WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk communication intervention

  1. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs.

  2. Risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dombrowsky, Wolf R.; Kiel Univ.

    2009-01-01

    The study on risk communication identifies the deficiencies concerning empirical and theoretical knowledge on objective radiation hazards of the acting personnel (managers, politicians, jurists, etc.) in administrations, governmental agencies, and business management. This is especially problematic with respect to emergency planning and estimations concerning the public behavior. The incident/accident information in Germany is discussed based on the legislative regulations revealing the controversial perception between industry, legislative and public interest. Further topics include the meandering of the modern safety semantics and the public opinion concerning catastrophic risk.

  3. Employee wellness coaching as an interpersonal communication intervention: exploring intervention effects on healthcare costs, risks, and behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fedesco, Heather Noel

    2015-01-01

    In order to address the rise in healthcare expenditures, employers are turning to wellness programs as a means to potentially curtail costs. One newly implemented program is wellness coaching, which takes a communicative and holistic approach to helping others make improvements to their health. Wellness coaching is a behavioral health intervention whereby coaches work with clients to help them attain wellness-promoting goals in order to change lifestyle-related behaviors across a range of are...

  4. Documented tuberculin skin testing among infliximab users following a multi-modal risk communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatin, Deborah; Rawson, Nigel S B; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Braun, M Miles; Martin, Carolyn K; Moreland, Larry W; Becker, Angela F; Patkar, Nivedita M; Allison, Jeroan J; Saag, Kenneth G

    2006-01-01

    Following its licensure, tuberculosis (TB) was reported as a potential adverse effect of infliximab. Subsequently, the product circular was changed to recommend tuberculin skin testing before patients received infliximab, which was reinforced by several risk communication efforts. The aim of this study was to evaluate patterns and predictors of documented tuberculin skin testing in patients before and after manufacturer, federal, and academic risk communications. Patients administered infliximab were identified from 11 health plans located throughout the United States, and claims data were examined to determine whether the patients had received a tuberculin skin test. Patients were divided into three cohorts depending on the timing of their first infliximab treatment in relation to the risk communication efforts. The overall tuberculin skin testing rate doubled from 15.4% in the first cohort to 30.9% in the last cohort, while the rate of pre-infliximab treatment testing increased from 0 to 27.7% (Chi-squared test for trend, p skin testing rates were significantly higher in women, those with a diagnosis of rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and those with a rheumatologist as prescriber. After multivariable analysis, only rheumatologist remained significantly associated with tuberculin skin testing. Although the tuberculin skin testing rate was relatively low overall, tuberculin skin testing doubled over 30 months of ongoing risk communication efforts and under ascertainment likely occurred. We also found variation in the tuberculin skin testing rate associated with physician specialty. This study demonstrates a significant change in patient care following risk communication efforts. (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The RISAP-study: a complex intervention in risk communication and shared decision-making in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Edwards, Adrian G K; Hansen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    decision satisfaction (Provider Decision Process Assessment Instrument). The patients will receive a questionnaire at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. It includes questions about adherence to chosen treatment (Morisky Compliance Scale), self-rated health (SF-12), enablement (Patient Enablement Instrument...... training are needed. Aim:1) to systematically develop, describe and evaluate a complex intervention comprising a training programme for GPs in risk communication and shared decision-making, 2) to evaluate the effect of the training programme on real-life consultations between GPs and patients with high......), and risk communication and decision-making effectiveness (COMRADE Scale). Prescriptions, contacts to the health services, and cholesterol level will be drawn from the registers.In each group, 12 consultations will be observed and tape-recorded. The patients from these 24 consultations will be interviewed...

  6. Targeted mass media interventions promoting healthy behaviours to reduce risk of non-communicable diseases in adult, ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Lidal, Ingeborg B; Straumann, Gyri H; Vist, Gunn E

    2017-02-17

    Physical activity, a balanced diet, avoidance of tobacco exposure, and limited alcohol consumption may reduce morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Mass media interventions are commonly used to encourage healthier behaviours in population groups. It is unclear whether targeted mass media interventions for ethnic minority groups are more or less effective in changing behaviours than those developed for the general population. To determine the effects of mass media interventions targeting adult ethnic minorities with messages about physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption to reduce the risk of NCDs. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, SweMed+, and ISI Web of Science until August 2016. We also searched for grey literature in OpenGrey, Grey Literature Report, Eldis, and two relevant websites until October 2016. The searches were not restricted by language. We searched for individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies (ITS). Relevant interventions promoted healthier behaviours related to physical activity, dietary patterns, tobacco use or alcohol consumption; were disseminated via mass media channels; and targeted ethnic minority groups. The population of interest comprised adults (≥ 18 years) from ethnic minority groups in the focal countries. Primary outcomes included indicators of behavioural change, self-reported behavioural change and knowledge and attitudes towards change. Secondary outcomes were the use of health promotion services and costs related to the project. Two authors independently reviewed the references to identify studies for inclusion. We extracted data and assessed the risk of bias in all included studies. We did not pool the results due to heterogeneity in comparisons made, outcomes, and study designs. We describe the results narratively and present them in 'Summary of findings

  7. Assessment of food safety practices of food service food handlers (risk assessment data): testing a communication intervention (evaluation of tools).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Eversley, Tiffany; Fillion, Katie; Maclaurin, Tanya; Powell, Douglas

    2010-06-01

    Globally, foodborne illness affects an estimated 30% of individuals annually. Meals prepared outside of the home are a risk factor for acquiring foodborne illness and have been implicated in up to 70% of traced outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has called on food safety communicators to design new methods and messages aimed at increasing food safety risk-reduction practices from farm to fork. Food safety infosheets, a novel communication tool designed to appeal to food handlers and compel behavior change, were evaluated. Food safety infosheets were provided weekly to food handlers in working food service operations for 7 weeks. It was hypothesized that through the posting of food safety infosheets in highly visible locations, such as kitchen work areas and hand washing stations, that safe food handling behaviors of food service staff could be positively influenced. Using video observation, food handlers (n = 47) in eight food service operations were observed for a total of 348 h (pre- and postintervention combined). After the food safety infosheets were introduced, food handlers demonstrated a significant increase (6.7%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval) in mean hand washing attempts, and a significant reduction in indirect cross-contamination events (19.6%, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval). Results of the research demonstrate that posting food safety infosheets is an effective intervention tool that positively influences the food safety behaviors of food handlers.

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ris communication tools in organizations differs in several ways from many of tools and techniques developed for public meetings. The traditional view of risk communication seeks to manage the public outrage ssociated with site-based issues. Organizational risk communication seek...

  9. Verbal risk in communicating risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, J.C. [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States). School of Communication; Reno, H.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1993-03-01

    When persons in the waste management industry have a conversation concerning matters of the industry, thoughts being communicated are understood among those in the industry. However, when persons in waste management communicate with those outside the industry, communication may suffer simply because of poor practices such as the use of jargon, euphemisms, acronyms, abbreviations, language usage, not knowing audience, and public perception. This paper deals with ways the waste management industry can communicate risk to the public without obfuscating issues. The waste management industry should feel obligated to communicate certain meanings within specific contexts and, then, if the context changes, should not put forth a new, more appropriate meaning to the language already used. Communication of the waste management industry does not have to be provisional. The authors suggest verbal risks in communicating risk can be reduced significantly or eliminated by following a few basic communication principles. The authors make suggestions and give examples of ways to improve communication with the general public by avoiding or reducing jargon, euphemisms, and acronyms; knowing the audience; avoiding presumptive knowledge held by the audience; and understanding public perception of waste management issues.

  10. Communication about risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The conditions, difficulties and possibilities of communication on technological risks are detailed here. There is a description of the types and levels of argument on risks and the risk-concept itself, of the research field of risk communication, of the conceptional frame-work of the working-party, of the research programme and of the chances for a long-term prospect from the group. (DG) [de

  11. Diversity in Risk Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Nur Probohudono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the communication of the five major categories of risk (business, strategy, market and credit risk disclosure over the volatile 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis (GFC time period in key South East Asian countries’ manufacturing listed companies. This study is important as it contributes to the literature by providing insights into the voluntary risk disclosure practices using sample countries with different economic scenarios. Key findings are that business risk is the most disclosed category and strategy risk is the least disclosed. Business and credit risk disclosure consistently increase over the three year period, while operating, market and strategy risk disclosure increase in 2008, but then decrease slightly in 2009. Statistical analysis reveals that country of incorporation and size help predict risk disclosure levels. The overall low disclosure levels (26-29% highlight the potential for far higher communication of key risk factors.

