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Sample records for risk factors vascular

  1. Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vascular access complications and risk factors in hemodialysis patients: A single center study. ... Stenosis was the most common risk factor for vascular failure as it occurred in (29%) of patients. ... Other risk factors for dialysis CRBSI include older age, low serum albumin, high BUN and decreasing the duration of dialysis.

  2. Vascular Risk Factors and Clinical Progression in Spinocerebellar Ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Y. Lo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The contributions of vascular risk factors to spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA are not known.Methods: We studied 319 participants with SCA 1, 2, 3, and 6 and repeatedly measured clinical severity using the Scale for Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA for 2 years. Vascular risk factors were summarized by CHA2DS2-VASc scores as the vascular risk factor index. We employed regression models to study the effects of vascular risk factors on ataxia onset and progression after adjusting for age, sex, and pathological CAG repeats. Our secondary analyses took hyperlipidemia into account.Results: Nearly 60% of SCA participants were at low vascular risks with CHA2DS2-VASc = 0, and 31% scored 2 or greater. Higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores were not associated with either earlier onset or faster progression of ataxia. These findings were not altered after accounting for hyperlipidemia. Discussion: Vascular risks are not common in SCAs and are not associated with earlier onset or faster ataxia progression.

  3. Vascular neurocognitive disorders and the vascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V. Albu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementias are clinical neurodegenerative diseases characterized by permanent and progressive transformation of cognitive functions such as memory, learning capacity, attention, thinking, language, passing judgments, calculation or orientation. Dementias represent a relatively frequent pathology, encountered at about 10% of the population of 65-year olds and 20% of the population of 80-year olds. This review presents the main etiological forms of dementia, which include Alzheimer form of dementia, vascular dementia, dementia associated with alpha-synucleionopathies, and mixed forms. Regarding vascular dementia, the risk factors are similar to those for an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, age, alcohol consumption, cerebral atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis. Several studies show that efficient management of the vascular risk factors can prevent the expression and/ or progression of dementia. Thus, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular physical exercise, decreasing dietary fat, multivitamin supplementation, adequate control of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, and social integration and mental stimulation in the elderly population are important factors in preventing or limiting the symptoms of dementia, a disease with significant individual, social, and economic implications.

  4. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    , while two of three studies, including both men and women, found direct associations between SSB consumption and stroke; however, the association was significant among women only. All included studies examining vascular risk factors found direct associations between SSB consumption and change in blood...... pressure, blood lipid or blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies generally showed that SSB intake was related to vascular risk factors, whereas associations with vascular events were less consistent. Due to a limited number of published papers, especially regarding vascular events, the strength......OBJECTIVE: A high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been linked to weight gain, obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the influence on CVD risk remains unclear. Therefore, our objective was to summarize current evidence for an association between SSB consumption and cardiovascular risk...

  5. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  6. Vascular risk factors, cognitve decline, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Duron

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome

  7. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing

  8. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    . Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men......Purpose: To describe the association between retinal vascular calibres and cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: Population-based cross-sectional study including 6353 participants of the TromsO Eye Study in Norway aged 38-87years. Retinal arteriolar calibre (central retinal artery equivalent...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  9. Vascular Cognitive Impairment: risk factors and brain MRI correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijmer, Y.D.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease plays an important role in the development of dementia, also in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, and type 2 diabetes, are associated with a two-fold increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia. The development of

  10. Vascular Risk Factors as Treatment Target to Prevent Cognitive Decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, Edo; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; van Gool, Willem A.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that vascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and lack of physical exercise are associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Neuroradiological and neuropathological studies

  11. Risk factors and prevention of vascular complications in polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbui, T; Finazzi, G

    1997-01-01

    Risk factors for vascular complications in polycythemia vera (PV) include laboratory and clinical findings. Among laboratory values, the hematocrit has been clearly associated with thrombosis, particularly in the cerebral circulation. Platelet count is a possible but not yet clearly established predictor of vascular complications. Platelet function tests are of little help in prognostic evaluation because most attempts to correlate these abnormalities with clinical events have been disappointing. Clinical predictors of thrombosis include increasing age and a previous history of vascular events. Identifying risk factors for thrombosis is important to initiate therapy. Phlebotomy is associated with an increased incidence of thrombosis in the first 3 to 5 years, whereas chemotherapy may induce a higher risk of secondary malignancies after 7 to 10 years of follow-up. New cytoreductive drugs virtually devoid of mutagenic risk include interferon-alpha and anagrelide, but their role in reducing thrombotic complications remains to be demonstrated. Antithrombotic drugs, such as aspirin, are frequently used in PV, despite doubts regarding safety and efficacy. Two recent studies from the Gruppo Italiano Studio Policitemia Vera (GISP) assessed the rate of major thrombosis as well as the tolerability of low-dose aspirin in PV patients. These investigations created a favorable scenario for launching a European collaborative clinical trial (ECLAP study) aimed at testing the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in preventing thrombosis and prolonging survival in patients with PV.

  12. Patient knowledge of risk factors 18 months after a nurse-led vascular intervention

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tone, J M

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims: Eighteen months after the completion of a vascular risk intervention study, the authors aimed to ascertain whether participants who attended the intensive, nurse-led group had better retention of knowledge of diabetes and heart disease compared with those who had undergone standard diabetes care. Method: A knowledge-based questionnaire was sent to participants who completed the vascular risk intervention study, 94 from the intensive, nurse-led group and 94 from the standard care group. Results: A response rate of 75% was achieved. Although more participants in the intensive group achieved recommended vascular risk targets, there was no increase in retained knowledge of vascular risks. A high proportion of the total cohort could not quantify targets for blood pressure (67.2%), cholesterol (65.1%) or HbA1c (68.1%). Conclusion: In this cohort of people with type 2 diabetes, knowledge retention regarding treatment targets was poor. Education programmes should stress awareness of vascular risk factors and diabetes.

  13. Is Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome a Risk Factor for Cerebro Vascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Emrah; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Demirağ, Mehmet Derya; Çalık, Murat

    2017-01-01

    To determine the relationship between cerebro vascular disease and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. This cross-sectional case control study consisted of 50 patients with ischemic-type cerebro vascular disease and 50 control subjects. All subjects were investigated for diabetes mellitus and hypertension status and underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. A diagnosis of pseudoexfoliation syndrome was made if characteristic greyish particulate matter was found on the anterior lens capsule after pupillary dilatation by slit-lamp examination. All subjects were compared in terms of pseudoexfoliation syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Pearson Chi Square and Student's t test were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analyses of the risk factors between groups were also made. The presence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome was significantly higher in patients with cerebro vascular disease when compared to the control subjects (p = 0.02). The frequency of diabetes mellitus was similar between the two groups. Arterial hypertension was significantly more frequent in the patient group when compared to the control subjects (p cerebro vascular disease. In the present study, we found that pseudoexfoliation syndrome frequency was found to be higher in patients with cerebro vascular disease than in control subjects. A slit-lamp examination of the eye could be an important marker that indicates the risk of cerebro vascular disease. We recommend an evaluation of all subjects with pseudoexfoliation syndrome for the presence of cerebro vascular disease. Longitudinal studies with larger populations are needed to confirm this relationship.

  14. Cognitive patterns in relation to biomarkers of cerebrovascular disease and vascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; López-Oloriz, Jorge; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Galán, Amparo; Cáceres, Cynthia; Alzamora, Maite; Pera, Guillem; Toran, Pere; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) are the same as traditional risk factors for cerebrovascular disease (CVD). Early identification of subjects at higher risk of VCI is important for the development of effective preventive strategies. In addition to traditional vascular risk factors (VRF), circulating biomarkers have emerged as potential tools for early diagnoses, as they could provide in vivo measures of the underlying pathophysiology. While VRF have been consistently linked to a VCI profile (i.e., deficits in executive functions and processing speed), the cognitive correlates of CVD biomarkers remain unclear. In this population-based study, the aim was to study and compare cognitive patterns in relation to VRF and circulating biomarkers of CVD. The Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study included 747 subjects older than 50, without a prior history of stroke or coronary disease and with a moderate to high vascular risk (mean age, 66 years; 34.1% women). Three cognitive domains were derived from factoral analysis: visuospatial skills/speed, verbal memory and verbal fluency. Multiple linear regression was used to assess relationships between cognitive performance (multiple domains) and a panel of circulating biomarkers, including indicators of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP) and resistin, endothelial dysfunction, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), thrombosis, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), as well as traditional VRF, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance (homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index). Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, years of education and depressive symptoms. Traditional VRF were related to lower performance in verbal fluency, insulin resistance accounted for lower performance in visuospatial skills/speed and the metabolic syndrome predicted lower performance in both cognitive domains. From the biomarkers of CVD, CRP was negatively related to verbal fluency performance and increasing ADMA

  15. Metabolic Vascular Syndrome: New Insights into a Multidimensional Network of Risk Factors and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Gerhard H; Hanefeld, Markolf

    2016-10-01

    Since 1981, we have used the term metabolic syndrome to describe an association of a dysregulation in lipid metabolism (high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, disturbed glucose homeostasis (enhanced fasting and/or prandial glucose), gout, and hypertension), with android obesity being based on a common soil (overnutrition, reduced physical activity, sociocultural factors, and genetic predisposition). We hypothesized that main traits of the syndrome occur early and are tightly connected with hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance, procoagulation, and cardiovascular diseases. To establish a close link between the traits of the metabolic vascular syndrome, we focused our literature search on recent original work and comprehensive reviews dealing with the topics metabolic syndrome, visceral obesity, fatty liver, fat tissue inflammation, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent research supports the concept that the metabolic vascular syndrome is a multidimensional and interactive network of risk factors and diseases based on individual genetic susceptibility and epigenetic changes where metabolic dysregulation/metabolic inflexibility in different organs and vascular dysfunction are early interconnected. The metabolic vascular syndrome is not only a risk factor constellation but rather a life-long abnormality of a closely connected interactive cluster of developing diseases which escalate each other and should continuously attract the attention of every clinician.

  16. Vascular Risk Factors and Diseases Modulate Deficits of Reward-Based Reversal Learning in Acute Basal Ganglia Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla K Seidel

    Full Text Available Besides motor function, the basal ganglia have been implicated in feedback learning. In patients with chronic basal ganglia infarcts, deficits in reward-based reversal learning have previously been described.We re-examined the acquisition and reversal of stimulus-stimulus-reward associations and acquired equivalence in eleven patients with acute basal ganglia stroke (8 men, 3 women; 57.8±13.3 years, whose performance was compared eleven healthy subjects of comparable age, sex distribution and education, who were recruited outside the hospital. Eleven hospitalized patients with a similar vascular risk profile as the stroke patients but without stroke history served as clinical control group.In a neuropsychological assessment 7±3 days post-stroke, verbal and spatial short-term and working memory and inhibition control did not differ between groups. Compared with healthy subjects, control patients with vascular risk factors exhibited significantly reduced performance in the reversal phase (F[2,30] = 3.47; p = 0.044; post-hoc comparison between risk factor controls and healthy controls: p = 0.030, but not the acquisition phase (F[2,30] = 1.01; p = 0.376 and the acquired equivalence (F[2,30] = 1.04; p = 0.367 tasks. In all tasks, the performance of vascular risk factor patients closely resembled that of basal ganglia stroke patients. Correlation studies revealed a significant association of the number of vascular risk factors with reversal learning (r = -0.33, p = 0.012, but not acquisition learning (r = -0.20, p = 0.121 or acquired equivalence (r = -0.22, p = 0.096.The previously reported impairment of reward-based learning may be attributed to vascular risk factors and associated diseases, which are enriched in stroke patients. This study emphasizes the necessity of appropriate control subjects in cognition studies.

  17. Risk Factor Analysis for Mastectomy Skin Flap Necrosis: Implications for Intraoperative Vascular Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintgen, Christian; Leavitt, Adam; Pace, Elizabeth; Molas-Pierson, Justine; Mast, Bruce A

    2016-06-01

    Skin flap necrosis after mastectomy can be a devastating complication significantly affecting patient outcomes. Routine vascular analysis (fluorescein or laser angiography) of mastectomy skin flaps in all patients has been advocated but is of questionable cost-effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and causative risk factors for mastectomy skin flap necrosis and thereby calculate the fiscal reality of intraoperative vascular screening. This is an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of all patients from 2007 to 2013 who underwent mastectomy related to breast cancer. Skin flap necrosis was defined as major if it necessitated return to the operating room. Data analysis was done for determination of causative factors of necrosis, including age, body mass index, smoking, previous irradiation, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, asthma, diabetes, thyroid disease, history of lumpectomy, and breast reduction or augmentation. During this time, intraoperative vascular screening was not done. Five hundred eighty-one patients underwent 616 mastectomies with a total of 34 necrotic events (5.5%)-16 major and 18 minor. Analyses via Student t tests, univariate analyses, χ testing, and logistic regression showed that history of smoking was the only patient factor associated with postoperative necrosis (P = 0.008). More frequently represented in the necrosis group, but without statistical significance, are previous lumpectomy (P = 0.069) and immediate reconstruction (P = 0.078).For the entire study period, the actual cost to the hospital for major necrotic events was $7,123.10 or $445.19 for each of the 16 major necrotic events and $209.50 for all 34 necrotic events. Per-patient cost-effective screening would need to be less than $11.54 for all patients, $100.33 for highest risk patients (smokers), and $21.65 for

  18. Roles of Vascular and Metabolic Components in Cognitive Dysfunction of Alzheimer disease: Short- and Long-term Modification by Non-genetic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki eSato

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a specific set of genetic and non-genetic risk factors contributes to the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD. Non-genetic risk factors include diabetes, hypertension in mid-life, and probably dyslipidemia in mid-life. This review focuses on the vascular and metabolic components of non-genetic risk factors. The mechanisms whereby non-genetic risk factors modify cognitive dysfunction are divided into four components, short- and long-term effects of vascular and metabolic factors. These consist of 1 compromised vascular reactivity, 2 vascular lesions, 3 hypo/hyperglycemia, and 4 exacerbated AD histopathological features, respectively. Vascular factors compromise cerebrovascular reactivity in response to neuronal activity and also cause irreversible vascular lesions. On the other hand, representative short-term effects of metabolic factors on cognitive dysfunction occur due to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Non-genetic risk factors also modify the pathological manifestations of AD in the long-term. Therefore, vascular and metabolic factors contribute to aggravation of cognitive dysfunction in AD through short-term and long-term effects. Beta-amyloid could be involved in both vascular and metabolic components. It might be beneficial to support treatment in AD patients by appropriate therapeutic management of non-genetic risk factors, considering the contributions of these four elements to the manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in individual patients, though all components are not always present. It should be clarified how these four components interact with each other. To answer this question, a clinical prospective study that follows up clinical features with respect to these four components: 1 functional MRI or SPECT for cerebrovascular reactivity, 2 MRI for ischemic lesions and atrophy, 3 clinical episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, 4 amyloid-PET and tau-PET for pathological features of AD, would be required.

  19. Roles of vascular and metabolic components in cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease: short- and long-term modification by non-genetic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoyuki; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2013-11-05

    It is well known that a specific set of genetic and non-genetic risk factors contributes to the onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). Non-genetic risk factors include diabetes, hypertension in mid-life, and probably dyslipidemia in mid-life. This review focuses on the vascular and metabolic components of non-genetic risk factors. The mechanisms whereby non-genetic risk factors modify cognitive dysfunction are divided into four components, short- and long-term effects of vascular and metabolic factors. These consist of (1) compromised vascular reactivity, (2) vascular lesions, (3) hypo/hyperglycemia, and (4) exacerbated AD histopathological features, respectively. Vascular factors compromise cerebrovascular reactivity in response to neuronal activity and also cause irreversible vascular lesions. On the other hand, representative short-term effects of metabolic factors on cognitive dysfunction occur due to hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Non-genetic risk factors also modify the pathological manifestations of AD in the long-term. Therefore, vascular and metabolic factors contribute to aggravation of cognitive dysfunction in AD through short-term and long-term effects. β-amyloid could be involved in both vascular and metabolic components. It might be beneficial to support treatment in AD patients by appropriate therapeutic management of non-genetic risk factors, considering the contributions of these four elements to the manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in individual patients, though all components are not always present. It should be clarified how these four components interact with each other. To answer this question, a clinical prospective study that follows up clinical features with respect to these four components: (1) functional MRI or SPECT for cerebrovascular reactivity, (2) MRI for ischemic lesions and atrophy, (3) clinical episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia, (4) amyloid-PET and tau-PET for pathological features of AD, would be required.

  20. Vascular risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Therapeutic approaches in mouse models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiesmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this thesis was to elucidate the impact of major vascular risk factors like hypertension, apoE4 and stroke during the very early phase of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using several mice models. Hypertension has proven to be associated with cerebrovascular impairment already at young age

  1. Trend, Risk Factors, and Costs of Clostridium difficile Infections in Vascular Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Natalia N; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; McKinsey, James F; Nowygrod, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Starting in December 2013, the Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program included Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates as a new publically reported quality measure. Our goal was to review the trend, hospital variability in CDI rates, and associated risk factors and costs in vascular surgery. The rates of CDI after major vascular procedures including aortic abdominal aneurysm (AAA) repair, carotid endarterectomy or stenting, lower extremity revascularization (LER), and LE amputation were identified using Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for 2000-2011. Risk factors associated with CDI were analyzed with hierarchical multivariate logistic regression. Extra costs, length of stay (LOS), and mortality were assessed for propensity-matched hospitalizations with and without CDI. During the study period, the rates of CDI after vascular procedures had increased by 74% from 0.6 in 2000 to 1.05% in 2011, whereas the case fatality rate was stable at 9-11%. In 2011, the highest rates were after ruptured aortic abdominal aneurysm (rAAA) repair (3.3%), followed by lower extremity amputations (2.3%) and elective open AAA (1.3%). The rates of CDI increased after all vascular procedures during the 12 years. The highest increase was after endovascular LER (151.8%) and open rAAA repair (135.7%). In 2011, patients who had experienced CDI had median LOS of 15 days (interquartile range, 9-25 days) compared with 8.3 days for matched patients without CDI, in-hospital mortality 9.1% (compared with 5.0%), and $13,471 extra cost per hospitalization. The estimated cost associated with CDI in vascular surgery in the United States was ∼$98 million in 2011. Hospital rates of CDI varied from 0 to 50% with 3.5% of hospitals having infection rates ≥5%. Factors associated with CDI included multiple chronic conditions, female gender, surgery type, emergent and weekend hospitalizations, hospital transfers, and urban locations. Despite potential reduction of infection rates as evidenced

  2. Social network composition of vascular patients and its associations with health behavior and clinical risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Heijmans

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore linkages of patients' social network composition with health behaviors and clinical risk factors.This observational study was embedded in a project aimed at improving cardiovascular risk management (CRVM in primary care. 657 vascular patients (227 with cardiovascular disease, 380 at high vascular risk, mean age 72.4 (SD 9.4 years, were recruited as were individuals patients considered important for dealing with their disease, so called alters (n = 487. Network composition was measured with structured patient questionnaires. Both patients and alters completed questionnaires to measure health behavior (habits for physical activity, diet, and smoking. Clinical risk factors (systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol level, and body mass index were extracted from patients' medical records. Six logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations, were used to test three hypothesized effects of network composition (having alters with healthful behaviors, without depression, and with specialized knowledge on six outcomes, adjusted for demographic, personal and psychological characteristics.Having alters with overall healthful behavior was related to healthful patient diet (OR 2.14, 95%CI: 1.52-3.02. Having non-smoking alters in networks was related to reduced odds for patient smoking (OR 0.17, 95%CI: 0.05-0.60. No effects of presence of non-depressed alters were found. Presence of alters with specialized knowledge on CVRM was inversely related to healthful diet habits of patients (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.24-0.89. No significant associations between social network composition and clinical risk factors were found.Diet and smoking, but not physical exercise and clinical risk factors, were associated with social network composition of patients with vascular conditions. In this study of vascular patients, controlling for both personal and psychological factors, fewer network influences were found compared to previous

  3. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-08-06

    Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, called the brain arterial remodeling (BAR) score, was obtained by averaging the measured diameters within each individual. Individuals with a BAR score -2 and 2 SDs had the largest diameters. All vascular events were recorded prospectively after the brain magnetic resonance imaging. Spline curves and incidence rates were used to test our hypothesis. The association of the BAR score with death (P=0.001), vascular death (P=0.02), any vascular event (P=0.05), and myocardial infarction (P=0.10) was U-shaped except for ischemic stroke (P=0.74). Consequently, incidence rates for death, vascular death, myocardial infarction, and any vascular event were higher in individuals with the largest diameters, whereas individuals with the smallest diameters had a higher incidence of death, vascular death, any vascular event, and ischemic stroke compared with individuals with average diameters. The risk of death, vascular death, and any vascular event increased at both extremes of brain arterial diameters. The pathophysiology linking brain arterial remodeling to systemic vascular events needs further research. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. Episodic vertigo resulting from vascular risk factors, cervical spondylosis and head rotation: Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mayowa O; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2007-01-01

    Vascular risk factors predispose to vertebrobasilar ischemia. Cervical osteophytes can impinge on the vertebral artery causing mechanical occlusion during head turning. Presentation with vertigo in such instances is a common finding. A patient with obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cervical spondylosis, and vertigo triggered by head rotation is presented. She responded to antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs, vestibular sedative and application of cervical collar. The second patient also exhibited similar features and responded to conservative treatment. Rotational vertebral artery occlusion resulting from cervical spondylosis in the presence of atherosclerosed collateral vessels is a cause of posterior circulation insufficiency manifesting as vertigo. The tetrad of vertigo resulting from vascular risk factors, cervical spondylosis, and head rotation is proposed for further research.

  5. Can vascular risk factors influence number and size of cerebral metastases? A 3D-MRI study in patients with different tumor entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sandra; Berk, Benjamin-Andreas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Seidel, Clemens

    2018-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that cerebral microangiopathy reduces number of brain metastases. Aim of this study was to analyse if vascular risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia) or the presence of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) can have an impact on number or size of brain metastases. 200 patients with pre-therapeutic 3D-brain MRI and available clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. Mean number of metastases (NoM) and mean diameter of metastases (mDM) were compared between patients with/without vascular risk factors (vasRF). No general correlation of vascular risk factors with brain metastases was found in this monocentric analysis of a patient cohort with several tumor types. Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and smoking did not show an effect in uni- and multivariate analysis. In patients with PAOD the number of BM was lower than without PAOD. This was the case independent from cerebral microangiopathy but did not persist in multivariate analysis. From this first screening approach vascular risk factors do not appear to strongly influence brain metastasation. However, larger prospective multi-centric studies with better characterized severity of vascular risk are needed to more accurately detect effects of individual factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Social network composition of vascular patients and its associations with health behavior and clinical risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, N.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore linkages of patients' social network composition with health behaviors and clinical risk factors. METHODS/DESIGN: This observational study was embedded in a project aimed at improving cardiovascular risk management (CRVM) in primary care. 657 vascular patients

  7. Risk factors for vascular dementia: Hypotension as a key point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Moretti

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Moretti, Paola Torre, Rodolfo M Antonello, Davide Manganaro, Cristina Vilotti, Gilberto PizzolatoDepartment of Internal Medicine and Clinical Neurology University of Trieste, ItalyAbstract: Physiologically, the cerebral autoregulation system allows maintenance of constant cerebral blood flow over a wide range of blood pressure. In old people, there is a progressive reshape of cerebral autoregulation from a sigmoid curve to a straight line. This implies that any abrupt change in blood pressure will result in a rapid and significant change in cerebral blood flow. Hypertension has often been observed to be a risk factor for vascular dementia (VaD and sometimes for Alzheimer disease although not always. Indeed, high blood pressure may accelerate cerebral white matter lesions, but white matter lesions have been found to be facilitated by excessive fall in blood pressure, including orthostatic dysregulation and postprandial hypotension. Many recent studies observed among other data, that there was a correlation between systolic pressure reduction and cognitive decline in women, which was not accounted for by other factors. Baseline blood pressure level was not significantly related to cognitive decline with initial good cognition. Some researchers speculate that blood pressure reduction might be an early change of the dementing process. The most confounding factor is that low pressure by itself might be a predictor of death; nevertheless, the effect of low blood pressure on cognition is underestimated because of a survival bias. Another explanation is that clinically unrecognized vascular lesions in the brain or atherosclerosis are responsible for both cognitive decline and blood pressure reduction. We discuss the entire process, and try to define a possible mechanism that is able to explain the dynamic by which hypotension might be related to dementia.Keywords: vascular dementia, hypotension, low blood pressure, alzheimer disease

  8. Hemodynamic correlates of vascular risk factors in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Mounting evidence from a variety of research fields has drawn attention to the participation of vascular factors in the underlying pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To clarify the influence of vascular and genetic risk factors, we investigated the relationships between cerebral blood flow images provided by single photon emission CT (SPECT) and blood pressure, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and ApoE4 phenotyping in AD patients. The present study was based on 197 patients with probable AD. All patients underwent biochemistry tests, neuropsychological evaluation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 99m Tc ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT. The mini mental state examination (MMSE) score was correlated with the diastolic blood pressure positively, and with BNP negatively. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) revealed significant hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate gyri, precuneus, and parieto-temporal region in those patients having ApoE4 as compared to those without ApoE4. When compared to those patients without white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on MRI, those with mild WHM demonstrated significant hypoperfusion in the anterior cingulate gyri, right superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri, and left inferior frontal gyrus, and those with marked WMH demonstrated more expansive hypoperfusion areas on SPM. Those with greater BNP levels showed significant hypoperfusion in the anterior cingulate gyri and superior frontal gyri as compared to those with smaller BNP levels. Posterior hypoperfusion as related to the presence of ApoE4 may imply a degenerative process in AD, whereas anterior hypoperfusion as related to increased BNP levels may indicate the participation of vascular factors in AD. (author)

  9. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eBangen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors, advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor. This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines.

  10. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote “resistance” against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. PMID:25434012

  11. Aerobic exercise and other healthy lifestyle factors that influence vascular aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R; LaRocca, Thomas J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development of large elastic artery stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction with advancing age. Moreover, aerobic exercise interventions reduce arterial stiffness and restore vascular endothelial function in previously sedentary middle-aged/older adults. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on arterial function by modulating structural proteins, reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, and restoring nitric oxide bioavailability. Aerobic exercise may also promote "resistance" against factors that reduce vascular function and increase CVD risk with age. Preventing excessive increases in abdominal adiposity, following healthy dietary practices, maintaining a low CVD risk factor profile, and, possibly, selective use of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals also play a major role in preserving vascular function with aging. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  12. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Vascular Risk Factors in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Uemura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of exercise intervention on vascular risk factors in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Community-dwelling older adults who met the definition of MCI using the Petersen criteria (n = 100; mean age = 75.3 years were randomly allocated to the exercise (n = 50 or education control group (n = 50. Participants in the exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/day, 2 days/week, 80 times for 12 months. Anthropometric profiles, blood markers, blood pressure, and physical fitness (the 6-min walking test were measured. Total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C risk ratio measurements were taken from blood samples. Results: The exercise group showed significantly reduced TC and TC/HDL-C risk ratio after training compared with baseline levels (p Conclusion: Exercise intervention was associated with positive changes in important vascular risk factors related to cognitive decline and vascular disease in older adults with MCI.

  13. Risk for malnutrition in patients prior to vascular surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Lies Ter; Banning, Louise B D; Visser, Linda; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; Pol, Robert A; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is an important risk factor for adverse post-operative outcomes. The prevalence of risk for malnutrition is unknown in patients prior to vascular surgery. We aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of risk for malnutrition in this patient group. METHODS: Patients

  14. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LOS FACTORES DE RIESGO VASCULAR EN PACIENTES ADULTOS / Characterization of vascular risk factors in adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella M. Hernández Hurtado; Yannelis Rodríguez Valido; Valentina Carpio García; Isis Yera Alós; Liset Valdés Manresa; Nercy O. Díaz Águila; Orestes Díaz Castro; Orestes Díaz Águila

    2013-01-01

    Resumen: Introducción: La elevada prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular en la población y su relación con el desarrollo de la cardiopatía isquémica representan un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: Caracterizar estos factores en adultos. Método: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal en pacientes que asistieron a la consulta de riesgo vascular del municipio de Ranchuelo, en Villa Clara, entre abril de 2010 y abril de 2011. La información se procesó con el program...

  15. Brain Arterial Diameters as a Risk Factor for Vascular Events

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Jose; Cheung, Ken; Bagci, Ahmet; Rundek, Tatjana; Alperin, Noam; Sacco, Ralph L; Wright, Clinton B; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2015-01-01

    Background Arterial luminal diameters are routinely used to assess for vascular disease. Although small diameters are typically considered pathological, arterial dilatation has also been associated with disease. We hypothesize that extreme arterial diameters are biomarkers of the risk of vascular events. Methods and Results Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study who had a time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography were included in this analysis (N=1034). A global arterial Z-score, ca...

  16. Vascular disease and risk factors are associated with cognitive decline in the alzheimer disease spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorius, Natacha; Locascio, Joseph J; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia subjects. A total of 812 participants (229 normal older control, 395 mild cognitive impairment, 188 AD) underwent cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical evaluations at baseline and over a period of 3 years. General linear, longitudinal mixed-effects, and Cox proportional hazards models were used. Greater homocysteine level and white matter hyperintensity volume were associated with processing speed impairment (homocysteine: P=0.02; white matter hyperintensity: Prisk factors with cognitive impairment at baseline and over time in the AD spectrum in a sample that was selected to have low vascular burden at baseline.

  17. [Integrated Management Area of Vascular Risk: A new organisational model for global control of risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, P; Jericó, C; Vila, L; Freixa, R; Martin-Castillejos, C; Rotllan, M

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality that increases the cost of care. Currently there is a low degree of control of the main cardiovascular risk factors, although we have a good therapeutic arsenal. To achieve the improvement of this reality, a good coordination and multidisciplinary participation are essential. The development of new organizational models such as the Integrated Management Area of Vascular Risk can facilitate the therapeutic harmonization and unification of the health messages offered by different levels of care, based on clinical practice guidelines, in order to provide patient-centred integrated care. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. CARDIO-VASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH DISEASES OF THE STOMATOGNATHIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botez C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The association between dental and cardio-vascular diseases is essential as both are highly prevalent. Finding a possible causal relation between cardiovascular disease and chronic periodontal pathology, known to cause tooth loss, is therefore essential. The existence of some risk factors, such as smoking, bacterial infections, malnutrition and nutritional deficiencies, may explain the associations observed between cardio-vascular and oral pathologies. In the case of dental diseases, acceleration of atherosclerosis is supported by the role played by infections. The study – performed between 2008-2009 – analyzed 45 cases, selected from the patients hospitalized in the Medical Clinics of the Military Hospital of Ia[i. The patients included in the study suffered from arterial hypertension (HTA, cardiac insufficiency, ischemic cardiopathy, pectoral angina and subacute infectious endocarditis. All were subjected to a stomatological examination, for establishing their dental hygiene, the stomatological diseases they had had and the treatments performed. There are several ways in which infections of the oral cavity lead to cardiovascular disease. These include: transitory bacteriemia; inflammation and vascular lesions; diet and smoking.

  19. Analysis of prothrombotic and vascular risk factors in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, O; Huna-Baron, R; Kurtz, S; Steinberg, D M; Moisseiev, J; Rosenberg, N; Yassur, I; Vidne, O; Zivelin, A; Gitel, S; Davidson, J; Ravid, B; Seligsohn, U

    1999-04-01

    To determine whether genetic or acquired thrombophilias and other risk factors are associated with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Retrospective case-control study. Sixty-one patients with NAION diagnosed between 1984 and 1997. Ninety consecutive patients who visited the Eye Institute made up the control group. Protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, lupus anticoagulant, and three recently described prothrombotic polymorphisms (i.e., factor V G1691A, factor II G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR] C677T) were analyzed. In addition, risk factors for arteriosclerotic vascular disease were assessed. Parameters of thrombophilia. None of the thrombophilic markers (genetic and acquired) constituted a significant risk factor for NAION. Ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus were discerned as risk factors for NAION with odds ratios of 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-6.4), 2.6 (95% CI, 1.2-5.5), and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.1-4.8), respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that ischemic heart disease and hypercholesterolemia exerted an additive risk for NAION with a combined odds ratio of 4.5 (95% CI, 1.4-14.5). However, none of these risk factors statistically predicted second eye involvement. NAION was not found to be associated with thrombophilic risk factors, yet it was related to ischemic heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus.

  20. Superficial temporal artery calcification in patients with end-stage renal disease: Association with vascular risk factors and ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Zeeshan; Zan, Elcin; Carone, Marco; Ozturk, Arzu; Sozio, Stephen M; Yousem, David M

    2011-01-01

    Extracranial superficial temporal artery (STA) calcification is an unusual finding seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and has unknown ramifications with respect to intracranial ischemic disease. We sought to determine the association between the risk factors for vascular calcification and this rare phenomenon, in patients with chronic renal failure, and to assess the coexistence of cerebral ischemia. Medical records and laboratory data on risk factors for vascular calcification were retrospectively retrieved for 453 patients with a discharge diagnosis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). CT head examinations were reviewed to identify and associate STA calcification with 1) risk factors for the vascular calcification, 2) intracranial artery calcification, and 3) cerebral ischemia (white matter and/or cortical ischemic changes). STA calcification was present in 9.9% (45/453) of the studied cohort. The prevalence of cerebral ischemia was 24.4% (11/45) in patients with STA calcification and 9.3% (38/408) in patients without it. Diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.059-6.208; P=0.037) was independently associated with the risk of STA calcification. The risk of cerebral ischemia, however, was not related to STA calcification (P=0.221). The presence of diabetes mellitus is important in describing the risk of STA calcification in patients with ESRD, whereas age, gender, hypertension, serum calcium, serum phosphate, or serum hemoglobin levels are not. The risk of cerebral ischemia is not related to STA calcification but has the strongest association with diabetes mellitus

  1. The relation of digital vascular function to cardiovascular risk factors in African-Americans using digital tonometry: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Eric E; Musani, Solomon K; Samdarshi, Tandaw E; Khaire, Sushant; Stokes, Donny; Hamburg, Naomi M; Sheffy, Koby; Mitchell, Gary F; Taylor, Herman R; Benjamin, Emelia J; Fox, Ervin R

    2017-06-01

    Digital vascular tone and function, as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), are associated with cardiovascular risk and events in non-Hispanic whites. There are limited data on relations between PAT and cardiovascular risk in African-Americans. PAT was performed on a subset of Jackson Heart Study participants using a fingertip tonometry device. Resting digital vascular tone was assessed as baseline pulse amplitude. Hyperemic vascular response to 5 minutes of ischemia was expressed as the PAT ratio (hyperemic/baseline amplitude ratio). Peripheral augmentation index (AI), a measure of relative wave reflection, also was estimated. The association of baseline pulse amplitude (PA), PAT ratio, and AI to risk factors was assessed using stepwise multivariable models. The study sample consisted of 837 participants from the Jackson Heart Study (mean age, 54 ± 11 years; 61% women). In stepwise multivariable regression models, baseline pulse amplitude was related to male sex, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure (BP), accounting for 16% of the total variability of the baseline pulse amplitude. Age, male sex, systolic BP, diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, and prevalent cardiovascular disease contributed to 11% of the total variability of the PAT ratio. Risk factors (primarily age, sex, and heart rate) explained 47% of the total variability of the AI. We confirmed in our cohort of African-Americans, a significant relation between digital vascular tone and function measured by PAT and multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of these measurements in predicting clinical outcomes in African-Americans. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity and risk of vascular disease: importance of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Baretella, Oliver; Meyer, Matthias R

    2012-02-01

    Obesity has become a serious global health issue affecting both adults and children. Recent devolopments in world demographics and declining health status of the world's population indicate that the prevalence of obesity will continue to increase in the next decades. As a disease, obesity has deleterious effects on metabolic homeostasis, and affects numerous organ systems including heart, kidney and the vascular system. Thus, obesity is now regarded as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis-related diseases such as coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction and stroke. In the arterial system, endothelial cells are both the source and target of factors contributing to atherosclerosis. Endothelial vasoactive factors regulate vascular homeostasis under physiological conditions and maintain basal vascular tone. Obesity results in an imbalance between endothelium-derived vasoactive factors favouring vasoconstriction, cell growth and inflammatory activation. Abnormal regulation of these factors due to endothelial cell dysfunction is both a consequence and a cause of vascular disease processes. Finally, because of the similarities of the vascular pathomechanisms activated, obesity can be considered to cause accelerated, 'premature' vascular aging. Here, we will review some of the pathomechanisms involved in obesity-related activation of endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction, the clinical relevance of obesity-associated vascular risk, and therapeutic interventions using 'endothelial therapy' aiming at maintaining or restoring vascular endothelial health. This article is part of a themed section on Fat and Vascular Responsiveness. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-3. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta-analysis...... of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body......-mass index to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for vascular disease. FINDINGS: Analyses included data for 698 782 people (52 765 non-fatal or fatal vascular outcomes; 8.49 million person-years at risk) from 102 prospective studies. Adjusted HRs with diabetes were: 2.00 (95% CI 1.83-2.19) for coronary heart...

  4. Episodic vertigo resulting from vascular risk factors, cervical spondylosis and head rotation: Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Owolabi, Mayowa O; Ogah, Okechukwu S; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2007-01-01

    Background Vascular risk factors predispose to vertebrobasilar ischemia. Cervical osteophytes can impinge on the vertebral artery causing mechanical occlusion during head turning. Presentation with vertigo in such instances is a common finding. Case presentation A patient with obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cervical spondylosis, and vertigo triggered by head rotation is presented. She responded to antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs, vestibular sedative and application of cervic...

  5. Fatores de risco para trauma vascular durante a quimioterapia antineoplásica: contribuições do emprego do risco relativo Factores de riesgo para el trauma vascular durante la quimioterapia antineoplásica: contribuciones del empleo del riesgo relativo Risk factors for vascular trauma during antineoplastic chemotherapy: contributions of the use of relative risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Capucho Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar a relação entre os fatores de risco para trauma vascular e o surgimento de eventos adversos de infiltração ou flebite por quimioterapia antineoplásica. MÉTODOS: Estudo de abordagem quantitativa observacional com 30 mulheres com câncer de mama. RESULTADOS: O tipo de material do cateter apresentou associação que sugere risco (RR=2,76; IC=1,199; 6,369; o fator velocidade de infusão apresentou RR=2,22; entretanto, IC= 0,7672; 6,436; os fatores trajetória, número de punção e mobilidade da veia apresentaram RROBJETIVO: identificar la relación entre los factores de riesgo para el trauma vascular y el surgimiento de eventos adversos de infiltración o flebitis por quimioterapia antineoplásica. MÉTODOS: Estudio de abordaje cuantitativo observacional realizado con 30 mujeres con cáncer de mama. RESULTADOS: El tipo de material del catéter presentó asociación que sugiere riesgo (RR=2,76; IC=1,199; 6,369; el factor velocidad de infusión presentó RR=2,22; mientras que, IC= 0,7672; 6,436; los factores trayectoria, número de punción y movilidad de la vena presentaron RROBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between risk factors for vascular trauma and the emergence of adverse events of infiltration or phlebitis for antineoplastic chemotherapy. METHODS: A study with a quantitative, observational method with 30 women with breast cancer. RESULTS: The type of catheter material presented an association that suggested risk (RR = 2.76, CI = 1.199, 6.369; the infusion rate factor presented RR = 2.22, however, CI = 0.7672, 6.436; the trajectory factors, number of punctures and vein mobility presented RR <1, but these cannot be considered as protective factors. Insertion site and the visibility of the vein presented a risk close to 1. CONCLUSION: The use of a metal catheter for venipuncture was considered in this study as a factor for Risk for Vascular Trauma. An analysis of the association for the RR showed these results

  6. Vascular dysfunction in women with a history of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction: insights into future vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinon, Yoav; Kingdom, John C P; Odutayo, Ayodele; Moineddin, Rahim; Drewlo, Sascha; Lai, Vesta; Cherney, David Z I; Hladunewich, Michelle A

    2010-11-02

    Women with a history of placental disease are at increased risk for the future development of vascular disease. It is unknown whether preexisting endothelial dysfunction underlies both the predisposition to placental disease and the later development of vascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess vascular function in postpartum women and to determine whether differences emerged depending on the presentation of placental disease. Women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia (n=15), late-onset preeclampsia (n=9), intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia (n=9), and prior normal pregnancy (n=16) were studied 6 to 24 months postpartum. Flow-mediated vasodilatation and flow-independent (glyceryl trinitrate-induced) vasodilatation were studied through the use of high-resolution vascular ultrasound examination of the brachial artery. Arterial stiffness was assessed by pulse-wave analysis (augmentation index). Laboratory assessment included circulating angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, placental growth factor, and soluble endoglin). Flow-mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced in women with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction compared with women with previous late-onset preeclampsia and control subjects (3.2±2.7% and 2.1±1.2% versus 7.9±3.8% and 9.1±3.5%, respectively; Pwomen with previous early-onset preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, but not among late preeclamptic women and control subjects (P=0.0105). Circulating angiogenic factors were similar in all groups. Only women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction without preeclampsia exhibit impaired vascular function, which might explain their predisposition to placental disease and their higher risk of future vascular disease.

  7. East-West gradient in cardio-vascular mortality in Austria: how much can we explain by following the pattern of risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Katharina V; Rieder, Anita; Dorner, Thomas E

    2011-11-14

    Various studies show major regional differences in the prevalence of cardio-vascular disease morbidity and mortality, both in Europe and within European countries. In Austria, these differences are documented by an East-West gradient with declining morbidity and mortality rates when moving from the East to the West of the country. It was the aim of this study to analyse if, and to what extent, socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants, social resources and health behaviour can contribute to the clarification of this East-West gradient by conducting secondary analyses of an existing Austrian health dataset. The data were analysed using bivariate analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. These analyses revealed significant East-West gradients for various risk factors, as well as socio-demographic and socio-economic health determinants. There was a gradual decrease of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and psycho-social discomfort in both sexes, with the highest prevalences in those Austrian regions with the highest cardio-vascular mortality and a stepwise decrease to the regions with the lowest cardio-vascular mortality. Controlling for educational level significantly raised the odds for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. In the results of the multivariate analyses, factors that significantly and independently predicted diabetes mellitus were geographic location, psycho-social discomfort, lack of physical exercise, and age in both sexes. For women these factors additionally included a low educational level, lack of social support, and being born abroad. Our study shows a clear gradual decline of cardio-vascular mortality and some of its risk factors from East to West in Austria. Concerning these risk factors, the geographic region and psycho-social discomfort showed the greatest association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity. Hence, they contribute to the explanation of the variance in spatial cardio-vascular

  8. East-West gradient in cardio-vascular mortality in Austria: how much can we explain by following the pattern of risk factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Katharina V

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various studies show major regional differences in the prevalence of cardio-vascular disease morbidity and mortality, both in Europe and within European countries. In Austria, these differences are documented by an East-West gradient with declining morbidity and mortality rates when moving from the East to the West of the country. It was the aim of this study to analyse if, and to what extent, socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants, social resources and health behaviour can contribute to the clarification of this East-West gradient by conducting secondary analyses of an existing Austrian health dataset. Results The data were analysed using bivariate analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. These analyses revealed significant East-West gradients for various risk factors, as well as socio-demographic and socio-economic health determinants. There was a gradual decrease of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and psycho-social discomfort in both sexes, with the highest prevalences in those Austrian regions with the highest cardio-vascular mortality and a stepwise decrease to the regions with the lowest cardio-vascular mortality. Controlling for educational level significantly raised the odds for diabetes, hypertension and obesity. In the results of the multivariate analyses, factors that significantly and independently predicted diabetes mellitus were geographic location, psycho-social discomfort, lack of physical exercise, and age in both sexes. For women these factors additionally included a low educational level, lack of social support, and being born abroad. Conclusions Our study shows a clear gradual decline of cardio-vascular mortality and some of its risk factors from East to West in Austria. Concerning these risk factors, the geographic region and psycho-social discomfort showed the greatest association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity. Hence, they

  9. Oral contraceptive pills: A risk factor for retinal vascular occlusion in in-vitro fertilization patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohina S Aggarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vascular occlusion is the most common cause of retinopathy leading to severe visual loss in all age groups. Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO is usually seen in older age group and is often associated with systemic vascular diseases. Although the exact cause and effect relationship has not been proven, central retinal vein occlusion has been associated with various systemic pathological conditions, hence a direct review of systems toward the various systemic and local factors predisposing the central retinal vein occlusion is advocated. We describe the development of central retinal venous occlusion with associated cystoid macular edema (CME in two healthy infertile women who were recruited for in vitro fertilization cycle for infertility. Predisposing risk factors associated with central retinal vein occlusion are obesity, sedentary life style, smoking, and some systemic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, hypertension, associated autoimmune disorders e.g., antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, lupus, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, bleeding or clotting disorders, vasculitis, closed-head trauma, alcohol consumption, primary open-angle glaucoma or angle-closure glaucoma.In our patients, they were ruled out afterdoing allpertaining investigations. The cases were managed with further avoidance of oral contraceptives and intra-vitreal injections of Bevacizumab (Avastin, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF drug and Triamcinolone acetonide (a long acting synthetic steroid. Hence, even if no systemic diseases are detected. Physical examinations are recommended periodically for young women on oral contraceptive pills.

  10. Association between homocyst(e)ine levels and risk of vascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Eugene D

    2003-03-01

    Homocyst(e)ine is a novel risk factor in vascular disease. First observations of vascular lesions in children with high blood homocyst(e)ine levels due to severe inborn enzyme deficiencies led to the hypothesis that elevated blood homocyst(e)ine levels might be a risk factor for vascular disease. A substantial body of evidence on the role of the homocyst(e)ine in the development of coronary and carotid artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, deep vein thrombosis and other disorders has been accumulated over the last 30 years. Cross-sectional and case-control studies provide initial and the strongest support for the hypothesis, followed by results from the prospective cohorts. Infrequent cases of homozygous mutations of the key enzymes in the homocyst(e)ine metabolism chain are able to produce extreme homocyst(e)inemia and early vascular lesions. More frequently, heterozygous enzyme mutations and deficiencies of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 cause mild to moderate homocyst(e)inemia, which is still strongly associated with the increased risk of vascular events. Elevated homocyst(e)ine levels may be effectively managed with adequate folate, B12 and B6 intake in doses comparable to or above FDA recommendations. Whether correction of elevated homocyst(e)ine levels with vitamins is helpful in prevention and treatment of vascular events remains unknown and is under investigation in ongoing clinical trials (VISP, VITATOPS). No consensus on homocyst(e)ine management is available at the present time.

  11. Vascular risk factor burden, atherosclerosis, and functional dependence in old age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welmer, Anna-Karin; Liang, Yajun; Angleman, Sara; Santoni, Giola; Yan, Zhongrui; Cai, Chuanzhu; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2014-08-01

    Vascular risk factors such as hypertension and obesity have been associated with physical limitations among older adults. The purpose of this study is to examine whether individual and aggregated vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with functional dependence and to what extent carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) or peripheral artery disease (PAD) may mediate the possible associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. This cross-sectional study included 1,451 community-living participants aged ≥60 years in the Confucius Hometown Aging Project of China. Data on demographic features, hypertension, high total cholesterol, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, CAS, PAD, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) were collected through an interview, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests. Functional dependence was defined as being dependent in at least one activity in the personal or instrumental activities of daily living. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic models controlling for potential confounders. We used the mediation model to explore the potential mediating effect of CAS and PAD on the associations of aggregated VRFs with functional dependence. Of the 1,451 participants, 222 (15.3%) had functional dependence. The likelihood of functional dependence increased linearly with increasing number of VRFs (hypertension, high total cholesterol, abdominal obesity, and physical inactivity) (p for trend dependence with clustering VRFs was mediated by CAS and PAD. Aggregation of multiple VRFs is associated with an increased likelihood of functional dependence among Chinese older adults; the association is partially mediated by carotid and peripheral artery atherosclerosis independently of CVDs.

  12. UKPDS 59: hyperglycemia and other potentially modifiable risk factors for peripheral vascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Amanda I; Stevens, Richard J; Neil, Andrew; Stratton, Irene M; Boulton, Andrew J M; Holman, Rury R

    2002-05-01

    To determine the role of hyperglycemia in prospective analyses of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in type 2 diabetes, taking into account other potential risk factors. Potential risk factors for the development of PVD were examined in 3,834 of 5,102 individuals enrolled in the U.K. Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) without PVD at diagnosis of diabetes, followed for 6 years, and for whom relevant data were available. PVD was defined as two of the following: ankle-arm blood pressure index < 0.8, absence of both dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses to palpation in one or both legs, and intermittent claudication. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between potential risk factors measured 3-4 months after diagnosis of diabetes and incident PVD. The prevalence of PVD at 3-year intervals to 18 years was determined. Hyperglycemia, assessed as HbA(1c), was associated with an increased risk for incident PVD, independent of other risk factors including age, increased systolic blood pressure, reduced HDL cholesterol, smoking, prior cardiovascular disease, peripheral sensory neuropathy, and retinopathy. Each 1% increase in HbA(1c) was associated with a 28% increased risk of PVD (95% CI 12-46), and each 10-mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure with a 25% increase in risk (95% CI 10-43). Hyperglycemia, as well as smoking, dyslipidemia, and blood pressure are potentially modifiable risk factors for the development of PVD.

  13. Systemic and Disease-Specific Risk Factors in Vascular Dementia: Diagnosis and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraim Jaul

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the onset of vascular dementia (VaD in aging individuals, it is critical to detect clinically relevant vascular and systemic pathophysiological changes to signal the onset of its preceding prodromal stages. Identifying behavioral and neurobiological markers that are highly sensitive to VaD classification vs. other dementias is likely to assist in developing novel preventive treatment strategies that could delay the onset of disruptive psychomotor symptoms, decrease hospitalizations, and increase the quality of life in clinically-high-risk aging individuals. In light of empirical diagnostic and clinical findings associated with VaD pathophysiology, the current investigation will suggest a few clinically-validated biomarker measures of prodromal VaD cognitive impairments that are correlated with vascular symptomology, and VaD endophenotypes in non-demented aging people. In prodromal VaD individuals, distinguishing VaD from other dementias (e.g., Alzheimer's disease could facilitate specific early preventive interventions that significantly delay more severe cognitive deterioration or indirectly suppress the onset of dementia with vascular etiology. Importantly, the authors conclude that primary prevention strategies should examine aging individuals by employing comprehensive geriatric assessment approach, taking into account their medical history, and longitudinally noting their vascular, systemic, cognitive, behavioral, and clinical functional status. Secondary prevention strategies may include monitoring chronic medication as well as promoting programs that facilitate social interaction and every-day activities.

  14. Risk stratification for the development of respiratory adverse events following vascular surgery using the Society of Vascular Surgery's Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Fish, Larry; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S; Baril, Donald T

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative respiratory adverse events (RAEs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in general surgery, however, little is known about these complications in the vascular surgery population, a frail subset with multiple comorbidities. The objective of this study was to describe the contemporary incidence of RAEs in vascular surgery patients, the risk factors for this complication, and the overall impact of RAEs on patient outcomes. The Vascular Quality Initiative was queried (2003-2014) for patients who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, thoracic endovascular aortic repair, suprainguinal bypass, or infrainguinal bypass. A mixed-effects logistic regression model determined the independent risk factors for RAEs. Using a random 85% of the cohort, a risk prediction score for RAEs was created, and the score was validated using the remaining 15% of the cohort, comparing the predicted to the actual incidence of RAE and determining the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The independent risk of in-hospital mortality and discharge to a nursing facility associated with RAEs was determined using a mixed-effects logistic regression to control for baseline patient characteristics, operative variables, and other postoperative adverse events. The cohort consisted of 52,562 patients, with a 5.4% incidence of RAEs. The highest rates of RAEs were seen in current smokers (6.1%), recent acute myocardial infarction (10.1%), symptomatic congestive heart failure (9.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring oxygen therapy (11.0%), urgent and emergent procedures (6.4% and 25.9%, respectively), open abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs (17.6%), in situ suprainguinal bypasses (9.68%), and thoracic endovascular aortic repairs (9.6%). The variables included in the risk prediction score were age, body mass index, smoking status, congestive heart failure severity, chronic obstructive pulmonary

  15. Vascular risk factors, cerebrovascular reactivity, and the default-mode brain network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Thaddeus J; Bryan, R Nick; Erus, Guray; Davatzikos, Christos; Jacobs, David R; D'Esposito, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Launer, Lenore J

    2015-07-15

    Cumulating evidence from epidemiologic studies implicates cardiovascular health and cerebrovascular function in several brain diseases in late life. We examined vascular risk factors with respect to a cerebrovascular measure of brain functioning in subjects in mid-life, which could represent a marker of brain changes in later life. Breath-hold functional MRI (fMRI) was performed in 541 women and men (mean age 50.4 years) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Brain MRI sub-study. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was quantified as percentage change in blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in activated voxels, which was mapped to a common brain template and log-transformed. Mean CVR was calculated for anatomic regions underlying the default-mode network (DMN) - a network implicated in AD and other brain disorders - in addition to areas considered to be relatively spared in the disease (e.g. occipital lobe), which were utilized as reference regions. Mean CVR was significantly reduced in the posterior cingulate/precuneus (β=-0.063, 95% CI: -0.106, -0.020), anterior cingulate (β=-0.055, 95% CI: -0.101, -0.010), and medial frontal lobe (β=-0.050, 95% CI: -0.092, -0.008) relative to mean CVR in the occipital lobe, after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, and smoking status, in subjects with pre-hypertension/hypertension compared to normotensive subjects. By contrast, mean CVR was lower, but not significantly, in the inferior parietal lobe (β=-0.024, 95% CI: -0.062, 0.014) and the hippocampus (β=-0.006, 95% CI: -0.062, 0.050) relative to mean CVR in the occipital lobe. Similar results were observed in subjects with diabetes and dyslipidemia compared to those without these conditions, though the differences were non-significant. Reduced CVR may represent diminished vascular functionality for the DMN for individuals with prehypertension/hypertension in mid-life, and may serve as a preclinical marker for brain dysfunction in later

  16. Increased Vascular Disease Mortality Risk in Prediabetic Korean Adults Is Mainly Attributable to Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hoon; Kwon, Tae Yeon; Yu, Sungwook; Kim, Nan Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Baik, Sei Hyun; Park, Yousung; Kim, Sin Gon

    2017-04-01

    Prediabetes is a known risk factor for vascular diseases; however, its differential contribution to mortality risk from various vascular disease subtypes is not known. The subjects of the National Health Insurance Service in Korea (2002-2013) nationwide cohort were stratified into normal glucose tolerance (fasting glucose mortality risk for vascular disease and its subtypes-ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. When adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index, IFG stage 2, but not stage 1, was associated with significantly higher all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.34) and vascular disease mortality (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.49) compared with normal glucose tolerance. Among the vascular disease subtypes, mortality from ischemic stroke was significantly higher (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.18-2.18) in subjects with IFG stage 2 but not from ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke. The ischemic stroke mortality associated with IFG stage 2 remained significantly high when adjusted other modifiable vascular disease risk factors (HR, 1.51; 95% CI: 1.10-2.09) and medical treatments (HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.19-2.57). Higher IFG degree (fasting glucose, 110-125 mg/dL) was associated with increased all-cause and vascular disease mortality. The increased vascular disease mortality in IFG stage 2 was attributable to ischemic stroke, but not ischemic heart disease or hemorrhagic stroke in Korean adults. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors and collateral artery formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, D; Pasterkamp, G; Hoefer, I E

    2009-12-01

    Arterial lumen narrowing and vascular occlusion is the actual cause of morbidity and mortality in atherosclerotic disease. Collateral artery formation (arteriogenesis) refers to an active remodelling of non-functional vascular anastomoses to functional collateral arteries, capable to bypass the site of obstruction and preserve the tissue that is jeopardized by ischaemia. Hemodynamic forces such as shear stress and wall stress play a pivotal role in collateral artery formation, accompanied by the expression of various cytokines and invasion of circulating leucocytes. Arteriogenesis hence represents an important compensatory mechanism for atherosclerotic vessel occlusion. As arteriogenesis mostly occurs when lumen narrowing by atherosclerotic plaques takes place, presence of cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes) is highly likely. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease affect collateral artery growth directly and indirectly by altering hemodynamic forces or influencing cellular function and proliferation. Adequate collateralization varies significantly among atherosclerotic patients, some profit from the presence of extensive collateral networks, whereas others do not. Cardiovascular risk factors could increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients because of the reduced protection through an alternative vascular network. Likewise, drugs primarily thought to control cardiovascular risk factors might contribute or counteract collateral artery growth. This review summarizes current knowledge on the influence of cardiovascular risk factors and the effects of cardiovascular medication on the development of collateral vessels in experimental and clinical studies.

