of factor VIII underdosing and overdosing. Blood group O predicts underdosing and is associated with perioperative bleeding. To increase quality of care and cost-effectiveness of treatment, refining of dosing is obligatory. Perioperative administration of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrate in hemophilia A may result in both underdosing and overdosing, leading to respectively a risk of bleeding complications and unnecessary costs. This retrospective observational study aims to identify the extent and predictors of underdosing and overdosing in perioperative hemophilia A patients (FVIII levels < 0.05 IU mL(-1)). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing 198 elective, minor, or major surgical procedures were included (median age 40 years, median body weight 75 kg). Perioperative management was evaluated by quantification of perioperative infusion of FVIII concentrate and achieved FVIII levels. Predictors of underdosing and (excessive) overdosing were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Excessive overdosing was defined as upper target level plus ≥ 0.20 IU mL(-1). Depending on postoperative day, 7-45% of achieved FVIII levels were under and 33-75% were above predefined target ranges as stated by national guidelines. A potential reduction of FVIII consumption of 44% would have been attained if FVIII levels had been maintained within target ranges. Blood group O and major surgery were predictive of underdosing (odds ratio [OR] 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.7-14.9; OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-7.9). Blood group O patients had more bleeding complications in comparison to patients with blood group non-O (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.00-4.09). Patients with blood group non-O were at higher risk of overdosing (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9). Additionally, patients treated with bolus infusions were at higher risk of excessive

  9. Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group has screened six prospective demonstration projects for consideration by the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT). These projects include the Kirtland Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the March Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the McClellan Air Force Base Demonstration Project, the Williams Air Force Base Demonstration Project, and two demonstration projects under the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. A seventh project (Port Hueneme Naval Construction Battalion Center) was added to list of prospective demonstrations after the September 1993 Working Group Meeting. This demonstration project has not been screened by the working group. Two additional Air Force remediation programs are also under consideration and are described in Section 6 of this document. The following information on prospective demonstrations was collected by the Waste Contaminants at Military Bases Working Group to assist the DOIT Committee in making Phase 1 Demonstration Project recommendations. The remainder of this report is organized into seven sections: Work Group Charter's mission and vision; contamination problems, current technology limitations, and institutional and regulatory barriers to technology development and commercialization, and work force issues; screening process for initial Phase 1 demonstration technologies and sites; demonstration descriptions -- good matches;demonstration descriptions -- close matches; additional candidate demonstration projects; and next steps

  10. Risk Assessment and Clinical Risk Management for Young Antisocial Children: The Forgotten Group

    OpenAIRE

    Augimeri, Leena; Child Development Institute; Walsh, Margaret; Child Development Institute; Woods, Sarah; Child Development Institute; Jiang, Depeng; University of Manitoba

    2012-01-01

    Centre for Children Committing Offences (CCCO), at Child Development Institute (CDI) in Toronto, Canada, developed Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL-20B for boys; EARL-21G for girls), for young children at-risk for future criminality. In this first EARL prospective longitudinal study, 573 boys and 294 girls who participated in SNAP®, a gender-specific evidencebased model for at-risk children (6-11 years), 8.2% of boys and 3.1% of girls had registered criminal offences at follow up (mean age 1...

  11. Risk-based Regulatory Evaluation Program methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Asselin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this DOE-supported Regulatory Evaluation Progrwam are to analyze and evaluate the safety importance and economic significance of existing regulatory guidance in order to assist in the improvement of the regulatory process for current generation and future design reactors. A risk-based cost-benefit methodology was developed to evaluate the safety benefit and cost of specific regulations or Standard Review Plan sections. Risk-based methods can be used in lieu of or in combination with deterministic methods in developing regulatory requirements and reaching regulatory decisions

  12. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Leif; Lillegaard, Inger Therese; Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Brodal, Guro; Eriksen, Gunnar Sundstøl

    2017-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile) exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group. PMID:28165414

  13. Deoxynivalenol Exposure in Norway, Risk Assessments for Different Human Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Sundheim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is the most common mycotoxin in Norwegian cereals, and DON is detected in most samples of crude cereal grain and cereal food commodities such as flour, bran, and oat flakes. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety assessed the risk for adverse effects of deoxynivalenol (DON in different age groups of the domestic population. This review presents the main results from the risk assessment, supplemented with some recently published data. Impairment of the immune system together with reduced feed intake and weight gain are the critical effects of DON in experimental animals on which the current tolerable daily intake was established. Based on food consumption and occurrence data, the mean exposure to DON in years with low and high levels of DON in the flour, respectively, were in the range of or up to two times the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI in 1-year-old infants and 2-year-old children. In years with high mean DON concentration, the high (95th-percentile exposure exceeded the TDI by up to 3.5 times in 1-, 2- , 4-, and 9-year-old children. The assessment concluded that exceeding the TDI in infants and children is of concern. The estimated dietary DON intakes in adolescent and adult populations are in the range of the TDI or below, and are not a health concern. Acute human exposure to DON is not of concern in any age group.

  14. A risk-based sensor placement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ronald W.; Kulesz, James J.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors to protect population against the exposure to, and effects of, known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Risk is calculated as a quantitative value representing population at risk from exposure at standard exposure levels. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as the frequency of wind speed and direction pairs. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate risk values. Sensor locations are determined via an iterative dynamic programming algorithm whereby threats detected by sensors placed in prior iterations are removed from consideration in subsequent iterations. In addition to the risk-based placement algorithm, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor. This is the fraction of the total risk accounted for by placement of the sensor. Thus, the criteria for halting the iterative process can be the number of sensors available, a threshold marginal utility value, and/or a minimum cumulative utility achieved with all sensors

  15. Risk-based regulation: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarborough, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the early development of regulations for nuclear power plants, risk was implicitly considered through qualitative assessments and engineering reliability principles and practices. Examples included worst case analysis, defense in depth, and the single failure criterion. However, the contributions of various systems, structures, components and operator actions to plant safety were not explicitly assessed since a methodology for this purpose had not been developed. As a consequence of the TMI accident, the use of more quantitative risk methodology and information in regulation such as probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) increased. The use of both qualitative and quantitative consideration of risk in regulation has been a set of regulations and regulatory guides and practices that ensure adequate protection of public health and safety. Presently, the development of PRA techniques has developed to the point that safety goals, expressed in terms of risk, have been established to help guide further regulatory decision making. This paper presents the personal opinions of the author as regards the use of risk today in nuclear power plant regulation, areas of further information needs, and necessary plans for moving toward a more systematic use of risk-based information in regulatory initiatives in the future

  16. A balanced hazard ratio for risk group evaluation from survival data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branders, Samuel; Dupont, Pierre

    2015-07-30

    Common clinical studies assess the quality of prognostic factors, such as gene expression signatures, clinical variables or environmental factors, and cluster patients into various risk groups. Typical examples include cancer clinical trials where patients are clustered into high or low risk groups. Whenever applied to survival data analysis, such groups are intended to represent patients with similar survival odds and to select the most appropriate therapy accordingly. The relevance of such risk groups, and of the related prognostic factors, is typically assessed through the computation of a hazard ratio. We first stress three limitations of assessing risk groups through the hazard ratio: (1) it may promote the definition of arbitrarily unbalanced risk groups; (2) an apparently optimal group hazard ratio can be largely inconsistent with the p-value commonly associated to it; and (3) some marginal changes between risk group proportions may lead to highly different hazard ratio values. Those issues could lead to inappropriate comparisons between various prognostic factors. Next, we propose the balanced hazard ratio to solve those issues. This new performance metric keeps an intuitive interpretation and is as simple to compute. We also show how the balanced hazard ratio leads to a natural cut-off choice to define risk groups from continuous risk scores. The proposed methodology is validated through controlled experiments for which a prescribed cut-off value is defined by design. Further results are also reported on several cancer prognosis studies, and the proposed methodology could be applied more generally to assess the quality of any prognostic markers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Tsunami risk assessment for facility group over a wide area using inundation assessment method considering energy conservation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutani, Yo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Tokunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of overall tsunami risk that the entire facility group over a wide area holds. We considerably reduced the calculation cost for tsunami inundation depth by adopting the evaluation method using energy conservation law as compared with the evaluation method using non-linear long wave equation. For financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies with contractors over a wide area and business companies with multiple their assets and facilities in various places, the proposed evaluation method in this study could be a useful approach to implement their risk-based management decisions for tsunami risk. (author)

  18. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C.; Vignoles, Vivian L.

    2018-01-01

    The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias. PMID:29681878

  19. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Roth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance–congruity and imbalance–dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification depends in part on the (incompatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (incompatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.

  20. Group Membership, Group Change, and Intergroup Attitudes: A Recategorization Model Based on Cognitive Consistency Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jenny; Steffens, Melanie C; Vignoles, Vivian L

    2018-01-01

    The present article introduces a model based on cognitive consistency principles to predict how new identities become integrated into the self-concept, with consequences for intergroup attitudes. The model specifies four concepts (self-concept, stereotypes, identification, and group compatibility) as associative connections. The model builds on two cognitive principles, balance-congruity and imbalance-dissonance, to predict identification with social groups that people currently belong to, belonged to in the past, or newly belong to. More precisely, the model suggests that the relative strength of self-group associations (i.e., identification) depends in part on the (in)compatibility of the different social groups. Combining insights into cognitive representation of knowledge, intergroup bias, and explicit/implicit attitude change, we further derive predictions for intergroup attitudes. We suggest that intergroup attitudes alter depending on the relative associative strength between the social groups and the self, which in turn is determined by the (in)compatibility between social groups. This model unifies existing models on the integration of social identities into the self-concept by suggesting that basic cognitive mechanisms play an important role in facilitating or hindering identity integration and thus contribute to reducing or increasing intergroup bias.

  1. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  2. Learners’ views about cloud computing-based group activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildirim Serkan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its use independently of time and place during the process of software development and by making it easier to access to information with mobile technologies, cloud based environments attracted the attention of education world and this technology started to be used in various activities. In this study, for programming education, the effects of extracurricular group assignments in cloud based environments on learners were evaluated in terms of group work satisfaction, ease of use and user satisfaction. Within the scope of computer programming education lasting eight weeks, a total of 100 students participated in the study including 34 men and 66 women. Participants were divided into groups of at least three people considering the advantages of cooperative learning in programming education. In this study carried out in both conventional and cloud based environments, between groups factorial design was used as research design. The data collected by questionnaires of opinions of group work were examined with quantitative analysis method. According to the study results extracurricular learning activities as group activity created satisfaction. However, perceptions of easy use of the environment and user satisfaction were partly positive. Despite the similar understandings; male participants were easier to perceive use of cloud computing based environments. Some variables such as class level, satisfaction, computer and internet usage time do not have any effect on satisfaction and perceptions of ease of use. Evening class students stated that they found it easy to use cloud based learning environments and became more satisfied with using these environments besides being happier with group work than daytime students.

  3. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Burton

    Full Text Available People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem.To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses.75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis.Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting.We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions.

  4. Lowering Cardiovascular Disease Risk for People with Severe Mental Illnesses in Primary Care: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Alexandra; Osborn, David; Atkins, Lou; Michie, Susan; Gray, Ben; Stevenson, Fiona; Gilbert, Hazel; Walters, Kate

    2015-01-01

    People with severe mental illnesses die early from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is lacking regarding effective primary care based interventions to tackle this problem. To identify current procedures for, barriers to, and facilitators of the delivery of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses. 75 GPs, practice nurses, service users, community mental health staff and carers in UK GP practice or community mental health settings were interviewed in 14 focus groups which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework Analysis. Five barriers to delivering primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses were identified by the groups: negative perceptions of people with severe mental illnesses amongst some health professionals, difficulties accessing GP and community-based services, difficulties in managing a healthy lifestyle, not attending appointments, and a lack of awareness of increased cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses by some health professionals. Identified facilitators included involving supportive others, improving patient engagement with services, continuity of care, providing positive feedback in consultations and goal setting. We identified a range of factors which can be incorporated in to the design, delivery and evaluation of services to reduce cardiovascular risk for people with severe mental illnesses in primary care. The next step is determining the clinical and cost effectiveness of primary care based interventions for lowering cardiovascular risk in people with severe mental illnesses, and evaluating the most important components of such interventions.

  5. Westinghouse Owners Group Risk-Informed Regulation Efforts: Options 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Jason A.; Osterrieder, Robert A.; Lutz, Robert J.; Dingler, Maurice; Ward, Lewis A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has initiated efforts to incorporate risk-informed methods to redefine the scope of the existing 10 CFR 50 regulations (Option 2) and to change the technical requirements of the regulations (Option 3). The overall objectives of these efforts are to enhance plant safety, provide a framework for risk-informed regulations, add flexibility to plant operations, and reduce regulatory burden. The Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) has a variety of active programs in the risk-informed area, including a program in the Option 2 and Option 3 areas. These two programs will be summarized including the benefits and the technical approach. The purpose of Option 2 is to make changes to the overall scope of structures, systems and components (SSCs) covered by 10 CFR 50 requiring special treatment by formulating new risk-informed safety classification categories that are linked to current definitions of safety-related and important-to-safety. This initiative would permit possible changes to the current special treatment requirements based on risk insights. The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) has developed an Option 2 implementation guideline (NEI 00-04 Draft Revision B). The WOG has initiated a program to validate the NEI guideline and to provide an initial cost-benefit assessment of the revised categorization and treatment under Option 2 via trial application to two systems at both Surry Unit 1 and Wolf Creek. The WOG Option 2 program includes consideration of all of the components in the selected systems, regardless of whether or not they are modeled in the respective plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. As a result, quantitative risk measures are not available for many of the components being considered. In this case, the WOG program will provide valuable input to the NEI guideline. Additionally, the WOG program extends the use of both of the dominant methodologies for risk-informed ISI (RI-ISI) to address repair and

  6. Associated Behavioral Risks in a Group of Women During Pregnancy from Mures District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Ruţa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well-known that the exposure during pregnancy to lifestyle risk factors can affect thehealth both for the mother and the fetus. There are many risk factors for pregnancy, including: smoking, alcohol consumption, sedentary pattern, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge regarding health prevention. The main objective of our study was to assess the practices, knowledge and attitudes towards lifestyle risk behaviors during pregnancy in a group of women from Tirgu-Mures area.

  7. Giving in to Group Pressure: The Impact of Socialization and Risk on Perceived Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Katharine A.; Platania, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The current study applies the perspective of decision theory to understanding how choices are made in an in-group setting involving social pressure and risk. Two hundred sixty-one undergraduate students provided assessments of consequences associated with illegally consuming alcohol in different environments with differing degrees of risk. In…

  8. Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words
    Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

    Lack of

  9. Sudden Cardiac arrest Risk profile in a group of amateur level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... males and females in this group of university basketball players showed varying signs of SCA risk, with the overall risk being reasonably low, albeit abnormalities were highlighted in some and Marfanoid characteristics were clearly evident in others. Key words: Sudden cardiac arrest; Basketball players, Marfan syndrome; ...

  10. Tumor mutational load and immune parameters across metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Velasco, Guillermo; Miao, Diana; Voss, Martin H.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Hsieh, James J.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Tamboli, Pheroze; Appleman, Leonard J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Choueiri, Toni K.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have better overall survival when treated with nivolumab, a cancer immunotherapy that targets the immune checkpoint inhibitor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), rather than everolimus (a chemical inhibitor of mTOR and immunosuppressant). Poor-risk mRCC patients treated with nivolumab seemed to experience the greatest overall survival benefit, compared to patients with favorable or intermediate-risk, in an analysis of the CheckMate-025 trial subgroup of the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) prognostic risk groups. Here we explore whether tumor mutational load and RNA expression of specific immune parameters could be segregated by prognostic MSKCC risk strata and explain the survival seen in the poor-risk group. We queried whole exome transcriptome data in RCC patients (n = 54) included in The Cancer Genome Atlas that ultimately developed metastatic disease or were diagnosed with metastatic disease at presentation and did not receive immune checkpoint inhibitors. Nonsynonymous mutational load did not differ significantly by MSKCC risk group, nor was the expression of cytolytic genes –granzyme A and perforin – or selected immune checkpoint molecules different across MSKCC risk groups. In conclusion, this analysis found that mutational load and expression of markers of an active tumor microenvironment did not correlate with MSKCC risk prognostic classification in mRCC. PMID:27538576

  11. A framework for grouping nanoparticles based on their measurable characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayes, Christie M; Smith, P Alex; Ivanov, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to take a broader look at nanotoxicological studies. Eventually, the field will demand that some generalizations be made. To begin to address this issue, we posed a question: are metal colloids on the nanometer-size scale a homogeneous group? In general, most people can agree that the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials can be linked and related to their induced toxicological responses. The focus of this study was to determine how a set of selected physicochemical properties of five specific metal-based colloidal materials on the nanometer-size scale - silver, copper, nickel, iron, and zinc - could be used as nanodescriptors that facilitate the grouping of these metal-based colloids. The example of the framework pipeline processing provided in this paper shows the utility of specific statistical and pattern recognition techniques in grouping nanoparticles based on experimental data about their physicochemical properties. Interestingly, the results of the analyses suggest that a seemingly homogeneous group of nanoparticles could be separated into sub-groups depending on interdependencies observed in their nanodescriptors. These particles represent an important category of nanomaterials that are currently mass produced. Each has been reputed to induce toxicological and/or cytotoxicological effects. Here, we propose an experimental methodology coupled with mathematical and statistical modeling that can serve as a prototype for a rigorous framework that aids in the ability to group nanomaterials together and to facilitate the subsequent analysis of trends in data based on quantitative modeling of nanoparticle-specific structure-activity relationships. The computational part of the proposed framework is rather general and can be applied to other groups of nanomaterials as well.

  12. Diagnosis related group grouping study of senile cataract patients based on E-CHAID algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ai-Jing; Chang, Wei-Fu; Xin, Zi-Rui; Ling, Hao; Li, Jun-Jie; Dai, Ping-Ping; Deng, Xuan-Tong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shao-Gang

    2018-01-01

    AIM To figure out the contributed factors of the hospitalization expenses of senile cataract patients (HECP) and build up an area-specified senile cataract diagnosis related group (DRG) of Shanghai thereby formulating the reference range of HECP and providing scientific basis for the fair use and supervision of the health care insurance fund. METHODS The data was collected from the first page of the medical records of 22 097 hospitalized patients from tertiary hospitals in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 whose major diagnosis were senile cataract. Firstly, we analyzed the influence factors of HECP using univariate and multivariate analysis. DRG grouping was conducted according to the exhaustive Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (E-CHAID) model, using HECP as target variable. Finally we evaluated the grouping results using non-parametric test such as Kruskal-Wallis H test, RIV, CV, etc. RESULTS The 6 DRGs were established as well as criterion of HECP, using age, sex, type of surgery and whether complications/comorbidities occurred as the key variables of classification node of senile cataract cases. CONCLUSION The grouping of senile cataract cases based on E-CHAID algorithm is reasonable. And the criterion of HECP based on DRG can provide a feasible way of management in the fair use and supervision of medical insurance fund. PMID:29487824

  13. Diagnosis related group grouping study of senile cataract patients based on E-CHAID algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ai-Jing; Chang, Wei-Fu; Xin, Zi-Rui; Ling, Hao; Li, Jun-Jie; Dai, Ping-Ping; Deng, Xuan-Tong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shao-Gang

    2018-01-01

    To figure out the contributed factors of the hospitalization expenses of senile cataract patients (HECP) and build up an area-specified senile cataract diagnosis related group (DRG) of Shanghai thereby formulating the reference range of HECP and providing scientific basis for the fair use and supervision of the health care insurance fund. The data was collected from the first page of the medical records of 22 097 hospitalized patients from tertiary hospitals in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 whose major diagnosis were senile cataract. Firstly, we analyzed the influence factors of HECP using univariate and multivariate analysis. DRG grouping was conducted according to the exhaustive Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (E-CHAID) model, using HECP as target variable. Finally we evaluated the grouping results using non-parametric test such as Kruskal-Wallis H test, RIV, CV, etc. The 6 DRGs were established as well as criterion of HECP, using age, sex, type of surgery and whether complications/comorbidities occurred as the key variables of classification node of senile cataract cases. The grouping of senile cataract cases based on E-CHAID algorithm is reasonable. And the criterion of HECP based on DRG can provide a feasible way of management in the fair use and supervision of medical insurance fund.

  14. Diagnosis related group grouping study of senile cataract patients based on E-CHAID algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Jing Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To figure out the contributed factors of the hospitalization expenses of senile cataract patients (HECP and build up an area-specified senile cataract diagnosis related group (DRG of Shanghai thereby formulating the reference range of HECP and providing scientific basis for the fair use and supervision of the health care insurance fund. METHODS: The data was collected from the first page of the medical records of 22 097 hospitalized patients from tertiary hospitals in Shanghai from 2010 to 2012 whose major diagnosis were senile cataract. Firstly, we analyzed the influence factors of HECP using univariate and multivariate analysis. DRG grouping was conducted according to the exhaustive Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (E-CHAID model, using HECP as target variable. Finally we evaluated the grouping results using non-parametric test such as Kruskal-Wallis H test, RIV, CV, etc. RESULTS: The 6 DRGs were established as well as criterion of HECP, using age, sex, type of surgery and whether complications/comorbidities occurred as the key variables of classification node of senile cataract cases. CONCLUSION: The grouping of senile cataract cases based on E-CHAID algorithm is reasonable. And the criterion of HECP based on DRG can provide a feasible way of management in the fair use and supervision of medical insurance fund.

  15. 12 CFR 567.6 - Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital credit risk-weight... CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.6 Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories. (a) Risk...)(2) of this section), plus risk-weighted recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, and certain...

  16. Screening for TB by sputum culture in high-risk groups in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sidse Graff; Wrona Olsen, Nete; Seersholm, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . METHODS: On seven occasions, from September 2012 through June 2014, we offered TB screening to all persons present at 11 locations where socially marginalised people gather in Copenhagen. Spot sputum samples from participants were examined by smear microscopy and culture. Genotype, nucleic acid......INTRODUCTION: Evidence on screening high-risk groups for TB by mobile X-ray in low-incidence countries is building, but knowledge on other possible screening methods is limited. In this retrospective study we report results from a community based programme screening for TB by spot sputum culture...... amplification test and chest X-ray were done if TB was found. RESULTS: Among 1075 participants, we identified 36 cases of TB. Twenty-four cases (66.7%) were identified at the first screening of each participant, that is, the prevalence of TB was 2233/100 000. Thirty-five (97%) of the TB cases were culture...

  17. Impact of two common xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD gene polymorphisms on risk of prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Mi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA repair genes (EG: xeroderma pigmentosum group D, XPD may affect the capacity of encoded DNA repair enzymes to effectively remove DNA adducts or lesions, which may result in enhanced cancer risk. The association between XPD gene polymorphisms and the susceptibility of prostate cancer (PCa was inconsistent in previous studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A meta-analysis based on 9 independent case-control studies involving 3165 PCa patients and 3539 healthy controls for XPD Gln751Lys SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism and 2555 cases and 3182 controls for Asn312Asp SNP was performed to address this association. Meanwhile, odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate this relationship. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA10.0. No significant association was found between XPD Gln751Lys SNP and PCa risk. On the other hand, in subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, associations were observed in Asian (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.34, 95%CI = 1.16-1.55; Asn/Asn+Asn/Asp vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.23, 95%CI = 1.07-1.42 and African (eg. Asn vs. Asp: OR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.01-1.70; Asn/Asn vs. Asp/Asp: OR = 1.71, 95%CI = 1.03-7.10 populations for Asn312Asp SNP. Moreover, similar associations were detected in hospital-based controls studies; the frequency of Asn/Asn genotype in early stage of PCa men was poorly higher than those in advanced stage of PCa men (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.00-2.11. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations demonstrate that XPD Asn312Asp SNP not the Gln751Lys SNP, might poorly increase PCa risk in Asians and Africans, moreover, this SNPs may associate with the tumor stage of PCa. Further studies based on larger sample size and gene-environment interactions should be conducted to determine the role of XPD gene polymorphisms in PCa risk.