  12. WHO risk communication seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International EMF project organised by the WHO is now entering its third year. In addition to providing authoritative reviews of the scientific literature on the health effects of exposure to electric and magnetic fields, a key objective of the five year programme is to provide information on the perception, communication and management of risk, and how this relates to electric and magnetic fields. To this end, an International seminar on: Risk perception, risk communication and its application to EMF exposure, was held in Vienna on 22-23 October last year, bringing togehter an array of speakers from around the world to talk about perceptions of risk, how best to communicate risks to the public and present some practical examples. (author)

  13. Risk communication basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrado, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information

  14. Risk communication basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrado, P.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In low-trust, high-concern situations, 50% of your credibility comes from perceived empathy and caring, demonstrated in the first 30 s you come in contact with someone. There is no second chance for a first impression. These and other principles contained in this paper provide you with a basic level of understanding of risk communication. The principles identified are time-tested caveats and will assist you in effectively communicating technical information.

  15. Risk communication: Nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    The emphasis is put on communication processes, here in particular with regard to nuclear energy. Not so much dealt with are questions concerning political regulation, the constellation of power between those becoming active and risk perception by the population. Presented are individual arguments, political positions and decision-making processes. Dealt with in particular are safety philosophies, risk debates, and attempts to 'channel' all sides to the subject of nuclear energy. (DG) [de

  16. Risk communication importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: raqueldalledonesiqueira@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  17. Risk communication importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Raquel Dalledone Siqueira da; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    Risk Communication has shown its importance in the elaboration of emergency plans in the Chemical industry. In the 90's, the UNEP developed the APELL (Awareness and Preparedness for Emergency at Local Level) plan, a risk management methodology used by dangerous chemical facilities. The methodology comprises the commitment of both Government and the community located in the risk area in the development of the emergency plan. In the nuclear sector, there is no similar methodology developed so far. However, establishing a communication channel between the nuclear segment and the community is essential. In Brazil, the construction of Angra 3 and the RMB (Multi Purpose Reactor) project stand as nuclear initiatives that improve the importance of a good communication to the public. Security issues of these projects are natural sources of concernment to the public, which is aggravated by events such as the Fukushima disaster. Without an effective communication about what means the presence of nuclear plants and reactors in a specific area, the interested public will only have an alarmist vision of the subject, given by those against these facilities. (author)

  18. Risk assessment terminology: risk communication part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Liuzzo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the terminology of risk communication in the view of food safety: the theory of stakeholders, the citizens’ involvement and the community interest and consultation are reported. Different aspects of risk communication (public communication, scientific uncertainty, trust, care, consensus and crisis communication are discussed.

  19. The visual communication of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, I M; Hollands, J G

    1999-01-01

    This paper 1) provides reasons why graphics should be effective aids to communicate risk; 2) reviews the use of visuals, especially graphical displays, to communicate risk; 3) discusses issues to consider when designing graphs to communicate risk; and 4) provides suggestions for future research. Key articles and materials were obtained from MEDLINE(R) and PsychInfo(R) databases, from reference article citations, and from discussion with experts in risk communication. Research has been devoted primarily to communicating risk magnitudes. Among the various graphical displays, the risk ladder appears to be a promising tool for communicating absolute and relative risks. Preliminary evidence suggests that people understand risk information presented in histograms and pie charts. Areas that need further attention include 1) applying theoretical models to the visual communication of risk, 2) testing which graphical displays can be applied best to different risk communication tasks (e.g., which graphs best convey absolute or relative risks), 3) communicating risk uncertainty, and 4) testing whether the lay public's perceptions and understanding of risk varies by graphical format and whether the addition of graphical displays improves comprehension substantially beyond numerical or narrative translations of risk and, if so, by how much. There is a need to ascertain the extent to which graphics and other visuals enhance the public's understanding of disease risk to facilitate decision-making and behavioral change processes. Nine suggestions are provided to help achieve these ends.

  20. Use and effectiveness of behavioural economics in interventions for lifestyle risk factors of non-communicable diseases: a systematic review with policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaga, Oana M; Vasilescu, Livia; Chereches, Razvan M

    2018-03-01

    There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective. We included 117 studies in the review; 67 studies had a low risk of bias and were classified as strong or very strong, 37 were moderate, and 13 were weak. We grouped studies by NCDs risk factors and conducted a narrative synthesis. The most frequent behavioural economics precepts used were incentives, framing, and choice architecture. We found inconclusive evidence regarding the success of behavioural economics strategies to reduce alcohol consumption, but we identified several strategies with policy-level implications which could be used to reduce smoking, improve nutrition, and increase physical activity. Most studies targeting tobacco consumption, physical activity levels, and eating behaviours from a behavioural economics perspective had promising results with potential impact on NCDs health policies. We recommend future studies to be implemented in real-life settings and on large samples from diverse populations.

  1. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  2. Risk communication and environmental risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a broad context for consideration of appropriate risk communication approaches. It examines the basis of public concerns and in particular the non-risk dimensions. The latter are so important in any risk decision that means of communication which can deal with them are required which extend beyond understanding how to present risk estimates. These means relate to (a) the decision processes themselves and the extent to which they provide for involvement of the public in decisions, (b) the communication skills of experts, and (c) the robustness of the risk information which is available. (Author)

  3. Evaluating Teach One Reach One-An STI/HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention to Enhance Adult-Youth Communication About Sex and Reduce the Burden of HIV/STI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Gaurav; Ritchwood, Tiarney; Young, Tiffany L; Isler, Malika Roman; Black, Adina; Akers, Aletha Y; Gizlice, Ziya; Blumenthal, Connie; Atley, Leslie; Wynn, Mysha; Stith, Doris; Cene, Crystal; Ellis, Danny; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-11-01

    Parents and caregivers play an important role in sexual socialization of youth, often serving as the primary source of information about sex. For African American rural youth who experience disparate rates of HIV/sexually transmitted infection, improving caregiver-youth communication about sexual topics may help to reduce risky behaviors. This study assessed the impact of an intervention to improve sexual topic communication. A Preintervention-postintervention, quasi-experimental, controlled, and community-based trial. Intervention was in 2 rural North Carolina counties with comparison group in 3 adjacent counties. Participants (n = 249) were parents, caregivers, or parental figures for African American youth aged 10 to 14. Twelve-session curriculum for participating dyads. Audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess changes at 9 months from baseline in communication about general and sensitive sex topics and overall communication about sex. Multivariable models were used to examine the differences between the changes in mean of scores for intervention and comparison groups. Statistically significant differences in changes in mean scores for communication about general sex topics ( P < .0001), communication about sensitive sex topics ( P < .0001), and overall communication about sex ( P < .0001) existed. Differences in change in mean scores remained significant after adjusting baseline scores and other variables in the multivariate models. In Teach One Reach One intervention, adult participants reported improved communication about sex, an important element to support risk reduction among youth in high-prevalence areas.

  4. Risk controversies. Concepts - conflicts - communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungermann, H.

    1991-01-01

    Common arguments and differences in risk communication in connection with the controversial discussion surrounding the fields of genetic engineering, chemistry, nuclear engineering, information techniques, and climate research are investigated. Presented are comparative analyses on subjects, those becoming active, and strategies of risk communication. (DG) [de

  5. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahm-Crites, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Germantown, MD (United States). Washington Operations Office

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  6. Successful up-scaled population interventions to reduce risk factors for non-communicable disease in adults: results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH) Project in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Stevens, Denise E; Champagne, Beatriz; Li, Li-Ming; Lv, Jun; Ramírez Hernández, Jorge; Thankappan, K R; Matthews, David R

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable disease (NCD) is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC. The Community Interventions for Health (CIH) program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up. A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C) (44.1 to 30.2%), but not in the intervention group (I) (38.0 to 36.1%), p<0.001. Those eating ≥ 5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%), but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,), p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3%) and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%), p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%), with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%,) p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014). Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity.