  18. Differences in cardio-ankle vascular index in a general Mediterranean population depending on the presence or absence of metabolic cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Lluch, Ruth; Garcia-Gil, Maria Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2017-09-01

    The main aim of this study is to describe the differences in the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) in individuals with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors or a previous history of vascular diseases (WCVRF) compared to healthy individuals (free of risk factors and previous history of vascular diseases; FCVRF) in a general Mediterranean population. The secondary aim is to describe the proportion of CAVI≥9 depending on the cardiovascular risk category in both CVRF groups by sex. The study is a descriptive analysis of 2613 participants randomly selected in the Girona province (Catalonia, Spain). CAVI mean differences between sexes and age categories in both CVRF groups followed the same pattern, the FCVRF group (men 25.2%; women 14.4%) in turn had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 than the WCVRF group (men 57.9%; women 51.8%). The percentage of men and women with CAVI≥9 with low risk was 13.9% and 11.3% in the FCVRF group, and 31.8% and 42.0% in the WCVRF group; with moderate risk, it was 55.8% and 10.0% in the FCVRF group and 60.3% and 49.0% in the WCVRF group. In both sexes, FCVRF groups had a lower prevalence of CAVI≥9 as well as lower mean CAVI scores, across all 10 year-age categories from 40 to 69 years, than WCVRF groups. Moreover, CAVI≥9 was frequent in individuals with low and moderate coronary risk in the WCVRF group but also in the FCVRF group. These results suggest that CAVI assessment to detect asymptomatic arteriosclerosis could be a useful tool to improve cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy on the risk of arterial thromboembolic events: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibodies are used in ocular neovascular diseases. A consensus has emerged that intravenous anti-VEGF can increase the risk of arterial thromboembolic events. However, the role of intravitreal anti-VEGF in arterial thromboembolism is controversial. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effects of intravitreal anti-VEGF on the risk of arterial thromboembolic events.Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant randomized clinical trials comparing intravitreal anti-VEGF with controls. Criteria for inclusion in our meta-analysis included a study duration of no less than 12 months, the use of a randomized control group not receiving any intravitreal active agent, and the availability of outcome data for arterial thromboembolic events, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, and vascular death. The risk ratios and 95% CIs were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies.A total of 4942 patients with a variety of ocular neovascular diseases from 13 randomized controlled trials were identified and included for analysis. There was no significant difference between intravitreal anti-VEGF and control in the risk of all events, with risk ratios of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.64 to 1.19 for arterial thromboembolic events, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.55-1.68 for cerebrovascular accidents, 0.69 (95% CI 0.40-1.21 for myocardial infarctions, and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.37-1.27 for vascular death.The strength evidence suggests that the intravitreal use of anti-VEGF antibodies is not associated with an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic events.

  20. The role of classic risk factors and prothrombotic factor gene mutations in ischemic stroke risk development in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supanc, Visnja; Sonicki, Zdenko; Vukasovic, Ines; Solter, Vesna V; Zavoreo, Iris; Kes, Vanja B

    2014-03-01

    In young individuals, a genetically predisposing hypercoagulability and classic modifying risk factors can act synergistically on the ischemic stroke risk development. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of classic vascular risk factors and polymorphisms of the G20210A coagulation factor II (prothrombin), Arg506Glu coagulation factor V Leiden, C677T methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and 4G/5G plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and the impact of these gene mutations and classic vascular risk factors on the overall stroke risk in individuals aged 55 years or younger. The study included 155 stroke patients aged 55 years or younger and 150 control subjects. Stroke prevalence and odds ratio (OR) were assessed for the following parameters: G20210A prothrombin, Arg506Glu factor V Leiden, C677T MTHFR, and 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphisms; total number of study polymorphisms in a particular subject (genetic sum); and classic vascular risk factors of hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The prevalence of hypertension (P stroke patients. The following parameters were found to act as independent risk factors for ischemic stroke: decreased HDL cholesterol level (P ischemic stroke in young and middle-aged individuals. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Care Management to Promote Treatment Adherence in Patients with Cognitive Impairment and Vascular Risk Factors: A Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, L M; Hanson, A; Robinson, G; Lowy, E; Craft, S

    2018-01-01

    Dementia prevention is highly important. Improved control of vascular risk factors has the potential to decrease dementia risk, but may be difficult. Therefore, we developed and piloted a care management protocol for Veterans at risk for dementia. We enrolled 32 Veterans with diabetes and hypertension, at least one of which was poorly controlled, and cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to a 6-month care management intervention or to usual care. At enrollment, 6-months and 12-months, we assessed cognitive performance, mood, and diabetes and hypertension control. At follow-up, diastolic blood pressure was lower in intervention participants at 6 months (p=.041) and 12 months (p=.022); hemoglobin A1c, global mental status and mood did not differ between groups. Recall of a distractor list (p=.006) and logical memory long-delay recall (p=.036) were better at 6 months in the intervention group (p=.006). Care management may contribute to improved control of dementia risk factors.

  2. MTHFR and ACE Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Vascular and Degenerative Dementias in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Pratima; Pradhan, Sunil; Modi, Dinesh Raj; Mittal, Balraj

    2009-01-01

    Focal lacunar infarctions due to cerebral small vessel atherosclerosis or single/multiple large cortical infarcts lead to vascular dementia, and different genes and environmental factors have been implicated in causation or aggravation of the disease. Previous reports suggest that some of the risk factors may be common to both vascular as well as…

  3. Erectile dysfunction: prevalence, risk factors and involvement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Abstract. Purpose: To explore the literature regarding prevalance, risk factors and the involvement of ..... Cigarette smoking and other vascular risk factors in vasculogenic impotence. Urology.

  4. Associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid intima-media thickness and manifest atherosclerotic vascular disease with carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liira Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of atherosclerosis in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS has not previously been addressed in population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of cardiovascular risk factors, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT, and clinical atherosclerotic diseases with CTS. Methods In this cross sectional study, the target population consisted of subjects aged 30 or over who had participated in the national Finnish Health Survey in 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4% were included in our study. Carotid IMT was measured in a sub-sample of subjects aged 45 to 74 (N = 1353. Results Obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-5.4, high LDL cholesterol (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-9.1 for >190 vs. 200 vs. Conclusions Our findings suggest an association between CTS and cardiovascular risk factors in young people, and carotid IMT and clinical atherosclerotic vascular disease in older people. CTS may either be a manifestation of atherosclerosis, or both conditions may share similar risk factors.

  5. Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collaboration, Emerging Risk Factors; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Sarwar, Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. OBJECTIVE: To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual records were supplied on 302,430 people without...

  6. Retinal artery occlusion and associated recurrent vascular risk with underlying etiologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ho Hong

    Full Text Available RAO is caused by various etiologies and subsequent vascular events may be associated with underlying etiologies. Our aim is to investigate the etiologies of RAO, the occurrence of subsequent vascular events and their association in patients with RAO.We analyzed data from 151 consecutive patients presenting with acute non-arteritic RAO between 2003 and 2013 in a single tertiary-care hospital. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a vascular event defined as stroke, myocardial infarction, and vascular death within 365 days of the RAO onset. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model were used to estimate the hazard ratio of the vascular events.Large artery atherosclerosis (LAA was the etiology more frequently associated with of RAO (41.1%, 62/151. During the one year follow-up, ischemic stroke and vascular events occurred in 8.6% and 9.9% of patients, respectively. Ten vascular events occurred in RAO patients attributed to LAA and 4 occurred in undetermined etiology. RAO patients with LAA had a nearly four times higher risk of vascular events compared to those without LAA (hazard ratio 3.94, 95% confidence interval 1.21-12.81. More than a half of all events occurred within one month and over three fourths of ischemic strokes occurred ipsilateral to the RAO.After occurrence of RAO, there is a high risk of a subsequent vascular event, particularly ipsilateral stroke, within one month. LAA is an independent factor for the occurrence of a subsequent vascular event. Management for the prevention of secondary vascular events is necessary in patients with RAO especially with LAA. Large clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Vascular factors in suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerskov, Simon; Rabiei, Katrin; Marlow, Thomas; Jensen, Christer; Guo, Xinxin; Kern, Silke; Wikkelsø, Carsten; Skoog, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We examined clinical and imaging findings of suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in relation to vascular risk factors and white matter lesions (WMLs), using a nested case-control design in a representative, population-based sample. Methods: From a population-based sample, 1,235 persons aged 70 years or older were examined with CT of the brain between 1986 and 2000. We identified 55 persons with hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement, i.e., radiologic findings consistent with iNPH. Among these, 26 had clinical signs that fulfilled international guideline criteria for probable iNPH. These cases were labeled suspected iNPH. Each case was matched to 5 controls from the same sample, based on age, sex, and study cohort. Data on risk factors were obtained from clinical examinations and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking, overweight, history of coronary artery disease, stroke/TIA, and WMLs on CT were examined. Risk factors associated with iNPH with a p value <0.1 in χ2 tests were included in conditional logistic regression models. Results: In the regression analyses, suspected iNPH was related to moderate to severe WMLs (odds ratio [OR] 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–17.6), while hydrocephalic ventricular enlargement was related to hypertension (OR 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1–6.8), moderate to severe WMLs (OR 6.5; 95% CI: 2.1–20.3), and DM (OR 4.3; 95% CI: 1.1–16.3). Conclusions: Hypertension, WMLs, and DM were related to clinical and imaging features of iNPH, suggesting that vascular mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology. These findings might have implications for understanding disease mechanisms in iNPH and possibly prevention. PMID:26773072

  8. Risk Stratification for the Development of Respiratory Adverse Events Following Vascular Surgery Using the Society of Vascular Surgery’s Vascular Quality Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Elizabeth A; Fish, Larry; Chaer, Rabih A; Makaroun, Michel S; Baril, Donald T

    2017-01-01

    Objective Post-operative respiratory adverse events (RAEs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in general surgery, however little is known about these complications in the vascular surgery population, a frail subset with multiple comorbidities. The objective of this study was to describe the contemporary incidence of RAEs in vascular surgery patients, the risk factors for this complication and the overall impact of RAEs on patient outcomes. Methods The Vascular Quality Initiative was queried (2003–2014) for patients who underwent endovascular abdominal aortic repair, open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), suprainguinal bypass or infrainguinal bypass. A mixed-effects logistic regression model determined the independent risk factors for RAEs. Using a random 85% of the cohort, a risk prediction score for RAEs was created and the score was validated using the remaining 15% of the cohort, comparing the predicted to the actual incidence of RAE and determining the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The independent risk of in-hospital mortality and discharge to a nursing facility associated with RAEs was determined using a mixed-effects logistic regression to control for baseline patient characteristics, operative variables and other post-operative adverse events. Results The cohort consisted of 52,562 patients, with a 5.4% incidence of RAEs. The highest rates of RAEs were seen in current smokers (6.1%), recent acute myocardial infarction (10.1%), symptomatic congestive heart failure (CHF) (9.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring oxygen therapy (11.0%), urgent and emergent procedures (6.4% and 25.9%, respectively), open AAA repairs (17.6%), in-situ suprainguinal bypasses (9.68%) and TEVARs (9.6%). The variables included in the risk prediction score were age, body mass index, smoking status, CHF severity, COPD severity, degree of renal insufficiency

  9. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  10. The Dose-Dependent Effects of Vascular Risk Factors on Dynamic Compensatory Neural Processes in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been associated with risk for Alzheimer's Disease (AD. Previous investigations have suggested that vascular risk factors (VRFs were associated with cognitive decline and AD pathogenesis, and the intervention of VRFs may be a possible way to prevent dementia. However, in MCI, little is known about the potential impacts of VRFs on neural networks and their neural substrates, which may be a neuroimaging biomarker of the disease progression.Methods: 128 elderly Han Chinese participants (67 MCI subjects and 61 matched normal elderly with or without VRFs (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and alcohol drinking underwent the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and neuropsychological tests. We obtained the default mode network (DMN to identify alterations in MCI with the varying number of the VRF and analyzed the significant correlation with behavioral performance.Results: The effects of VRF on the DMN were primarily in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC (i.e., middle frontal gyrus. Normal elderly showed the gradually increased functional activity of DLPFC, while a fluctuant activation of DLPFC was displayed in MCI with the growing number of the VRF. Interestingly, the left DLPFC further displayed significantly dynamic correlation with executive function as the variation of VRF loading. Initial level of compensation was observed in normal aging and none-vascular risk factor (NVRF MCI, while these compensatory neural processes were suppressed in One-VRF MCI and were subsequently re-aroused in Over-One-VRF MCI.Conclusions: These findings suggested that the dose-dependent effects of VRF on DLPFC were highlighted in MCI, and the dynamic compensatory neural processes that fluctuated along with variations of VRF loading could be key role in the progression of MCI.

  11. [A cohort study on the predictive value of factors influencing cardio-cerebro vascular death among people over 40 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-min; Lu, Fang-hong; Jin, Shi-kuan; Sun, Shang-wen; Zhao, Ying-xin; Wang, Shu-jian; Zhou, Xiao-hong

    2007-02-01

    To explore the factors influencing cardio-cerebro vascular death events among people over 40 years of age in Shandong area, China. Baseline survey was carried out in 1991. A total number of 11,008 adults over 40 years old had been studied in Shandong province. Data on cardiocerebro death was collected. The correlation between influencing factors and cardio-cerebro vascular death events was analyzed by Cox regression model. Totally, 434 cardio-cerebro death events occurred among the 11,008 subjects during the 8-year follow-up study. Cardio-cerebro death events were related to systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, smoking, stroke history and age. Data from Cox regression analysis showed that the relative risk (RR) for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 2.862 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.976-4.144] times for those people having stroke history. When systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure increased by every 10 mm Hg, the relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 1.171 (95% CI: 1.033-1.328), 1.214 (95% CI: 1.044-1.413) respectively. it was found that a 1.239 (95% CI: 1.088-1.553) times higher in smokers than non-smokers on relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events. However, the predictive values of the influencing factors for cardio-cerebro vascular death were different among population of different years of age. The relative risk for cardio-cerebro vascular death events increased by 1.366 (95% CI: 1.102-1.678) times for each 10 mm Hg increase of diastolic blood pressure in 40-59 years old population. However, the effect was taken place by systolic blood pressure in 60-74 years old population,with a relative risk of 1.201 (95% CI: 1.017-1.418) for each 10 mm Hg increase. Age seemed the only significant factor for cardio-cerebro vascular death events on population aged more than 75 years old. Conclusion The predictive values of the risk factors were different among age groups. The different

  12. NONINVASIVE EVALUATION OF VASCULAR WALL STIFFNESSIN HEALTHY ADOLESCENTS, THE RISK FACTORS FOR ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Filippov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the main indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in healthy ado-lescents with such risk factors (RF for arterial hypertension (AH as a family history on hypertension and smoking. Identify changes in the initial elastic-elastic properties of the arteries at the preclinical stage of development of hypertension.Material and methods. It was formed two groups of comparison. Age studied from 13 to 17 years (mean age (15.00 ± 0.31 years. The first group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents whose parents suffer from hypertension from a young age. The second group consisted of 30 healthy smokers teenager from healthy parents. The control group consisted of 30 healthy adolescents from healthy parents. Determines the basic stiffness of the vascular wall: PWV, CAVI, SAI.Results. A significant in crease in the indicators characterizing the rigidity of the vascular wall in the two comparison groups relative to the control. PWV: 6,89 ± 0,56 (first group, 7.13 ± 0.55 (second group and 5.5 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.L-CAVI: 5,46 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.84 ± 0.61 (second group and 4.32 ± 0.41 (control, p < 0.05.R-CAVI: 5,63 ± 0,39 (first group, 5.89 ± 0.56 (second group and 4.49 ± 0.41(control, p < 0.05. R-AI: 0,89 ± 0,09 (first group, 0.95 ± 0.12 (second group and 0.62 ± 0.1 (control, p < 0.05.Smoking teenagers and adolescents with family history of hypertension, there are changes in the initial stiffness of the vessel wall, which requires the allocation of at-riskfor the development of hypertension and prevention activities at the preclinical stage of development ofthe disease.

  13. Aerobic Exercise and Other Healthy Lifestyle Factors That Influence Vascular Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Parker, Jessica R.; LaRocca, Thomas J.; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the leading cause of death in the United States and other modern societies. Advancing age is the major risk factor for CVD, primarily due to stiffening of the large elastic arteries and the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction. In contrast, regular aerobic exercise protects against the development…

  14. [Vascular aging, arterial hypertension and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Weisser, B

    2011-11-01

    The present review delineates the significance of intima-media-thickness, arterial stiffness and endothelial function for vascular aging. There is profound evidence for an increase in intima-media-thickness and vascular stiffness not only during healthy aging but induced also by cardiovascular risk factors. There is a central role of arterial hypertension for this progression in both structural factors. In addition, both parameters are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Endothelial function measured as postischemic flow-mediated vasodilatation is a functional parameter which is decreased both in healthy aging and by cardiovascular risk factors. Physical activity modifies the influence of aging and risk factors on endothelial function. A positive influence of endurance exercise on vascular stiffness and endothelial function has been demonstrated in numerous studies. In long-term studies, regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the progression of intima-media-thickness. Thus, arterial hypertension accelerates vascular aging, while physical activity has a positive influence on a variety of vascular parameters associated with vascular aging. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Atherogenic Dyslipidemia and Residual Vascular Risk in Practice of Family Doctor

    OpenAIRE

    Alibasic, Esad; Ramic, Enisa; Bajraktarevic, Amila; Ljuca, Farid; Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Zildzic, Muharem

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Timely recognition and optimal management of atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) and residual vascular risk (RVR) in family medicine. Background: The global increase of the incidence of obesity is accompanied by an increase in the incidence of many metabolic and lipoprotein disorders, in particular AD, as an typical feature of obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and diabetes type 2. AD is an important factor in cardio metabolic risk, and is characterized by a lipoprotein prof...

  16. Improved vascularization of planar membrane diffusion devices following continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, N; Steil, G M; Colton, C K; Bonner-Weir, S; Weir, G C

    2000-01-01

    Improving blood vessel formation around an immunobarrier device should improve the survival of the encapsulated tissue. In the present study we investigated the formation of new blood vessels around a planar membrane diffusion device (the Baxter Theracyte System) undergoing a continuous infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor through the membranes and into the surrounding tissue. Each device (20 microl) had both an inner immunoisolation membrane and an outer vascularizing membrane. Human recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-165 was infused at 100 ng/day (low dose: n = 6) and 500 ng/day (high dose: n = 7) for 10 days into devices implanted s.c. in Sprague-Dawley rats; noninfused devices transplanted for an identical period were used as controls (n = 5). Two days following the termination of VEGF infusion, devices were loaded with 20 microl of Lispro insulin (1 U/kg) and the kinetics of insulin release from the lumen of the device was assessed. Devices were then explanted and the number of blood vessels (capillary and noncapillary) was quantified using morphometry. High-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion resulted in two- to threefold more blood vessels around the device than that obtained with the noninfused devices and devices infused with low-dose vascular endothelial growth factor. This increase in the number of blood vessels was accompanied by a modest increase in insulin diffusion from the device in the high-dose vascular endothelial growth factor infusion group. We conclude that vascular endothelial growth factor can be used to improve blood vessel formation adjacent to planar membrane diffusion devices.

  17. Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors in Benign Vascular Lesions of the Orbit: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Elizabeth A; Garrity, James A; Castillo, Francisco; Engman, Steven J; Couch, Steven M; Salomão, Diva R

    2016-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the orbit, although not malignant, can cause morbidity because of their location near critical structures in the orbit. For the same reason, they can be challenging to remove surgically. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs are increasingly being used to treat diseases with prominent angiogenesis. Our study aimed to determine to what extent VEGF receptors and their subtypes are expressed on selected vascular lesions of the orbit. Retrospective case series of all orbital vascular lesions removed by one of the authors (JAG) at the Mayo Clinic. A total of 52 patients who underwent removal of vascular orbital lesions. The pathology specimens from the patients were retrieved, their pathologic diagnosis was confirmed, demographic and clinical information were gathered, and sections from vascular tumors were stained with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (VEGFR1), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR2), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 3 (VEGFR3). The existence and pattern of staining with VEGF and its subtypes on these lesions. There were 28 specimens of venous malformations, 4 capillary hemangiomas, 7 lymphatic malformations, and 6 lymphaticovenous malformations. All samples stained with VEGF, 55% stained with VEGFR1, 98% stained with VEGFR2, and 96% stained with VEGFR3. Most (94%) of the VEGFR2 staining was diffuse. Most orbital vascular lesions express VEGF receptors, which may suggest a future target for nonsurgical treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adipocyte-derived factors in age-related dementia and their contribution to vascular and Alzheimer pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Makoto; Iadecola, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Age-related dementia is increasingly recognized as having a mixed pathology, with contributions from both cerebrovascular factors and pathogenic factors associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence that vascular risk factors in midlife, e.g., obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, increase the risk of developing late-life dementia. Since obesity and changes in body weight/adiposity often drive diabetes and hypertension, understanding the relationship between adiposity and age-related dementia may reveal common underlying mechanisms. Here we offer a brief appraisal of how changes in body weight and adiposity are related to both AD and dementia on vascular basis, and examine the involvement of two key adipocyte-derived hormones: leptin and adiponectin. The evidence suggests that in midlife increased body weight/adiposity and subsequent changes in adipocyte-derived hormones may increase the long-term susceptibility to dementia. On the other hand, later in life, decreases in body weight/adiposity and related hormonal changes are early manifestations of disease that precede the onset of dementia and may promote AD and vascular pathology. Understanding the contribution of adiposity to age-related dementia may help identify the underlying pathological mechanisms common to both vascular dementia and AD, and provide new putative targets for early diagnosis and therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia, edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vascular quality of care pilot study: how admission to a vascular surgery service affects evidence-based pharmacologic risk factor modification in patients with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steenhof N

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Steenhof,1,2 Francesca Le Piane,1 Kori Leblanc,1–3 Naomi R Eisenberg,4 Yvonne Kwan,1 Christine Malmberg,1,6 Alexandra Papadopoulos,5,7 Graham Roche-Nagle4,7,8 1Department of Pharmacy, University Health Network, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, 4Division of Vascular Surgery, University Health Network, 5Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 6Victoria General Hospital, Vancouver Island Health Authority, Victoria, BC, 7Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, University Health Network, 8Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD guidelines recommend aggressive risk factor modification to improve cardiovascular outcomes. Recommended pharmacologic therapies include antiplatelets, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, and HMG-CoA-reductase inhibitors (statins. Purpose: We studied the degree to which patient admission to a vascular surgery service increased the use of these therapies. Patients and methods: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with PAD admitted to the vascular surgery service at a large Canadian tertiary care hospital. The use of recommended pharmacologic therapies at the time of admission and discharge were compared. A multidisciplinary clinical team established criteria by which patients were deemed ineligible to receive any of the recommended therapies. Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs were considered an alternative to ACE inhibitors. Results: Prior to hospital admission, 64% of patients were on antiplatelet therapy, 67% were on an ACE inhibitor or ARB, and 71% were on a statin. At the time of discharge, 91% of patients were on an antiplatelet (or not, with an acceptable reason, 77% were on an ACE inhibitor or an ARB (or not, with an acceptable reason, and 85% were on a statin (or not, with an acceptable reason. While new

  20. Individualized Vascular Disease Prevention in High-Risk Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, L

    2016-01-01

    In the pharmacologic prevention of vascular events, clinicians need to translate average effects from a clinical trial to the individual patient. Prediction models can contribute to individualized vascular disease prevention by selecting patients for treatment based on estimated risk or expected

  1. Running multiple marathons is not a risk factor for premature subclinical vascular impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, Axel; Suchy, Christiane; Friedrichs, Tasja; Dallinger, Sophia; Grabs, Viola; Haller, Bernhard; Halle, Martin; Scherr, Johannes

    2017-08-01

    Background In contrast to the well-accepted benefits of moderate exercise, recent research has suggested potential deleterious effects of repeated marathon running on the cardiovascular system. We thus performed a comprehensive analysis of markers of subclinical vascular damage in a cohort of runners having finished multiple marathon races successfully. Design This was a prospective, observational study. Methods A total of 97 healthy male Munich marathon participants (mean age 44 ± 10 years) underwent detailed training history, cardiopulmonary exercise testing for assessment of peak oxygen uptake, ultrasound for assessment of intima-media-thickness as well as non-invasive assessments of ankle-brachial index, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity and reactive hyperaemia index. Results Runners had previously completed a median of eight (range 1-500) half marathons, six (1-100) full marathons and three (1-40) ultramarathons; mean weekly and annual training volumes were 59 ± 23 and 1639 ± 979 km. Mean peak oxygen uptake was 50 ± 8 ml/min/kg, and the Munich marathon was finished in 3:45 ± 0:32 h. Runners showed normal mean values for intima-media-thickness (0.60 ± 0.14 mm), ankle-brachial index (1.2 ± 0.1), augmentation index (17 ± 13%), pulse wave velocity (8.7 ± 1.4 cm/s) and reactive hyperaemia index (1.96 ± 0.50). Age was significantly and independently associated with intima-media-thickness ( r = 0.531; p running multiple marathon races did not pose an additional risk factor for premature subclinical vascular impairment beyond age.

  2. Distribution of Estimated 10-Year Risk of Recurrent Vascular Events and Residual Risk in a Secondary Prevention Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Ray, Kausik K.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Amarenco, Pierre; LaRosa, John C.; Cramer, Maarten J. M.; Westerink, Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; de Borst, Gert J.; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, the risk of recurrent vascular events is likely to vary. We assessed the distribution of estimated 10-year risk of recurrent vascular events in a secondary prevention population. We also estimated the potential risk reduction and residual

  3. Distribution of Estimated 10-Year Risk of Recurrent Vascular Events and Residual Risk in a Secondary Prevention Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaasenbrood, Lotte; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Van Der Graaf, Yolanda; Ray, Kausik K.; Peters, Ron J G; Kastelein, John J P; Amarenco, Pierre; Larosa, John C.; Cramer, Maarten J M; Westerink, Jan; Kappelle, L. Jaap; De Borst, Gert J.; Visseren, Frank L J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Among patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, the risk of recurrent vascular events is likely to vary. We assessed the distribution of estimated 10-year risk of recurrent vascular events in a secondary prevention population. We also estimated the potential risk reduction and

  4. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  5. The Effect of Vascular Risk Factors on the Efficacy of Rivastigmine Patch and Capsule Treatment in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Farlow

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular risk factors (VRF may influence response to rivastigmine in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods: AD patients who participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of rivastigmine patch and capsule treatment were stratified by baseline VRF status. Treatment response was evaluated using the AD Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog, AD Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change (ADCS-CGIC and the AD Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living (ADCS-ADL scale. Results: ADAS-cog scores significantly improved in all rivastigmine-treated patients (p Conclusion: VRF may influence AD progression and response to rivastigmine.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and the development of vascular disease and type 2 diabetes in high-risk patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and its associated insulin resistance play a key role in the clustering of vascular risk factors, known as Metabolic Syndrome. Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome are at increased risk for the development of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes and

  7. Development of biochip for risk factors of atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Teak; Lee, Jeung Hee; Bae, Sung Kyun; Lee, Cho Rong; Jun, Mi Sun

    2010-05-01

    Establishment of the detection technology on vascular disease and relative risk factors through measuring the activity of Lp-PLA2 in blood using [ 3 H]plateletactivating factor(PAF,1-O-alkyl-2-[ 3 H-acetyl]-sn-glycero-3-phospho choline) labeled by radioactive isotope

  8. Risk factors and outcomes for nosocomial infection after prosthetic vascular grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariñas, María Carmen; Campo, Ana; Duran, Raquel; Sarralde, José Aurelio; Nistal, Juan Francisco; Gutiérrez-Díez, José Francisco; Fariñas-Álvarez, Concepción

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for nosocomial infections (NIs) and predictors of mortality in patients with prosthetic vascular grafts (PVGs). This was a prospective cohort study of all consecutive patients who underwent PVG of the abdominal aorta with or without iliac-femoral involvement and peripheral PVG from April 2008 to August 2009 at a university hospital. Patients younger than 15 years and those with severe immunodeficiency were excluded. The follow-up period was until 3 years after surgery or until death. There were 261 patients included; 230 (88.12%) were male, and the mean age was 67.57 (standard deviation, 10.82) years. The reason for operation was aortic aneurysm in 49 (18.77%) patients or lower limb arteriopathy in 212 (81.23%) patients. NIs occurred in 71 (27.20%) patients. Of these, 42 were surgical site infections (SSIs), of which 61.9% occurred in the lower extremities (14 superficial, 10 deep, and 2 PVG infections) and 38.1% in the abdomen (7 superficial, 7 deep, and 2 PVG infections); 15 were respiratory tract infections; and 15 were urinary tract infections. Active lower extremity skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) at the time of surgery was a significant predictor of NI for both types of PVG (abdominal aortic PVG: adjusted odds ratio [OR], 12.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-138.19; peripheral PVG: adjusted OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.08-5.47). Other independent predictors of NI were mechanical ventilation (adjusted OR, 55.96; 95% CI, 3.9-802.39) for abdominal aortic PVG and low hemoglobin levels on admission (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-0.99) and emergent surgery (adjusted OR, 4.39; 95% CI, 1.51-12.74) for peripheral PVG. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.92%. The probability of surviving the first month was 0.96, and significant predictors of mortality were active lower extremity SSTI (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 12.07; 95% CI, 1.04-154.75), high postsurgical glucose levels (adjusted RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1

  9. Preparation and features of polycaprolactone vascular grafts with the incorporated vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevostyanova, V. V., E-mail: sevostyanova.victoria@gmail.com; Khodyrevskaya, Y. I.; Glushkova, T. V.; Antonova, L. V.; Kudryavtseva, Y. A.; Barbarash, O. L.; Barbarash, L. S. [Research Institute for Complex Issues of Cardiovascular Diseases, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The development of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts is an urgent issue in cardiovascular surgery. In this study, we assessed how the incorporation of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) affects morphological and mechanical properties of polycaprolactone (PCL) vascular grafts along with its release kinetics. Vascular grafts were prepared using two-phase electrospinning. In pursuing our aims, we performed scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results demonstrated the preservation of a highly porous structure and improvement of PCL/VEGF scaffold mechanical properties as compared to PCL grafts. A prolonged VEGF release testifies the use of this construct as a scaffold for tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  10. Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subclinical hypothyroidism ups the risk of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. ... hypothyroidism (SCH) and vascular complications of type 2 diabetes. ... However, gender (p = 0.076), BMI (p = 0.092), and smoking (P = 0.715) were not ...

  11. Effects of combined healthy lifestyle factors on functional vascular aging: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Leila; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; van Rosmalen, Joost; van Rooij, Frank; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate whether components of a healthy lifestyle, combined and individually, are associated with arterial stiffness as a marker of functional vascular aging. We included 3235 participants aged 61-96 years from the Rotterdam Study. Measures of arterial stiffness included: aortic pulse wave velocity and carotid distensibility coefficient. Participants were scored one point for each of healthy lifestyle factors: consumption of five or more of fruits and/or vegetables per day, 75 min or more vigorous physical activity per week, 18.5 ≤ BMI ≤ 24. 9, never smoked and light-to-moderate alcohol intake (maximum seven glasses for women and 14 glasses for men) per week. Also a combined score (0-5) was computed by adding the five factors. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of healthy lifestyle and measures of arterial stiffness adjusting for confounders. Participants had -0.113 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.196, -0.029] difference in mean aortic pulse wave velocity m/s per unit increment of the lifestyle factors score, independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Higher fruit and vegetable consumption -0.221 (95% CI: -0.409, -0.034) and physical activity -0.239 (95% CI: -0.433, -0.044) were also significantly associated with reduced aortic pulse wave velocity. The corresponding estimates in carotid distensibility coefficient lacked statistical significance when we adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Combining multiple healthy lifestyle factors is associated with reduced aortic stiffness, a measure of functional vascular aging and independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

  12. Determination of cardiac risk by dipyridamole-thallium imaging before peripheral vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, C.A.; Brewster, D.C.; Darling, R.C.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; Pohost, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the severity of coronary artery disease in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease requiring surgery, preoperative dipyridamole-thallium imaging was performed in 54 stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Of the 54 patients, 48 had peripheral vascular surgery as scheduled without coronary angiography, of whom 8 (17 per cent) had postoperative cardiac ischemic events. The occurrence of these eight cardiac events could not have been predicted preoperatively by any clinical factors but did correlate with the presence of thallium redistribution. Eight of 16 patients with thallium redistribution had cardiac events, whereas there were no such events in 32 patients whose thallium scan either was normal or showed only persistent defects (P less than 0.0001). Six other patients also had thallium redistribution but underwent coronary angiography before vascular surgery. All had severe multivessel coronary artery disease, and four underwent coronary bypass surgery followed by uncomplicated peripheral vascular surgery. These data suggest that patients without thallium redistribution are at a low risk for postoperative ischemic events and may proceed to have vascular surgery. Patients with redistribution have a high incidence of postoperative ischemic events and should be considered for preoperative coronary angiography and myocardial revascularization in an effort to avoid postoperative myocardial ischemia and to improve survival. Dipyridamole-thallium imaging is superior to clinical assessment and is safer and less expensive than coronary angiography for the determination of cardiac risk

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factors and angiogenesis in eye disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witmer, A. N.; Vrensen, G. F. J. M.; van Noorden, C. J. F.; Schlingemann, R. O.

    2003-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family of growth factors controls pathological angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability in important eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The purpose of this review is to develop new insights

  14. Cardiometabolic Risk and Female Sexuality-Part I. Risk Factors and Potential Pathophysiological Underpinnings for Female Vasculogenic Sexual Dysfunction Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, Elisa; Scavello, Irene; Vignozzi, Linda

    2018-05-02

    Erectile dysfunction is recognized as an opportunity for preventing cardiovascular (CV) events, and assessing the impairment of penile vascular flow by Doppler ultrasound is an important tool to ascertain CV risk. Conversely, the role of genital vascular impairment in the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) remains contentious. To focus on the current scientific support for an association between CV risk factors and female sexual health in the 1st part of a 2-part review. A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the associations between CV risk factors and FSD and their underlying mechanisms was performed using the PubMed database. We present a summary of the evidence from clinical studies and discuss the possible mechanisms providing the pathophysiologic bases of vasculogenic FSD syndromes. The peripheral sexual response in women is a vascular-dependent event, and evidence suggests that cardiometabolic-related perturbations in endothelial function can determine vascular insufficiency in female genital tissues. Although epidemiologic and observational studies demonstrate that the prevalence of FSD is higher in women with diabetes mellitus, a cause-effect relation between these clinical conditions cannot be assumed. Evidence on the effect of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome on sexual function in women is controversial. Data on the associations of dyslipidemia and hypertension with FSD are limited. Common cardiometabolic alterations could affect vascular function in the female genital tract. Based on limited data, there is an association between CV risk factors and female sexual health in women; however, this association appears milder than in men. Maseroli E, Scavello I, Vignozzi L. Cardiometabolic Risk and Female Sexuality-Part I. Risk Factors and Potential Pathophysiological Underpinnings for Female Vasculogenic Sexual Dysfunction Syndromes. Sex Med Rev 2018;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 International

  15. The Effect of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Motor Symptoms, Cognitive Status, and Vascular Risk in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Kocer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors related with hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy and the impact of HHcy in Parkinson’s disease (PD are not well understood. We investigated the factors associated with increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy and the relationship between HHcy and motor symptoms, cognitive status, and vascular risk in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Among 60 patients (29 males, 48.3% with PD, the stage of the disease, the severity of clinical symptoms, and the patients’ cognitive status were measured using a modified Hoehn and Yahr Staging Scale (mHY, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II and III, and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, respectively. Patients were also noted for having dyskinesia and hallucinations. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and plasma Hcy ​​levels were measured. Furthermore, the presence of vascular risk factors was recorded. Finally, we investigated carotid artery intima-media thickening and stenosis using colour Doppler ultrasonography as well as the presence of ischemic lesions using brain imaging techniques. Plasma Hcy ​​levels were higher with advanced age and in males. In addition, there was an inverse relationship between Hcy ​​and vitamin B12 levels. There was no correlation between HHcy and the stage of the disease, severity of motor symptoms, cognitive status as assessed by the MMSE, vascular risk factors, carotid artery atherosclerotic findings, and ischemic brain lesions. Plasma Hcy levels may rise due to several factors in PD. However, the resulting HHcy has no significant effect on the clinical picture in terms of motor features, cognitive status, and vascular diseases.

  16. Aldosterone dysregulation with aging predicts renal vascular function and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenifer M; Underwood, Patricia C; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Adler, Gail K; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-06-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal vascular and cardiovascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1124 visits) in the General Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression to stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics and the renal vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β=-4.60; Page and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (Page may interact to mediate renal vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease.

  17. Osteonecrosis. Part 1. Risk factors and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valeriyevna Ilyinykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different risk factors for osteonecrosis (ON and some aspects of its pathogenesis: impairments in the differentiation of stromal cells, the vascular provision of intraand extravasal genesis, the quality of proper bone tissue due to generalized or local osteoporosis, intravascular coagulation factors contributing to microthrombogenesis. The basic types of ON are identified.

  18. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  19. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease Attributable to Major Modifiable Risk Factors in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhtar Hussain

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Indonesia, coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke are estimated to cause more than 470 000 deaths annually. In order to inform primary prevention policies, we estimated the sex- and age-specific burden of CHD and stroke attributable to five major and modifiable vascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, elevated total cholesterol, and excess body weight. Methods: Population attributable risks for CHD and stroke attributable to these risk factors individually were calculated using summary statistics obtained for prevalence of each risk factor specific to sex and to two age categories (<55 and ≥55 years from a national survey in Indonesia. Age- and sex-specific relative risks for CHD and stroke associated with each of the five risk factors were derived from prospective data from the Asia-Pacific region. Results: Hypertension was the leading vascular risk factor, explaining 20%–25% of all CHD and 36%–42% of all strokes in both sexes and approximately one-third of all CHD and half of all strokes across younger and older age groups alike. Smoking in men explained a substantial proportion of vascular events (25% of CHD and 17% of strokes. However, given that these risk factors are likely to be strongly correlated, these population attributable risk proportions are likely to be overestimates and require verification from future studies that are able to take into account correlation between risk factors. Conclusions: Implementation of effective population-based prevention strategies aimed at reducing levels of major cardiovascular risk factors, especially blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking prevalence among men, could reduce the growing burden of CVD in the Indonesian population.

  20. Obesity: An Independent Risk Factor for Insufficient Hemostasis Using the AngioSeal Vascular Closure Device After Antegrade Puncture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minko, Peter, E-mail: peterminko@yahoo.com; Katoh, Marcus [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [University Hospital Saarland, Institute of Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics (Germany); Buecker, Arno [University Hospital Saarland, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the femoral artery. Methods: In a prospective study, 120 consecutive patients underwent lower limb vascular intervention by an antegrade access to the common femoral artery (CFA). After intervention, a 6F (n = 88) or an 8F (n = 32) AngioSeal vascular closure device was used to achieve hemostasis. The technical success or the cause of failure was documented. In addition, the coagulation status (platelets, INR, prothrombin time, atrial thromboplastin time (PTT)), hypertonus, locoregional habitus of the groin, body mass index (BMI), presence of calcifications, and history of previous surgical interventions of the CFA were evaluated. Results: Hemostasis was achieved in 97 patients (81%). In 12 patients (10%), persistent bleeding of the puncture site required manual compression. In another nine patients (8%) a kink of the sheath obviated the passage of the collagen plug toward the vessel, and in two patients the anchor dislodged out of the vessel, requiring manual compression. There were no significant differences between the groups of successful and unsuccessful sealing regarding the mean platelets (241 vs. 254 * 10{sup 9}/l; P = 0.86), INR (1.06 vs. 1.02; P = 0.52), prothrombin time (90% vs. 90%; P = 0.86), and PTT (30 vs. 31 s; P = 0.82). However, unsuccessful sealing was more likely in obese patients with an increased BMI (26.6 vs. 28.8 kg/m{sup 2}; P = 0.04). Conclusions: Obesity seems to be an independent risk factor for insufficient sealing using the AngioSeal vascular closure device after antegrade puncture of the CFA. In 8% of our patients, hemostasis could not be achieved due to kink of the flexible sheath.

  1. Review of gestational diabetes mellitus effects on vascular structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise A; Chik, Constance L; Ryan, Edmond A

    2016-05-01

    Vascular dysfunction has been described in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, previous gestational diabetes mellitus increases the risk of developing Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Factors contributing to vascular changes remain uncertain. The aim of this review was to summarize vascular structure and function changes found to occur in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify factors that contribute to vascular dysfunction. A systematic search of electronic databases yielded 15 publications from 1998 to March 2014 that met the inclusion criteria. Our review confirmed that previous gestational diabetes mellitus contributes to vascular dysfunction, and the most consistent risk factor associated with previous gestational diabetes mellitus and vascular dysfunction was elevated body mass index. Heterogeneity existed across studies in determining the relationship of glycaemic levels and insulin resistance to vascular dysfunction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. [Homocystein--an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, B

    2005-09-01

    Over the last 20 years homocysteine has taken on increasing importance as an independent, potentially modifiable risk factor for various forms of vascular disease including peripheral and cerebral vascular disease, coronary heart disease and thrombosis. This association has been ascertained in many retrospective and prospective studies but the strength of risk is not yet firmly established although it is clearly dependent on several modifying factors such as other risk factors, nutrition and genetic polymorphisms. Generally it is estimated that hyperhomocysteinaemia is responsible for about 10% of all risks. Homocysteine is formed from the dietary amino acid methionine and plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism and methyl group transfer. Its concentrations in tissues and plasma are influenced by many genetic and environmental factors, especially vitamins such as folate, B12 and B6 as well as certain medications and even life style factors. Nowadays the measurement of plasma homocysteine is freely available although care has to be taken in sample handling and interpretation of results. Final proof that homocysteine is a causal agent and not just a marker for cardiovascular disease and that reduction of plasma homocysteine by vitamin treatment reduces risk of cardiovascular disease is still awaited. Therefore at the present time neither wide-scale screening for homocysteine levels nor general prophylaxis with high dose vitamins is justified. However most experts recommend homocysteine determination in individuals with existing or high risk for arterial or venous blood vessel disease and their relatives. Elevated homocysteine can be lowered in such cases with a combination of folic acid, vitamin B12 vitamin B6. The results of ongoing trials on the impact of such treatment on risk of vascular disease are awaited with great interest.

  3. Accelerated Vascular Aging as a Paradigm for Hypertensive Vascular Disease: Prevention and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Matthias; Husmann, Marc; Meyer, Matthias R

    2016-05-01

    Aging is considered the most important nonmodifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death after age 28 years. Because of demographic changes the world population is expected to increase to 9 billion by the year 2050 and up to 12 billion by 2100, with several-fold increases among those 65 years of age and older. Healthy aging and prevention of aging-related diseases and associated health costs have become part of political agendas of governments around the world. Atherosclerotic vascular burden increases with age; accordingly, patients with progeria (premature aging) syndromes die from myocardial infarctions or stroke as teenagers or young adults. The incidence and prevalence of arterial hypertension also increases with age. Arterial hypertension-like diabetes and chronic renal failure-shares numerous pathologies and underlying mechanisms with the vascular aging process. In this article, we review how arterial hypertension resembles premature vascular aging, including the mechanisms by which arterial hypertension (as well as other risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or chronic renal failure) accelerates the vascular aging process. We will also address the importance of cardiovascular risk factor control-including antihypertensive therapy-as a powerful intervention to interfere with premature vascular aging to reduce the age-associated prevalence of diseases such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, hypertensive nephropathy, and vascular dementia due to cerebrovascular disease. Finally, we will discuss the implementation of endothelial therapy, which aims at active patient participation to improve primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillit, Howard; Nash, David T; Rundek, Tatjana; Zuckerman, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia, are disorders of aging populations and represent a significant economic burden. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors may be instrumental in the development of dementia. The goal of this review was to discuss the relationship between specific CVD risk factors and dementia and how current treatment strategies for dementia should focus on reducing CVD risks. We conducted a review of the literature for the simultaneous presence of 2 major topics, cardiovascular risk factors and dementia (eg, AD). Special emphasis was placed on clinical outcome studies examining the effects of treatments of pharmacologically modifiable CVD risk factors on dementia and cognitive impairment. Lifestyle risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and certain psychosocial factors, have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Some evidence suggests that effectively managing these factors may prevent cognitive decline/dementia. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antihypertensive medications have found that such therapy may reduce the risk of cognitive decline, and limited data suggest a benefit for patients with AD. Some small open-label and randomized clinical trials of statins have observed positive effects on cognitive function; larger studies of statins in patients with AD are ongoing. Although more research is needed, current evidence indicates an association between CVD risk factors--such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus--and cognitive decline/dementia. From a clinical perspective, these data further support the rationale for physicians to provide effective management of CVD risk factors and for patients to be compliant with such recommendations to possibly prevent cognitive decline/dementia.

  5. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...

  6. Risk and Aging Vascular in a city population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ruiz Mori

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: Cardiovascular diseases that every year have more prevalence in the country, are the product of risky factors, many of them modifiable and preventable. The objective of the present study has been to know and analyze the factors of cardiovascular risk and determine the vascular age in the population of Lima. Material and methods: A descriptive cross sectional study, carried out in March 2016, in the southern, northern and eastern cones of Metropolitan Lima, in people older than 30 and younger than 75 years old. The survey structured for the study collected the following variables: gender, age, arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes, physical activity and type of diet. Blood presure, weight and tall were recorded. Results: In total, 485 participants were included, 197 men and 288 women. The age was 49,5± 9,9 years old. The more frequent risky factor was the unhealthy diet (47,6%, followed by sedentary lifestyle (42,5%. Arterial hypertension was observed in 20,8%, being more frequent in men. 85.2% did not smoke and overweight was found in 47.2%, being its frequency higher in women. The low risk was determined in 60,4% and it was predominant in women, while higher risk was 18.6% in men. The average cardiovascular age was higher in 1,4 years compared to the chronological age beign more marked in men, in whom the difference was 5,8 years between 50 and 59 years old. Conclusions: The more frecuente cardiovascular risk has been unhealthy diet followed by sedentary lifestyle. The high risk was 18,6% predominating in

  7. Subtle gray matter changes in temporo-parietal cortex associated with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tânia Corrêa; Scazufca, Márcia; Squarzoni, Paula; de Souza Duran, Fábio Luiz; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline Hatsuko; Vallada, Homero P; Andrei, Anna; Wajngarten, Mauricio; Menezes, Paulo R; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2011-01-01

    Vascular risk factors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While there is consistent evidence of gray matter (GM) abnormalities in earlier stages of AD, the presence of more subtle GM changes associated with vascular risk factors in the absence of clinically significant vascular events has been scarcely investigated. This study aimed to examine GM changes in elderly subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. We predicted that the presence of cardiovascular risk would be associated with GM abnormalities involving the temporal-parietal cortices and limbic structures. We recruited 248 dementia-free subjects, age range 66-75 years, from the population-based "São Paulo Ageing and Health Study", classified in accordance to their Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk (FCHDR) score to undergo an MRI scan. We performed an overall analysis of covariance, controlled to total GM and APOE4 status, to investigate the presence of regional GM abnormalities in association with FCHDR subgroups (high-risk, medium-risk, and low-risk), and followed by post hoc t-test. We also applied a co-relational design in order to investigate the presence of linear progression of the GM vulnerability in association with cardiovascular risk factor. Voxel-based morphometry showed that the presence of cardiovascular risk factors were associated with regional GM loss involving the temporal cortices bilaterally. Those results retained statistical significance after including APOE4 as a covariate of interest. We also observed that there was a negative correlation between FCHDR scores and rGM distribution in the parietal cortex. Subclinical cerebrovascular abnormalities involving GM loss may provide an important link between cardiovascular risk factors and AD.

  8. An environmental analysis of genes associated with schizophrenia: hypoxia and vascular factors as interacting elements in the neurodevelopmental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kastner, R; van Os, J; Esquivel, G; Steinbusch, H W M; Rutten, B P F

    2012-12-01

    Investigating and understanding gene-environment interaction (G × E) in a neurodevelopmentally and biologically plausible manner is a major challenge for schizophrenia research. Hypoxia during neurodevelopment is one of several environmental factors related to the risk of schizophrenia, and links between schizophrenia candidate genes and hypoxia regulation or vascular expression have been proposed. Given the availability of a wealth of complex genetic information on schizophrenia in the literature without knowledge on the connections to environmental factors, we now systematically collected genes from candidate studies (using SzGene), genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and copy number variation (CNV) analyses, and then applied four criteria to test for a (theoretical) link to ischemia-hypoxia and/or vascular factors. In all, 55% of the schizophrenia candidate genes (n=42 genes) met the criteria for a link to ischemia-hypoxia and/or vascular factors. Genes associated with schizophrenia showed a significant, threefold enrichment among genes that were derived from microarray studies of the ischemia-hypoxia response (IHR) in the brain. Thus, the finding of a considerable match between genes associated with the risk of schizophrenia and IHR and/or vascular factors is reproducible. An additional survey of genes identified by GWAS and CNV analyses suggested novel genes that match the criteria. Findings for interactions between specific variants of genes proposed to be IHR and/or vascular factors with obstetric complications in patients with schizophrenia have been reported in the literature. Therefore, the extended gene set defined here may form a reasonable and evidence-based starting point for hypothesis-based testing of G × E interactions in clinical genetic and translational neuroscience studies.

  9. Development and Validation of a Preprocedural Risk Score to Predict Access Site Complications After Peripheral Vascular Interventions Based on the Vascular Quality Initiative Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Access site complications following peripheral vascular intervention (PVI are associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality. Prediction of access site complication risk may optimize PVI care; however, there is no tool designed for this. We aimed to create a clinical scoring tool to stratify patients according to their risk of developing access site complications after PVI. Methods: The Society for Vascular Surgery’s Vascular Quality Initiative database yielded 27,997 patients who had undergone PVI at 131 North American centers. Clinically and statistically significant preprocedural risk factors associated with in-hospital, post-PVI access site complications were included in a multivariate logistic regression model, with access site complications as the outcome variable. A predictive model was developed with a random sample of 19,683 (70% PVI procedures and validated in 8,314 (30%. Results: Access site complications occurred in 939 (3.4% patients. The risk tool predictors are female gender, age > 70 years, white race, bedridden ambulatory status, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus, prior minor amputation, procedural indication of claudication, and nonfemoral arterial access site (model c-statistic = 0.638. Of these predictors, insulin-treated diabetes mellitus and prior minor amputation were protective of access site complications. The discriminatory power of the risk model was confirmed by the validation dataset (c-statistic = 0.6139. Higher risk scores correlated with increased frequency of access site complications: 1.9% for low risk, 3.4% for moderate risk and 5.1% for high risk. Conclusions: The proposed clinical risk score based on eight preprocedural characteristics is a tool to stratify patients at risk for post-PVI access site complications. The risk score may assist physicians in identifying patients at risk for access site complications and selection of patients who may benefit from bleeding avoidance

  10. Association of Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Lifestyles With the Cardio-ankle Vascular Index in a General Mediterranean Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosua-Bayés, Marc; Martí-Lluch, Ruth; García-Gil, María Del Mar; Camós, Lourdes; Comas-Cufí, Marc; Blanch, Jordi; Ponjoan, Anna; Alves-Cabratosa, Lia; Elosua, Roberto; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel

    2018-06-01

    The cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) assesses arterial stiffness. We aimed to describe the distribution of CAVI in a Mediterranean population, to determine the proportion of CAVI ≥ 9 by sex and coronary risk level, and to assess the association of CAVI with classic cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyle patterns. This cross-sectional study was based on the population of Girona province. The CAVI was measured using the VaSera VS-1500. Of 2613 individuals included in this study, the prevalence of CAVI ≥ 9 was 46.8% in men and 36.0% in women and significantly increased with coronary risk: from 21.1% and 24.8%, respectively to 76.7%, in the low-risk group, and 61.9% in the high-risk group. The CAVI increased with age in both sexes, being higher in men across all age groups. In men, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.70; 95%CI, 1.90-3.87) and diabetes (OR, 2.38; 95%CI, 1.52-3.78), body mass index (BMI) ≤ 25 to < 30 (OR, 0.44; 95%CI, 0.27-0.72) and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.14-0.58), and physical activity (OR, 0.66; 95%CI, 0.47-0.92). In women, CAVI ≥ 9 was associated with hypertension (OR, 2.22; 95%CI, 1.59-3.09), hypercholesterolemia (OR, 1.40; 95%CI, 1.01-1.94), and BMI ≥ 30 (OR, 0.38; 95%CI, 0.20-0.71). The CAVI increases with age and is higher in men than in women. This index is associated with classic risk factors and coronary risk. It could be a good predictive biomarker, but further follow-up studies are required to assess its added value to cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Vascular risk factors, atherosclerosis, cerebral white matter lesions and cerebral perfusion in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.J.; Breteler, M.M.B.; Hasan, D.; Krenning, E.P.; Bots, M.L.; Grobbee, D.E.; Swieten, J.C. van; Harskamp, F. van; Hofman, A.