  18. Male sex workers: Are we ignoring a risk group in Mumbai, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinde Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male sex workers (MSWs have recently been recognized as an important risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Although there are global studies on MSWs, few such studies describe the behavioral patterns and STIs among this population in India. Methods: MSWs were evaluated at the Humsafar trust, a community based organization situated in suburban Mumbai, India. We report on the demographics, sexual behaviors, and STIs including HIV of these sex workers. Results: Of the 75 MSWs, 24 were men and 51 were transgenders. The mean age of the group was 23.3 (+ 4.9 years. About 15% were married or lived with a permanent partner. Of these individuals, 85% reported sex work as a main source of income and 15% as an additional source. All the individuals reported anal sex (87% anal receptive sex and 13% anal insertive sex. About 13% of MSWs had never used a condom. The HIV prevalence was 33% (17% in men vs 41% in transgenders, P = 0.04. The STI prevalence was 60% (58% in men vs 61% in transgenders, P = 0.8. Syphilis was the most common STI (28% in these MSWs. HIV was associated with being a transgender (41 vs 17%, P = 0.04, age > 26 years (57 vs 28%, P = 0.04, more than one year of sex work (38 vs 8%, P = 0.05, and income < Rs. 2000 per month (62 vs 27%, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The MSWs have high-risk behaviors, low consistent condom use, and high STI/HIV infections. These groups should be the focus of intensive public health interventions aimed at reduction of risky sexual practices, and STI/HIV prevention and care.

  19. Assessment of credit risk based on fuzzy relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabadze, Teimuraz

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a new approach for an assessment of the credit risk to corporate borrowers. There are different models for borrowers' risk assessment. These models are divided into two groups: statistical and theoretical. When assessing the credit risk for corporate borrowers, statistical model is unacceptable due to the lack of sufficiently large history of defaults. At the same time, we cannot use some theoretical models due to the lack of stock exchange. In those cases, when studying a particular borrower given that statistical base does not exist, the decision-making process is always of expert nature. The paper describes a new approach that may be used in group decision-making. An example of the application of the proposed approach is given.

  20. Brucellosis in a high risk occupational group: sero prevalence and analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district and to elucidate risk factors associated with sero positivity to Brucella. Method: During the year 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four slaughterhouses of Lahore district. A sample of 360 workers was selected from these slaughterhouses through stratified random sampling on proportional basis. Workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to obtain risk factor information and their blood samples were collected to be screened for the presence of anti-Brucella IgG using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique. Data management and analysis were performed using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences) version 16. Risk factors associated with sero positivity to anti-Brucella IgG were identified by constructing a logistic regression model. Results: Of the 360 serum samples tested, 21.7% (95% CI 17.44% - 25.96%) were positive by ELISA test. The logistic regression model identified age (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.99), assistance in parturition of animal (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.23-0.96), consuming raw milk (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.04-4.87) and handling sheep (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.09- 0.92) as risk factors for Brucella sero positivity among slaughterhouse workers of Lahore district. Conclusion: To reduce the burden of brucellosis, a national brucellosis control programme should be initiated with special emphasis on the high risk population of slaughterhouse workers. (author)

  1. Did our current initial treatment practice change after EAU/ESPU vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokat, Eda; Gurocak, Serhat; Ure, Iyimser; Acar, Cenk; Sınık, Zafer; Tan, Mustafa Ozgur

    2018-06-02

    The "European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines on Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in Children (September 2012)" established risk classification by analyzing and defining risk factors for each patient. In this study we aimed to investigate how our initial treatment procedures were affected by EAU/ESPU guideline vesicoureteral reflux risk grouping and to compare the early clinical results of treatments performed before and after the risk classification in our patients with VUR. 334 renal units with regular clinical follow-up who were treated owing to VUR (vesicoureteral reflux) between years 2009 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative clinical parameters such as grade and laterality of reflux, presence of renal scar, initial and follow-up treatments, findings of medical treatment and surgical procedures were analyzed. The initial medical and surgical methods were compared by categorizing patients according to risk groups before and after 2013. Mean age and follow-up duration were 71.4(6-216) months and 47(4-141) months, respectively. Among the preoperative parameters, only high EAU risk group (p = 0.01) and treating lower urinary tract symptoms (p age, sex, and presence of renal scar at DMSA were not affecting the success of treatment significantly. While no significant difference in medical and surgical treatment rates is observed after risk grouping system in low risk group, the percentages of patients who are treated with surgical methods initially were significantly decreased in moderate and high risk groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively). We determined that VUR risk grouping did not change clinical success significantly in all risk groups. Despite the fact that EAU/ESPU VUR risk classification changed our current practice in terms of initial treatment method, this different approach did not seem to affect early clinical success positively. There is still an absolute need for studies with larger sample size and long

  2. Trends in high-risk sexual behaviors among general population groups in China: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Looman, Caspar W N; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review was to investigate whether Chinese population groups that do not belong to classical high risk groups show an increasing trend of engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We systematically searched the English and Chinese literature on sexual risk behaviors published between January 1980 and March 2012 in PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). We included observational studies that focused on population groups other than commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients, and men who have sex with men (MSM) and quantitatively reported one of the following indicators of recent high-risk sexual behavior: premarital sex, commercial sex, multiple sex partners, condom use or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used generalized linear mixed model to examine the time trend in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors. We included 174 observational studies involving 932,931 participants: 55 studies reported on floating populations, 73 on college students and 46 on other groups (i.e. out-of-school youth, rural residents, and subjects from gynecological or obstetric clinics and premarital check-up centers). From the generalized linear mixed model, no significant trends in engaging in high-risk sexual behaviors were identified in the three population groups. Sexual risk behaviors among certain general population groups have not increased substantially. These groups are therefore unlikely to incite a STI/HIV epidemic among the general Chinese population. Because the studied population groups are not necessarily representative of the general population, the outcomes found may not reflect those of the general population.

  3. Cleaners' experiences with group-based workplace physical training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Lasse; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how work-site health promotion intervention, by involving group-based physical coordination training, may increase participants’ social awareness of new ways to use the body. Purpose: We investigated cleaners’ experiences with a one-year health promotion intervention...... involving group-based physical coordination training (PCT) during working hours. Design: We conducted a qualitative evaluation using method triangulation; continuous unfocused participant observation during the whole intervention, semi-structured focus group interview, and individual written evaluations one...... for implementation seem to be important for sustained effects of health-promotion interventions in the workplace. Originality: The social character of the physical training facilitated a community of practice, which potentially supported the learning of new competencies, and how to improve the organization...

  4. Classification and Target Group Selection Based Upon Frequent Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H.L.M. Pijls (Wim); R. Potharst (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this technical report , two new algorithms based upon frequent patterns are proposed. One algorithm is a classification method. The other one is an algorithm for target group selection. In both algorithms, first of all, the collection of frequent patterns in the training set is

  5. New unified field theory based on the conformal group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessa, E [Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica

    1980-10-01

    Based on a six-dimensional generalization of Maxwell's equations, a new unified theory of the electromagnetic and gravitational field is developed. Additional space-time coordinates are interpreted only as mathematical tools in order to obtain a linear realization of the four-dimensional conformal group.

  6. Emotional Regulation: Considerations for School-Based Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…

  7. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  8. WWW-based environments for collaborative group work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Since 1994, we have been involved in the design and use of a series of WWW-based environments to support collaborative group work for students in a technical university in The Netherlands. These environments, and the course re-design that accompanies each new environment, began in April 1994 and

  9. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  10. Identifying potential risk situations for humans when removing horses from groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Elke; Søndergaard, Eva; Keeling, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Removing a horse from its social group may be considered risky, both for the handler and the horse, because other horses can interfere in the catching process. The main aim of this study was to identify where and when these risk situations occur while removing a horse from its group. A potential...

  11. Credit risk evaluation based on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gu, Jing; Zhou, Zongfang

    2016-07-01

    Social media has been playing an increasingly important role in the sharing of individuals' opinions on many financial issues, including credit risk in investment decisions. This paper analyzes whether these opinions, which are transmitted through social media, can accurately predict enterprises' future credit risk. We consider financial statements oriented evaluation results based on logit and probit approaches as the benchmarks. We then conduct textual analysis to retrieve both posts and their corresponding commentaries published on two of the most popular social media platforms for financial investors in China. Professional advice from financial analysts is also investigated in this paper. We surprisingly find that the opinions extracted from both posts and commentaries surpass opinions of analysts in terms of credit risk prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk-based optimization of land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van; Peters, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale land reclamations are generally constructed by means of a landfill well above mean sea level. This can be costly in areas where good quality fill material is scarce. An alternative to save materials and costs is a ‘polder terminal’. The quay wall acts as a flood defense and the terminal level is well below the level of the quay wall. Compared with a conventional terminal, the costs are lower, but an additional flood risk is introduced. In this paper, a risk-based optimization is developed for a conventional and a polder terminal. It considers the investment and residual flood risk. The method takes into account both the quay wall and terminal level, which determine the probability and damage of flooding. The optimal quay wall level is found by solving a Lambert function numerically. The terminal level is bounded by engineering boundary conditions, i.e. piping and uplift of the cover layer of the terminal yard. It is found that, for a representative case study, the saving of reclamation costs for a polder terminal is larger than the increase of flood risk. The model is applicable to other cases of land reclamation and to similar optimization problems in flood risk management. - Highlights: • A polder terminal can be an attractive alternative for a conventional terminal. • A polder terminal is feasible at locations with high reclamation cost. • A risk-based approach is required to determine the optimal protection levels. • The depth of the polder terminal yard is bounded by uplifting of the cover layer. • This paper can support decisions regarding alternatives for port expansions.

  13. 13 CFR 120.1000 - Risk-Based Lender Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Lender Oversight. 120.1000 Section 120.1000 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1000 Risk-Based Lender Oversight. (a) Risk-Based Lender...

  14. Model based risk assessment - the CORAS framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gran, Bjoern Axel; Fredriksen, Rune; Thunem, Atoosa P-J.

    2004-04-15

    Traditional risk analysis and assessment is based on failure-oriented models of the system. In contrast to this, model-based risk assessment (MBRA) utilizes success-oriented models describing all intended system aspects, including functional, operational and organizational aspects of the target. The target models are then used as input sources for complementary risk analysis and assessment techniques, as well as a basis for the documentation of the assessment results. The EU-funded CORAS project developed a tool-supported methodology for the application of MBRA in security-critical systems. The methodology has been tested with successful outcome through a series of seven trial within the telemedicine and ecommerce areas. The CORAS project in general and the CORAS application of MBRA in particular have contributed positively to the visibility of model-based risk assessment and thus to the disclosure of several potentials for further exploitation of various aspects within this important research field. In that connection, the CORAS methodology's possibilities for further improvement towards utilization in more complex architectures and also in other application domains such as the nuclear field can be addressed. The latter calls for adapting the framework to address nuclear standards such as IEC 60880 and IEC 61513. For this development we recommend applying a trial driven approach within the nuclear field. The tool supported approach for combining risk analysis and system development also fits well with the HRP proposal for developing an Integrated Design Environment (IDE) providing efficient methods and tools to support control room systems design. (Author)

  15. Analog Group Delay Equalizers Design Based on Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laipert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a design method of the analog all-pass filter designated for equalization of the group delay frequency response of the analog filter. This method is based on usage of evolutionary algorithm, the Differential Evolution algorithm in particular. We are able to design such equalizers to be obtained equal-ripple group delay frequency response in the pass-band of the low-pass filter. The procedure works automatically without an input estimation. The method is presented on solving practical examples.

  16. Risk management of radiation therapy. Survey by north Japan radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Abe, Yoshinao; Yamada, Shogo; Hareyama, Masato; Nakamura, Ryuji; Sugita, Tadashi; Miyano, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A North Japan Radiation Oncology Group (NJRTOG) survey was carried out to disclose the risk management of radiation therapy. During April 2002, we sent questionnaires to radiation therapy facilities in northern Japan. There were 31 replies from 27 facilities. Many incidents and accidents were reported, including old cases. Although 60% of facilities had a risk management manual and/or risk manager, only 20% had risk management manuals for radiation therapy. Eighty five percent of radiation oncologists thought that incidents may be due to a lack of manpower. Ninety percent of radiation oncologists want to know the type of cases happened in other facilities. The risk management system is still insufficient for radiation therapy. We hope that our data will be a great help to develop risk management strategies for radiation therapy for all radiation oncologists in Japan. (author)

  17. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  18. Identification and management of cardiometabolic risk in Canada: a position paper by the cardiometabolic risk working group (executive summary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Lawrence A; Fitchett, David H; Gilbert, Richard E; Gupta, Milan; Mancini, G B John; McFarlane, Philip A; Ross, Robert; Teoh, Hwee; Verma, Subodh; Anand, Sonia; Camelon, Kathryn; Chow, Chi-Ming; Cox, Jafna L; Després, Jean-Pierre; Genest, Jacques; Harris, Stewart B; Lau, David C W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Liu, Peter P; Lonn, Eva M; McPherson, Ruth; Poirier, Paul; Qaadri, Shafiq; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Rabkin, Simon W; Sharma, Arya M; Steele, Andrew W; Stone, James A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Tobe, Sheldon; Ur, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Community-Based Collaborative Group Characteristics on Social Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl L.; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E.

    2009-10-01

    Recent research suggests that community-based collaboration may build social capital—defined as trust, norms of reciprocity, and networks. Social capital may improve a group’s ability to collaborate, manage risk, innovate, and adapt to change. We used mail surveys of group participants and key informant interviews to assess whether the following collaborative group characteristics affected social capital built within 10 collaborative groups in northwest Colorado: perceived success, conflict, activeness, stakeholder diversity, previous collaboration experience, similar values and beliefs, group size, group age, and initial social capital. Perceived success and initial levels of social capital were the strongest predictors of current levels of and changes in social capital over time. Collaboration experience negatively influenced current levels of trust. Our results suggest that collaborative groups may need to consider the outcomes of collaborative interactions in order to build social capital.

  20. Flood Risk Assessment Based On Security Deficit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J.; Metzger, R.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    Risk is a human perception: a given risk may be considered as acceptable or unac- ceptable depending on the group that has to face that risk. Flood risk analysis of- ten estimates economic losses from damages, but neglects the question of accept- able/unacceptable risk. With input from land use managers, politicians and other stakeholders, risk assessment based on security deficit analysis determines objects with unacceptable risk and their degree of security deficit. Such a risk assessment methodology, initially developed by the Swiss federal authorities, is illustrated by its application on a reach of the Alzette River (Luxembourg) in the framework of the IRMA-SPONGE FRHYMAP project. Flood risk assessment always involves a flood hazard analysis, an exposed object vulnerability analysis, and an analysis combing the results of these two previous analyses. The flood hazard analysis was done with the quasi-2D hydraulic model FldPln to produce flood intensity maps. Flood intensity was determined by the water height and velocity. Object data for the vulnerability analysis, provided by the Luxembourg government, were classified according to their potential damage. Potential damage is expressed in terms of direct, human life and secondary losses. A thematic map was produced to show the object classification. Protection goals were then attributed to the object classes. Protection goals are assigned in terms of an acceptable flood intensity for a certain flood frequency. This is where input from land use managers and politicians comes into play. The perception of risk in the re- gion or country influences the protection goal assignment. Protection goals as used in Switzerland were used in this project. Thematic maps showing the protection goals of each object in the case study area for a given flood frequency were produced. Com- parison between an object's protection goal and the intensity of the flood that touched the object determine the acceptability of the risk and the

  1. Using risk based tools in emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, B.W.; Ferns, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques are used by the nuclear industry to model the potential response of a reactor subjected to unusual conditions. The knowledge contained in these models can aid in emergency response decision making. This paper presents requirements for a PRA based emergency response support system to date. A brief discussion of published work provides background for a detailed description of recent developments. A rapid deep assessment capability for specific portions of full plant models is presented. The program uses a screening rule base to control search space expansion in a combinational algorithm

  2. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T Chen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI, which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. METHOD: Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years, 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years, and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. RESULTS: Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other

  3. Modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer disease and subjective memory impairment across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen T; Siddarth, Prabha; Ercoli, Linda M; Merrill, David A; Torres-Gil, Fernando; Small, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in older adults. Research is limited on the potential link between these risk factors and subjective memory impairment (SMI), which may precede AD and other dementias. Examination of these potential relationships may help identify those at risk for AD at a stage when interventions may delay or prevent further memory problems. The objective of this study was to determine whether risk factors for AD are associated with SMI among different age groups. Trained interviewers conducted daily telephone surveys (Gallup-Healthways) of a representative community sample of 18,614 U.S. respondents, including 4,425 younger (age 18 to 39 years), 6,365 middle-aged (40 to 59 years), and 7,824 older (60 to 99 years) adults. The surveyors collected data on demographics, lifestyles, and medical information. Less education, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, less exercise, obesity and depression, and interactions among them, were examined for associations with SMI. Weighted logistic regressions and chi-square tests were used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals for SMI with each risk factor and pairwise interactions across age groups. Depression, less education, less exercise, and hypertension were significantly associated with SMI in all three age groups. Several interactions between risk factors were significant in younger and middle-aged adults and influenced their associations with SMI. Frequency of SMI increased with age and number of risk factors. Odds of having SMI increased significantly with just having one risk factor. These results indicate that modifiable risk factors for AD are also associated with SMI, suggesting that these relationships occur in a broad range of ages and may be targeted to mitigate further memory problems. Whether modifying these risk factors reduces SMI and the eventual incidence of AD and other dementias later in life remains to be determined.

  4. Group-based Motion Detection for Energy-Efficient Localisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Cotillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term outdoor localization remains challenging due to the high energy profiles of GPS modules. Duty cycling the GPS module combined with inertial sensors can improve energy consumption. However, inertial sensors that are kept active all the time can also drain mobile node batteries. This paper proposes duty cycling strategies for inertial sensors to maintain a target position accuracy and node lifetime. We present a method for duty cycling motion sensors according to features of movement events, and evaluate its energy and accuracy profile for an empirical data trace of cattle movement. We further introduce the concept of group-based duty cycling, where nodes that cluster together can share the burden of motion detection to reduce their duty cycles. Our evaluation shows that both variants of motion sensor duty cycling yield up to 78% improvement in overall node power consumption, and that the group-based method yields an additional 20% power reduction during periods of low mobility.

  5. A novel method for human age group classification based on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Yarlagadda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the computer vision community, easy categorization of a person’s facial image into various age groups is often quite precise and is not pursued effectively. To address this problem, which is an important area of research, the present paper proposes an innovative method of age group classification system based on the Correlation Fractal Dimension of complex facial image. Wrinkles appear on the face with aging thereby changing the facial edges of the image. The proposed method is rotation and poses invariant. The present paper concentrates on developing an innovative technique that classifies facial images into four categories i.e. child image (0–15, young adult image (15–30, middle-aged adult image (31–50, and senior adult image (>50 based on correlation FD value of a facial edge image.

  6. Group Elevator Peak Scheduling Based on Robust Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG, J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling of Elevator Group Control System (EGCS is a typical combinatorial optimization problem. Uncertain group scheduling under peak traffic flows has become a research focus and difficulty recently. RO (Robust Optimization method is a novel and effective way to deal with uncertain scheduling problem. In this paper, a peak scheduling method based on RO model for multi-elevator system is proposed. The method is immune to the uncertainty of peak traffic flows, optimal scheduling is realized without getting exact numbers of each calling floor's waiting passengers. Specifically, energy-saving oriented multi-objective scheduling price is proposed, RO uncertain peak scheduling model is built to minimize the price. Because RO uncertain model could not be solved directly, RO uncertain model is transformed to RO certain model by elevator scheduling robust counterparts. Because solution space of elevator scheduling is enormous, to solve RO certain model in short time, ant colony solving algorithm for elevator scheduling is proposed. Based on the algorithm, optimal scheduling solutions are found quickly, and group elevators are scheduled according to the solutions. Simulation results show the method could improve scheduling performances effectively in peak pattern. Group elevators' efficient operation is realized by the RO scheduling method.

  7. Automatic feature-based grouping during multiple object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Keane, Brian P; Mettler, Everett; Horowitz, Todd S; Kellman, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    Contour interpolation automatically binds targets with distractors to impair multiple object tracking (Keane, Mettler, Tsoi, & Kellman, 2011). Is interpolation special in this regard or can other features produce the same effect? To address this question, we examined the influence of eight features on tracking: color, contrast polarity, orientation, size, shape, depth, interpolation, and a combination (shape, color, size). In each case, subjects tracked 4 of 8 objects that began as undifferentiated shapes, changed features as motion began (to enable grouping), and returned to their undifferentiated states before halting. We found that intertarget grouping improved performance for all feature types except orientation and interpolation (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2). Most importantly, target-distractor grouping impaired performance for color, size, shape, combination, and interpolation. The impairments were, at times, large (>15% decrement in accuracy) and occurred relative to a homogeneous condition in which all objects had the same features at each moment of a trial (Experiment 2), and relative to a "diversity" condition in which targets and distractors had different features at each moment (Experiment 3). We conclude that feature-based grouping occurs for a variety of features besides interpolation, even when irrelevant to task instructions and contrary to the task demands, suggesting that interpolation is not unique in promoting automatic grouping in tracking tasks. Our results also imply that various kinds of features are encoded automatically and in parallel during tracking.

  8. Risk assessment of occupational groups working in open pit mining: Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In open pit mining it is possible to prevent industrial accidents and the results of industrial accidents such as deaths, physical disabilities and financial loss by implementing risk analyses in advance. If the probabilities of different occupational groups encountering various hazards are determined, workers’ risk of having industrial accidents and catching occupational illnesses can be controlled. In this sense, the aim of this study was to assess the industrial accidents which occurred during open pit coal production in the Turkish Coal Enterprises (TCE Garp Lignite unit between 2005 and 2010 and to analyze the risks using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The analyses conducted with AHP revealed that the greatest risk in open pit mining is landslides, the most risky occupational group is unskilled labourers and the most common hazards are caused by landslides and transportation/hand tools/falling.