  7. Successful up-scaled population interventions to reduce risk factors for non-communicable disease in adults: results from the International Community Interventions for Health (CIH Project in China, India and Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela A Dyson

    Full Text Available Non-communicable disease (NCD is increasing rapidly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC, and is associated with tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. There is little evidence for up-scaled interventions at the population level to reduce risk in LMIC.The Community Interventions for Health (CIH program was a population-scale community intervention study with comparator population group undertaken in communities in China, India, and Mexico, each with populations between 150,000-250,000. Culturally appropriate interventions were delivered over 18-24 months. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of a stratified sample of adults aged 18-64 years were conducted at baseline and follow-up.A total of 6,194 adults completed surveys at baseline, and 6,022 at follow-up. The proportion meeting physical activity recommendations decreased significantly in the control group (C (44.1 to 30.2%, but not in the intervention group (I (38.0 to 36.1%, p<0.001. Those eating ≥ 5 portions of fruit and vegetables daily decreased significantly in C (19.2 to 17.2%, but did not change in I (20.0 to 19.6%,, p=0.013. The proportion adding salt to food was unchanged in C (24.9 to 25.3% and decreased in I (25.9 to 19.6%, p<0.001. Prevalence of obesity increased in C (8.3 to 11.2%, with no change in I (8.6 to 9.7%, p=0.092. Concerning tobacco, for men the difference-in-difference analysis showed that the reduction in use was significantly greater in I compared to C (p=0.014.Up-scaling known health promoting interventions designed to reduce the incidence of NCD in whole communities in LMIC is feasible, and has measurable beneficial outcomes on risk factors for NCD, namely tobacco use, diet, and physical inactivity.

  8. Environmental Risk Communication through Qualitative Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabre J. Coleman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental analysts are often hampered in communicating the risks of environmental contaminants due to the myriad of regulatory requirements that are applicable. The use of a qualitative, risk-based control banding strategy for assessment and control of potential environmental contaminants provides a standardized approach to improve risk communication. Presented is a model that provides an effective means for determining standardized responses and controls for common environmental issues based on the level of risk. The model is designed for integration within an occupational health and safety management system to provide a multidisciplinary environmental and occupational risk management approach. This environmental model, which utilizes multidisciplinary control banding strategies for delineating risk, complements the existing Risk Level Based Management System, a proven method in a highly regulated facility for occupational health and safety. A simplified environmental risk matrix is presented that is stratified over four risk levels. Examples of qualitative environmental control banding strategies are presented as they apply to United States regulations for construction, research activities, facility maintenance, and spill remediation that affect air, water, soil, and waste disposal. This approach offers a standardized risk communication language for multidisciplinary issues that will improve communications within and between environmental health and safety professionals, workers, and management.

  9. The problem of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerup, Per

    1989-01-01

    Communication of risk and risk decisions has always been a matter of great difficulty. A great deal of research has been devoted to improving either the understanding of people's perception of risk or people's understanding of risk itself. These achievements have, however, either failed or the results have not been properly introduced in risk communication. At least this is what can be deduced from recent very heated discussions of risk decisions concerning chemical industry in Denmark. It might thus be that the focus of our interest should be changed from improving already existing methods of risk analysis to improving our understanding of why risk communication very often fails - and fails with very severe consequences. In Denmark a working party set up by the Minister for the Environment has just concluded its work on these matters. This main problem seems to be that the authorities' very one-dimensional perception of risk simply do not reflect the concern of the public and that of many politicians. If this is true the problem is not just a matter of communication but a much more fundamental one which parameters should be introduced in risk evaluation in order to satisfy the need of the public - and how this can be done. (author)

  10. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1994-01-01

    Terms such as 'risk', 'hazardous incident', and 'communication' have become major catchwords in discussions about present-day problems, and may be reduced to a common denominator: disaster. Such an association, however, is inappropriate, as the concept indicated by the term 'risk' for instance covers a wide scale of possible danger. Even the term 'hazardous incident' describes events or conditions that are very different in terms of possible danger, let alone disastrous effects. The discrepancy to be observed between the facts and the public perception usually is due to the fact that people have little insight into the complex of problems involved, and to insufficient communication between the world of experts and the general public. The contributions to this publication present information and discuss a variety of solution sets to improve the communication problems in the context of the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication'. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Evaluation of the Families Matter! Program in Tanzania: An Intervention to Promote Effective Parent-Child Communication About Sex, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamala, Benjamin A; Rosecrans, Kathryn D; Shoo, Tiransia A; Al-Alawy, Hamid Z; Berrier, Faith; Bwogi, David F; Miller, Kim S

    2017-04-01

    The Families Matter! Program (FMP) is a curriculum-based intervention designed to give parents and other primary caregivers the knowledge, skills, comfort, and confidence to deliver messages to their 9-12-year-old children about sexuality and practice positive parenting skills. A pre- and post-intervention evaluation study on FMP outcomes was conducted with 658 parent participants and their preadolescent children in two administrative wards in Tanzania in 2014. There was an increase in the proportion of study participants (parent-preadolescent pairs) that had positive attitudes toward sex education. On parent-child communication, the majority of participants (59-87%) reported having had more sexuality discussions. On communication responsiveness about sexual issues, scores improved in the period between surveys, with parents showing more improvements than preadolescents. Our results corroborate evidence from previous FMP evaluations, lending support to the conclusion that FMP is successful in promoting attitude and behavior change among parents and preadolescents in different cultural contexts.

  12. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  13. Risk - hazardous incident - communication 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerling, R.; Obermeier, O.P.

    1995-01-01

    It is difficult to develop an objective approach to risks and effects of a hazardous incident that would be acceptable to the community at large. It is a matter of fact that there is great dissimilarity in the way various social groups perceive and define the risks of a particular technology, or the effects of hazardous incidents, sometimes they have even contrary opinions. Hence, open communication is seriously hampered, which in turn aggravates the problems encountered in this context. This second volume of the publication dealing with the problem area of 'risk - hazardous incident - communication' is intended to reveal patterns of the recurrent process which impedes communication, and to bridge the gaps between the various 'styles' of risk perception and definition. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  15. CONSIDERATIONS IN RISK COMMUNICATION: A DIGEST OF RISK COMMUNICATION AS A RISK MANAGEMENT TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk communication is the process of informing people about hazards. Like all communication, communicating risk is a two-way exchange in which you inform the target community about possible hazards, but also gather information about those affected by the risk. The purpose of risk...

  16. Communicating with the public about risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.R.; Molony, S.T.; Durbin, M.E.; Klein, S.H.; Wahl, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    Risk communication is a growing specialty field in communication that draws from well-established principles of sociology and psychology. It is a new way to communicate with potentially hostile audiences about sensitive environmental, safety, and health issues they face. This paper explains the most important principles of risk communication and discusses audience analyses, perceptions of risk (outrage factors), and risk comparisons. These principles are applied to a risk communication issue in Malhuevo, a fictitious Arizona community

  17. Low Dose Risk, Decisions, and Risk Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, James

    2002-01-01

    The overall research objective was to establish new levels of information about how people, groups, and communities respond to low dose radiation exposure. This is basic research into the social psychology of individual, group, and community responses to radiation exposures. The results of this research are directed to improving risk communication and public participation in management of environmental problems resulting from low dose radiation

  18. Report from risk communication practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Reiko

    2011-01-01

    National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) set up a phone consulting service early after Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and inquiries to the service attained over 14,000 at August end, 2011. This paper describes the process, present state and future view of the risk communication based on experiences through the service. The communication is classified in 3 stages of consensus/care in peacetime, crisis, and consensus/care post disaster. The first one contains the consensus of atomic power policy and provision of its information; the second, of evacuation/indoor evacuation and indication of restricted water and food intake; and the third, communication for changes and standard of radiation related matters. Initial inquiries to the NIRS service were many concerning examinations of radiation screening, decontamination and internal exposure, from inside and outside of Fukushima Prefecture, suggesting the concern had been spread to remote area from the Prefecture. Then, the time needed per inquiry/consultation prolonged, implying the wish for solving the concern. The risk communication and consideration for realizing radiation risk at peacetime might have rather unrealistic, which was thought to be the major cause of problems at crisis. In addition, interpretation of various values relating to radiation had been apparently different from expert to expert, and findings by radiation effects and rules of radiation protection had been confusedly understood, which probably influenced on people's correct understanding. However, it is conceivably a fruit of taken risk communication that the past understanding ''radiation, unseeable, is terrible'' has changed to the current understanding ''protection can be done through risk assessment of radiation, measurable''. Hereafter, important are the practical use of various numerical values officially informed and realization of dose through exposure routes, and dispatch of their integrated information to lessen the