    1996-01-01

    We studied risk factors for cerebral vascular disease (blood pressure and hypertension, factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen), indicators of atherosclerosis (intima-media thickness and plaques in the carotid artery) and cerebral white matter lesions in relation to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 60 persons (aged 65-85 years) recruited from a population-based study. rCBF was assessed with single-photon emission tomography using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression with adjustment for age, sex and ventricle-to-brain ratio. A significant positive association was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and temporo-parietal rCBF. In analysis with quartiles of the distribution, we found a threshold effect for the relation of low diastolic blood pressure (≤60 mmHg) and low temporo-parietal rCBF. Levels of plasma fibrinogen were inversely related to parietal rCBF, with a threshold effect of high fibrinogen levels (>3.2 g/l) and low rCBF. Increased atherosclerosis was related to low rCBF in all cortical regions, but these associations were not significant. No consistent relation was observed between severity of cerebral white matter lesions and rCBF. Our results may have implications for blood pressure control in the elderly population. (orig.)

  12. Predicting erectile dysfunction following surgical correction of Peyronie's disease without inflatable penile prosthesis placement: vascular assessment and preoperative risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick L; Abern, Michael R; Levine, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    Surgical therapy remains the gold standard treatment for Peyronie's Disease (PD). Surgical options include plication, grafting, and placement of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP). Postoperative erectile dysfunction (ED) is a potential complication for PD surgery without IPP. We present our large series follow-up to evaluate preoperative risk factors for postoperative ED. The aim of this study is to evaluate preoperative risk factors for the development of ED following surgical correction of PD taking into account the degree of curvature, graft size, surgical approach, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking history, preoperative use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5), and preoperative duplex ultrasound findings including peak systolic and end diastolic velocities and resistive index. We identified 218 men undergoing either tunica albuginea plication (TAP) or partial plaque excision with pericardial grafting for PD following a previously published algorithm between November 1992 and April 2007. Preoperative and postoperative erectile function, curvature characteristics, presence of vascular risk factors, and duplex ultrasound findings were available on 109 patients. Our primary outcome measure is the development of ED after surgery for PD. Ten percent of TAP and 21% of plaque excision with grafting patients developed postoperative ED. Neither curve direction (P = 0.76), graft area (P = 0.78), surgical approach (P = 0.12), chronic hypertension (P = 0.51), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.87), diabetes (P = 0.69), nor smoking history (P = 0.99) were significant predictors of postoperative ED. No combination of risk factors was found to be predictive of postoperative ED. Preoperative use of PDE5 was not a significant predictor of postoperative ED (P = 0.33). Neither peak systolic, end diastolic, nor resistive index were significant predictors of ED (P = 0.28, 0.28, and 0.25, respectively). This long-term follow-up of a large published series suggests that neither

  13. Reduced 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for dementia in several cross-sectional studies. We tested the hypothesis that reduced plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia in the general.......28 (95% CI, 1.00-1.64) for 25(OH)D less than 25 nmol/L vs. greater than or equal to 50 nmol/L, and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01-1.60) for less than the 25th vs. more than the 50th seasonally adjusted 25(OH)D. CONCLUSIONS: We observed an association of reduced plasma 25(OH)D with increased risk of the combined end...

  14. Estimating the risk of cardio vascular diseases among pakistani diabetics using uk pds risk engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzam, A.; Amer, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of risk estimation of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is helpful for clinician to identifying high risk populations for their effective treatment. Latest studies recommended only initiating cardio-protective treatment in diabetic patients based on personalized CHD risk estimates so as to reduce undue harm from overly aggressive risk factor modification. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UK PDS) Risk Engine is a widely used tool to assess the risk of Cardio Vascular diseases (CVD) in diabetics. The literature search so far did not reveal any study of risk assessment among Pakistani Diabetics. Methods: This descriptive study is based on the data of 470 type-2 diabetics seen in Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore during 2011. The data of these 470 patients was analyzed through UKPDS Risk Engine. CHD risk was calculated. Results: The 10 years risk of CHD, fatal CHD, stroke and fatal stroke was 9.4%, 4.4%, 1.7% and 0.2% respectively. Conclusions: The present study show a lower risk of CVD occurring among Pakistani diabetics as compared to studies from western countries. (author)

  15. Supply and demand: Will we have enough vascular surgeons by 2030?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Katherine; Schneider, Brandon; Lajos, Paul; Marin, Michael; Faries, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The increase in prevalence of certain cardiovascular risk factors increases susceptibility to vascular disease, which may create demand for surgical intervention. In our study, data collected by the American Association of Medical Colleges Physician Specialty Databook of 2012, the United States Census Bureau, and other nationwide organizations were referenced to calculate future changes in vascular surgeon supply and prevalence of people at risk for vascular disease. In 2010, there were 2853 active vascular surgeons. By 2040, the workforce is expected to linearly rise to 3573. There will be an exponential rise in people with cardiovascular risk factors. Adding to concern, in 2030, an estimated 3333 vascular surgeons will be available for 180,000,000 people with at least one risk factor for peripheral arterial disease. The paucity of properly trained surgeons entering the workforce needs to be addressed before this shortage becomes a larger burden on healthcare providers and governmental spending. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a well known angiogenic factor, has been shown to have direct and/or ... Endogenous repair efforts fail to repair ... Spinal cord injury model preparation and intramedullary spinal.

  17. Dipyridamole-thallium scanning in patients undergoing vascular surgery. Optimizing preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagle, K.A.; Singer, D.E.; Brewster, D.C.; Darling, R.C.; Mulley, A.G.; Boucher, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dipyridamole-thallium imaging has been suggested as a method of preoperatively assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing major surgery. To define more clearly its proper role in preoperative assessment, we prospectively evaluated 111 patients undergoing vascular surgery. In the first set of 61 patients, our data confirmed the value of preoperative dipyridamole-thallium scanning in identifying the patients who suffered postoperative ischemic events. Events occurred in eight of 18 patients with reversible defects on preoperative imaging, compared with no events in 43 patients with no thallium redistribution (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.624, 0.256). The results also suggested that clinical factors might allow identification of a low-risk subset of patients. To test the hypothesis that patients with no evidence of congestive heart failure, angina, prior myocardial infarction, or diabetes do not require further preoperative testing, we evaluated an additional 50 patients having vascular procedures. None of the 23 without the clinical markers had untoward outcomes, while ten of 27 patients with one or more of these clinical markers suffered postoperative ischemic events (confidence interval for the risk difference: 0.592, 0.148). In the clinical high-risk subset, further risk stratification is achieved with dipyridamole-thallium scanning

  18. Incidence, prognostic factors and impact of postoperative delirium after major vascular surgery: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Sarah Joy; Blyth, Fiona M; Naganathan, Vasi

    2017-10-01

    Although postoperative delirium is a common complication and increases patient care needs, little is known about the predictors and outcomes of delirium in patients having vascular surgery. This review aimed to determine the incidence, prognostic factors and impact of postoperative delirium in vascular surgical patients. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published between January 2000 and January 2016 on delirium after vascular surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of delirium. Secondary outcomes were contributing prognostic factors and impact of delirium. Study quality and risk of bias was assessed using the QUIPS tool for systematic reviews of prognostic studies, and MOOSE guidelines for reviews of observational studies. Quantitative analyses of extracted data were conducted using meta-analysis where possible to determine incidence of delirium and prognostic factors. A qualitative review of outcomes was performed. Fifteen articles were eligible for inclusion. Delirium incidence ranged between 5% and 39%. Meta-analysis found that patients with delirium were older than those without delirium (OR 3.6, pdelirium included increased age (OR 1.04, pdelirium. Data were limited on the impact of procedure complexity, endovascular compared to open surgery or type of anaesthetic. Postoperative delirium occurs frequently, resulting in major morbidity for vascular patients. Improved quality of prognostic studies may identify modifiable peri-operative factors to improve quality of care for vascular surgical patients.

  19. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor induces vascular leakage via autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ru Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular leakage is an important feature of acute inflammatory shock, which currently has no effective treatment. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that can induce vascular leakage and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of shock. However, the mechanism of MIF-induced vascular leakage is still unclear. In this study, using recombinant MIF (rMIF, we demonstrated that MIF induced disorganization and degradation of junction proteins and increased the permeability of human endothelial cells in vitro. Western blotting analysis showed that rMIF treatment induced LC3 conversion and p62 degradation. Inhibition of autophagy with a PI3K inhibitor (3-MA, a ROS scavenger (NAC or autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion inhibitors (bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine rescued rMIF-induced vascular leakage, suggesting that autophagy mediates MIF-induced vascular leakage. The potential involvement of other signaling pathways was also studied using different inhibitors, and the results suggested that MIF-induced vascular leakage may occur through the ERK pathway. In conclusion, we showed that MIF triggered autophagic degradation of endothelial cells, resulting in vascular leakage. Inhibition of MIF-induced autophagy may provide therapeutic targets against vascular leakage in inflammatory shock.

  20. Prognostic importance of vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression and vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms in epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smerdel, Maja; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Brandslund, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) play a central role in angiogenesis and consequently, in various steps of ovarian carcinogenesis. Gene polymorphisms within the VEGF system have revealed a correlation with prognosis in some malignancies. The aim of the present study...... was to examine the possible importance of 2 VEGF polymorphisms and VEGF-A expression in ovarian cancer. METHODS: We investigated 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms VEGF +405G/C and VEGF -460C/T by polymerase chain reaction and also analyzed VEGF-A expression by immunohistochemistry in 159 women with ovarian...... cancer. RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression revealed a significant correlation with survival in a Cox proportional hazards regression model (P = 0.012). Germline polymorphisms were not correlated with clinicopathological parameters such as stage, type, and histology. Heterozygous...

  1. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  2. Pharmacogenetics of Vascular Risk Factors in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacabelos, Ramón; Meyyazhagan, Arun; Carril, Juan C.; Cacabelos, Pablo; Teijido, Óscar

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a polygenic/complex disorder in which genomic, epigenomic, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and environmental factors converge to define a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype. Pharmacogenetics is a major determinant of therapeutic outcome in AD. Different categories of genes are potentially involved in the pharmacogenetic network responsible for drug efficacy and safety, including pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter, and pleiotropic genes. However, most drugs exert pleiotropic effects that are promiscuously regulated for different gene products. Only 20% of the Caucasian population are extensive metabolizers for tetragenic haplotypes integrating CYP2D6-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP3A4/5 variants. Patients harboring CYP-related poor (PM) and/or ultra-rapid (UM) geno-phenotypes display more irregular profiles in drug metabolism than extensive (EM) or intermediate (IM) metabolizers. Among 111 pentagenic (APOE-APOB-APOC3-CETP-LPL) haplotypes associated with lipid metabolism, carriers of the H26 haplotype (23-TT-CG-AG-CC) exhibit the lowest cholesterol levels, and patients with the H104 haplotype (44-CC-CC-AA-CC) are severely hypercholesterolemic. Furthermore, APOE, NOS3, ACE, AGT, and CYP variants influence the therapeutic response to hypotensive drugs in AD patients with hypertension. Consequently, the implementation of pharmacogenetic procedures may optimize therapeutics in AD patients under polypharmacy regimes for the treatment of concomitant vascular disorders. PMID:29301387

  3. Pharmacogenetics of Vascular Risk Factors in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Cacabelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a polygenic/complex disorder in which genomic, epigenomic, cerebrovascular, metabolic, and environmental factors converge to define a progressive neurodegenerative phenotype. Pharmacogenetics is a major determinant of therapeutic outcome in AD. Different categories of genes are potentially involved in the pharmacogenetic network responsible for drug efficacy and safety, including pathogenic, mechanistic, metabolic, transporter, and pleiotropic genes. However, most drugs exert pleiotropic effects that are promiscuously regulated for different gene products. Only 20% of the Caucasian population are extensive metabolizers for tetragenic haplotypes integrating CYP2D6-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP3A4/5 variants. Patients harboring CYP-related poor (PM and/or ultra-rapid (UM geno-phenotypes display more irregular profiles in drug metabolism than extensive (EM or intermediate (IM metabolizers. Among 111 pentagenic (APOE-APOB-APOC3-CETP-LPL haplotypes associated with lipid metabolism, carriers of the H26 haplotype (23-TT-CG-AG-CC exhibit the lowest cholesterol levels, and patients with the H104 haplotype (44-CC-CC-AA-CC are severely hypercholesterolemic. Furthermore, APOE, NOS3, ACE, AGT, and CYP variants influence the therapeutic response to hypotensive drugs in AD patients with hypertension. Consequently, the implementation of pharmacogenetic procedures may optimize therapeutics in AD patients under polypharmacy regimes for the treatment of concomitant vascular disorders.

  4. Fetal origin of vascular aging

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    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factors: A comparison between invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipryushina, Yulia O; Yakovlev, Konstantin V; Odintsova, Nelly A

    2015-12-01

    This review aims to summarize recent data concerning the structure and role of the members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) families in the context of early development, organogenesis and regeneration, with a particular emphasis on the role of these factors in the development of invertebrates. Homologs of VEGF and/or VEGFR have been found in all Eumetazoa, in both Radiata and Bilateria, where they are expressed in the descendants of different germ layers and play a pivotal role in the development of animals with and without a vascular system. VEGF is a well-known angiogenesis regulator, but this factor also control cell migration during neurogenesis and the development of branching organs (the trachea) in invertebrate and vertebrate species. A possible explanation for the origin of Vegf/Vegfr in the animal kingdom and a pathway of Vegf/Vegfr evolution are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A neurodegenerative vascular burden index and the impact on cognition

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    Sebastian eHeinzel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of vascular burden factors have been identified to impact vascular function and structure as indicated by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT. On the basis of their impact on IMT, vascular factors may be selected and clustered in a vascular burden index (VBI. Since many vascular factors increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD, a multifactorial neurodegenerative VBI may be related to early pathological processes in AD and cognitive decline in its preclinical stages.We investigated an elderly cohort at risk for neurodegeneration (TREND study, n = 1102 for the multifactorial influence of vascular burden factors on IMT measured by ultrasound. To create a VBI for this cohort, vascular factors and their definitions (considering medical history, medication and/or blood marker data were selected based on their statistical effects on IMT in multiple regressions including age and sex. The impact of the VBI on cognitive performance was assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT and the CERAD neuropsychological battery.IMT was significantly predicted by age (standardized β = .26, sex (.09; males > females and the factors included in the VBI: obesity (.18, hypertension (.14, smoking (.08, diabetes (.07, and atherosclerosis (.05, whereas other cardiovascular diseases or hypercholesterolemia were not significant. Individuals with 2 or more VBI factors compared to individuals without had an odds ratio of 3.17 regarding overly increased IMT (≥1.0 mm. The VBI showed an impact on executive control (log(TMT B-A, p = .047 and a trend towards decreased global cognitive function (CERAD total score, p = .057 independent of age, sex and education.A VBI established on the basis of IMT may help to identify individuals with overly increased vascular burden linked to decreased cognitive function indicating neurodegenerative processes. The longitudinal study of this risk cohort will reveal the value of the VBI as prodromal marker for cognitive decline and

  7. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy

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    Flavia Mayer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD, while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD. In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. Aims: To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Methods: Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR was estimated for AD and VaD. Results: In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. Conclusion: A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention.

  8. An Estimate of Attributable Cases of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia due to Modifiable Risk Factors: The Impact of Primary Prevention in Europe and in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Flavia; Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Lacorte, Eleonora; Bacigalupo, Ilaria; Marzolini, Fabrizio; Ferrante, Gianluigi; Minardi, Valentina; Masocco, Maria; Canevelli, Marco; Di Fiandra, Teresa; Vanacore, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Up to 53.7% of all cases of dementia are assumed to be due to Alzheimer disease (AD), while 15.8% are considered to be due to vascular dementia (VaD). In Europe, about 3 million cases of AD could be due to 7 potentially modifiable risk factors: diabetes, midlife hypertension and/or obesity, physical inactivity, depression, smoking, and low educational level. To estimate the number of VaD cases in Europe and the number of AD and VaD cases in Italy attributable to these 7 potentially modifiable risk factors. Assuming the nonindependence of the 7 risk factors, the adjusted combined population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated for AD and VaD. In Europe, adjusted combined PAR was 31.4% for AD and 37.8% for VaD. The total number of attributable cases was 3,033,000 for AD and 873,000 for VaD. In Italy, assuming a 20% reduction of the prevalence of each risk factor, adjusted combined PAR decreased from 45.2 to 38.9% for AD and from 53.1 to 46.6% for VaD, implying a 6.4 and 6.5% reduction in the prevalence of AD and VaD, respectively. A relevant reduction of AD and VaD cases in Europe and Italy could be obtained through primary prevention.

  9. Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B.; Scuteri, Angelo; Black, Sandra E.; DeCarli, Charles; Greenberg, Steven M.; Iadecola, Costantino; Launer, Lenore J.; Laurent, Stephane; Lopez, Oscar L.; Nyenhuis, David; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schneider, Julie A.; Tzourio, Christophe; Arnett, Donna K.; Bennett, David A.; Chui, Helena C.; Higashida, Randall T.; Lindquist, Ruth; Nilsson, Peter M.; Roman, Gustavo C.; Sellke, Frank W.; Seshadri, Sudha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia of later life are common. Definitions of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), neuropathology, basic science and pathophysiological aspects, role of neuroimaging and vascular and other associated risk factors, and potential opportunities for prevention and treatment are reviewed. This statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of VCI and dementia, prevention, and treatment. Methods Writing group members were nominated by the writing group co-chairs on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, and the Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (primarily covering publications from 1990 to May 1, 2010), previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and, when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. After peer review by the American Heart Association, as well as review by the Stroke Council leadership, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention Council, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, the statement was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Results The construct of VCI has been introduced to capture the entire spectrum of cognitive disorders associated with all forms of cerebral vascular brain injury—not solely stroke—ranging from mild cognitive impairment through fully developed

  10. Review Article: Pregnancy and CVD Risk Factors | Glew | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elevated concentrations of total cholesterol, particular lipoproteins (e.g., LDL) and homocysteine are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and vascular dysfunction that can adversely affect the health of a pregnant woman and her fetus. Although it has been documented in many populations worldwide that the serum total ...

  11. Early Detection System of Vascular Disease and Its Application Prospect

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    Huan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Markers of imaging, structure, and function reflecting vascular damage, integrating a long time accumulation effect of traditional and unrecognized cardiovascular risk factors, can be regarded as surrogate endpoints of target organ damage before the occurrence of clinical events. Prevention of cardiovascular disease requires risk stratification and treatment of traditional risk factors, such as smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. However, traditional risk stratification is not sufficient to provide accurate assessment of future cardiovascular events. Therefore, vascular injury related parameters obtained by ultrasound or other noninvasive devices, as a surrogate parameter of subclinical cardiovascular disease, can improve cardiovascular risk assessment and optimize the preventive treatment strategy. Thus, we will summarize the research progress and clinical application of early assessment technology of vascular diseases in the present review.

  12. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

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    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  13. Incremental value of a genetic risk score for the prediction of new vascular events in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, Maaike; de Bakker, Paul I W; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Algra, Ale; Jan de Borst, Gert; Spiering, Wilko; Visseren, Frank L J

    2015-04-01

    Several genetic markers are related to incidence of cardiovascular events. We evaluated whether a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 30 single-nucleotide-polymorphisms associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) can improve prediction of 10-year risk of new cardiovascular events in patients with clinical manifest vascular disease. In 5742 patients with symptomatic vascular disease enrolled in the SMART study, we developed Cox regression models based on the SMART Risk Score (SRS) and based on the SRS plus the GRS in all patients, in patients with a history of acute arterial thrombotic events and in patients with a history of more stable atherosclerosis and without CAD. The discriminatory ability was expressed by the c-statistic. Model calibration was evaluated by calibration plots. The incremental value of adding the GRS was assessed by net reclassification index (NRI) and decision curve analysis. During a median follow-up of 6.5 years (IQR4.0-9.5), the composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, or vascular death occurred in 933 patients. Hazard ratios of GRS ranging from 0.86 to 1.35 were observed. The discriminatory capacity of the SRS for prediction of 10-year risk of cardiovascular events was fairly good (c-statistic 0.70, 95%CI 0.68-0.72), similar to the model based on the SRS plus the GRS. Calibration of the models based on SRS and SRS plus GRS was adequate. No increase in c-statistics, categorical NRIs and decision curves was observed when adding the GRS. The continuous NRI improved only in patients with stable atherosclerosis (0.14, 95%CI 0.03-0.25), increasing further excluding patients with a history of CAD (0.21, 95%CI 0.06-0.36). In patients with symptomatic vascular disease, a GRS did not improve risk prediction of 10-year risk of cardiovascular events beyond clinical characteristics. The GRS might improve risk prediction of first vascular events in the subgroup of patients with a history of stable atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  14. The ARTICO study: identification of patients at high risk of vascular recurrence after a first non-cardioembolic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serena, Joaquín; Segura, Tomás; Roquer, Jaume; García-Gil, María; Castillo, José

    2015-03-11

    About 20% of patients with a first ischaemic stroke will experience a new vascular event within the first year. The atherosclerotic burden, an indicator of the extension of atherosclerosis in a patient, has been associated with the risk of new cardiovascular events in the general population. However, no predictive models reliably identify groups at a high risk of recurrence. The ARTICO study prospectively analysed the predictive value for the risk of recurrence of specific atherosclerotic markers. The multicentre ARTICO study included 620 consecutive independent patients older than 60 years suffering from a first non-cardioembolic stroke. We analysed classical stroke risk factors; duplex study of supraaortic trunk including intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement; quantification of internal carotid (ICA) stenosis; number, morphology and surface characteristics of carotid plaques; ankle brachial index (ABI); and the presence of microalbuminuria. Patients were followed up at 6 and 12 months after inclusion. The primary end-point was death or major cardiovascular events. Any vascular event or death at 12 months occurred in 78 (13.8%) patients. In 40 (7.1%) of these the vascular event was a stroke recurrence. Weight, history of diabetes mellitus, history of symptomatic PAD, ABI 50%) were associated with a higher risk of vascular events on follow-up in the bivariate analysis. In the final Cox regression analysis, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, history of diabetes mellitus, symptomatic PAD (HR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.10-6.95; p=0.03), and particularly patients with both ICA stenosis >50% and PAD (HR 4.52; 95% CI, 2.14-9.53; p50% nor isolated abnormal ABI remained associated with an increased risk of recurrence in comparison with the whole population. Symptomatic PAD identifies a high risk group of vascular recurrence after a first non-cardioembolic stroke. The associated increased risk was particularly high in patients with both ICA stenosis and either

  15. The SK3 channel promotes placental vascularization by enhancing secretion of angiogenic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Cara C; Murray, Grace; England, Sarah K

    2014-11-15

    Proper placental perfusion is essential for fetal exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste with the maternal circulation. Impairment of uteroplacental vascular function can lead to pregnancy complications, including preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Potassium channels have been recognized as regulators of vascular proliferation, angiogenesis, and secretion of vasoactive factors, and their dysfunction may underlie pregnancy-related vascular diseases. Overexpression of one channel in particular, the small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3), is known to increase vascularization in mice, and mice overexpressing the SK3 channel (SK3(T/T) mice) have a high rate of fetal demise and IUGR. Here, we show that overexpression of SK3 causes fetal loss through abnormal placental vascularization. We previously reported that, at pregnancy day 14, placentas isolated from SK3(T/T) mice are smaller than those obtained from wild-type mice. In this study, histological analysis reveals that SK3(T/-) placentas at this stage have abnormal placental morphology, and microcomputed tomography shows that these placentas have significantly larger and more blood vessels than those from wild-type mice. To identify the mechanism by which these vascularization defects occur, we measured levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor, and the soluble form of VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1), which must be tightly regulated to ensure proper placental development. Our data reveal that overexpression of SK3 alters systemic and placental ratios of the angiogenic factor VEGF to antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1 throughout pregnancy. Additionally, we observe increased expression of hypoxia-inducing factor 2α in SK3(T/-) placentas. We conclude that the SK3 channel modulates placental vascular development and fetal health by altering VEGF signaling. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for stroke and TIA: a retrospective cohort study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Judith; Pacou, Maud; Gautier, Aline; Brown, Martin M

    2014-07-08

    Stroke and TIA are recognized complications of acute herpes zoster (HZ). Herein, we evaluate HZ as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (stroke and TIA) and myocardial infarction (MI) in a UK population cohort. A retrospective cohort of 106,601 HZ cases and 213,202 controls, matched for age, sex, and general practice, was identified from the THIN (The Health Improvement Network) general practice database. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the risks of stroke, TIA, and MI in cases and controls, adjusted for vascular risk factors, including body mass index >30 kg/m(2), smoking, cholesterol >6.2 mmol/L, hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, intermittent arterial claudication, carotid stenosis, and valvular heart disease, over 24 (median 6.3) years after HZ infection. Risk factors for vascular disease were significantly increased in cases of HZ compared with controls. Adjusted hazard ratios for TIA and MI but not stroke were increased in all patients with HZ (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 1.15 [1.09-1.21] and 1.10 [1.05-1.16], respectively). However, stroke, TIA, and MI were increased in cases whose HZ occurred when they were younger than 40 years (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 1.74 [1.13-2.66], 2.42 [1.34-4.36], and 1.49 [1.04-2.15], respectively). Subjects younger than 40 years were significantly less likely to be asked about vascular risk factors compared with older patients (p TIA, and MI in subjects affected before the age of 40 years. In older subjects, better ascertainment of vascular risk factors and earlier intervention may explain the reduction in risk of stroke after HZ infection. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Age- and Gender-Specific Prevalence of Risk Factors in Patients with First-Ever Ischemic Stroke in China

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    Xiao-ying Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidences are accumulating that age and gender have great impact on the distribution of stroke risk factors. Such data are lacking in Chinese population. Methods. 1027 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (IS were recruited and divided into young adult (80 years groups according to stroke onset ages. Vascular risk factors were collected and compared among groups. Results. Female patients were globally older than male patients at stroke onset and having higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, heart diseases, and atrial fibrillation (AF. However, females were less likely to drink heavily or smoke than males. Young patients had a much higher proportion of smoking and drinking than middle-aged and very old patients and the highest family history of hypertension, while very old patients had the highest prevalence of heart diseases and AF but lowest proportion of positive family history of vascular diseases. Hypertension and DM were equally frequent among three groups. Conclusion. Our study showed that vascular risk factors had a specific age and gender distribution pattern in Chinese IS patients. Secondary prevention strategy should emphasize on the control of different risk factors based on patient’s age and gender.

  18. GRECOS Project (Genotyping Recurrence Risk of Stroke): The Use of Genetics to Predict the Vascular Recurrence After Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Mendióroz, Maite; Giralt, Dolors; Nafria, Cristina; Garcia, Elena; Carrera, Caty; Gallego-Fabrega, Cristina; Domingues-Montanari, Sophie; Delgado, Pilar; Ribó, Marc; Castellanos, Mar; Martínez, Sergi; Freijo, Marimar; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Rubiera, Marta; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Molina, Carlos A; Font, Maria Angels; Grau Olivares, Marta; Palomeras, Ernest; Perez de la Ossa, Natalia; Martinez-Zabaleta, Maite; Masjuan, Jaime; Moniche, Francisco; Canovas, David; Piñana, Carlos; Purroy, Francisco; Cocho, Dolores; Navas, Inma; Tejero, Carlos; Aymerich, Nuria; Cullell, Natalia; Muiño, Elena; Serena, Joaquín; Rubio, Francisco; Davalos, Antoni; Roquer, Jaume; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Martí-Fábregas, Joan; Keene, Keith; Chen, Wei-Min; Worrall, Bradford; Sale, Michele; Arboix, Adrià; Krupinski, Jerzy; Montaner, Joan

    2017-05-01

    Vascular recurrence occurs in 11% of patients during the first year after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack. Clinical scores do not predict the whole vascular recurrence risk; therefore, we aimed to find genetic variants associated with recurrence that might improve the clinical predictive models in IS. We analyzed 256 polymorphisms from 115 candidate genes in 3 patient cohorts comprising 4482 IS or transient ischemic attack patients. The discovery cohort was prospectively recruited and included 1494 patients, 6.2% of them developed a new IS during the first year of follow-up. Replication analysis was performed in 2988 patients using SNPlex or HumanOmni1-Quad technology. We generated a predictive model using Cox regression (GRECOS score [Genotyping Reurrence Risk of Stroke]) and generated risk groups using a classification tree method. The analyses revealed that rs1800801 in the MGP gene (hazard ratio, 1.33; P =9×10 - 03 ), a gene related to artery calcification, was associated with new IS during the first year of follow-up. This polymorphism was replicated in a Spanish cohort (n=1.305); however, it was not significantly associated in a North American cohort (n=1.683). The GRECOS score predicted new IS ( P =3.2×10 - 09 ) and could classify patients, from low risk of stroke recurrence (1.9%) to high risk (12.6%). Moreover, the addition of genetic risk factors to the GRECOS score improves the prediction compared with previous Stroke Prognosis Instrument-II score ( P =0.03). The use of genetics could be useful to estimate vascular recurrence risk after IS. Genetic variability in the MGP gene was associated with vascular recurrence in the Spanish population. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Z ABDEYASDAN

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes melliuts is a chronic, metabolic disease that involves the macro and micro vascular complications and one of its maer ascular cowplications is the cardio vascular disease, as ,the risk of cardiovascular disease is 2-4 folds in diabetic patients in comparison with non diabetic individuals. The researches have demonstrated that the risk factors of the cardio vascular disease are formed at childhood. Therefore the preventive measures must begin from early childhood. So the present study was planned with the goals to determine and compare the cardia-vascular risk factors in the diabetic children with type 1 of diabetes mellitus. Method: This was an analytic, cross sectional study that has been done in two groups (case-control. In this research, 148 children, suffering from the typel diabetes mellitus being supported by the metabolism and endocrine research center, were chosen in the continues case manner and for the control group, 148 children, matched with the study group (according to the age and the sex, at 6-18 years old from the schools in Isfahan city randomly and at 2-6 years from the neiborhoods of the case group. The data-gathering tool was the questionnaires includes lipid profile, blood pressure, weight and height. To analyze the data we used the analytic (t student and logistic regression and descriptive (mean and standard deviation statistic methods and SPSS. Results: Findings revealed that the means of Lipid profile, systolic blood pressure and body mass index had not statistically significant differences in the two groups. But the mean of diastolic blood pressure and the mean arterial blood pressure in the control group were more than the case group and this difference was significant. The mean, 75 and 95 percentiles for cholesterol and LDL in all the age groups, mean, 75 and 95 percentile for triglyceride in all the age groups except the age group of 1-4 years in the diabetic and non diabetic groups were

  20. Corneal Graft Rejection: Incidence and Risk Factors

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    Alireza Baradaran-Rafii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include

  1. Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of risk factors and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Port, Alexander D; Swan, Ryan; Campbell, J Peter; Chan, R V Paul; Chiang, Michael F

    2018-04-19

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a retinal vasoproliferative disease that affects premature infants. Despite improvements in neonatal care and management guidelines, ROP remains a leading cause of childhood blindness worldwide. Current screening guidelines are primarily based on two risk factors: birth weight and gestational age; however, many investigators have suggested other risk factors, including maternal factors, prenatal and perinatal factors, demographics, medical interventions, comorbidities of prematurity, nutrition, and genetic factors. We review the existing literature addressing various possible ROP risk factors. Although there have been contradictory reports, and the risk may vary between different populations, understanding ROP risk factors is essential to develop predictive models, to gain insights into pathophysiology of retinal vascular diseases and diseases of prematurity, and to determine future directions in management of and research in ROP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark, orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

  3. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... was quantified by means of western blot and immunohistochemistry technology. ... Key words: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), spinal cord injury, ... accordance with the National Institute of Health Guide for the Care.

  4. The profile of risk factors and in-patient outcomes of stroke in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We therefore conducted this study to evaluate the frequencies of the traditional risk factors and outcomes of stroke at the main tertiary referral centre in the middle belt of Ghana in a prospective observational study. Methods and results: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of stroke were consecutively recruited and vascular risk ...

  5. Treatment of cardiovascular risk factors to prevent cognitive decline and dementia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne A Ligthart

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne A Ligthart1, Eric P Moll van Charante1, Willem A Van Gool2, Edo Richard21Department of General Practice, 2Department of Neurology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsBackground: Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that vascular risk factors increase the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD. So far, few randomized controlled trials have focused on lowering the vascular risk profile to prevent or postpone cognitive decline or dementia.Objective: To systematically perform a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating drug treatment effects for cardiovascular risk factors on the incidence of dementia or cognitive decline.Selection criteria: RCTs studying the effect of treating hypertension, dyslipidemia, ­hyperhomocysteinemia, obesity, or diabetes mellitus (DM on cognitive decline or dementia, with a minimum follow-up of 1 year in elderly populations.Outcome measure: Cognitive decline or incident dementia.Main results: In the identified studies, dementia was never the primary outcome. Statins (2 studies and intensified control of type II DM (1 study appear to have no effect on prevention of cognitive decline. Studies on treatment of obesity are lacking, and the results of lowering homocysteine (6 studies are inconclusive. There is some evidence of a preventive effect of antihypertensive medication (6 studies, but results are inconsistent.Conclusion: The evidence of a preventive treatment effect aimed at vascular risk factors on cognitive decline and dementia in later life is scarce and mostly based on secondary outcome parameters. Several important sources of bias such as differential dropout may importantly affect interpretation of trial results.Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia, prevention

  6. Low serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) level is associated with increased risk of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Patrick; Horvath, Alexandra; Nordlund, Arto; Wallin, Anders; Svensson, Johan

    2017-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is important for the adult brain, but little is known of the role of IGF-I in Alzheimeŕs disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD). A prospective study of 342 patients with subjective or objective mild cognitive impairment recruited at a single memory clinic. We determined whether serum IGF-I concentrations at baseline were associated with the risk of all-cause dementia, AD, or VaD. Patients developing mixed forms of AD and VaD were defined as suffering from VaD. The statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. During the follow-up (mean 3.6 years), 95 (28%) of the patients developed all-cause dementia [AD, n=37 (11%) and VaD, n=42 (12%)]. Low as well as high serum IGF-I (quartile 1 or 4 vs. quartiles 2-3) did not associate with all-cause dementia [crude hazard ratio (HR) 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-2.08 and crude HR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.63-1.75, respectively] or AD (crude HR 0.79, 95% CI: 0.35-1.79 and crude HR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.43-2.06, respectively]. In contrast, low serum IGF-I concentrations were associated with increased risk of VaD (quartile 1 vs. quartiles 2-3, crude HR 2.22, 95% CI: 1.13-4.36). The latter association remained significant also after adjustment for multiple covariates. In a memory clinic population, low serum IGF-I was a risk marker for subsequent VaD whereas low IGF-I did not associate with the risk of AD. High serum IGF-I was not related to the risk of conversion to dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fibroblast growth factor regulates insulin-like growth factor-binding protein production by vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1994-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells, and its effects are regulated by several binding proteins. Western ligand blotting of conditioned medium from rat aortic smooth muscle cells detected a 24 kDa binding protein and a 28 kDa glycosylated variant of this protein, consistent with insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 by size. Low amounts of a glycosylated 38 to 42 kDa doublet (consistent with binding protein-3) and a 31 kDa non-glycosylated protein also were present. Basic fibroblast growth factor markedly increased secretion of the 24 kDa binding protein and its 28 kDa glycosylated variant. This effect was dose- and time-dependent and was inhibited by co-incubation with cycloheximide. Crosslinking of [125I]-insulin-like growth factor I to cell monolayers revealed no surface-associated binding proteins, either basally or after agonist treatment. Induction of binding protein production by fibroblast growth factor at sites of vascular injury may be important in vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  8. Meta-analysis of prognostic factors for amputation following surgical repair of lower extremity vascular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Z B; Yet, B; Glasgow, S; Cole, E; Marsh, W; Brohi, K; Rasmussen, T E; Tai, N R M

    2015-04-01

    Lower extremity vascular trauma (LEVT) is a major cause of amputation. A clear understanding of prognostic factors for amputation is important to inform surgical decision-making, patient counselling and risk stratification. The aim was to develop an understanding of prognostic factors for amputation following surgical repair of LEVT. A systematic review was conducted to identify potential prognostic factors. Bayesian meta-analysis was used to calculate an absolute (pooled proportion) and relative (pooled odds ratio, OR) measure of the amputation risk for each factor. Forty-five studies, totalling 3187 discrete LEVT repairs, were included. The overall amputation rate was 10·0 (95 per cent credible interval 7·4 to 13·1) per cent. Significant prognostic factors for secondary amputation included: associated major soft tissue injury (26 versus 8 per cent for no soft tissue injury; OR 5·80), compartment syndrome (28 versus 6 per cent; OR 5·11), multiple arterial injuries (18 versus 9 per cent; OR 4·85), duration of ischaemia exceeding 6 h (24 versus 5 per cent; OR 4·40), associated fracture (14 versus 2 per cent; OR 4·30), mechanism of injury (blast 19 per cent, blunt 16 per cent, penetrating 5 per cent), anatomical site of injury (iliac 18 per cent, popliteal 14 per cent, tibial 10 per cent, femoral 4 per cent), age over 55 years (16 versus 9 per cent; OR 3·03) and sex (men 7 per cent versus women 8 per cent; OR 0·64). Shock and nerve or venous injuries were not significant prognostic factors for secondary amputation. A significant proportion of patients who undergo lower extremity vascular trauma repair will require secondary amputation. This meta-analysis describes significant prognostic factors needed to inform surgical judgement, risk assessment and patient counselling. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Clinical symptoms and risk factors in cerebral microangiopathy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Okroglic

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated retrospectively in a cohort of CM patients. METHODS: Patients treated at the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn for CM (n = 223; 98m, 125f; aged 77.32±9.09 from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical symptoms, blood chemistry, potential risk factors, demographic data and ratings of vascular pathology in the brain based on the Wahlund scale were analyzed using Pearson's chi square test and one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Progressive cognitive decline (38.1%, gait apraxia (27.8%, stroke-related symptoms and seizures (24.2%, TIA-symptoms (22% and vertigo (17% were frequent symptoms within the study population. Frontal lobe WMLs/lacunar infarcts led to more frequent presentation of progressive cognitive decline, seizures, gait apraxia, stroke-related symptoms, TIA, vertigo and incontinence. Parietooccipital WMLs/lacunar infarcts were related to higher frequencies of TIA, seizures and incontinence. Basal ganglia WMLs/lacunar infarcts were seen in patients with more complaints of gait apraxia, vertigo and incontinence. Age (p = .012, arterial hypertension (p<.000, obesity (p<.000 and cerebral macroangiopathy (p = .018 were positively related to cerebral lesion load. For increased glucose level, homocysteine, CRP and D-Dimers there was no association. CONCLUSION: This underlines the association of CM with neurological symptoms upon admission in a topographical manner. Seizures and vertigo are symptoms of CM which may have been missed in previous studies. In addition to confirming known risk factors such as aging and arterial hypertension, obesity appears to increase the risk as well. Since the incidence of CM is increasing, future

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: investigational therapies for the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidemann AK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anja K Weidemann,1 Ania A Crawshaw,2 Emily Byrne,3 Helen S Young1 1The Dermatology Centre, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 2Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK; 3University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester, UK Abstract: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory autoimmune condition in which environmental factors and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of disease in susceptible individuals. Angiogenesis is known to be a key pathogenic feature of psoriasis. Local and systemic elevation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A has been demonstrated in the skin and plasma of patients with psoriasis and is known to correlate with improvement following some traditional psoriasis treatments. A number of VEGF inhibitors are licensed for the treatment of malignancies and eye disease and isolated case reports suggest that some individuals with psoriasis may improve when exposed to these agents. The small number of cases and lack of unified reporting measures makes it difficult to draw generalizations and underline the heterogeneity of psoriasis as a disease entity. Though not yet licensed for the treatment of psoriasis in humans, experimental data supports the potential of VEGF inhibitors to influence relevant aspects of human cell biology (such as endothelial cell differentiation and to improve animal models of skin disease. Given the multi-factorial nature of psoriasis it is unlikely that VEGF inhibitors will be effective in all patients, however they have the potential to be a valuable addition to the therapeutic arsenal in selected cases. Current VEGF inhibitors in clinical use are associated with a number of potentially serious side effects including hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and gastrointestinal perforation. Such risks require careful consideration in psoriasis populations particularly in light of growing concerns linking psoriasis to increased

  11. Levels of serum vascular endothelial growth factor in type 2 diabetics with retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, N.; Rahman, S.; Khan, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ischemic retina in diabetic patients releases a number of chemical substances including vascular endothelial growth factor which leads to retinal vascular proliferation and blindness following rupture and bleeding of vessels. Strategies to control this action can considerably halt this process. Objectives: To determine the relationship of various stages of diabetic retinopathy with the levels vascular endothelial growth factor in the serum of type 2 diabetic patients. Study type, settings and duration: This cross sectional analytical study was done over one year (2010-2011) in three major public sector hospitals of Peshawar. Patients and Methods: Adult patients of either gender having type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative or non proliferative retinopathy and those without retinopathy were selected for the study. Retinopathy was diagnosed on fundoscopy. Non-diabetic patients without retinopathy were selected as controls. Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were done in patients and controls using ELISA. Results: Serum vascular endothelial growth factor levels were significantly higher in all cases having retinopathy as compared to controls. These levels progressively increased with the grades of retinopathy. Levels were higher in females. Conclusions: Levels of vascular endothelial growth factor are raised in diabetic retinopathy and rising levels can alert the clinician in worsening of retinopathy so that preventive and therapeutic measures can be taken promptly. Policy message: Further larger scale studies are recommended on national level to pave way for the establishment of appropriate management paradigms for diabetic retinopathy through anti-VEGF treatment. (author)

  12. Risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren: the Sydney adolescent vascular and eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amanda N; Morgan, Ian G; Mitchell, Paul; Rose, Kathryn A

    2013-10-01

    To examine the risk factors for incident myopia in Australian schoolchildren. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study. The Sydney Adolescent Vascular and Eye Study (SAVES) was a 5- to 6-year follow-up of the Sydney Myopia Study (SMS). At follow-up, 2103 children were reexamined: 892 (50.5%) from the younger cohort and 1211 (51.5%) from the older cohort. Of these, 863 in the younger cohort and 1196 in the older cohort had complete refraction data. Cycloplegic autorefraction (cyclopentolate 1%; Canon RK-F1; Canon, Tokyo, Japan) was measured at baseline and follow-up. Myopia was defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of ≤-0.50 diopters (D). Children were classified as having incident myopia if they were nonmyopic at baseline and myopic in either eye at follow-up. A comprehensive questionnaire determined the amount of time children spent outdoors and doing near work per week at baseline, as well as ethnicity, parental myopia, and socioeconomic status. Incident myopia. Children who became myopic spent less time outdoors compared with children who remained nonmyopic (younger cohort, 16.3 vs. 21.0 hours, respectively, Phours, respectively, P=0.001). Children who became myopic performed significantly more near work (19.4 vs. 17.6 hours; P=0.02) in the younger cohort, but not in the older cohort (P=0.06). Children with 1 or 2 parents who were myopic had greater odds of incident myopia (1 parent: odds ratio [OR], 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9-5.2; both parents: OR, 3.3, 95% CI, 1.6-6.8) in the younger but not the older cohort. Children of East Asian ethnicity had a higher incidence of myopia compared with children of European Caucasian ethnicity (both Pwork, parental myopia, and ethnicity to the model significantly improved the predictive power (Pwork and parental myopia were additional significant risk factors for myopia only in the younger cohort. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article

  13. Long-term risk of recurrent vascular events after young stroke: The FUTURE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Vlugt, M.J. van der; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Long-term data on recurrent vascular events after young stroke are limited. Our objective was to examine the long-term risk of recurrent vascular events after young stroke. METHODS: We prospectively included 724 consecutive patients with a first-ever transient ischemic attack (TIA),

  14. One-year progression of moderate asymptomatic carotid stenosis predicts the risk of vascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Simona; Lupidi, Francesca; Balucani, Clotilde; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether ultrasound monitoring of moderate asymptomatic carotid stenosis may help in identifying subjects at high risk for vascular events. We included 523 subjects with unilateral asymptomatic carotid stenosis of 50% to 69%. Follow-up carotid ultrasound was performed within 12 months from inclusion to detect the frequency and degree of stenosis progression. Subjects were prospectively evaluated for a median period of 42 months (interquartile range, 38-45) after a second ultrasound evaluation. Outcome measures were any stroke and transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and death. Carotid stenosis progression was associated with the occurrence of vascular events (hazard ratio, 21.57; 95% confidence interval, 11.81-39.39; P<0.001). During follow-up, 96.7% of subjects without progressive carotid stenosis remained free from vascular events. Among patients with progressive stenosis, 53.7% experienced a vascular event and 27.1% experienced an ipsilateral stroke. One-year moderate asymptomatic carotid stenosis progression is related to higher risk of vascular events, including ipsilateral stroke.

  15. Deconstructing racial differences: the effects of quality of education and cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Tommet, Doug; Crane, Paul K; Thomas, Michael L; Claxton, Amy; Habeck, Christian; Manly, Jennifer J; Romero, Heather R

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of vascular conditions and education quality on cognition over time in White and African American (AA) older adults. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal racial differences in executive functioning (EF) and memory composites among Whites (n = 461) and AAs (n = 118) enrolled in a cohort study. We examined whether cerebrovascular risk factors and Shipley Vocabulary scores (a proxy for education quality) accounted for racial differences. On average, AAs had lower quality of education and more cerebrovascular risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. AAs had lower mean EF and memory at baseline, but there were no group differences in rates of decline. Cross-sectional racial differences in EF and memory persisted after controlling for vascular disease, but disappeared when controlling for Shipley Vocabulary. Quality of education appears to be more important than cerebrovascular risk factors in explaining cross-sectional differences in memory and EF performance between White and AA older adults. Further investigation is needed regarding the relative contribution of education quality and cerebrovascular risk factors to cognitive decline among ethnically/racially diverse older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Increased Risk of Vascular Events in Emergency Room Patients Discharged Home with Diagnosis of Dizziness or Vertigo: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Chih; Ho, Hsu-Chueh; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C-H; Su, Yung-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Da; Chou, Pesus

    2012-01-01

    Background Dizziness and vertigo symptoms are commonly seen in emergency room (ER). However, these patients are often discharged without a definite diagnosis. Conflicting data regarding the vascular event risk among the dizziness or vertigo patients have been reported. This study aims to determine the risk of developing stroke or cardiovascular events in ER patients discharged home with a diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo. Methodology A total of 25,757 subjects with at least one ER visit in 2004 were identified. Of those, 1,118 patients were discharged home with a diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness. A Cox proportional hazard model was performed to compare the three-year vascular event-free survival rates between the dizziness/vertigo patients and those without dizziness/vertigo after adjusting for confounding and risk factors. Results We identified 52 (4.7%) vascular events in patients with dizziness/vertigo and 454 (1.8%) vascular events in patients without dizziness/vertigo. ER patients discharged home with a diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness had 2-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35–2.96; pvertigo during the first year. Conclusions ER patients discharged home with a diagnosis of dizziness or vertigo were at a increased risk of developing subsequent vascular events than those without dizziness/vertigo after the onset of dizziness or vertigo. Further studies are warranted for developing better diagnostic and follow-up strategies in increased risk patients. PMID:22558272

  17. Using impedance cardiography to detect asymptomatic cardiovascular disease in prehypertensive adults with risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarzo, Arthur P

    2013-06-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in prehypertension could initiate appropriate treatment and prevent progression. Impedance cardiography (ICG) is a noninvasive technology that can be used to assess cardiovascular function. This study used ICG waveform analysis with postural change to detect CVD in asymptomatic prehypertensive adults over 40 years of age with no history of CVD and at least 2 cardiovascular risk factors: cigarette smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, central obesity, family history of premature CVD, elevated blood glucose, and dyslipidemia. A study group of 25 apparently healthy adults was tested by ICG in standing and supine positions. Criteria for an age-matched control group of 16 healthy subjects included an active lifestyle, no risk factor, and no history of CVD. In addition to hemodynamic measurements of systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and cardiac index (CI), ICG used SVR to assess vascular resistive load, an index of arterial compliance and a widening of the systolic waveform to assess vascular pulsatile load, and waveform analysis and measured wave amplitude to detect ventricular dysfunction. All subjects in the study group had some abnormal ICG data, with an average of 2.9 ± 1.5 abnormalities per person. ICG indicated that 24 (96%) had elevated vascular load, 13 (52%) had some type of ventricular dysfunction, and 12 (48%) had abnormal hemodynamics. For the control group, ICG showed none (0%) with elevated vascular load, none (0%) with ventricular dysfunction, and 7 (44%) with high CI. Prehypertensives over 40 years of age with multiple risk factors have different cardiovascular abnormalities. This ICG test could be used as part of a prevention program for early detection of CVD. An abnormal ICG test could expedite the initiation of customized treatment that targets the subclinical CVD.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor expression positively correlates with angiogenesis and peritumoural brain oedema in astrocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, F.F.; Wei, W.

    2008-01-01

    Astrocytoma is the most malignant intracranial neoplasm and is characterized by high neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. Angiogenesis is a complicated process in oncogenesis regulated by the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. The expression of two angiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor were investigated using immunohistochemistry for astrocytoma from 82 patients and 11 normal human tissues. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor positively correlate with the pathological grade of astrocytoma, microvessel density numbers and brain oedema, which may be responsible for the increased tumour neovascularization and peritumoural brain oedema. The results support the idea that inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor are useful for the treatment of human astrocytoma and to improve patient's clinical outcomes and prognosis. (author)

  19. Atherosclerosis and clonal hematopoyesis: A new risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo Fernández, José A

    Recent research has revealed that clonal hematopoyesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) characterized by the acquisition of somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem cells, is not only a common age-related disorder and a premalignant condition, but it is also associated with the development of atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Mutations in DNMT3A, TET2 and ASXL1 were each individually associated with coronary heart disease, stroke and coronary calcification. Therefore, CHIP emerges as a new risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular pathologies and its detection may be relevant as a new therapeutic target in order to modify the natural course of the disease. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI in a large cohort of volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kresimir Dolic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of intra- and extra-cranial venous system impairment in the pathogenesis of various vascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative neurological disorders, as well as in aging, has not been studied in detail. Nor have risk factors been determined for increased susceptibility of venous pathology in the intra-cranial and extra-cranial veins. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between presence of a newly proposed vascular condition called chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI and environmental factors in a large volunteer control group without known central nervous system pathology. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data were collected in a prospective study from 252 subjects who were screened for medical history as part of the entry criteria and participated in the case-control study of CCSVI prevalence in multiple sclerosis (MS patients, and then were analyzed post-hoc. All participants underwent physical and Doppler sonography examinations, and were assessed with a structured environmental questionnaire. Fullfilment of ≥ 2 positive venous hemodynamic (VH criteria on Doppler sonography was considered indicative of CCSVI diagnosis. Risk and protective factors associated with CCSVI were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Seventy (27.8% subjects presented with CCSVI diagnosis and 153 (60.7% presented with one or more VH criteria. The presence of heart disease (p = .001, especially heart murmurs (p = .007, a history of infectious mononucleosis (p = .002, and irritable bowel syndrome (p = .005 were associated with more frequent CCSVI diagnosis. Current or previous smoking (p = .029 showed a trend for association with more frequent CCSVI diagnosis, while use of dietary supplements (p = .018 showed a trend for association with less frequent CCSVI diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for CCSVI differ from established risk factors for peripheral venous diseases. Vascular

  1. Leisure-time physical activity and risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with established vascular disease or poorly controlled vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, B.G.; Graaf, van der Y.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Wassink, A.M.J.; Visseren, F.L.J.

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of leisure-time physical activity on the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in patients with manifest arterial disease, or poorly controlled risk factors. METHODS: We examined 3940 patients with manifest arterial disease, hypertension or hyperlipidemia, aged

  2. Update in cardiology: vascular risk and cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, Enrique; Cordero, Alberto; Bertomeu-Martínez, Vicente; Fácila, Lorenzo; Mazón, Pilar; Alegría, Eduardo; Fernández de Bobadilla, Jaime; García-Porrero, Esteban; Martínez-Sellés, Manuel; González-Juanatey, José Ramón

    2015-02-01

    As in other fields, understanding of vascular risk and rehabilitation is constantly improving. The present review of recent epidemiological update shows how far we are from achieving good risk factor control: in diet and nutrition, where unhealthy and excessive societal consumption is clearly increasing the prevalence of obesity; in exercise, where it is difficult to find a balance between benefit and risk, despite systemization efforts; in smoking, where developments center on programs and policies, with the electronic cigarette seeming more like a problem than a solution; in lipids, where the transatlantic debate between guidelines is becoming a paradigm of the divergence of views in this extensively studied area; in hypertension, where a nonpharmacological alternative (renal denervation) has been undermined by the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 setback, forcing a deep reassessment; in diabetes mellitus, where the new dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors and glucagon like peptide 1 analogues have contributed much new information and a glimpse of the future of diabetes treatment, and in cardiac rehabilitation, which continues to benefit from new information and communication technologies and where clinical benefit is not hindered by advanced diseases, such as heart failure. Our summary concludes with the update in elderly patients, whose treatment criteria are extrapolated from those of younger patients, with the present review clearly indicating that should not be the case. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Pathological Sub-Types, Risk Factors And Outcome Of Stroke At The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stroke is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality the world over. Established risk factors such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, hyper-lipidaemia, micro-vascular rupture, male gender, age and observed co-morbities such as sickle cell disease, HIV/AIDS infection ...