  9. A Patient Risk Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia: Lessons Learned From the ANC Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Gary H; Poniewierski, Marek S

    2017-12-01

    Neutropenia and its complications, including febrile neutropenia (FN), represent major toxicities associated with cancer chemotherapy, resulting in considerable morbidity, mortality, and costs. The myeloid growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have been shown to reduce the risk of neutropenia complications while enabling safe and effective chemotherapy dose intensity. Concerns about the high costs of these agents along with limited physician adherence to clinical practice guidelines, resulting in both overuse and underuse, has stimulated interest in models for individual patient risk assessment to guide appropriate use of G-CSF. In a model developed and validated by the ANC Study Group, half of patients were classified as high risk and half as low risk based on patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors. This model has been further validated in an independent patient population. Physician-assessed risk of FN, as well as the decision to use prophylactic CSF, has been shown to correlate poorly with the FN risk estimated by the model. Additional modeling efforts in both adults and children receiving cancer treatment have been reported. Identification of patients at a high individual risk for FN and its consequences may offer the potential for optimal chemotherapy delivery and patient outcomes. Likewise, identification of patients at low risk for neutropenic events may reduce costs when such supportive care is not warranted. This article reviews and summarizes FN modeling studies and the opportunities for personalizing supportive care in patients receiving chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  10. Assessment of independent risk factors of conversion into psychosis in the ultra-high risk state group of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gawłowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the independent psychosis risk factors assessment in a group of subjects fulfilling the criteria of at risk mental state, under specialist outpatient psychiatric care. Participants: Seventy-one patients – 33 women and 38 men, were involved into this study, aged on average 17.34, all under psychiatric care. The patients were recruited into the study in the sequence of their outpatient clinic admission. The criterion to be included into the study was the diagnosis of ultra-high risk state (UHRS – defined according to the Australian research group principles. Subsequently, the patients were divided into subgroups according to the clinical features of their mental state. Method: The author’s demographic questionnaire was applied in the study. Information regarding the family history of psychosis was obtained from patients and/or their relatives or carers. The patients’ mental state was assessed monthly – according to the presence of psychotic symptoms, change of their incidence and duration, presence of depressive symptoms or aggressive behaviour (measured by a three-level scale. On the basis of the obtained information, we evaluated: 1 conversion into psychosis time – measured from diagnosing of UHRS to the development of full-symptom psychosis, 2 therapeutic methods used (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or both, 3 use of psychoactive substances after being diagnosed with UHRS, 4 presence of serious life stressors (the patients’ subjective estimation – during the six-month period preceding the conversion into psychosis. Results: 1 In the UHRS group of patients, staying under professional outpatient psychiatric care, the use of marijuana was an independent risk factor of conversion into psychosis. 2 In the investigated group of patients with at risk mental state we did not find any correlation between modulating factors (including: therapeutic methods used, depressive symptoms, aggression or

  11. Reduction of Risk Factors in Patients with Behavioral Dysphonia After Vocal Group Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Wégina Jordâna Nascimento da; Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; Macedo, Anny Elizabety Ramalho de; Costa, Denise Batista da; Almeida, Anna Alice Figueiredo de

    2017-01-01

    The origin and development of dysphonia, particularly behavioral dysphonia, is associated with several risk factors. Here, we verified the effectiveness of group therapy in reducing the risk factors, and established the association between risk factors and sex, age, profession, and diagnosis of laryngeal disorders in patients with behavioral dysphonia. This is a descriptive, quantitative, field intervention study. Participants (n = 26, adult patients of both sexes), with a diagnosis of behavioral dysphonia, received group therapy intervention. Data for risk factors were collected pre- and posttherapy using the Vocal Screening Protocol. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Student t test, chi-squared test or Spearman correlation test). The majority (80.8%, n = 21) of patients were female, 65.4% (n = 17) were not in a vocal profession, and 42.3% (n = 11) presented with a lesion in the membranous portion of the vocal fold. The number of personal risk factors decreased after group therapy (P = 0.04). In addition, age was correlated with total (P = 0.001), environmental (P = 0.002), and personal (P = 0.003) vocal risk factors posttherapy. This study revealed an association between the reduction of personal risk factors and vocal group therapy, and a correlation between age and total, environmental, and personal vocal risk factors posttherapy. Thus, maintenance and origins of the behaviors that modify the behavioral aspects of the participants directly influence the production of individual vocal habits. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Area-based assessment of extinction risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Fangliang

    2012-05-01

    Underpinning the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List is the assessment of extinction risk as determined by the size and degree of loss of populations. The IUCN system lists a species as Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable if its population size declines 80%, 50%, or 30% within a given time frame. However, effective implementation of the system faces substantial challenges and uncertainty because geographic scale data on population size and long-term dynamics are scarce. I develop a model to quantify extinction risk using a measure based on a species' distribution, a much more readily obtained quantity. The model calculates the loss of the area of occupancy that is equivalent to the loss of a given proportion of a population. It is a very simple yet general model that has no free parameters and is independent of scale. The model predicted well the distributions of 302 tree species at a local scale and the distributions of 348 species of North American land birds. This area-based model provides a solution to the long-standing problem for IUCN assessments of lack of data on population sizes, and thus it will contribute to facilitating the quantification of extinction risk worldwide.

  13. Group differences in risk across three domains using an expanded measure of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosier, Penny S; Dittus, Patricia J

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight associations between sexual orientation and risk outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood using an expanded measure of sexual orientation. Recent data indicate higher levels of risk behavior in a newly identified population, mostly heterosexuals, as compared to heterosexuals. Comparisons among groups using an expanded measure of sexual orientation such as this, however, often do not include all possible groups or may restrict comparisons between groups. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); participants identified as heterosexual, mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly gay, or gay. Main risk outcomes were parental mistreatment, home displacement, thoughts of suicide, depressive symptoms, frequency of drinking, and delinquency. A priori planned comparisons examined differences between: (a) heterosexual vs. mostly heterosexual, (b) gay vs. mostly gay, (c) mostly heterosexual vs. bisexual, (d) mostly gay vs. bisexual, (e) mostly heterosexual vs. mostly gay, (f) heterosexual vs. gay, (g) heterosexual vs. bisexual, and (h) gay vs. bisexual. Mostly heterosexual youth were at significantly greater risk than heterosexual youth on all outcomes but did not differ from bisexual or mostly gay youth. Heterosexuals were at lower risk as compared to mostly heterosexuals and bisexuals. This study provides further evidence of differential risk associations for sexual minorities.

  14. A Cloud Computing Approach to Personal Risk Management: The Open Hazards Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, W. R.; Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    According to the California Earthquake Authority, only about 12% of current California residences are covered by any form of earthquake insurance, down from about 30% in 1996 following the 1994, M6.7 Northridge earthquake. Part of the reason for this decreasing rate of insurance uptake is the high deductible, either 10% or 15% of the value of the structure, and the relatively high cost of the premiums, as much as thousands of dollars per year. The earthquake insurance industry is composed of the CEA, a public-private partnership; modeling companies that produce damage and loss models similar to the FEMA HAZUS model; and financial companies such as the insurance, reinsurance, and investment banking companies in New York, London, the Cayman Islands, Zurich, Dubai, Singapore, and elsewhere. In setting earthquake insurance rates, financial companies rely on models like HAZUS, that calculate on risk and exposure. In California, the process begins with an official earthquake forecast by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities. Modeling companies use these 30 year earthquake probabilities as inputs to their attenuation and damage models to estimate the possible damage factors from scenario earthquakes. Economic loss is then estimated from processes such as structural failure, lost economic activity, demand surge, and fire following the earthquake. Once the potential losses are known, rates can be set so that a target ruin probability of less than 1% or so can be assured. Open Hazards Group was founded with the idea that the global public might be interested in a personal estimate of earthquake risk, computed using data supplied by the public, with models running in a cloud computing environment. These models process data from the ANSS catalog, updated at least daily, to produce rupture forecasts that are backtested with standard Reliability/Attributes and Receiver Operating Characteristic tests, among others. Models for attenuation and structural damage

  15. Contribution of DNA Repair Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Genotype to Gastric Cancer Risk in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Xue; Chang, Wen-Shin; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Ju-Yu; Huang, Nai-Kuei; Lee, An-Sheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Bau, Da-Tian

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that genetic variations of DNA repair genes confer susceptibility to cancer, and the DNA repair gene xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), the caretaker of genome stability, is thought to play a major role in the nucleotide excision repair system. We investigated three genotypes of XPD, at promoter -114 (rs3810366), and codon 312 (rs1799793), 751 (rs13181), and their associated with gastric cancer susceptibility in a Taiwanese population. In the present study, 121 patients with gastric cancer and 363 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited and genotyped for XPD by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology, and the association of XPD genotype with gastric cancer risk was investigated. We found a significant difference in the distribution of A allele-bearing XPD codon 312 genotypes [odds ratio (OR)=1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-2.25, p=0.0019], but not in XPD codon 751 or promoter -114 sites, between the gastric cancer and control groups. Those who had G/A or A/A at XPD codon 312 had a 1.83-fold (95% CI=1.14-2.95, p=0.0159) and 1.87-fold (95% CI=1.04-3.34, p=0.0378) increased risk of gastric cancer compared to those with G/G. The risk for G/A and A/A genotypes had synergistic effects with alcohol drinking (OR=11.27, 95% CI=3.72-34.17, p=0.0001), cigarette smoking (OR=23.20, 95% CI=6.24-86.23, p=0.0001) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR=5.38, 95% CI=2.76-10.52, p=0.0001) on gastric cancer susceptibility. Our findings suggest that the A allele of XPD codon 312 may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and may be useful for early detection and prevention of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Risk-based emergency decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerte, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss how to assist critical decisions taken under complex, contingent circumstances, with a high degree of uncertainty and short time frames. In such sharp-end decision regimes, standard rule-based decision support systems do not capture the complexity of the situation. At the same time, traditional risk analysis is of little use due to variability in the specific circumstances. How then, can an organisation provide assistance to, e.g. pilots in dealing with such emergencies? A method called 'contingent risk and decision analysis' is presented, to provide decision support for decisions under variable circumstances and short available time scales. The method consists of nine steps of definition, modelling, analysis and criteria definition to be performed 'off-line' by analysts, and procedure generation to transform the analysis result into an operational decision aid. Examples of pilots' decisions in response to sudden vibration in offshore helicopter transport method are used to illustrate the approach

  17. Association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutf-Ullah, L.; Akhtar, B.; Noor-Us-Saba; Hanif, A.; Khan, B.Z.; Bukhshi, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    To study the association of ABO blood groups with major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. Setting: Department of Cardiology, Mayo hospital, Lahore over a period of two years from January 2008 to December 2009. Study Design: Analytic comparative study. Subjects and Methods: The study group included 907 patients of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The distribution of ABO blood groups in IHD patients was compared for presence or absence of major IHD risk factors. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. ANOVA and Chi-square tests for significance were used. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In this study, the following pattern of ABO blood groups was observed in IHD patients : blood group A 251 (27.67%); blood group B 329 (36.27%); blood group O 235 (25.91%); blood group AB 92 (10.14%). We found no relation-ship of ABO blood groups with age (p-value = 0.234), gender (p-value = 0.093), hypertension (p-value = 0.230), diabetes mellitus (p-value = 0.801), family history of IHD (p-value = 0.277), transverse ear lobe crease (p-value = 0.231), total cholesterol (p-value = 0.797), triglycerides (p-value = 0.351), low density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.078), high density lipoprotein (p-value = 0.114). Similarly no relationship was found of smoking, weight, height and body mass index with ABO blood groups, p-values 0.428, 0.528, 0.908 and 0.455 respectively. Conclusion: There is no association of ABO blood groups and major ischaemic heart disease risk factors. (author)

  18. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Home-Based Intervention in the Netherlands for Children at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Sandra G.; van der Leij, Aryan; Henrichs, Lotte F.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch children at higher familial risk of reading disability received a home-based intervention programme before formal reading instruction started to investigate whether this would reduce the risk of dyslexia. The experimental group (n = 23) received a specific training in phoneme awareness and letter knowledge. A control group (n = 25) received…

  20. Fuzzy forecasting based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Wang, Nai-Yi

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to predict the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) based on fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups (FTLRGs). The proposed method divides fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs based on the trend of adjacent fuzzy sets appearing in the antecedents of fuzzy logical relationships. First, we apply an automatic clustering algorithm to cluster the historical data into intervals of different lengths. Then, we define fuzzy sets based on these intervals of different lengths. Then, the historical data are fuzzified into fuzzy sets to derive fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we divide the fuzzy logical relationships into FTLRGs for forecasting the TAIEX. Moreover, we also apply the proposed method to forecast the enrollments and the inventory demand, respectively. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets higher average forecasting accuracy rates than the existing methods.

  1. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice. PMID:28926985

  2. Linguistic Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making with Risk Preferences and Its Use in Low-Carbon Tourism Destination Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Zhou-Jing

    2017-09-17

    Low-carbon tourism plays an important role in carbon emission reduction and environmental protection. Low-carbon tourism destination selection often involves multiple conflicting and incommensurate attributes or criteria and can be modelled as a multi-attribute decision-making problem. This paper develops a framework to solve multi-attribute group decision-making problems, where attribute evaluation values are provided as linguistic terms and the attribute weight information is incomplete. In order to obtain a group risk preference captured by a linguistic term set with triangular fuzzy semantic information, a nonlinear programming model is established on the basis of individual risk preferences. We first convert individual linguistic-term-based decision matrices to their respective triangular fuzzy decision matrices, which are then aggregated into a group triangular fuzzy decision matrix. Based on this group decision matrix and the incomplete attribute weight information, a linear program is developed to find an optimal attribute weight vector. A detailed procedure is devised for tackling linguistic multi-attribute group decision making problems. A low-carbon tourism destination selection case study is offered to illustrate how to use the developed group decision-making model in practice.

  3. Age groups related glioblastoma study based on radiomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeju; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Glioblastoma is the most aggressive malignant brain tumor with poor prognosis. Radiomics is a newly emerging and promising technique to reveal the complex relationships between high-throughput medical image features and deep information of disease including pathology, biomarkers and genomics. An approach was developed to investigate the internal relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and the age-related origins of glioblastomas based on a quantitative radiomics method. A fully automatic image segmentation method was applied to segment the tumor regions from three dimensional MRI images. 555 features were then extracted from the image data. By analyzing large numbers of quantitative image features, some predictive and prognostic information could be obtained by the radiomics approach. 96 patients diagnosed with glioblastoma pathologically have been divided into two age groups (age groups (T test, p age difference (T test, p= .006). In conclusion, glioblastoma in different age groups present different radiomics-feature patterns with statistical significance, which indicates that glioblastoma in different age groups should have different pathologic, protein, or genic origins.

  4. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K Vasan

    Full Text Available Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail.We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient and cause of death registers to investigate the relationship between blood groups and risk of different types of dementia. The incident rate ratios were estimated using log-linear Poisson regression models.Among 1,598,294 donors followed over 24 million person-years of observation we ascertained 3,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors aged 70 years or older except for a slight, but significantly decreased risk of all dementia combined in subjects with blood group A (IRR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98, compared to those with blood group O.Our results provide no evidence that ABO blood group influences the risk of dementia.

  5. Summary report: working group 2 on 'Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beat wave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module

  6. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  7. ABO blood grouping: A potential risk factor for early childhood caries - A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraju, Lavanya; Jeevanandan, Ganesh; Subramanian, E M G

    2018-01-01

    The paradigm of etiology of early childhood caries (ECC) is shifting toward genetics. Of various inherited factors, blood group of an individual is genetically determined. The aim of the study is to determine if blood group of an individual will serve as a potential risk factor in the development of ECC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chennai. Blood samples were collected from a total of 500 children age for determination of the blood group. Of which 96 children (24 per blood group) were randomly selected and were included in the study. Oral screening of the selected children was done by a pediatric dentist who was blinded to the blood group of the children. Decayed, extracted, and filling index was noted. Details on other associated factors for the development of ECC such as the socioeconomic status, oral hygiene measures, diet, and feeding practices were collected by directly interviewing the parents through a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis test and post hoc Tukey test with significance level set at 0.05. Intergroup analysis of the associated factors showed no significant differences between the children of different blood groups. A statistically significant relation was noted between the blood groups and development of ECC (P = 0.025). Blood group is a potential risk indicator for the development of ECC.

  8. Questionnaire-based risk assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakajo, Satoko; Ohi, Tadashi

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce human errors efficiently, it is important to evaluate error-likely tasks and improve them. There are a lot of evaluation methods, for example, experimental evaluation methods, investigations by the expert of human factors, checking guidelines, estimating human error probabilities, and so on. There are roughly two problems in those methods. (1) Qualitative evaluation methods do not evaluate how likely human errors will occur and do not estimate how effective the countermeasure is in reducing human error. (2) Most of the quantitative evaluation methods and detailed analysis methods require expert's judgment. We developed a questionnaire-based risk assessment method and its system. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the method, realization, and applications to a maintenance procedure of a nuclear power plant and an elevator. The feature of the method is that it is so simple and the inexpert can easily evaluate the risk of human error. Furthermore, because it is provided as an application service provider system, a lot of evaluators can use it simultaneously through internet and it is easy to collect and sum up the responses. We confirmed that it is useful to evaluate the risk of human error, analyze the problem, and estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures in advance through the applications. (author)

  9. Lessons Learned From Implementation of Westinghouse Owners Group Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection Methodology for Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Paul R.; Haessler, Richard L.; McNeill, Alex; Pyne, Mark A.; West, Raymond A.

    2006-01-01

    Risk-informed inservice inspection (ISI) programs have been in use for over seven years as an alternative to current regulatory requirements in the development and implementation of ISI programs for nuclear plant piping systems. Programs using the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) (now known as the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group - PWROG) risk-informed ISI methodology have been developed and implemented within the U.S. and several other countries. Additionally, many plants have conducted or are in the process of conducting updates to their risk-informed ISI programs. In the development and implementation of these risk-informed ISI programs and the associated updates to those programs, the following important lessons learned have been identified and are addressed. Concepts such as 'loss of inventory', which are typically not modeled in a plant's probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model for all systems. The importance of considering operator actions in the identification of consequences associated with a piping failure and the categorization of segments as high safety significant (HSS) or low safety significant (LSS). The impact that the above considerations have had on the large early release frequency (LERF) and categorization of segments as HSS or LSS. The importance of automation. Making the update process more efficient to reduce costs associated with maintaining the risk-informed ISI program. The insights gained are associated with many of the steps in the risk-informed ISI process including: development of the consequences associated with piping failures, categorization of segments, structural element selection and program updates. Many of these lessons learned have impacted the results of the risk-informed ISI programs and have impacted the updates to those programs. This paper summarizes the lessons learned and insights gained from the application of the WOG risk-informed ISI methodology in the U.S., Europe and Asia. (authors)

  10. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Gezmu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  11. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  12. Dental erosion, prevalence and risk factors among a group of adolescents in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalsky Jarkander, M; Grindefjord, M; Carlstedt, K

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of dental erosion (DE) among a group of adolescents in Stockholm County. This cross sectional cohort study was conducted at three clinics of the Public Dental Service in Stockholm County. Fifteen and 17 year old adolescents (1335) who scheduled their regular dental health examination were asked to participate. After drop-outs a sample of 1071 individuals, 547 males and 524 females were enrolled in the study. Presence of erosive wear was diagnosed (yes/no) on marker teeth by trained dentists/dental hygienists and photographs were taken. The adolescents answered a questionnaire regarding oral symptoms, dietary and behavioural factors. Two calibrated specialist dentists performed evaluation of the photographs for severity of DE using a modified version of the Simplified Erosion Partial Recording System (SEPRS). DE was clinically diagnosed in 28.3% of 15 years old and 34.3% of 17 years old. Severe erosive wear (grade 3 and 4 according to SEPRS) was found in 18.3% of the adolescents based upon the intra-oral photographs. DE was more prevalent and severe among males than females. Clinically diagnosed erosive lesions correlated significantly with soft drink consumption (p < 0.001), the use of juice or sport drinks as a thirst quencher after exercise (p = 0.006) and tooth hypersensitivity when eating and drinking (p = 0.012). Furthermore, self-assessed gastric reflux was a factor strongly associated with DE (p < 0.001). The study indicated that DE was common among adolescents in Stockholm County and associated with both internal and external risk factors.

  13. Group Mentoring: a Way to Retain ´High-Risk´Teachers on the Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Lisbeth Angela Lunde

    2015-01-01

    The present article concerns group mentoring combined with action learning as a way to counteract work related sickness and early retirement for´ high risk´ teachers. Focus has been on reflection and vitalization. The data shows that this way of working has many possibilities in supporting...

  14. ABO blood group and the risk of placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adegnika, A.A.; Luty, A.J.F.; Grobusch, M.P.; Ramharter, M.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Kremsner, P.G.; Schwarz, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In malarious areas of the world, a higher proportion of the population has blood group O than in non-malarious areas. This is probably due to a survival advantage conferred either by an attenuating effect on the course of or reduction in the risk of infection by plasmodial parasites.

  15. ABO blood group and the risk of placental malaria in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adegnika, Ayola A.; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Ramharter, Michael; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Kremsner, Peter G.; Schwarz, Norbert G.

    2011-01-01

    In malarious areas of the world, a higher proportion of the population has blood group O than in non-malarious areas. This is probably due to a survival advantage conferred either by an attenuating effect on the course of or reduction in the risk of infection by plasmodial parasites. Here, the

  16. Risk perception in an interest group context: an examination of the TMI restart issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Carnes, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Human response to environmental hazards and risks has been the subject of considerable research by social scientists. Work has traditionally focused on either individual response to the risks of an ongoing or future threat (hazards research), or group and organizational response to a specific disaster event (disaster research). As part of a larger investigation of the restart of the Unit 1 reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI), the response of interest groups active in the restart issue to the continued threat of TMI and to future risks due to restart was examined. After reviewing the restart issue in general, the local dimensions of the restart issue from interest group perspectives are discussed. A method for defining appropriate issues at the community level is reviewed. Differences in the perceived local impacts of alternative decisions, and systems of beliefs associated with differing perceptions are discussed. Finally, the implications of interest group versus individual perceptions of local issues for decision making about TMI, in particular, and about technological hazards management, in general, are discussed. Associated implications for determining socially acceptable risk levels are identified

  17. Staircase falls: High-risk groups and injury characteristics in 464 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boele van Hensbroek, P.; Mulder, S.; Luitse, J. S. K.; van Ooijen, M. R.; Goslings, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Few data are available about the epidemiology and injury characteristics in staircase falls. The available literature mainly concerns children and autopsy studies. Objective: To describe the epidemiology and injury characteristics of staircase falls, and to identify high-risk groups

  18. A Group Intervention for HIV/STI Risk Reduction among Indian Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Nehra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV in India is transmitted primarily by heterosexual contact. The present study sought to test the feasibility of a group HIV/STI risk reduction intervention among heterosexual couples in India. Methods: Focus groups and key informant interviews were used in 2008 to culturally tailor the intervention. Thirty sexually active and HIV/STI negative couples were enrolled and assessed regarding risk behavior and sexual barrier acceptability. Gender-concordant group sessions used cognitive behavioral strategies for HIV/STI prevention. Results: At baseline, male condom use was low (36%; no participants reported use of female condoms or vaginal gels. HIV knowledge was low; women had more HIV knowledge and more positive attitudes towards condom use than men. Post-intervention, willingness to use all barrier products (t = 10.0, P< .001 and intentions to avoid risk behavior increased (t = 5.62, P< .001. Conclusion: This study illustrates the feasibility of utilizing a group intervention to enhance HIV/STI risk reduction among Indian couples.

  19. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  20. 40 CFR 280.97 - Insurance and risk retention group coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.97 Insurance and risk retention group coverage... information and the brackets deleted: (1) Endorsement Name: [name of each covered location] Address: [address... liability, and exclusions of the policy.] I hereby certify that the wording of this instrument is identical...

  1. Passengers, Participants, Partners and Practitioners. Working with Risk To Empower Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…

  2. The patient perspective: utilizing focus groups to inform care coordination for high-risk medicaid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Alex; Park, Elyse R; Neagle, Mary; Oreskovic, Nicolas M

    2017-07-25

    Care coordination programs for high-risk, high-cost patients are a critical component of population health management. These programs aim to improve outcomes and reduce costs and have proliferated over the last decade. Some programs, originally designed for Medicare patients, are now transitioning to also serve Medicaid populations. However, there are still gaps in the understanding of what barriers to care Medicaid patients experience, and what supports will be most effective for providing them care coordination. We conducted two focus groups (n = 13) and thematic analyses to assess the outcomes drivers and programmatic preferences of Medicaid patients enrolled in a high-risk care coordination program at a major academic medical center in Boston, MA. Two focus groups identified areas where care coordination efforts were having a positive impact, as well as areas of unmet needs among the Medicaid population. Six themes emerged from the focus groups that clustered in three groupings: In the first group (1) enrollment in an existing medical care coordination programs, and (2) provider communication largely presented as positive accounts of assistance, and good relationships with providers, though participants also pointed to areas where these efforts fell short. In the second group (3) trauma histories, (4) mental health challenges, and (5) executive function difficulties all presented challenges faced by high-risk Medicaid patients that would likely require redress through additional programmatic supports. Finally, in the third group, (6) peer-to-peer support tendencies among patients suggested an untapped resource for care coordination programs. Programs aimed at high-risk Medicaid patients will want to consider programmatic adjustments to attend to patient needs in five areas: (1) provider connection/care coordination, (2) trauma, (3) mental health, (4) executive function/paperwork and coaching support, and (5) peer-to-peer support.