  19. Communicating Risk to Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, C. Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Program Managers (PM) can protect program resources and improve chances of success by anticipating, understanding and managing risks. Understanding the range of potential risks helps one to avoid or manage the risks. A PM must choose which risks to accept to reduce fire fighting, must meet the expectations of stakeholders consistently, and avoid falling into costly "black holes" that may open. A good risk management process provides the PM more confidence to seize opportunities save money, meet schedule, even improve relationships with people important to the program. Evidence of managing risk and sound internal controls can mean better support from superiors for the program by building a trust and reputation from being on top of issues. Risk managers have an obligation to provide the PM with the best information possible to allow the benefits to be realized (Small Business Consortium, 2004). The Institute for Chartered Accountants in England and Wales sees very important benefits for companies in providing better information about what they do to assess and manage key business risks. Such information will: a) provide practical forward-looking information; b) reduce the cost of capital; c) encourage better risk management; and d) improve accountability for stewardship, investor protection and the usefulness of financial reporting. We are particularly convinced that enhanced risk reporting will help listed companies obtain capital at the lowest possible cost (The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England &Wales, June 2002). Risk managers can take a significant role in quantifying the success of their department and communicating those figures to executive (program) management levels while pushing for a broader risk management role. Overall, risk managers must show that risk management work matters in the most crucial place-the bottom line- as they prove risk management can be a profit center (Sullivan, 2004).

  20. Communicating the risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Doyle, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A prominent television station developed a special series of newscasts and public service announcements about radon. This was combined with their advertising of the availability of reduced-price radon test kits in a local supermarket chain. The large number of test kits sold was a success from a marketing perspective, but not from a public health perspective - especially because of the very small share of high readings that were mitigated. In contrast, a study of housing sales showed a much higher testing rate and corresponding mitigation when risk communication accompanied the housing transaction, rather than being directed toward the general public. This paper examined the relative effectiveness of these alternative approaches to radon risk communication, emphasizing the implications for developing and implementing radon programs

  1. Drinking Water Cyanotoxin Risk Communication Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    The drinking water cyanotoxin risk communication toolbox is a ready-to-use, “one-stop-shop” to support public water systems, states, and local governments in developing, as they deem appropriate, their own risk communication materials.

  2. Families Matter! Presexual Risk Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Sarah M.; Riley, Drewallyn B.; Poulsen, Melissa N.

    2013-01-01

    Parent-based HIV prevention programming may play an important role in reaching youths early to help establish lifelong patterns of safe and healthy sexual behaviors. Families Matter! is a 5-session, evidence-based behavioral intervention designed for primary caregivers of children aged 9 to 12 years to promote positive parenting and effective parent–child communication about sexuality and sexual risk reduction. The program’s 5-step capacity-building model was implemented with local government, community, and faith-based partners in 8 sub-Saharan African countries with good intervention fidelity and high levels of participant retention. Families Matter! may be useful in other resource-constrained settings. PMID:24028229

  3. LOW DOSE RISK, DECISIONS, and RISK COMMUNICATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, James

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to conduct basic research on how people receive, evaluate, and form positions on scientific information and its relationship to low-dose radiation exposure. There are three major areas of study in our research program. First is the development of theories, frameworks and concepts essential to guiding data collection and analysis. The second area is a program of experimental studies on risk perception, evaluation of science information, and the structure of individual positions regarding low-dose exposures. Third is the community-level studies to examine and record how the social conditions, under which science communications take place, influence the development of attitudes and opinions about: low-dose exposures, the available management options, control of radiation risks, and preferences for program and policy goals

  4. A Risk Communication Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peecook, Keith

    2010-01-01

    A key success of the decommissioning effort at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Plum Brook Reactor Facility (PBRF) has been the public outreach program. The approach has been based on risk communications rather than a public relations approach. As a result it has kept the public feeling more involved in the process. It ensures they have the information needed to understand the project and its goals, and to make recommendations. All this is done so that NASA can better plan and execute the necessary work without delays or suprises.

  5. Risk Communication and Citizen Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkelsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Despite the last few decades’ devotion to deliberative methods in risk communication, many studies point to how important challenges arise when citizens are engaged in public dialogue. Since the era of enlightenment public dialogue has occupied a position as a normative ideal for political...... governance. But ideals are social constructions that have a tendency to direct attention away from underlying conflicts. The concept of dialogue is no exception, and exemplified by the Danish solution to dealing with public scepticism in relation to technological controversies, the internationally acclaimed...

  6. Do As I Say: Using Communication Role-Plays to Assess Sexual Assertiveness Following an Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer Kollar, Laura M; Davis, Teaniese L; Monahan, Jennifer L; Samp, Jennifer A; Coles, Valerie B; Bradley, Erin L P; Sales, Jessica McDermott; Comer, Sarah K; Worley, Timothy; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2016-12-01

    Sexual risk reduction interventions are often ineffective for women who drink alcohol. The present study examines whether an alcohol-related sexual risk reduction intervention successfully trains women to increase assertive communication behaviors and decrease aggressive communication behaviors. Women demonstrated their communication skills during interactive role-plays with male role-play partners. Young, unmarried, and nonpregnant African American women (N = 228, ages 18-24) reporting unprotected vaginal or anal sex and greater than three alcoholic drinks in the past 90 days were randomly assigned to a control, a sexual risk reduction, or a sexual and alcohol risk reduction (NLITEN) condition. Women in the NLITEN condition significantly increased assertive communication behavior compared to women in the control condition, yet use of aggressive communicative behaviors was unchanged. These data suggest assertive communication training is an efficacious component of a sexual and alcohol risk reduction intervention. Public health practitioners and health educators may benefit from group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) training and adding a GMET module to existing sexual health risk reduction interventions. Future research should examine GMET's efficacy in combination with other evidence-based interventions within other populations and examine talking over and interrupting one's sexual partner as an assertive communication behavior within sexual health contexts. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  7. Environmental risk communication as an educational process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottenfeld, Faith

    The purpose of this study was to explore the dynamics of the environmental risk communication process. The goal was to look at the totality of the process by examining the different components: entry to communication (what brings people into the process), maintenance of communication (behaviors of participants, pathways to successful risk communication, barriers to successful risk communication, characteristics of the dialogue) and outcomes of risk communication (what has been learned, what moves the process to social action, what else can come of the process). Interviews and critical incidents were used to explore the experiences of risk communicators in four different practice settings: academia, industry/trade groups, community-based organizations and government. Twenty-four people completed critical incident stories and sixteen participated in in-depth interviews. Data were coded and analyzed for themes. Findings illustrated that successful risk communication results from a deliberative, or purposeful process. This process includes a systematic approach to identifying and inviting people to participate, while considering specific motivating factors that affect participation. Risk communication is maintained by creating and nurturing structured forums for dialogue by acknowledging the varying perspectives of the people who participate and the contextual settings of environmental risks. The result of effective dialogue may range from increased knowledge, to transformative learning to social action and policy change. The researcher recommended that a multi-disciplinary team including risk communicators, adult educators and scientists can work most effectively to plan, implement and evaluate a risk communication process.

  8. Communicating climate risks to Vietnam's vulnerable coastal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-05-04

    May 4, 2015 ... A key aspect of this research involves communicating climate change ... to more effectively communicate climate change risk and uncertainty to ... youth groups and women's unions, to share climate expertise and improve ...

  9. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively...... and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream...... interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...

  10. The challenges of communicating about risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.

    1992-01-01

    Managers in the nuclear industry and other potentially hazardous industries face tough but not insurmountable challenges when communicating about the risks for which they are responsible. Two types of information offer hints about successful risk communication: research within and across several disciplines and documentation of case studies. This presentation synthesizes research results and case study experience to define effective risk communication and suggests steps toward achieving it

  11. Parent-Implemented Communication Intervention: Sequential Analysis of Triadic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer A.; Woods, Juliann J.