  4. Identification of risk factors for vascular thrombosis may reduce early renal graft loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jorgensen, Troels Munch; Jespersen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    of avoiding thrombotic events and saving thrombosed grafts. The incidence of arterial thrombosis was reported to 0.2-7.5% and venous thrombosis 0.1-8.2%, with the highest incidence among children and infants, and the lowest in living donor reports. The most significant risk factors for developing thrombosis...... were donor-age below 6 or above 60 years, or recipient-age below 5-6 years, per- or postoperative hemodynamic instability, peritoneal dialysis, diabetic nephropathy, a history of thrombosis, deceased donor, or >24 hours cold ischemia. Multiple arteries were not a risk factor, and a right kidney graft...

  5. Evaluation of age and peripheral vascular disease as risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Among the 120 diabetic participants, peripheral vascular disease (PVD) was detected only in those aged 50 years and above and all the three diagnostic methods detected PVD increasingly with advancing age. Clinical criteria detected PVD in 4.7% of those aged 50-59 years and 26.3% of those aged .70years.

  6. Is it possible to estimate cerebro–vascular risk on the basis of the composition of carotid atherosclerotic plaques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Poredoš

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Different models for the prediction of cardiovascular and cerebro-vascular events are used, based on the presence of risk factors. This is a statistical risk-assessment model. Recently, research has been focused on identifying indicators that would enable us to directly assess the risk in certain individuals. These indicators include the detection of the presence and composition of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerotic plaques found in a majority of adults represent a potential cause of vascular complications. Recently, not only thestage of atherosclerotic plaques or the degree of arterial stenosis but also the knowledge of atherosclerotic plaque composition is gaining in importance. Particularly unstable plaques, which are prone to disintegration and the associatedthromboembolic complications, are considered dangerous. Therefore, recently intensive research has been underway to find methods that would enable us to identify the composition and in particular the biological activity of atherosclerotic plaques. Namely, the latter two features determine the stability of plaques or their proneness to rupture and disintegration. While classical angiography is invasive and associated with irradiation, it only provides information on the degree of vascular lumen stenosis but not also on vascular wall composition. Ultrasonography is a basic non-invasive imaging method, which also provides an insight into the composition of vascular wall, however, since mainly superficially situated arteries are accessible by US, its investigation potential in distinguishing between different tissue structures is rather limited. Recent computer programs for analysis of ultrasound images and quantifying various components of atherosclerotic plaques provide a more accurate determination of the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, but do not yield information on the biological activity of atherosclerotic lesions.A newer generation of imaging methods facilitates more

  7. Risk modelling study for carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhan, G; Gardiner, E D; Abidia, A F; Chetter, I C; Renwick, P M; Johnson, B F; Wilkinson, A R; McCollum, P T

    2001-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify factors that influence the risk of stroke or death following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and to develop a model to aid in comparative audit of vascular surgeons and units. A series of 839 CEAs performed by four vascular surgeons between 1992 and 1999 was analysed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to model the effect of 15 possible risk factors on the 30-day risk of stroke or death. Outcome was compared for four surgeons and two units after adjustment for the significant risk factors. The overall 30-day stroke or death rate was 3.9 per cent (29 of 741). Heart disease, diabetes and stroke were significant risk factors. The 30-day predicted stroke or death rates increased with increasing risk scores. The observed 30-day stroke or death rate was 3.9 per cent for both vascular units and varied from 3.0 to 4.2 per cent for the four vascular surgeons. Differences in the outcomes between the surgeons and vascular units did not reach statistical significance after risk adjustment. Diabetes, heart disease and stroke are significant risk factors for stroke or death following CEA. The risk score model identified patients at higher risk and aided in comparative audit.

  8. Sex-associated differences in the modulation of vascular risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Laura; Balestrini, Simona; Avitabile, Emma; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Viticchi, Giovanna; Falsetti, Lorenzo; Provinciali, Leandro; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2015-03-31

    In this study, we aimed to identify determinants of the different sex-related stroke risk in subjects with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. In all, 492 women (44.4%) and 617 men (55.6%), with unilateral ⩾ 60% asymptomatic ICA stenosis, were prospectively evaluated with a median follow-up of 37 months (interquartile range, 26 to 43). Vascular risk profile, plaque characteristics, stenosis progression, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness were investigated. Outcome measure was the occurrence of ischemic stroke ipsilateral to ICA stenosis. Myocardial infarction, contralateral stroke and transient ischemic attack were considered as competing events. The incidence rate of ipsilateral stroke over the entire follow-up period was 0.16%: 0.09% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.15) in women and 0.22% (95% CI 0.17 to 0.29) in men (log-rank test, P<0.001). Stenosis progression significantly influenced the risk of ipsilateral stroke in both men (subhazard ratio, SHR, 8.99) and women (SHR 4.89). Stenosis degree (71% to 90%, SHR 2.35; 91% to 99%, SHR 3.38) and irregular plaque surface (SHR 2.32) were relevant risk factors for ipsilateral stroke only in men. Our findings suggest that characteristics of the stenosis and plaque exert a different effect in modulating vascular risk in the two sexes. Understanding sex differences in cardiovascular disease could help to target sex-specific future therapies.

  9. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  10. Macrophages control vascular stem/progenitor cell plasticity through tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated nuclear factor-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mei Mei; Chen, Yikuan; Margariti, Andriani; Winkler, Bernhard; Campagnolo, Paola; Potter, Claire; Hu, Yanhua; Xu, Qingbo

    2014-03-01

    Vascular lineage differentiation of stem/progenitor cells can contribute to both tissue repair and exacerbation of vascular diseases such as in vein grafts. The role of macrophages in controlling vascular progenitor differentiation is largely unknown and may play an important role in graft development. This study aims to identify the role of macrophages in vascular stem/progenitor cell differentiation and thereafter elucidate the mechanisms that are involved in the macrophage- mediated process. We provide in vitro evidence that macrophages can induce endothelial cell (EC) differentiation of the stem/progenitor cells while simultaneously inhibiting their smooth muscle cell differentiation. Mechanistically, both effects were mediated by macrophage-derived tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) via TNF-α receptor 1 and canonical nuclear factor-κB activation. Although the overexpression of p65 enhanced EC (or attenuated smooth muscle cell) differentiation, p65 or TNF-α receptor 1 knockdown using lentiviral short hairpin RNA inhibited EC (or rescued smooth muscle cell) differentiation in response to TNF-α. Furthermore, TNF-α-mediated EC differentiation was driven by direct binding of nuclear factor-κB (p65) to specific VE-cadherin promoter sequences. Subsequent experiments using an ex vivo decellularized vessel scaffold confirmed an increase in the number of ECs and reduction in smooth muscle cell marker expression in the presence of TNF-α. The lack of TNF-α in a knockout mouse model of vein graft decreased endothelialization and significantly increased thrombosis formation. Our study highlights the role of macrophages in directing vascular stem/progenitor cell lineage commitment through TNF-α-mediated TNF-α receptor 1 and nuclear factor-κB activation that is likely required for endothelial repair in vascular diseases such as vein graft.

  11. Open and endovascular aneurysm repair in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Emily L; Beck, Adam W

    2017-12-01

    The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative is a patient safety organization and a collection of procedure-based registries that can be utilized for quality improvement initiatives and clinical outcomes research. The Vascular Quality Initiative consists of voluntary participation by centers to collect data prospectively on all consecutive cases within specific registries which physicians and centers elect to participate. The data capture extends from preoperative demographics and risk factors (including indications for operation), through the perioperative period, to outcomes data at up to 1-year of follow-up. Additionally, longer-term follow-up can be achieved by matching with Medicare claims data, providing long-term longitudinal follow-up for a majority of patients within the Vascular Quality Initiative registries. We present the unique characteristics of the Vascular Quality Initiative registries and highlight important insights gained specific to open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased expression of serum and microvascular vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 in meningococcal sepsis*.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, M. van der; Baerveldt, E.M.; Miedema, A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Hazelzet, J.A.; Emonts, M.; Groot, R. de; Prens, E.P.; Vught, A.J. van; Jansen, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the skin microvessel expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and serum-soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 levels in children with meningococcal sepsis. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Two tertiary academic children hospital PICUs.

  13. Neuroprotective effect of selective DPP-4 inhibitor in experimental vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Swati; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2015-12-01

    Vascular risk factors are associated with a higher incidence of dementia. Diabetes mellitus is considered as a main risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Both forms of dementia are posing greater risk to the world population and are increasing at a faster rate. In the past we have reported the induction of vascular dementia by experimental diabetes. This study investigates the role of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor in the pharmacological interdiction of pancreatectomy diabetes induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia in rats. Attentional set shifting and Morris water-maze test were used for assessment of learning and memory. Vascular endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, serum glucose, serum nitrite/nitrate, oxidative stress (viz. aortic superoxide anion, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), brain calcium and inflammation (myeloperoxidase) were also estimated. Pancreatectomy diabetes rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability, learning and memory along with increase in brain inflammation, oxidative stress and calcium. Administration of vildagliptin has significantly attenuated pancreatectomy induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, blood brain barrier permeability and biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor may be considered as potential pharmacological agents for the management of pancreatectomy induced endothelial dysfunction and subsequent vascular dementia. The selective modulators of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 may further be explored for their possible benefits in vascular dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Incidence of cardiovascular events and associated risk factors in kidney transplant patients: a competing risks survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Pillado, María Teresa; Pita-Fernández, Salvador; Valdés-Cañedo, Francisco; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Fernández-Rivera, Constantino; Alonso-Hernández, Ángel; González-Martín, Cristina; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-03-07

    The high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among the renal transplant population accounts for increased mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of cardiovascular events and factors associated with cardiovascular events in these patients. An observational ambispective follow-up study of renal transplant recipients (n = 2029) in the health district of A Coruña (Spain) during the period 1981-2011 was completed. Competing risk survival analysis methods were applied to estimate the cumulative incidence of developing cardiovascular events over time and to identify which characteristics were associated with the risk of these events. Post-transplant cardiovascular events are defined as the presence of myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances, peripheral vascular disease and cardiovascular disease and death. The cause of death was identified through the medical history and death certificate using ICD9 (390-459, except: 427.5, 435, 446, 459.0). The mean age of patients at the time of transplantation was 47.0 ± 14.2 years; 62% were male. 16.5% had suffered some cardiovascular disease prior to transplantation and 9.7% had suffered a cardiovascular event. The mean follow-up period for the patients with cardiovascular event was 3.5 ± 4.3 years. Applying competing risk methodology, it was observed that the accumulated incidence of the event was 5.0% one year after transplantation, 8.1% after five years, and 11.9% after ten years. After applying multivariate models, the variables with an independent effect for predicting cardiovascular events are: male sex, age of recipient, previous cardiovascular disorders, pre-transplant smoking and post-transplant diabetes. This study makes it possible to determine in kidney transplant patients, taking into account competitive events, the incidence of post-transplant cardiovascular events and

  15. Bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count might be a significant predictor for the treatment outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sun; Gang, Ga Won; Lee, Se Ryun; Sung, Hwa Jung; Park, Young; Kim, Dae Sik; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Byung Soo

    2015-10-01

    Developing a parameter to predict bone marrow invasion by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an important unmet medical need for treatment decisions. This study aimed to confirm the validity of the hypothesis that bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level might be correlated with the risk of bone marrow involvement and the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Forty-nine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were enrolled. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The validity of bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count for predicting treatment response and survival after initial rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined chemotherapy was assessed. Bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count was significantly associated with old age (≥ 65 years), poor performance score (≥ 2), high International prognosis index (≥ 3) and bone marrow invasion. The patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) showed a significantly lower complete response rate than the others. On Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels (≥ 655 pg/ml) or high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) demonstrated a significantly shorter overall survival and progression-free survival than the others. In the patients without bone marrow involvement, bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count had a significant relationship with overall survival and progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that the patients without

  16. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sands, Michelle

    2011-01-25

    Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2) or hypoxia (10% O2) for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF), VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or potentiate the

  17. Perioperative risk factors for hospital readmission after elective endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Samuel L; Kuo, Isabella J; Kabutey, Nii-Kabu; Gabra, Fady; Fujitani, Roy M

    2018-04-02

    Elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is generally well tolerated. However, the incidence of hospital readmission after EVAR and the risk factors and reasons for it are not well studied. This study sought to determine the incidence, to characterize the indications, and to identify perioperative patient-centered risk factors for hospital readmission within 30 days after elective EVAR. All patients who underwent EVAR electively in 2012 to 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Targeted Vascular database (n = 3886). Preoperative demographics, operation-specific variables, and postoperative outcomes were compared between those who were readmitted within 30 days of the index operation and those who were not. Multivariate logistic regression was then used to determine independent predictors of hospital readmission. The unadjusted 30-day readmission rate after EVAR was 8.2%. Of all readmissions, 55% were for reasons related to the procedure. Median time to readmission was 12 days. Significant preoperative risk factors associated with readmission were female sex, preoperative steroid use, congestive heart failure, and dialysis dependence (P readmission, including myocardial infarction and deep venous thrombosis (P readmission were surgical site infection (odds ratio, 10.24; 95% confidence interval, 5.31-19.75; P readmissions remain a costly problem after vascular surgery and are associated with 30-day mortality after elective EVAR. Whereas female sex and certain irreversible medical comorbidities are nonmodifiable, focusing on medical optimization and identifying those perioperative variables that can affect the need for post-EVAR interventions will be an important step in decreasing hospital readmission. Copyright © 2018 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-634G/C) polymorphism and retinopathy of prematurity: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Manzoor Ahmad; Shukla, Swati; Azad, Shorya Vardhan; Kaur, Jasbir

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphism (VEGF-634G/C, rs 2010963) has been considered a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, the results remain controversial. Therefore, the aim of the present meta-analysis was to determine the association between VEGF-634G/C polymorphism and ROP risk. Methods Published literature from PubMed and other databases were retrieved. All studies evaluating the association between VEGF-634G/C polymorphism and ROP risk were included. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using random or fixed effects model. A total of six case-control studies including 355 cases and 471 controls were included. Results By pooling all the studies, we found that VEGF-634G/C polymorphism was not associated with ROP risk at co-dominant and allele levels and no association was also found in dominant and recessive models. While stratifying on ethnicity level no association was observed in Caucasian and Asian population. Discussion This meta-analysis suggests that VEGF-634G/C polymorphism may not be associated with ROP risk, the association between single VEGF-634G/C polymorphism and ROP risk awaits further investigation. PMID:25473347

  19. The epigenetic factor PCAF regulates vascular inflammation and is essential for intimal hyperplasia development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob C M de Jong

    Full Text Available Genetic P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF variation affects restenosis-risk in patients. PCAF has lysine acetyltransferase activity and promotes nuclear factor kappa-beta (NFκB-mediated inflammation, which drives post-interventional intimal hyperplasia development. We studied the contributing role of PCAF in post-interventional intimal hyperplasia.PCAF contribution to inflammation and intimal hyperplasia was assessed in leukocytes, macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs in vitro and in a mouse model for intimal hyperplasia, in which a cuff is placed around the femoral artery. PCAF deficiency downregulate CCL2, IL-6 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs, leukocytes and macrophages. PCAF KO mice showed a 71.8% reduction of vSMC-rich intimal hyperplasia, a 73.4% reduction of intima/media ratio and a 63.7% reduction of luminal stenosis after femoral artery cuff placement compared to wild type (WT mice. The association of PCAF and vascular inflammation was further investigated using the potent natural PCAF inhibitor garcinol. Garcinol treatment reduced CCL2 and TNF-alpha expression, as demonstrated on cultured vSMCs and leukocytes. To assess the effect of garcinol treatment on vascular inflammation we used hypercholesterolemic ApoE*3-Leiden mice. After cuff placement, garcinol treatment resulted in reduced arterial leukocyte and macrophage adherence and infiltration after three days compared to untreated animals.These results identify a vital role for the lysine acetyltransferase PCAF in the regulation of local inflammation after arterial injury and likely the subsequent vSMC proliferation, responsible for intimal hyperplasia.

  20. Rare vascular plant species at risk : recovery by seeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pegtel, Dick M.

    . Rare vascular plant species are endangered worldwide. Population losses are most commonly caused by human-related factors. Conservation management seeks to halt this adverse trend and if possible, to enhance long-lasting self-sustainable populations. In general, rare species are poorly recruited

  1. Inter-arm systolic blood pressure differences, relations with future vascular events and mortality in patients with and without manifest vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Guido; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A; Kappelle, L Jaap; de Borst, Gert Jan; Cramer, Maarten J; Visseren, Frank L J; Aboyans, Victor; Westerink, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (SBPD) is an easily obtained patient characteristic which relates to vascular disease. We aimed to identify determinants of large inter-arm SBPD and to investigate the relation between inter-arm SBPD and vascular events in patients with and without manifest vascular disease. In a cohort of 7344 patients with manifest vascular disease or vascular risk factors alone enrolled in the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease (SMART) study, single bilateral non-simultaneous blood pressure measurements were performed. Logistic and Cox regression was used to identify determinants of large inter-arm SBPD (≥15mmHg) and to investigate the relation between inter-arm SBPD and vascular events (composite of non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular mortality) and all-cause mortality. In all patients the median inter-arm SBPD was 7mmHg (IQR 3-11) and 1182 (16%) patients had inter-arm SBPD ≥15mmHg. Higher age, higher systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, higher carotid intima-media thickness, and lower ankle-brachial indices were related to large inter-arm SBPD (≥15mmHg). Each 5mmHg increase in inter-arm SBPD was related to a 12% higher risk of vascular events in patients without manifest vascular disease (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.00-1.27), whereas no relation was apparent in patients with manifest vascular disease (HR 0.98; 95% CI 0.93-1.04, interaction p-value 0.036). Inter-arm SBPD was not related to all-cause mortality (HR 1.05; 95% CI 0.93-1.19). Inter-arm SBPD relates to a higher risk of vascular events in patients without manifest vascular disease, whereas this relation is not apparent in patients with manifest vascular disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Low Prevalence and Clinical Effect of Vascular Risk Factors in Early-Onset Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaohua; Sillaire, Adeline Rollin; Dallongeville, Jean; Skrobala, Emilie; Wallon, David; Dubois, Bruno; Hannequin, Didier; Pasquier, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Determinants of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) are not well known. In late-onset AD, vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with earlier clinical manifestation. The objective of this study was to assess the putative association between VRFs and EOAD. We studied participants with dementia meeting criteria for EOAD (recruited into the French CoMAJ prospective cohort study from 1 June 2009 to 28 February 2014) and age-, gender-matched controls (ratio 1:3, drawn randomly from the French MONA-LISA population-based survey between 2005 and 2007). Demographic data, VRFs, comorbidities, treatments, and APOE genotypes were compared in multivariable logistic regression analyses. We studied 102 participants with dementia (mean±standard deviation age: 59.5±3.8; women: 59.8%) and 306 controls. Compared with controls, EOAD participants had spent less time in formal education (9.9±2.9 versus 11.7±3.8 y; p < 0.0001), were less likely to be regular alcohol consumers (p < 0.0001), had a lower body mass index (-2 kg/m2; p < 0.0004), and a lower mean systolic blood pressure (-6.2 mmHg; p = 0.0036). The prevalence of APOE ɛ4 allele was higher in participants with dementia than in controls (50% versus 29.4%; p = 0.0002), as was the prevalence of depression (48% versus 32%; p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in multivariable analysis. Compared with EOAD participants lacking VRFs, EOAD participants with at least one VRF had a higher prevalence of depression (29.6% versus 53.3%, respectively; p = 0.03). The prevalence of VRFs is not elevated in EOAD patients (in contrast to older AD patients). Extensive genetic testing should be considered more frequently in the context of EOAD.

  3. The Prognostic Value of Haplotypes in the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Frøstrup; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: New prognostic markers in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are a prerequisite for individualized treatment. Prognostic importance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene has been proposed. The objective of the present study...... using the PHASE program. The prognostic influence was evaluated using Kaplan-Meir plots and log rank tests. Cox regression method was used to analyze the independent prognostic importance of different markers. All three SNPs were significantly related to survival. A haplotype combination, responsible...... findings in a second and independent cohort. Haplotype combinations call for further investigation. Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; single nucleotide polymorphisms; haplotypes; vascular endothelial growth factor A; survival...

  4. Vascular endothelial cell function and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...

  5. VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN): Innovative Vascular Mappings for Astronaut Exploration Health Risks and Human Terrestrial Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Kao, David; Valizadegan, Hamed; Martin, Rodney; Murray, Matthew C.; Ramesh, Sneha; Sekaran, Srinivaas

    2017-01-01

    Currently, astronauts face significant health risks in future long-duration exploration missions such as colonizing the Moon and traveling to Mars. Numerous risks include greatly increased radiation exposures beyond the low earth orbit (LEO) of the ISS, and visual and ocular impairments in response to microgravity environments. The cardiovascular system is a key mediator in human physiological responses to radiation and microgravity. Moreover, blood vessels are necessarily involved in the progression and treatment of vascular-dependent terrestrial diseases such as cancer, coronary vessel disease, wound-healing, reproductive disorders, and diabetes. NASA developed an innovative, globally requested beta-level software, VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) to map and quantify vascular remodeling for application to astronaut and terrestrial health challenges. VESGEN mappings of branching vascular trees and networks are based on a weighted multi-parametric analysis derived from vascular physiological branching rules. Complex vascular branching patterns are determined by biological signaling mechanisms together with the fluid mechanics of multi-phase laminar blood flow.

  6. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  7. Who Gets Diabetic Macular Oedema; When; and Why? Pathogenesis and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgut Ozturk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic macular oedema (DMO presents an enormous rise in the last decades with an increasing number of diabetic patients. It has a negative impact on the health-related quality of life beside the related visual loss. Additionally, it incurs more health centre visits, higher health costs, and lower working performance. Therefore, early diagnosis and preventive measures gain more and more importance in the management of DMO. Risk factors for DMO can be divided into systemic and ocular risk factors. The leading systemic risk factors include age, type and duration of diabetes, insulin use, and glucose regulation. Hypertension, nephropathy, hyperlipidaemia, anaemia, cardiovascular disease, smoking, and amputation are other risk factors reported. In addition, susceptibility in cases with endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphism and vascular endothelial growth factor C634-G polymorphism has been reported. The severity of diabetic retinopathy, microaneurysm turnover, cataract surgery, incomplete vitreous detachment, and peripheral retinal ischaemia are among ocular risk factors. Though avoiding changes in the metabolic memory related to hyperglycaemia in the early period seems to be the most efficient treatment, nowadays close follow-up of patients with high risk and effort to control the modifiable risk factors seems to be the ideal treatment.

  8. Vascularized bone transplant chimerism mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Wouter F; Larsen, Mikko; Friedrich, Patricia F; Bishop, Allen T

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone allotransplants. We aim to determine whether bone remodeling in VEGF-treated bone allotransplants results from repopulation with circulation-derived autogenous cells or survival of allogenic transplant-derived cells. Vascularized femoral bone transplants were transplanted from female Dark Agouti rats (DA;RT1(a) ) to male Piebald Viral Glaxo (PVG;RT1(c) ). Arteriovenous bundle implantation and short-term immunosuppression were used to maintain cellular viability. VEGF was encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres and delivered intramedullary in the experimental group (n = 22). In the control group (n = 22), no VEGF was delivered. Rats were sacrificed at 4 or 18 weeks. Laser capture microdissection of bone remodeling areas was performed at the inner and outer cortex. Sex-mismatched genes were quantified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the amount of male cells to total cells, defined as the relative expression ratio (rER). At 4 weeks, rER was significantly higher at the inner cortex in VEGF-treated transplants as compared to untreated transplants (0.622 ± 0.225 vs. 0.362 ± 0.081, P = 0.043). At 4 weeks, the outer cortex in the control group had a significantly higher rER (P = 0.038), whereas in the VEGF group, the inner cortex had a higher rER (P = 0.015). Over time, in the outer cortex the rER significantly increased to 0.634 ± 0.106 at 18 weeks in VEGF-treated rats (P = 0.049). At 18 weeks, the rER was >0.5 at all cortical areas in both groups. These in vivo findings suggest a chemotactic effect of intramedullary applied VEGF on recipient-derived bone and could imply that more rapid angiogenesis of vascularized allotransplants can be established with microencapsulated VEGF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Brain Perivascular Spaces as Biomarkers of Vascular Risk: Results from the Northern Manhattan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, J; Elkind, M S V; Dong, C; Di Tullio, M; Rundek, T; Sacco, R L; Wright, C B

    2017-05-01

    Dilated perivascular spaces in the brain are associated with greater arterial pulsatility. We hypothesized that perivascular spaces identify individuals at higher risk for systemic and cerebral vascular events. Stroke-free participants in the population-based Northern Manhattan Study had brain MR imaging performed and were followed for myocardial infarction, any stroke, and death. Imaging analyses distinguished perivascular spaces from lesions presumably ischemic. Perivascular spaces were further subdivided into lesions with diameters of ≤3 mm (small perivascular spaces) and >3 mm (large perivascular spaces). We calculated relative rates of events with Poisson models and hazard ratios with Cox proportional models. The Northern Manhattan Study participants who had MR imaging data available for review ( n = 1228; 59% women, 65% Hispanic; mean age, 71 ± 9 years) were followed for an average of 9 ± 2 years. Participants in the highest tertile of the small perivascular space score had a higher relative rate of all deaths (relative rate, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.01-1.91), vascular death (relative rate, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.12-3.14), myocardial infarction (relative rate, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.01-4.31), any stroke (relative rate, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.11), and any vascular event (relative rate, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.18-2.56). After we adjusted for confounders, there was a higher risk of vascular death (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11), myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.12-4.42), and any vascular event (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08) with higher small perivascular space scores. In this multiethnic, population-based study, participants with a high burden of small perivascular spaces had increased risk of vascular events. By gaining pathophysiologic insight into the mechanism of perivascular space dilation, we may be able to propose novel therapies to better prevent vascular disorders in the population. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Role of vascular endothelial growth factor and other growth factors in post-stroke recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanu Talwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a major health problem world-wide and its burden has been rising in last few decades. Until now tissue plasminogen activator is only approved treatment for stroke. Angiogenesis plays a vital role for striatal neurogenesis after stroke. Administration of various growth factors in an early post ischemic phase, stimulate both angiogenesis and neurogenesis and lead to improved functional recovery after stroke. However vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF is the most potent angiogenic factor for neurovascularization and neurogenesis in ischemic injury can be modulated in different ways and thus can be used as therapy in stroke. In response to the ischemic injury VEGF is released by endothelial cells through natural mechanism and leads to angiogenesis and vascularization. This release can also be up regulated by exogenous administration of Mesenchymal stem cells, by various physical therapy regimes and electroacupuncture, which further potentiate the efficacy of VEGF as therapy in post stroke recovery. Recent published literature was searched using PubMed and Google for the article reporting on methods of up regulation of VEGF and therapeutic potential of growth factors in stroke.

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factors: multitasking functionality in metabolism, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-07-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) bind to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs). The VEGF and VEGFR gene products regulate diverse regulatory pathways in mammalian development, health and disease. The interaction between a particular VEGF and its cognate VEGFR activates multiple signal transduction pathways which regulate different cellular responses including metabolism, gene expression, proliferation, migration, and survival. The family of VEGF isoforms regulate vascular physiology and promote tissue homeostasis. VEGF dysfunction is implicated in major chronic disease states including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. More recent studies implicate a strong link between response to VEGF and regulation of vascular metabolism. Understanding how this family of multitasking cytokines regulates cell and animal function has implications for treating many different diseases.

  12. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-1 expression on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riyad Bendardaf

    2017-02-28

    Feb 28, 2017 ... The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-1 expression on survival of ... Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates; cFaculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, ..... interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal.

  13. Lipidomics in vascular health: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the mechanisms that convert a healthy vascular wall to an atherosclerotic wall is of major importance since the consequences may lead to a shortened lifespan. Classical risk factors (age, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) may result in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions by processes including inflammation and lipid accumulation. Thus, the evaluation of blood lipids and the full lipid complement produced by cells, organisms, or tissues (lipidomics) is an issue of importance. In this review, we shall describe the recent progress in vascular health research using lipidomic advances. We will begin with an overview of vascular wall biology and lipids, followed by a short analysis of lipidomics. Finally, we shall focus on the clinical implications of lipidomics and studies that have examined lipidomic approaches and vascular health.

  14. Cognition in type 2 diabetes: Association with vascular risk factors, complications of diabetes and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iype Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The role of variables like duration of diabetes, diabetic control and microvascular complications in the causation of cognitive decline in patients with type 2 diabetes is not well studied. The contribution of hypertension to the cognitive decline in nondemented diabetic patients is unclear. Aims: We wanted to see if cognition in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with the duration of diabetes, control of diabetes, complications of diabetes, vascular risk factors, or depression. We also looked at association of noncompliance with cognition, and depression. Settings and Design: We recruited ambulant patients with type 2 diabetes who are 55 years or more in age from the weekly diabetic clinic. We excluded patients with past history of stroke. Methods and Material: We selected the time taken for the Trial A test, delayed recall on ten-word list from Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer′s Disease (CERAD, Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS and Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D screening instrument to assess these patients. Statistical Analysis Used: We utilized mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test and Pearson′s correlation for statistical analysis. We considered P < 0.05 to be significant. Results: RUDAS scores inversely correlated ( r = -0.360 with CES-D scores ( P = 0.002. Scores of the screening instrument for depression, the CES-D was associated with the duration of diabetes mellitus ( P = 0.018, fasting blood glucose ( P = 0.029 as well as with 2-hour post prandial blood glucose ( P = 0.017. Conclusions: There is correlation between depression and global cognitive score. Depression seems to be associated with duration of diabetes and control of diabetes.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in cognitively impaired nursing home patients: A relationship with pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, W.P.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Pot, A.M.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors (CRF) such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus favour the development of both vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The resulting deafferentation may increase the experience of pain in VaD and in AD. The goal of the present study was to examine the

  16. Placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor B expression in the hypoxic lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic alveolar hypoxia, due to residence at high altitude or chronic obstructive lung diseases, leads to pulmonary hypertension, which may be further complicated by right heart failure, increasing morbidity and mortality. In the non-diseased lung, angiogenesis occurs in chronic hypoxia and may act in a protective, adaptive manner. To date, little is known about the behaviour of individual vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family ligands in hypoxia-induced pulmonary angiogenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of placenta growth factor (PlGF and VEGFB during the development of hypoxic pulmonary angiogenesis and their functional effects on the pulmonary endothelium. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to conditions of normoxia (21% O2 or hypoxia (10% O2 for 1-21 days. Stereological analysis of vascular structure, real-time PCR analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA, VEGFB, placenta growth factor (PlGF, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, immunohistochemistry and western blots were completed. The effects of VEGF ligands on human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were determined using a wound-healing assay. Results Typical vascular remodelling and angiogenesis were observed in the hypoxic lung. PlGF and VEGFB mRNA expression were significantly increased in the hypoxic lung. Immunohistochemical analysis showed reduced expression of VEGFB protein in hypoxia although PlGF protein was unchanged. The expression of VEGFA mRNA and protein was unchanged. In vitro PlGF at high concentration mimicked the wound-healing actions of VEGFA on pulmonary microvascular endothelial monolayers. Low concentrations of PlGF potentiated the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while higher concentrations of PlGF were without this effect. VEGFB inhibited the wound-healing actions of VEGFA while VEGFB and PlGF together were mutually antagonistic. Conclusions VEGFB and PlGF can either inhibit or

  17. [Vascular calcifications in subjects with and without chronic renal failure: types, sites and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Annibale; Di Napoli, Anteo

    2017-04-01

    Vascular calcifications worse outcomes in the general population and in patients on dialysis. We investigated 146 patients on chronic hemodialysis and 63 healthy controls with normal renal function under 65 years of age. All subjects underwent B-mode ultrasonography of common and internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, common and superficial femoral artery and posterior tibial artery to assess the presence of intimal and medial calcifications. Intimal and media calcifications were present at the level of the carotid vessel, the abdominal aorta, the common femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery and the posterior tibial artery, respectively in 45%, 50%, 45%, 50%, 42% of patients on dialysis and in 5%, 15%, 24%, 5%, 2% of controls (p chronic hemodialysis. Ultrasonography currently available in Nephrology, is a sensitive, reproducible, inexpensive imaging technique to identify arterial intimal and medial calcification in high-risk cardiovascular subjects. Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  18. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Steffensen, Karina Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic conditions s...

  19. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), produced by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) virus-infected monocytes and macrophages, induces vascular permeability and effusion in cats with FIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Tomomi; Ohyama, Taku; Kokumoto, Aiko; Satoh, Ryoichi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) causes a fatal disease called FIP in Felidae. The effusion in body cavity is commonly associated with FIP. However, the exact mechanism of accumulation of effusion remains unclear. We investigated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to examine the relationship between VEGF levels and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP. Furthermore, we examined VEGF production in FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, and we used feline vascular endothelial cells to examine vascular permeability induced by the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages. In cats with FIP, the production of effusion was related with increasing plasma VEGF levels. In FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages, the production of VEGF was associated with proliferation of virus. Furthermore, the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages induced hyperpermeability of feline vascular endothelial cells. It was suggested that vascular permeability factors, including VEGF, produced by FIPV-infected monocytes/macrophages might increase the vascular permeability and the amounts of effusion in cats with FIP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. KRN633, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, induces intrauterine growth restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Naomichi; Nakahara, Tsutomu; Morita, Akane; Wada, Yoshiko; Mori, Asami; Sakamoto, Kenji; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Ishii, Kunio

    2013-08-01

    We previously reported that treatment with KRN633, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, during mid-pregnancy caused intrauterine growth restriction resulting from impairment of blood vessel growth in the labyrinthine zone of the placenta and fetal organs. However, the relative sensitivities of blood vessels in the placenta and fetal organs to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors have not been determined. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of KRN633 on the vasculatures of organs in mother mice and their newborn pups by immunohistochemical analysis. Pregnant mice were treated daily with KRN633 (5 mg/kg) either from embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) to E17.5 or from E13.5 to the day of delivery. The weights of the pups of KRN633-treated mice were lower than those of the pups of vehicle-treated mothers. However, no significant difference in body weight was observed between the vehicle- and KRN633-treated mice. The vascular development in the organs (the pancreas, kidney, and intestine) and intestinal lymphatic formation of the pups of KRN633-treated mothers was markedly impaired. In contrast, the KRN633 treatment showed no significant effect on the vascular beds in the organs, including the labyrinthine zone of the placenta, of the mother mice. These results suggest that blood vessels in fetal organs are likely to be more sensitive to reduced VEGF signaling than those in the mother. A partial loss of VEGF function during pregnancy could suppress vascular growth in the fetus without affecting the vasculature in the mother mouse, thereby increasing the risk of intrauterine growth restriction. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human genetics of diabetic vascular complications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diabetic vascular complications (DVC) affecting several important organ systems of human body such as the cardiovascular system constitute a major public health problem. There is evidence demonstrating that genetic factors contribute to the risk of DVC genetic variants, structural variants, and epigenetic changes play ...

  2. The metabolic vascular syndrome - guide to an individualized treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Markolf; Pistrosch, Frank; Bornstein, Stefan R; Birkenfeld, Andreas L

    2016-03-01

    In ancient Greek medicine the concept of a distinct syndrome (going together) was used to label 'a group of signs and symptoms' that occur together and 'characterize a particular abnormality and condition'. The (dys)metabolic syndrome is a common cluster of five pre-morbid metabolic-vascular risk factors or diseases associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, fatty liver disease and risk of cancer. The risk for major complications such as cardiovascular diseases, NASH and some cancers develops along a continuum of risk factors into clinical diseases. Therefore we still include hyperglycemia, visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension as diagnostic traits in the definition according to the term 'deadly quartet'. From the beginning elevated blood pressure and hyperglycemia were core traits of the metabolic syndrome associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Thus metabolic and vascular abnormalities are in extricable linked. Therefore it seems reasonable to extend the term to metabolic-vascular syndrome (MVS) to signal the clinical relevance and related risk of multimorbidity. This has important implications for integrated diagnostics and therapeutic approach. According to the definition of a syndrome the rapid global rise in the prevalence of all traits and comorbidities of the MVS is mainly caused by rapid changes in life-style and sociocultural transition resp. with over- and malnutrition, low physical activity and social stress as a common soil.

  3. Genetic variation in liver x receptor alpha and risk of ischemic vascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Anestis, Aristomenis

    2011-01-01

    Although animal studies indicate that liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) might influence risk of atherosclerosis, data in humans remain scarce. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in LXRα associates with risk of ischemic vascular disease and/or plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in the ge......Although animal studies indicate that liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) might influence risk of atherosclerosis, data in humans remain scarce. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in LXRα associates with risk of ischemic vascular disease and/or plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels...... in the general population....

  4. Genetic variation in liver x receptor alpha and risk of ischemic vascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Anestis, Aristomenis

    2011-01-01

    Although animal studies indicate that liver X receptor alpha (LXRa) might influence risk of atherosclerosis, data in humans remain scarce. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in LXRa associates with risk of ischemic vascular disease and/or plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels in the ge......Although animal studies indicate that liver X receptor alpha (LXRa) might influence risk of atherosclerosis, data in humans remain scarce. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in LXRa associates with risk of ischemic vascular disease and/or plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels...... in the general population....

  5. Serum lipoprotein-A levels in healthy subjects indicate a lurking cerebro- and cardio-vascular risk in the younger population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Samuel Henrique Vieira; de Miranda, Marciano Robson; Santos Morais, Charles Augusto; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2013-08-01

    Lipoprotein-A (LpA) is an emerging independent risk factor for cerebro- and cardio-vascular diseases (CCVD). Recognizing its function and its normal distribution is of fundamental importance for a better understanding of CCVD patho-physiology. The present study evaluated plasma LpA levels of healthy university students using turbidimetric methods. Medians and inter-quartile differences obtained for male and female participants were 11.3mg/dL (3.1-30.7) and 20.9mg/dL (6.5-42.3), respectively, demonstrating a significant difference (P=0.017) between men and women. A third of students showed plasma concentrations above reference values. Our results indicate that 33% of students possess a hidden independent risk factor for CCVD. Multi-disciplinary evaluation and characterization of young individuals should be recommended in an attempt to take early preventive measures and to eliminate possible modifiable risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle, smoking, hypertension, obesity and atherogenic diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells by growth factors and phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ververis, J J; Ku, L; Delafontaine, P

    1993-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) is an important mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells. To characterize regulation of vascular IGF I receptors, we performed radioligand displacement experiments using rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMs). Serum deprivation for 48 hours caused a 40% decrease in IGF I receptor number. Exposure of quiescent RASMs to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), or angiotensin II (Ang II) caused a 1.5-2.0-fold increase in IGF I receptors per cell. After FGF exposure, there was a marked increase in the mitogenic response to IGF I. IGF I downregulated its receptors in the presence of platelet-poor plasma. Stimulation of protein kinase C (PKC) by exposure of quiescent RASMs to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate caused a biphasic response in IGF I binding; there was a 42% decrease in receptor number at 45 minutes and a 238% increase at 24 hours. To determine the role of PKC in growth factor-induced regulation of IGF I receptors, we downregulated PKC by exposing RASMs to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) for 48 hours. PDGF- and FGF- but not Ang II-mediated upregulation of IGF I receptors was completely inhibited in PDBu-treated cells. Thus, acute PKC activation by phorbol esters inhibits IGF I binding, whereas chronic PKC activation increases IGF I binding. PDGF and FGF but not Ang II regulate vascular IGF I receptors through a PKC-dependent pathway. These data provide new insights into the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell IGF I receptors in vitro and are of potential importance in characterizing vascular proliferative responses in vivo.

  7. Clinical Correlates of Hachinski Ischemic Score and Vascular Factors in Cognitive Function of Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Hachinski ischemic score (HIS and vascular factors as well as between HIS and the cognitive function in elderly community. Demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, history of drinking and smoking, family history of dementia and stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and dementia, were surveyed. Neurological examination was administered to every subject and HIS was checked by a neurologist. From a total of 392 participants aged 65 and over in a rural community, 348 completed the survey and were finally enrolled. Among the vascular factors, history of hypertension (P=0.008, history of stroke (P<0.001, family history of dementia (P=0.01, and history of cardiac diseases (P=0.012 showed a significant relationship with HIS. In the cognitive function tests, both Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Dementia Rating (Global and Sum of Boxes had a significant relationship with HIS. Our study suggested HIS may have an association with some vascular factors and cognitive scales in community dwelling elderly. In this study, the HIS seemed to contribute to the evaluation of the quantity of vascular factors and to the prediction of status of cognitive function.

  8. The Incidence and Risk Factors for Lower Limb Skin Graft Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower limb skin grafts are thought to have higher failure rates than skin grafts in other sites of the body. Currently, there is a paucity of literature on specific factors associated with lower limb skin graft failure. We present a series of 70 lower limb skin grafts in 50 patients with outcomes at 6 weeks. One-third of lower limb skin grafts went on to fail with increased BMI, peripheral vascular disease, and immunosuppressant medication use identified as significant risk factors.

  9. Vascular adaptation to physical inactivity in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  10. Linking vascular disorders and Alzheimer’s disease: Potential involvement of BACE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sarah L.; Vassar, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) remains unknown. However, specific risk factors have been identified, and aging is the strongest AD risk factor. The majority of cardiovascular events occur in older people and a close relationship between vascular disorders and AD exists. Amyloid plaques, composed of the beta amyloid peptide (Aβ), are hallmark lesions in AD and evidence indicates that Aβ plays a central role in AD pathophysiology. The BACE1 enzyme is essential for Aβ generation, and BACE1 levels are elevated in AD brain. The cause(s) of this BACE1 elevation remains undetermined. Here we review the potential contribution of vascular disease to AD pathogenesis. We examine the putative vasoactive properties of Aβ and how the cellular changes associated with vascular disease may elevate BACE1 levels. Despite increasing evidence, the exact role(s) vascular disorders play in AD remains to be determined. However, given that vascular diseases can be addressed by lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, the potential benefits of these therapies in delaying the clinical appearance and progression of AD may warrant investigation. PMID:18289733

  11. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor during the normal menstrual cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumanto, YH; Hospers, GAP; Sluiter, WJ; Dam, WA; Meijer, C; Mulder, NH

    2004-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cycle-related variations in circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels would increase the metastatic potential at specific times during the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: VEGF levels in serum and whole blood

  12. The power of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) family molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Leon; Eichmann, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their high-affinity tyrosine kinase VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) are key regulators of both angiogenesis and neurogenesis. The current issue of CMLS discusses recent literature and work implementing these signals in nervous system development, maintenance and disease pathology.

  13. Resting Brain Perfusion and Selected Vascular Risk Factors in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    with circulating homocysteine, but not with asymmetric dimethylarginine, dyslipidemia or the carotid intima-media thickness. The relative regional brain perfusion was associated with circulating homocysteine, with a relative parietal hypoperfusion and a frontal hyperperfusion. No effect on regional brain perfusion...... was observed for any of the other risk factors. A multiple regression model including homocysteine, caffeine, hematocrit and end-tidal PCO2, explained nearly half of the observed variability. CONCLUSION: Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors influenced global cerebral perfusion variation between subjects....... Further, the results suggest that the inverse relation between homocysteine and brain perfusion is owing to other mechanisms, than reflected by asymmetric dimethylarginine, and that homocysteine may be a marker of cerebral perfusion in aging brains....

  14. [Homocystein serum levels and lipid parameters in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Pokoca, Lech; Smorag, Ireneusz; Wosik-Erenbek, Marzenna; Baj, Zbigniew

    2007-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of adult patients, however, it begins in childhood and progresses from fatty streaks to raised lesions in arteries in adolescence and young adults. Clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in adulthood depends on the risk factors such as: lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension, smoking habits and family history of CHD. High serum homocysteine concentration is increasingly recognised as a new risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to cytotoxin action on the endothelial cells and their function. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocysteine serum concentration and the lipid levels in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The study was carried out on 48 children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The control group consisted of 25 healthy childrens. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C were determined by enzymatic method. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). Obesity, lipid disorders, and hypertension were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. Statistically significant higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were observed in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in homocystein concentration were observed in the investigated groups, but homocystein concentration was significantly higher in group of children with atherosclerosis risk factors. We observed that increased number of the risk factors is followed by high homocystein concentration in the serum.

  15. Prevention of cardiac complications in peripheral vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of severe coronary artery disease in peripheral vascular patients exceeds 50 per cent. Complications of coronary artery disease are the most common causes of mortality following peripheral vascular operations. To reduce the incidence of cardiac complications, it is first necessary to identify patients at risk through screening tests. Screening methods in current use include risk factor analysis, exercise testing, routine coronary angiography, and dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy. The risk factor approach has the advantage of being widely applicable since it makes use of historical, physical, and electrocardiographic findings that are already familiar to surgeons and anesthesiologists. It is also inexpensive. However, it may overlook the patient who has no symptoms of coronary artery disease, possibly as a result of the sedentary lifestyle imposed by complications of peripheral vascular disease. The electrocardiographically monitored stress test will identify the asymptomatic patient with occult coronary disease and is helpful in predicting operative risk. However, a meaningful test is dependent on the patient's ability to exercise--an activity that is frequently limited by claudication, amputation, or arthritis. Exercise testing also suffers from a lack of sensitivity and specificity when compared with coronary arteriography. Routine preoperative coronary angiography overcomes the exercise limitation of treadmill testing but is not widely applicable as a screening test for reasons of cost and inherent risk. Dipyridamole thallium-201 scanning, on the other hand, is safe and of relatively low cost and does not require exercise

  16. Low vascularity predicts favourable outcomes in leiomyoma patients treated with uterine artery embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yixin; Chen, Chunlin; Duan, Hui; Ma, Ben; Liu, Ping

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the clinical factors predicting outcomes of leiomyoma treated with uterine artery embolization (UAE). A total of 183 uterine leiomyoma patients undergoing UAE were retrospectively analyzed. Patient age, characteristics of vascular supply in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/digital subtraction angiography (DSA), number, size and location of leiomyoma were recorded. Leiomyoma regrowth, new leiomyoma appearance and recurrence of any previously reported symptoms were carefully monitored over a mean follow-up of 30 months (median 32 months, range 12-80). Potential recurrence risk factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis. Twenty-three recurrences were recorded. The difference in the vascularity classification systems between MRI and DSA was not statistically significant (P = 0.059). High vascularity in MRI, high vascularity in DSA and multiple leiomyoma showed a significant risk of recurrence using univariate and multivariate analysis (P = 0.004, P leiomyoma recurrence (P > 0.05). Low vascularity and solitary leiomyoma indicated favourable outcomes in patients treated with UAE. • Low vascularity and solitary mass predicted favourable outcomes in UAE-treated patients. • MRI might provide information on vascularity in leiomyoma before UAE. • Variations in vascular supply, age, size, location were not associated with recurrence.

  17. Transforming growth factor β family members in regulation of vascular function: in the light of vascular conditional knockouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lars; van Meeteren, Laurens A

    2013-05-15

    Blood vessels are composed of endothelial cells, mural cells (smooth muscle cells and pericytes) and their shared basement membrane. During embryonic development a multitude of signaling components orchestrate the formation of new vessels. The process is highly dependent on correct dosage, spacing and timing of these signaling molecules. As vessels mature some cascades remain active, albeit at very low levels, and may be reactivated upon demand. Members of the Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) protein family are strongly engaged in developmental angiogenesis but are also regulators of vascular integrity in the adult. In humans various genetic alterations within this protein family cause vascular disorders, involving disintegration of vascular integrity. Here we summarize and discuss recent data gathered from conditional and endothelial cell specific genetic loss-of-function of members of the TGF-β family in the mouse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are markers of inflammation more strongly associated with risk for fatal than for nonfatal vascular events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Sattar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating inflammatory markers may more strongly relate to risk of fatal versus nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD events, but robust prospective evidence is lacking. We tested whether interleukin (IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP, and fibrinogen more strongly associate with fatal compared to nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI and stroke. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, baseline inflammatory markers in up to 5,680 men and women aged 70-82 y were related to risk for endpoints; nonfatal CVD (i.e., nonfatal MI and nonfatal stroke [n = 672], fatal CVD (n = 190, death from other CV causes (n = 38, and non-CVD mortality (n = 300, over 3.2-y follow-up. Elevations in baseline IL-6 levels were significantly (p = 0.0009; competing risks model analysis more strongly associated with fatal CVD (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 log unit increase in IL-6 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.12 than with risk of nonfatal CVD (1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, in analyses adjusted for treatment allocation. The findings were consistent in a fully adjusted model. These broad trends were similar for CRP and, to a lesser extent, for fibrinogen. The results were also similar in placebo and statin recipients (i.e., no interaction. The C-statistic for fatal CVD using traditional risk factors was significantly (+0.017; p<0.0001 improved by inclusion of IL-6 but not so for nonfatal CVD events (p = 0.20. CONCLUSIONS: In PROSPER, inflammatory markers, in particular IL-6 and CRP, are more strongly associated with risk of fatal vascular events than nonfatal vascular events. These novel observations may have important implications for better understanding aetiology of CVD mortality, and have potential clinical relevance.

  19. Low Prevalence and Clinical Effect of Vascular Risk Factors in Early-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaohua; Sillaire, Adeline Rollin; Dallongeville, Jean; Skrobala, Emilie; Wallon, David; Dubois, Bruno; Hannequin, Didier; Pasquier, Florence; Bombois, Stéphanie; Boutantin, Justine; Cassagnaud, Pascaline; Chen, Yaohua; Delbeuck, Xavier; Delmaire, Christine; Deramecourt, Vincent; Gele, Patrick; Houssein-Foucher, Claude; Jacquemont, Charlotte; Lebert, Florence; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Lopez, Renaud; Mackowiak, Marie-Anne; Maureille, Aurélien; Pasquier, Florence; Petyt, Grégory; Pollet, Marianne; Rollin-Sillaire, Adeline; Schraen, Susanna; Semah, Franck; Vanhoutte, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Determinants of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD) are not well known. In late-onset AD, vascular risk factors (VRFs) are associated with earlier clinical manifestation. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the putative association between VRFs and EOAD. Methods: We studied participants with dementia meeting criteria for EOAD (recruited into the French CoMAJ prospective cohort study from 1 June 2009 to 28 February 2014) and age-, gender-matched controls (ratio 1:3, drawn randomly from the French MONA-LISA population-based survey between 2005 and 2007). Demographic data, VRFs, comorbidities, treatments, and APOE genotypes were compared in multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results: We studied 102 participants with dementia (mean±standard deviation age: 59.5±3.8; women: 59.8%) and 306 controls. Compared with controls, EOAD participants had spent less time in formal education (9.9±2.9 versus 11.7±3.8 y; p < 0.0001), were less likely to be regular alcohol consumers (p < 0.0001), had a lower body mass index (–2 kg/m2; p < 0.0004), and a lower mean systolic blood pressure (–6.2 mmHg; p = 0.0036). The prevalence of APOE ɛ4 allele was higher in participants with dementia than in controls (50% versus 29.4%; p = 0.0002), as was the prevalence of depression (48% versus 32%; p < 0.001). Similar results were observed in multivariable analysis. Compared with EOAD participants lacking VRFs, EOAD participants with at least one VRF had a higher prevalence of depression (29.6% versus 53.3%, respectively; p = 0.03). Conclusion: The prevalence of VRFs is not elevated in EOAD patients (in contrast to older AD patients). Extensive genetic testing should be considered more frequently in the context of EOAD. PMID:28984595

  20. VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS IN HEART TRANSPLANT REJECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factors VEGF-A, VEGF-D, PlGF-1 to assess the risk of cardiovascular complications in heart recipients. Materials and methods. 103 patients, aged 16 to 73 years, 85 males and 18 females. 65 recipients (47 men and 18 women had dilated cardiomyopathy, 38 – coronary heart disease (CHD. The concentration of VEGF-A, VEGF-D, PlGF-1 was measured using xMAP technology with sets of reagents Simplex ProcartaPlex™. Results. After HTx the level of VEGF-A significantly decreased, p = 0.001. There were no correlations between the levels of VEGF-A, VEGF-D and PlGF-1 with age, gender and diagnosis. After HTx VEGF-A level was higher in recipients with ACR than in those without it (p = 0.001. ACR frequency was significantly higher in patients with high VEGF-A level (≥316.5 pg/ml, RR = 5.8 ± 0.5, AUC = 0.779. After HTx PlGF-1 level was higher in recipients with ACR too (p = 0.039. ACR frequency was significantly higher in patients with high PlGF-1 level (≥5.33 pg/ml, RR = 1.8 ± 0.5, AUC = 0.65. There were no correlations between VEGF-D level with ACR and all three biomarkers with AMR. ACR frequency was significantly higher with both high VEGF-A and PlGF-1 levels (RR = 6.4. Conclusion. Serum levels of VEGF-A and PlGF-1 after HTx may be regarded as indicators of increased risk of ACR.

  1. How does number of risk factors affect prognosis in young patients with ischemic stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putaala, Jukka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2012-02-01

    We aimed to explore clinical features of young patients with ischemic stroke with no traditional vascular risk factors and to assess the impact of risk factor counts on outcomes. We included 990 patients aged 15 to 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke followed for a mean of 9.0 ± 3.8 years (survivors). Risk factors were categorized as well-documented and less well-documented. Outcome measures were unfavorable functional outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale 2-6); recurrent ischemic stroke; myocardial infarction or other arterial noncerebrovascular event; and death from any cause. Compared with those with at least 1 well-documented risk factor, the 127 (12.8%) patients without risk factors were younger (median age, 37 versus 44 years; Pischemic strokes (4.7% versus 13.6%; log rank P=0.014), noncerebrovascular arterial events (0% versus 6.1%; P=0.008), and lower long-term mortality (3.4% versus 14.3%; P=0.003) than did those with at least 1 risk factor. Adjusted for demographics and stroke etiology, the number of well-documented risk factors was associated with higher risk for noncerebrovascular events. Increasing count of less well-documented risk factors was, in turn, independently associated with higher long-term mortality. In young adults with first-ever ischemic stroke, risk factor counts added independent prognostic information regarding noncerebrovascular events and mortality.