  3. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  4. Identifying drug risk perceptions in Danish youths: Ranking exercises in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Ravn, Signe

    2010-01-01

    not. As such, this approach can become an efficient policy tool. Methods: Focus groups are used to investigate risk perceptions. We develop a specific methodology that combines a ranking exercise with discourse theory as an analytical approach. This methodology produces detailed information......Abstract: Background: This paper develops an analytical approach for understanding the perceptions of risks associated with drugs among youths in general. These perceptions are central in order to understand how certain drugs become popular, leading to increasing prevalence of use, while others do...... and provides a relatively efficient way of investigating normative risk perceptions at a national or subcultural level. The paper develops this methodology in relation to a Danish case with 12 focus group interviews with youths aged from 17 to 22. Results: The analysis identifies five discourses articulated...

  5. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit risk capital requirement, its market risk capital requirement, and its operations risk capital... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND...

  6. Model-based mitigation of availability risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, E.; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, S.; Salvato, M.

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for risk assessment and mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due

  7. Model-Based Mitigation of Availability Risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zambon, Emmanuele; Bolzoni, D.; Etalle, Sandro; Salvato, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The assessment and mitigation of risks related to the availability of the IT infrastructure is becoming increasingly important in modern organizations. Unfortunately, present standards for Risk Assessment and Mitigation show limitations when evaluating and mitigating availability risks. This is due

  8. Work and diet-related risk factors of cardiovascular diseases: comparison of two occupational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Danielle; Stadeler, Martina; Grieshaber, Romano; Keller, Sylvia; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2010-03-22

    Although work related risk factors associated with Cardiovascular Diseases (CD) have been well researched, there is no detailed knowledge regarding disparate occupational groups each with a different risk exposition. Therefore, two occupational groups (chefs and office workers) were compared with a focus on nutritional and psychosocial factors. Two groups of subjects were tested for work and diet-related risks of CD (45 chefs and 48 office workers). The groups matched both for gender (male) and age (30 to 45 years). The study included a medical check-up, bioelectrical impedance analysis as well as an evaluation of questionnaires on health, nutritional behaviour and coping capacity. In addition, volunteers were required to compile a 7-day-dietary-record and collect their urine 24 h prior to their check-up. Blood samples drawn were analysed for glucose and lipid metabolism, homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid; C-reactive protein, uric acid, red blood cell fatty acids, plant sterols, antioxidative capacity and oxidative stress. On average, the chefs showed one risk factor more compared to the office workers. The most frequent risk factors in both groups included overweight/obesity (chef group [CG]: 62.2%; office group [OG]: 58.3%) and elevated TC (CG: 62.2%; OG: 43.8%]. Moreover, although the chefs often had higher CRP-concentrations (40.0%), more office workers suffered from hypertension (37.5%).Chefs showed significant higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and oleic acid, whereas docosahexaenoic acid, Omega-6- and trans fatty acids were found more frequently in the red blood cell membranes of office workers. While there were no significant differences in analysed plant sterols between the two occupational groups, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was significantly increased in office workers.Concerning the work-related psychosocial factors, the chefs were characterised by a stronger subjective importance of work, a greater degree of professional

  9. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Intake of predatory fish in Amazonia is a driver of toxicological risk for susceptible exposure groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacon S.S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High fish intake has marked the scenario of riparian communities in Amazon basin during the last three decades. Although efforts have been done by some national and international scientific groups to control mercury exposure in Brazilian Amazon, the problem persists. The return of artisan gold mining, the new hydroelectric power plants (with its reservoirs and the expansion of the agribusiness are some of the economic activities that may contribute to the increment of mercury load in the Amazon ecosystem with direct influence in the food chain. These changes in Amazon scenario increase complexity of environmental issue and mercury may become a threat for susceptible exposure groups. This study evaluated mercury exposure scenarios for susceptible groups around the hydroelectric plant to calculate toxicological risk before damming. During the period of 2009 to 2011, about 771 children under 16 years age and 276 female in reproductive age (from 16 to 40 years old were assessed. Besides, regular fish samples (n=1580 were collected for total mercury determination. The mercury concentration in fish ranged from 0.01 to 6.06 mg/kg. For the current scenario the toxicological risk ranged from 3.5 to 24 for mercury for the susceptible groups. Regarding the critical scenario after 3 years flooding, the area is expected to double the risk for the same group, especially for the communities downstream, which may represent a critical situation.

  11. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Risk and benefit of dual antiplatelet treatment among nonrevascularized myocardial infarction patients in different age groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nikolai; Gislason, Gunnar; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2017-01-01

    revascularization. METHODS: Patients admitted with first-time myocardial infarction in 2002-2010, not undergoing revascularization, were identified from nationwide Danish registers. Dual anti-platelet treatment use was assessed by claimed prescriptions. Stratified into age groups, risk of bleeding, all.......63; 95% CI 1.17-2.26), 60-69 years (HR=1.22; 95% CI 0.97-1.59, NS), 70-79 years (HR=1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.72) and >79 years (HR=1.46; 95% CI 1.22-1.74). Similar tendencies in all four age groups were found in the propensity-matched population. CONCLUSION: Dual anti-platelet treatment use was less likely...... among elderly patients although similar effects regarding both risk and benefit were found in all age groups. Increased focus on initiating dual anti-platelet treatment in elderly, non-invasively treated myocardial infarction patients is warranted....

  13. Group Music Therapy as a Preventive Intervention for Young People at Risk: Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes

    2017-07-01

    Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Group size, grooming and fission in primates: a modeling approach based on group structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Petit, Odile; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-03-21

    In social animals, fission is a common mode of group proliferation and dispersion and may be affected by genetic or other social factors. Sociality implies preserving relationships between group members. An increase in group size and/or in competition for food within the group can result in decrease certain social interactions between members, and the group may split irreversibly as a consequence. One individual may try to maintain bonds with a maximum of group members in order to keep group cohesion, i.e. proximity and stable relationships. However, this strategy needs time and time is often limited. In addition, previous studies have shown that whatever the group size, an individual interacts only with certain grooming partners. There, we develop a computational model to assess how dynamics of group cohesion are related to group size and to the structure of grooming relationships. Groups' sizes after simulated fission are compared to observed sizes of 40 groups of primates. Results showed that the relationship between grooming time and group size is dependent on how each individual attributes grooming time to its social partners, i.e. grooming a few number of preferred partners or grooming equally or not all partners. The number of partners seemed to be more important for the group cohesion than the grooming time itself. This structural constraint has important consequences on group sociality, as it gives the possibility of competition for grooming partners, attraction for high-ranking individuals as found in primates' groups. It could, however, also have implications when considering the cognitive capacities of primates. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Any of them will do: In-group identification, out-group entitativity, and gang membership as predictors of group-based retribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Eduardo A; Wenborne, Lisa; Peers, Madeline; Alleyne, Emma; Ellis, Kirsty

    2015-05-01

    In non-gang populations, the degree of identification with an in-group and perceptions of out-group entitativity, the perception of an out-group as bonded or unified, are important contributors to group-based aggression or vicarious retribution. The link between these factors and group-based aggression, however, has not been examined in the context of street gangs. The current study assessed the relationship among in-group identification, perceptions of out-group entitativity, and the willingness to retaliate against members of rival groups who did not themselves attack the in-group among juvenile gang and non-gang members in London. Our results showed the predicted membership (gang/non-gang) × in-group identification × entitativity interaction. Decomposition of the three-way interaction by membership revealed a significant identification × entitativity interaction for gang, but not for non-gang members. More specifically, gang members who identify more strongly with their gang and perceived a rival group as high on entitativity were more willing to retaliate against any of them. In addition, entitativity was a significant predictor of group-based aggression after controlling for gender, in-group identification, and gang membership. Our results are consistent with socio-psychological theories of group-based aggression and support the proposal that such theories are applicable for understanding gang-related violence. Aggr. Behav. 41:242-252, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The perception of injury risk and safety in triathlon competition: an exploratory focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Cameron McR; Donaldson, Alex; Forbes, Andrew B; Gabbe, Belinda J

    2013-01-01

    To explore stakeholder perceptions of triathlon competition safety and injury risk. Qualitative focus group study. Triathlon stakeholders from Melbourne, Australia. Competition organizers, coaches, and competitors of various skill levels, age, gender, and experience (n = 18). Focus groups were conducted, recorded, and transcribed for analysis. Key themes were identified using content analysis. The perceived risk of serious injury was highest for cycling. Running was most commonly linked to minor injuries. Physical and environmental factors, including course turning points, funneling of competitors into narrow sections, and the weather, were perceived as contributing to injury. Experience, skill level, feelings of vulnerability, personal awareness, club culture, and gender issues were perceived as the competitor-related factors potentially contributing to injury. The cycling mount/dismount area, cycling, and swim legs were the race sections perceived as the riskiest for competitors. Competition organizers were considered to generally have the competitors' best interest as a priority. Triathlons were acknowledged as risky activities and individual competitors accepted this risk. This study has highlighted the main risks and concerns perceived by triathlon competitors, coaches, and competition organizers, which will help identify potential, context-relevant intervention strategies to reduce injury risk.

  17. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Giordano, Christine; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014). All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL) than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke risk factors examined in this study predicts the increase in the incidence of the disease, lack of knowledge/awareness and lack of affordable treatments for stroke risk factors among women and immigrants/non-US-born subpopulations may explain the observed associations.

  18. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  19. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  20. Hardware Accelerators Targeting a Novel Group Based Packet Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet classification is a ubiquitous and key building block for many critical network devices. However, it remains as one of the main bottlenecks faced when designing fast network devices. In this paper, we propose a novel Group Based Search packet classification Algorithm (GBSA that is scalable, fast, and efficient. GBSA consumes an average of 0.4 megabytes of memory for a 10 k rule set. The worst-case classification time per packet is 2 microseconds, and the preprocessing speed is 3 M rules/second based on an Xeon processor operating at 3.4 GHz. When compared with other state-of-the-art classification techniques, the results showed that GBSA outperforms the competition with respect to speed, memory usage, and processing time. Moreover, GBSA is amenable to implementation in hardware. Three different hardware implementations are also presented in this paper including an Application Specific Instruction Set Processor (ASIP implementation and two pure Register-Transfer Level (RTL implementations based on Impulse-C and Handel-C flows, respectively. Speedups achieved with these hardware accelerators ranged from 9x to 18x compared with a pure software implementation running on an Xeon processor.

  1. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  2. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  3. Urban adolescent high-risk sexual behavior: corroboration of focus group discussions through pile-sorting. The AIDS Youth Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Aronson, R; Borgatti, S; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S

    1993-01-01

    Risk activities for acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain prevalent among urban adolescents. While interdisciplinary approaches to examine the variables contributing to risk/protective behaviors have been promoted, strategies for such explorations require further formulation. Recently we employed focus group discussions to explore factors placing urban adolescents at risk for engaging in HIV risk behaviors. The focus group format enables substantial interaction on a topic in a limited time period, but does not always provide expression of the full range of behavioral options. In this study we investigated the use of pile-sorts for confirmation of impressions from focus group discussions among 57 urban youths aged 10-14. The pile-sorts revealed some support for most of the views expressed in the group discussions. However, the sorts revealed more variability in views than was expressed in the group discussions. Substantial gender and age-based differences in perceptions were revealed with potentially important intervention implications.

  4. Variation in the risk for liver and gallbladder cancers in socioeconomic and occupational groups in Sweden with etiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianguang; Hemminki, Kari

    2005-09-01

    To examine the associations between socioeconomic/occupational factors and liver cancer at various anatomic sites (including primary liver, gallbladder and other cancers). We carried out a follow-up study on the economically active Swedish population, based on the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in different social classes and occupations. For primary liver cancer, farmers were at a decreased risk; increased risks were observed for male sales agents, journalists, seamen, waiters, cooks and female beverage manufacture workers. Similar patterns were observed for gallbladder cancer; workers employed as journalists, sales agents, cooks and stewards, and public safety workers showed increased risk. Only male transport workers showed increased risk of cancers in other parts. Occupations with high consumption of alcohol and/or high prevalence of smoking associated with a risk of liver and gallbladder cancers. The present study suggests that the effects of socioeconomic factors on liver cancer of different subsites are similar; alcohol drinking is a risk factor of gallbladder cancer because of the covariation of primary liver and gallbladder cancers in occupational groups.

  5. Dietary patterns, food groups, and rectal cancer risk in Whites and African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A; Adair, Linda S; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S

    2009-05-01

    Associations between individual foods and nutrients and colorectal cancer have been inconsistent, and few studies have examined associations between food, nutrients, dietary patterns, and rectal cancer. We examined the relationship between food groups and dietary patterns and risk for rectal cancer in non-Hispanic Whites and African-Americans. Data were from the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study-Phase II and included 1,520 Whites (720 cases, 800 controls) and 384 African-Americans (225 cases, 159 controls). Diet was assessed using the Diet History Questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Among Whites, non-whole grains and white potatoes were associated with elevated risk for rectal cancer whereas fruit, vegetables, dairy, fish, and poultry were associated with reduced risk. In African-Americans, high consumption of other fruit and added sugar suggested elevated risk. We identified three major dietary patterns in Whites and African-Americans. The high fat/meat/potatoes pattern was observed in both race groups but was only positively associated with risk in Whites (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-3.15). The vegetable/fish/poultry and fruit/whole grain/dairy patterns in Whites had significant inverse associations with risk. In African-Americans, there was a positive dose-response for the fruit/vegetables pattern (P(trend) pattern (P(trend) dietary patterns with rectal cancer risk differ between Whites and African-Americans, highlighting the importance of examining diet and cancer relationships in racially diverse populations.

  6. Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing

    2014-01-01

    This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.

  7. Risk management or mind control? Possible messages in the report by the working group on the risk management of low-dose exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Takayuki; Shirabe, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima accident discharged a large amount of radioactive materials to the air and brought about a long-term low-dose radiation exposure risk in contaminated area. In December 2011 the government working group (WG) on the risk management of low-dose radiation exposure issued the report on subjects: (1) health effects from annual radiation exposure of 20 mSv, (2) special consideration necessary for children and pregnant women and (3) proper way communicating citizens on radioactive materials and radiation doses in relation to health risks from low-dose radiation exposure. This article recommended making radiation protection strategies based on discussions among experts, government and citizens in consideration of “uncertainty” of scientific knowledge, and it criticized the WG's report mainly in the following respects. 1) The report mixed evacuation order level and ICRP's reference level in its discussion on “20 mSv”. 2) It was over-optimistic and frequently misleading on health risks of low-dose radiation. For example, it sometimes discussed the risks employing data and knowledge against recommendations of international authorities like UNSCEAR and ICRP. 3) It regarded Fukushima residents’ anxieties and stresses to be controlled as the only source of health risks. This attitude offered a counterpoint to UNSCEAR's deliberate attitude to “radiophobia”. 4) Against the spirit of ICRP Publ.111, only experts of WG made decisions about radiation protection in the absence of stakeholders. As its result, 5) risk communication recommended in the report was not interactive, in fact, based on “deficit model” of science communication. (author)

  8. Maintenance evaluation using risk based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Valle, A.

    1996-01-01

    The maintenance evaluation is currently performed by using economic and, in some case, technical equipment failure criteria, however this is done to a specific equipment level. In general, when statistics are used the analysis for maintenance optimization are made isolated and whit a post mortem character; The integration provided by mean of Probabilistic Safety assessment (PSA) together with the possibilities of its applications, allow for evaluation of maintenance on the basis of broader scope criteria in regard to those traditionally used. The evaluate maintenance using risk based criteria, is necessary to follow a dynamic and systematic approach, in studying the maintenance strategy, to allow for updating the initial probabilistic models, for including operational changes that often take place during operation of complex facilities. This paper proposes a dynamic evaluation system of maintenance task. The system is illustrated by means of a practical example

  9. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaye, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  10. ABO Blood Group and Dementia Risk--A Scandinavian Record-Linkage Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    ,615 cases of Alzheimer's disease, 1,842 cases of vascular dementia, and 9,091 cases of unspecified dementia. Overall, our study showed no association between ABO blood group and risk of Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia or unspecified dementia. This was also true when analyses were restricted to donors......BACKGROUND: Dementia includes a group of neuro-degenerative disorders characterized by varying degrees of cognitive impairment. Recent data indicates that blood group AB is associated with impaired cognition in elderly patients. To date there are no large-scale studies that have examined...... the relationship between ABO blood group and dementia-related disorders in detail. METHODS: We used data from the SCANDAT2 database that contains information on over 1.6 million blood donors from 1968 in Sweden and 1981 from Denmark. The database was linked with health outcomes data from nationwide patient...

  11. Sero-epidemiological study of Lyme disease among high-risk population groups in eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zákutná, Ľubica; Dorko, Erik; Mattová, Eva; Rimárová, Kvetoslava

    2015-01-01

    IIntroduction and objective. The aim of the presented cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study was to determine the current presence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the high-risk groups of the Slovak population, and to identify potential risk factors to LB infections. A group of 277 agricultural and forestry workers - persons with frequent stay in the countryside and employees of State Border and Customs Police - from years 2011-2012 in the Eastern Slovakia were examined in order to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. Sera were screened by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The study subjects completed a questionnaires with general demographic, epidemiological and clinical data. The results were evaluated statistically. A 25.3% presence of positive and 8.7% presence of borderline IgG antibodies was detected in all investigated groups. The seroprevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. was significantly higher (P<0.05) among the agricultural and forestry workers when compared to employees of State Border and Customs Police. Higher seropositivity was observed in older subjects over 30 years of age (P=0.004) than those who were younger, and also in males (P=0.045). A significant number of persons with rheumatologic conditions was statistically higher (P=0.020) in the group with seropositivity than in the group with seronegativity. The presented study confirms the higher risk of Borrelia infection in individuals with frequent exposure to ticks in eastern Slovakia. The seropositivity tests confirmed the highest seropositivity in agriculture and forestry workers, middle positivity was confirmed among other sector workers, and lowest positivity in policemen and employees of the Customs and Border Inspection. The outputs also simultaneously filling the gap of missing seroprevalence data among these exposed groups.

  12. NEWBORNS OF HIGH RISK GROUPS AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CARDIAC ACTIVITY DURING THE PERIOD OF EARLY ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Tumaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study characteristics of electrophysiological cardiac activity in children of risk groups and to assess possibilities of Holter-electrocardiography (H-ECG in revealing of cardiac dysfunction during the period of early adaptation. Patients and methods: 250 newborns were examined. The main group consisted of 200 children with cerebral ischemia (CI. This group was divided into 2 subgroups: 100 full-term and 100 premature (at various gestation age infants. Control group contained 50 children born at 38–40th weeks of gestation with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery, APGAR score of 8–9 points. Complex examination included H-ECG according the standard technic with evaluation of the hearth rate (HR during sleep and wakefulness; HRmin, HRmax; arrhythmias, conductivity disorders, duration of the intervals; rhythm variability. Results: according to the ECG children with CI, especially premature ones, and children delivered via Cesarean section more often had ST-T disturbances, arrhythmias (sinus tachycardia, less often — sinus bradycardia and conductivity disorders, Q-Tc prolongation. H-EGC revealed decrease of sleep HR, HRmin and HRmax in children with CI especially in delivered via Cesarean section. The most common arrhythmia was supraventricular extrasystole.  Pauses in rhythms and variability were the highest in premature children delivered via Cesarean section. Conclusions: hypoxia/ischemia is a trigger for development of cardiovascular dysfuncion in newborns. Premature and children delivered via Cesarean section form a group of high risk. H-ECG widens possibilities of revealing of symptoms of cardiac dysfunction (disturbances at the basal level of functioning, of adaptation resources of the sinus node, electric instability of the myocardium and heart rate variability in children of risk group for development of cardiovascular disorders. 

  13. National nostalgia : A group-based emotion that benefits the in-group but hampers intergroup relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekes, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Social psychological research on nostalgia has mainly considered this emotion at the individual level rather than the group level. The current paper proposes that group-based nostalgia for the nation (i.e., national nostalgia) is likely to be related to a positive in-group orientation and a negative

  14. How Perspective-Taking Helps and Hinders Group-Based Guilt as a Function of Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zebel, Sven; Doosje, Bertjan; Spears, Russell

    In two studies we hypothesized that outgroup perspective-taking promotes group-based guilt among weakly identified perpetrator group members, but hinders it among higher identifiers. In Study 1, native Dutch participants (N = 153) confronted their group's past mistreatment of outgroups, while

  15. Group Contribution Based Process Flowsheet Synthesis, Design and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Anterroches, Loïc; Gani, Rafiqul

    2005-01-01

    In a group contribution method for pure component property prediction, a molecule is described as a set of groups linked together to form a molecular structure. In the same way, for flowsheet "property" prediction, a flowsheet can be described as a set of process-groups linked together to represent...... the flowsheet structure. Just as a functional group is a collection of atoms, a process-group is a collection of operations forming an "unit" operation or a set of "unit" operations. The link between the process-groups are the streams similar to the bonds that are attachments to atoms/groups. Each process-group...... provides a contribution to the "property" of the flowsheet, which can be performance in terms of energy consumption, thereby allowing a flowsheet "property" to be calculated, once it is described by the groups. Another feature of this approach is that the process-group attachments provide automatically...

  16. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  17. HOW INTERNAL RISK - BASED AUDIT APPRAISES THE EVALUATION OF RISKS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dorosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature and function of the internal risk-based audit process approach to create patterns of risks and methods of evaluation. Deals with the relationship between the level of maturity of the risk of the company and the method of risk-based internal audit. it was emphasized that internal auditing provides an independent and objective opinion to an organization’s management as to whether its risks are being managed to acceptable levels.

  18. Development of a national sport event risk management training program for college command groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stacey A

    2013-01-01

    The US Department of Homeland Security identified college sport venues as terrorist targets due to the potential for mass casualties and catastrophic social and economic impact. Therefore, it is critical for college sport safety and security personnel to implement effective risk management practices. However, deficiencies have been identified in the level of preparedness of college sport event security personnel related to risk management training and effective emergency response capabilities. To address the industry need, the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security designed, developed, and evaluated a national sport event risk management training program for National Collegiate Athletic Association command groups. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the design, development, and evaluation process.

  19. Relative Risks of Thrombosis and Bleeding in Different ABO Blood Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The ABO blood group system is composed of complex carbohydrate molecules (i.e., the A, B, and H determinants) that are widely expressed on the surface of red blood cells and in a variety of other cell and tissues. Along with their pivotal role in transfusion and transplantation medicine, the ABO antigens participate in many other physiological processes and, in particular, are important determinants of von Willebrand factor and factor VIII circulating plasma levels. The precise influence of the ABO system on hemostasis has led the way to the investigation of a putative implication in the risk of developing cardiovascular disorders. Along with the underlying molecular mechanisms, the current knowledge on the role of ABO blood group antigens in both the thrombotic and hemorrhagic risk will be summarized in this narrative review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Basic prerequisites of appearance and resocialization of children and young people of the risk group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тамара Василівна Говорун

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological factors of the appearance of young people of the "risk" group, the best practices of their resocialization have been determined. Children of vulnerable categories from young age have predispositions for acquiring properties and antisocial behavior caused by everyday stress in family life, conflict situations in school interaction. Youth is marked by lag in education, substance abuse, criminal acts, variance of exploitation. Psychocorrectional programs activate subjectivity of undergrads in anger management skills, education and communication

  1. [Risk groups in travel to tropical countries within the frame of mass tourism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, F; Steffen, R; Schwarzenbach, F H

    1977-01-01

    More than 10,000 tourists returning from tropical countries have been asked about health problems during their stay abroad. Preliminary results from the first 5,550 questionnaires indicate that 74,8% had complaints of any kind concerning their health and 13,6% can be considered as having been ill. The frequency of complaints and illness in relation to different variables is shown and the possibility of definition of high risk groups is being discussed.