    2016-01-01

    Collaboration with parents and caregivers to support young children's communication development is an important component to early intervention services. Coaching parents to implement communication support strategies is increasingly common in parent-implemented interventions, but few studies examine the process as well as the outcomes. We explored…

  12. The impact of poverty reduction and development interventions on non-communicable diseases and their behavioural risk factors in low and lower-middle income countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullar, Jessie; Allen, Luke; Townsend, Nick; Williams, Julianne; Foster, Charlie; Roberts, Nia; Rayner, Mike; Mikkelsen, Bente; Branca, Francesco; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin

    2018-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) disproportionately affect low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs) where 80% of global NCD related deaths occur. LLMICs are the primary focus of interventions to address development and poverty indicators. We aimed to synthesise the evidence of these interventions' impact on the four primary NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and cancer) and their common behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use). We systematically searched four online databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Global Health) for primary research conducted in LLMICS, published between January 1st 1990 and February 15th 2016. Studies involved development or poverty interventions which reported on outcomes relating to NCDs. We extracted summary level data on study design, population, health outcomes and potential confounders. From 6383 search results, 29 studies from 24 LLMICs published between 1999 and 2015 met our inclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was limited and heterogeneity of outcome measures required narrative synthesis. One study measured impact on NCD prevalence, one physical activity and 27 dietary components. The majority of papers (23), involved agricultural interventions. Primary outcome measures tended to focus on undernutrition. Intensive agricultural interventions were associated with improved calorie, vitamin, fruit and vegetable intake. However, positive impacts were reliant on participant's land ownership, infection status and limited in generalisability. Just three studies measured adult obesity; two indicated increased income and consequential food affordability had the potential to increase obesity. Overall, there was poor alignment between included studies outcome measures and the key policy options and objectives of the Global Action Plan on NCDs. Though many interventions addressing poverty and development have great potential to impact

  13. The impact of poverty reduction and development interventions on non-communicable diseases and their behavioural risk factors in low and lower-middle income countries: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Pullar

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs disproportionately affect low- and lower-middle income countries (LLMICs where 80% of global NCD related deaths occur. LLMICs are the primary focus of interventions to address development and poverty indicators. We aimed to synthesise the evidence of these interventions' impact on the four primary NCDs (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease and cancer and their common behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol use.We systematically searched four online databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science and Global Health for primary research conducted in LLMICS, published between January 1st 1990 and February 15th 2016. Studies involved development or poverty interventions which reported on outcomes relating to NCDs. We extracted summary level data on study design, population, health outcomes and potential confounders.From 6383 search results, 29 studies from 24 LLMICs published between 1999 and 2015 met our inclusion criteria. The quality of included studies was limited and heterogeneity of outcome measures required narrative synthesis. One study measured impact on NCD prevalence, one physical activity and 27 dietary components. The majority of papers (23, involved agricultural interventions. Primary outcome measures tended to focus on undernutrition. Intensive agricultural interventions were associated with improved calorie, vitamin, fruit and vegetable intake. However, positive impacts were reliant on participant's land ownership, infection status and limited in generalisability. Just three studies measured adult obesity; two indicated increased income and consequential food affordability had the potential to increase obesity. Overall, there was poor alignment between included studies outcome measures and the key policy options and objectives of the Global Action Plan on NCDs.Though many interventions addressing poverty and development have great potential

  14. Effects of a Classroom-Based Pre-Literacy Intervention for Preschoolers with Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Alyssa R.

    2013-01-01

    Children with communication disorders are often at risk of literacy difficulties, especially students that present with autism and/or speech sound disorders. This quasi-experimental study was designed to examine the effects of a 10-week "hybrid" intervention for preschool students with and without communication disorders in an integrated…

  15. The KinFact intervention - a randomized controlled trial to increase family communication about cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodurtha, Joann N; McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H; Rodríguez, Vivian M; Maibauer, Alisa M; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J; Quillin, John M

    2014-10-01

    Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner more effectively with their families and ultimately

  16. Significance and basic patterns of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [de

  17. On independence in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacronique, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    The term 'independence' is a common key word used by almost all stake holders in the field of nuclear safety regulation. The intention is to persuade the public that it can have more confidence and trust in the persons in charge, if their competence and judgment cannot be altered by any kind of political issue or personal interest. However, it is possible to discuss the reality of this claimed quality: how is it possible to verify that the organization that claim 'independence' really respect it? National expertise Institutions can show that they are independent from the industry, but can they claim total independence from the government? NGO have build a large part of their constituency on 'independence' from industry and governments, but are they independent from the ideological forces -sometimes very powerful - that support them? How can we achieve to make this noble word really meaningful? We will show through different examples, that 'independence' is by definition a fragile and versatile challenge, rather than a durable label. It has to be refreshed regularly and thoroughly. Risk communication, in that context, must respect principles which will build independence as a solid asset, and keep a certain distance with mere marketing purposes or candid wishful thinking

  18. On the Actual Risk of Bystander Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Bystander studies have rarely considered the victimization risk associated with intervention into violent, dangerous emergencies. To address this gap, we aim to identify factors that influence bystanders’ risk of being physically victimized. Methods: We observed bystander behavior fro...

  19. Guidelines for designing messages in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko

    2004-07-01

    Risk Communication Study Team (hereafter called RC team) has designed messages for risk communication based on the analysis of the local residents' opinions which were expressed in several questionnaire surveys. The messages are described in a side format (Power Point format) every single content. This report provides basic guidelines for making messages that are used for risk communication, and does not include concrete messages which RC team designed. The RC team has already published the report entitled 'Information materials for risk communication' (JNC TN8450 2003-008) separately, and it gives the concrete messages. This report shows general cautions and checklists in designing messages, comments on the messages from outside risk communication experts, and opinions from local residents. (author)

  20. Credibility and trust in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Levine, D.

    1989-01-01

    The paper attempts to summarize the major findings of the psychological and sociological literature on trust and credibility, and to apply these findings to the specific arena of risk communication. A few guidelines for risk communication that appear appropriate for the social and institutional context in which the risk debate takes place are presented. The case studies of credibility of nuclear energy, biotechnology, medicine, and aviation are discussed. (DG)

  1. Fundamental matters on radiation risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kunihiko; Nagai, Hiroyuki; Yonezawa, Rika; Ohuchi, Hiroko; Chikamoto, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Kazufumi; Morimoto, Eriko

    2009-01-01

    In the field of atomic energy and radiation utilization, radiation risk is considered as one of the social uneasy factors. About the perception of risks, there is a gap between experts and general public (non-experts). It is said that the general public tends to be going to judge risk from intuitive fear and a visible concrete instance whereas the experts judge it scientifically. A company, an administration or experts should disclose relating information about the risks and communicate interactively with the stakeholders to find the way to solve the problem with thinking together. This process is called 'risk communication'. The role of the expert is important on enforcement of risk communication. They should be required to explain the information on the risks with plain words to help stakeholders understand the risks properly. The Japan Health Physics Society (JHPS) is the largest academic society for radiation protection professionals in Japan, and one of its missions is supposed to convey accurate and trustworthy information about the radiation risk to the general public. The expert group on risk communication of ionizing radiation of the JHPS has worked for the purpose of summarizing the fundamental matters on radiation risk communication. 'Lecture on risk communication for the members of the JHPS.' which has been up on the JHPS web-site, and the symposium of 'For better understanding of radiation risk.' are a part of the activities. The expert group proposes that the JHPS should enlighten the members continuously for being interested in and practicing risk communication of radiation. (author)

  2. Emotional tone and argumentation in risk communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Hilton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore how the evolution of emotional expression and co-operative planning in humans may inform the way they communicate about risks, and what implication this may have for models of rationality in risk communication. In particular, I focus on aspects of human language that enable successful co-ordination around shared tasks that involve the management of uncertainty by a group. I distinguish between performative (action-oriented and constative (description-oriented aspects of human communication, and argue that the human logical vocabulary of conditionals, quantifiers and probability expressions often conveys pragmatic signals that implicitly encourage or discourage a course of action that is under discussion. I review some studies that illustrate this perspective by highlighting the role of emotional undertone in risk communication and management, and show how it differs from existing models of risk communication and decision-making.