  2. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  3. Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.; Bouts, Y.M.; Maiorana, A.J.; Naylor, L.H.; Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.; Pugh, C.J.; Sprung, V.S.; Schreuder, T.H.; Jones, H.; Cable, T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk

  4. The effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-1 expression on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer is third leading cause of cancer mortality. About 60% of patients had already developed metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is crucial for the development of neovascularization and hence metastasis. This study aimed at investigating the relation between the ...

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor from Embryonic Status to Cardiovascular Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a multifunctional cytokine with distinct functions in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, vascular permeability, and hematopoiesis. VEGF is a highly conserved, disulfide-bonded dimeric glycoprotein of 34 to 45 kDa produced by several cell types including fibroblasts, neutrophils, endothelial cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, particularly T lymphocytes and macrophages. Six VEGF isoforms are generated as a result of alternative splicing from a single VEGF gene, consisting of 121, 145, 165, 183, 189, or 206 amino acids. VEGF121, VEGF145, and VEGF165 are secreted whereas VEGF183, VEGF189, and VEGF206 are cell membrane-bound. VEGF145 has a key role during the vascularization of the human ovarian follicle and corpus luteum, in the placentation and embryonic periods, and in bone and wound healing, while VEGF165 is the most abundant and biologically active isoform. VEGF has been linked with a number of vascular pathologies including cardiovascular diseases such ischemic heart disease, heart failure, stroke, and diabetes and its related complications. In this review we aimed to present some important roles of VEGF in a number of clinical issues and indicate its involvement in several phenomena from the initial steps of the embryonic period to cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Deficiency of superoxide dismutase promotes cerebral vascular hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction in hyperhomocysteinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjana Dayal

    Full Text Available There is an emerging consensus that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cerebral vascular disease and that homocysteine-lowering therapy protects from ischemic stroke. However, the mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia produces abnormalities of cerebral vascular structure and function remain largely undefined. Our objective in this study was to define the mechanistic role of superoxide in hyperhomocysteinemia-induced cerebral vascular dysfunction and hypertrophy. Unlike previous studies, our experimental design included a genetic approach to alter superoxide levels by using superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-deficient mice fed a high methionine/low folate diet to produce hyperhomocysteinemia. In wild-type mice, the hyperhomocysteinemic diet caused elevated superoxide levels and impaired responses to endothelium-dependent vasodilators in cerebral arterioles, and SOD1 deficiency compounded the severity of these effects. The cross-sectional area of the pial arteriolar wall was markedly increased in mice with SOD1 deficiency, and the hyperhomocysteinemic diet sensitized SOD1-deficient mice to this hypertrophic effect. Analysis of individual components of the vascular wall demonstrated a significant increase in the content of smooth muscle and elastin. We conclude that superoxide is a key driver of both cerebral vascular hypertrophy and vasomotor dysfunction in this model of dietary hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms by which hyperhomocysteinemia promotes cerebral vascular disease and ischemic stroke.

  7. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Conti, Corrado; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD) are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the development or the progression of neurodegenerative or vascular pathologies. To this end, we assessed: the difference in vascular risk factors and vitamin D-OH25 levels among groups of sVAD, AD, and healthy age-matched controls; the association of folate, B12, homocysteine, and vitamin D with sVAD/AD and whether a deficiency of vitamin D and an increment in homocysteine levels may be related to neurodegenerative or vessel damages. The commonly-considered vascular risk factors were collected in 543 patients and compared with those obtained from a healthy old volunteer population. ANOVA group comparison showed that vitamin D deficiency was present in demented cases, as well as low levels of folate and high levels of homocysteine, more pronounced in sVAD cases. The statistical models we employed, with regression models built, and adjustments for biochemical, demographic and neuropsychiatric scores, confirmed the association between the three measures (folate decrease, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin D decrease) and dementia, more pronounced in sVAD than in AD.

  8. Vascular risk factor burden correlates with cerebrovascular reactivity but not resting state coactivation in the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchistiakova, Ekaterina; Crane, David E; Mikulis, David J; Anderson, Nicole D; Greenwood, Carol E; Black, Sandra E; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2015-11-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent among older adults and are often associated with cognitive decline and increased risk of stroke and dementia. Vascular risk factors (VRFs) are linked to WMH, yet the impact of multiple VRFs on gray matter function is still unclear. The goal of this study was to test for associations between the number of VRFs and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and resting state (RS) coactivation among individuals with WMH. Twenty-nine participants with suspected WMH were grouped based on the number of VRFs (subgroups: 0, 1, or ≥2). CVR and RS coactivation were measured with blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) imaging on a 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system during hypercapnia and rest, respectively. Default-mode (DMN), sensory-motor, and medial-visual networks, generated using independent component analysis of RS-BOLD, were selected as networks of interest (NOIs). CVR-BOLD was analyzed using two methods: 1) a model-based approach using CO2 traces, and 2) a dual-regression (DR) approach using NOIs as spatial inputs. Average CVR and RS coactivations within NOIs were compared between VRF subgroups. A secondary analysis investigated the correlation between CVR and RS coactivation. VRF subgroup differences were detected using DR-based CVR in the DMN (F20,2  = 5.17, P = 0.015) but not the model-based CVR nor RS coactivation. DR-based CVR was correlated with RS coactivation in the DMN (r(2)  = 0.28, P = 0.006) but not the sensory-motor nor medial-visual NOIs. In individuals with WMH, CVR in the DMN was inversely associated with the number of VRFs and correlated with RS coactivation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. POOLED ESTIMATES OF INCIDENCE OF ENDOPHTHALMITIS AFTER INTRAVITREAL INJECTION OF ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR AGENTS WITH AND WITHOUT TOPICAL ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibaldi, Michele; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Avitabile, Teresio; Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Russo, Andrea; Mariotti, Cesare; Bucolo, Claudio; Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Parisi, Guglielmo; Longo, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    To assess the effect of topical antibiotic prophylaxis on postoperative endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. A systematic literature search was performed from inception to March 2016 using PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, to identify articles that reported cases of endophthalmitis after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. We used a pooled analysis to estimate the incidence of cases of endophthalmitis who developed after injections performed with and without topical antibiotic prophylaxis. We used regression analysis to explore the effects of study characteristics on heterogeneity. From our search of electronic databases, we identified and screened 4,561 unique records. We judged 60 articles to have reported findings for cohorts of patients who met our inclusion criteria, (12 arms of randomized clinical trials, 11 prospective cohort studies, and 37 retrospective cohort studies), which included 244 cases of endophthalmitis and 639,391 intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents. The final pooled estimate endophthalmitis proportions were 9/10,000 (95% confidence interval, 7/10,000-12/10,000) in the antibiotic-treated group and 3/10,000 (95% confidence interval, 2/10,000-5/10,000) in the untreated group. The estimated incidence of endophthalmitis with topical antibiotic prophylaxis was approximated three times the incidence without prophylaxis. Random effects regression showed that none of the study characteristics significantly affected the effect size in either group. Topical antibiotic after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents is associated with a higher risk of endophthalmitis.

  10. Bevacizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, inhibits osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Nagai, Toshihiro; Sato, Masato; Kobayashi, Miyuki; Yokoyama, Munetaka; Tani, Yoshiki; Mochida, Joji

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Angiogenesis is an important factor in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). We investigated the efficacy of bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor and an inhibitor of angiogenesis, in the treatment of OA using a rabbit model of anterior cruciate ligament transection. Methods First, we evaluated the response of gene expression and histology of the normal joint to bevacizumab treatment. Next, in a rabbit model of OA induced by anterior cruciate ligam...

  11. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk Factors for Central and Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion: A Meta-Analysis of Published Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kolar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusion (RVO is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia. Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries.

  13. Surgical choroidal neovascular membrane removal in the era of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal Manish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents have obtained acceptance as the mainstay in the management strategy of subfoveal choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVM due to varying etiologies. Few drawbacks include need for repeated intravitreal injections, with its adjunct risks, and the lack of a predefined treatment end point, which can cause doubts and uncertainty in the mind of the patient. Furthermore, it remains a significant financial burden for the patient. Herein we report our data of three patients who were reluctant for further re-injections of anti-VEGF agents and were therefore offered surgical removal of the CNVM by submacular surgery as an alternative treatment plan.

  14. DNA damage: A main determinant of vascular aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Bautista-Niño (Paula); E. Portilla-Fernandez (Eliana); D.E. Vaughan (Douglas E.); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); A.J.M. Roks (Anton)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVascular aging plays a central role in health problems and mortality in older people. Apart from the impact of several classical cardiovascular risk factors on the vasculature, chronological aging remains the single most important determinant of cardiovascular problems. The causative

  15. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  16. Influence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype, exercise and other risk factors on endothelial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullin, Catherine H; Wilson, John F; Ashfield-Watt, Pauline A L; Clark, Zoë E; Whiting, Jenny M; Lewis, Malcolm J; McDowell, Ian F W

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease has a multifactorial aetiology that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Endothelial dysfunction is a key event in the pathogenesis of vascular disease that occurs before structural vascular changes or clinical symptoms are evident. Conventional risk factors, for example hypertension and diabetes mellitus, are associated with endothelial dysfunction, but the influence of other putative risk factors is not clear. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype, a common polymorphism that induces hyperhomocysteinaemia, has been proposed as being a genetic risk factor for cardiovascular disease. A total of 126 healthy adults recruited by MTHFR C677T genotype (42 of each genotype, i.e. CC, CT and TT) underwent assessment of endothelial function. Brachial artery endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured using high-resolution ultrasonic vessel "wall-tracking". Using multiple regression analysis, MTHFR genotype and 21 other subject and subject-lifestyle variables were investigated as potential predictors of endothelial function. FMD was influenced positively by frequency of aerobic exercise and by hormone replacement therapy, and negatively by increases in systolic blood pressure. MTHFR C677T genotype and the associated variation in plasma homocysteine levels did not influence FMD. Additionally, other factors, including plasma cholesterol and self-supplementation with either antioxidant vitamins or cod liver oil, showed no significant relationship with FMD, although these findings are compromised by the narrow range studied for cholesterol and the small number of subjects taking supplements. These observations have implications for risk factor management in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals.

  17. Preoperative evaluation of cardiac risk using dobutamine-thallium imaging in vascular surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellner, J.L.; Elliott, B.M.; Robison, J.G.; Hendrix, G.H.; Spicer, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is frequently present in patients undergoing evaluation for reconstructive peripheral vascular surgery. Dobutamine-thallium imaging has been shown to be a reliable and sensitive noninvasive method for the detection of significant coronary artery disease. Eighty-seven candidates for vascular reconstruction underwent dobutamine-thallium imaging. Forty-eight patients had an abnormal dobutamine-thallium scan. Twenty-two patients had infarct only, while 26 had reversible ischemia demonstrated on dobutamine-thallium imaging. Fourteen of 26 patients with reversible ischemia underwent cardiac catheterization and 11 showed significant coronary artery disease. Seven patients underwent preoperative coronary bypass grafting or angioplasty. There were no postoperative myocardial events in this group. Three patients were denied surgery on the basis of unreconstructible coronary artery disease, and one patient refused further intervention. Ten patients with reversible myocardial ischemia on dobutamine-thallium imaging underwent vascular surgical reconstruction without coronary revascularization and suffered a 40% incidence of postoperative myocardial ischemic events. Five patients were denied surgery because of presumed significant coronary artery disease on the basis of the dobutamine-thallium imaging and clinical evaluation alone. Thirty-nine patients with normal dobutamine-thallium scans underwent vascular reconstructive surgery with a 5% incidence of postoperative myocardial ischemia. Dobutamine-thallium imaging is a sensitive and reliable screening method which identifies those patients with coronary artery disease who are at high risk for perioperative myocardial ischemia following peripheral vascular surgery

  18. Notch signaling regulates platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Hansson, E.M.; Tikka, S.; Lanner, F.; Sahlgren, C.; Farnebo, F.; Baumann, M.; Kalimo, H.; Lendahl, U.

    2008-01-01

    Notch signaling is critically important for proper architecture of the vascular system, and mutations in NOTCH3 are associated with CADASIL, a stroke and dementia syndrome with vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction. In this report, we link Notch signaling to platelet-derived growth factor

  19. Erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor as risk markers for severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P L; Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Schalkwijk, C

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) increase during hypoglycaemia and may represent protective hormonal counter-regulatory responses. We tested the hypothesis that low levels of EPO and VEGF are associated with a higher frequency of severe....... Plasma EPO and serum VEGF levels were measured at baseline with ELISA. Events of severe hypoglycaemia defined by third party assistance were recorded and validated in telephone interviews within 24 h. RESULTS: Totally 235 episodes of severe hypoglycaemia (1.1 episodes per patient-year) were reported...... mass index, HbAlc, C-peptide level or hypoglycaemia awareness status. The levels of VEGF were positively associated with age and female sex. CONCLUSIONS: Although several studies suggest that VEGF and EPO may affect brain function during hypoglycaemia, this study does not support random VEGF or EPO...

  20. Risk factors, aetiology and outcome of ischaemic stroke in young adults: the Swiss Young Stroke Study (SYSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeggel Simonetti, Barbara; Mono, Marie-Luise; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Michel, Patrik; Odier, Celine; Sztajzel, Roman; Lyrer, Philippe; Engelter, Stefan T; Bonati, Leo; Gensicke, Henrik; Traenka, Christopher; Tettenborn, Barbara; Weder, Bruno; Fischer, Urs; Galimanis, Aekaterini; Jung, Simon; Luedi, Rudolf; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Weck, Anja; Cereda, Carlo W; Baumgartner, Ralf; Bassetti, Claudio L; Mattle, Heinrich P; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Arnold, Marcel

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic stroke (IS) in young adults has been increasingly recognized as a serious health condition. Stroke aetiology is different in young adults than in the older population. This study aimed to investigate aetiology and risk factors, and to search for predictors of outcome and recurrence in young IS patients. We conducted a prospective multicentre study of consecutive IS patients aged 16-55 years. Baseline demographic data, risk factors, stroke aetiology including systematic genetic screening for Fabry disease and severity were assessed and related to functional neurological outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS), case fatality, employment status, place of residence, and recurrent cerebrovascular events at 3 months. In 624 IS patients (60% men), median age was 46 (IQR 39-51) years and median NIHSS on admission 3 (IQR 1-8). Modifiable vascular risk factors were found in 73%. Stroke aetiology was mostly cardioembolism (32%) and of other defined origin (24%), including cervicocerebral artery dissection (17%). Fabry disease was diagnosed in 2 patients (0.3%). Aetiology remained unknown in 20%. Outcome at 3 months was favourable (mRS 0-1) in 61% and fatal in 2.9%. Stroke severity (p young adults with IS had modifiable vascular risk factors, emphasizing the importance of prevention strategies. Outcome was unfavourable in more than a third of patients and was associated with initial stroke severity and diabetes mellitus. Previous cerebrovascular events predicted recurrent ones.

  1. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  2. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coban, Goekcen; Cifci, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving. (orig.)

  3. Predisposing factors in posterior circulation infarcts: a vascular morphological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoban, Gökçen; Çifçi, Egemen; Yildirim, Erkan; Ağıldere, Ahmet Muhteşem

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effect of shape, diameter, elongation and deviation criteria of basilar artery (BA), convergence angle and diameter variations of vertebral arteries, and concurrent chronic diseases on posterior circulation infarcts. Between January 2010 and May 2013, 186 patients who underwent brain and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with suspected cerebrovascular accident and were diagnosed with posterior circulation infarct and 120 infarct negative control subjects were included in this case-control retrospective study. Vertebral artery (VA) and BA diameter, right (R) and left (L) VA angles at the level of bifurcation, and BA elongation-deviation, and shape of BA were assessed in a total of 306 subjects. Ischemic lesions in the posterior circulation were classified according to their anatomical location and vascular perfusion areas. No significant difference was noted between the control and patient groups with respect to BA diameter (p = 0.676). The most effective risk factors for posterior circulation infarcts were as follows: BA elongation of 2 or 3, BA transverse location of 2 or 3, increase in left VA angle, and history of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. Our results suggest that prominent elongation and deviation, C and J shape of BA, and increased L VA angle may be the predictors of at-risk patients in posterior circulation infarcts. Reporting marked morphological BA and VA variations detected at routine brain MRI will aid in selection of patients. Timely detection and treatment of at-risk patients may be life-saving.

  4. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematy Mohsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, however there are controversies. In the present study, the effect of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors has been investigated. Method This is a prospective observational study that was carried out in a group of patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (including history of documented previous history of either coronary artery disease (CAD, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease in past 10 y. Eighty two volunteers including 38 male and 44 female, aged 29–70 y, mean 54.0 ± 10 y, with a previous history of either coronary artery disease, metabolic syndrome or cerebro-vascular disease were recruited. Subjects attended the metabolic unit after at least 10 h fasting, before and after Ramadan who were been fasting for at least 10 days. A fasting blood sample was obtained, blood pressure was measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Lipids profile, fasting blood sugar (FBS and insulin, homocysteine (hcy, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and complete blood count (CBC were analyzed on all blood samples. Results A significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk (based on Framingham risk score was found (13.0 ± 8 before Ramadan and 10.8 ±7 after Ramadan, P 0.001, t test.There was a significant higher HDL-c, WBC, RBC and platelet count (PLT, and lower plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, VLDL-c, systolic blood pressure, body mass index and waist circumference after Ramadan (P 0.05, t test. The changes in FBS, insulin,Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR, hcy, hs-CRP and diastolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan were not significant (P >0.05, t test. Conclusions This study shows a significant improvement in 10 years coronary heart disease risk score and other cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids profile

  5. Using impedance cardiography to detect subclinical cardiovascular disease in women with multiple risk factors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Arthur P

    2009-01-01

    Early detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) could initiate appropriate treatment and prevent progression. This study used impedance cardiography (ICG) waveform analysis with postural change to detect functional CVD in women older than 40 years with no history of CVD and >or=2 of the following risk factors: cigarette smoking, poor diet, physical inactivity, central adiposity, family history of premature CVD, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A study group of 32 women underwent ICG in standing and supine positions. An age-matched control group had 20 women with an active lifestyle, no risk factors, and no history of CVD. All women in the control group had normal ICG data. All women in the study group had some abnormal ICG data, with 28 (87.5%) having multiple ICG abnormalities. ICG data indicated that 13 (40.6%) had ventricular dysfunction, 14 (43.8%) had high vascular resistive load, and 30 (93.8%) had elevated vascular pulsatile load. The data suggest that subclinical CVD, detectable by ICG, is prevalent in women older than 40 years with multiple risk factors. Abnormal ICG results could expedite the initiation of customized treatment as part of a preventive approach to CVD. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor is upregulated by l-dopa in the parkinsonian brain: implications for the development of dyskinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francardo, Veronica; Lindgren, Hanna S.; Sillivan, Stephanie E.; O’Sullivan, Sean S.; Luksik, Andrew S.; Vassoler, Fair M.; Lees, Andrew J.; Konradi, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis and increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier have been reported to occur in animal models of Parkinson’s disease and l-dopa-induced dyskinesia, but the significance of these phenomena has remained unclear. Using a validated rat model of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia, this study demonstrates that chronic treatment with l-dopa dose dependently induces the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the basal ganglia nuclei. Vascular endothelial growth factor was abundantly expressed in astrocytes and astrocytic processes in the proximity of blood vessels. When co-administered with l-dopa, a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor signalling significantly attenuated the development of dyskinesia and completely blocked the angiogenic response and associated increase in blood–brain barrier permeability induced by the treatment. The occurrence of angiogenesis and vascular endothelial growth factor upregulation was verified in post-mortem basal ganglia tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease with a history of dyskinesia, who exhibited increased microvascular density, microvascular nestin expression and an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor messenger ribonucleic acid. These congruent findings in the rat model and human patients indicate that vascular endothelial growth factor is implicated in the pathophysiology of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia and emphasize an involvement of the microvascular compartment in the adverse effects of l-dopa pharmacotherapy in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:21771855

  7. Phlebitis and infiltration: vascular trauma associated with the peripheral venous catheter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Luciene Muniz; Parreira, Pedro Miguel; Oliveira, Anabela de Sousa Salgueiro; Mónico, Lisete dos Santos Mendes; Arreguy-Sena, Cristina; Henriques, Maria Adriana

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to determine the incidence rate and risk factors for the nursing-sensitive indicators phlebitis and infiltration in patients with peripheral venous catheters (PVCs). Method: cohort study with 110 patients. Scales were used to assess and document phlebitis and infiltration. Socio-demographic variables, clinical variables related to the PVC, medication and hospitalization variables were collected. Descriptive and inferential analysis and multivariate logistic models were used. Results: the incidence rate of phlebitis and infiltration was respectively 43.2 and 59.7 per 1000 catheter-days. Most PVCs with these vascular traumas were removed in the first 24 hours. Risk factors for phlebitis were: length of hospital stay (p=0.042) and number of catheters inserted (p<0.001); risk factors for infiltration were: piperacillin/tazobactan (p=0.024) and the number of catheters inserted (p<0.001). Conclusion: the investigation documented the incidence of nursing-sensitive indicators (phlebitis and infiltration) and revealed new risk factors related to infiltration. It also allowed a reflection on the nursing care necessary to prevent these vascular traumas and on the indications and contraindications of the PVC, supporting the implementation of the PICC as an alternative to PVC. PMID:29791668

  8. Towards retrievable vascularized bioartificial pancreas: induction and long-lasting stability of polymeric mesh implant vascularized with the help of acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors and hydrogel coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, A; Kozlov, E; Nun Non, S; Dikov, M M; Sephel, G C; Whitsitt, J S; Davidson, J M

    2001-01-01

    We seek to improve existing methodologies for allogenic grafting of pancreatic islets. The lack of success of encapsulated transplanted islets inside the peritoneal cavity is presently attributed to poor vascularization of the implant. A thick, fibrotic capsule often surrounds the graft, limiting survival. We have tested the hypothesis that neovascularization of the graft material can be induced by the addition of proper angiogenic factors embedded within a polymeric coat. Biocompatible and nonresorbable meshes coated with hydrophilic polymers were implanted in rats and harvested after 1-, 6-, and 12-week intervals. The implant response was assessed by histological observations on the degree of vascularity, fibrosis, and inflammation. Macrostructural geometry of meshes was conducive to tissue ingrowth into the interstitial space between the mesh filaments. Hydrogel coating with incorporated acidic or basic FGF in an electrostatic complex with polyelectrolytes and/or with heparin provided a sustained slow release of the angiogenic growth factor. Anti-factor VIII and anti-collagen type IV antibodies and a GSL I-B4 lectin were used to measure the extent of vascularization. Vigorous and persistent vascularization radiated several hundred microns from the implant. The level of vascularization should provide a sufficient diffusion of nutrients and oxygen to implanted islets. Based on our observations, stable vascularization may require a sustained angiogenic signal to allow for the development of a permanent implant structure.

  9. RISK FACTORS AND ETIOLOGY OF TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACKS IN PATIENTS WITH BRAIN INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Transient ischemic attacks (TIA are warnings of future stroke. There is no difference in risk factors, pathophysiology and prevention between TIA and brain infarction. methods: Consecutive patients with brain infarction admitted to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Northeastern Iran, were enrolled in a prospective study during 2006. Diagnosis of ischemic stroke was established by a neurologist who also obtained history of TIA and vascular risk factors. All of the stroke patients underwent a standard battery of diagnostic investigations and etiology of ischemic stroke was determined by the Practical Iranian Criteria classification. Fisher’s exact test was used for statistical analysis. results: 348 stroke patients (186 women, 162 men were studied. History of TIA was present in 42 patients (29 women, 13 men, i.e. 12% of the stroke patients. TIA was more common in women (df=1, P=0.02. The frequency of hypertension, diabetes and ipsilateral carotid stenosis was not significantly different between patients with history of TIA and other stroke patients (P=0.87, P=0.64 and P=0.61, respectively. Hyper-cholesterolemia and smoking were significantly more frequent in stroke patients with history of TIA (P=0.011 and P=0.014, respectively. The frequency of TIA was not significantly different among patients with lacunar, versus large vessel territory infarcts (df=1, P=0.84. There was no significant difference in the frequency of various stroke etiologies in patients with and without history of TIA (df=4, P=0.61. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke patients with history of TIA have vascular risk factors similar to other stroke patients. A positive history of TIA does not affirm any specific etiology of ischemic stroke.     Keywords: Risk factors, etiology, transient ischemic attacks.

  10. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  11. Anti-vascular agent Combretastatin A-4-P modulates Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 and gene expression

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    Currie Margaret J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A functional vascular network is essential for the survival, growth and spread of solid tumours, making blood vessels a key target for therapeutic strategies. Combretastatin A-4 phosphate (CA-4-P is a tubulin-depolymerising agent in Phase II clinical trials as a vascular disrupting agent. Not much is known of the molecular effect of CA-4-P under tumour conditions. The tumour microenvironment differs markedly from that in normal tissue, specifically with respect to oxygenation (hypoxia. Gene regulation under tumour conditions is governed by hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1, controlling angiogenic and metastatic pathways. Methods We investigated the effect of CA-4-P on factors of the upstream and downstream signalling pathway of HIF-1 in vitro. Results CA-4-P treatment under hypoxia tended to reduce HIF-1 accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect which was more prominent in endothelial cells than in cancer cell lines. Conversely, CA-4-P increased HIF-1 accumulation under aerobic conditions in vitro. At these concentrations of CA-4-P under aerobic conditions, nuclear factor κB was activated via the small GTPase RhoA, and expression of the HIF-1 downstream angiogenic effector gene, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A, was increased. Conclusion Our findings advance the understanding of signal transduction pathways involved in the actions of the anti-vascular agent CA-4-P.

  12. Vascular disease in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Mani, Venkatesh; Jeyachandran, Devi; Fayad, Zahi A; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best. We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms. Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers. Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  14. Risk Factors and Etiology of Young Ischemic Stroke Patients in Estonia

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    Siim Schneider

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Reports on young patients with ischemic stroke from Eastern Europe have been scarce. This study aimed to assess risk factors and etiology of first-ever and recurrent stroke among young Estonian patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive ischemic stroke patients aged 18–54 years who were treated in our two hospitals from 2003 to 2012. Results. We identified 741 patients with first-ever stroke and 96 patients with recurrent stroke. Among first-time patients, men predominated in all age groups. The prevalence of well-documented risk factors in first-time stroke patients was 83% and in the recurrent group 91%. The most frequent risk factors were hypertension (53%, dyslipidemia (46%, and smoking (35%. Recurrent stroke patients had fewer less well-documented risk factors compared to first-time stroke patients (19.8 versus 30.0%, P=0.036. Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolic strokes (48% and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA was the cause in 8% among those aged <35 years. Compared to first-time strokes, recurrent ones were more frequently caused by LAA (14.3 versus 24.0%, P=0.01 and less often by other definite etiology (8.5 versus 1.0%, P=0.01. Conclusions. The prevalence of vascular risk factors among Estonian young stroke patients is high. Premature atherosclerosis is a cause in a substantial part of very young stroke patients.

  15. Response of the sensorimotor cortex of cerebral palsy rats receiving transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor 165-transfected neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jielu Tan; Xiangrong Zheng; Shanshan Zhang; Yujia Yang; Xia Wang; Xiaohe Yu; Le Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells are characterized by the ability to differentiate and stably express exogenous ge-nes. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays a role in protecting local blood vessels and neurons of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Transplantation of vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells may be neuroprotective in rats with cerebral palsy. In this study, 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into ifve groups: (1) sham operation (control), (2) cerebral palsy model alone or with (3) phosphate-buffered saline, (4) vascular en-dothelial growth factor 165 + neural stem cells, or (5) neural stem cells alone. hTe cerebral palsy model was established by ligating the letf common carotid artery followed by exposure to hypox-ia. Phosphate-buffered saline, vascular endothelial growth factor + neural stem cells, and neural stem cells alone were administered into the sensorimotor cortex using the stereotaxic instrument and microsyringe. Atfer transplantation, the radial-arm water maze test and holding test were performed. Immunohistochemistry for vascular endothelial growth factor and histology using hematoxylin-eosin were performed on cerebral cortex. Results revealed that the number of vas-cular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in cerebral palsy rats transplanted with vascular endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells was increased, the time for ifnding water and the ifnding repetitions were reduced, the holding time was prolonged, and the degree of cell degeneration or necrosis was reduced. hTese ifndings indicate that the transplantation of vascu-lar endothelial growth factor-transfected neural stem cells alleviates brain damage and cognitive deifcits, and is neuroprotective in neonatal rats with hypoxia ischemic-mediated cerebral palsy.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and prostate pathology

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    Francisco Botelho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF circulating levels might improve identification of patients with prostate cancer but results are conflicting. Our aim was to compare serum VEGF levels across different prostate pathologies (including benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and prostate cancer in patients at high risk of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 186 subjects with abnormal digital rectal examination and/or total PSA (tPSA = 2.5 ng/mL. Blood was collected before diagnostic ultrasound guided trans-rectal prostate biopsy, or any prostate oncology treatment, to measure PSA isoforms and VEGF. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute age-, tPSA- and free/total PSA-adjusted odds ratios (OR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for the association between serum VEGF and different prostatic pathologies. RESULTS: Prostate biopsy main diagnoses were normal or benign prostatic hyperplasia (27.3%, prostatitis (16.6%, and prostatic cancer (55.0%. The median VEGF levels (ng/mL in these groups were 178.2, 261.3 and 266.4 (p = 0.029, respectively, but no significant differences were observed for benign vs. malignant pathologies (215.2 vs. 266.4, p = 0.551. No independent association was observed between VEGF (3rd vs. 1st third and prostate cancer, when compared to benign conditions (adjusted OR = 1.44; CI 95%: 0.64-3.26. CONCLUSIONS: In patients at high risk of prostate cancer, circulating VEGF levels have no clinical role in deciding which patients should be submitted to prostate biopsy. Prostatitis patients, often with higher PSA levels, also present high serum levels of VEGF, and their inclusion in control groups might explain the heterogeneous results in previous studies.

  17. Biomarkers of drug-induced vascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brott, D.; Gould, S.; Jones, H.; Schofield, J.; Prior, H.; Valentin, J.P; Bjurstrom, S.; Kenne, K.; Schuppe-Koistinen, I.; Katein, A.; Foster-Brown, L.; Betton, G.; Richardson, R.; Evans, G.; Louden, C.

    2005-01-01

    In pre-clinical safety studies, drug-induced vascular injury is an issue of concern because there are no obvious diagnostic markers for pre-clinical or clinical monitoring and there is an intellectual gap in our understanding of the pathogenesis of this lesion. While vasodilatation and increased shear stress appear to play a role, the exact mechanism(s) of injury to the primary targets, smooth muscle and endothelial cells are unknown. However, evaluation of novel markers for potential clinical monitoring with a mechanistic underpinning would add value in risk assessment and management. This mini review focuses on the progress to identify diagnostic markers of drug-induced vascular injury. Von Willebrand factor (vWF), released upon perturbation of endothelial cells, is transiently increased in plasma prior to morphological evidence of damage in dogs or rats treated with vascular toxicants. Therefore, vWF might be a predictive biomarker of vascular injury. However, vWF is not an appropriate biomarker of lesion progression or severity since levels return to baseline values when there is morphological evidence of injury. A potential mechanistically linked biomarker of vascular injury is caveolin-1. Expression of this protein, localized primarily to smooth muscle and endothelial cells, decreases with the onset of vascular damage. Since vascular injury involves multiple mediators and cell types, evaluation of a panel rather than a single biomarker may be more useful in monitoring early and severe progressive vascular injury

  18. Risk of incident clinical diagnosis of AD-type dementia attributable to pathology-confirmed vascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Hiroko H.; Zhu, Jian; Woltjer, Randy; Nelson, Peter T.; Bennett, David A.; Cairns, Nigel J.; Fardo, David W.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Lyons, Deniz-Erten; Mattek, Nora; Schneider, Julie A; Silbert, Lisa C.; Xiong, Chengjie; Yu, Lei; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Abner, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Presence of cerebrovascular pathology may increase the risk of clinical diagnosis of AD. Methods We examined excess risk of incident clinical diagnosis of AD (probable and possible AD) posed by the presence of lacunes and large infarcts beyond AD pathology using data from the Statistical Modelling of Aging and Risk of Transition (SMART) study, a consortium of longitudinal cohort studies with over 2000 autopsies. We created six mutually exclusive pathology patterns combining three levels of AD pathology (low, moderate or high AD pathology) and two levels of vascular pathology (without lacunes and large infarcts or with lacunes and/or large infarcts). Results The coexistence of lacunes and large infarcts results in higher likelihood of clinical diagnosis of AD only when AD pathology burden is low. Discussion Our results reinforce the diagnostic importance of AD pathology in clinical AD. Further harmonization of assessment approaches for vascular pathologies is required. PMID:28017827

  19. Effects of High Glucose on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Synthesis and Secretion in Aortic Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Obese and Lean Zucker Rats

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    Mariella Trovati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency, type 2 by both insulin deficiency and insulin resistance: in both conditions, hyperglycaemia is accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk, due to increased atherosclerotic plaque formation/instabilization and impaired collateral vessel formation. An important factor in these phenomena is the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, a molecule produced also by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMC. We aimed at evaluating the role of high glucose on VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from lean insulin-sensitive and obese insulin-resistant Zucker rats (LZR and OZR. In cultured aortic VSMC from LZR and OZR incubated for 24 h with D-glucose (5.5, 15 and 25 mM or with the osmotic controls L-glucose and mannitol, we measured VEGF-A164 synthesis (western, blotting and secretion (western blotting and ELISA. We observed that: (i D-glucose dose-dependently increases VEGF-A164 synthesis and secretion in VSMC from LZR and OZR (n = 6, ANOVA p = 0.002–0.0001; (ii all the effects of 15 and 25 mM D-glucose are attenuated in VSMC from OZR vs. LZR (p = 0.0001; (iii L-glucose and mannitol reproduce the VEGF-A164 modulation induced by D-glucose in VSMC from both LZR and OZR. Thus, glucose increases via an osmotic mechanism VEGF synthesis and secretion in VSMC, an effect attenuated in the presence of insulin resistance.

  20. Evidence for a role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiping; Sakuma, Masashi; Zago, Alexandre C; Zhang, Xiaobin; Shi, Can; Leng, Lin; Mizue, Yuka; Bucala, Richard; Simon, Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Inflammation plays an essential role in atherosclerosis and restenosis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely expressed in vascular cells. However, there is no in vivo evidence that MIF participates directly in vascular injury and repair. Therefore, we investigated the effect of MIF blockade on the response to experimental angioplasty in atherosclerosis-susceptible mice. Carotid artery dilation (2.5 atm) and complete endothelial denudation were performed in male C57BL/6J LDL receptor-deficient mice treated with a neutralizing anti-MIF or isotype control monoclonal antibody. After 7 days and 28 days, intimal and medial sizes were measured and intima/media area ratio (I/M) was calculated. Intimal thickening and I/M were reduced significantly by anti-MIF compared with control antibody. Vascular injury was accompanied by progressive vessel enlargement or "positive remodeling" that was comparable in both treatment groups. MIF blockade was associated with reduced inflammation and cellular proliferation and increased apoptosis after injury. Neutralizing MIF bioactivity after experimental angioplasty in atherosclerosis-susceptible mice reduces vascular inflammation, cellular proliferation, and neointimal thickening. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not yet established, these data prompt further research directed at understanding the role of MIF in vascular disease and suggest novel therapeutic interventions for preventing atherosclerosis and restenosis.

  1. Epidemiology, classification, and modifiable risk factors of peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas W Shammas

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas W ShammasMidwest Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Cardiovascular Medicine, PC, Davenport, IA, USAAbstract: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is part of a global vascular problem of diffuse atherosclerosis. PAD patients die mostly of cardiac and cerebrovascular-related events and much less frequently due to obstructive disease of the lower extremities. Aggressive risk factors modification is needed to reduce cardiac mortality in PAD patients. These include smoking cessation, reduction of blood pressure to current guidelines, aggressive low density lipoprotein lowering, losing weight, controlling diabetes and the use of oral antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin or clopidogrel. In addition to quitting smoking and exercise, cilostazol and statins have been shown to reduce claudication in patients with PAD. Patients with critical rest limb ischemia or severe progressive claudication need to be treated with revascularization to minimize the chance of limb loss, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, epidemiology, risk factors, classification

  2. External validation of Vascular Study Group of New England risk predictive model of mortality after elective abdominal aorta aneurysm repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative and comparison against established models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Rybin, Denis V; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Farber, Alik

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to externally validate a recently reported Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model of postoperative mortality after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair and to compare its predictive ability across different patients' risk categories and against the established risk predictive models using the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) AAA sample. The VQI AAA database (2010-2015) was queried for patients who underwent elective AAA repair. The VSGNE cases were excluded from the VQI sample. The external validation of a recently published VSGNE AAA risk predictive model, which includes only preoperative variables (age, gender, history of coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, creatinine levels, and aneurysm size) and planned type of repair, was performed using the VQI elective AAA repair sample. The predictive value of the model was assessed via the C-statistic. Hosmer-Lemeshow method was used to assess calibration and goodness of fit. This model was then compared with the Medicare, Vascular Governance Northwest model, and Glasgow Aneurysm Score for predicting mortality in VQI sample. The Vuong test was performed to compare the model fit between the models. Model discrimination was assessed in different risk group VQI quintiles. Data from 4431 cases from the VSGNE sample with the overall mortality rate of 1.4% was used to develop the model. The internally validated VSGNE model showed a very high discriminating ability in predicting mortality (C = 0.822) and good model fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .309) among the VSGNE elective AAA repair sample. External validation on 16,989 VQI cases with an overall 0.9% mortality rate showed very robust predictive ability of mortality (C = 0.802). Vuong tests yielded a significant fit difference favoring the VSGNE over then Medicare model (C = 0.780), Vascular Governance Northwest (0.774), and Glasgow Aneurysm Score (0

  3. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  4. The impact of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor on cardiac fibroblasts grown under altered gravity conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulbrich, Claudia; Leder, Annekatrin; Pietsch, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Myocardium is very sensitive to gravitational changes. During a spaceflight cardiovascular atrophy paired with rhythm problems and orthostatic intolerance can occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor...

  5. Increased peripheral vascular disease risk progressively constrains perfusion adaptability in the skeletal muscle microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Joshua T.; Frisbee, Stephanie J.; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.; Tabone, Lawrence E.; d'Audiffret, Alexandre C.; Shrader, Carl D.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Brooks, Steven D.; Brock, Robert W.; Lombard, Julian H.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the impact of progressive elevations in peripheral vascular disease (PVD) risk on microvascular function, we utilized eight rat models spanning “healthy” to “high PVD risk” and used a multiscale approach to interrogate microvascular function and outcomes: healthy: Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR); mild risk: SDR on high-salt diet (HSD) and SDR on high-fructose diet (HFD); moderate risk: reduced renal mass-hypertensive rats (RRM) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR); high risk: obese Zucker rats (OZR) and Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSS). Vascular reactivity and biochemical analyses demonstrated that even mild elevations in PVD risk severely attenuated nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and caused progressive shifts in arachidonic acid metabolism, increasing thromboxane A2 levels. With the introduction of hypertension, arteriolar myogenic activation and adrenergic constriction were increased. However, while functional hyperemia and fatigue resistance of in situ skeletal muscle were not impacted with mild or moderate PVD risk, blood oxygen handling suggested an increasingly heterogeneous perfusion within resting and contracting skeletal muscle. Analysis of in situ networks demonstrated an increasingly stable and heterogeneous distribution of perfusion at arteriolar bifurcations with elevated PVD risk, a phenomenon that was manifested first in the distal microcirculation and evolved proximally with increasing risk. The increased perfusion distribution heterogeneity and loss of flexibility throughout the microvascular network, the result of the combined effects on NO bioavailability, arachidonic acid metabolism, myogenic activation, and adrenergic constriction, may represent the most accurate predictor of the skeletal muscle microvasculopathy and poor health outcomes associated with chronic elevations in PVD risk. PMID:26702145

  6. Association of vascular risk factors with cognition in a multiethnic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C; Gross, Alden L; Bangen, Katherine J; Skinner, Jeannine C; Benitez, Andreana; Glymour, M Maria; Sachs, Bonnie C; Shih, Regina A; Sisco, Shannon; Manly, Jennifer J; Luchsinger, José A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the relationship between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and cognitive performance in a multiethnic sample of older adults. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project. A composite score including smoking, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and central obesity represented CVRFs. Multiple group parallel process multivariate random effects regression models were used to model cognitive functioning and examine the contribution of CVRFs to baseline performance and change in general cognitive processing, memory, and executive functioning. Presence of each CVRF was associated with a 0.1 SD lower score in general cognitive processing, memory, and executive functioning in black and Hispanic participants relative to whites. Baseline CVRFs were associated with poorer baseline cognitive performances among black women and Hispanic men. CVRF increase was related to baseline cognitive performance only among Hispanics. CVRFs were not related to cognitive decline. After adjustment for medications, CVRFs were not associated with cognition in Hispanic participants. CVRFs are associated with poorer cognitive functioning, but not cognitive decline, among minority older adults. These relationships vary by gender and medication use. Consideration of unique racial, ethnic, and cultural factors is needed when examining relationships between CVRFs and cognition. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  8. Risk Factors for Pregnancy-Associated Stroke in Women With Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eliza C; Gatollari, Hajere J; Too, Gloria; Boehme, Amelia K; Leffert, Lisa; Marshall, Randolph S; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Willey, Joshua Z

    2017-07-01

    Preeclampsia affects 3% to 8% of pregnancies and increases risk of pregnancy-associated stroke (PAS). Data are limited on which women with preeclampsia are at highest risk for PAS. Using billing data from the 2003 to 2012 New York State Department of Health inpatient database, we matched women with preeclampsia and PAS 1:3 to preeclamptic controls based on age and race/ethnicity. Pre-defined PAS risk factors included pregnancy complications, infection present on admission, vascular risk factors, prothrombotic states, and coagulopathies. We constructed multivariable conditional logistic regression models to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for independent risk factors for PAS. Among women aged 12 to 55 years admitted to New York State hospitals for any reason during the study period (n=3 373 114), 88 857 had preeclampsia, and 197 of whom (0.2%) had PAS. In multivariable analysis, women with preeclampsia and stroke were more likely than controls to have severe preeclampsia or eclampsia (OR, 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6-11.3), infections present on admission (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8), prothrombotic states (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3-9.2), coagulopathies (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.1), or chronic hypertension (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.8-5.5). Additional analyses matched and stratified by severity of preeclampsia confirmed these results. Infections, chronic hypertension, coagulopathies, and underlying prothrombotic conditions increase PAS risk in women with preeclampsia. These women may warrant closer monitoring. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Is postoperative cognitive dysfunction a risk factor for dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Kessing, L V

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: /st>Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication in elderly patients after major surgery. An association between POCD and the development of dementia has been suspected. In this study, we assessed if POCD was a risk factor for the occurrence of dementia. METHODS...... surgery, using a neuropsychological test battery. The time of (first) occurrence of dementia after surgery was assessed using the National Patient Register and the Psychiatric Central Research Register. Recorded dementia diagnoses (ICD-8 and ICD-10) were: Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia......, frontotemporal dementia, or dementia without specification. The risk of dementia according to POCD was assessed in the Cox regression models. RESULTS: /st>A total of 686 patients with a median age of 67 [inter-quartile range (IQR) 61-74] yr were followed for a median of 11.1 (IQR 5.2-12.6) yr. Only 32 patients...

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: investigational therapies for the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidemann, Anja K; Crawshaw, Ania A; Byrne, Emily; Young, Helen S

    2013-09-26

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory autoimmune condition in which environmental factors and genetic predisposition contribute to the development of disease in susceptible individuals. Angiogenesis is known to be a key pathogenic feature of psoriasis. Local and systemic elevation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A has been demonstrated in the skin and plasma of patients with psoriasis and is known to correlate with improvement following some traditional psoriasis treatments. A number of VEGF inhibitors are licensed for the treatment of malignancies and eye disease and isolated case reports suggest that some individuals with psoriasis may improve when exposed to these agents. The small number of cases and lack of unified reporting measures makes it difficult to draw generalizations and underline the heterogeneity of psoriasis as a disease entity. Though not yet licensed for the treatment of psoriasis in humans, experimental data supports the potential of VEGF inhibitors to influence relevant aspects of human cell biology (such as endothelial cell differentiation) and to improve animal models of skin disease. Given the multi-factorial nature of psoriasis it is unlikely that VEGF inhibitors will be effective in all patients, however they have the potential to be a valuable addition to the therapeutic arsenal in selected cases. Current VEGF inhibitors in clinical use are associated with a number of potentially serious side effects including hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and gastrointestinal perforation. Such risks require careful consideration in psoriasis populations particularly in light of growing concerns linking psoriasis to increased cardiovascular risk.

  11. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  12. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ludovici

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP, improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure. Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function.

  13. Exposure to Experimental Preeclampsia in Mice Enhances the Vascular Response to Future Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthi, Dafina; Khankin, Eliyahu V.; Blanton, Robert M.; Aronovitz, Mark; Burke, Suzanne D.; McCurley, Amy; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading killer of women in developed nations. One gender-specific risk factor is preeclampsia (PE), a syndrome of hypertension and proteinuria that complicates 5% of pregnancies. Although PE resolves after delivery, exposed women are at increased long term risk of premature CVD and mortality. Preexisting CVD risk factors are associated with increased risk of developing PE but whether PE merely uncovers risk or contributes directly to future CVD remains a critical unanswered question. A mouse PE model was used to test the hypothesis that PE causes an enhanced vascular response to future vessel injury. A PE-like state was induced in pregnant CD1 mice by overexpressing soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), a circulating anti-angiogenic protein that induces hypertension and glomerular disease resembling human PE. Two months post-partum, sFlt-1 levels and blood pressure normalized and cardiac size and function by echocardiography and renal histology were indistinguishable in PE-exposed compared to control mice. Mice were then challenged with unilateral carotid injury. PE-exposed mice had significantly enhanced vascular remodeling with increased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation (180% increase, P<0.01) and vessel fibrosis (216% increase, P<0.001) compared to control pregnancy. In the contralateral uninjured vessel, there was no difference in remodeling after exposure to PE. These data support a new model in which vessels exposed to PE retain a persistently enhanced vascular response to injury despite resolution of PE after delivery. This new paradigm may contribute to the substantially increased risk of CVD in woman exposed to PE. PMID:25712723

  14. Cardiac Risk Assessment, Morbidity Prediction, and Outcome in the Vascular Intensive Care Unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dover, Mary

    2013-09-17

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the predictive value of the Lee revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) for a standard vascular intensive care unit (ICU) population as well as assessing the utility of transthoracic echocardiography and the impact of prior coronary artery disease (CAD) and coronary revascularization on patient outcome. Design: This is a retrospective review of prospectively maintained Vascubase and prospectively collected ICU data. Materials and Methods: Data from 363 consecutive vascular ICU admissions were collected. Findings were used to calculate the RCRI, which was then correlated with patient outcomes. All patients were on optimal medical therapy (OMT) in the form of cardioselective β-blocker, aspirin, statin, and folic acid. Results: There was no relationship found between a reduced ejection fraction and patient outcome. Mortality was significantly increased for patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as identified on echo (14.9% vs 6.5%, P = .028). The overall complication rates were significantly elevated for patients with valvular dysfunction. Discrimination for the RCRI on receiver-operating characteristic analysis was poor, with an area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of .621. Model calibration was reasonable with an Hosmer-Lemeshow Ĉ statistic of 2.726 (P = .256). Of those with known CAD, 41.22% of the patients receiving best medical treatment developed acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to 35.3% of those who previously underwent percutaneous cardiac intervention and 23.5% of those who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting. There was 3-fold increase in major adverse clinical events in patients with troponin rise and LVH. Conclusions: The RCRI\\'s discriminatory capacity is low, and this raises difficulties in assessing cardiac risk in patients undergoing vascular intervention. The AMI is highest in the OMT group without prior cardiac intervention, which mandates protocols to

  15. The effect of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) on cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorberboym, M; Mena, I; Wainstein, J; Boaz, M; Lampl, Y

    2010-06-01

    Sildenafil citrate is widely used for erectile dysfunction. The present study examined the short-term effects of sildenafil administration in individuals with cerebrovascular risk factors, including patients with a history of stroke. Twenty-five consecutive male patients with erectile dysfunction and vascular risk factors were included in the study. A perfusion brain SPECT study was performed at baseline and 1 h after the oral administration of sildenafil. Associations between any of the risk factors and the perfusion scores were not detected, with the exception of stroke. Stroke patients showed significantly more areas with diminished perfusion after sildenafil administration compared to baseline. In patients with diabetes or hypertension, a dose of 50 mg sildenafil does not appear to produce detrimental effects on cerebral blood flow. However, patients with a history of stroke may be at increased risk of hemodynamic impairment after the use of sildenafil.

  16. Cardiovascular risk factor assessment after pre-eclampsia in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numans Mattijs E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia is associated with an increased risk of development of cardiovascular disease later in life. It is not known how general practitioners in the Netherlands care for these women after delivery with respect to cardiovascular risk factor management. Methods Review of medical records of 1196 women in four primary health care centres, who were registered from January 2000 until July 2007 with an International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC code indicating pregnancy. Records were searched for indicators of pre-eclampsia. Of those who experienced pre-eclampsia and of a random sample of 150 women who did not, the following information on cardiovascular risk factor management after pregnancy was extracted from the records: frequency and timing of blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose measurements - and vascular diagnoses. Additionally the sensitivity and specificity of ICPC coding for pre-eclampsia were determined. Results 35 women experienced pre-eclampsia. Blood pressure was more often checked after pregnancy in these women than in controls (57.1% vs. 12.0%, p Conclusion Despite the evidence of increased risk of future cardiovascular disease in women with a history of pre-eclampsia, follow-up of these women is insufficient and undeveloped in primary care in the Netherlands.

  17. Factors modulating bioavailability of quercetin-related flavonoids and the consequences of their vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Junji

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays dietary flavonoids attract much attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. Epidemiological and intervention studies strongly suggest that flavonoid intake has beneficial effects on vascular health. It is unlikely that flavonoids act as direct antioxidants, although oxidative stress profoundly contributes to vascular impairment leading to cardiovascular diseases. Instead, flavonoids may exert their function by tuning the cellular redox state to an adaptive response or tolerable stress. However, the optimum intake of flavonoids from supplements or diet has not been clarified yet, because a number of exogenous and endogenous factors modulating their bioavailability affect their vascular function. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the bioavailability and vascular function of quercetin as a representative of antioxidative flavonoids. Current intervention studies imply that intake of quercetin-rich onion improves vascular health. Onion may be superior to quercetin supplement from the viewpoint of quercetin bioavailability, probably because the food matrix enhances the intestinal absorption of quercetin. α-Glucosylation increases its bioavailability by elevating the accessibility to the absorptive cells. Prenylation may enhance bioaccumulation at the target site by increasing the cellular uptake. However, these chemical modifications do not guarantee health benefits to the vascular system. Dietary quercetin is exclusively present as their conjugated form in the blood stream. Quercetin may exert its vascular function as an aglycone within macrophage cells after inflammation-induced deconjugation and as conjugated metabolites by targeting endothelial cells. The relationship between the bioavailability and bio-efficacy should be clarified, to evaluate the vascular function of a wide variety of dietary flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor impairs the functional ability of dendritic cells through Id pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxmanan, Sreenivas; Robertson, Stuart W.; Wang Enfeng; Lau, Julie S.; Briscoe, David M.; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic cytokine that plays an important role in tumor growth and progression. Recent evidence suggests an alternate, albeit indirect, role of VEGF on host immune response to tumors. VEGF appears to diminish host immunity by altering the function of major antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) [D.I. Gabrilovich, T. Ishida, S. Nadaf, J.E. Ohm, D.P. Carbone, Antibodies to vascular endothelial growth factor enhance the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy by improving endogenous dendritic cell function, Clin. Cancer Res. 5 (1999) 2963-2970, D. Gabrilovich, T. Ishida, T. Oyama, S. Ran, V. Kravtsov, S. Nadaf, D.P. Carbone, Vascular endothelial growth factor inhibits the development of dendritic cells and dramatically affects the differentiation of multiple hematopoietic lineages in vivo, Blood 92 (1998) 4150-4166, T. Oyama, S. Ran, T. Ishida, S. Nadaf, L. Kerr, D.P. Carbone, D.I. Gabrilovich, Vascular endothelial growth factor affects dendritic cell maturation through the inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation in hemopoietic progenitor cells, J. Immunol. 160 (1998) 1224-1232.]. DCs are prime initiators of host immunity as they are known to activate both primary as well as secondary immune responses [J. Banchereau, F. Briere, C. Caux, J. Davoust, S. Lebecque, Y.J. Liu, B. Pulendran, K. Palucka, Immunobiology of dendritic cells, Ann. Rev. Immunol. 18 (2000) 767-811.]. However, the exact nature of how VEGF suppresses DC function is not fully clear. In this report, we show that DCs cultured in the presence of VEGF are less potent in stimulating antigen-specific T-cells. Furthermore, by using DCs derived from Id1 -/- mice that are defective in Flt-1 signaling, we demonstrated that the inhibitory function of VEGF on DC function is most likely mediated by Flt-1. Thus, the role of VEGF in downregulating host immunity may highlight a unique role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of cancer

  19. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A determines detectability of experimental melanoma brain metastasis in GD-DTPA-enhanced MRI.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, W.P.J.; Kusters, B.; Pikkemaat, J.A.; Wesseling, P.; Ruiter, D.J.; Heerschap, A.; Barentsz, J.O.; Waal, R.M.W. de

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that the dense vascular network in mouse brain allows for growth of human melanoma xenografts (Mel57) by co-option of preexisting vessels. Overexpression of recombinant vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) by such xenografts induced functional and morphologic

  1. Macrolide use and the risk of vascular disease in HIV-infected men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolley, Ian J; Li, Xiuhong; Jacobson, Lisa P

    2007-01-01

    of macrolide prophylaxis on those outcomes. METHODS: A subcohort analysis was undertaken using data collected in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study to examine the relative risk of vascular events (myocardial infarction, unstable angina and ischaemic stroke). Cox proportional hazard model using age as the time...... scale with time varying cofactors obtained at each semi-annual visit were used to assess the independent effect of macrolide use. RESULTS: Controlling for other significant effects including race and smoking, HIV-infection was not independently associated with vascular events. Increased risk......BACKGROUND: There has been increasing concern that HIV-infected individuals may be more at risk for cardiovascular events in the highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. This study examined the risk of thromboembolic events in HIV-infected and non-infected individuals and the effect...