  2. Methylation diet and methyl group genetics in risk for adenomatous polyp occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lucock

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: A methylation diet influences methyl group synthesis in the regulation of blood homocysteine level, and is modulated by genetic interactions. Methylation-related nutrients also interact with key genes to modify risk of AP, a precursor of colorectal cancer. Independent of diet, two methylation-related genes (A2756G-MS and A66G-MSR were directly associated with AP occurrence.

  3. Active case finding and treatment adherence in risk groups in the tuberculosis pre-elimination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R K; Lipman, M; Story, A; Hayward, A; de Vries, G; van Hest, R; Erkens, C; Rangaka, M X; Abubakar, I

    2018-05-01

    Vulnerable populations, including homeless persons, high-risk drug and alcohol users, prison inmates and other marginalised populations, contribute a disproportionate burden of tuberculosis (TB) cases in low-incidence settings. Drivers of this disease burden include an increased risk of both TB transmission in congregate settings, and progression from infection to active disease. Late diagnosis and poor treatment completion further propagate the epidemic and fuel the acquisition of drug resistance. These groups are therefore a major priority for TB control programmes in low-incidence settings. Targeted strategies include active case finding (ACF) initiatives and interventions to improve treatment completion, both of which should be tailored to local populations. ACF usually deploys mobile X-ray unit screening, which allows sensitive, high-throughput screening with immediate availability of results. Such initiatives have been found to be effective and cost-effective, and associated with reductions in proxy measures of transmission in hard-to-reach groups. The addition of point-of-care molecular diagnostics and automated X-ray readers may further streamline the screening pathway. There is little evidence to support interventions to improve adherence among these risk groups. Such approaches include enhanced case management and directly observed treatment, while video-observed therapy (currently under evaluation) appears to be a promising tool for the future. Integrating outreach services to include both case detection and case-management interventions that share a resource infrastructure may allow cost-effectiveness to be maximised. Integrating screening and treatment for other diseases that are prevalent among targeted risk groups into TB outreach interventions may further improve cost-effectiveness. This article reviews the existing literature, and highlights priorities for further research.

  4. A risk-based approach to health criteria for radon indoors -report on a WHO initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for Europe, organised a meeting of a working group on indoor air quality in Eilat, Israel, from 28 March to 4 April 1993. The aim was to develop a risk-based approach to health criteria for radon indoors. The Group reviewed the latest epidemiological data from occupational and non-occupational radon exposure, animal experiments and dosimetry. The Group issued 14 conclusions and 23 recommendations on radon related risk to health, on risk management and risk communication. In summary, radon was confirmed as a human carcinogen. Indoor radon exposures resulting in individual risks exceeding 10 -3 per year are to be considered as severe and risk reduction programmes implemented. Guidance on risk management and communication is offered to national authorities. (author)

  5. Summary Record of the 15th Meeting of the Working Group on Risk Assessment (WGRISK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The main mission of the working group on risk assessment (WGRISK) is to advance the understanding and utilisation of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in ensuring the continued safety of nuclear installations in member countries. While PSA methodology has matured greatly over the years, further work is required. WGRISK has been active in several of these areas, including: human reliability; software reliability; low power and shutdown risk. In order to maintain a current perspective, the working group collaborates and assists other working groups within the CSNI, such as operating experience and organisational factors as well as keeping close co-ordination with other international organisations. Over the past twenty years, the NEA PWG5 and now WGRISK have looked at the technology and methods used for identifying contributors to risk and assessing their importance. Work during much of this period was concentrated on Level-1 PSA methodology. In recent years the focus has shifted into more specific PSA methodologies and risk-informed applications. This document summarizes the content of the 15. Meeting of WGRISK: - presentation of the new WGRISK Bureau, - Approval of the 14. WGRISK Meeting Summary Record [NEA/SEN/SIN/WGRISK (2013)1], - Use and Development of PSA in NEA Member Countries and by other International Organisations, - Report by the WGRISK Secretariat on the current WGRISK programme of work, actions taken by CSNI and CNRA and other recent developments in OECD/NEA, - Development of BPGs on failure mode taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I and C systems for PSA [Task 2010-3], - Update Use of OECD Data Project Products in PSA [Task 2011-1], - Status report on the common WGHOF/WGRISK HRA Task, - Outcome on the International Workshop on PSA of Natural External Hazards Including Earthquakes, April 2014 [Task 2012-1], - Status report on the International Workshop on Fire PRA [Task 2012-2], - PSA insights relating to the loss of electrical sources

  6. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  7. Projection of human immunodeficiency virus among high-risk groups in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Md Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) presents a serious healthcare threat to young individuals in Malaysia and worldwide. This study aimed to identify trends in HIV-related risk behaviors among recognized high-risk groups and to estimate HIV transmission up to the year 2015. Data and necessary information were obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysia, published reports from the World Health Organization and United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, and other articles. The Estimation and Projection Package was used to estimate HIV transmission. The results of the present study revealed that within the high-risk groups, intravenous drug users (IDUs) had the highest prevalence rate of HIV transmission, followed by patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), female sex workers (SWs), and men who have sex with men (MSM). Within these at-risk populations, patients with STIs have the highest prevalence of HIV, followed by IDUs, MSM, and SWs. If the transmission rate continues to increase, the situation will worsen; therefore, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive prevention program to control HIV transmission in Malaysia.

  8. Defining risk groups to yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease in the absence of denominator data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J; Cohen, Joel E; Itan, Yuval; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pezzullo, John C

    2014-02-01

    Several risk groups are known for the rare but serious, frequently fatal, viscerotropic reactions following live yellow fever virus vaccine (YEL-AVD). Establishing additional risk groups is hampered by ignorance of the numbers of vaccinees in factor-specific risk groups thus preventing their use as denominators in odds ratios (ORs). Here, we use an equation to calculate ORs using the prevalence of the factor-specific risk group in the population who remain well. The 95% confidence limits and P values can also be calculated. Moreover, if the estimate of the prevalence is imprecise, discrimination analysis can indicate the prevalence at which the confidence interval results in an OR of ∼1 revealing if the prevalence might be higher without yielding a non-significant result. These methods confirm some potential risk groups for YEL-AVD and cast doubt on another. They should prove useful in situations in which factor-specific risk group denominator data are not available.

  9. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D’ors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods: Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results: Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10, (8.60±1.30 and (4.32±1.67 pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions: These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  10. Project transition to risk based corrective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, J.M.; Cormier, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Many states have adopted or are considering the adoption of the America Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E 1739, Standard for Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA) Applied to Petroleum Release Sites. This standard is being adopted to regulate leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites. The case studies of two LUST sites in Michigan will be presented to demonstrate the decision making process and limiting factors involved in transitioning sites to the RBCA program. Both of these case studies had been previously investigated and one was actively remediated. The first case study involves a private petroleum facility where soil and ground water have been impacted. Remediation involved a ground water pump and treat system. Subsequent monitoring during system operation indicated that analytical data were still above the Tier 1 RBSLs but below the Tier 2 SSTLs. The closure strategy that was developed was based on the compounds of concern that were below the SSTLs. A deed restriction was also developed for the site as an institutional control. The second LUST site exhibited BTEX concentrations in soil and ground water above the Tier 1 RBSLs. Due to the exceedence of the Tier 1 RBSLs, the second site required a Tier 2 assessment to develop SSTLs as remedial objectives and remove hot spots in the soil and treat the ground water to achieve closure. Again, a deed restriction was instituted along with a performance monitoring plan

  11. Gender-based education during clerkships: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leerdam L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lotte van Leerdam, Lianne Rietveld, Doreth Teunissen, Antoine Lagro-JanssenDepartment of Primary and Community Care, Gender and Women's Health, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsObjectives: One of the goals of the medical master's degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship.Methods: A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis.Results: Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors.Conclusion: Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues.Keywords: medical education, clerkship, gender, hidden curriculum, clinical teachers

  12. Cost effectiveness of risk-based closures at UST sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, K.M.; Baker, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Risk-based closures have been achieved at Underground Storage Tank (UST) sites throughout the country for a major transportation company. The risk-based closures were cost-effective because a streamlined risk-based approach was used instead of the generic baseline risk assessment approach. USEPA has recently provided guidance encouraging the use of risk-based methodology for achieving closure at UST sites. The risk-based approach used in achieving the site closures involved an identification of potential human and ecological receptors and exposure pathways, and a comparison of maximum onsite chemical concentrations to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). The ARARs used in the evaluation included Federal and/or State Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for groundwater and risk-based screening levels for soils. If the maximum concentrations were above the screening levels, a baseline risk assessment was recommended. In several instances, however, the risk-based approach resulted in a regulatory agency acceptance of a ''no further action'' alternative at UST sites which did not pose a significant threat to human health and the environment. The cost of the streamlined risk-based approach is approximately $3,500, while a baseline risk assessment for the same UST site could cost up to $10,000 or more. The use of the streamlined risk-based approach has proven to be successful for achieving a ''no further action'' outcome for the client at a reasonable cost

  13. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    OpenAIRE

    Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect o...

  14. A risk-based microbiological criterion that uses the relative risk as the critical limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit; da Costa Alves Machado, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A risk-based microbiological criterion is described, that is based on the relative risk associated to the analytical result of a number of samples taken from a food lot. The acceptable limit is a specific level of risk and not a specific number of microorganisms, as in other microbiological...... criteria. The approach requires the availability of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to get risk estimates for food products from sampled food lots. By relating these food lot risk estimates to the mean risk estimate associated to a representative baseline data set, a relative risk...... estimate can be obtained. This relative risk estimate then can be compared with a critical value, defined by the criterion. This microbiological criterion based on a relative risk limit is particularly useful when quantitative enumeration data are available and when the prevalence of the microorganism...

  15. ABO blood groups and risk for obesity in Arar, Northern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel-Fetoh, Nagah M; Alanazi, Arwa R; Alanazi, Abdullah S; Alruwili, Asma N

    2016-12-01

    ABO blood groups are associated with some important chronic diseases. Previous studies have observed an association between ABO blood group and risk for obesity. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between ABO blood groups and obesity in apparently healthy attendees of primary healthcare (PHC) centers in Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study included 401 participants aged 15 years and older attending three randomly selected PHC centers in Arar city. Data were collected by means of personal interview using a predesigned questionnaire. Anthropometric examination included height and weight measurements with calculation of BMI. ABO and Rh blood groups were determined. The majority of the participants were female (70.8%). The mean±SD age was 28.6±9.1 years. Only 5.7% were underweight. Both normal and overweight participants were equal in number and constituted 28.4%, whereas obese individuals constituted 37.4% with a mean BMI of 28.56±8.0. Blood group O was the most common (44.1%), followed by A (30.9%), B (18.7%), and AB (6.2%). Rh-positive cases constituted 87.0%. Blood group O was the most common type among the obese individuals (44.7%), followed by A, B, and AB groups (30, 20, and 5.3%, respectively). BMI was highest (28.8±9.2) in blood group O. There were no statistically significant differences between different ABO blood groups as regards BMI, Rh, and sex. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between Rh type and BMI. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is high in the population attending PHC centers of Arar city, Northern Saudi Arabia. There is no association between overweight, obesity, and ABO blood groups or Rh.

  16. Mom Power: preliminary outcomes of a group intervention to improve mental health and parenting among high-risk mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads. Further research is warranted to evaluate

  17. Development of a cumulative risk assessment for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's waste area group 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1989, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was added to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Priorities List of Superfund sites. A Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFA/CO) for the INEL was signed by the Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID), EPA, and the State of Idaho in December 1991. The goal of this agreement is to ensure that potential or actual INEL releases of hazardous substances to the environment are thoroughly investigated in accordance with the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and that appropriate response actions are taken as necessary to protect human health and the environment. The Test Reactor Area (TRA) is included as Waste Area Group (WAG) 2 of ten INEL WAGs identified in the FFA/CO. WAG 2 consists of 13 operable units (OUs) which include pits, tanks, rubble piles, ponds, cooling towers, wells, french drains, perched water and spill areas. OU 2-13 is the Comprehensive Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for WAG 2. The study presented here is a preliminary evaluation of the comprehensive risk for WAG-2. This investigation will be used as the basis of the WAG-2 comprehensive baseline risk assessment (BRA), and it will serve as a model for other INEL comprehensive risk assessments. The WAG-2 preliminary risk evaluation consisted of two broad phases. These phases were (1) a site and contaminant screening that was intended to support the identification of COPCs and risk assessment data gaps, and (2) an exposure pathway analysis that evaluated the comprehensive human health risks associated with WAG-2. The primary purposes of the investigation were to screen WAG-2 release sites and contaminants, and to identify risk assessment data gaps, so the investigation will be referred to as the WAG-2 Screening and Data Gap Analysis (SDGA) for the remainder of this report

  18. Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezmu T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tefera Gezmu,1 Dona Schneider,1 Kitaw Demissie,2 Yong Lin,2 Christine Giordano,3 Martin S Gizzi4 1Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, 2Rutgers School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Piscataway, NJ, 3Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, 4New Jersey Neuroscience Institute at JFK Medical Center and Seton Hall University, Edison, NJ, USA Abstract: Evidence implicates lipid abnormalities as important but modifiable risk factors for stroke. This study assesses whether hypercholesterolemia can be used to predict the risk for etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke between sexes within racial/ethnic groups. Data elements related to stroke risk, diagnosis, and outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of 3,290 acute stroke admissions between 2006 and 2010 at a regional stroke center. Sex comparison within racial/ethnic groups revealed that South Asian and Hispanic men had a higher proportion of ischemic stroke than women, while the inverse was true for Whites and African Americans (P=0.0014. All women, except South Asian women, had higher mean plasma total cholesterol and higher blood circulating low-density lipoprotein levels (≥100 mg/dL than men at the time of their admissions. The incidence of large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was more common among women than men, except among Hispanics, where men tended to have higher incidences. A regression analysis that considered patients diagnosed with either LAA or small-artery occlusion etiologic subtype as the outcomes and high-density lipoproteins and triglycerides as predictors showed inconsistent associations between lipid profiles and the incidence of these subtypes between the sexes within racial/ethnic groups. In conclusion, our investigation suggests that women stroke patients may be at increased risk for stroke etiologic subtype LAA than men. Although the higher prevalence of stroke

  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 3 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines; Market Risk Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The bank must have a risk control unit that reports directly to senior management and is independent... management systems at least annually. (c) Market risk factors. The bank's internal model must use risk.... Section 4. Internal Models (a) General. For risk-based capital purposes, a bank subject to this appendix...

  20. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2017-10-01

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  1. Polymer containing functional end groups is base for new polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, S. M.

    1971-01-01

    Butadiene is polymerized with lithium-p-lithiophenoxide to produce linear polymer containing oxy-lithium group at one end and active carbon-lithium group at other end. Living polymers represent new approach to preparation of difunctional polymers in which structural features, molecular weight, type and number of end groups are controlled.

  2. Anxiety and depression symptoms among women attending group-based patient education courses for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    List?l, Wenche; H?berg-Vetti, Hildegunn; Eide, Geir Egil; Bjorvatn, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Background Women carrying BRCA-mutations are facing significant challenges, including decision making regarding surveillance and risk-reducing surgery. They often report that they are left alone with these important decisions. In order to enhance the genetic counselling session we organized a group-based patient education (GPE) course for women with BRCA-mutations. The study aims were to characterize women attending a group-based patient education (GPE) course for hereditary breast and ovaria...

  3. 12 CFR 652.70 - Risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk-based capital level is the sum of the following amounts: (a) Credit and interest rate risk. The... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level. 652.70 Section 652.70 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE...

  4. Risk factors for child maltreatment in an Australian population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doidge, James C; Higgins, Daryl J; Delfabbro, Paul; Segal, Leonie

    2017-02-01

    Child maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences adversely influence population health and socioeconomic outcomes. Knowledge of the risk factors for child maltreatment can be used to identify children at risk and may represent opportunities for prevention. We examined a range of possible child, parent and family risk factors for child maltreatment in a prospective 27-year population-based birth cohort of 2443 Australians. Physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and witnessing of domestic violence were recorded retrospectively in early adulthood. Potential risk factors were collected prospectively during childhood or reported retrospectively. Associations were estimated using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions and combined into cumulative risk scores. Higher levels of economic disadvantage, poor parental mental health and substance use, and social instability were strongly associated with increased risk of child maltreatment. Indicators of child health displayed mixed associations and infant temperament was uncorrelated to maltreatment. Some differences were observed across types of maltreatment but risk profiles were generally similar. In multivariate analyses, nine independent risk factors were identified, including some that are potentially modifiable: economic disadvantage and parental substance use problems. Risk of maltreatment increased exponentially with the number of risk factors experienced, with prevalence of maltreatment in the highest risk groups exceeding 80%. A cumulative risk score based on the independent risk factors allowed identification of individuals at very high risk of maltreatment, while a score that incorporated all significant risk and protective factors provided better identification of low-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Studer Group® ' s evidence-based leadership initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Kristin A; Kash, Bita A; Gamm, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implementation of an organizational change initiative--Studer Group®'s Evidence-Based Leadership (EBL)--in two large, US health systems by comparing and contrasting the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainability of the EBL initiative. This comparative case study assesses the responses to two pairs of open-ended questions during in-depth qualitative interviews of leaders and managers at both health systems. Qualitative content analysis was employed to identify major themes. Three themes associated with success and sustainability of EBL emerged at both health systems: leadership; culture; and organizational processes. The theme most frequently identified for both success and sustainability of EBL was culture. In contrast, there was a significant decline in salience of the leadership theme as attention shifts from success in implementation of EBL to sustaining EBL long term. Within the culture theme, accountability, and buy-in were most often cited by interviewees as success factors, while sense of accountability, buy-in, and communication were the most reported factors for sustainability. Cultural factors, such as accountability, staff support, and communication are driving forces of success and sustainability of EBL across both health systems. Leadership, a critical factor in several stages of implementation, appears to be less salient as among factors identified as important to longer term sustainability of EBL.

  6. Coronary heart disease risk assessment and characterization of coronary artery disease using coronary CT angiography: comparison of asymptomatic and symptomatic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Kim, Y.; Chung, I.-M.; Ryu, J.; Park, H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in relation to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and assess plaque characteristics from coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Three hundred and ninety consecutive patients [asymptomatic group, n = 138; symptomatic group (atypical or non-anginal chest pain), n = 252] were retrospectively enrolled. They were subsequently classified into three CHD risk categories, based on the National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines, and 10 year risks of coronary events were calculated using Framingham risk score. CT was evaluated for stenosis, plaque composition, and coronary calcium scores. Results: CAD was observed in 42% of the asymptomatic group and 62% of the symptomatic group. In the former, the prevalence of CAD in low-, moderate- and high-risk subgroups was 21.4, 47.4 and 65%, respectively, and was 33.3, 74.4, and 72.4% in the symptomatic group. Framingham 10-year risks of coronary events were significantly higher in patients with CAD than in normal participants, and receiver operating characteristics curves showed that discriminatory power was poor in the asymptomatic group and symptomatic men, and good in symptomatic women. Of the participants in the asymptomatic group, 12% exhibited only non-calcified plaques and of the symptomatic group, 7% exhibited only non-calcified plaques. The coronary calcium score was significantly higher for significant stenosis than for non-significant stenosis in both groups. Conclusions: The prevalence of CAD was not negligible even in subgroups with low-to-moderate CHD risk. Additionally, the Framingham risk score was effective for predicting CAD only in symptomatic women. Coronary calcium scores correlated with significant stenosis; however, a sizeable percentage of both groups had only non-calcified plaques.

  7. Risk-based inspection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1995-01-01

    A multidiscipline research programme was developed in the USA to establish risk-based inspections for NPP structures and equipment components. Based on this US research effort, the risk-based procedure for developing inspection guidelines for NPPs is described. The procedure includes the definition of systems, qualitative risk assessment, qualitative risk analysis and development of the inspection programme. The method, when adopted and modified, is recommended also for risk-based inspections of structures and equipment of WWER-type NPPs. A pilot application of the method to unit 1 of the Surry NPP is summarized. (Z.S.) 1 tab., 1 fig., 5 refs

  8. A group signature scheme based on quantum teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiaojun; Tian Yuan; Ji Liping; Niu Xiamu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a group signature scheme using quantum teleportation. Different from classical group signature and current quantum signature schemes, which could only deliver either group signature or unconditional security, our scheme guarantees both by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum teleportation. Security analysis proved that our scheme has the characteristics of group signature, non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. Our quantum group signature scheme has a foreseeable application in the e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc.

  9. A group signature scheme based on quantum teleportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Xiaojun; Tian Yuan; Ji Liping; Niu Xiamu, E-mail: wxjun36@gmail.co [Information Countermeasure Technique Research Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we present a group signature scheme using quantum teleportation. Different from classical group signature and current quantum signature schemes, which could only deliver either group signature or unconditional security, our scheme guarantees both by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum teleportation. Security analysis proved that our scheme has the characteristics of group signature, non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. Our quantum group signature scheme has a foreseeable application in the e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc.

  10. Impact of sickle cell trait on the thrombotic risk associated with non-O blood groups in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sagir G; Kagu, Modu B; Ibrahim, Umma A; Bukar, Audu A

    2015-10-01

    The non-O blood group is an established risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), while controversy surrounds the role of sickle cell trait (SCT) as a risk factor for DVT. We hypothesised that if SCT is a risk factor for DVT, individuals with non-O blood groups and SCT (Hb AS) would have a higher risk of DVT than their counterparts with non-O blood groups and normal haemoglobin phenotype (Hb AA). We retrospectively analysed the prevalence of SCT and non-O blood groups among 148 DVT patients with control subjects in order to determine the role of SCT as a risk factor for DVT and its impact on the risk of DVT among patients with non-O blood groups. In comparison with control subjects, DVT patients had significantly higher prevalences of SCT (35.1% vs 27.7%, p=0.04) and non-O blood groups (68.9% vs 45.9%, p=0.02). The odds ratios for DVT due to SCT, non-O blood groups with normal Hb phenotype (Hb AA) and non-O blood groups with SCT (Hb AS) were 1.3, 2.4 and 3.5, respectively. These results suggest that SCT by itself is a weak risk factor for DVT but it has the potential of escalating the DVT risk among patients with non-O blood groups. The combined effects of elevated clotting factors (non-O group effect) and increased clotting factor activation (SCT effect) were responsible for the escalated DVT risk among patients with co-inheritance of non-O blood groups and SCT. Co-inheritance of SCT and non-O blood group is, therefore, an important mixed risk factor for DVT. This should be taken into account when assessing DVT risk profiles of patients in Africa and other parts of the world where the SCT is prevalent.

  11. A Novel Dynamic Algorithm for IT Outsourcing Risk Assessment Based on Transaction Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Cong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the great risk exposed in IT outsourcing, how to assess IT outsourcing risk becomes a critical issue. However, most of approaches to date need to further adapt to the particular complexity of IT outsourcing risk for either falling short in subjective bias, inaccuracy, or efficiency. This paper proposes a dynamic algorithm of risk assessment. It initially forwards extended three layers (risk factors, risks, and risk consequences of transferring mechanism based on transaction cost theory (TCT as the framework of risk analysis, which bridges the interconnection of components in three layers with preset transferring probability and impact. Then, it establishes an equation group between risk factors and risk consequences, which assures the “attribution” more precisely to track the specific sources that lead to certain loss. Namely, in each phase of the outsourcing lifecycle, both the likelihood and the loss of each risk factor and those of each risk are acquired through solving equation group with real data of risk consequences collected. In this “reverse” way, risk assessment becomes a responsive and interactive process with real data instead of subjective estimation, which improves the accuracy and alleviates bias in risk assessment. The numerical case proves the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with the approach forwarded by other references.