  3. Risk communication between general practitioners and patients with hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo; Kirkegaard, Pia; Lauritzen, Torsten

      Purpose: It is important that the general practitioners (GPs) are able to intervene to reduce risk of disease. One of the key points in doing so is effective risk communication that decreases uncertainty about choice of treatment and gives the patients a greater understanding of benefits......, and psychological well-being.    Methods: 40 GPs receive training in risk communication. Each GP selects 7 patients with elevated cholesterol. These patients are informed about the opportunity to receive preventive pharmacological treatment. Another 280 patients receive the same opportunity from 40 GPs without...... their psychological well-being.   Conclusion: This randomised intervention study will produce new knowledge about the effect of training GPs in risk communication....

  4. Risk communication. Risk studies in social science; Risk communication. Risk kenkyu eno shakai kagakuteki approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-05

    It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food—A Systematic Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brennan, M.; Bánáti, D.; Lion, R.; Meertens, R.M.; Rowe, G.; Siegrist, M.; Verbeke, W.; Vereijken, C.M.J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit

  6. Risk communication on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardekker, J.A.

    2004-10-01

    For the title study use has been made of available scientific literature, results of new surveys and interviews. In the first part of the study attention is paid to the exchange of information between parties involved in climate change and differences in supply and demand of information. In the second part citizens' views on climate change, problems with communication on climate change, and the resulting consequences and options for communication are dealt with. In this second part also barriers to action that are related or influenced by communication are taken into consideration

  7. Environmental risk communication in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The principles and practices of risk communication in the petroleum industry in Alberta were presented. In order to effectively communicate about risk, three challenges must be met: (1) the representatives of the oil company must accept the legitimacy of the public's assessment of risk, (2) the communication needs to be two-way, and (3) the risk-related issues in the community must be addressed through a process of participatory decision-making where the public is accepted as a legitimate partner. For the oil and gas companies, failing to undertake effective risk communication can lead to many problems, such as difficulties in obtaining regulatory approvals, production delays, high legal fees, and loss of public trust

  8. Report on the risk communication activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashita, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Rika; Shobu, Nobuhiro; Ayame, Junko; Gunji, Ikuko; Asanuma, Misuzu

    2008-10-01

    This report summarizes the risk communication activities of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories conducted by mainly Risk Communication Study Office. To gain trust and understanding of the local community for nuclear energy, a 'Risk Communication Study Team' was set up at former Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) in January, 2001. When former JNC and former Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were merged in October, 2005, the Team was changed to 'Risk Communication Study Office' in Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories. This report shows the risk communication activities implemented from January, 2001 to March 2007. The activities are classified into three categories: research and study on risk communication, message design and development of information transmission tools, and implementation of risk communication. As for the research and study, we investigated the risk communication about nuclear energy in Western countries. As for the message design, we made messages under our basic policy of showing information clearly that residents want to know. We have prepared about 300 messages in slide format (Microsoft Power Point) and compiled them in a report. More easy-to understand messages were created from the viewpoint of the residents by working in collaboration with local residents, not making messages by ourselves. As for the development of information transmission tools, we have been developing a portal website, 'Risk Information Navigator', which provides information about risks that exist in daily life such as traffic accidents and natural disasters, as well as risk information on nuclear technology. We produced videos and environmental panels as information transmission tools, and made poster panels, clear holder, Karuta' (Japanese card game), and so on in the collaboration work with residents. As a practice of risk communication, we have been carrying out Cycle Friendly Talk', which is direct dialogue within

  9. Industry challenge to best practice risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, J; Boateng, A

    2012-04-01

    Effective food safety and food defense risk communication helps to inform consumers without causing panic and alarm. The Risk Communication Team of the Natl. Center for Food Protection and Defense has developed a list of 11 best practices recommended for effective risk communication. These practices, designed for a food defense crisis, are currently applied to food safety issues, since fortunately a food defense crisis has yet to occur. IFT examined the utility of these best practices and the limitations on their use during food safety and food defense crises by academics, trade associations, and the government. It was hypothesized that legal and business considerations as well as the nature of the event would determine the implementation of the best practices. Through the use of focus group meetings, it was discovered that there was a low level of awareness of the best practices. However, stakeholders practiced some aspects of the recommended practices. Participants felt some of the practices were related and could be consolidated. They also agreed that a food defense event will increase the urgency of the communication and include players not typically involved in food safety issues. The challenges reported by the stakeholders varied, but legal liability, as well as the impact their communications could have on an industry, were often cited. From the government perspective, their need to act within their authorities drove some of their actions with respect to communication. Determining the differences in communication limitations during food safety against food defense events can provide key information to further developing and refining risk communications and specific messages targeted for a food defense incident. Effective food safety and food defense risk communication helps to inform consumers without causing panic and alarm. Determining the differences in communication limitations during food safety against food defense events can provide key information to

  10. Implementing prevention interventions for non-communicable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communicable diseases within the Primary Health Care system in the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria ... programme documents and services records in the Federal Capital Territory, ... and funding for better response to NCD prevention in primary care.

  11. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication   There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways.   The first...... aim of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen’s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event...... change from concern and care about the people affected towards discussions about e.g. cause, responsibility or even guilt.   The second aim of the paper is to discuss other ways for a society to come to terms with risks that leads to disastrous situations than through the topics mentioned above...

  12. Crises communication practices and their consequences for risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nina Blom

    2016-01-01

    Title of paper: Crisis communication practices and their consequences for risk communication There is a close coverage of disasters in modern western societies in the media. And there is a growing expectation that authorities handle the tasks of crisis communication in certain ways. The first aim...... of this paper is to show, that the communication practices about the consequences of a disaster tend to focus on the individual citizen?s situation, and include the psychological consequences and suffering to a large degree. At least for a while. Then the debates and discussions about the event change from...... concern and care about the people affected towards discussions about e.g. cause, responsibility or even guilt. The second aim of the paper is to discuss other ways for a society to come to terms with risks that leads to disastrous situations than through the topics mentioned above, and as well how...

  13. Improving risk communication through interactive training in communication skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.A.; White, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and solution of the 2 1/2-day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, an instructor and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information

  14. Improving risk communication through interactive training in communication skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.A.; White, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a workshop in communication and public speaking skills recently conducted for a group of public officials whose responsibilities include presenting risk information at public meetings associated with hazardous waste sites. We detail the development and execution of the 2 1/2 day workshop, including the development and integration of a 45-minute video of a simulated public meeting used to illustrate examples of good and bad communication behaviors. The workshop uses a mock public meeting video, participatory video exercises, role-playing, and instructor, and a resource text. This interactive approach to teaching communication skills can help sensitize scientists to the public's understanding of risk and improve scientists' confidence and effectiveness in communicating scientific information. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  15. A theory-based computer mediated communication intervention to promote mental health and reduce high-risk behaviors in the LGBT population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNapoli, Jean Marie; Garcia-Dia, Mary Joy; Garcia-Ona, Leila; O'Flaherty, Deirdre; Siller, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    The Healthy People 2020 (2012) report has identified that isolation, lack of social services, and a shortage of culturally competent providers serve as barriers to the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who have HIV/AIDS. Self-transcendence theory proposes that individuals who face increased vulnerability or mortality may acquire an increased capacity for self-transcendence and its positive influence on mental health and well-being. The use of technology-enabled social and community support and group interventions through computer mediated self-help (CMSH) with LGBT individuals may help meet mental health needs of this group, and support healthy lifestyle practices. This article presents an overview of steps taken to propose a theory-based CMSH intervention for testing in research and eventual application in practice. © 2013.