  2. Terror attacks increases the risk of vascular injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan eHeldenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Extensive literature exists about military trauma as opposed to the very limited literature regarding terror-related civilian trauma. However, terror-related vascular trauma (VT, as a unique type of injury, is yet to be addressed.Methods: A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from 09/2000 to 12/2005 were included. The subgroup of patients with documented vascular trauma (VT (N=1,545 was analyzedand further subdivided into those suffering from Terror-related Vascular Trauma (TVT and Non-Terror related Vascular Trauma (NTVT. Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury and treatment.Results: Out of 2,446 terror related trauma admissions 243 sustained TVT (9.9% compared to 1302 VT patients from Non Terror trauma (1.1%. TVT injuries tend to be more complex and most patients were operated on. ICU admissions and hospitallength of stay was higher in the TVT group. Penetrating trauma was the prominent cause of injury among the TVT group. TVT group had a higher proportion of patients with severe injuries (ISS>16 and mortality. Thorax injuries were more frequent in the TVT group. Extremity injuries were the most prevalent vascular injuries in both groups; however NTVT group had more upper extremity injuries, while the TVT group had significantly more lower extremity injuries.Conclusion: Vascular injuries are remarkably more common among terror attack victims than among non-terror trauma victims and the injuries of terror casualties tend to be more complex. The presence of a vascular surgeon will ensure a comprehensive clinical care.

  3. Deleterious effects of tributyltin on porcine vascular stem cells physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, Chiara; Zannoni, Augusta; Bertocchi, Martina; Bianchi, Francesca; Salaroli, Roberta; Botelho, Giuliana; Bacci, Maria Laura; Ventrella, Vittoria; Forni, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The vascular functional and structural integrity is essential for the maintenance of the whole organism and it has been demonstrated that different types of vascular progenitor cells resident in the vessel wall play an important role in this process. The purpose of the present research was to observe the effect of tributyltin (TBT), a risk factor for vascular disorders, on porcine Aortic Vascular Precursor Cells (pAVPCs) in term of cytotoxicity, gene expression profile, functionality and differentiation potential. We have demonstrated that pAVPCs morphology deeply changed following TBT treatment. After 48h a cytotoxic effect has been detected and Annexin binding assay demonstrated that TBT induced apoptosis. The transcriptional profile of characteristic pericyte markers has been altered: TBT 10nM substantially induced alpha-SMA, while, TBT 500nM determined a significant reduction of all pericyte markers. IL-6 protein detected in the medium of pAVPCs treated with TBT at both doses studied and with a dose response. TBT has interfered with normal pAVPC functionality preventing their ability to support a capillary-like network. In addition TBT has determined an increase of pAVPC adipogenic differentiation. In conclusion in the present paper we have demonstrated that TBT alters the vascular stem cells in terms of structure, functionality and differentiating capability, therefore effects of TBT in blood should be deeply explored to understand the potential vascular risk associated with the alteration of vascular stem cell physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Disruptive technological advances in vascular access for dialysis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wee-Song; Ng, Qin Xiang

    2017-11-29

    End-stage kidney disease (ESKD), one of the most prevalent diseases in the world and with increasing incidence, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current available modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) include dialysis and renal transplantation. Though renal transplantation is the preferred and ideal mode of RRT, this modality may not be available to all patients with ESKD. Moreover, renal transplant recipients are constantly at risk of complications associated with immunosuppression and immunosuppressant use, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Dialysis may be the only available modality in certain patients. However, dialysis has its limitations, which include issues associated with lack of vascular access, risks of infections and vascular thrombosis, decreased quality of life, and absence of biosynthetic functions of the kidney. In particular, the creation and maintenance of hemodialysis vascular access in children poses a unique set of challenges to the pediatric nephrologist owing to the smaller vessel diameters and vascular hyperreactivity compared with adult patients. Vascular access issues continue to be one of the major limiting factors prohibiting the delivery of adequate dialysis in ESKD patients and is the Achilles' heel of hemodialysis. This review aims to provide a critical overview of disruptive technological advances and innovations for vascular access. Novel strategies in preventing neointimal hyperplasia, novel bioengineered products, grafts and devices for vascular access will be discussed. The potential impact of these solutions on improving the morbidity encountered by dialysis patients will also be examined.

  5. Prognostic Factors Influencing the Patency of Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Literature Review and Novel Therapeutic Modality by Far Infrared Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ching Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, more than 85% of patients with end-stage renal disease undergo maintenance hemodialysis (HD. The native arteriovenous fistula (AVF accounts for a prevalence of more than 80% of the vascular access in our patients. Some mechanical factors may affect the patency of hemodialysis vascular access, such as surgical skill, puncture technique and shear stress on the vascular endothelium. Several medical factors have also been identified to be associated with vascular access prognosis in HD patients, including stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial cell injury, medications, red cell mass and genotype polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-β1 and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase. According to our previous study, AVF failure was associated with a longer dinucleotide (GTn repeat (n ≥ 30 in the promoter of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 gene. Our recent study also demonstrated that far-infrared therapy, a noninvasive and convenient therapeutic modality, can improve access flow, inflammatory status and survival of the AVF in HD patients through both its thermal and non-thermal (endothelial-improving, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, antioxidative effects by upregulating NF-E2-related factor-2-dependent HO-1 expression, leading to the inhibition of expression of E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

  6. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Clapp, Carmen; Rivera, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity. Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05. Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001) in the aqueous and vitreous samples. Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group. PMID:20856587

  7. HIV-occlusive vascular disease | Van Marle | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usual risk factors for atherosclerosis were present, but the incidence was less than reported in the classic atherosclerosis population. More than 90% of the patients presented with advanced stage vascular disease (Fontaine III/IV), which explains the high rate (31.9%) of primary amputation. Eightyseven patients ...

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor in skeletal muscle following glycogen-depleting exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper Degn; Ørtenblad, Niels

    2015-01-01

    unclear. However, as VEGF is also considered very important for the regulation of vascular permeability, it is possible that metabolic stress may trigger muscle VEGF release. PURPOSE: To study the role of metabolic stress induced by glycogen-depleting exercise on muscle VEGF expression. METHODS: Fifteen......Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is traditionally considered important for skeletal muscle angiogenesis. VEGF is released from vascular endothelium as well as the muscle cells in response to exercise. The mechanism and the physiological role of VEGF secreted from the muscle cells remain...... levels by 24h irrespective of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle glycogen depletion induced by prolonged exercise leads to up-regulation as well as co-localization of HSP70 and VEGF primarily in type I fibers, thus suggesting that VEGF released from muscle is involved in the maintenance of muscle metabolic...

  9. Risk Factors for Serious Prescription Opioid-Induced Respiratory Depression or Overdose: Comparison of Commercially Insured and Veterans Health Affairs Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadpara, Pramit A; Joyce, Andrew R; Murrelle, E Lenn; Carroll, Nathan W; Carroll, Norman V; Barnard, Marie; Zedler, Barbara K

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the risk factors associated with overdose or serious opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) among medical users of prescription opioids in a commercially insured population (CIP) and to compare risk factor profiles between the CIP and Veterans Health Administration (VHA) population. Analysis of data from 18,365,497 patients in the IMS PharMetrics Plus health plan claims database (CIP) who were dispensed a prescription opioid in 2009 to 2013. Baseline factors associated with an event of serious OIRD among 7,234 cases and 28,932 controls were identified using multivariable logistic regression. The CIP risk factor profile was compared with that from a corresponding logistic regression among 817 VHA cases and 8,170 controls in 2010 to 2012. The strongest associations with serious OIRD in CIP were diagnosed substance use disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 10.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.06-11.40) and depression (OR = 3.12, 95% CI = 2.84-3.42). Other strongly associated factors included other mental health disorders; impaired liver, renal, vascular, and pulmonary function; prescribed fentanyl, methadone, and morphine; higher daily opioid doses; and concurrent psychoactive medications. These risk factors, except depression, vascular disease, and specific opioids, largely aligned with VHA despite CIP being substantially younger, including more females and less chronic disease, and having greater prescribing prevalence of higher daily opioid doses, specific opioids, and most selected nonopioids. Risk factor profiles for serious OIRD among US medical users of prescription opioids with private or public health insurance were largely concordant despite substantial differences between the populations in demographics, clinical conditions, health care delivery systems, and clinical practices. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine.

  10. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  11. Aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations after bimonthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept for age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Tomoko; Wang, Xiying; Sawada, Osamu; Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Ohji, Masahito

    2018-01-01

    Clinical evidence supports the efficacy of bimonthly aflibercept injection for age-related macular degeneration. The study aimed to evaluate aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations and the efficacy of bimonthly aflibercept in patients with age-related macular degeneration. This study is a prospective, interventional case series. Enrolled were 35 eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration from 35 patients. Patients received three bimonthly intravitreal aflibercept without loading doses. We collected the aqueous humor just before each injection, measured vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and measured best-corrected visual acuity and central retinal subfield thickness before and after the injections. Aqueous vascular endothelial growth factor and aflibercept concentrations were measured. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration was 135.4 ± 60.5 pg/mL (mean ± standard deviation, range 60.6-323.4) at baseline and below the lowest detectable limit in all eyes at month 2 and in 32 eyes at month 4 (P age-related macular degeneration. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Therapeutic interventions and success in risk factor control for secondary prevention of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Sabin, Jose; Quintana, Manuel; Hernandez-Presa, Miguel Angel; Alvarez, Carlos; Chaves, Jose; Ribo, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the success rates in achieving preventive therapeutic goals in patients who experienced an ischemic stroke (IS) and compare them with those achieved in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This was an observational multicenter case-control study (3 patients with IS and one control subject with CAD) performed in 1444 primary health centers in Spain. Preventive therapeutic objectives according to American Heart Association guidelines were predefined. Demographic data, vascular risk factors, and success/failure in achievement of objectives were recorded and compared between patients with IS and CAD. A total of 5458 patients were included, 4098 (75.1%) had IS and 1360 (24.9%) had CAD. Although more than 90% of patients with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia were under specific drug regimens, only about 25% achieved the recommended therapeutic objective for each risk factor. Success rate was especially low among patients with IS compared with CAD: hypertension (23.8% v 27.2%; P = .028); dyslipidemia (13.6% v 20.3%; P risk factors under control, compared with 5.6% of those with CAD (P = .006). For all patients, multivariate logistic regression model showed that independent predictors of full risk factor control were: presence of CAD as compared with IS (odds ratio [OR] 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35-3.29; P = .001), older age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00-1.04; P = .028), and having less than 3 risk factors (OR 16.98; 95% CI 9.02-31.97; P risk factor control.

  13. Vascular Risk as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Mild to Moderate Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro K. Curiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The purpose of our study was to evaluate vascular risk factors and other clinical variables as predictors of cognitive and functional decline in elderly patients with mild to moderate dementia. Methods: The clinical characteristics of 82 elderly patients (mean age 79.0 ± 5.9 years; 67.1% females with mild to moderate dementia were obtained at baseline, including years of education, Framingham Coronary Heart Disease Risk score, Hachinski Ischemic Score (HIS, Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ score, Burden Interview Scale score, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI score. Changes in MMSE and FAQ scores over time were assessed annually. The association between baseline clinical variables and cognitive and functional decline was investigated during 3 years of follow-up through the use of generalized linear mixed effects models. Results: A trend was found towards steeper cognitive decline in patients with less vascular burden according to the HIS (β = 0.056, p = 0.09, better cognitive performance according to the CDR score (β = 0.313, p = 0.06 and worse caregiver burden according to the Burden Interview Scale score (β = -0.012, p = 0.07 at baseline. Conclusion: Further studies with larger samples are necessary to confirm and expand our findings.

  14. Predictive value of quantitative dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy in assessing cardiovascular risk after vascular surgery in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, S.E.; Lewis, S.M.; Pippin, J.J.; Kosinski, E.J.; Campbell, D.; Nesto, R.W.; Hill, T.

    1989-01-01

    Cardiac complications represent a major risk to patients undergoing vascular surgery. Diabetic patients may be particularly prone to such complications due to the high incidence of concomitant coronary artery disease, the severity of which may be clinically unrecognized. Attempts to stratify groups by clinical criteria have been useful but lack the predictive value of currently used noninvasive techniques such as dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy. One hundred one diabetic patients were evaluated with dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy before undergoing vascular surgery. The incidence of thallium abnormalities was high (80%) and did not correlate with clinical markers of coronary disease. Even in a subgroup of patients with no overt clinical evidence of underlying heart disease, thallium abnormalities were present in 59%. Cardiovascular complications, however, occurred in only 11% of all patients. Statistically significant prediction of risk was not achieved with simple assessment of thallium results as normal or abnormal. Quantification of total number of reversible defects, as well as assessment of ischemia in the distribution of the left anterior descending coronary artery was required for optimum predictive accuracy. The prevalence of dipyridamole-thallium abnormalities in a diabetic population is much higher than that reported in nondiabetic patients and cannot be predicted by usual clinical indicators of heart disease. In addition, cardiovascular risk of vascular surgery can be optimally assessed by quantitative analysis of dipyridamole-thallium scintigraphy and identification of high- and low-risk subgroups

  15. Vitamin D in Vascular Calcification: A Double-Edged Sword?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification (VC as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification. Therefore, more complex underlying processes involving physiochemical changes to mineral balance, vascular remodelling and perturbed hormonal responses such as parathyroid hormone (PTH and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23 are likely to contribute to VC. In particular, VC resulting from modifications to calcium, phosphate and vitamin D homeostasis has been recently elucidated. Notably, deregulation of vitamin D metabolism, dietary calcium intake and renal mineral handling are associated with imbalances in systemic calcium and phosphate levels and endothelial cell dysfunction, which can modulate both bone and soft tissue calcification. This review addresses the current understanding of VC pathophysiology, with a focus on the pathogenic role of vitamin D that has provided new insights into the mechanisms of VC.

  16. Operative variables are better predictors of postdischarge infections and unplanned readmissions in vascular surgery patients than patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Bronsert, Michael; Hammermeister, Karl E; Henderson, William G; Gibula, Douglas R; Black, James H; Glebova, Natalia O

    2017-04-01

    Although postoperative readmissions are frequent in vascular surgery patients, the reasons for these readmissions are not well characterized, and effective approaches to their reduction are unknown. Our aim was to analyze the reasons for vascular surgery readmissions and to report potential areas for focused efforts aimed at readmission reduction. The 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data set was queried for vascular surgery patients. Multivariable models were developed to analyze risk factors for postdischarge infections, the major drivers of unplanned 30-day readmissions. We identified 86,403 vascular surgery patients for analysis. Thirty-day readmission occurred in 8827 (10%), of which 8054 (91%) were unplanned. Of the unplanned readmissions, 61% (n = 4951) were related to the index vascular surgery procedure. Infectious complications were the most common reason for a surgery-related readmission (1940 [39%]), with surgical site infection being the most common type of infection related to unplanned readmission. Multivariable analysis showed the top five preoperative risk factors for postdischarge infections were the presence of a preoperative open wound, inpatient operation, obesity, work relative value unit, and insulin-dependent diabetes (but not diabetes managed with oral medications). Cigarette smoking was a weak predictor and came in tenth in the mode (overall C index, 0.657). When operative and postoperative factors were included in the model, total operative time was the strongest predictor of postdischarge infectious complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.2 for each 1-hour increase in operative time), followed by presence of a preoperative open wound (OR, 1.5), inpatient operation (OR, 2), obesity (OR, 1.8), and discharge to rehabilitation facility (OR, 1.7; P model was fair (C statistic, 0.686). Infectious complications dominate the reasons for unplanned 30-day readmissions in vascular surgery

  17. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available Gallstone disease (GSD and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians.This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model.The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08 and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22 predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13, and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73 are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians.Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1 age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2 age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  18. The prevalence and risk factors for gallstone disease in taiwanese vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Chun; Chiou, Chia; Lin, Ming-Nan; Lin, Chin-Lon

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease (GSD) and its complications are major public health issues globally. Although many community-based studies had addressed the risk factors for GSD, little is known about GSD prevalence and risk factors among Taiwanese vegetarians. This study included 1721 vegetarians who completed a questionnaire detailing their demographics, medical history, and life-styles. GSD was ascertained by ultrasonography or surgical history of cholecystectomy for GSD. The predictive probability of GSD for male and female vegetarians was estimated from the fitted model. The prevalence of GSD was 8.2% for both male and female vegetarians. The risk of GSD is similar in men and women across all age groups, and increases steadily with increasing age. For male vegetarians, age (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08) and serum total bilirubin level (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.31-4.22) predict risk for GSD. For female vegetarians, age (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), BMI (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01-1.13), and alcohol consumption (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.83-33.73) are associated with GSD. GSD is not associated with type of vegetarian diet, duration of vegetarianism, low education level, physical inactivity, diabetes, coronary artery disease, cerebral vascular accident, chronic renal failure, hepatitis C virus infection, and lipid abnormalities. GSD is also not associated with age at menarche, postmenopausal status, and multiparity in female vegetarians. Risk factors useful for predicting GSD in vegetarians are (1) age and total bilirubin level in men, and (2) age, BMI, and alcohol consumption in women. Many previously identified risk factors for general population does not seem to apply to Taiwanese vegetarians.

  19. Risk Factors of Treatment Failure in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Mook Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSome diabetic feet heal without complication, but others undergo amputation due to progressive wounds. This study investigates the risk factors for amputation of diabetic feet.MethodsA total of 55 patients who visited our institution from 2008 to 2012 were included in the study. The patients with abnormal fasting blood sugar levels, lower leg vascularity, and poor nutrition were excluded from the study group, and the wound states were unified. The patients were categorized into a treatment success group (n=47 and a treatment failure group (n=8, and their hemoglobin A1C (HgA1C, C-reactive protein (CRP, white blood cell count (WBC, and serum creatinine levels were analyzed.ResultsThe initial CRP, WBC, and serum creatinine levels in the treatment failure group were significantly higher than that of the treatment success group, and the initial HgA1C level was significantly higher in the treatment success group. The CRP and WBC levels of both groups changed significantly as time passed, but their serum creatinine levels did not.ConclusionsThe initial CRP, WBC, and serum creatinine levels were considered to be risk factors for amputation. Among them, the serum creatinine level was found to be the most important predictive risk factor. Because serum creatinine represents the renal function, thorough care is needed for the feet of diabetic patients with renal impairment.

  20. Clinical effectiveness of telmisartan alone or in combination therapy for controlling blood pressure and vascular risk in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodh I Jugdutt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bodh I JugduttDivision of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta and Hospital, Edmonton, CanadaAbstract: Elderly patients (age≥65 years with hypertension are at high risk for vascular complications, especially when diabetes is present. Antihypertensive drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system have been shown to be effective for controlling blood pressure in adult and elderly patients. Importantly, renin-angiotensin system inhibitors were shown to have benefits beyond their classic cardioprotective and vasculoprotective effects, including reducing the risk of new-onset diabetes and associated cardiovascular effects. The discovery that the renin-angiotensin system inhibitor and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptor blocker (ARB, telmisartan, can selectively activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ, an established antidiabetic drug target provides the unique opportunity to prevent and treat cardiovascular complications in high-risk elderly patients with hypertension and new-onset diabetes. Two large clinical trials, ONTARGET (Ongoing Telmisartan Alone in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE-I iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular disease have assessed the cardioprotective and antidiabetic effects of telmisartan. The collective data suggest that telmisartan is a promising drug for controlling hypertension and reducing vascular risk in high-risk elderly patients with new-onset diabetes.Keywords: elderly, hypertension, telmisartan, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, diabetes, vascular risk

  1. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennery, M.; Dupont, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  2. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with a vascular component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Bidzan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. Vascular changes are observed in most cases of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Observations of AD and vascular disease (VD allow us to surmise that vascular changes may not only affect cognitive impairment in AD but may also have a negative influence on the neuropsychiatric symptoms which often occur in the course of the disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of vascular factors on the neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s Disease. material and methods. The study included 48 people with a preliminary diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease on the basis of NINCDS/ADRDA criteria. The evaluation of impairments in cognitive functioning was carried out by means of the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale – the cognitive part (ADAS – cog, whereas the behavioural and psychological symptoms were evaluated by means of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory – the version adapted for residents of nursing homes for the elderly (Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Nursing Home Version (NPI – NH. The score on the Hachinski scale was the basis for dividing the study participants into two groups – those with a mild vascular component (0–1 points on the Hachinski scale and those with a severe vascular component (2–4 points. results. The analyzed groups did not differ with respect to the intensity of cognitive impairments (ADAS-cog or age of the participants. Scores obtained on the NPI – NH scale as well as some of its elements (depression/dysphoria and anxiety had a discriminating value. Studies show that vascular factors are a serious risk factor for neuropsychiatric symptoms in AD. conclusions. Vascular factors in Alzheimer’s Disease influence the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms. In the course of angiogenic dementia a greater frequency in depressive disorders was shown. The most visible differences between individuals with a greater and lesser burden of vascular factors was in the realm of depressive and dysphoric disorders.

  3. Interactions between the vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphism and life events in susceptibility to major depressive disorder in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Qiao, Zhengxue; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Fang, Deyu; Yang, Xiuxian; Ma, Jingsong; Chen, Mingqi; Yang, Jiarun; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Zhang, Congpei; Yang, Yanjie; Pan, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the development of major depressive disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate the interaction between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphism (+405G/C, rs2010963) and negative life events in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). DNA genotyping was performed on peripheral blood leukocytes in 274 patients with MDD and 273 age-and sex-matched controls. The frequency and severity of negative life events were assessed by the Life Events Scale (LES). A logistics method was employed to assess the gene-environment interaction (G×E). Differences in rs2010963 genotype distributions were observed between MDD patients and controls. Significant G×E interactions between allelic variation of rs2010963 and negative life events were observed. Individuals carrying the C alleles were susceptible to MDD only when exposed to high-negative life events. These results indicate that interactions between the VEGF rs2010963 polymorphism and environment increases the risk of developing MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Vertebral Artery Hypoplasia and Posterior Circulation Infarction in Patients with Isolated Vertigo with Stroke Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dao Pei; Lu, Gui Feng; Zhang, Jie Wen; Zhang, Shu Ling; Ma, Qian Kun; Yin, Suo

    2017-02-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate the prevalence of vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) in a population with isolated vertigo in association with stroke risk factors, to determine whether VAH is an independent risk factor for posterior circulation infarction (PCI). We sequentially enrolled 245 patients with isolated vertigo with at least 1 vascular risk factor, who were divided into PCI and non-PCI groups, according to present signs of acute infarction on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent magnetic resonance angiography and cervical contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography to screen for VAH. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the significant risk factors for PCI. VAH was found in 64 of 245 patients (26%). VAH (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95%confidence interval [CI] 1.17-6.23, P = .020), median stenosis of the posterior circulation (OR = 7.09, 95%CI = 2.54-19.79, P vertigo with PCI complicated by VAH was mainly small-artery occlusion. Our findings suggest that VAH is an independent risk factor for PCI in patients with isolated vertigo with confirmed risk from stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effects of Chronic Aerobic Exercise on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Persons with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Emily M; Headley, Samuel A E

    2017-09-12

    Aerobic exercise training is a component of diabetes mellitus (DM) care guidelines due to its favorable effects on glycemic control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this review is to outline the recent evidence regarding the clinical effects of chronic aerobic exercise on CVD risk factors in persons with DM and to compare the effects of varying intensities and types of exercise. Among individuals with DM, all types of aerobic exercise training can impact positively on some traditional and non-traditional risk factors for CVD. Training programs with a higher volume or intensity induce greater improvements in vascular function, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and lipid profiles. The beneficial outcomes of aerobic training include improvements in glycemic control, endothelial function, oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, myocardial function, adiposity, and CRF. Findings regarding markers of inflammation are discrepant and further research should focus on the role of exercise to impact upon the chronic inflammation associated with DM.

  6. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine 125 I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 x 10 -11 M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease

  7. Increased risk of severe infections in cancer patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Q

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Qing Ma, Li-Yan Gu, Yao-Yao Ren, Li-Li Zeng, Ting Gong, Dian-Sheng Zhong Department of Oncology, The General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs have been widely used in a variety of solid malignancies. Concerns have arisen regarding the risk of severe infections (≥grade 3 with use of these drugs, but the contribution of VEGFR-TKIs to infections is still unknown.Methods: The databases of PubMed and abstracts presented at oncology conferences’ proceedings were searched for relevant studies from January 2000 to December 2014. Summary incidences, Peto odds ratio (Peto OR, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated by using either random-effects or fixed-effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies.Results: A total of 16,488 patients from 27 randomized controlled trials were included. The risk of developing severe (Peto OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.45–1.96, P<0.001 and fatal infections (Peto OR 1.78, 95% CI: 1.13–2.81, P=0.013 was significantly increased in patients treated with VEGFR-TKIs when compared to controls. Exploratory subgroup analysis showed no effect of tumor types, phase of trials, or agent used on the Peto OR of severe infections. When stratified according to specific infectious events, the risks of high-grade febrile neutropenia, pneumonia, fever, and sepsis were increased compared with controls, with Peto ORs of 1.57 (95% CI: 1.30–1.88, P<0.001, 1.79 (95% CI: 1.29–2.49, P<0.001, 5.35 (95% CI: 1.47–19.51, P=0.011, and 3.68 (95% CI: 1.51–8.99, P=0.004, respectively. Additionally, VEGFR-TKIs significantly increased the risk of fatal sepsis (OR 3.66, 95% CI: 1.47–9.13, P=0.005 but not fatal pneumonia (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.80–2.25, P=0.26.Conclusion: The use of VEGFR-TKIs significantly increases the risk of developing severe and fatal infectious events in cancer

  8. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease using myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus: analysis of risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2006-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a critical disease with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. There is growing interest in how to determine high-risk patients who are candidates for screening testing. This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients detected by Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and to assess risk factors of CAD and cardiac hard events. 203 diabetic patients (64 male, mean age 64.1 ± 9.0 years) who underwent MPS were included between Jan 2000 and July 2004. Cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were considered as hard events, and coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery >60 days after testing were considered as soft events. The mean follow-up period was 36 ± 18 months. Patients underwent exercise (n=6) or adenosine stress (n=197) myocardial perfusion SPECT. Perfusion defects on MPS were detected in 28.6% (58/203) of the patients. There was no cardiac death but 11 hard events were observed. The annual cardiac hard event rate was 1.1%. In univariate analysis of clinical factors, typical anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were significantly associated with the occurrence of hard events. Anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, and resting ECG abnormality remained independent predictors of nonfatal MIs with multivariate analysis. Abnormal SPECT results were significantly associated with high prevalence of hard events but not independent predictors on uni- and multivariate analyses. patients who were male, had longer diabetes duration (especially over 20 years), peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, or resting ECG abnormality had higher incidence of CAD. Among clinical factors in diabetic patients, typical angina, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were strong predictors of hard events

  9. Diagnosis of coronary artery disease using myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with diabetes mellitus: analysis of risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji Hyoung; Kang, Seong Min; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu, (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a critical disease with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to myocardial ischemia and infarction. There is growing interest in how to determine high-risk patients who are candidates for screening testing. This study was performed to evaluate the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in diabetic patients detected by Tc-99m MIBI myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and to assess risk factors of CAD and cardiac hard events. 203 diabetic patients (64 male, mean age 64.1 {+-} 9.0 years) who underwent MPS were included between Jan 2000 and July 2004. Cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were considered as hard events, and coronary angioplasty and bypass surgery >60 days after testing were considered as soft events. The mean follow-up period was 36 {+-} 18 months. Patients underwent exercise (n=6) or adenosine stress (n=197) myocardial perfusion SPECT. Perfusion defects on MPS were detected in 28.6% (58/203) of the patients. There was no cardiac death but 11 hard events were observed. The annual cardiac hard event rate was 1.1%. In univariate analysis of clinical factors, typical anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were significantly associated with the occurrence of hard events. Anginal pain, peripheral vascular disease, and resting ECG abnormality remained independent predictors of nonfatal MIs with multivariate analysis. Abnormal SPECT results were significantly associated with high prevalence of hard events but not independent predictors on uni- and multivariate analyses. patients who were male, had longer diabetes duration (especially over 20 years), peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, or resting ECG abnormality had higher incidence of CAD. Among clinical factors in diabetic patients, typical angina, peripheral vascular disease, peripheral polyneuropathy, and resting ECG abnormality were strong predictors of hard events.

  10. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bin [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Li, Wei [Department of Gerontology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng, Qichang [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Qin, Tao [Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, People' s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, School of Medicine, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450003 (China); Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu, Sanguang, E-mail: sanguang1998@sina.com [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000 (China); Song, Zifang, E-mail: zsong@hust.edu.cn [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huangzhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China)

    2015-07-17

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation.

  11. Transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 negatively regulates interleukin-1α-induced stromal-derived factor-1 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Bin; Li, Wei; Zheng, Qichang; Qin, Tao; Wang, Kun; Li, Jinjin; Guo, Bing; Yu, Qihong; Wu, Yuzhe; Gao, Yang; Cheng, Xiang; Hu, Shaobo; Kumar, Stanley Naveen; Liu, Sanguang; Song, Zifang

    2015-01-01

    Stromal-derived Factor-1 (SDF-1) derived from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contributes to vascular repair and remodeling in various vascular diseases. In this study, the mechanism underlying regulation of SDF-1 expression by interleukin-1α (IL-1α) was investigated in primary rat VSMCs. We found IL-1α promotes SDF-1 expression by up-regulating CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) signaling-dependent manner. Moreover, IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 was significantly potentiated by knockdown of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), an upstream activator of IKKβ signaling. In addition, we also demonstrated that TAK1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling exerted negative effect on IL-1α-induced expression of C/EBPβ and SDF-1 through counteracting ROS-dependent up-regulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). In conclusion, TAK1 acts as an important regulator of IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression in VSMCs, and modulating activity of TAK1 may serve as a potential strategy for modulating vascular repair and remodeling. - Highlights: • IL-1α induces IKKβ signaling-dependent SDF-1 expression by up-regulating C/EBPβ. • Activation of TAK1 by IL-1α negatively regulates C/EBPβ-dependent SDF-1 expression. • IL-1α-induced TAK1/p38 MAPK signaling counteracts ROS-dependent SDF-1 expression. • TAK1 counteracts IL-1α-induced SDF-1 expression by attenuating NRF2 up-regulation

  12. Genes associated with Type 2 Diabetes and vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanto, Alberto; Bonfigli, Anna Rita; Crocco, Paolina; Garagnani, Paolo; De Luca, Maria; Boemi, Massimo; Marasco, Elena; Pirazzini, Chiara; Giuliani, Cristina; Franceschi, Claudio; Passarino, Giuseppe; Testa, Roberto; Olivieri, Fabiola; Rose, Giuseppina

    2018-02-04

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease associated with a number of micro- and macrovascular complications that increase the morbidity and mortality of patients. The risk of diabetic complications has a strong genetic component. To this end, we sought to evaluate the association of 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 candidate genes with T2D and its vascular complications in 503 T2D patients and 580 healthy controls. The genes were chosen because previously reported to be associated with T2D complications and/or with the aging process. We replicated the association of T2D risk with I GF2BP rs4402960 and detected novel associations with TERT rs2735940 and rs2736098. The addition of these SNPs to a model including traditional risk factors slightly improved risk prediction. After stratification of patients according to the presence/absence of vascular complications, we found significant associations of variants in the CAT , FTO , and UCP1 genes with diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. Additionally, a variant in the ADIPOQ gene was found associated with macrovascular complications. Notably, these genes are involved in some way in mitochondrial biology and reactive oxygen species regulation. Hence, our findings strongly suggest a potential link between mitochondrial oxidative homeostasis and individual predisposition to diabetic vascular complications.

  13. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  14. Oxidative and inflammatory signals in obesity-associated vascular abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reho, John J; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2017-07-15

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in part due to vascular abnormalities such as endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening. The hypertension and other health complications that arise from these vascular defects increase the risk of heart diseases and stroke. Prooxidant and proinflammatory signaling pathways as well as adipocyte-derived factors have emerged as critical mediators of obesity-associated vascular abnormalities. Designing treatments aimed specifically at improving the vascular dysfunction caused by obesity may provide an effective therapeutic approach to prevent the cardiovascular sequelae associated with excessive adiposity. In this review, we discuss the recent evidence supporting the role of oxidative stress and cytokines and inflammatory signals within the vasculature as well as the impact of the surrounding perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on the regulation of vascular function and arterial stiffening in obesity. In particular, we focus on the highly plastic nature of the vasculature in response to altered oxidant and inflammatory signaling and highlight how weight management can be an effective therapeutic approach to reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory signaling and improve vascular function. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Mechanism of Retinal Pigment Epithelium Tear Formation Following Intravitreal Anti–Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy Revealed by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagiel, Aaron; Freund, K Bailey; Spaide, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    to the retracted RPE. In all eyes, the RPE ruptured along a segment of bare RPE not in contact with the CNV or Bruch membrane. CONCLUSIONS: Eyes with vascularized PEDs secondary to AMD may show specific OCT findings that increase the risk for RPE tear following intravitreal anti-VEGF injection. Rapid involution......PURPOSE: To demonstrate the mechanism by which retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) tears occur in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT......). DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: OCT images of 8 eyes that developed RPE tears following the administration of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents for neovascular AMD were evaluated. Pretear and posttear images were compared in order to elucidate the mechanism by which RPE tears occur...

  16. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and established risk factors among populations of sub-Saharan African descent in Europe: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Graft Aikins Ama

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most European countries are ethnically and culturally diverse. Globally, cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death. The major risk factors for CVD have been well established. This picture holds true for all regions of the world and in different ethnic groups. However, the prevalence of CVD and related risk factors vary among ethnic groups. Methods This article provides a review of current understanding of the epidemiology of vascular disease, principally coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke and related risk factors among populations of Sub-Sahara African descent (henceforth, African descent in comparison with the European populations in Europe. Results Compared with European populations, populations of African descent have an increased risk of stroke, whereas CHD is less common. They also have higher rates of hypertension and diabetes than European populations. Obesity is highly prevalent, but smoking rate is lower among African descent women. Older people of African descent have more favourable lipid profile and dietary habits than their European counterparts. Alcohol consumption is less common among populations of African descent. The rate of physical activity differs between European countries. Dutch African-Suriname men and women are less physically active than the White-Dutch whereas British African women are more physically active than women in the general population. Literature on psychosocial stress shows inconsistent results. Conclusion Hypertension and diabetes are highly prevalent among African populations, which may explain their high rate of stroke in Europe. The relatively low rate of CHD may be explained by the low rates of other risk factors including a more favourable lipid profile and the low prevalence of smoking. The risk factors are changing, and on the whole, getting worse especially among African women. Cohort studies and clinical trials are therefore needed among these groups to

  17. Vascular Health in American Football Players: Cardiovascular Risk Increased in Division III Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah L. Feairheller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies report that football players have high blood pressure (BP and increased cardiovascular risk. There are over 70,000 NCAA football players and 450 Division III schools sponsor football programs, yet limited research exists on vascular health of athletes. This study aimed to compare vascular and cardiovascular health measures between football players and nonathlete controls. Twenty-three athletes and 19 nonathletes participated. Vascular health measures included flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT. Cardiovascular measures included clinic and 24 hr BP levels, body composition, VO2 max, and fasting glucose/cholesterol levels. Compared to controls, football players had a worse vascular and cardiovascular profile. Football players had thicker carotid artery IMT (0.49 ± 0.06 mm versus 0.46 ± 0.07 mm and larger brachial artery diameter during FMD (4.3±0.5 mm versus 3.7±0.6 mm, but no difference in percent FMD. Systolic BP was significantly higher in football players at all measurements: resting (128.2±6.4 mmHg versus 122.4±6.8 mmHg, submaximal exercise (150.4±18.8 mmHg versus 137.3±9.5 mmHg, maximal exercise (211.3±25.9 mmHg versus 191.4±19.2 mmHg, and 24-hour BP (124.9±6.3 mmHg versus 109.8±3.7 mmHg. Football players also had higher fasting glucose (91.6±6.5 mg/dL versus 86.6±5.8 mg/dL, lower HDL (36.5±11.2 mg/dL versus 47.1±14.8 mg/dL, and higher body fat percentage (29.2±7.9% versus 23.2±7.0%. Division III collegiate football players remain an understudied population and may be at increased cardiovascular risk.

  18. Endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polovina, Marija M; Potpara, Tatjana S

    2014-03-01

    Vascular endothelium has important regulatory functions in the cardiovascular system and a pivotal role in the maintenance of vascular health and metabolic homeostasis. It has long been recognized that endothelial dysfunction participates in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from early, preclinical lesions to advanced, thrombotic complications. In addition, endothelial dysfunction has been recently implicated in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Considering that states of insulin resistance (eg, metabolic syndrome, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and T2DM) represent the most prevalent metabolic disorders and risk factors for atherosclerosis, it is of considerable scientific and clinical interest that both metabolic and vascular disorders have endothelial dysfunction as a common background. Importantly, endothelial dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients with established cardiovascular disease, and a growing body of evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction also imparts adverse prognosis in states of insulin resistance. In this review, we discuss the association of insulin resistance and T2DM with endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease, with a focus on the underlying mechanisms and prognostic implications of the endothelial dysfunction in metabolic and vascular disorders. We also address current therapeutic strategies for the improvement of endothelial dysfunction.

  19. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment with Vascular Function, Carotid Atherosclerosis and the UKPDS Risk Engine in Korean Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sik Seon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPatients with type 2 diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have evaluated the cardiovascular disease (CVD risk simultaneously using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS risk engine and non-invasive vascular tests in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.MethodsParticipants (n=380; aged 20 to 81 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were free of clinical evidence of CVD. The 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD and stroke risks were calculated for each patient using the UKPDS risk engine. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT, flow mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and augmentation index (AI were measured. The correlations between the UKPDS risk engine and the non-invasive vascular tests were assessed using partial correlation analysis, after adjusting for age, and multiple regression analysis.ResultsThe mean 10-year CHD and 10-year stroke risks were 14.92±11.53% and 4.03±3.95%, respectively. The 10-year CHD risk correlated with CIMT (P<0.001, FMD (P=0.017, and PWV (P=0.35 after adjusting for age. The 10-year stroke risk correlated only with the mean CIMT (P<0.001 after adjusting for age. FMD correlated with age (P<0.01 and systolic blood pressure (P=0.09. CIMT correlated with age (P<0.01, HbA1c (P=0.05, and gender (P<0.01.ConclusionThe CVD risk is increased at the onset of type 2 diabetes. CIMT, FMD, and PWV along with the UKPDS risk engine should be considered to evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

  20. Single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor variant with antagonist activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas P; Soni, Bobby; Schwartz, Thue W

    2002-01-01

    receptor molecules and inducing dimerization. By mixing two vascular endothelial growth factor monomers, each with different substitutions, heterodimers with only one active receptor binding site have previously been prepared. These heterodimers bind the receptor molecule but are unable to induce...... dimerization and activation. However, preparation of heterodimers is cumbersome, involving separate expression of different monomers, refolding the mixture, and separating heterodimers from homodimers. Here we show that a fully functional ligand can efficiently be expressed as a single protein chain containing...

  1. Insight into 144 patients with ocular vascular events during VEGF antagonist injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shami M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour1, Maha Shahin2, Peter K Kofoed3, Maurizio B Parodi4, Michel Shami5, Stephen G Schwartz6, Collaborative Anti-VEGF Ocular Vascular Complications GroupDepartment of Ophthalmology, 1American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Mansoura University, Mansoura City, Egypt; 3Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, National Eye Clinic, Kennedy Center, Glostrup, Denmark; 4University Vita-Salute, Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy; 5Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA; 6Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Naples and Miami, FL, USAAim: To record ocular vascular events following injections of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF antagonists.Methods: Collaborative multicenter case series (48 cases, literature reviews (32 cases, and reports to the FDA (64 cases of patients that had vascular occlusions during anti-VEGF therapy were collected and analyzed.Results: A total of 144 cases of ocular vascular events were identified, with these diagnosed a median of 15 days after anti-VEGF injection. The majority of patients had pre-existing risk factors for cardiovascular events and nine patients had a prior history of glaucoma. Mean visual acuity dropped by 6.4 lines with severe visual loss after injection to NLP (five eyes, LP (six eyes, and HM (two eyes. The overall risk of ocular vascular events following a VEGF antagonist injection was 0.108% in the general population and 2.61% in the diabetic population. Mean retinal arterial constriction after intravitreal bevacizumab in 13 eyes was 21% (standard deviation = 27%, and mean retinal venous constriction was 8% (standard deviation = 30%.Conclusion: Ocular vascular events are rare during anti-VEGF therapy, but can lead to severe visual loss and may be caused by a number of factors including the vasoconstrictor effect of the drug, a post-injection rise

  2. Angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumour necrosis factor-α and hypoxia inducible factor-1α in canine renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yhee, J Y; Yu, C H; Kim, J H; Im, K S; Kim, N H; Brodersen, B W; Doster, A R; Sur, J-H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution and characteristics of microvessels in various histological types of canine renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study compared microvessel density (MVD) and distribution of blood vessels according to histological type and evaluated the presence of angiogenesis-related proteins. Nine archival samples of canine RCC were studied. MVD was calculated as the mean number of blood vessels per mm(2). The diameter of blood vessels was calculated by determining either the length of the long axis of blood vessels (diameter(max)) or the mean distance from the centre of each blood vessel to the tunica adventia (diameter(mean)). A significant difference in MVD was evident between RCCs and normal kidneys (46.6 ± 28.0 versus 8.4 ± 2.2 microvessels/mm(2)). Diameter(max) in canine RCCs (34.1 ± 14.7 μm) was also significantly different from normal canine kidney (23.2 ± 3.4 μm). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was expressed by tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was observed in vascular endothelial cells in both neoplastic and normal kidney. Although VEGF is involved in angiogenesis and correlates with tumour stage of development, no correlation was found between VEGF expression and MVD. Tumour-associated macrophages expressing TNF-α and hypoxia inducible factor 1α were identified in peritumoural tissue and may play an important role in angiogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  4. Increased risk for vascular complications due to GP IIb/IIIa-antagonists in patients with cardiogenic shock supported by intraaortic balloon pump (IABP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Röther

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Vascular events with the use of IABP are common but in our study, not significantly associated with a higher mortality. Treatment with GP IIb/IIIa-antagonists is associated with a higher risk of vascular events.

  5. Interactive Associations of Vascular Risk and β-Amyloid Burden With Cognitive Decline in Clinically Normal Elderly Individuals: Findings From the Harvard Aging Brain Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jennifer S; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Viswanathan, Anand; Marshall, Gad A; Kilpatrick, Emily; Klein, Hannah; Buckley, Rachel F; Yang, Hyun-Sik; Properzi, Michael; Rao, Vaishnavi; Kirn, Dylan R; Papp, Kathryn V; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Chhatwal, Jasmeer P

    2018-05-21

    Identifying asymptomatic individuals at high risk of impending cognitive decline because of Alzheimer disease is crucial for successful prevention of dementia. Vascular risk and β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology commonly co-occur in older adults and are significant causes of cognitive impairment. To determine whether vascular risk and Aβ burden act additively or synergistically to promote cognitive decline in clinically normal older adults; and, secondarily, to evaluate the unique influence of vascular risk on prospective cognitive decline beyond that of commonly used imaging biomarkers, including Aβ burden, hippocampal volume, fludeoxyglucose F18-labeled (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), and white matter hyperintensities, a marker of cerebrovascular disease. In this longitudinal observational study, we examined clinically normal older adults from the Harvard Aging Brain Study. Participants were required to have baseline imaging data (FDG-PET, Aβ-PET, and magnetic resonance imaging), baseline medical data to quantify vascular risk, and at least 1 follow-up neuropsychological visit. Data collection began in 2010 and is ongoing. Data analysis was performed on data collected between 2010 and 2017. Vascular risk was quantified using the Framingham Heart Study general cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) risk score. We measured Aβ burden with Pittsburgh Compound-B PET. Cognition was measured annually with the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite. Models were corrected for baseline age, sex, years of education, and apolipoprotein E ε4 status. Of the 223 participants, 130 (58.3%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 73.7 (6.0) years, and the mean (SD) follow-up time was 3.7 (1.2) years. Faster cognitive decline was associated with both a higher FHS-CVD risk score (β = -0.064; 95% CI, -0.094 to -0.033; P < .001) and higher Aβ burden (β = -0.058; 95% CI, -0.079 to -0.037; P < .001). The interaction of the FHS-CVD risk score and Aβ burden with time

  6. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  7. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  8. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation for secondary prevention after transient ischemic attack or mild stroke: I: feasibility and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Peter L; Hachinski, Vladimir; Unsworth, Karen; Chan, Richard; Mytka, Sharon; O'Callaghan, Christina; Suskin, Neville

    2011-11-01

    Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CCR), which integrates structured lifestyle interventions and medications, reduces morbidity and mortality among cardiac patients. CCR has not typically been used with cerebrovascular populations, despite important commonalities with heart patients. We tested feasibility and effectiveness of 6-month outpatient CCR for secondary prevention after transient ischemic attack or mild, nondisabling stroke. This article presents risk factors. A future article will discuss psychological outcomes. Consecutive consenting subjects having sustained a transient ischemic attack or mild, nondisabling stroke within the previous 12 months (mean, 11.5 weeks; event-to-CCR entry) with ≥1 vascular risk factor, were recruited from a stroke prevention clinic providing usual care. We measured 6-month CCR outcomes following a prospective cohort design. Of 110 subjects recruited from January 2005 to April 2006, 100 subjects (mean age, 64.9 years; 46 women) entered and 80 subjects completed CCR. We obtained favorable, significant intake-to-exit changes in: aerobic capacity (+31.4%; Pstroke, offering a promising model for vascular protection across chronic disease entities. We know of no similar previous investigation, and are now conducting a randomized trial.

  9. The Risk-Benefit Paradigm vs the Causal Exposure Paradigm: LDL as a primary cause of vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P; Thanassoulis, George; Williams, Ken; Furberg, Curt D; Sniderman, Allan

    2014-01-01

    All current guidelines use the 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event to select subjects for statin primary preventive therapy. Benefit from therapy is stated to be determined by risk with the result that statin primary preventive therapy is initiated only when the risk of a cardiovascular event over the next decade exceeds a specified level. Thus all current guidelines are based primarily on the Risk-Benefit paradigm of primary prevention. The recent American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines differ from others in basing selection for statin therapy virtually exclusively on risk except for those few subjects with markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The Causal Exposure paradigm differs from the Risk-Benefit paradigm in that the objective of therapy is to prevent the anatomic disease within arterial walls that produces cardiovascular risk. Moreover, the anatomic disease and, therefore, the cardiovascular risk, is a function of the injurious action of the causal factors of vascular disease, such as blood pressure and LDL, on the arterial wall over long periods. In this article, we explain the strengths and weaknesses of both paradigms to provide a more secure framework to compare the strengths and weaknesses in the different cholesterol guidelines with particular emphasis on the evidence that the cardiovascular risk and the benefit from statin therapy is related to the level of LDL. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA-polymorphisms and plasma levels of vascular disease risk factors in Greenland Inuit--is there a relation with the low risk of cardiovascular disease in the Inuit?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maat, M de; Bladbjerg, E-M; Johansen, L G

    1999-01-01

    Greenland Inuit are a population with a low risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we stated that frequencies of potentially high risk alleles of the apolipoproteins, fibrinogen, factor V, glycoprotein IIIa and factor VII (FVII) genes have different allele frequencies in the Inuit when compared...... and CVD risk in Caucasian populations, but for other measures this was not the case (allele frequencies of the PAI-1 polymorphism, and plasma levels of fibrinogen, FVII and t-PA). In conclusion there are clear differences in genetic background and plasma levels of risk factors in Greenland Inuit compared......, aged 30-34 gamma. In addition, we compared the plasma levels of these factors and those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-Dimer in Inuit and in Danes, comparable for age and gender. Frequencies (f) were assessed of the alleles that are known as the potential high risk alleles in Caucasians...

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Safety of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Laura; Steinwender, Gernot; Mayer, Christoph; Hausberger, Silke; Pöschl, Eva-Maria; Wackernagel, Werner; Wedrich, Andreas; El-Shabrawi, Yosuf; Haas, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Laser photocoagulation is the current gold standard treatment for proliferative retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). However, it permanently reduces the visual field and might induce myopia. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors for the treatment of ROP may enable continuing vascularization of the retina, potentially allowing the preservation of the visual field. However, for their use in infants concern remains. This meta-analysis explores the safety of VEGF inhibitors. Methods The Ovid Interface was used to perform a systematic review of the literature in the databases PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Results This meta-analysis included 24 original reports (including 1.457 eyes) on VEGF inhibitor treatment for ROP. The trials were solely observational except for one randomized and two case-control studies. We estimated a 6-month risk of retreatment per eye of 2.8%, and a 6-month risk of ocular complication without the need of retreatment of 1.6% per eye. Systemic complications were only reported as isolated incidents. Discussion VEGF inhibitors seem to be associated with low recurrence rates and ocular complication rates. They may have the benefit of potentially allowing the preservation of visual field and lower rates of myopia. Due to the lack of data, the risk of systemic side effects cannot be assessed. PMID:26083024

  12. Risk factors for hip fracture in elderly persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Olivi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this observational study, promoted by the Health Authorities of the Regione Veneto (Italy, is to assess the prevalence of the most relevant environmental and individual risk factors in subjects with a recent hip fracture. Methods: Patients aged more than 60 years of both genders with a recent hip fracture not associated with malignancies, were administered questionnaires on dietary habits, sun exposure, and disability score. A complete family, pharmacological and pathology history was collected together with information on previous falls, details of the fracture index, and anthropometric data. In all subjects, blood was taken for the measurement of serum 25 hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD. Results: The study included 704 patients (573 women and 131 men. Mean age was 81±8 years (range 60-102. Severe pre-fracture disability was a common feature (58% associated with multiple co-morbidities (84%, more frequently cardio- vascular and neurological diseases, and specific medications. In a large proportion (86% of the patients, environmental or individual risk factors for falling were found. Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD levels <75 nmol/l was quite common (70%, particularly in the regional Health Districts were strategies for preventing vitamin D deficiency were not implemented (91%. Only a small proportion (17% of the study population had been evaluated and treated for osteoporosis. Conclusions: In senile patients with a recent hip fracture, pre-existing disability, multiple co-morbidities, high risk of falling and inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D is relatively common. Community and case-finding interventions aimed at selecting subjects at high risk of osteoporosis, preventing vitamin D and dietary calcium deficiency, and increasing awareness on the environmental risks of falling are highly warranted.

  13. Chronic kidney disease: an inherent risk factor for acute kidney injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhleen; Rifkin, Dena E; Blantz, Roland C

    2010-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence suggests that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for acute kidney injury (AKI) due to the prevalence of CKD in patients who have episodes of AKI. However, the high burden of comorbidities such as age, diabetes, peripheral vascular, cardiovascular, and liver disease accompanying CKD, and the difficulties of defining AKI in the setting of CKD make these observations difficult to interpret. These comorbidities not only could alter the course of AKI but also may be the driving force behind the epidemiologic association between CKD and AKI because of systemic changes and/or increased exposure to potential nephrotoxic risks. Here, we contend that studies suggesting that CKD is a risk factor for AKI may suffer from residual confounding and reflect an overall susceptibility to illness rather than biologic susceptibility of the kidney parenchyma to injury. In support of our argument, we discuss the clinical evidence from epidemiologic studies, and the knowledge obtained from animal models on the pathophysiology of AKI and CKD, demonstrating a preconditioning influence of the previously impaired kidneys against subsequent injury. We conclude that, under careful analysis, factors apart from the inherent pathophysiology of the diseased kidney may be responsible for the increased frequency of AKI in CKD patients, and the impact of CKD on the risk and severity of AKI needs further investigation. Moreover, certain elements in the pathophysiology of a previously injured kidney may, surprisingly, bear out to be protective against AKI.

  14. ACE gene in pregnancy complications: Insights into future vascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatini, Cinzia; Romagnuolo, Ilaria; Sticchi, Elena; Rossi, Lorenza; Cellai, Anna Paola; Rogolino, Angela; Abbate, Rosanna

    2016-01-01

    A history of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPCs) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life, possibly related to the persistence of endothelial dysfunction. We performed this study in order to search for a common genetic background shared by women with a history of PMPC and vascular disorders, due to their common pathophysiologic pathway of endothelial dysfunction. We analyzed the prevalence of seven polymorphisms in ACE, AGTR1, AGT, and eNOS genes, endothelial-function related, in 290 women with a history of premature cardiovascular events (CVDs), and in 367 women with a history of PMPC (preeclampsia (PE), stillbirth (SB), and small for gestational age (SGA)), compared with 300 healthy women (HW) who delivered after uneventful pregnancy (HW). ACE D allele frequency was similar between women with history of CVD and PMPC, and significantly higher than that observed in HW [OR (95% CI) 1.91, p = 0.002, and OR (95% CI) 2.18, p ACE-240T or eNOS-786C allele, a two-fold increase in SB susceptibility was evidenced (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005, respectively). Women with a history of SB and premature CVD exhibited a significantly higher unfavorable allelic burden ≥ 3 in comparison to that observed in HW (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Our findings demonstrate a common genetic background shared by women with a history of vascular disorders and PMPCs; pregnancy may be considered a window to future cardiovascular risk; therefore, "non-classic" genetic biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction might allow one to identify women who could have a greater benefit for an early cardiovascular screening and prevention.

  15. LOW ENDOPHTHALMITIS RATES AFTER INTRAVITREAL ANTI-VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR INJECTIONS IN AN OPERATION ROOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, Florentina J; Brynskov, Troels; Munk, Marion R

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate of presumed endophthalmitis (EO) after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections in three European hospitals performed in an operation room (OR) under sterile conditions. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study between 2003 and 2016...... at three European sites, City Hospital Triemli Zurich, Switzerland (CHT), Zealand University Hospital Roskilde, Denmark (ZUH) and University Clinic Bern, Switzerland (UCB). Intravitreal injection (IVI) database of each department was reviewed. All anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections were...... performed using a standardized sterile technique in an operation room. Injection protocols were similar between the three sites. No preinjection antibiotics were given. Postoperative antibiotics varied among sites. RESULTS: A total of 134,701 intravitreal injections were performed at the 3 sites between...