  12. The effects of adding group-based lifestyle counselling to individual counselling on changes in plasma glucose levels in a randomized controlled trial: The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Vistisen, D.; Toft, U.

    2011-01-01

    AimThis study aimed to assess whether group-based lifestyle counselling offered to a high-risk population subgroup had any effect beyond individual multifactorial interventions on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) changes. MethodsIn a population-based study of 6784......% to low-intensity intervention (group B). All participants went through health examinations, risk assessments and individual lifestyle counselling. Participants in group A were further offered group-based lifestyle counselling. The intervention was repeated after 1 and 3 years. A total of 2738...... participants, 4053 were determined to be at high risk based on a risk estimate of ischaemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance). Of these subjects, 90% were randomized to high-intensity intervention (group A) and 10...

  13. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report

  14. Risk-based plant performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Azarm, M.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tasked by the 1979 President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, the U.S. nuclear power industry has put into place a performance indicator program as one means for showing a demonstrable record of achievement. Largely through the efforts of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), plant performance data has, since 1983, been collected and analyzed to aid utility management in measuring their plants' performance progress. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has also developed a set of performance indicators. This program, conducted by NRC's Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), is structured to present information on plant operational performance in a manner that could enhance the staff's ability to recognize changes in the safety performance. Both organizations recognized that performance indicators have limitations and could be subject to misinterpretation and misuse with the potential for an adverse impact on safety. This paper reports on performance indicators presently in use, e.g., unplanned automatic scrams, unplanned safety system actuation, safety system failures, etc., which are logically related to safety. But, a reliability/risk-based method for evaluating either individual indicators or an aggregated set of indicators is not yet available

  15. Task-based dermal exposure models for regulatory risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Nicholas D; Marquart, Hans; Christopher, Yvette; Laitinen, Juha; VAN Hemmen, Joop J

    2006-07-01

    The regulatory risk assessment of chemicals requires the estimation of occupational dermal exposure. Until recently, the models used were either based on limited data or were specific to a particular class of chemical or application. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a considerable number of new measurements of dermal exposure together with detailed contextual information. This article describes the development of a set of generic task-based models capable of predicting potential dermal exposure to both solids and liquids in a wide range of situations. To facilitate modelling of the wide variety of dermal exposure situations six separate models were made for groupings of exposure scenarios called Dermal Exposure Operation units (DEO units). These task-based groupings cluster exposure scenarios with regard to the expected routes of dermal exposure and the expected influence of exposure determinants. Within these groupings linear mixed effect models were used to estimate the influence of various exposure determinants and to estimate components of variance. The models predict median potential dermal exposure rates for the hands and the rest of the body from the values of relevant exposure determinants. These rates are expressed as mg or microl product per minute. Using these median potential dermal exposure rates and an accompanying geometric standard deviation allows a range of exposure percentiles to be calculated.

  16. Individual-based and group-based occupational exposure assessment: some equations to evaluate different strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Kupper, L.L.; Kromhout, H.; Heederik, D.; Houba, R.

    1998-01-01

    Basically, two strategies can be considered for the analysis of hazardous pollutants in the work environment: group-based and individual-based strategies. This paper provides existing and recently derived equations for both strategies describing the influence of several factors on attenuation and on

  17. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  18. Lifestyle-based risk model for fall risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sannino, Giovanna; De Falco, Ivanoe; De Pietro, Guiseppe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify the explicit relationship between life-style and the risk of falling under the form of a mathematical model. Starting from some personal and behavioral information of a subject as, e.g., weight, height, age, data about physical activity habits, and concern about falling, the model would estimate the score of her/his Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems (Mini-BES) test. This score ranges within 0 and 28, and the lower its value the more likely the subj...

  19. A newly identified group of adolescents at "invisible" risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior: findings from the SEYLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Wasserman, Camilla; Chiesa, Flaminia; Guffanti, Guia; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Keeley, Helen; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar; Varnik, Airi; Wasserman, Danuta

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the prevalence of risk behaviors (excessive alcohol use, illegal drug use, heavy smoking, reduced sleep, overweight, underweight, sedentary behavior, high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, and truancy), and their association with psychopathology and self-destructive behaviors, in a sample of 12,395 adolescents recruited in randomly selected schools across 11 European countries. Latent class analysis identified three groups of adolescents: a low-risk group (57.8%) including pupils with low or very low frequency of risk behaviors; a high-risk group (13.2%) including pupils who scored high on all risk behaviors, and a third group ("invisible" risk, 29%) including pupils who were positive for high use of Internet/TV/videogames for reasons not related to school or work, sedentary behavior and reduced sleep. Pupils in the "invisible" risk group, compared with the high-risk group, had a similar prevalence of suicidal thoughts (42.2% vs. 44%), anxiety (8% vs. 9.2%), subthreshold depression (33.2% vs. 34%) and depression (13.4% vs. 14.7%). The prevalence of suicide attempts was 5.9% in the "invisible" group, 10.1% in the high-risk group and 1.7% in the low-risk group. The prevalence of all risk behaviors increased with age and most of them were significantly more frequent among boys. Girls were significantly more likely to experience internalizing (emotional) psychiatric symptoms. The "invisible" group may represent an important new intervention target group for potentially reducing psychopathology and other untoward outcomes in adolescence, including suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2014 World Psychiatric Association.

  20. Risk of Debt-Based Financing in Indonesian Islamic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisya Ayu Effendi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the risk of debt-based financing in Islamic banking in Indonesia by using an accounting based calculation, those are NPF analysis, Credit risk Z-score and Altman Z-score. This study is telling about the risk of debt-based finacing on Indonesian Islamic banking using an accounting based measurement, those are NPF analysis, Credit Risk Z-score analysis and Altman Z-score analysis. The data was obtained from 2011 to 2015 from the website of each bank. The result is a risk on debt-based financing on Indonesian Islamic banking is low. The measurement using 3 accounting based measurement tool gives a consistent result, that is Indonesian Islamic banking use a debt-based financing have a high financial stability and a low risk.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i2.4821

  1. The enhancement of simulation based learning exercises through formalised reflection, focus groups and group presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawdesley, M.; Long, G.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Scott, D.

    2011-01-01

    Computer based simulations and games can be useful tools in teaching aspects of construction project management that are not easily transmitted through traditional lecture based approaches. However, it can be difficult to quantify their utility and it is essential to ensure that students are

  2. A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kejia; Song Tingting; Zuo Huijuan; Zhang Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented. (paper)

  3. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dutch home-based pre-reading intervention with children at familial risk of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Otterloo, S.G.; van der Leij, A.

    2009-01-01

    Children (5 and 6 years old, n = 30) at familial risk of dyslexia received a home-based intervention that focused on phoneme awareness and letter knowledge in the year prior to formal reading instruction. The children were compared to a no-training at-risk control group (n = 27), which was selected

  5. Early home-based intervention in the Netherlands for children at familial risk of dyslexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Otterloo, S.G.; van der Leij, A.; Henrichs, L.F.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch children at higher familial risk of reading disability received a home-based intervention programme before formal reading instruction started to investigate whether this would reduce the risk of dyslexia. The experimental group (n=23) received a specific training in phoneme awareness and

  6. Dutch Home-Based Pre-Reading Intervention with Children at Familial Risk of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Sandra G.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2009-01-01

    Children (5 and 6 years old, n = 30) at familial risk of dyslexia received a home-based intervention that focused on phoneme awareness and letter knowledge in the year prior to formal reading instruction. The children were compared to a no-training at-risk control group (n = 27), which was selected a year earlier. After training, we found a small…

  7. The communication of "pure" group-based anger reduces tendencies toward intergroup conflict because it increases out-group empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Bart; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2013-08-01

    The communication of group-based anger in intergroup conflict is often associated with destructive conflict behavior. However, we show that communicating group-based anger toward the out-group can evoke empathy and thus reduce intergroup conflict. This is because it stresses the value of maintaining a positive long-term intergroup relationship, thereby increasing understanding for the situation (in contrast to the communication of the closely related emotion of contempt). Three experiments demonstrate that the communication of group-based anger indeed reduces destructive conflict intentions compared with (a) a control condition (Experiments 1-2), (b) the communication of group-based contempt (Experiment 2), and (c) the communication of a combination of group-based anger and contempt (Experiments 2-3). Moreover, results from all three experiments reveal that empathy mediated the positive effect of communicating "pure" group-based anger. We discuss the implications of these findings for the theory and practice of communicating emotions in intergroup conflicts.

  8. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  9. Pregnancy hormone concentrations across ethnic groups: implications for later cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potischman, Nancy; Troisi, Rebecca; Thadhani, Ravi; Hoover, Robert N; Dodd, Kevin; Davis, William W; Sluss, Patrick M; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2005-06-01

    A variety of in utero factors have been associated with risk of adult cancers, particularly birth weight, toxemia, and gestational age. These factors are thought to reflect hormonal exposures during pregnancy. We hypothesized that the prenatal hormonal milieu may explain part of the variation in cancer rates across ethnic groups, for example, the higher incidence of breast cancer in the Caucasian compared with Hispanic women and the higher incidence of prostate and lower incidence of testicular cancers among African-Americans compared with Caucasians. We measured hormones in early pregnancy blood samples from three ethnic groups in a health care plan in Boston, MA. Mean levels of androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and prolactin were significantly lower in Caucasian women compared with Hispanic women. Although not statistically significant, estradiol levels were lower in Caucasian compared with Hispanic or African-American women. Concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, and progesterone were notably higher in African-American compared with Caucasian or Hispanic women. These data are consistent with hypotheses that in utero hormonal exposures may explain some of the ethnic group differences in cancer risk.

  10. The term 'risk' and its evaluation bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, R.

    1976-01-01

    The term risk, the risk itself and its application for radiation exposure in practised medicine is presented from the following points of view: Life expectation, susceptibility to sickness and permanent inability to work, impaired professional and earning capacity, work accident and sickness. (HP) [de

  11. Multi-criteria aid for group decision making on gas pipeline risk analysis; Apoio multicriterio a decisao em grupo na analise de risco em gasodutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Yuri G.; Cavalcante, Cristiano A.V.; Brito, Anderson J. de M.; Almeida, Adiel T. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Risks are, by nature, subjective, and therefore, complex. They present multidimensional aspects and involve various stakeholders. The pipelines transmission and distribution of natural gas (NG) involve various scenarios of risks, resulting from the distinct environments where the supply chain of NG is inserted. This paper proposes a multi criteria model for group decision support, based on the GDSS PROMETHEE approach, for risk assessment in pipelines sections. The proposed model aims to establish a ranking between the sections of a pipeline network, in order to provide insights to the definition of risk mitigation actions. (author)

  12. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    -up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  13. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Reusens, Julie; Evers, Kris; de-Wit, Lee; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-03-30

    Developmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based and object-based grouping, and investigate their impact on object formation in participants, aged 9-21 years old (N = 113), using a multiple-object tracking paradigm. Results reveal a main effect of both age and grouping type, indicating that 9- to 21-year-olds are sensitive to both connection-based and object-based grouping interference, and tracking ability increases with age. In addition to its importance for typical development, these results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in this regard. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The origin of the Gestalt principles is still an ongoing debate: Are they innate, learned over time, or both? Developmental research has revealed how each Gestalt principle has its own trajectory and unique relationship to visual experience. Both connectedness and object-based grouping play an important role in object formation during childhood. What does this study add? The study identifies how sensitivity to connectedness and object-based grouping evolves in individuals, aged 9-21 years old. Using multiple-object tracking, results reveal that the ability to track multiple objects increases with age. These results provide an informative baseline to understand clinical aberrations in different types of grouping. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Developmental Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  14. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  15. The Impact Of Indigenous Community-Based Groups Towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    access funding from government and/or other donors. Working in groups is indigenous to. African communities and has far-reaching effects, which reverberate beyond the boundaries of these groups and has historically been an embodiment of the way of life, custodian of customs, traditions and cultures and provide venue ...

  16. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzny, Christina A; Sunesara, Imran R; Kumar, Ranjit; Mena, Leandro A; Griswold, Michael E; Martin, David H; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Schwebke, Jane R; Swiatlo, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW). The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM), and women who have sex with men (WSM) with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV. Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively. 33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR)=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54) and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93) were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86), and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88) was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies are

  17. Characterization of the vaginal microbiota among sexual risk behavior groups of women with bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A Muzny

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis (BV remains elusive. BV may be more common among women who have sex with women (WSW. The objective of this study was to use 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the vaginal microbiome of WSW, women who have sex with women and men (WSWM, and women who have sex with men (WSM with BV to determine if there are differences in organism composition between groups that may inform new hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of BV.Vaginal swab specimens from eligible women with BV at the Mississippi State Department of Health STD Clinic were used. After DNA extraction, 454 pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences was performed. Sequence data was classified using the Ribosomal Database Program classifer. Complete linkage clustering analysis was performed to compare bacterial community composition among samples. Differences in operational taxonomic units with an abundance of ≥ 2% between risk behavior groups were determined. Alpha and beta diversity were measured using Shannon's Index implemented in QIIME and Unifrac analysis, respectively.33 WSW, 35 WSWM, and 44 WSM were included. The vaginal bacterial communities of all women clustered into four taxonomic groups with the dominant taxonomic group in each being Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, and Sneathia. Regarding differences in organism composition between risk behavior groups, the abundance of Atopobium (relative ratio (RR=0.24; 95%CI 0.11-0.54 and Parvimonas (RR=0.33; 95%CI 0.11-0.93 were significantly lower in WSW than WSM, the abundance of Prevotella was significantly higher in WSW than WSWM (RR=1.77; 95%CI 1.10-2.86, and the abundance of Atopobium (RR=0.41; 95%CI 0.18-0.88 was significantly lower in WSWM than WSM. Overall, WSM had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa.The microbiology of BV among women in different risk behavior groups is heterogeneous. WSM in this study had the highest diversity of bacterial taxa. Additional studies

  18. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... with prudent use of resources while maintaining acceptable system performance. High-risk category units are selected for testing by identification of the presence of specific high-risk factor(s), while disregarding other factors that might also influence the risk. On this basis we argue that the most...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...

  19. Developmental Psychopathology in a Racial/Ethnic Minority Group: Are Cultural Risks Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiaying; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Wall, Melanie; Chen, Chen; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-12-01

    The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening in high-risk group of gestational diabetes mellitus with its maternal and fetal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angadi Rajasab Nilofer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a metabolic disorder defined as glucose intolerance with the onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The complications associated with GDM can be prevented by early recognition, intense monitoring and proper treatment. Aims: The present study was done to screen the high-risk pregnancy group for GDM, to find the incidence of abnormal results on screening and to correlate the abnormal results with the maternal and fetal outcomes. The study was done in a tertiary care hospital and teaching institute. It was a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: Selective screening for GDM was done in 150 pregnant women with high-risk factors. Screening was done with 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT after 18 weeks, and if GCT was negative then the test was repeated after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The patients who were having an abnormal GCT were subjected to 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. All GDM patients were followed up and treated with diet and/or insulin therapy till delivery to know maternal and fetal outcomes. The period of study was from April 2008 to March 2009. Results: 7.3% of study population was OGCT positive. 6% of the study population was OGTT positive. Age >25 years, obesity, family history of DM, and past history of GDM were the risk factors significantly associated with GDM. One newborn had hypoglycemia and one had hyperbilirubinemia. The fetal and maternal outcome in GDM patients was good in our study due to early diagnosis and intervention. Conclusion: Women with GDM are at an increased risk for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcome. The increased morbidity in GDM is preventable by meticulous antenatal care.

  1. Group decision making with the analytic hierarchy process in benefit-risk assessment: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, J Marjan; Bridges, John F P; IJzerman, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been increasingly applied as a technique for multi-criteria decision analysis in healthcare. The AHP can aid decision makers in selecting the most valuable technology for patients, while taking into account multiple, and even conflicting, decision criteria. This tutorial illustrates the procedural steps of the AHP in supporting group decision making about new healthcare technology, including (1) identifying the decision goal, decision criteria, and alternative healthcare technologies to compare, (2) structuring the decision criteria, (3) judging the value of the alternative technologies on each decision criterion, (4) judging the importance of the decision criteria, (5) calculating group judgments, (6) analyzing the inconsistency in judgments, (7) calculating the overall value of the technologies, and (8) conducting sensitivity analyses. The AHP is illustrated via a hypothetical example, adapted from an empirical AHP analysis on the benefits and risks of tissue regeneration to repair small cartilage lesions in the knee.

  2. Selection of high risk groups among prognostically favorable patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J A; Fischermann, K; Hou-Jensen, K; Henriksen, E; Andersen, K W; Johansen, H; Brincker, H; Mouridsen, H T; Castberg, T; Rossing, N; Rørth, M

    1981-01-01

    In a prospective, nationwide, decentralized breast cancer project conducted by The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) the recurrence rate within the first year after surgery was analysed in relation to tumor anaplasia. One thousand forty-eight patients met the requirements of eligibility, i.e. tumor size less than or equal to 5 cm with negative axillary nodes, and no skin or deep invasion. The recurrence rates in tumors with anaplasia Grades I, II, and III were 4, 9, and 14%, respectively (p = 0.001). Therefore, it seems possible, prospectively, among otherwise prognostically favorable patients, to select a group with high risk of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant systemic therapy. PMID:7247527

  3. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  4. Research on the nutrition and cognition of high-risk stroke groups in community and the relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, N-N; Zeng, K-X; Wang, Y-L; Sheng, P-J; Tang, C-Z; Xiao, P; Liu, X-W

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence rate of nutritional risk in high-risk stroke groups in community, analyze its influencing factors, and analyze and compare the relationship between nutritional risk or malnutrition assessed by different nutritional evaluation methods and cognitive function, so as to provide the basis and guidance for clinical nutritional assessment and support. A cross-sectional survey was performed for 1196 cases in high-risk stroke groups in community from December 2015 to January 2017. At the same time, the nutritional status of patients was evaluated using the mini nutritional assessment (MNA) and MNA-short form (MNA-SF), and the cognitive status of patients was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Moreover, the relevant influencing factors of nutritional risk and MMSE score were analyzed and compared. High-risk stroke groups in community suffered from a high risk of malnutrition. MNA-SF had a higher specificity and lower false positive rate than MNA. Nutritional risk occurred more easily in high-risk stroke groups in community with a history of diabetes mellitus, less physical exercise or light manual labor, daily use of multiple drugs, and higher age. Those with a higher nutritional risk were more prone to cognitive impairment. High-risk stroke groups in community, complicated with hyperhomocysteinemia, daily use of three or more kinds of prescription drugs, and a previous history of stroke, were accompanied by cognitive impairment easily. MNA-SF can be used for the nutritional screening of high-risk stroke groups in community. For the high-risk stroke groups in community, the rational nutritional diet should be publicized, blood sugar should be controlled in a scientific manner and physical exercise should be moderately increased.

  5. Polydiphenylacetylene with Schiff Base End Groups: Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinova, Radostina; Jossifov, Christo

    The carbonyl-olefin exchange reaction is a new reaction between carbonyl group and olefin double bond, which has a formal similarity with the olefin metathesis - one carbon atom in the latter is replaced with an oxygen atom. Till now the new reaction is performed successfully only when the two functional groups (carbonyl group and olefin double bond) are in one molecule and are conjugated. The α, β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds (substituted propenones) are the compounds with such a structure. They polymerize giving substituted polyacetylenes. The chain propagation step of this polymerization is in fact the carbonyl-olefin exchange reaction. The question arises: is it possible the carbonyl-olefin exchange reaction to take place when the two functional groups are not in one molecule and are not conjugated, and could this reaction become an alternative of the existing carbonyl olefination reactions?

  6. Information on electromagnetic fields and health risk. A developmental project concerning target groups and information instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannevik, Merete; Reitan, Jon

    2000-01-01

    On behalf of the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority has developed an information package about electromagnetic fields from power lines and mobile phones/base stations. The report describes the process around identification of target groups, cooperation with organizations and independent experts and how this has contributed to the development of the information materials. (Author)

  7. Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Mai, Phuong L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Van Le, Linda; Ivanov, Iouri; Bell, Maria C.; Blank, Stephanie V.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Hamilton, Chad A.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Wakeley, Katie; Kauff, Noah D.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Skates, Steven J.; Alberts, David S.; Walker, Joan L.; Minasian, Lori; Lu, Karen; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age ≥ 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant's mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions

  8. High risk of non-sentinel node metastases in a group of breast cancer patients with micrometastases in the sentinel node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedskov, Tove Filtenborg; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Lisse, Ida Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Balslev, Eva; Kroman, Niels

    2012-11-15

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes is under debate. We aimed to establish two models to predict non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases in patients with micrometastases or isolated tumor cells (ITC) in sentinel nodes, to guide the decision for ALND. A total of 1,577 breast cancer patients with micrometastases and 304 with ITC in sentinel nodes, treated by sentinel lymph node dissection and ALND in 2002-2008 were identified in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group database. Risk of NSN metastases was calculated according to clinicopathological variables in a logistic regression analysis. We identified tumor size, proportion of positive sentinel nodes, lymphovascular invasion, hormone receptor status and location of tumor in upper lateral quadrant of the breast as risk factors for NSN metastases in patients with micrometastases. A model based on these risk factors identified 5% of patients with a risk of NSN metastases on nearly 40%. The model was however unable to identify a subgroup of patients with a very low risk of NSN metastases. Among patients with ITC, we identified tumor size, age and proportion of positive sentinel nodes as risk factors. A model based on these risk factors identified 32% of patients with risk of NSN metastases on only 2%. Omission of ALND would be acceptable in this group of patients. In contrast, ALND may still be beneficial in the subgroup of patients with micrometastases and a high risk of NSN metastases. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  9. Process-based project proposal risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We all are aware of the organizational omnipresence. Projects within the organizations are ubiquitous too. Projects achieve their goals successfully if they are planned, scheduled, controlled and implemented well. The project lifecycle of initiating, planning, scheduling, controlling and implementing are very well-planned by project managers and the organizations. Successful projects have well-developed risk management plans to deal with situations impacting projects. Like any other organisation, a university does try to access funds for different purposes too. For such organisations, running a project is not the issue, rather getting a project proposal approved to fund a project is the key. Project proposal processing is done by the nodal office in every organisation. Usually, these nodal offices help in administration and submission of a project proposal for accessing funds. Seldom are these nodal project offices within the organizations facilitate a project proposal approval by proactively reaching out to the project managers. And as project managers prepare project proposals, little or no attention is made to prepare a project proposal risk plan so as to maximise project acquisition. Risk plans are submitted while preparing proposals but these risk plans cater to a requirement to address actual projects upon approval. Hence, a risk management plan for project proposal is either missing or very little effort is made to treat the risks inherent in project acquisition. This paper is an integral attempt to highlight the importance of risk treatment for project proposal stage as an extremely important step to preparing the risk management plan made for projects corresponding to their lifecycle phases. Several tools and techniques have been proposed in the paper to help and guide either the project owner (proposer or the main organisational unit responsible for project management. Development of tools and techniques to further enhance project

  10. Air Quality Monitoring: Risk-Based Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Air monitoring is secondary to rigid control of risks to air quality. Air quality monitoring requires us to target the credible residual risks. Constraints on monitoring devices are severe. Must transition from archival to real-time, on-board monitoring. Must provide data to crew in a way that they can interpret findings. Dust management and monitoring may be a major concern for exploration class missions.

  11. Incentivising flood risk adaptation through risk based insurance premiums : Trade-offs between affordability and risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Feyen, L.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The financial incentives offered by the risk-based pricing of insurance can stimulate policyholder adaptation to flood risk while potentially conflicting with affordability. We examine the trade-off between risk reduction and affordability in a model of public-private flood insurance in France and

  12. RiskREP: Risk-Based Security Requirements Elicitation and Prioritization

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Andrea; Morali, A.; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Niedrite, Laila; Strazdina, Renate; Wangler, Benkt

    2011-01-01

    Companies are under pressure to be in control of their assets but at the same time they must operate as efficiently as possible. This means that they aim to implement “good-enough security‿ but need to be able to justify their security investment plans. In this paper, we present a Risk-Based Requirements Prioritization method (RiskREP) that extends misuse case-based methods with IT architecture based risk assessment and countermeasure definition and prioritization. Countermeasure prioritizati...