  16. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, L L; Schneider, M; Ford, E G; Hernandez, A E; Showell, B; Drews, K L; Moe, E L; Gillis, B; Jessup, A N; Stadler, D D; White, M

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  17. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, LL; Schneider, M; Ford, EG; Hernandez, AE; Showell, B; Drews, KL; Moe, EL; Gillis, B; Jessup, AN; Stadler, DD; White, M

    2009-01-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the

  18. Audio visual information materials for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Ohuchi, Naomi

    2005-07-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Tokai Works set up the Risk Communication Study Team in January, 2001 to promote mutual understanding between the local residents and JNC. The Team has studied risk communication from various viewpoints and developed new methods of public relations which are useful for the local residents' risk perception toward nuclear issues. We aim to develop more effective risk communication which promotes a better mutual understanding of the local residents, by providing the risk information of the nuclear fuel facilities such a Reprocessing Plant and other research and development facilities. We explain the development process of audio visual information materials which describe our actual activities and devices for the risk management in nuclear fuel facilities, and our discussion through the effectiveness measurement. (author)

  19. Vested interest and environmental risk communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Dominicis, Stefano; Crano, William D.; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta

    2014-01-01

    Vested interest theory (VIT), first investigated on environmental risk, suggests that the hedonic relevance of an attitude object moderates relations between attitudes, intentions, and responses to danger. Emphasizing vested interest may maximize impacts of risk communications. Study 1 (N=215...... method of developing effective risk announcements.......) assessed differences between inhabitants of two flood-risk areas in Italy on past experience, risk perceptions, concerns, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Objectively, higher risk areas' residents reported more experience, and greater perceived risk and concern, while no preparedness differences were...

  20. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs.

  1. Risk perception and credibility of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1992-10-01

    Experts and the public frequently disagree when it comes to risk assessment. The reasons for such disagreement are discussed, and it is pointed out that disagreement among experts and lack of full understanding of real risks contributes to skepticism among the public. The notion that people are in general reacting in a highly emotional and non-rational, phobic, manner is rejected. The very conditions for risk assessment present to the public, and common-sense cognitive dynamics, are better explanations of risk perception, as are some social psychological concepts. If trust is to be established in a country where it is quite low some kind of politically regulated public influence on decision making and risk monitoring is probably needed, e.g. by means of a publicly elected and responsible ombudsman. 57 refs, 8 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Risk communication in the real world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, Philip L.

    1992-01-01

    As people become more sensitive to health and environmental issues, effective communication of workplace risks becomes more important for both employers and their employees. Risk communication must be given in a clear, simple format that addresses the individual employee's work environment. It must also be provided in a manner that indicates to the employees that the company cares about their safety. Failure to provide this information may result in ineffective communication and reduced company credibility. By using events and issues from the employees every day life, these issues can be effectively managed. (author)

  3. Patients' communication with doctors: a randomized control study of a brief patient communication intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talen, Mary R; Muller-Held, Christine F; Eshleman, Kate Grampp; Stephens, Lorraine

    2011-09-01

    In research on doctor-patient communication, the patient role in the communication process has received little attention. The dynamic interactions of shared decision making and partnership styles which involve active patient communication are becoming a growing area of focus in doctor-patient communication. However, patients rarely know what makes "good communication" with medical providers and even fewer have received coaching in this type of communication. In this study, 180 patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group using a written communication tool to facilitate doctor-patient communication or to standard care. The goal of this intervention was to assist patients in becoming more effective communicators with their physicians. The physicians and patients both rated the quality of the communication after the office visit based on the patients' knowledge of their health concerns, organizational skills and questions, and attitudes of ownership and partnership. The results supported that patients in the intervention group had significantly better communication with their doctors than patients in the standard care condition. Physicians also rated patients who were in the intervention group as having better overall communication and organizational skills, and a more positive attitude during the office visit. This study supports that helping patients structure their communication using a written format can facilitate doctor-patient communication. Patients can become more adept at describing their health concerns, organizing their needs and questions, and being proactive, which can have a positive effect on the quality of the doctor-patient communication during outpatient office visits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Risk perception and risk communication: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillif, L.; Sackur, J.

    1998-01-01

    Industry can master risks but it cannot master the representations people have of these risks. This is why distortions may occur, as the public perceives risks where they are not, or in a totally deformed way. To deal with this type of situation which is dangerous in the long run, both for society and industry, it is necessary to study in detail where and how the difference between real risks and perceived risks is introduced. It then becomes possible to determine what means of action are available to manage the representations and the perceptions of risks. We shall mention two rather different examples of type of direct contact with the industrial reality; in France, we have determined policy of visits of nuclear sites (more than 10 000 people visit Cogema- la Hague site yearly), mainly addressed to school children and people living in the vicinity of the site. During these visits there is of course no question of explaining the detailed operation of the facility or the risks it generates. The purpose is to make the representation of the nuclear industry just as familiar as the representation of another large-scale technology tool: trains, dams,. In a different manner, missions are organised by Cogema - B.N.F.L.- O.R.C. (Overseas reprocessing Committee) to de dramatize the transport of high level vitrified wastes from Europe to Japan. these missions travel through those countries the ship come close to. Here, again, although the target is more the relays of opinion, the effective presence of specialized transport ship is a crucial element in putting a halt to phantasmic representations, as they are born from the remoteness of the object. (N.C.)

  5. Risk communication and decision-making in the prevention of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Ann H

    2017-08-01

    Risk communication surrounding the prevention of invasive breast cancer entails not only understanding of the disease, risks and opportunities for intervention. But it also requires understanding and implementation of optimal strategies for communication with patients who are making these decisions. In this article, available evidence for the issues surrounding risk communication and decision making in the prevention of invasive breast cancer are reviewed and strategies for improvement are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk communication: a mental models approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morgan, M. Granger (Millett Granger)

    2002-01-01

    ... information about risks. The procedure uses approaches from risk and decision analysis to identify the most relevant information; it also uses approaches from psychology and communication theory to ensure that its message is understood. This book is written in nontechnical terms, designed to make the approach feasible for anyone willing to try it. It is illustrat...

  7. Risk Premium and Central Bank Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Pinar Ozlu

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the relation between the risk premium and central bank intervention. Forward rates are calculated for the Turkish Lira-USD exchange market and then the effect of central bank intervention on the risk premium is estimated. Using high quality daily intervention data from the Central Bank of Turkey as well as implied forward rates, an MA (21)-GARCH (1,1) model is estimated. Both purchases and sales of US dollars by the Central Bank of Turkey appear to have no effect on the si...

  8. Improving sexual risk communication with adolescents using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L; Felicetti, Irene L; Saftner, Melissa A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately pre- and post-visit, and at 1 and 3 months, adolescents reported sexual risk behaviors and perceptions about EHC communication on questionnaires and by interview. NPs reported their perceptions of EHCs by questionnaire after the visit and poststudy interview. The EHC approach facilitated communication and adolescent awareness of their risk behaviors. Scores increased on Amount of Communication, t(29) = 8.174, p Communication, t(29) = 3.112, p = .004; Client Involvement in Decision Making, t(29) = 3.901, p = .001, and Client Satisfaction with Interpersonal Style, t(29) = 3.763, p = .001. Adolescents reported decreased sexual intercourse at 1 month, p = .031. School nurses could use the EHC approach to facilitate adolescent communication and tailoring of interventions.

  9. Information needs for risk management/communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The hazardous waste cleanup program under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund) is delegated to the ten Regions of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and has, to date, identified more than 33,000 sites for consideration. The size and complexity of the program places great demands on those who would provide information to achieve national consistency in application of risk assessment while meeting site-specific needs for risk management and risk communication.

  10. 75 FR 5335 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... previously issued communications, emphasizing communications challenges. Examples, selected for illustrative...

  11. Risk communication discourse among ecological risk assessment professionals and its implications for communication with nonexperts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Palmqvist, Annemette; Thorbek, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Risk communication, especially to the general public and end users of plant protection products, is an important challenge. Currently, much of the risk communication the general public receives is via the popular press, and risk managers face the challenge of presenting their decisions...... and their scientific basis to the general public in an understandable way. Therefore, we decided to explore the obstacles in risk communication, as done by expert risk assessors and managers. Using the discourse analysis framework and readability tests, we studied perspectives of 3 stakeholder groups......—regulators, industry representatives, and academics across Europe. We conducted 30 confidential interviews (10 participants in each group), with part of the interview guide focused on communication of pesticide risk to the general public and the ideas experts in the field of risk assessment and management hold...