  16. Low-density lipoprotein electronegativity is a novel cardiometabolic risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Fang Hsu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL plays a central role in cardiovascular disease (CVD development. In LDL chromatographically resolved according to charge, the most electronegative subfraction-L5-is the only subfraction that induces atherogenic responses in cultured vascular cells. Furthermore, increasing evidence has shown that plasma L5 levels are elevated in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that LDL electronegativity is a novel index for predicting CVD. METHODS: In 30 asymptomatic individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS and 27 healthy control subjects, we examined correlations between plasma L5 levels and the number of MetS criteria fulfilled, CVD risk factors, and CVD risk according to the Framingham risk score. RESULTS: L5 levels were significantly higher in MetS subjects than in control subjects (21.9±18.7 mg/dL vs. 11.2±10.7 mg/dL, P:0.01. The Jonckheere trend test revealed that the percent L5 of total LDL (L5% and L5 concentration increased with the number of MetS criteria (P<0.001. L5% correlated with classic CVD risk factors, including waist circumference, body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, smoking status, blood pressure, and levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose level and body mass index contributed to 28% of L5% variance. The L5 concentration was associated with CVD risk and contributed to 11% of 30-year general CVD risk variance when controlling the variance of waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that LDL electronegativity was associated with multiple CVD risk factors and CVD risk, suggesting that the LDL electronegativity index may have the potential to be a novel index for predicting CVD. Large-scale clinical trials are warranted to test the reliability of this hypothesis and the clinical importance of the LDL electronegativity index.

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its relationship with the dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grando Mattuella, Leticia; Westphalen Bento, Leticia; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli; Nör, Jacques Eduardo; de Araujo, Fernando Borba; Fossati, Anna Christina Medeiros

    2007-05-01

    The dental pulp is a loose connective tissue located within rigid dentinal walls. Therefore, when subjected to a stimulus, the pulpal tissue has little expansion capacity. The defense mechanisms of this tissue include the formation of tertiary dentin as well as the production of signaling molecules that help in the repair. The dentin matrix is rich in growth factors (GFs) that, when diluted and diffused into the pulp tissue, aid the healing process of the dentinopulpar complex. The angiogenic GFs participate in this event. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, promotes endothelial cell survival and angiogenesis. Among its receptors, VEGFR-2 seems to be the most intimately associated with mitogenic activities, cell migration, vascular permeability, and survival of endothelial cells. This literature review addresses the cell-signaling process that occurs in response to a pulp stimulus up to its transduction in the target cell, describing the VEGF, as well as its characteristics and receptors. The reported studies have correlated the expression of VEGF and its potential functions that may have an impact on several dental specialties, thus indicating that further clinical investigations should be conducted in order to translate the results obtained until this moment primarily in laboratory experiments.

  18. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  19. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc

  20. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  1. Diabetic foot complications and their risk factors from a large retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    Full Text Available Foot complications are considered to be a serious consequence of diabetes mellitus, posing a major medical and economical threat. Identifying the extent of this problem and its risk factors will enable health providers to set up better prevention programs. Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR, being a large database source, would be the best tool to evaluate this problem.This is a cross-sectional study of a cohort of 62,681 patients aged ≥ 25 years from SNDR database, selected for studying foot complications associated with diabetes and related risk factors.The overall prevalence of diabetic foot complications was 3.3% with 95% confidence interval (95% CI of (3.16%-3.44%, whilst the prevalences of foot ulcer, gangrene, and amputations were 2.05% (1.94%-2.16%, 0.19% (0.16%-0.22%, and 1.06% (0.98%-1.14%, respectively. The prevalence of foot complications increased with age and diabetes duration predominantly amongst the male patients. Diabetic foot is more commonly seen among type 2 patients, although it is more prevalent among type 1 diabetic patients. The Univariate analysis showed Charcot joints, peripheral vascular disease (PVD, neuropathy, diabetes duration ≥ 10 years, insulin use, retinopathy, nephropathy, age ≥ 45 years, cerebral vascular disease (CVD, poor glycemic control, coronary artery disease (CAD, male gender, smoking, and hypertension to be significant risk factors with odds ratio and 95% CI at 42.53 (18.16-99.62, 14.47 (8.99-23.31, 12.06 (10.54-13.80, 7.22 (6.10-8.55, 4.69 (4.28-5.14, 4.45 (4.05-4.89, 2.88 (2.43-3.40, 2.81 (2.31-3.43, 2.24 (1.98-2.45, 2.02 (1.84-2.22, 1.54 (1.29-1.83, and 1.51 (1.38-1.65, respectively.Risk factors for diabetic foot complications are highly prevalent; they have put these complications at a higher rate and warrant primary and secondary prevention programs to minimize morbidity and mortality in addition to economic impact of the complications. Other measurements, such as decompression of lower

  2. Vascular Damage and Kidney Transplant Outcomes: An Unfriendly and Harmful Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Domingo; Triñanes, Javier; Armas, Ana María; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Alonso-Titos, Juana; Duarte, Ana; González-Molina, Miguel; Palma, Eulalia; Salido, Eduardo; Torres, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Kidney transplant (KT) is the treatment of choice for most patients with chronic kidney disease, but this has a high cardiovascular mortality due to traditional and nontraditional risk factors, including vascular calcification. Inflammation could precede the appearance of artery wall lesions, leading to arteriosclerosis and clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis in these patients. Additionally, mineral metabolism disorders and activation of the renin-angiotensin system could contribute to this vascular damage. Thus, understanding the vascular lesions that occur in KT recipients and the pathogenic mechanisms involved in their development could be crucial to optimize the therapeutic management and outcomes in survival of this population. This review focuses on the following issues: (1) epidemiological data framing the problem; (2) atheromatosis in KT patients: subclinical and clinical atheromatosis, involving ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and peripheral vascular disease; (3) arteriosclerosis and vascular calcifications; and (4) potential pathogenic mechanisms and their therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Stroke - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oxygen. Brain cells can die, causing lasting damage. Risk factors are things that increase your chance of ... a disease or condition. This article discusses the risk factors for stroke and things you can do ...

  4. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF, symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large, local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors. Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis.

  5. Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Yamashita

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.

  6. Hepatocellular hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis in experimental biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmorduc, O; Wendum, D; Corpechot, C; Galy, B; Sebbagh, N; Raleigh, J; Housset, C; Poupon, R

    1999-10-01

    We tested the potential role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the angiogenesis associated with experimental liver fibrogenesis induced by common bile duct ligation in Sprague-Dawley rats. In normal rats, VEGF and FGF-2 immunoreactivities were restricted to less than 3% of hepatocytes. One week after bile duct ligation, hypoxia was demonstrated by the immunodetection of pimonidazole adducts unevenly distributed throughout the lobule. After 2 weeks, hypoxia and VEGF expression were detected in >95% of hepatocytes and coexisted with an increase in periportal vascular endothelial cell proliferation, as ascertained by Ki67 immunolabeling. Subsequently, at 3 weeks the density of von Willebrand-labeled vascular section in fibrotic areas significantly increased. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction showed that VEGF(120) and VEGF(164) transcripts, that correspond to secreted isoforms, increased within 2 weeks, while VEGF(188) transcripts remained unchanged. FGF-2 mainly consisting of a 22-kd isoform, according to Western blot, was identified by immunohistochemistry in 49% and 100% of hepatocytes at 3 and 7 weeks, respectively. Our data provide evidence that in biliary-type liver fibrogenesis, angiogenesis is stimulated primarily by VEGF in response to hepatocellular hypoxia while FGF-2 likely contributes to the maintenance of angiogenesis at later stages.

  7. Excess risk of major vascular diseases associated with airflow obstruction: a 9-year prospective study of 0.5 million Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurmi OP

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Om P Kurmi,1 Liming Li,2 Kourtney J Davis,3 Jenny Wang,1 Derrick A Bennett,1 Ka Hung Chan,1 Ling Yang,1 Yiping Chen,1 Yu Guo,4 Zheng Bian,4 Junshi Chen,5 Liuping Wei,6 Donghui Jin,7 Rory Collins,1 Richard Peto,1 Zhengming Chen1 On behalf of the China Kadoorie Biobank collaborative group 1Clinical Trial Service and Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; 2Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China; 3Real World Evidence and Epidemiology, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 4Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing China; 5China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing, China; 6NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Liuzhou CDC, Liuzhou, China; 7NCDs Prevention and Control Department, Hunan CDC, Changsha, China Background: China has high COPD rates, even among never-regular smokers. Little is known about nonrespiratory disease risks, especially vascular morbidity and mortality after developing airflow obstruction (AFO in Chinese adults. Objective: We aimed to investigate the prospective association of prevalent AFO with major vascular morbidity and mortality. Materials and methods: In 2004–2008, a nationwide prospective cohort study recruited 512,891 men and women aged 30–79 years from 10 diverse localities across China, tracking cause-specific mortality and coded episodes of hospitalization for 9 years. Cox regression yielded adjusted HRs for vascular diseases comparing individuals with spirometry-defined prevalent AFO at baseline to those without. Results: Of 489,382 participants with no vascular disease at baseline, 6.8% had AFO, with prevalence rising steeply with age. Individuals with prevalent AFO had significantly increased vascular mortality (n=1,429, adjusted HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.21–1.36. There were also increased risks of hemorrhagic stroke (n=823, HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.09–1

  8. Successful treatment of refractory TAFRO syndrome with elevated vascular endothelial growth factor using thyroxine supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Satoko; Ono, Kazuo; Nohgawa, Masaharu

    2018-04-01

    Although the clinical significance of hypothyroidism in TAFRO syndrome is unknown, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels decreased with improvements in the condition of our refractory TAFRO cases after thyroxine supplement therapy. Our results indicate that elevated VEGF levels are a potential factor in the pathogenesis and anasarca of TAFRO syndrome with hypothyroidism.

  9. Physical Activity and Characteristics of the Carotid Artery Wall in High-Risk Patients-The SMART (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, H Myrthe; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Visseren, Frank L J; Van den Berg-Vos, Renske M; Bots, Michiel L; de Borst, Gert Jan; Cramer, Maarten J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2017-07-23

    Physical activity reduces the risk of vascular disease. This benefit is not entirely explained through an effect on vascular risk factors. We examined the relationship of physical activity and characteristics of the carotid artery wall in patients with vascular disease or risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 9578 patients from the SMART (Second Manifestations of Arterial Disease) study, a prospective cohort study among patients with vascular disease or risk factors. Physical activity was assessed using questionnaires. Carotid intima-media thickness and carotid artery stenosis of both common carotid arteries was measured. In a subset of 3165 participants carotid diastolic diameter and distension were assessed. Carotid stiffness was expressed as the distensibility coefficient and Young's elastic modulus. Regression analyses adjusted for vascular risk factors showed that physical activity was inversely associated with diastolic diameter (fifth versus first quintile B=-0.13 mm; 95% CI, -0.21 to -0.05) and decreased risk of carotid artery stenosis (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48-0.69). A light level of physical activity was associated with less carotid stiffness (second versus first quintile; Young's elastic modulus B=-0.11 kPa -1 ×10 -3 ; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.06; distensibility coefficient B=0.93 kPa×10 3 ; 95% CI, 0.34-1.51), but there was no additional benefit with increasing levels of physical activity. In patients with vascular disease, physical activity was inversely associated with common carotid intima-media thickness, but not in patients with vascular risk factors. In patients with vascular disease or risk factors, increased physical activity was associated with smaller carotid diastolic diameter, decreased risk of carotid artery stenosis, and less carotid stiffness, but it only showed benefits on carotid intima-media thickness in patients with vascular disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  10. Fracture Risk and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schürer, Christian; Wallaschofski, Henri; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Schober, Hans-Christof; Hannemann, Anke

    2015-05-25

    As the population ages, diseases of the elderly are becoming more common, including osteoporosis. Ways to assess the risk of fracture and the distribution and effects of known risk factors for osteoporosis will be important in planning for future healthcare needs, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. The study population included 6029 men and women aged 20-90 who underwent examination in the second follow-up wave of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2) or in the basal SHIP-Trend Study. The risk of fracture was estimated on the basis of quantitative ultrasonography of the calcaneus. Prior fractures and risk factors for osteoporosis were ascertained in standardized interviews. 4.6% of the male subjects and 10.6% of the female subjects were judged to have an elevated risk of fracture. The corresponding percentages among subjects over age 65 were 8.8% for men and 28.2% for women. Even among subjects under age 55, risk factors for osteoporosis were associated with lower bone stiffness: the mean stiffness index was 103/98 (men/women) without risk factors, 99/96 with one risk factor, and 93/95 with more than one risk factor. Logistic regression analysis yielded an odds ratio of 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.44-2.50; p<0.01) for prevalent fractures among subjects aged 75 and older compared to subjects under age 55. The data indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis from age 65 onward. These findings are consistent with those of other studies from Germany and across Europe. Younger men and women should already begin taking steps to counteract modifiable risk factors.

  11. Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease: how low should plasma homocyst(e)ine levels go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J D

    2001-01-01

    Plasma homocyst(e)ine level is a strong independent risk factor for vascular disease. The spelling of homocyst(e)ine reflects that what is measured, and what constitutes the risk factor; it includes homocysteine, homocystine (the dimer of homocysteine) and mixed cysteine-homocysteine disulfide. Homocyst(e)ine levels above 10.2 micro mol/L are associated with a doubling of coronary risk, and levels above 20 micro mol/L are associated with a 9.9-fold increase in risk compared with levels below 9 micro mol/L. The mechanisms by which homocyst(e)ine promotes vascular disease include increased thrombosis, consumption of nitric oxide, endothelial injury, and reduced thrombolysis. Homocyst(e)ine is an independent predictor of carotid atherosclerosis. Vitamin therapy with folate, pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12)) reduces blood levels of homocyst(e)ine, improves endothelial function, reduces levels of fibrinogen and lipoprotein(a), improves thrombolysis, and in uncontrolled clinical observation, leads to regression of carotid plaque. These lines of evidence support a causal relationship between homocyst(e)ine and atherosclerosis, and suggest that in patients with vascular disease, an appropriate target level for therapy may be below 9 or 10 micro mol/L. Randomized controlled studies are under way to determine whether vitamin therapy is effective in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke.

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 levels unaltered in symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque patients from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj eKhurana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the role of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF and monocyte chemoattractant protein(MCP-1 as a serum biomarker of symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque in North Indian population. Individuals with symptomatic carotid atherosclerotic plaque have high risk of ischemic stroke. Previous studies from western countries have shown an association between VEGF and MCP-1 levels and the incidence of ischemic stroke. In this study, venous blood from 110 human subjects was collected, 57 blood samples of which were obtained from patients with carotid plaques, 38 neurological controls without carotid plaques and another 15 healthy controls who had no history of serious illness. Serum VEGF and MCP-1 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA. We also correlated the data clinically and carried out risk factor analysis based on the detailed questionnaire obtained from each patient. For risk factor analysis, a total of 70 symptomatic carotid plaque cases and equal number of age and sex matched healthy controls were analyzed. We found that serum VEGF levels in carotid plaque patients did not show any significant change when compared to either of the controls. Similarly, there was no significant upregulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the serum of these patients. The risk factor analysis revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and physical inactivity were the main correlates of carotid atherosclerosis(p<0.05. Prevalence of patients was higher residing in urban areas as compared to rural region. We also found that patients coming from mountaineer region were relatively less vulnerable to cerebral atherosclerosis as compared to the ones residing at plain region. We conclude that the pathogenesis of carotid plaques may progress independent of these inflammatory molecules. In parallel, risk factor analysis indicates hypertension, diabetes and sedentary lifestyle as the most

  13. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor in dogs with haemangiosarcoma and haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, Meike; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Neumann, Stephan

    2014-10-01

    Splenic haemangiosarcomas are frequently seen in dogs. Because of their bad prognosis differentiation from other benign splenic lesions are of prognostic importance. However, because haemangiosarcoma is a tumour of the vascular system, it was hypothesised that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) might play a major role in tumour growth and might thus be increased in the blood of affected dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of differences in serum VEGF concentrations between dogs with splenic haemangiosarcomas and those with non-malignant splenic lesions (haematomas) and healthy subjects using a canine ELISA. Serum VEGF levels were significantly higher in dogs with splenic masses compared with healthy dogs, but did not differ significantly between dogs with haemangiosarcomas and haematomas. VEGF has a potential clinical utility as a diagnostic marker for dogs with splenic lesions but may not be useful to differentiate among the various splenic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influencing factors affecting the retinal blood vessel morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus

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    Xiao-Lu Kong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the influencing factors affecting retinal blood vessel morphology in patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Totally 312 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in our hospital from January 2012 to September 2016 were selected as study subjects. The patients were examined by fundus photography and related laboratory. As grouping factors in the patients'age, sex, disease duration, smoking, drinking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetic nephropathy, we compared the incidence of retinal vascular changes in different groups. The meaningful factors were introduced into the Logistic regression equation again. Independent risk factors for retinal vascular changes in patients with diabetes mellitus were screened out. RESULTS:In 312 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,169 cases were accompanied with retinal vascular abnormalities, and 143 cases were not associated with retinal vascular abnormalities. Univariate analysis showed that age, duration of disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes nephropathy were significantly correlated with retinal vascular morphological changes(PP>0.05. Retinal vascular abnormalities were used as the dependent variable, and the above mentioned factors were grouped as independent variables. By Logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that the course of disease, patients with hypertension or diabetic nephropathy were the independent risk factors of abnormal retinal vascular morphology(PCONCLUSION: The independent risk factors for the occurrence of retinal vascular changes in patients with diabetes mellitus are increased course of disease, hypertension or diabetic nephropathy. Early diagnosis and intervention, to take measures and control blood pressure, reduce kidney damage can reduce the incidence of diabetic retinopathy, and macrovascular disease caused by diabetes, the incidence of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

  15. Soluble ST2 associates with diabetes but not established cardiovascular risk factors: a new inflammatory pathway of relevance to diabetes?

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    Ashley M Miller

    Full Text Available Preliminary data mostly from animal models suggest the sST2/IL-33 pathway may have causal relevance for vascular disease and diabetes and thus point to a potential novel inflammatory link to cardiometabolic disease. However, the characterisation of sST2 levels in terms of metabolic or vascular risk in man is completely lacking. We sought to address this gap via a comprehensive analysis of risk factor and vascular correlates of sST2 in a cross-sectional study (pSoBid. We measured sST2 in plasma in 639 subjects and comprehensively related it to cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors and imaged atherosclerosis measures. Circulating sST2 levels increased with age, were lower in women and in highest earners. After adjusting for age and gender, sST2 levels associated strongly with markers of diabetes, including triglycerides [effect estimate (EE per 1 standard deviation increase in sST2:1.05 [95%CI 1.01,1.10], liver function (alanine aminotransaminase [ALT] and γ-glutamyl transferase [GGT]: EE 1.05 [1.01,1.09] and 1.13 [1.07,1.19] respectively, glucose (1.02 [1.00,1.03] and sICAM-1 (1.05 [1.02,1.07]. However, sST2 levels were not related to smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, or atheroma (carotid intima media thickness, plaque presence. These results suggest that sST2 levels, in individuals largely without vascular disease, are related principally to markers associated with diabetes and ectopic fat and add support for a role of sST2 in diabetes. Further mechanistic studies determining how sST2 is linked to diabetes pathways may offer new insights into the inflammatory paradigm for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Atrial fibrillation and vascular disease-a bad combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring Olesen, Jonas; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of (i) the risk of stroke associated with vascular disease (acute coronary syndromes and peripheral artery disease) in patients with atrial fibrillation, (ii) the frequent coexistence of vascular disease in patients with atrial fibrillation and, (iii...... fibrillation. Indeed, patients with atrial fibrillation often had coexisting vascular disease (around 18%), and the combination of the two diseases substantially increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. The increased risk associated with peripheral artery disease in atrial fibrillation is even more...... pronounced. Patients with atrial fibrillation and stable vascular disease should be treated with oral anticoagulation only, although when these patients present with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergo coronary stenting, concomitant treatment with antiplatelet drugs is indicated. To guide antithrombotic...

  17. Microalbuminuria indicates long-term vascular risk in patients after acute stroke undergoing in-patient rehabilitation

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    Sander Dirk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients in neurologic in-patient rehabilitation are at risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events. Microalbuminuria (MAU is frequent and an important risk predictor but has not been validated in in-patient rehabilitation. We therefore aimed to examine MAU as an indicator of risk and predictor of vascular events in a prospective study. Methods The INSIGHT (INvestigation of patients with ischemic Stroke In neuroloGic reHabiliTation registry is the first to provide large scale data on 1,167 patients with acute stroke (χ2 or Mann–Whitney-U Test. Relative risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using log-binominal models. To evaluate the association between MAU and new vascular events as well as mortality, we calculated hazard ratios (HR using Cox proportional hazard regression. Results A substantial proportion of patients was MAU positive at baseline (33.1%. Upon univariate analysis these patients were about 4 years older (69 vs. 65 years; p 2; p = 0.03 and increased waist circumference (79.5 vs. 50.4% for women [p  Conclusions INSIGHT demonstrated a significant association between MAU and polyvascular disease and further supports previous findings that MAU predicts cardio-/cerebrovascular events in patients recovering from ischemic stroke. This biomarker may also be used in patients during neurologic in-patient rehabilitation, opening a window of opportunity for early intervention in this patient group at increased risk for recurrent events.

  18. Vascular and valvular calcifications in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Bruzzone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular and valvular calcifications are a frequent complication in dialyzed patients and are connected to an increased morbi-mortality. Many radiological methods (TAC multiple slices and with electrons emission have been used to investigate the presence of vascular calcifications in this population, but only few works have been focused on simple radiology. Objectives: The objectives of this work are to evaluate vascular calcifications by means of Kauppila index in hemodialysis prevalent patients, identify linked risk factors and determine their association with heart valves calcification. Methods: 95 stable patients under hemodialysis were surveyed during a period of 6 months longer. Abdominal Rx simple profile were performed on all patients to evaluate calcification of abdominal aorta by Kauppila index and twodimensional echocardiogram to detect valvular calcifications. Data were collected about sex, age, diabetes, Hypertension, tabaquism, dislipemia and bone-mineral metabolism. Results: 64.5% of the patients showed vascular calcifications. Average Kauppila index was 6.25. Age and time on dialysis correlated with vascular calcifications. In 31.6 % of individuals valvular calcifications were found, which presented significant association with diabetes and Kauppila Index. Conclusions: Vascular and valvular calcifications were frequent in the surveyed population. Kauppila index correlated with age, time on dialysis and valvular calcifications. Heart valves calcification was associated with diabetes.

  19. Hierarchical Fabrication of Engineered Vascularized Bone Biphasic Constructs via Dual 3D Bioprinting: Integrating Regional Bioactive Factors into Architectural Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Zhu, Wei; Nowicki, Margaret; Zhou, Xuan; Khademhosseini, Ali; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2016-09-01

    A biphasic artificial vascularized bone construct with regional bioactive factors is presented using dual 3D bioprinting platform technique, thereby forming a large functional bone grafts with organized vascular networks. Biocompatible mussel-inspired chemistry and "thiol-ene" click reaction are used to regionally immobilize bioactive factors during construct fabrication for modulating or improving cellular events. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor A-stimulated signaling from endosomes in primary endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Odell, Adam F; Latham, Antony M; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Harrison, Michael A; Tomlinson, Darren C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) is a multifunctional cytokine that stimulates blood vessel sprouting, vascular repair, and regeneration. VEGF-A binds to VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases (VEGFRs) and stimulates intracellular signaling leading to changes in vascular physiology. An important aspect of this phenomenon is the spatiotemporal coordination of VEGFR trafficking and intracellular signaling to ensure that VEGFR residence in different organelles is linked to downstream cellular outputs. Here, we describe a series of assays to evaluate the effects of VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling from intracellular compartments such as the endosome-lysosome system. These assays include the initial isolation and characterization of primary human endothelial cells, performing reverse genetics for analyzing protein function; methods used to study receptor trafficking, signaling, and proteolysis; and assays used to measure changes in cell migration, proliferation, and tubulogenesis. Each of these assays has been exemplified with studies performed in our laboratories. In conclusion, we describe necessary techniques for studying the role of VEGF-A in endothelial cell function. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transient monocular blindness and the risk of vascular complications according to subtype : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, Eline J; Donders, Richard C J M; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Gijn, Jan; Algra, Ale; Jaap Kappelle, L

    Patients with transient monocular blindness (TMB) can present with many different symptoms, and diagnosis is usually based on the history alone. In this study, we assessed the risk of vascular complications according to different characteristics of TMB. We prospectively studied 341 consecutive

  2. Transient monocular blindness and the risk of vascular complications according to subtype: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkers, E.J. (Eline J.); R. Donders (Rogier); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); van Gijn, J. (Jan); A. Algra (Ale); L. Jaap Kappelle

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPatients with transient monocular blindness (TMB) can present with many different symptoms, and diagnosis is usually based on the history alone. In this study, we assessed the risk of vascular complications according to different characteristics of TMB. We prospectively studied 341

  3. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chen, J.-W.; Chiang, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-α induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-α dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-α concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-α (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-α-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-α. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-κB attenuates TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-α induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-κB in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-α. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-α was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression

  4. Cardiovascular Adaptations in Spinal Cord-Injured Individuals. Timne course of arterial vascular changes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.C.E. de

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents studies on vascular adaptation to physical inactivity and deconditioning. Although it is clear that physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the underlying physiological mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. In contrast to physical

  5. [The age-related macular degeneration as a vascular disease/part of systemic vasculopathy: contributions to its pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tamás

    2015-03-01

    The wall of blood vessels including those in choroids may be harmed by several repeated and/or prolonged mechanical, physical, chemical, microbiological, immunologic, and genetic impacts (risk factors), which may trigger a protracted response, the so-called host defense response. As a consequence, pathological changes resulting in vascular injury (e. g. atherosclerosis, age-related macular degeneration) may be evolved. Risk factors can also act directly on the endothelium through an increased production of reactive oxygen species promoting an endothelial activation, which leads to endothelial dysfunction, the onset of vascular disease. Thus, endothelial dysfunction is a link between the harmful stimulus and vascular injury; any kind of harmful stimuli may trigger the defensive chain that results in inflammation that may lead to vascular injury. It has been shown that even early age-related macular degeneration is associated with the presence of diffuse arterial disease and patients with early age-related macular degeneration demonstrate signs of systemic and retinal vascular alterations. Chronic inflammation, a feature of AMD, is tightly linked to diseases associated with ED: AMD is accompanied by a general inflammatory response, in the form of complement system activation, similar to that observed in degenerative vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. All these facts indicate that age-related macular degeneration may be a vascular disease (or part of a systemic vasculopathy). This recognition could have therapeutic implications because restoration of endothelial dysfunction may prevent the development or improve vascular disease resulting in prevention or improvement of age-related macular degeneration as well.

  6. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-κB, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-κB activations by TNF-α. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-κB activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-κB was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-κB activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions of proinflammatory cytokines

  7. Vascular associated gene variants in patients with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob A; Bare, Lance A; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms.......Preeclampsia has been linked to subsequent vascular disease with many shared predisposing factors. We investigated the association between severe preeclampsia, and its subtypes, and specific vascular-related polymorphisms....

  8. A summary risk score for the prediction of Alzheimer disease in elderly persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane; Tang, Ming-Xin; Schupf, Nicole; Manly, Jennifer J; Mayeux, Richard; Luchsinger, José A

    2010-07-01

    To develop a simple summary risk score for the prediction of Alzheimer disease in elderly persons based on their vascular risk profiles. A longitudinal, community-based study. New York, New York. Patients One thousand fifty-one Medicare recipients aged 65 years or older and residing in New York who were free of dementia or cognitive impairment at baseline. We separately explored the associations of several vascular risk factors with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) using Cox proportional hazards models to identify factors that would contribute to the risk score. Then we estimated the score values of each factor based on their beta coefficients and created the LOAD vascular risk score by summing these individual scores. Risk factors contributing to the risk score were age, sex, education, ethnicity, APOE epsilon4 genotype, history of diabetes, hypertension or smoking, high-density lipoprotein levels, and waist to hip ratio. The resulting risk score predicted dementia well. According to the vascular risk score quintiles, the risk to develop probable LOAD was 1.0 for persons with a score of 0 to 14 and increased 3.7-fold for persons with a score of 15 to 18, 3.6-fold for persons with a score of 19 to 22, 12.6-fold for persons with a score of 23 to 28, and 20.5-fold for persons with a score higher than 28. While additional studies in other populations are needed to validate and further develop the score, our study suggests that this vascular risk score could be a valuable tool to identify elderly individuals who might be at risk of LOAD. This risk score could be used to identify persons at risk of LOAD, but can also be used to adjust for confounders in epidemiologic studies.

  9. Hand-foot skin reaction with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Gu, Jian

    2017-11-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically review the risk of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) in patients with cancer. The relevant studies of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in cancer patients treated with VEGFR-TKIs were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed were searched for articles published till May 2017. Twenty-one RCTs and 9552 patients were included. The current analysis suggested that the use of VEGFR-TKIs increased the risk of all-grade HFSR (7.04;95%CI, 5.33-9.30;pcancer type, whereas the RR of high-grade HFSR did not. The risk of all-grade and high-grade HFSR did not affect by drug types, treatment line, median age and treatment duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C - a potent risk factor in children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Miskowiak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 in cancer tissue of children diagnosed with stadium 4 neuroblastoma (NB and correlate their presence with the survival rate of children diagnosed with that stage of the disease. Eighteen children assigned to stadium 4 composed the study group. Fourteen patients (allocated to stadium 3 formed a control group. VEGF-C, CD34 and VEGFR-2 expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay. Consecutive slides incubated with anti-CD34 and anti-VEGFR-2 antibodies revealed that the two markers were colocalized within endothelial layer of the blood vessels. On the other hand, VEGF-C was expressed exclusively in tumour cells. As demonstrated by Fisher's exact test, the risk of NB treatment failure (progression or relapse as well as tumour related death, when all the patients were considered, was found to be significant in VEGF-C positive patients. VEGF-C expression in NB constitutes a potent risk factor and may direct future anti-angiogenic treatment strategy. The proximity of VEGF-C and CD34/VEGFR-2 of NB could be the equivalent of a potentially interesting VEGF-C fashion involving a tumour cell invasion into the blood vessels in an early phase of metastases promoting.

  11. Axon-glial disruption: the link between vascular disease and Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsburgh, Karen; Reimer, Michell M; Holland, Philip; Chen, Guiquan; Scullion, Gillian; Fowler, Jill H

    2011-08-01

    Vascular risk factors play a critical role in the development of cognitive decline and AD (Alzheimer's disease), during aging, and often result in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. The neurobiological link between hypoperfusion and cognitive decline is not yet defined, but is proposed to involve damage to the brain's white matter. In a newly developed mouse model, hypoperfusion, in isolation, produces a slowly developing and diffuse damage to myelinated axons, which is widespread in the brain, and is associated with a selective impairment in working memory. Cerebral hypoperfusion, an early event in AD, has also been shown to be associated with white matter damage and notably an accumulation of amyloid. The present review highlights some of the published data linking white matter disruption to aging and AD as a result of vascular dysfunction. A model is proposed by which chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, as a result of vascular factors, results in both the generation and accumulation of amyloid and injury to white matter integrity, resulting in cognitive impairment. The generation of amyloid and accumulation in the vasculature may act to perpetuate further vascular dysfunction and accelerate white matter pathology, and as a consequence grey matter pathology and cognitive decline.

  12. Vector-based RNA interference against vascular endothelial growth factor-A significantly limits vascularization and growth of prostate cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannenes, Francesca; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Niola, Francesco; Frajese, Gaetano; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2005-12-01

    RNA interference technology is emerging as a very potent tool to obtain a cellular knockdown of a desired gene. In this work we used vector-based RNA interference to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that transduction with a plasmid carrying a small interfering RNA targeting all isoforms of VEGF, dramatically impairs the expression of this growth factor in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. As a consequence, PC3 cells loose their ability to induce one of the fundamental steps of angiogenesis, namely the formation of a tube-like network in vitro. Most importantly, our "therapeutic" vector is able to impair tumor growth rate and vascularization in vivo. We show that a single injection of naked plasmid in developing neoplastic mass significantly decreases microvessel density in an androgen-refractory prostate xenograft and is able to sustain a long-term slowing down of tumor growth. In conclusion, our results confirm the basic role of VEGF in the angiogenic development of prostate carcinoma, and suggest that the use of our vector-based RNA interference approach to inhibit angiogenesis could be an effective tool in view of future gene therapy applications for prostate cancer.

  13. Factores de riesgo relacionados con mortalidad por enfermedad cerebro vascular. armenia 2008 = Risk factors associated with cerebrovascular disease mortality, Armenia, Colombia, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Aristizábal, Luis Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Enfermedad cerebro vascular (ECV se encuentra entre las primeras causas de morbimortalidad en adultos en todo el mundo. Comparte con la enfermedad cardiovascular factores de riesgo modificables y no modificables; constituye una prioridad para la salud pública realizar todos los esfuerzos necesarios en la prevención primaria a través del tratamiento farmacológico y no farmacológico adecuados.Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y la mortalidad del accidente cerebrovascular y la relación con factores de riesgo.Métodos: se realizó un estudio de cross sectional .Se revisaron 318 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de ECV que ingresaron a IPS de tercer nivel en la ciudad de Armenia entre 2005 y 2007. Se analizó la frecuencia de los factores de riesgo y se relacionaron con la mortalidad y tipos de ECV.Resultados: La edad promedio fue 72 años; la mortalidad del 29.9%. Presentaron ECV isquémico 61.9% y hemorrágica 38.1%, con una mortalidad de 21.3% y 43.8% respectivamente. Los factores de riesgo más prevalentes fueron: hipertensión arterial (74.5%, tabaquismo (23.3%, ACV o cardiopatía isquémica previos (15.4%, y diabetes (15.1%. Se encontraron asociados a mortalidad: presión arterial media al ingreso a urgencias mayor a 105 (OR 1.6, presión arterial diastólica mayor a 100 (OR 3.1 y ECV hemorrágica (OR 2.9.Conclusiones: los eventos hemorrágicos son menos frecuentes pero ocasionan mayor mortalidad que los isquémicos; es necesario realizar programas de prevención secundaria para el adecuado control de factores como la hipertensión arterial; además impulsar la promoción para el cambio a estilos de vida saludables.

  14. Arterial stiffness and its association with clustering of metabolic syndrome risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda R. P. Lopes-Vicente

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with structural and functional vascular abnormalities, which may lead to increased arterial stiffness, more frequent cardiovascular events and higher mortality. However, the role played by clustering of risk factors and the combining pattern of MetS risk factors and their association with the arterial stiffness have yet to be fully understood. Age, hypertension and diabetes mellitus seem to be strongly associated with increased pulse wave velocity (PWV. This study aimed at determining the clustering and combining pattern of MetS risk factors and their association with the arterial stiffness in non-diabetic and non-hypertensive patients. Methods Recently diagnosed and untreated patients with MetS (n = 64, 49 ± 8 year, 32 ± 4 kg/m2 were selected, according to ATP III criteria and compared to a control group (Control, n = 17, 49 ± 6 year, 27 ± 2 kg/m2. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by PWV in the carotid-femoral segment. Patients were categorized and analyzed according MetS risk factors clustering (3, 4 and 5 factors and its combinations. Results Patients with MetS had increased PWV when compared to Control (7.8 ± 1.1 vs. 7.0 ± 0.5 m/s, p < 0.001. In multivariate analysis, the variables that remained as predictors of PWV were age (β = 0.450, p < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (β = 0.211, p = 0.023 and triglycerides (β = 0.212, p = 0.037. The increased number of risk factors reflected in a progressive increase in PWV. When adjusted to systolic blood pressure, PWV was greater in the group with 5 risk factors when compared to the group with 3 risk factors and Control (8.5 ± 0.4 vs. 7.5 ± 0.2, p = 0.011 and 7.2 ± 0.3 m/s, p = 0.012. Similarly, the 4 risk factors group had higher PWV than the Control (7.9 ± 0.2 vs. 7.2 ± 0.3, p = 0.047. Conclusions The number of risk factors seems to increase arterial stiffness. Notably, besides

  15. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. 6A.03: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTER-ARM SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Zhang, B; Yang, Y; Qi, L; Meng, L; Zhang, Y; Huo, Y

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the relationship between the inter arm blood pressure difference (IASBPD) and other cardiovascular risk factors. To identify what factors are associated with this difference in a general population. The study subjects were 1426 individuals. The BP was measured simultaneously in both arms by VP1000 vascular profiler (Omron Colin, Japan). The inter-arm BP difference was expressed as the absolute difference (|R - L|). The various risk factors, ba-PWV, carotid IMT and plaque were compared between IASBPD more than 10mmHg group and IASBPD less than 10mmHg group. The relationship between IASBPD more than 10mmHg and various cardiovascular risk factors were analyzed by multivariate logistic analysis. Left upper limb systolic blood pressure was higher than the right upper limb, while right upper limb diastolic pressure was higher than the left upper limb. The prevalence of hypertension was higher in IASBPD increasing group than normal group (40.5% vs 22.6%, p blood pressure were also higher in IASBPD increasing group(p blood pressure, BMI and ABI independently, which may partly explain the mechanism that increasing IASBPD is associated with cardiovascular disease.

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor attachment to hydroxyapatite via self-assembled monolayers promotes angiogenic activity of endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Kimberly D.; Ong, Joo L.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, tissue engineered constructs for critical sized bone defects are non-vascularized. There are many strategies used in order to promote vascularization, including delivery of growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was coated with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The SAMs were in turn used to covalently bind VEGF to the surface of HA. The different SAM chain length ratios (phosphonoundecanoic acid (11-PUDA):16-phosphonohexadecanoic acid (16-PHDA) utilized in this study were 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. Surfaces were characterized by contact angle (CA) and atomic force microscopy, and an in vitro VEGF release study was performed. It was observed that CA and root-mean-squared roughness were not significantly affected by the addition of SAMs, but that CA was significantly lowered with the addition of VEGF. VEGF release profiles of bound VEGF groups all demonstrated less initial burst release than adsorbed control, indicating that VEGF was retained on the HA surface when bound by SAMs. An in vitro study using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) demonstrated that bound VEGF increased metabolic activity and caused sustained production of angiopoietin-2, an angiogenic marker, over 28 days. In conclusion, SAMs provide a feasible option for growth factor delivery from HA surfaces, enhancing angiogenic activity of HAECs in vitro. - Highlights: • Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is attached to hydroxyapatite (HA). • Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) delay the release of VEGF from hydroxyapatite. • SAM chain length ratio affects the total mass of VEGF released. • VEGF on HA up-regulates proliferation and angiogenic activity of endothelial cells

  18. Substantial adverse association of visual and vascular comorbidities on visual disability in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Tyry, Tuula

    2011-12-01

    Visual comorbidities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) but the impact of visual comorbidities on visual disability is unknown. We assessed the impact of visual and vascular comorbidities on severity of visual disability in MS. In 2006, we queried participants of the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) about cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, heart disease, diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. We assessed visual disability using the Vision subscale of Performance Scales. Using Cox regression, we investigated whether visual or vascular comorbidities affected the time between MS symptom onset and the development of mild, moderate and severe visual disability. Of 8983 respondents, 1415 (15.9%) reported a visual comorbidity while 4745 (52.8%) reported a vascular comorbidity. The median (interquartile range) visual score was 1 (0-2). In a multivariable Cox model the risk of mild visual disability was higher among participants with vascular (hazard ratio [HR] 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-1.51) and visual comorbidities (HR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.37-1.59). Vascular and visual comorbidities were similarly associated with increased risks of moderate and severe visual disability. Visual and vascular comorbidities are associated with progression of visual disability in MS. Clinicians hearing reports of worsening visual symptoms in MS patients should consider visual comorbidities as contributing factors. Further study of these issues using objective, systematic neuro-ophthalmologic evaluations is warranted.

  19. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Sequestration Enhances In Vivo Cartilage Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina M. Medeiros Da Cunha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autologous chondrocyte transplantation for cartilage repair still has unsatisfactory clinical outcomes because of inter-donor variability and poor cartilage quality formation. Re-differentiation of monolayer-expanded human chondrocytes is not easy in the absence of potent morphogens. The Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF plays a master role in angiogenesis and in negatively regulating cartilage growth by stimulating vascular invasion and ossification. Therefore, we hypothesized that its sole microenvironmental blockade by either VEGF sequestration by soluble VEGF receptor-2 (Flk-1 or by antiangiogenic hyperbranched peptides could improve chondrogenesis of expanded human nasal chondrocytes (NC freshly seeded on collagen scaffolds. Chondrogenesis of several NC donors was assessed either in vitro or ectopically in nude mice. VEGF blockade appeared not to affect NC in vitro differentiation, whereas it efficiently inhibited blood vessel ingrowth in vivo. After 8 weeks, in vivo glycosaminoglycan deposition was approximately two-fold higher when antiangiogenic approaches were used, as compared to the control group. Our data indicates that the inhibition of VEGF signaling, independently of the specific implementation mode, has profound effects on in vivo NC chondrogenesis, even in the absence of chondroinductive signals during prior culture or at the implantation site.

  20. Instructive role of the vascular niche in promoting tumour growth and tissue repair by angiocrine factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason M; Kobayashi, Hideki; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-02-01

    The precise mechanisms whereby anti-angiogenesis therapy blocks tumour growth or causes vascular toxicity are unknown. We propose that endothelial cells establish a vascular niche that promotes tumour growth and tissue repair not only by delivering nutrients and O2 but also through an 'angiocrine' mechanism by producing stem and progenitor cell-active trophogens. Identification of endothelial-derived instructive angiocrine factors will allow direct tumour targeting, while diminishing the unwanted side effects associated with the use of anti-angiogenic agents.

  1. Estrogen, vascular estrogen receptor and hormone therapy in postmenopausal vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Raouf A

    2013-12-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is less common in premenopausal women than men of the same age or postmenopausal women, suggesting vascular benefits of estrogen. Estrogen activates estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30 in endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (VSM), which trigger downstream signaling pathways and lead to genomic and non-genomic vascular effects such as vasodilation, decreased VSM contraction and growth and reduced vascular remodeling. However, randomized clinical trials (RCTs), such as the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS), have shown little vascular benefits and even adverse events with menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), likely due to factors related to the MHT used, ER profile, and RCT design. Some MHT forms, dose, combinations or route of administration may have inadequate vascular effects. Age-related changes in ER amount, distribution, integrity and post-ER signaling could alter the vascular response to MHT. The subject's age, preexisting CVD, and hormone environment could also reduce the effects of MHT. Further evaluation of natural and synthetic estrogens, phytoestrogens, and selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and the design of appropriate MHT combinations, dose, route and 'timing' could improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT and provide alternative therapies in the peri-menopausal period. Targeting ER using specific ER agonists, localized MHT delivery, and activation of specific post-ER signaling pathways could counter age-related changes in ER. Examination of the hormone environment and conditions associated with hormone imbalance such as polycystic ovary syndrome may reveal the causes of abnormal hormone-receptor interactions. Consideration of these factors in new RCTs such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) could enhance the vascular benefits of estrogen in postmenopausal CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk factor and etiology analysis of ischemic stroke in young adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Rosaria; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Della Marca, Giacomo; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Morosetti, Roberta; Frisullo, Giovanni; Rossi, Elena; De Stefano, Valerio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 10%-14% of ischemic strokes occur in young adults. To investigate risk factors and etiologies of strokes of young adults admitted to the "stroke unit" of Policlinico "Gemelli" of Rome from December 2005 to January 2013. In all, 150 consecutive patients younger than 50 years diagnosed with ischemic stroke were enrolled. Clinical evaluation consisted of a complete neurologic examination and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale. Diagnostic workup consisted of anamnesis, extensive laboratory, radiologic, and cardiologic examination. Stroke etiologies were classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Patients' mean age was 41 ± 8.0 years. The most common risk factors were dyslipidemia (52.7%), smoking (47.3%), hypertension (39.3%), and patent foramen ovale (PFO, 32.8%). Large-artery atherosclerosis was diagnosed as the cause of stroke in 17 patients (11.3%). Cardioembolism was presumed in 36 patients (24%), most of them presented a PFO at transesophageal echocardiography. Small-vessel occlusion was diagnosed in 12 patients (8%); all of them were hypertensive and most of them presented additional risk factors. Forty-one patients (27.3%) presented a stroke of other determined etiology and 44 (29.3%) presented a stroke of undetermined etiology. The 3-year survival was 96.8% and recurrent strokes occurred in only 3 cases. Traditional vascular risk factors are also very common in young adults with ischemic stroke, but such factors increase the susceptibility to stroke dependent to other causes as atherosclerosis and small-artery occlusion represent less than 20% of cases. Prognosis quoadvitam is good, being characterized by low mortality and recurrence rate. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The vascular and neurogenic factors associated with erectile dysfunction in patients after pelvic fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Guan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Erectile dysfunction (ED is a common complication of pelvic fractures. To identify the vascular and neurogenic factors associated with ED, 120 patients admitted with ED after traumatic pelvic fracture between January 2009 and June 2013 were enrolled in this study. All patients answered the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5 questionnaire. Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT testing confirmed the occurrence of ED in 96 (80% patients on whom penile duplex ultrasound and neurophysiological testing were further performed. Of these ED patients 29 (30% were demonstrated only with vascular abnormality, 41 (42.7% were detected only with neural abnormality, 26 (27.1% revealed mixed abnormalities. Of the 55 patients (29+26 with vascular problems, 7 patients (12.7% with abnormal arterial response to intracavernous injection of Bimix (15mg papaverine and 1mg phentolamine, 31 (56.4% with corporal veno-occlusive dysfunction and 17 (30.9% had both problems. Of the 67 (41+26 patients with abnormal neurophysiological outcomes, 51 (76.1% with abnormal bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR, 20 (29.9% with pathological pudendal nerve evoked potentials (PDEPs and 25 (37.3% with abnormal posterior tibial somatosensory nerve evoked potentials (PTSSEPs. Our observation indicated that neurogenic factors are important for the generation of ED in patients with pelvic fracture; venous impotence is more common than arteriogenic ED.

  4. Small GTP-Binding Protein Rac Is an Essential Mediator of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Induced Endothelial Fenestrations and Vascular Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, A.; Cao, R.; Tritsaris, K.

    2003-01-01

    fenestrated endothelium, a feature linked with increased vascular permeability. A cell-permeable Rac antagonist (TAT-RacN17) converted VEGF-induced, leaky vascular plexuses into well-defined vascular networks. In addition, this Rac mutant blocked formation of VEGF-induced endothelial fenestrations...... in mediation of VEGF-induced vascular permeability but less so in neovascularization. This may have conceptual implications for applying Rac antagonists in treatment and prevention of VEGF-induced vascular leakage and edema in connection with ischemic disorders....

  5. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zembron-Lacny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP and oxidized LDL (oxLDL, in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years and 17 young males (20-24 years participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001. In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL, hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men.

  6. [Prevalence and risk factors of extra-coronary artery disease in patients with diabetes which confirmed atherosclerosis of coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracheva, S A; Biragova, M S; Glazunova, A M; Klefortova, I I; Melkozerov, K V; Shamkhalova, M Sh; Dzhavelidze, M I; Soldatova, T V; Il'in, A V; Deev, A D; Shestakova, M V; Tugeeva, E F; Buziashvili, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    To assess prevalence and risk factors of extra-coronary artery disease (peripheral artery (PA) disease (D) of lower extremities (LE), brachiocephalic arterial (BCA) stenosis (S), renal arterial (RA) S in type 1 and 2 (T1 and T2) diabetes (D) patients (P) with confirmed atherosclerosis of coronary arteries (CA). 100 P (48 with T2D, 18 with T1D, 34 without diabetes - PWD), with hemodynamically significant atherosclerosis of CA confirmed by coronary angiography. All patients underwent duplex ultrasonography of PA LE, BCA, RA. Other studies included assessment of clinical characteristics and measurement of the following parameters: profibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF] beta1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 [MMP9], monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1], regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted [RANTES), markers of endothelial dysfunction (von Willebrand factor [VWF], homocystein [HCYST], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule [VCAM], soluble intercellular adhesion molecules-1 [sICAM], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMAD, N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), and fibrinogen. Portions of P with multivessel CA disease were similar in all three groups (T1D - 88.9, T2D - 85.5, WD - 82.3%). Coexistence of atherosclerosis in 2 or more vascular beds was identified in 85.3% of T2D and in 50% of WD P (p = 0.005). In T1D group 61.1 and 11.1% of P had atherosclerosis in 2 and 3 vascular beds, respectively. Levels of profibrogenic cytokines and factors of endothelial activation (RANTES, MMP-9, PAI-I, VCAM, sICAM, ADMA) were significantly higher in P with diabetes vs P WD. P with diabetes and multifocal atherosclerosis demonstrated significant increases of CRP, fibrinogen, NT-proBNP, VWF, PAI-1, ADMA, sICAM, and decrease of GFR compared with P with atherosclerosis in 1 vascular bed. Logistic regression

  7. [Risk factors of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvisaari, Jaana

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial, neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a combination of genetic and environmental risk factors. Disturbances of brain development begin prenatally, while different environmental insults further affect postnatal brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have succeeded in identifying hundreds of new risk variants for common, multifactorial diseases. In schizophrenia research, GWAS have found several rare copy number variants that considerably increase the risk of schizophrenia, and have shown an association between schizophrenia and the major histocompatibility complex. Research on environmental risk factors in recent years has provided new information particularly on risk factors related to pregnancy and childhood rearing environment. Gene-environment interactions have become a central research topic. There is evidence that genetically susceptible children are more vulnerable to the effects of unstable childhood rearing environment and other environmental risk factors.

  8. The preventing recurrent vascular events and neurological worsening through intensive organized case-management (PREVENTION trial protocol [clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00931788

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyuki Ross

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivors of transient ischemic attack (TIA or stroke are at high risk for recurrent vascular events and aggressive treatment of vascular risk factors can reduce this risk. However, vascular risk factors, especially hypertension and high cholesterol, are not managed optimally even in those patients seen in specialized clinics. This gap between the evidence for secondary prevention of stroke and the clinical reality leads to suboptimal patient outcomes. In this study, we will be testing a pharmacist case manager for delivery of stroke prevention services. We hypothesize this new structure will improve processes of care which in turn should lead to improved outcomes. Methods We will conduct a prospective, randomized, controlled open-label with blinded ascertainment of outcomes (PROBE trial. Treatment allocation will be concealed from the study personnel, and all outcomes will be collected in an independent and blinded manner by observers who have not been involved in the patient's clinical care or trial participation and who are masked to baseline measurements. Patients will be randomized to control or a pharmacist case manager treating vascular risk factors to guideline-recommended target levels. Eligible patients will include all adult patients seen at stroke prevention clinics in Edmonton, Alberta after an ischemic stroke or TIA who have uncontrolled hypertension (defined as systolic blood pressure (BP > 140 mm Hg or dyslipidemia (fasting LDL-cholesterol > 2.00 mmol/L and who are not cognitively impaired or institutionalized. The primary outcome will be the proportion of subjects who attain 'optimal BP and lipid control'(defined as systolic BP Conclusions Nearly one-quarter of those who survive a TIA or minor stroke suffer another vascular event within a year. If our intervention improves the provision of secondary prevention therapies in these patients, the clinical (and financial implications will be enormous.

  9. Ionizing radiation activates vascular endothelial growth factor-A transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyounji; Kim, Kwang Seok; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Lim, Young Bin [Radiation Cancer Biology Team, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential paracrine factor for developmental and pathological angiogenesis. VEGF also exerts its effects in an autocrine manner in VEGF-producing cells. For instance, autocrine VEGF signaling occurs in tumor cells and contributes to key aspects of tumorigenesis, such as in the function of cancer stem cells and tumor initiation, which are independent of angiogenesis. In addition to tumors cells, non-transformed cells also express VEGF. For example, a VEGF dependent intracellular autocrine mechanism is crucial for the survival of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoiesis. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a novel treatment modality for early primary cancer and oligometastatic disease. SBRT delivers high-dose hypofractionated radiation, such as 20-60 Gy, to tumors in a single fraction or 2-5 fractions. As VEGF is a critical regulator of functional integrity and viability of vascular endothelial cells, we examined whether high-dose irradiation alters VEGF signaling by measuring the expression levels of VEGFA transcript. It is generally believed that endothelial cells do not produce VEGF in response to radiation. In present study, however, we provide the first demonstration of transcriptional regulation of VEGFA in human vascular endothelial cells by IR treatment. Irradiation with doses higher than 10 Gy in a single exposure triggers up-regulation of VEGFA transcription within 2 hours in HUVECs, whereas irradiation with 10 Gy does not alter VEGFA levels. Our data have shown that high-dose irradiation triggers immediate transactivation of VEGFA in human vascular endothelial cells.

  10. The vascular permeabilizing factors histamine and serotonin induce angiogenesis through TR3/Nur77 and subsequently truncate it through thrombospondin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liuliang; Zhao, Dezheng; Xu, Jianfeng; Ren, Xianghui; Terwilliger, Ernest F.; Parangi, Sareh; Lawler, Jack; Dvorak, Harold F.