  13. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  14. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  15. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy, E-mail: gasandylang@live.com; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang (Indonesia); Kim, Seon Jin [Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering of Pukyong National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-19

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  16. Are fashion models a group at risk for eating disorders and substance abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonastaso, Paolo; Mondini, Silvia; Favaro, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Few studies to date have investigated whether in fact the prevalence of eating disorders (ED) and/or use of illicit drugs is higher among models than among other groups of females. A group of 63 professional fashion models of various nationalities were studied by means of self-reported questionnaires. They were compared with a control group of 126 female subjects recruited from the general population. Fashion models weigh significantly less than controls, but only a small percentage of them uses unhealthy methods to control their weight. The current frequency of full-syndrome ED did not differ between the groups, but partial-syndrome ED were significantly more common among fashion models than among controls. Current substance use or alcohol abuse was reported by 35% of fashion models and 12% of controls. Our findings suggest that fashion models are more at risk for partial ED and use of illicit drugs than females in the general population. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected

  18. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  19. Occupational Class Groups as a Risk Factor for Gastrointestinal Cancer: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Aghilinejad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer has a high mortality rate in both developing and developed countries. 11%–15% of cancers are attributable to occupational risk factors. Objective: To determine if specific occupational classes, based on the International Standard for Classification of Occupations 2008 (ISCO-08, are risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI cancer. Methods: In this case-control study, 834 cancer patients were interviewed by a single physician. Cases included patients with GI cancer. Age-matched controls were selected from non- GI cancer patients. Each year of working, up until 5 years before the diagnosis, was questioned and categorized by the ISCO classification. Results: 243 GI cancer cases and 243 non-GI cancer patients (486 in total were studied. Working in ISCO class 8 (plant and machine operators, and assemblers was significantly associated with higher risk of GI cancer (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.52. Working in ISCO class 6 (skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and 9 (elementary occupations were also associated with higher incidence of GI cancers. Conclusion: Working in ISCO classes of 8, 6, and 9, which are usually associated with low socio-economic status, can be considered a risk factor for GI cancers.

  20. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Seung Soo

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high-risk groups for industrial accidents by setting up 2003 as the base year and conducting an in-depth analysis of the trends of major industrial accident indexes the index of industrial accident rate, the index of occupational injury rate, the index of occupational illness and disease rate per 10,000 people, and the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people for the past 10 years. This study selected industrial accident victims, who died or received more than 4 days of medical care benefits, due to occupational accidents and diseases occurring at workplaces, subject to the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, as the study population. According to the trends of four major indexes by workplace characteristics, the whole industry has shown a decreasing tendency in all four major indexes since the base year (2003); as of 2012, the index of industrial accident rate was 67, while the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people was 59. The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  1. Continuous glucose monitoring system and new era of early diagnosis of diabetes in high risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems are an emerging technology that allows frequent glucose measurements to monitor glucose trends in real time. Their use as a diagnostic tool is still developing and appears to be promising. Combining intermittent glucose self-monitoring (SGM and CGM combines the benefits of both. Significant improvement in the treatment modalities that may prevent the progress of prediabetes to diabetes have been achieved recently and dictates screening of high risk patients for early diagnosis and management of glycemic abnormalities. The use of CGMS in the diagnosis of early dysglycemia (prediabetes especially in high risk patients appears to be an attractive approach. In this review we searched the literature to investigate the value of using CGMS as a diagnostic tool compared to other known tools, namely oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C in high risk groups. Those categories of patients include adolescents and adults with obesity especially those with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO, gestational diabetes, cystic fibrosis, thalassemia major, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and after renal transplantation. It appears that the ability of the CGMS for frequently monitoring (every 5 min glucose changes during real-life settings for 3 to 5 days stretches the chance to detect more glycemic abnormalities during basal and postprandial conditions compared to other short-timed methods.

  2. Detection of high GS risk group prostate tumors by diffusion tensor imaging and logistic regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertas, Gokhan

    2018-07-01

    To assess the value of joint evaluation of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures by using logistic regression modelling to detect high GS risk group prostate tumors. Fifty tumors imaged using DTI on a 3 T MRI device were analyzed. Regions of interests focusing on the center of tumor foci and noncancerous tissue on the maps of mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were used to extract the minimum, the maximum and the mean measures. Measure ratio was computed by dividing tumor measure by noncancerous tissue measure. Logistic regression models were fitted for all possible pair combinations of the measures using 5-fold cross validation. Systematic differences are present for all MD measures and also for all FA measures in distinguishing the high risk tumors [GS ≥ 7(4 + 3)] from the low risk tumors [GS ≤ 7(3 + 4)] (P Logistic regression modelling provides a favorable solution for the joint evaluations easily adoptable in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk assessment and model for community-based construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It, therefore, becomes necessary to systematically manage uncertainty in community-based construction in order to increase the likelihood of meeting project objectives using necessary risk management strategies. Risk management, which is an iterative process due to the dynamic nature of many risks, follows three main ...

  4. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions

  5. Cardiovascular disease and ABO blood-groups in Africans. Are blood-group A individuals at higher risk of ischemic disease?: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Djibril Marie; Sow, Mamadou Saidou; Diack, Aminata; Dia, Khadidiatou; Mboup, Mouhamed Cherif; Fall, Pape Diadie; Fall, Moussa Daouda

    2017-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not. A total of 299 medical records of patients over a three-year period admitted to the cardiology and internal medicine department of military hospital of Ouakam in Senegal were reviewed. We studied data on age, gender, past history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, sedentarism, obesity, hyperlipidemia, use of estrogen-progestin contraceptives and blood group distribution.In each blood group type, we evaluated the prevalence of ischemic and non-ischemic cardiovascular disease. The medical records were then stratified into two categories to evaluate incidence of ischemic disease: Group 1: Patients carrying blood-group A and Group 2: Patients carrying blood group non-A (O, AB and B). Of the 299 patients whose medical records were reviewed, 92 (30.8%) were carrying blood group A, 175 (58.5%) had blood group O, 13 (4.3%) had blood group B, and 19 (6.4%) had blood group AB.The diagnosis of ischemic disease (ID) was higher in patients with blood group A (61.2%) than in other blood groups, and the diagnosis of non-ischemic disease (NID) was higher in patients with blood group O (73.6%) compared to other groups. In patients with blood group B or AB compared to non-B or non-AB, respectively there was no statistically significant difference in ID incidence.Main risk factor for ID was smoking (56.5%), hypertension (18.4%) and diabetes (14.3%).In our study

  6. A model-based approach to operational event groups ranking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic, Zdenko [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-04-15

    The operational experience (OE) feedback provides improvements in all industrial activities. Identification of the most important and valuable groups of events within accumulated experience is important in order to focus on a detailed investigation of events. The paper describes the new ranking method and compares it with three others. Methods have been described and applied to OE events utilised by nuclear power plants in France and Germany for twenty years. The results show that different ranking methods only roughly agree on which of the event groups are the most important ones. In the new ranking method the analytical hierarchy process is applied in order to assure consistent and comprehensive weighting determination for ranking indexes. The proposed method allows a transparent and flexible event groups ranking and identification of the most important OE for further more detailed investigation in order to complete the feedback. (orig.)

  7. Personality traits and group-based information behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette

    2009-01-01

    followed during a project assignment. The long version of the commonly-used NEO-PI-R test instrument was employed to describe and compare each group member's personality traits at a more detailed level. Data were also collected through a process survey, a diary and an interview. Analysis. The calculation....... Information behaviour associated with personality traits was identified, but the presence of personality effects tended to vary with the perceived presence of the social context. Conclusions. Some matches were identified between group members' personality traits and their actual information behaviour...... but there were also deviations, which were found that seemed to be related to the group-work context. The importance of studying personality traits in context has further been confirmed....

  8. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of discrete groups in subgroup bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gaoli

    2018-04-01

    We express each Clebsch-Gordan (CG) coefficient of a discrete group as a product of a CG coefficient of its subgroup and a factor, which we call an embedding factor. With an appropriate definition, such factors are fixed up to phase ambiguities. Particularly, they are invariant under basis transformations of irreducible representations of both the group and its subgroup. We then impose on the embedding factors constraints, which relate them to their counterparts under complex conjugate and therefore restrict the phases of embedding factors. In some cases, the phase ambiguities are reduced to sign ambiguities. We describe the procedure of obtaining embedding factors and then calculate CG coefficients of the group 𝒫𝒮ℒ2(7) in terms of embedding factors of its subgroups S4 and 𝒯7.

  9. Roles of the Amino Group of Purine Bases in the Thermodynamic Stability of DNA Base Pairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-ichi Nakano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The energetic aspects of hydrogen-bonded base-pair interactions are important for the design of functional nucleotide analogs and for practical applications of oligonucleotides. The present study investigated the contribution of the 2-amino group of DNA purine bases to the thermodynamic stability of oligonucleotide duplexes under different salt and solvent conditions, using 2'-deoxyriboinosine (I and 2'-deoxyribo-2,6-diaminopurine (D as non-canonical nucleotides. The stability of DNA duplexes was changed by substitution of a single base pair in the following order: G•C > D•T ≈ I•C > A•T > G•T > I•T. The apparent stabilization energy due to the presence of the 2-amino group of G and D varied depending on the salt concentration, and decreased in the water-ethanol mixed solvent. The effects of salt concentration on the thermodynamics of DNA duplexes were found to be partially sequence-dependent, and the 2-amino group of the purine bases might have an influence on the binding of ions to DNA through the formation of a stable base-paired structure. Our results also showed that physiological salt conditions were energetically favorable for complementary base recognition, and conversely, low salt concentration media and ethanol-containing solvents were effective for low stringency oligonucleotide hybridization, in the context of conditions employed in this study.

  10. Group Sex Events and HIV/STI Risk in an Urban Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Samuel R.; Bolyard, Melissa; Khan, Maria; Maslow, Carey; Sandoval, Milagros; Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Krauss, Beatrice; Aral, Sevgi O.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe: a. the prevalence and individual and network characteristics of group sex events (GSE) and GSE attendees; and b. HIV/STI discordance among respondents who said they went to a GSE together. Methods and Design In a sociometric network study of risk partners (defined as sexual partners, persons with whom respondents attended a GSE, or drug-injection partners) in Brooklyn, NY, we recruited a high-risk sample of 465 adults. Respondents reported on GSE attendance, the characteristics of GSEs, and their own and others’ behaviors at GSEs. Sera and urines were collected and STI prevalence was assayed. Results Of the 465 participants, 36% had attended a GSE in the last year, 26% had sex during the most recent of these GSEs, and 13% had unprotected sex there. Certain subgroups (hard drug users, men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, and sex workers) were more likely to attend and more likely to engage in risk behaviors at these events. Among 90 GSE dyads in which at least one partner named the other as someone with whom they attended a GSE in the previous three months, STI/HIV discordance was common (HSV-2: 45% of dyads, HIV: 12% of dyads, Chlamydia: 21% of dyads). Many GSEs had 10 or more participants, and multiple partnerships at GSEs were common. High attendance rates at GSEs among members of large networks may increase community vulnerability to STI/HIV, particularly since network data show that almost all members of a large sociometric risk network either had sex with a GSE attendee or had sex with someone who had sex with a GSE attended. Conclusions Self-reported GSE attendance and participation was common among this high-risk sample. STI/HIV discordance among GSE attendees was high, highlighting the potential transmission risk associated with GSEs. Research on sexual behaviors should incorporate measures of GSE behaviors as standard research protocol. Interventions should be developed to reduce transmission at GSEs. PMID

  11. A Knowledge-Based Model of Audit Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Vasant; Lewis, Barry; Peters, James

    1988-01-01

    Within the academic and professional auditing communities, there has been growing concern about how to accurately assess the various risks associated with performing an audit. These risks are difficult to conceptualize in terms of numeric estimates. This article discusses the development of a prototype computational model (computer program) that assesses one of the major audit risks -- inherent risk. This program bases most of its inferencing activities on a qualitative model of a typical bus...

  12. Big data based fraud risk management at Alibaba

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jidong; Tao, Ye; Wang, Haoran; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    With development of mobile internet and finance, fraud risk comes in all shapes and sizes. This paper is to introduce the Fraud Risk Management at Alibaba under big data. Alibaba has built a fraud risk monitoring and management system based on real-time big data processing and intelligent risk models. It captures fraud signals directly from huge amount data of user behaviors and network, analyzes them in real-time using machine learning, and accurately predicts the bad users and transactions....

  13. Connection-based and object-based grouping in multiple-object tracking: A developmental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E.R. van der Hallen (Ruth); Reusens, J. (Julie); Evers, K. (Kris); L. de-Wit (Lee); J. Wagemans (Johan)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractDevelopmental research on Gestalt laws has previously revealed that, even as young as infancy, we are bound to group visual elements into unitary structures in accordance with a variety of organizational principles. Here, we focus on the developmental trajectory of both connection-based

  14. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Deniz; Karagoz, Hatice; Ozer, Ozerhan; Esmeray, Kubra; Bulut, Kadir; Aykas, Fatma; Cetinkaya, Ali; Uslu, Emine; Karahan, Samet; Basak, Mustafa; Erden, Abdulsamet

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT) and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) and Rh status (+/-). There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029). The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006). The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004). In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum.

  15. TXTGate: profiling gene groups with text-based information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenisson, P.; Coessens, B.; Van Vooren, S.

    2004-01-01

    We implemented a framework called TXTGate that combines literature indices of selected public biological resources in a flexible text-mining system designed towards the analysis of groups of genes. By means of tailored vocabularies, term-as well as gene-centric views are offered on selected textual...

  16. RDT accuracy based on age group in hypoendemic malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, L.; Panggabean, M.; Panggabean, Y. C.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria is still one of the problem of community health in Sumatera. This study was carried out to compare RDT accuracy in some groups of age in hypoendemic malaria. The microscopy test was investigated by 3% Giemsa Staining and examined by a trained laboratory technician. RDT was carried out by using Monotes Test Drive. The accuracy of RDT diagnostic was commonly significant in all groups of age, exceptin thegroup of age > 65 years old (p=0.393). The highest sensitivity of RDT was commonly inagroup of age ≤ 5 years old and decreased in the older group of age. Otherwise, the lowest specificity was found in agroup of age ≤ 5 years old and the highest in agroup of age 6-15 years old.The highest PPV and NPV was found inagroup of age 16-65 years old and ≤ 5 years old, respectively. The highest of parasite density was found in a group of age ≤ 5 years old (644.4±494.5parasite/μl) and the lowest in agroup of age > 65 years (400±490.71parasite/μl). The accurate diagnosis of RDT reduces by increasing of age.

  17. Chronic bronchitis is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi JY

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joon Young Choi,1 Hyoung Kyu Yoon,2 Seoung Ju Park,3 Yong Bum Park,4 Kyeong-Cheol Shin,5 Ju Ock Na,6 Kwang Ha Yoo,7 Ki-Suck Jung,8 Young Kyoon Kim,1 Chin Kook Rhee1 1Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, 4Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul, 5Regional Center for Respiratory Disease, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, 6Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, 7Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, 8Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Hallym University Medical Center, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, Republic of Korea Background: The chronic bronchitis (CB phenotype has been associated with poor quality of life and an increased risk of disease in patients with COPD. However, little information exists regarding the relationship between the CB phenotype and the COPD assessment test (CAT score. The goal of this study was to reveal the different pattern of CAT scores between CB and non-CB patients. Moreover, we aimed to investigate whether the CB phenotype is an independently associated factor for more symptom and high-risk groups.Methods: Data were obtained from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study cohort recruited from 46 centers in South

  18. Health-based risk neutralization in private disability insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C.; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.

  19. Health-based risk neutralization in private disability insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnvoord, Elisabeth C; Buitenhuis, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; van der Klink, Jac J L; de Boer, Michiel R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exclusions are used by insurers to neutralize higher than average risks of sickness absence (SA). However, differentiating risk groups according to one's medical situation can be seen as discrimination against people with health problems in violation of a 2006 United Nations convention.

  20. Body image concerns in professional fashion models: are they really an at-risk group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Szmigielska, Emilia

    2013-05-15

    Although professional models are thought to be a high-risk group for body image concerns, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this possibility. The present study sought to overcome this dearth of information by comparing professional models and a matched sample on key indices of body image and appeared-related concerns. A group of 52 professional fashion models was compared with a matched sample of 51 non-models from London, England, on indices of weight discrepancy, body appreciation, social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, internalization of sociocultural messages about appearance, and dysfunctional investment in appearance. Results indicated that professional models only evidenced significantly higher drive for thinness and dysfunctional investment in appearance than the control group. Greater duration of engagement as a professional model was associated with more positive body appreciation but also greater drive for thinness. These results indicate that models, who are already underweight, have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or become thinner. Taken together, the present results suggest that interventions aimed at promoting healthy body image among fashion models may require different strategies than those aimed at the general population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The discourse around usefulness, morality, risk and trust: a focus group study on prenatal genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivetti, Monica; Montali, Lorenzo; Simonetti, Giorgia

    2012-12-01

    This study explores the underlying values and beliefs that guide women's reasoning on prenatal genetic test (PGT) uptake, as framed by their own words, during a group discussion, in a Catholic country such as Italy. Women's reasoning was explored by means of five focus group consisting of seven pregnant women and 13 new mothers. The focus group material content was analysed using the Nudist software. The discourse around PGT was rooted into four frames of reference: The usefulness dimension was used to express the positions in favour of PGT, whereas morality, risk and trust were used to express negative evaluations on such a technology. Participants advocated for themselves the choice of being tested, besides giving some credit to the partner's opinion. Moreover, participants reported little knowledge on PGT. The research shed some light on the frames of reference used by participants to build their positions on PGT uptake, confirming the public's ability to translate scientific accounts into personally meaningful information. A more complete understanding of the reasons for decisions to test would help counsellors to better communicate with women and couples, and to better assist them to make a better informed testing decision. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Improving the Grade Point Average of Our At-Risk Students: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy

    This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…

  3. Principles of risk-based decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    United States. Coast Guard. Risk based decision-making guidelines

    2001-01-01

    ... original content in order to make this product more generically applicable and less Coast Guard specific. h s k assessment and risk management are important topics in industry and government. Because of limited resources and increasing demands for services, most organizations simply cannot continue business as usual. Even if resources are not dec...

  4. Internet-based screening for dementia risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jason; Sullivan, Campbell; Burrell, Larry E; Rogerson, Mark; Anderson, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The Dementia Risk Assessment (DRA) is an online tool consisting of questions about known risk factors for dementia, a novel verbal memory test, and an informant report of cognitive decline. Its primary goal is to educate the public about dementia risk factors and encourage clinical evaluation where appropriate. In Study 1, more than 3,000 anonymous persons over age 50 completed the DRA about themselves; 1,000 people also completed proxy reports about another person. Advanced age, lower education, male sex, complaints of severe memory impairment, and histories of cerebrovascular disease, Parkinson's disease, and brain tumor all contributed significantly to poor memory performance. A high correlation was obtained between proxy-reported decline and actual memory test performance. In Study 2, 52 persons seeking first-time evaluation at dementia clinics completed the DRA prior to their visits. Their responses (and those of their proxy informants) were compared to the results of independent evaluation by geriatric neuropsychiatrists. The 30 patients found to meet criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or frontotemporal dementia differed on the DRA from the 22 patients without dementia (most other neuropsychiatric conditions). Scoring below criterion on the DRA's memory test had moderately high predictive validity for clinically diagnosed dementia. Although additional studies of larger clinical samples are needed, the DRA holds promise for wide-scale screening for dementia risk.

  5. Patient clusters in acute, work-related back pain based on patterns of disability risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, William S; Pransky, Glenn; Patterson, William; Linton, Steven J; Winters, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    To identify subgroups of patients with work-related back pain based on disability risk factors. Patients with work-related back pain (N = 528) completed a 16-item questionnaire of potential disability risk factors before their initial medical evaluation. Outcomes of pain, functional limitation, and work disability were assessed 1 and 3 months later. A K-Means cluster analysis of 5 disability risk factors (pain, depressed mood, fear avoidant beliefs, work inflexibility, and poor expectations for recovery) resulted in 4 sub-groups: low risk (n = 182); emotional distress (n = 103); severe pain/fear avoidant (n = 102); and concerns about job accommodation (n = 141). Pain and disability outcomes at follow-up were superior in the low-risk group and poorest in the severe pain/fear avoidant group. Patients with acute back pain can be discriminated into subgroups depending on whether disability is related to pain beliefs, emotional distress, or workplace concerns.

  6. Blood grouping based on PCR methods and agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Ana Maria; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2015-01-01

    The study of erythrocyte antigens continues to be an intense field of research, particularly after the development of molecular testing methods. More than 300 specificities have been described by the International Society for Blood Transfusion as belonging to 33 blood group systems. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a central tool for red blood cells (RBC) genotyping. PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis are low cost, easy, and versatile in vitro methods for amplifying defined target DNA (RBC polymorphic region). Multiplex-PCR, AS-PCR (Specific Allele Polymerase Chain Reaction), and RFLP-PCR (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism-Polymerase Chain Reaction) techniques are usually to identify RBC polymorphisms. Furthermore, it is an easy methodology to implement. This chapter describes the PCR methodology and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the polymorphisms of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems.

  7. Risk based rulemaking and design - Proceed with caution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariadis, Panos; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2007-01-01

    The trend towards a risk based regulatory framework at IMO and within classification societies is expanding while some voices claim that a full ship risk based scantlings design approach can be immediately implementable. This paper attempts to clarify some widely used, but confusing to many, noti...

  8. Common consolidated corporate tax base: grouping and consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuše Nerudová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the ten years of work and discussion of the proposal the European Commission has published the proposal of CCCTB directive on 16th March, 2011. This proposal can be considered as unique, for the European Commission is suggesting totally new system of corporate taxation. The aim of the paper is to research the rules for consolidation and grouping suggested in the proposal of CCCTB directive, to identify the possible conflict situations and to suggest the possible solution. The focuses on the provisions regarding the conditions for consolidation and grouping, comprised in chapter IX, Art. 54–60. In that area has been identified, that even though the provisions seem to be clear, their practical application can in some situations lead to double interpretation, mainly with respect to the fact that individual member states are responsible for the implementation of the directive and also national tax administrators and national courts are going to interpret the provisions of the directive. Therefore even though the fact that suggested system is unique and addresses a lot of problems which are facing companies running business on the internal market, the provisions regarding the consolidation rules and rules for group formatting may still lead not to unified interpretation. In that respect, some of the rules should be more specific in order to ensure unified interpretation.

  9. Cellular phones, cordless phones, and the risks of glioma and meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Böhler, Eva; Berg, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    The widespread use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible adverse health effects, particularly brain tumors. In this population-based case-control study carried out in three regions of Germany, all incident cases of glioma and meningioma among patients aged 30-69 years were...... ascertained during 2000-2003. Controls matched on age, gender, and region were randomly drawn from population registries. In total, 366 glioma cases, 381 meningioma cases, and 1,494 controls were interviewed. Overall use of a cellular phone was not associated with brain tumor risk; the respective odds ratios...

  10. History of allergic disease and epilepsy and risk of glioma and meningioma (INTERPHONE study group, Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Schüz, Joachim; Blettner, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to examine the association of a medical history of asthma, hay fever, eczema, or epilepsy with the risk of glioma and meningioma. Data of a German population-based case-control study included 381 meningioma cases, 366 glioma cases, and 1,494 controls...... occurring more than a decade before the diagnosis of glioma, this might indicate either an aetiological role of epilepsy, or a relatively long preclinical phase. In conclusion our study confirms previous findings of case control studies but not those from cohort studies. However, possible selection bias...... in case control studies might not explain the different results in its entirety....