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in cancer and in many other human diseases. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), the best known angiogenic factor, was originally discovered as a potent vascular permeability factor (VPF), suggesting that other vascular permeabilizing agents, such as histamine and serotonin, might also have angiogenic activity. We recently demonstrated that, like VEGF-A, histamine and serotonin up-regulate the orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor TR3 (mouse homolog Nur77) and that TR3/Nur77 is essential for their vascular permeabilizing activities. We now report that histamine and serotonin are also angiogenic factors that, at low micromolar concentrations, induce endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. All of these responses are mediated through specific histamine and serotonin receptors, are independent of VEGF-A, and are directly dependent on TR3/Nur77. Initially, the angiogenic response closely resembled that induced by VEGF-A, with generation of “mother” vessels. However, after ∼10 days, mother vessels began to regress as histamine and serotonin, unlike VEGF-A, up-regulated the potent angiogenesis inhibitor thrombospondin-1, thereby triggering a negative feedback loop. Thus, histamine and serotonin induce an angiogenic response that fits the time scale of acute inflammation. PMID:23315169

  11. Metabolic and vascular pattern in medial pterygoid muscle is altered by chronic stress in an animal model of hypodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Calzzani, Ricardo Alexandre; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro

    2018-03-01

    Psychological stress is an important perpetuating, worsening and risk factor for temporomandibular disorders of muscular or articular origin. Occlusion instability, by the way, is considered a risk factor of this pathology and can be reproduced in some experimental animal models. The exact physiologic mechanism underlying these relations however, remains unclear. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that chronic stress and unilateral exodontia induce metabolic and vascular changes in the medial pterygoid muscle of rats. Adult Wistar rats were submitted to chronic unpredictable stress and/or unilateral exodontia and their plasma and medial pterygoid muscle were removed for analysis. The parameters evaluated included plasma levels of corticosterone, metabolic activity by succinate dehydrogenase, oxidative capacity by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide diaphorase, capillary density by laminin and alfa-CD staining and reactive oxidative species production. Chronic unpredictable stress as an isolated factor, increased oxidative metabolism, capillary density and reactive oxygen species production at medial pterygoid muscle. Conversely, exodontia has a main effect in metabolism, promoting glycolytic transformation of muscle fibers. Association of both factors induced a major glycolytic pattern in muscle and vascular changes. Our findings provide insights into the mechanisms, possibly inducing metabolic and vascular alterations on medial pterygoid muscle of rats, by which chronic stress and occlusal instabilities might be involved as risk factors in the pathophysiology of temporomandibular disorders with muscular components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, K; Matheson, G; Meeuwisse, W; Brukner, P

    1999-08-01

    Preventing stress fractures requires knowledge of the risk factors that predispose to this injury. The aetiology of stress fractures is multifactorial, but methodological limitations and expediency often lead to research study designs that evaluate individual risk factors. Intrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as bone density, skeletal alignment and body size and composition, physiological factors such as bone turnover rate, flexibility, and muscular strength and endurance, as well as hormonal and nutritional factors. Extrinsic risk factors include mechanical factors such as surface, footwear and external loading as well as physical training parameters. Psychological traits may also play a role in increasing stress fracture risk. Equally important to these types of analyses of individual risk factors is the integration of information to produce a composite picture of risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically appraise the existing literature by evaluating study design and quality, in order to provide a current synopsis of the known scientific information related to stress fracture risk factors. The literature is not fully complete with well conducted studies on this topic, but a great deal of information has accumulated over the past 20 years. Although stress fractures result from repeated loading, the exact contribution of training factors (volume, intensity, surface) has not been clearly established. From what we do know, menstrual disturbances, caloric restriction, lower bone density, muscle weakness and leg length differences are risk factors for stress fracture. Other time-honoured risk factors such as lower extremity alignment have not been shown to be causative even though anecdotal evidence indicates they are likely to play an important role in stress fracture pathogenesis.

  13. Over expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in correlation to Ki-67, grade and stage of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Harris, Esraah S.; Al-Janabi, Asad A.; Al-Toriahi, Kaswer M.; Yasseen, Akeel A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess the significance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein over expression in human breast cancer, and its possible correlation with cell proliferation marker (Ki-67), grade and stage of breast cancer. We carried out this study at the Department of Pathology, Kufa University, between November 2006 and September 2007. A retrospective study was employed on paraffin-embedded blocks from 52 female patients with breast cancer. A group of 21 patients with benign breast lesions was included for comparison and 14 cases of normal breast tissue as control group. The investigation designed to employ immunohistochemistry using Avidin-Biotin Complex (ABC) method for detection of both VEGF and Ki-67. A total of 87 samples were included. Vascular endothelial growth factor immunoexpression was considered as positive in 61.5% of malignant and in 19% of benign breast lesions. No over expression sign has been noticed in normal breast tissue (p<0.005). No significant difference in VEGF over expression among different histological types of breast cancer (p<0.05). Vascular endothelial growth factor immunostaining was positively correlated with Ki-67, grade, stage, lymph node metastasis, and recurrence of breast cancer (p<0.05).No such correlation has been seen when the age of the patients has been considered. Vascular endothelial growth factor plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer evolution and supports the evidence of its role in angiogenesis and cell survival. This study recommended that the blocking of VEGF may be target for blocking angiogenesis and hence improving the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy. (author)

  14. Association of homocysteine level and vascular burden and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been found to have cognitive impairment. However, the core features and clinical correlates of cognitive impairment are still unclear. Elevated homocysteine levels are present in CKD, and this is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and vascular diseases in the general population. Thus, this study investigated the core domains of cognitive impairment and investigated the associations of homocysteine level and vascular burden with cognitive function in patients with CKD. Patients with CKD aged ≥ 50 years and age- and sex-matched normal comparisons were enrolled. The total fasting serum homocysteine level was measured. Vascular burden was assessed using the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Scale. Cognitive function was evaluated using comprehensive neuropsychological tests. A total of 230 patients with CKD and 92 comparisons completed the study. Memory impairment and executive dysfunction were identified as core features of cognitive impairment in the CKD patients. Among the patients with CKD, higher serum homocysteine levels (β = -0.17, p = 0.035) and higher Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Scale scores (β = -0.18, p = 0.013) were correlated with poor executive function independently. However, an association with memory function was not noted. Our results showed that an elevated homocysteine level and an increased vascular burden were independently associated with executive function, but not memory, in CKD patients. This findings suggested the co-existence of vascular and non-vascular hypotheses regarding executive dysfunction in CKD patients. Meanwhile, other risk factors related to CKD itself should be investigated in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Morpholino-Mediated Isoform Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR2) Reduces Colon Cancer Xenograft Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, Brian C., E-mail: briancstagg@gmail.com; Uehara, Hironori; Lambert, Nathan; Rai, Ruju; Gupta, Isha; Radmall, Bryce; Bates, Taylor; Ambati, Balamurali K. [John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2014-11-26

    Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pro-angiogenic that is involved in tumor angiogenesis. When VEGF binds to membrane-bound vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (mVEGFR2), it promotes angiogenesis. Through alternative polyadenylation, VEGFR2 is also expressed in a soluble form (sVEGFR2). sVEGFR2 sequesters VEGF and is therefore anti-angiogenic. The aim of this study was to show that treatment with a previously developed and reported antisense morpholino oligomer that shifts expression from mVEGFR2 to sVEGFR2 would lead to reduced tumor vascularization and growth in a murine colon cancer xenograft model. Xenografts were generated by implanting human HCT-116 colon cancer cells into the flanks of NMRI nu/nu mice. Treatment with the therapeutic morpholino reduced both tumor growth and tumor vascularization. Because the HCT-116 cells used for the experiments did not express VEGFR2 and because the treatment morpholino targeted mouse rather than human VEGFR2, it is likely that treatment morpholino was acting on the mouse endothelial cells rather than directly on the tumor cells.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging, intracranial vascular resistance and cognition in middle-aged asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Olóriz, Jorge; López-Cancio, Elena; Arenillas, Juan F; Hernández, María; Dorado, Laura; Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalía; Barrios, Maite; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; Bargalló, Núria; Cáceres, Cynthia; Torán, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antonio; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of traditional vascular risk factors to cognitive impairment and dementia is well known. However, in order to obtain possible targets for prevention of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), it may be important to identify other early and noninvasive markers in asymptomatic middle-aged adults. The calculation of middle cerebral artery-pulsatility index (MCA-PI) is an ultrasonologic, noninvasive, validated and easily reproducible technique to assess increased distal resistance to blood flow. This study aims to assess the relationship between MCA-PI, microstructural white matter (WM) integrity and cognition in a middle-aged asymptomatic population. Ninety-five participants from the Barcelona-Asymptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerosis (AsIA) neuropsychology study were included. Subjects were 50-65 years old, free from dementia and without history of vascular disease. Transcranial color-coded duplex ultrasound examination was performed to assess MCA-PI as a measure of vascular resistance. WM integrity was evaluated by fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements of diffusion tensor images (DTI) acquired on a 3T-MRI. The neuropsychological battery was specifically selected to be sensitive to VCI, and included tests that were grouped into six cognitive domains: executive functioning, attention, verbal fluency, memory, visuospatial skills and psychomotor speed. A multivariate linear regression model adjusted for age, gender, years of education, diabetes and hypertension was performed. MCA-PI was significantly associated with WM disintegration in different tracts (fornix, corticospinal and anterior thalamic), all p gender, years of education, and vascular risk factors (all p cognitive domains, except for visuospatial skills. Our data suggest that MCA-PI may be related to WM disintegration and early vascular cognitive impairment in middle-aged subjects. Although further prospective studies are needed to provide evidence for its validity in longitudinal studies, our

  17. The spatial distribution of age-related white matter changes as a function of vascular risk factors--results from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, E; Gouw, A A; Vrenken, H

    2012-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are a frequent finding on brain MRI of elderly subjects, and have been associated with various risk factors, as well as with development of cognitive and functional impairment. While an overall association between WMH load and risk factors is well described...... associations were found for age, gender and hypertension. Different distribution patterns were found for men and women. Further, increased probability was found in association with self-reported alcohol and tobacco consumption, as well as in those with a history of migraine. It is concluded that the location...... of WMH is dependent on the risk factors involved pointing towards a regionally different pathogenesis and/or vulnerability of the white matter....

  18. Causes of failure to achieve the low density lipoprotein cholesterol therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk controlled in Lipid and Vascular Risk Units. EROMOT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Clotilde; Plana, Núria; Arnau, Anna; Matas, Laia; Mauri, Marta; Vila, Àlex; Vila, Lluís; Soler, Cristina; Montesinos, Jesús; Masana, Lluís; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    Determination of the level of achievement of the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) therapeutic target in patients with high and very high vascular risk treated in Lipid Units, as well as the causes of non-achievement. Multicentre retrospective observational study that included patients over 18 years with high and very high vascular risk, according to the criteria of the 2012 European Guidelines on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, referred consecutively to Lipid Units between January and June 2012 and with follow-up two years after the first visit. The study included a total of 243 patients from 16 lipid units. The mean age was 52.2 years (SD 13.7), of whom 62.6% were males, and 40.3% of them were very high risk. At the first visit, 86.8% (25.1% in combination) and 95.0% (47.3% in combination) in the second visit (P<.001) were treated with lipid-lowering treatment. The therapeutic target was achieved by 28% (95 CI: 22.4-34.1). As regards the causes of non-achievement, 24.6% were related to the medication (10.3% maximum tolerated dose and 10.9% due to the appearance of adverse effects), 43.4% due to the physician (19.4% by inertia, 13.7% considering that target already reached), and 46.9% due to the patient, highlighting the therapeutic non-compliance (31,4%). LDL-C targets were achieved in about one-third of patients. The low adherence of the patient, followed by medical inertia are the most frequent causes that can explain these results. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Public Reporting of Primary Care Clinic Quality: Accounting for Sociodemographic Factors in Risk Adjustment and Performance Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; Finch, Michael; Kreiger, Rob; Reeves, David

    2018-01-03

    Performance measurement and public reporting are increasingly being used to compare clinic performance. Intended consequences include quality improvement, value-based payment, and consumer choice. Unintended consequences include reducing access for riskier patients and inappropriately labeling some clinics as poor performers, resulting in tampering with stable care processes. Two analytic steps are used to maximize intended and minimize unintended consequences. First, risk adjustment is used to reduce the impact of factors outside providers' control. Second, performance categorization is used to compare clinic performance using risk-adjusted measures. This paper examines the effects of methodological choices, such as risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors in risk adjustment and accounting for patients clustering by clinics in performance categorization, on clinic performance comparison for diabetes care, vascular care, asthma, and colorectal cancer screening. The population includes all patients with commercial and public insurance served by clinics in Minnesota. Although risk adjusting for sociodemographic factors has a significant effect on quality, it does not explain much of the variation in quality. In contrast, taking into account the nesting of patients within clinics in performance categorization has a substantial effect on performance comparison.

  20. Prognostic impact of placenta growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor A in patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maae, Else; Olsen, Dorte Aalund; Steffensen, Karina Dahl

    2012-01-01

    such as ischemic heart disease, arthritis and tumor growth. Angiogenesis is a complex process with several growth factors involved. Because PlGF modulates VEGF-A responses, we investigated their mutual relationship and impact on breast cancer prognosis. Quantitative PlGF and VEGF-A levels were measured in 229...... tumor tissue specimen from primarily operated patients with unilateral breast cancer. Non-malignant breast tissue was also dissected near the tumor and quantitative measurements were available for 211 patients. PlGF and VEGF-A protein levels in homogenized tissue lysates were analyzed using the Luminex......Placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) are angiogenic growth factors interacting competitively with the same receptors. VEGF-A is essential in both normal and pathologic conditions, but the functions of PlGF seem to be restricted to pathologic conditions...

  1. Intraocular and systemic levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in advanced cases of retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Velez-Montoya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Raul Velez-Montoya1, Carmen Clapp2, Jose Carlos Rivera2, Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre1, Virgilio Morales-Cantón1, Jans Fromow-Guerra1, Jose Luis Guerrero-Naranjo1, Hugo Quiroz-Mercado31Retina Department Asociación para Evitar la Ceguera en México IAP, México City, México; 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Querétaro, México; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Denver Health Medical Center, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Colorado, USAPurpose: To measure vitreous, aqueous, subretinal fluid and plasma levels of vascular ­endothelial growth factor in late stages of retinopathy of prematurity.Methods: Interventional study. We enrolled patients with clinical diagnoses of bilateral stage V retinopathy of prematurity, confirmed by b-scan ultrasound and programmed for vitrectomy. During surgery we took samples from blood, aqueous, vitreous, and subretinal fluids. The vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in each sample was measured by ELISA reaction. A control sample of aqueous, vitreous and blood was taken from patients with congenital cataract programmed for phacoemulsification. For statistical analysis, a Mann–Whitney and a Wilcoxon W test was done with a significant P value of 0.05.Results: We took samples of 16 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria. The vascular endothelial growth factor levels in the study group were: aqueous, 76.81 ± 61.89 pg/mL; vitreous, 118.53 ± 65.87 pg/mL; subretinal fluid, 1636.58 ± 356.47 pg/mL; and plasma, 74.64 ± 43.94 pg/mL. There was a statistical difference between the study and the control group (P < 0.001 in the aqueous and vitreous samples.Conclusion: Stage 5 retinopathy of prematurity has elevated intraocular levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, which remains high despite severe retinal lesion. There was no ­statistical difference in plasma levels of the molecule between the control and study group

  2. Ritmo circadiano e doença vascular encefálica: um estudo de correlação com fatores de risco Circadian rhythm and encephalic vascular disease: a correlative study with risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Araújo Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Os mecanismos biológicos humanos exibem variabilidade clínica previsível no tempo, o que tem permitido reavaliação das práticas médicas atuais, do estudo mais aprofundado do ritmo circadiano (RC e dos mecanismos que geram as oscilações sustentadas em todos os níveis biológicos. Fizemos um estudo procurando relacionar o RC e o momento do aparecimento do quadro clínico neurológico decorrente da lesão vascular do encéfalo com os fatores de risco modificáveis identificados no momento da internação. Foram estudados 53 pacientes, sendo 50,94% (n =27 do sexo feminino e 49,50%(n =26 do masculino, com média de idade de 66,4 anos. Quatro intervalos de 6 horas (0-6; 6-12; 12-18; 18-24 foram usados para análise da freqüência do ictus e da incidência em cada intervalo. Os resultados mostraram 6 (11,32% pacientes no intervalo 0-6 hs; 21 (39,62% no intervalo 6-12 hs; 10 (18,86% no intervalo 12-18 hs; 16 (30,18% no intervalo 18-24 hs. Estudo de correlação com os fatores de risco, baseado nos dados clínicos no momento da internação, mostrou que a hipertensão arterial [(81,25%] e o tabagismo[ (56,25%] predominaram no intervalo 18-24 hs, enquanto o sedentarismo[11; (52,38%] o estresse[11 (52,38%] o diabetes [(47,61%] a hiperlipidemia [8 (38,09%] e o alcoolismo[8 (38,09%] predominaram no intervalo 6-12 hs; as cardiopatias [(50,00%] predominaram no intervalo de 12-18 hs.The human biological mechanisms show a predictable clinical variability in time, which has allowed a deeper reevaluation of present-day medical practices, regarding the circadian rhythm (CR and the mechanisms that produce the supported variations in all biological levels. We have made a study aiming to relate the CR and onset of the neurological clinic situation due to the encephalic vascular lesion, correlating with modifying risk factors. Fifty three patients were studied, 50,94% female (n=27 and 49,50% male (n=26, at average age 66.4 years old. Four intervals of six

  3. Diabetic Foot Complications and Their Risk Factors from a Large Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Youssef, Amira M.; Subhani, Shazia N.; Ibrahim, Heba M.; Alamri, Bader N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Foot complications are considered to be a serious consequence of diabetes mellitus, posing a major medical and economical threat. Identifying the extent of this problem and its risk factors will enable health providers to set up better prevention programs. Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), being a large database source, would be the best tool to evaluate this problem. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of a cohort of 62,681 patients aged ≥25 years from SNDR database, selected for studying foot complications associated with diabetes and related risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetic foot complications was 3.3% with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of (3.16%–3.44%), whilst the prevalences of foot ulcer, gangrene, and amputations were 2.05% (1.94%–2.16%), 0.19% (0.16%–0.22%), and 1.06% (0.98%–1.14%), respectively. The prevalence of foot complications increased with age and diabetes duration predominantly amongst the male patients. Diabetic foot is more commonly seen among type 2 patients, although it is more prevalent among type 1 diabetic patients. The Univariate analysis showed Charcot joints, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), neuropathy, diabetes duration ≥10 years, insulin use, retinopathy, nephropathy, age ≥45 years, cerebral vascular disease (CVD), poor glycemic control, coronary artery disease (CAD), male gender, smoking, and hypertension to be significant risk factors with odds ratio and 95% CI at 42.53 (18.16–99.62), 14.47 (8.99–23.31), 12.06 (10.54–13.80), 7.22 (6.10–8.55), 4.69 (4.28–5.14), 4.45 (4.05–4.89), 2.88 (2.43–3.40), 2.81 (2.31–3.43), 2.24 (1.98–2.45), 2.02 (1.84–2.22), 1.54 (1.29–1.83), and 1.51 (1.38–1.65), respectively. Conclusions Risk factors for diabetic foot complications are highly prevalent; they have put these complications at a higher rate and warrant primary and secondary prevention programs to minimize morbidity and mortality in addition to economic impact

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm hampers murine central wound healing by suppression of vascular epithelial growth factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøstrup, Hannah; Lerche, Christian J; Christophersen, Lars J

    2018-01-01

    -wounded, infection-susceptible BALB/c mice, which display delayed wound closure compared to C3H/HeN mice. Wounds were evaluated histopathologically 4, 7 or 10 days post-infection. Photoplanimetry evaluated necrotic areas. P. aeruginosa biofilm suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor levels centrally in BALB....../c wounds but increased peripheral levels 4-7 days post-infection. Central zones of the burn wound displayed lower levels of central vascular endothelial growth factor as observed 4 and 7 days post-infection in BALB/c mice compared to their C3H/HeN counterparts. Biofilm suppressed early, centrally located S......100A8/A9 in BALB/c and centrally and peripherally later on in C3H/HeN wounds as compared to uninfected mice. Peripheral polymorphonuclear-dominated inflammation and larger necrosis were observed in BALB/c wounds. In conclusion, P. aeruginosa biofilm modulates wounds by suppressing central...

  5. Chronic Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Caused by Pulmonary Embolism and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Brown, Mary B; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Rezania, Samin; Goodwill, Adam G; McCarthy, Brian P; Persohn, Scott A; Territo, Paul R; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) will be accelerated by an animal model that replicates the phenotype of human CTEPH. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a combination of a single dose each of plastic microspheres and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor antagonist in polystyrene microspheres (PE) + tyrosine kinase inhibitor SU5416 (SU) group. Shams received volume-matched saline; PE and SU groups received only microspheres or SU5416, respectively. PE + SU rats exhibited sustained pulmonary hypertension (62 ± 13 and 53 ± 14 mmHg at 3 and 6 weeks, respectively) with reduction of the ventriculoarterial coupling in vivo coincident with a large decrement in peak rate of oxygen consumption during aerobic exercise, respectively. PE + SU produced right ventricular hypokinesis, dilation, and hypertrophy observed on echocardiography, and 40% reduction in right ventricular contractile function in isolated perfused hearts. High-resolution computed tomographic pulmonary angiography and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry revealed abundant lung neovascularization and cellular proliferation in PE that was distinctly absent in the PE + SU group. We present a novel rodent model to reproduce much of the known phenotype of CTEPH, including the pivotal pathophysiological role of impaired vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent vascular remodeling. This model may reveal a better pathophysiological understanding of how PE transitions to CTEPH in human treatments. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The clinical impact of MTHFR polymorphism on the vascular complications of sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moreira Neto

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is one of the most common inherited diseases in the world and the patients present notorious clinical heterogeneity. It is known that patients with SCD present activation of the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, especially during vaso-occlusive crises, but also during the steady state of the disease. We determined if the presence of the factor V gene G1691A mutation (factor V Leiden, the prothrombin gene G20210A variant, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T polymorphism may be risk factors for vascular complications in individuals with SCD. We studied 53 patients with SCD (60% being women, 29 with SS (sickle cell anemia; 28 years, range: 13-52 years and 24 with SC (sickle-hemoglobin C disease; 38.5 years, range: 17-72 years hemoglobinopathy. Factor V Leiden, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, and prothrombin G20210A variant were identified by PCR followed by further digestion of the PCR product with specific endonucleases. The following vascular complications were recorded: stroke, retinopathy, acute thoracic syndrome, and X-ray-documented avascular necrosis. Only one patient was heterozygous for factor V Leiden (1.8% and there was no prothrombin G20210A variant. MTHFR 677TT polymorphism was detected in 1 patient (1.8% and the heterozygous form 677TC was observed in 18 patients (34%, 9 with SS and 9 with SC disease, a prevalence similar to that reported by others. No association was detected between the presence of the MTHFR 677T allele and other genetic modulation factors, such as alpha-thalassemia, ß-globin gene haplotype and fetal hemoglobin. The presence of the MTHFR 677T allele was associated with the occurrence of vascular complications in SCD, although this association was not significant when each complication was considered separately. In conclusion, MTHFR C677T polymorphism might be a risk factor for vascular complications in SCD.

  7. Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and related risk factors in Turkish elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesilkayali Teoman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that prevalence of peripheral arterial disease being a widespread atherosclerotic vascular disease increases by age. On the other hand, no comprehensive study showing the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in Turkish elders is seen. In this study, it is aimed to assess prevalence of peripheral arterial disease and related risk factors in Turkish elders in primary health center. Methods 507 elderly staying at Narlidere Geriatric Care Center and Residential Home and accepting to participate in the study were included in the study. Epidemiological data for diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease, risk factors, findings of physical examination and ankle brachial index measurements were assessed in the study. Data were analyzed in terms of prevalence of peripheral arterial disease, age and gender relation and other cardiovascular risk factors. Results Of the participants, 317 (62.5% were female. The mean age was 77.61 ± 6.93 years (62-102. The most wide-spread chronic diseases in elderly included hypertension, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia and Type 2 DM, respectively. On the other hand, only 7 (1.4% elderly were diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease. The number of elderly ABI of whom was measured as Conclusions Peripheral arterial disease is expected to be seen prevailing in elderly. However, it was determined at very low rate before the study due to the fact that the disease cannot be diagnosed clinically especially in early-period. Peripheral arterial disease determined in the study is lower than expected as per the age group. This can be associated with practices of geriatrics nursing and family practice including continuous care to reduce cardiovascular risk factors of patients staying at the unit.

  8. Role of Experience With Preventive Medication and Personal Risk Attitude in Non-Attendance at Triple Vascular Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina B.; Lindholt, Jes S.; Søgaard, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    , and hypertension in the Viborg Vascular (VIVA) screening trial. Data on socio-demographic and socio-economic characteristics, diagnoses, and use of preventive medication were extracted from national registries. A proxy for personal risk attitude was constructed. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios...

  9. A shift in the balance of vascular endothelial growth factor and connective tissue growth factor by bevacizumab causes the angiofibrotic switch in proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Rob J.; Lesnik-Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Tan, H. Stevie; Mura, Marco; Goldschmeding, Roel; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) may cause blindness by neovascularisation followed by fibrosis of the retina. It has previously been shown that a shift in the balance between levels of CTGF

  10. Lifestyle risk factors for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack in young adults in the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sarnowski, Bettina; Putaala, Jukka; Grittner, Ulrike; Gaertner, Beate; Schminke, Ulf; Curtze, Sami; Huber, Roman; Tanislav, Christian; Lichy, Christoph; Demarin, Vida; Basic-Kes, Vanja; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Neumann-Haefelin, Tobias; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Rothwell, Peter M; Dichgans, Martin; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Heuschmann, Peter U; Kaps, Manfred; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt; Kessler, Christof; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2013-01-01

    Although many stroke patients are young or middle-aged, risk factor profiles in these age groups are poorly understood. The Stroke in Young Fabry Patients (sifap1) study prospectively recruited a large multinational European cohort of patients with cerebrovascular events aged 18 to 55 years to establish their prevalence of Fabry disease. In a secondary analysis of patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, we studied age- and sex-specific prevalences of various risk factors. Among 4467 patients (median age, 47 years; interquartile range, 40-51), the most frequent well-documented and modifiable risk factors were smoking (55.5%), physical inactivity (48.2%), arterial hypertension (46.6%), dyslipidemia (34.9%), and obesity (22.3%). Modifiable less well-documented or potentially modifiable risk factors like high-risk alcohol consumption (33.0%) and short sleep duration (20.6%) were more frequent in men, and migraine (26.5%) was more frequent in women. Women were more often physically inactive, most pronouncedly at ages young patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events, modifiable risk factors were highly prevalent, particularly in men and older patients. These data emphasize the need for vigorous primary and secondary prevention measures already in young populations targeting modifiable lifestyle vascular risk factors.

  11. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  12. Warfarin accelerated vascular calcification and worsened cardiac dysfunction in remnant kidney mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tsun Tsai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vascular calcification is highly prevalent in end-stage renal disease (ESRD and is a significant risk factor for future cardiovascular events and death. Warfarin use results in dysfunction of matrix Gla protein, an inhibitor of vascular calcification. However, the effect of warfarin on vascular calcification in patients with ESRD is still not well characterized. Thus we investigated whether arterial calcification can be accelerated by warfarin treatment both in vitro and in vivo using a mouse remnant kidney model. Methods: Human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC were cultured in medium supplemented with warfarin and phosphate to investigate the potential role of this drug in osteoblast transdifferentiation. For in vivo study, adult male C57BL/6 mice underwent 5/6 nephrectomy were treated with active vitamin D3 plus warfarin to determine the extent of vascular calcification and parameters of cardiovascular function. Results: We found that the expressions of Runx2 and osteocalcin in HASMC were markedly enhanced in the culture medium containing warfarin and high phosphate concentration. Warfarin induced calcification of cultured HASMC in the presence of high phosphate levels, and this effect is inhibited by vitamin K2. Severe aortic calcification and reduced left ventricular ejection fractions were also noted in 5/6 nephrectomy mice treated with warfarin and active vitamin D3. Conclusion: Warfarin treatment contributes to the accelerated vascular calcification in animal models of advanced chronic kidney disease. Clinicians should therefore be aware of the profound risk of warfarin use on vascular calcification and cardiac dysfunction in patients with ESRD and atrial fibrillation. Keywords: Left ventricular dysfunction, Uremia, Vascular calcification, Warfarin

  13. Isolation of a cDNA for a Growth Factor of Vascular Endothelial Cells from Human Lung Cancer Cells: Its Identity with Insulin‐like Growth Factor II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Koichi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Tobita, Masato; Kikyo, Nobuaki; Yazaki, Yoshio

    1995-01-01

    We have found growth‐promoting activity for vascular endothelial cells in the conditioned medium of a human lung cancer cell line, T3M‐11. Purification and characterization of the growth‐promoting activity have been carried out using ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel‐exclusion chromatography. The activity migrated as a single peak just after ribonuclease. It did not bind to a heparin affinity column. These results suggest that the activity is not a heparin‐binding growth factor (including fibroblast growth factors) or a vascular endothelial growth factor. To identify the molecule exhibiting the growth‐promoting activity, a cDNA encoding the growth factor was isolated through functional expression cloning in COS‐1 cells from a cDNA library prepared from T3M‐11 cells. The nucleotide sequence encoded by the cDNA proved to be identical with that of insulin‐like growth factor II. PMID:7730145

  14. Alcohol consumption and risk of recurrent cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease and diabetes mellitus: The Second Manifestations of ARTerial (SMART) disease study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Algra, A.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Visseren, F.L.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Graaf, van der Y.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and specific vascular events and mortality in a high risk population of patients with clinical manifestations of vascular disease and diabetes. METHODS: Patients with clinically manifest vascular disease or diabetes (n=5447)

  15. Presurgical fMRI evaluation of cerebral reorganization and motor deficit in patients with tumors and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, M.; Le Bas, J.F.; Segebarth, C.; Benabid, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this fMRI study was to evaluate the motor reorganization (cerebral plasticity) and the risk of motor deficit in patients presenting with tumors and vascular malformations, within the framework of their pre-surgical planning. Functional MR imaging data was obtained from 17 patients. Ten patients (seven with tumors and three with vascular malformations) presented with motor reorganization. The results of the present study suggest that the evaluation of the cerebral reorganization is an essential step in predicting the risk of motor deficit in patients having surgical indication for treatment. Furthermore, the cerebral reorganization constitutes an important factor for surgical decision

  16. A decade of civilian vascular trauma in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaha, Luan; Andreevska, Tatjana; Rudari, Hajriz; Ademi, Bekim; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Purpose We sought to analyze the results of arterial injury management in a busy metropolitan vascular unit and risk factors associated with mortality and morbidity. Patients and methods We analyzed 120 patient with arterial injury treated between year 2000 and 2010 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. Seven of these years were prospective and three retrospective study. Results The mechanism of arterial injury was stabbing 46.66%, gunshot wounds in 31.66%, blunt in 13.33%, an...

  17. Retinopathy in an obesity WHO III cohort: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Juri; Lammert, Alexander; Otto, Mirko; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    2017-11-01

    To assess retinopathy and its risk factors in an obesity WHO III cohort. In the Mannheim Obesity Study , 277 subjects with obesity WHO III aged 18-64 years were examined in a cross-sectional approach. Screening for retinopathy was performed using 3-field retinal photography. Endothelial function was assessed using arteriole-to-venule ratio and flicker light analysis. Subjects with and without retinopathy were analysed for anthropometry, metabolic, vascular and renal parameters. Retinopathy was found in 18 of the 277 subjects (6.5%). Prevalence of retinopathy was 16.7% in subjects with and 3.4% in subjects without diabetes mellitus. Between subjects with and without retinopathy there were significant differences in diabetes prevalence (61.1% vs 21.7%, pretinopathy (OR 8.3, p=0.049, 95% CI 1.01 to 67.49), whereas risk for retinopathy decreased by nearly 50% (OR 0.54, p=0.032, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.95) with each percentage increase in venous dilatation in response to flicker light. Retinopathy prevalence in our obesity WHO III cohort is low. Presence of diabetes mellitus is the most important risk factor for retinopathy. Preserved venular function indicates protection from retinopathy. NCT00770276, Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Buddleja officinalis suppresses high glucose-induced vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases, nuclear factor-kappaB and matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2010-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for vascular diseases caused by atherosclerosis. In the development of diabetic atherogenesis, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is recognized as a key event. Thus, we aimed to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Buddleja officinalis (EBO) suppresses high glucose-induced proliferation in primary cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation revealed that incubation of HASMC with a high concentration of glucose (25 mmol/L) increased cell proliferation. The expression levels of cell cycle protein were also increased by treatment with high glucose concentration. Pretreatment of HASMC with EBO significantly attenuated the increase of high glucose-induced cell proliferation as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and JNK phosphorylation. EBO suppressed high glucose-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, EBO suppressed nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity in high glucose conditions. Taken together, the present data suggest that EBO could suppress high glucose-induced atherosclerotic processes through inhibition of p38, JNK, NF-kappaB and MMP signal pathways in HASMC.

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 plays a role in phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokas, Sophie; Larivière, Richard; Lamalice, Laurent; Gobeil, Stéphane; Cornfield, David N; Agharazii, Mohsen; Richard, Darren E

    2016-09-01

    Medial vascular calcification is a common complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although elevated inorganic phosphate stimulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) osteogenic transdifferentiation and calcification, the mechanisms involved in their calcification during CKD are not fully defined. Because hypoxic gene activation is linked to CKD and stimulates bone cell osteogenic differentiation, we used in vivo and in vitro rodent models to define the role of hypoxic signaling during elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification. Cell mineralization studies showed that elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly induced VSMC calcification. Hypoxia strongly enhanced elevated inorganic phosphate-induced VSMC calcification and osteogenic transdifferentiation, as seen by osteogenic marker expression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the key hypoxic transcription factor, was essential for enhanced VSMC calcification. Targeting HIF-1 expression in murine VSMC blocked calcification in hypoxia with elevated inorganic phosphate while HIF-1 activators, including clinically used FG-4592/Roxadustat, recreated a procalcifying environment. Elevated inorganic phosphate rapidly activated HIF-1, even in normal oxygenation; an effect mediated by HIF-1α subunit stabilization. Thus, hypoxia synergizes with elevated inorganic phosphate to enhance VSMC osteogenic transdifferentiation. Our work identifies HIF-1 as an early CKD-related pathological event, prospective marker, and potential target against vascular calcification in CKD-relevant conditions. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Vascular calcification in diabetic foot and its association with calcium homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Swain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular calcification (VC, long thought to result from passive degeneration, involves a complex process of biomineralization resembling osteogenesis, frequently observed in diabetes and is an indicator of diabetic peripheral vascular disease with variable implications. Aim and Objective : To study the association between vascular calcification and calcium homeostasis in diabetic patients with foot ulcers without stage 4, 5 chronic kidney disease. Materials and Methods : A total of 74 patients with diabetic foot ulcer were enrolled, and VC was detected by X-ray and Doppler methods. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP, fasting and post-prandial glucose levels, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C were recorded. Serum iPTH and 25 (OH vitamin D were estimated by immune radiometric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16.0. Results: Vascular calcification was present in 42% of patients. Significant difference in the mean (±SD of vitamin D, HbA1C, and eGFR was observed in VC +ve compared to VC -ve. There was no significant association of age, duration, BMI, PTH, Ca, PO4, ALKP with that of VC incidence. Severe vitamin D deficiency was more common in VC +ve (51.6% compared to in VC -ve (18.6%. Sub-group analysis showed that the risk of VC was significantly higher (RR = 2.4, P < 0.05, 95% C.I. = 0.058-2.88 in patients with vitamin D < 10 ng/ml compared to others. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency could be a risk for vascular calcification, which possibly act through receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells or modulates osteoprotegerin/RANKL system like other factors responsible for VC in diabetic foot patients.

  1. Vascular cognitive impairments in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Rogova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of development of cognitive impairments (CIs, the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and renal failure-induced factors in patients with Stages I–IV chronic kidney disease (CKD and to assess an association of CIs with the signs of vascular wall remodeling in them. Patients and methods. Fifty-one patients aged 53±10 years with CKD were examined. Among them, there were 20 patients with Stages I–II CKD: a glomerular filtration rate (GFR of і60 ml/min/1.73 m2, signs of renal lesion; 20 with Stages III CKD: a GFR of <60–30 ml/min/1.73 m2, and 11 with Stages VI CKD: a GFR of <30–15 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results and discussion. CIs were more common in the patients with Stages III–IV than in those with Stages I–II, as shown by the scores of the mini-mental state examination (p<0.001, the frontal assessment battery (p=0.001, and the regulatory function test (p<0.001. These tests showed that the magnitude of CIs increased with the higher stage of CKD. Stages III–IV CKD is an independent predictor of CIs in persons with predialysis-stage kidney lesion. CIs were found to be related to hyperhomocysteinemia, anemia, abdominal obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, and patient age. The signs of atherosclerotic lesion of the common carotid arteries and the indicators of arterial stiffness were also associated with the incidence and magnitude of CIs in CKD. The detection of CIs in patients with early CKD allows one to timely initiate adequate therapy aimed particularly at improving cerebral circulation, eliminating the impact of risk factors, and slowing down the vascular remodeling. The management tactics for patients with CKD must involve the identification and correction of cardiovascular risk factors, and duplex scanning of the wall of the common carotid arteries may be used as a noninvasive method to assess the risk of the development and progression of CIs in predialysis CKD. 

  2. Molecular mechanisms of maternal vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulopoulou, Styliani; Davidge, Sandra T

    2015-02-01

    In preeclampsia, as a heterogeneous syndrome, multiple pathways have been proposed for both the causal as well as the perpetuating factors leading to maternal vascular dysfunction. Postulated mechanisms include imbalance in the bioavailability and activity of endothelium-derived contracting and relaxing factors and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that placenta-derived factors [antiangiogenic factors, microparticles (MPs), cell-free nucleic acids] are released into the maternal circulation and act on the vascular wall to modify the secretory capacity of endothelial cells and alter the responsiveness of vascular smooth muscle cells to constricting and relaxing stimuli. These molecules signal their deleterious effects on the maternal vascular wall via pathways that provide the molecular basis for novel and effective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Munoz, Miguel Angel; Fernandez-Aguilar, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Perez, Belinda; Perez-Daga, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Albiach, Beatriz; Pulido-Roa, Ysabel; Marin-Camero, Naiara; Santoyo-Santoyo, Julio

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory bowel disease, alcoholic cirrhosis, nonalcoholic cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis and metabolic syndrome. Various classifications have been used to describe the pathologic and radiologic appearance of cholangiocarcinoma. The three systems most commonly used to evaluate Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma are the Bismuth-Corlette (BC) system, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the TNM classification. The BC classification provides preoperative assessment of local spread. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering cancer center proposes a staging system according to three factors related to local tumor extent: the location and extent of bile duct involvement, the presence or absence of portal venous invasion, and the presence or absence of hepatic lobar atrophy. The TNM classification, besides the usual descriptors, tumor, node and metastases, provides additional information concerning the possibility for the residual tumor (R) and the histological grade (G). Recently, in 2011, a new consensus classification for the Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma had been published. The consensus was organised by the European Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association which identified the need for a new staging system for this type of tumors. The classification includes information concerning biliary or vascular (portal or arterial) involvement, lymph node status or metastases, but also other essential aspects related to the surgical risk, such as remnant hepatic volume or the possibility of underlying disease.

  4. Vitamin D, Homocysteine, and Folate in Subcortical Vascular Dementia and Alzheimer Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Dal Ben, Matteo; Conti, Corrado; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a worldwide health problem which affects millions of patients; Alzheimer's disease (AD) and subcortical vascular dementia (sVAD) are the two most frequent forms of its presentation. As no definite therapeutic options have been discovered, different risk factors for cognitive impairment have been searched for potential therapies. This report focuses on the possible evidence that vitamin D deficiency and hyper-homocysteinemia can be considered as two important factors for the develo...

  5. Risk Factors for 30-day Unplanned Readmission following Infrainguinal Endovascular Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Thomas C.F.; Soden, Peter A.; Ultee, Klaas H.J.; Zettervall, Sara L.; Pothof, Alexander B.; Deery, Sarah E.; Moll, Frans L.; Schermerhorn, Marc L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Unplanned hospital readmissions following surgical interventions are associated with adverse events and contribute to increasing healthcare costs. Despite numerous studies defining risk factors following lower extremity bypass surgery, evidence regarding readmission after endovascular interventions is limited. This study aims to identify predictors of 30-day unplanned readmission following infrainguinal endovascular interventions. Methods We identified all patients undergoing an infrainguinal endovascular intervention in the Targeted Vascular module of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program between 2012 and 2014. Perioperative outcomes were stratified by symptom status (chronic limb-threatening ischemia [CLI] vs. claudication). Patients who died during index admission, and those who remained in the hospital after 30 days, were excluded. Indications for unplanned readmission related to the index procedure were evaluated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify preoperative and in-hospital (during index admission) risk factors of 30-day unplanned readmission. Results 4449 patients underwent infrainguinal endovascular intervention, of which 2802 (63%) had CLI (66% tissue loss) and 1647 (37%) had claudication. The unplanned readmission rates for CLI and claudication patients were 16% (N=447) and 6.5% (N=107), respectively. Mortality after index admission was higher for readmitted patients compared to those not readmitted (CLI: 3.4% vs. 0.7%, P readmissions were related to the index procedure. Among CLI patients, the most common indication for readmission related to the index procedure was wound- or infection-related (42%), while patients with claudication were mainly readmitted for recurrent symptoms of peripheral vascular disease (28%). In patients with CLI, predictors of unplanned readmission included diabetes (OR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.01–1.6), congestive heart failure (1.6, 1.1–2.5), renal insufficiency

  6. Meta-analysis of psoriasis, cardiovascular disease, and associated risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Iben Marie; Ellervik, Christina; Yazdanyar, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    .2-1.9), peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2-1.8), atherosclerosis (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.1-1.2), diabetes (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.5-2.5), hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.6-2.0), dyslipidemia (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.7), obesity by body mass index (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.4-2.2), obesity by abdominal fat (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1...... significant associations, with the exception of dyslipidemia. LIMITATIONS: The heterogeneity of the studies makes clinical interpretation challenging. CONCLUSIONS: In aggregate, psoriasis was associated with ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. The association was only significant...... for hospital-based studies, except for dyslipidemia, which was also significant in population-based studies....

  7. Vascular Function and Structure in Veteran Athletes after Myocardial Infarction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Grotens, A.; Schreuder, T.H.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although athletes demonstrate lower cardiovascular risk and superior vascular function compared with sedentary peers, they are not exempted from cardiac events (i.e., myocardial infarction [MI]). The presence of an MI is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and impaired vascular

  8. Application of chitosan scaffolds on vascular endothelial growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 expressions in tissue engineering principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyati Retno Pratiwi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue engineering has given satisfactory results as biological tissue substitutes to restore, replace, or regenerate tissues that have a defect. Chitosan is an organic biomaterial often used in the biomedical field. Chitosan has biocompatible, antifungal, and antibacterial properties. Chitosan is osteoconductive, suitable for bone regeneration applications. Bone defect healing begins with inflammatory phase as a response to the presence of vascular injury, so new vascularization is required. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2 are indicators of the beginning of bone regeneration process, playing an important role in angiogenesis. Purpose: This research was aimed to determine the effects of chitosan scaffold application on the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 in tissue engineering principles. Method: Chitosan was dissolved in CH3COOH and NaOH to form a gel. Chitosan gel was then printed in mould to freeze dry for 24 hours. Those rats with defected bones were divided into two groups. Group 1 was the control group which defected bones were not administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Group 2 was the treatment group which defected bones were administrated with chitosan scaffolds. Those rats were sacrificed on day 14. Tissue preparations were made, and then immunohistochemical staining was conducted. Finally, a statistical analysis was conducted using Kruskal Wallis test. Result: There was no significant difference in the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 between the control group and the treatment group (p>0.05. Conclusion: Chitosan scaffolds do not affect the expressions of VEGF and FGF2 during bone regeneration process on day 14 in tissue engineering principles

  9. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in structural retinal vascular changes in long-term experimental diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geest, Rob J; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Dendooven, Amélie; Pfister, Frederick; Bosch, Klazien; Hoeben, Kees A; Vogels, Ilse M C; Van der Giezen, Dionne M; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    Early retinal vascular changes in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) include capillary basal lamina (BL) thickening, pericyte loss and the development of acellular capillaries. Expression of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed) family

  10. Connective tissue growth factor is involved in structural retinal vascular changes in long-term experimental diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geest, Rob J.; Leeuwis, Jan Willem; Dendooven, Amélie; Pfister, Frederick; Bosch, Klazien; Hoeben, Kees A.; Vogels, Ilse M. C.; van der Giezen, Dionne M.; Dietrich, Nadine; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2014-01-01

    Early retinal vascular changes in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) include capillary basal lamina (BL) thickening, pericyte loss and the development of acellular capillaries. Expression of the CCN (connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed) family

  11. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-06-01

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults of Northern China: Characteristics and Risk Factors for Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Yang, Li; Yang, Rui; Xu, Wei; Chen, Fu-Ping; Li, Nan; Zhang, Jin-Biao

    2017-01-01

    Young adults accounted for 10-14% of ischemic stroke patients. The risk factors may differ in this population from elder patients. In addition, the factors associated with stroke recurrence in this population have not been well investigated. The study aimed to investigate the characteristics and risk factors associated with recurrence of ischemic stroke in young adults. Clinical data of 1,395 patients of age 18-45 years who were treated between 2008 and 2014 in 3 centers located in northern China was reviewed. The first onset of stroke was taken as the initial events and recurrent stroke as the end point events. The end point events, age, gender, duration after first onset of stroke, history of disease, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score at admission, Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classifications of the cause of stroke and adherence to medication were recorded. These factors were analyzed and compared between recurrence and non-recurrence group. Information about recurrent stroke was collected through clinical (readmission to hospital with ischemic stroke) or telephone follow-up survey. Logistic regression was used to analyze the risk factors of recurrence. The most common causes of stroke were large vessel atherosclerosis and small vessel occlusion, followed by cardioembolism. NIHSS score at admission (OR 1.088; 95% CI 1.028-1.152; p = 0.004) were associated with recurrence. Vascular disease, especially premature atherosclerosis, is the major risk factor for ischemic stroke in the young adult population of northern China. Timely screening of the cause of stroke with severe NIHSS score needs further attention. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Validation of the Society for Vascular Surgery's objective performance goals for critical limb ischemia in everyday vascular surgery practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodney, Philip P; Schanzer, Andres; Demartino, Randall R; Nolan, Brian W; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Conte, Michael S; Powell, Richard J; Cronenwett, Jack L

    2011-07-01

    To develop standardized metrics for expected outcomes in lower extremity revascularization for critical limb ischemia (CLI), the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) has developed objective performance goals (OPGs) based on aggregate data from randomized trials of lower extremity bypass (LEB). It remains unknown, however, if these targets can be achieved in everyday vascular surgery practice. We applied SVS OPG criteria to 1039 patients undergoing 1039 LEB operations for CLI with autogenous vein (excluding patients on dialysis) within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE). Each of the individual OPGs was calculated within the VSGNE dataset, along with its surrounding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and compared to published SVS OPGs using χ(2) comparisons and survival analysis. Across most risk strata, patients in the VSGNE and SVS OPG cohorts were similar (clinical high-risk [age >80 years and tissue loss]: 15.3% VSGNE; 16.2% SVS OPG; P = .58; anatomic high risk [infrapopliteal target artery]: 57.8% VSGNE; 60.2% SVS OPG; P = .32). However, the proportion of VSGNE patients designated as conduit high-risk (lack of single-segment great saphenous vein) was lower (10.2% VSGNE; 26.9% SVS OPG;P Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. GRECOS project. The use of genetics to predict the vascular recurrence after stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Cadenas, Israel; Mendióroz, Maite; Giralt, Dolors; Nafria, Cristina; Garcia, Elena; Carrera, Caty; Gallego-Fabrega, Cristina; Domingues-Montanari, Sophie; Delgado, Pilar; Ribó, Marc; Castellanos, Mar; Martínez, Sergi; Freijo, Mari Mar; Jiménez-Conde, Jordi; Rubiera, Marta; Alvarez-Sabín, José; Molina, Carlos A.; Font, Maria Angels; Olivares, Marta Grau; Palomeras, Ernest; de la Ossa, Natalia Perez; Martinez-Zabaleta, Maite; Masjuan, Jaime; Moniche, Francisco; Canovas, David; Piñana, Carlos; Purroy, Francisco; Cocho, Dolores; Navas, Inma; Tejero, Carlos; Aymerich, Nuria; Cullell, Natalia; Muiño, Elena; Serena, Joaquín; Rubio, Francisco; Davalos, Antoni; Roquer, Jaume; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Martí-Fábregas, Joan; Keene, Keith; Chen, Wei-Min; Worrall, Bradford; Sale, Michele; Arboix, Adrià; Krupinski, Jerzy; Montaner, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Vascular recurrence occurs in 11% of patients during the first year after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Clinical scores do not predict the whole vascular recurrence risk, therefore we aimed to find genetic variants associated with recurrence that might improve the clinical predictive models in IS. Methods We analyzed 256 polymorphisms from 115 candidate genes in three patient cohorts comprising 4,482 IS or TIA patients. The discovery cohort was prospectively recruited and included 1,494 patients, 6.2% of them developed a new IS during the first year of follow-up. Replication analysis was performed in 2,988 patients using SNPlex or HumanOmni1-Quad technology. We generated a predictive model using Cox regression (GRECOS score), and generated risk groups using a classification tree method. Results The analyses revealed that rs1800801 in the MGP gene (HR: 1.33, p= 9×10−03), a gene related to artery calcification, was associated with new IS during the first year of follow-up. This polymorphism was replicated in a Spanish cohort (n=1.305), however it was not significantly associated in a North American cohort (n=1.683). The GRECOS score predicted new IS (p= 3.2×10−09) and could classify patients, from low risk of stroke recurrence (1.9%) to high risk (12.6%). Moreover, the addition of genetic risk factors to the GRECOS score improves the prediction compared to previous SPI-II score (p=0.03). Conclusions The use of genetics could be useful to estimate vascular recurrence risk after IS. Genetic variability in the MGP gene was associated with vascular recurrence in the Spanish population. PMID:28411264

  15. Prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total risk estimations - challenges and opportunities for practical implementation: highlights of a CardioVascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Workshop of the ESC Working Group on CardioVascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2011-11-03

    This paper presents a summary of the potential practical and economic barriers to implementation of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total cardiovascular risk estimations in the general population. It also reviews various possible solutions to overcome these barriers. The report is based on discussion among experts in the area at a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy that took place in September 2009. It includes a review of the evidence in favour of the \\'treat-to-target\\' paradigm, as well as potential difficulties with this approach, including the multiple pathological processes present in high-risk patients that may not be adequately addressed by this strategy. The risk-guided therapy approach requires careful definitions of cardiovascular risk and consideration of clinical endpoints as well as the differences between trial and \\'real-world\\' populations. Cost-effectiveness presents another issue in scenarios of finite healthcare resources, as does the difficulty of documenting guideline uptake and effectiveness in the primary care setting, where early modification of risk factors may be more beneficial than later attempts to manage established disease. The key to guideline implementation is to improve the quality of risk assessment and demonstrate the association between risk factors, intervention, and reduced event rates. In the future, this may be made possible by means of automated data entry and various other measures. In conclusion, opportunities exist to increase guideline implementation in the primary care setting, with potential benefits for both the general population and healthcare resources.

  16. Thrombotic recurrences and bleeding events in APS vascular patients: a review from the literature and a comparison with the APS Piedmont Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzan, M; Vaccarino, A; Stella, S; Bertero, M T; Carignola, R; Montaruli, B; Roccatello, D; Shoenfeld, Y

    2013-06-01

    In APS vascular patients, thrombotic recurrences are more frequent than in non-APS thrombotic patients. To better define this clinical setting, a systematic review of the literature after 1999 was performed: 8 cohort studies (including the recent APS Piedmont Cohort) and 6 intervention studies were selected and evaluated. Thrombotic recurrences, bleeding events, therapeutic strategies, antiphospholipid (aPL) profile, inherited and acquired risk factors (when present) were calculated and compared. Emerging risk factors for thrombotic recurrences include withdrawal of oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT), high intensity OAT (INR range 3-4), aPL profile (triple positivity, Miyakis types 1 and 2a profiles) and association with inherited or acquired pro-thrombotic risk factors. Moreover, there are evidences that high risk (mainly for aPL profile) APS vascular patients have a high recurrence rate in spite of correct OAT treatment. Clinical trials in this clinical setting are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Cerebrovascular accidents: risk factors, clinical course and prognosis in the Cardiology "B" Service of the du Point G University Hospital Center, Bamako].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, S; Diakité, S; Diall, I B; Menta, I; Sacko, A K; Diallo, B

    2010-01-01

    Our study of series, futurology, descriptive and analytical proceeded in the service of Cardiology B of the CHU of the Point G of the 1(er) July at 31 Décember 2007 and related to 57 in-patients. It aimed to release the factors of risks, to evaluate under treatment the evolution and to determine the prognostic elements of the cerebral vascular accidents. All the patients hospitalized in the service of Cardiology G for the period of study for cerebral vascular accident documented by a cerebral TDM was included in the series. The cerebral vascular accidents represented more of the quarter (25,22 %) of the admissions. The sample counted 29 women (50,9 %) and 28 men (49,1 %) with a sex ratio of 1,03 in favour of the women. The average age was 61,17 years ± 13,71 there. Arterial hypertension (59,6 %) was the first factor of risk and in the series the ischaemic AVC constituted approximately three quarters (70,2 %) of the organic types. It was especially male and the rather female hemorrhagic lesion. The hemorrhagic AVC was noted before 30 years and the ischaemic AVC beyond. The complications were with female prevalence and identical lethality in the two sexes. The hospital death rate in the study was considerable (10,5 %). The found prognostic elements did not have statistical significance.

  18. Enhanced bronchial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (Flk-1 and Flt-1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Kranenburg (Andor); W.I. de Boer (Pim); V.K.T. Alagappan (Vijay Kumar Thyagarajan); P.J. Sterk (Peter); H.S. Sharma (Hari)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Ongoing inflammatory processes resulting in airway and vascular remodelling characterise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) could play a role in

  19. Comparison of carotid artery intima - media thickness and risk factors of atherosclerosis in lacunar versus non-lacunar cerebral infarcts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Mousavi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: Increases in the thickness of the intima-media of the carotid artery have been associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease. Lacunar infarcts, one of the most common subtypes of ischemic stroke, show unique pathological and clinicoradiological characteristics. The present study examined the relationship between the vascular risk factors, including carotid artery intimamedia thickness (IMT, and lacunar versus non-lacunar infarcts.
    METHODS: We collected data from patients admitted to hospital with acute ischemic stroke. 195 Patients and 96 control subjects underwent B-mode ultrasonographic measurements of IMT of the common carotid artery. We examined the association of lacunar and non-lacunar infarcts with age, sex, and potential vascular risk factors.
    RESULTS: Of 195 adult patients with acute ischemic stroke, 87 were considered lacunar and 108 were considered nonlacunar strokes. Between these two groups of patients, we did not find a significantly different percentage of diabetes,
    smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, myocardial infarction, or previous history of ischemic stroke, alcohol, obesity,
    atherogen diet, exercise, and IMT. However, patients with lacunar infarct, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02, and hypertension
    (P = 0.02 had a significantly higher percentage of history of prior CVA (P = 0.03 and a significantly higher percentage
    of non-lacunar infarct.
    CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicated that diabetes mellitus and hypertension are more common in patients with lacunar infarcts, and history of CVA is more common in patients with non–lacunar infarcts. We further concluded that IMT cannot differentiate subtypes of ischemic stroke. Because risk factors and clinical presentation of ischemic stroke differ among races, more national studies