  11. ABO and RhD blood groups and gestational hypertensive disorders: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B K; Zhang, Z; Wikman, A; Lindqvist, P G; Reilly, M

    2012-09-01

    To examine the association between ABO and RhD blood groups and gestational hypertensive disorders in a large population-based cohort. Cohort study. Risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, estimated by odds ratios for maternal ABO blood group and RhD status. National health registers of Sweden. All singleton deliveries in Sweden born to first-time mothers during the period 1987-2002 [total n = 641 926; any gestational hypertensive disorders, n = 39 011 (6.1%); pre-eclampsia cases, n = 29 337 (4.6%); severe pre-eclampsia cases, n = 8477 (1.3%)]. Using blood group O as a reference, odds ratios of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia were obtained from logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia. Compared with blood group O, all non-O blood groups had modest but statistically significantly higher odds of pre-eclampsia. Blood group AB had the highest risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16) and severe pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30). RhD-positive mothers had a small increased risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10). In the largest study on this topic to date, women with AB blood group have the highest risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, whereas women with O blood group have the lowest risks of developing these disorders. Although the magnitude of increased risk is small, this finding may help improve our understanding of the etiology of pre-eclampsia. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  12. Applications of learning based systems at AREVA group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmart, F.; Leclerc, C.

    2006-01-01

    As part of its work on advanced information systems, AREVA is exploring the use of computerized tools based on 'machine learning' techniques. Some of these studies are being carried out by EURIWARE - continuing on from previous work done by AREVA NC - focused on the supervision of complex systems. Systems based on machine learning techniques are one of the possible solutions being investigated by AREVA: knowing that the stakes are high and involve better anticipation and control and high financial considerations. (authors)

  13. Web-Based Group Decision Support System: an Economic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion ISTUDOR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision Support Systems (DSS form a specific class of computerized information systems that support business and managerial decision-making activities. Making the right decision in business primarily depends on the quality of data. It also depends on the ability to analyze the data with a view to identifying trends that can suggest solutions and strategies. A “cooperative” decision support system means the data are collected, analyzed and then provided to a human agent who can help the system to revise or refine the data. It means that both a human component and computer component work together to come up with the best solution. This paper describes the usage of a software product (Vanguard System to a specific economic application (evaluating the financial risk assuming that the rate of the economic profitability can be under the value of the interest rate.

  14. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, M. Saiful, E-mail: HUQS@UPMC.EDU [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and UPMC CancerCenter, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States); Fraass, Benedick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States); Dunscombe, Peter B. [Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gibbons, John P. [Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana 70121 (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Department of Radiation Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Mundt, Arno J. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California 92093-0843 (United States); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States); Palta, Jatinder R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, P.O. Box 980058, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Rath, Frank [Department of Engineering Professional Development, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Thomadsen, Bruce R. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705-2275 (United States); Williamson, Jeffrey F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298-0058 (United States); Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  15. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  16. The report of Task Group 100 of the AAPM: Application of risk analysis methods to radiation therapy quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, M. Saiful; Fraass, Benedick A.; Dunscombe, Peter B.; Gibbons, John P.; Mundt, Arno J.; Mutic, Sasa; Palta, Jatinder R.; Rath, Frank; Thomadsen, Bruce R.; Williamson, Jeffrey F.; Yorke, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing complexity of modern radiation therapy planning and delivery challenges traditional prescriptive quality management (QM) methods, such as many of those included in guidelines published by organizations such as the AAPM, ASTRO, ACR, ESTRO, and IAEA. These prescriptive guidelines have traditionally focused on monitoring all aspects of the functional performance of radiotherapy (RT) equipment by comparing parameters against tolerances set at strict but achievable values. Many errors that occur in radiation oncology are not due to failures in devices and software; rather they are failures in workflow and process. A systematic understanding of the likelihood and clinical impact of possible failures throughout a course of radiotherapy is needed to direct limit QM resources efficiently to produce maximum safety and quality of patient care. Task Group 100 of the AAPM has taken a broad view of these issues and has developed a framework for designing QM activities, based on estimates of the probability of identified failures and their clinical outcome through the RT planning and delivery process. The Task Group has chosen a specific radiotherapy process required for “intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)” as a case study. The goal of this work is to apply modern risk-based analysis techniques to this complex RT process in order to demonstrate to the RT community that such techniques may help identify more effective and efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of our treatment processes. The task group generated by consensus an example quality management program strategy for the IMRT process performed at the institution of one of the authors. This report describes the methodology and nomenclature developed, presents the process maps, FMEAs, fault trees, and QM programs developed, and makes suggestions on how this information could be used in the clinic. The development and implementation of risk-assessment techniques will make radiation

  17. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D R; Whitmer, R W; Goetzel, R Z; Ozminkowski, R J; Dunn, R L; Wasserman, J; Serxner, S

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks and total health care expenditures for a large employee group. Risk data were collected through voluntary participation in health risk assessment (HRA) and worksite biometric screenings and were linked at the individual level to health care plan enrollment and expenditure data from employers' fee-for-service plans over the 6-year study period. The setting was worksite health promotion programs sponsored by six large private-sector and public-sector employers. Of the 50% of employees who completed the HRA, 46,026 (74.7%) met all inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eleven risk factors (exercise, alcohol use, eating, current and former tobacco use, depression, stress, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose) were dichotomized into high-risk and lower-risk levels. The association between risks and expenditures was estimated using a two-part regression model, controlling for demographics and other confounders. Risk prevalence data were used to estimate group-level impact of risks on expenditures. Risk factors were associated with 25% of total expenditures. Stress was the most costly factor, with tobacco use, overweight, and lack of exercise also being linked to substantial expenditures. Modifiable risk factors contribute substantially to overall health care expenditures. Health promotion programs that reduce these risks may be beneficial for employers in controlling health care costs.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY PATIENTS INTO LOW AND HIGH BLEEDING RISK GROUPS USING THROMBELASTOGRAPHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elenius Madsen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Title: CLASSIFICATION OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY PATIENTS INTO LOW AND HIGH BLEEDING RISK GROUPS USING THROMBELASTOGRAPHY Objectives: Orthognathic surgery involves surgical manipulation of jaw and face skeletal structure. A subgroup of patients undergoing orthognathic surgery suffers from excessive...... into account the complex interplay between coagulation factors, blood platelets and components of the fibrinolytic system. Patients undergoing orthognathic surgery were included in this prospective study, and their preoperative thrombelastographic data were collected and compared to their intraoperative blood...... predictive values. An α angleex above 67o did with 95% certainty predict a blood loss below 400 mL, and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8. Conclusion: By means of the α angleex it is possible to separate orthognathic surgery patients according...

  19. Zaire program expands to cover high-risk groups in two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This article announces the expansion of Zaire's social marketing program for condoms to high-risk groups in the cities of Goma and Matadi. The program will use proven marketing techniques from Kinshasha, printed materials, and direct marketing to retail outlets, emphasizing hotels, bars, and other areas frequented by prostitutes, migrants, and other travelers. In addition to retail outlets such as pharmacies, 50 taxis will be tested as additional retail sources for Prudence condoms. Once under way, this effort could reach as many as 96,000 people/day. 5 new AIDS information spots are being televised, and an anti-AIDS song and jingle are on the air. Condom social marketing representatives report a 357% increase in condom sales through March, 1989, over 1988, and that products are now available in 85% of Kinshasha pharmacies. Medical center coverage has increased to 14 from 9 zones, while products reach 11 additional cities and 5 interior provinces.

  20. Risk factors for inguinal hernia in women: a case-control study. The Coala Trial Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, M S; van der Graaf, Y; Zwart, R C; Geurts, I; van Vroonhoven, T J

    1997-11-01

    Potential risk factors for inguinal hernia in women were investigated and the relative importance of these factors was quantified. In women, symptomatic but nonpalpable hernias often remain undiagnosed. However, knowledge on this subject only concerns hernia and operation characteristics, which have been obtained by review of case series. Virtually nothing is known about risk factors for inguinal hernia. The authors performed a hospital-based case-control study of 89 female patients with an incident inguinal hernia and 176 age-matched female controls. Activity since birth with two validated questionnaires was measured and smoking habits, medical and operation history, Quetelet index (kg/m2), and history of pregnancies and deliveries were recorded. Response for cases was 81% and for controls 73%. Total physical activity was not associated with inguinal hernia (univariate odds ratio (OR) = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.1), but high present sports activities was associated with less inguinal hernia (multivariate OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.7). Obesity (Quetelet index > 30) was also protective for inguinal hernia (OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.04-1.0). Independent risk factors were positive family history (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.9-9.7) and obstipation (OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-6.7). In particular, smoking, appendectomy, other abdominal operations, and multiple deliveries were not associated with inguinal hernia in females. The protective effect of present sports activity may be explained by optimizing the resistance of the abdominal musculature protecting the relatively small inguinal weak spot in the female. The individual predisposition for inguinal hernia may be quantified by these risk factors, and, with this in mind, the authors advise that further evaluation might be needed for the patient with unexplained inguinal pain.

  1. Risk based technique for improving technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. S.; Jae, M. S.; Kim, B. S.; Hwang, S. W.; Kang, K. M.; Park, S. S.; Yu, Y. S.

    2001-03-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the systematic guidance for reviewing the documents associated with the changes of technical specifications. The work done in this fiscal year is the following : surveys in TS requirements, TS improvements and TS regulations in foreign countries as well as Korea, surveys on the state-of-the-art of RITSs and their use in Korea, development of a decision-making framework for both the licensee and the regulation agency, description of risk measures, assessment methodology on STI/AOT, and adverse effects caused by periodic maintenance, which are explained in appendix. The results of this study might contribute to enhancing the quality of the current technical specifications and contribute to preparing the risk informed regulation program using the decision-making framework developed in this study

  2. Successful Reach and Adoption of a workplace health promotion RCT targeting a group of high-risk workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekner Dorte

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cleaners are rarely introduced to workplace health promotion programs. The study's objective was to evaluate the reach and adoption of a workplace randomized controlled trial (RCT among cleaners in Denmark. Methods Cleaning businesses with at least 30 employees, that could offer a weekly 1-hour intervention during working hours, were invited to participate. Employees working at least 20 hours/week were invited to answer a screening questionnaire and consent to participate. Analyses determined the differences in health variables between responders and non-responders, consenters and non-consenters, participants and non-participants and between participants of the RCT's three groups: physical coordination training, cognitive-behavioural theory-based training and reference group. Results From 16 eligible workplaces, a representative sample of 50% adopted the trial. Of 758 eligible employees, 78% responded to the screening questionnaire and 49% consented to participate. Consenters and participants differed from non-consenters and non-participants by having higher BMI, more chronic diseases and poorer musculoskeletal health. Conclusions This study indicates that workplace health promotion programs directed at health risk factors among cleaners enable significant adoption and reach to a high-risk subgroup of the Danish workforce. Trial registration Trial registration ISRCTN96241850

  3. Risk-based decisionmaking in the DOE: Challenges and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.; Moses, M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary mission of the Environmental Management Program is to protect human health and the environment, the first goal of which must be, to address urgent risks and threats. Another is to provide for a safe workplace. Without credible risk assessments and good risk management practices, the central environmental goals cannot be met. Principles for risk analysis which include principles for risk assessment, management, communication, and priority setting were adopted. As recommended, Environmental Management is using risk-based decision making in its budget process and in the implementation of its program. The challenges presented in using a risk-based Decision making process are to integrate risk assessment methods and cultural and social values so as to produce meaningful priorities. The different laws and regulations governing the Department define risk differently in implementing activities to protect human health and the environment, therefore, assumptions and judgements in risk analysis vary. Currently, the Environmental Management Program is developing and improving a framework to incorporate risk into the budget process and to link the budget, compliance requirements and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities

  4. Risk-based decisionmaking in the DOE: Challenges and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.; Moses, M. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The primary mission of the Environmental Management Program is to protect human health and the environment, the first goal of which must be, to address urgent risks and threats. Another is to provide for a safe workplace. Without credible risk assessments and good risk management practices, the central environmental goals cannot be met. Principles for risk analysis which include principles for risk assessment, management, communication, and priority setting were adopted. As recommended, Environmental Management is using risk-based decision making in its budget process and in the implementation of its program. The challenges presented in using a risk-based Decision making process are to integrate risk assessment methods and cultural and social values so as to produce meaningful priorities. The different laws and regulations governing the Department define risk differently in implementing activities to protect human health and the environment, therefore, assumptions and judgements in risk analysis vary. Currently, the Environmental Management Program is developing and improving a framework to incorporate risk into the budget process and to link the budget, compliance requirements and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities.

  5. Joint Cross-Service Group for Laboratories 1995 Defense Base Realignment and Closure Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reed, Donald

    1995-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that discusses the Joint Cross-Service Group implementation of the internal control plan developed by the 1995 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Steering Group (the Steering Group...

  6. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  7. Basal cell carcinoma in farmers: an occupation group at high risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Mateusz; Pazdrowski, Jakub; Golusiński, Paweł; Dańczak-Pazdrowska, Aleksandra; Łuczewski, Łukasz; Marszałek, Sławomir; Majchrzak, Ewa; Golusiński, Wojciech

    2016-04-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer type worldwide, and 80 % of skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The main risk factor for developing BCC is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), particularly high-dose exposure at a young age. Outdoor workers, particularly farmers, are at high risk of developing BCC. However, studies of BCC in this population are scant. To comprehensively evaluate all cases of BCC of the head and neck region treated during the years 2007-2013 at our hospital in Poland, and to compare the tumour characteristics in farmers to non-farmers. Retrospective analysis of 312 patients treated for head and neck BCC during the study period (2007-2013). Most patients (198 cases; 63 %) were males, with 114 females (37 %). Median age was 73 years (range 32-96 years). The most common tumour location was the nose and cheek (114 pts; 37 %) followed by the auricle (82 pts; 26 %), lips (54 pts; 18 %), scalp (26 pts; 8 %), and eye (36 pts; 12 %). The most common disease stage on presentation was stage T2 (104 pts, 33 %), followed by stage T1 (79 pts; 25 %), stage T3 (89 pts; 28 %), and stage T4 (40 pts; 14 %). By occupation, farmers accounted for 33 % of all patients (102 of 312 pts). The most common tumour localisations in the farmer subgroup were the nose and cheek (50 pts; 49 %; p farmer group were significantly younger than non-farmers (62 vs. 73 years; p Farmers were significantly more likely to present disease recurrence (27 vs. 12 % of cases; p farmers. It is therefore necessary to consider enhancing educational programmes and other preventative measures in this occupational group and to evaluate the effectiveness of such programmes.

  8. Risk-based zoning for urbanizing floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Urban floodplain development brings economic benefits and enhanced flood risks. Rapidly growing cities must often balance the economic benefits and increased risks of floodplain settlement. Planning can provide multiple flood mitigation and environmental benefits by combining traditional structural measures such as levees, increasingly popular landscape and design features (green infrastructure), and non-structural measures such as zoning. Flexibility in both structural and non-structural options, including zoning procedures, can reduce flood risks. This paper presents a linear programming formulation to assess cost-effective urban floodplain development decisions that consider benefits and costs of development along with expected flood damages. It uses a probabilistic approach to identify combinations of land-use allocations (residential and commercial development, flood channels, distributed runoff management) and zoning regulations (development zones in channel) to maximize benefits. The model is applied to a floodplain planning analysis for an urbanizing region in the Baja Sur peninsula of Mexico. The analysis demonstrates how (1) economic benefits drive floodplain development, (2) flexible zoning can improve economic returns, and (3) cities can use landscapes, enhanced by technology and design, to manage floods. The framework can incorporate additional green infrastructure benefits, and bridges typical disciplinary gaps for planning and engineering.

  9. System for Anonymous Data Collection Based on Group Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Troják

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an anonymous data collection in the Internet of Things (IoT. the privacy and anonymity of the data source is important for many IoT applications, such as in agriculture, health, and automotive. the proposed data‑collection system provides anonymity for the data sources by applying a cooperation group scheme. the group scheme also provides a low power consumption. the system is built upon the Tor (The Onion Router anonymous network, which is a part of the Internet darknet. the proposed system was designed for the Android devices on the client side and for Java environment on the server side. We evaluated the anonymous data collection in a real‑use scenario that covers selected data acquisition (e.g. signal strength from smartphones triggered by their geographical location change. the results show that the proposed system provides the sufficient data source anonymity, an effective revocation, a low computational cost and a low overhead.

  10. PENGARUH PELAKSANAAN RISK BASED INTERNAL AUDITING TERHADAP PENCEGAHAN FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmita Dewi Yuniarti Rozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on internal audit Inspection Office Bank BRI Bandung Region. The sample used by 18 internal auditors in Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region saturated sampling method. Based on calculation of simple regression analysis obtained result that every increase of implementation of risk based internal auditing (X will lead to increase fraud prevention (Y. It shows that there is a positive influence between the implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on the internal audit of Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region.

  11. Household time allocation model based on a group utility function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Existing activity-based models typically assume an individual decision-making process. In household decision-making, however, interaction exists among household members and their activities during the allocation of the members' limited time. This paper, therefore, attempts to develop a new household

  12. The Joint Effects of Risk Status, Gender, Early Literacy and Cognitive Skills on the Presence of Dyslexia among a Group of High-Risk Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Simpson W. L.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Lam, Catherine; Chan, Becky; Lam, Fanny W. F.; Doo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to examine factors that are predictive of future developmental dyslexia among a group of 5-year-old Chinese children at risk for dyslexia, including 62 children with a sibling who had been previously diagnosed with dyslexia and 52 children who manifested clinical at-risk factors in aspects of language according to testing by…

  13. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavites, Lindsey C.; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A.; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women’s knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants’ breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  14. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavites, Lindsey C; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-11-09

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women's knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants' breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  15. Maternal genital tract colonisation by group-b streptococcus: a hospital based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najmi, N.; Sikandar, R.; Zuberi, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Group B Streptococcus genital tract infection in pregnant women and to determine the risk factors for its colonisation. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi and Sobhraj Hospital, Karachi, from May to August 2007. Pregnant women at 35-37 weeks gestation attending antenatal clinic at these hospitals constituted the study population. Based on stratified sampling, 405 patients were recruited. High vaginal swabs of these patients were taken in order to calculate the prevalence of infection at each hospital. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk factor association. SPSS 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of colonisation was 17% (n=69) (95% CI: 13.4-20.7). Of the 155(38.27%) women at the Aga Khan Hospital, 35(22.6%) were positive, while among the 250 (61.72%) women at Sobhraj Hospital, the prevalence was 13.6% (n=34). The colonisation was found to be significantly associated inversely with the body mass index of the patient (OR 0.91; 95% CI: 0.08-1.0). Conclusion: Group B Streptococcus screening should be an integral part of antenatal care and should be offered to all pregnant women. (author)

  16. Developing points-based risk-scoring systems in the presence of competing risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Lee, Douglas S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fine, Jason P

    2016-09-30

    Predicting the occurrence of an adverse event over time is an important issue in clinical medicine. Clinical prediction models and associated points-based risk-scoring systems are popular statistical methods for summarizing the relationship between a multivariable set of patient risk factors and the risk of the occurrence of an adverse event. Points-based risk-scoring systems are popular amongst physicians as they permit a rapid assessment of patient risk without the use of computers or other electronic devices. The use of such points-based risk-scoring systems facilitates evidence-based clinical decision making. There is a growing interest in cause-specific mortality and in non-fatal outcomes. However, when considering these types of outcomes, one must account for competing risks whose occurrence precludes the occurrence of the event of interest. We describe how points-based risk-scoring systems can be developed in the presence of competing events. We illustrate the application of these methods by developing risk-scoring systems for predicting cardiovascular mortality in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Code in the R statistical programming language is provided for the implementation of the described methods. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Content-Based Covert Group Detection in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    The students took courses in natural language processing, data mining in various multi-media data sets, text retrieval, text summarization and... mining in social media including: we performed work, on (a) diffusion in social networks, (b) influence maximization in signed social networks, (c...Learning, Information Retrieval, Data Mining and Database. There are 8,293 messages. Our method outperformed state of the art methods based on content

  18. Risk factors for treatment related clinical fluctuations in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Dutch Guillain-Barré study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H. Visser (Leendert); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); J. Meulstee (Jan); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe risk factors for treatment related clinical fluctuations, relapses occurring after initial therapeutic induced stabilisation or improvement, were evaluated in a group of 172 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome. Clinical, laboratory, and electrodiagnostic features

  19. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program towards a blended intervention; a focus-group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  20. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations. By calculating the core-melt frequency for given configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Furthermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period

  1. Toward risk-based control of nuclear power plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Veseley, W.E.; Kim, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Futhermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period. (orig.)

  2. Strategies and criteria for risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability or statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, so that the risk from components being unavailable is minimized, becomes difficult because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. In this paper, we discuss the strategies and criteria for risk-based configuration control in nuclear power plants. In developing these strategies and criteria, the primary objective is to obtain more direct risk control but the added benefit is the effective use of plant resources. Implementation of such approaches can result in replacement/modification of parts of Technical Specifications. Specifically, the risk impact or safety impact of a configuration depends upon four factors: (1) The configuration components which are simultaneously down (i.e., inoperable); (2) the backup components which are known to be up (i.e., operable); (3) the duration of time the configuration exists (the outage time); and (4) the frequency at which the configuration occurs. Risk-based configuration control involves managing these factors using risk analyses and risk insights. In this paper, we discuss each of the factors and illustrate how they can be controlled. The information and the tools needed in implementing configuration control are also discussed. The risk-based calculation requirements in achieving the control are also delineated. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Training Based on the Neuromuscular Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Ford, Kevin R; Xu, Yingying Y; Khoury, Jane; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-07-01

    The effects of targeted neuromuscular training (TNMT) on movement biomechanics associated with the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are currently unknown. Purpose/Hypotheses: To determine the effectiveness of TNMT specifically designed to increase trunk control and hip strength. The hypotheses were that (1) TNMT would decrease biomechanical and neuromuscular factors related to an increased ACL injury risk and (2) TNMT would decrease these biomechanical and neuromuscular factors to a greater extent in athletes identified as being at a high risk for future ACL injuries. Controlled laboratory study. Female athletes who participated in jumping, cutting, and pivoting sports underwent 3-dimensional biomechanical testing before the season and after completing TNMT. During testing, athletes performed 3 different types of tasks: (1) drop vertical jump, (2) single-leg drop, and (3) single-leg cross drop. Analysis of covariance was used to examine the treatment effects of TNMT designed to enhance core and hip strength on biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. Differences were also evaluated by risk profile. Differences were considered statistically significant at P risk before the intervention (risk profile III) had a more significant treatment effect of TNMT than low-risk groups (risk profiles I and II). TNMT significantly improved proximal biomechanics, including increased hip external rotation moments and moment impulses, increased peak trunk flexion, and decreased peak trunk extension. TNMT that focuses exclusively on proximal leg and trunk risk factors is not, however, adequate to induce significant changes in frontal-plane knee loading. Biomechanical changes varied across the risk profile groups, with higher risk groups exhibiting greater improvements in their biomechanics.

  4. Risk group dependence of dose-response for biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Skwarchuk, Mark W.; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: We fit phenomenological tumor control probability (TCP) models to biopsy outcome after three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of prostate cancer patients to quantify the local dose-response of prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We analyzed the outcome after photon beam 3D-CRT of 103 patients with stage T1c-T3 prostate cancer treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (prescribed target doses between 64.8 and 81 Gy) who had a prostate biopsy performed ≥2.5 years after end of treatment. A univariate logistic regression model based on D mean (mean dose in the planning target volume of each patient) was fit to the whole data set and separately to subgroups characterized by low and