  12. Risk Communication, Values Clarification, and Vaccination Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, Holly O; Chipenda Dansokho, Selma; Exe, Nicole; Dupuis, Audrey; Provencher, Thierry; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J

    2015-10-01

    Many health-related decisions require choosing between two options, each with risks and benefits. When presented with such tradeoffs, people often make choices that fail to align with scientific evidence or with their own values. This study tested whether risk communication and values clarification methods could help parents and guardians make evidence-based, values-congruent decisions about children's influenza vaccinations. In 2013-2014 we conducted an online 2×2 factorial experiment in which a diverse sample of U.S. parents and guardians (n = 407) were randomly assigned to view either standard information about influenza vaccines or risk communication using absolute and incremental risk formats. Participants were then either presented or not presented with an interactive values clarification interface with constrained sliders and dynamic visual feedback. Participants randomized to the risk communication condition combined with the values clarification interface were more likely to indicate intentions to vaccinate (β = 2.10, t(399) = 2.63, p communication and values clarification methods may contribute to increased vaccination intentions, which may, in turn, predict vaccination status if logistical barriers are also addressed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Risk communication in environmental restoration programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.A.

    1993-04-01

    The author advocates adoption of a convergence model in place of the traditional source-receiver model of communication for communicating with members of the public who have a stake in remediation of a nearby site. The source-receiver model conceives of communication as the transmission of a message from a risk management agency (sender) to a target audience of the public (receivers). The underlying theme is that the sender intends to change the perception of the receiver of either the issue or the sender of information. The theme may be appropriate for health campaigns which seek to change public behavior; however, the author draws on her experience at a DOE site undergoing remediation to illustrate why the convergence model is more appropriate in the context of cleanup. This alternative model focuses on the Latin derivation of communication as sharing or making common to many, i.e., as involving a relationship between participants who engage in a process of communication. The focus appears to be consistent with recently issued DOE policy that calls for involving the public in identifying issues and problems and in formulating and evaluating decision alternatives in cleanup. By emphasizing context, process and participants, as opposed to senders and receivers, the model identifies key issues to address in facilitating consensus concerning the risks of cleanup. Similarities between the institutional context of DOE and DOD suggest that a convergence model may also prove to be an appropriate conceptual foundation for risk communication at contaminated DOD sites.

  14. Recommendations for citizen-oriented risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of recommendations for citizen-oriented risk communication should be to provide ''banisters'' which leave the players their freedom of action and allow them to adapt communicative structures to the situation at hand. Uncertainty and controversial issues at the levels of information, participation and assessment are identified as potential stumbling blocks in risk communication. The experiences gained in Hamburg shed a light on a diversity of processes in risk communication, which the present paper proceeds to evaluate. One of its essential recommendations is to have dialogic processes develop into forms of participation. A guide on risk communication which was formulated in the USA has been adapted to conditions as they prevail in Germany. The adapted version is more practically oriented than the rules of the EPA or the more recent CDC recommendations. Suitable success criteria include a fair procedure, a common baseline of what is known and not known, the acceptance of different assessment criteria, and the exchange of the pros and cons of different options

  15. Initial crisis risk communications: A success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, S.B.; Traverso, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Federal regulations require nuclear facilities to be prepared for the risk communication aspects of a catastrophic emergency. Thus, all nuclear plants have provisions for a Joint Public Information Center (JPIC). The JPICs are designed to handle more than 300 media for 24 hours a day; to coordinate information among utility, federal, state, and local agencies; to provide spokespersons; etc. For a large-scale emergency, JPICs can work very well. However, some utilities - indeed, most companies - appear to have only two modes of emergency communication response: normal staff and JPIC. Experience has shown that normal staffing is inadequate to handle the risk communication response for media-intensive low-level emergencies and for the initial stages of an escalating emergency. It is clear that initial response will determine how well a company fares in its overall emergency response and in its long-term relations with the media and public. A solution to this risk communication challenge was developed by Cleveland Electric Illuminating Company's Perry Nuclear Plant - the Public Information Response Team. Using existing facilities and staff - only one of whom works regularly with the media - the Perry plant proactively manages its initial risk communication response

  16. Interventional closure of RPA-to-LA communication in an oligosymptomatic neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Dominik C; Burkhardt, Barbara; Quandt, Daniel; Stambach, Dominik; Knirsch, Walter; Kretschmar, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Direct communication between the right pulmonary artery (RPA) and the left atrium (LA) is a very rare cardiac malformation. Clinical presentation of RPA-to-LA communication depends on the size of the communication, the amount of right-to-left shunt, the patient's age, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Patients with small communications usually present oligosymptomatic and are diagnosed at an older age. A delay of diagnosis bears the risk of severe complications and needs to be prevented by proper work-up of oligosymptomatic neonates. Treatment of RPA-to-LA communications used to be performed by surgical closure, and the interventional approach has only been established as a less invasive alternative in recent years. Although patients with small RPA-to-LA communications usually present oligosymptomatic, early diagnosis and treatment is essential to prevent life-threatening complications.

  17. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  18. Communication about environmental health risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Yost, Jennifer; Ciliska, Donna; Krishnaratne, Shari

    2010-11-01

    Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references.Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective than just a single type, such

  19. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies, participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations, interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof, and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change. Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and

  20. Vaccine hesitancy and trust. Ethical aspects of risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihlén Fahlquist, Jessica

    2018-03-01

    This paper analyses vaccination policy from an ethical perspective, against the background of the growing hesitancy towards e.g. the measles vaccine. The paper is normative and analyses ethical aspects of risk communication in the context of vaccination. It is argued that ethical analysis of risk communication should be done at the level of the message, the procedure and the effects. The paper takes examples from the Swedish context, linking the current lack of trust in experts to the 2009 vaccination policy and communication promoting the H1N1 vaccine Pandemrix. During the Swedish H1N1 vaccination policy in 2009, the message was that the vaccine is safe. However, a group of adolescents developed narcolepsy as a side effect of the vaccine. Taking this into account, it becomes clear that the government should communicate risks and benefits responsibly and take responsibility for individuals affected negatively by populational health interventions. To communicate respectfully entails not treating vaccine sceptics as ill-informed or less educated, but instead taking the concerns of the vaccine hesitant, who potentially could change their minds, as a starting-point of a respectful discussion. There will inevitably be individuals who suffer from side effects of justifiable population-based health promotion activities. However, the public should be able to trust the message and count on the government to take responsibility for individuals affected by side effects. This is important for normative reasons, but is additionally likely to contribute to restored and maintained trust.

  1. Communicating risk to the public - Probabilistically impossible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallina, C.O.

    1992-01-01

    As far as the general public is concerned, scientists can forget about risk perception and risk acceptance. These worthy scientific goals only confuse the one single important issue - how people perceive and accept technology. Risk is rarely accepted in the abstract by the general public. Because people would rather be assured than educated, risk can only be presented within the framework of what people will accept when they accept the technology, which (among other things) produces the aforementioned risk itself. It is in this technological environment that effective risk communication becomes extremely complex. To understand the risk, the public must understand the technology - a formidable task in itself, but one that becomes even more difficult when two additional factors are included: media attention and political influence

  2. Problems in the communication of technological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedemann, P.M.; Hennen, L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors discuss the problems in the communication of technological risks. They show that - contrary to a current popular belief - acceptance problems are not attributable to information deficits: such problems are caused rather by the fact that risks are perceived differently by the various groups in science, industry, politics and the larger public. Nevertheless, improved information about technology may help to find acceptable compromises and, thus, to prevent social conflicts to erupt over technology and to geopardize the basic political consensus. (orig.) [de

  3. Risk Perception, Communication and Food Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an effective communication strategy about different food hazards depends not only on technical risk assessments (for example related to health or the environment) but must also take into account consumer perceptions and preferences. In addition, consumers make decisions about food choices

  4. Communicating identifiability risks to biobank donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, T. J.; Gjerris, Mickey; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2018-01-01

    Recent highly publicized privacy breaches in healthcare and genomics research have led many to question whether current standards of data protection are adequate. Improvements in de-identification techniques, combined with pervasive data sharing, have increased the likelihood that external parties...... concerns can be incorporated into either a detailed or a simplified method of communicating risks during the consent process....

  5. Progress in violence risk assessment and communication: hypothesis versus evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E

    2015-02-01

    We draw a distinction between hypothesis and evidence with respect to the assessment and communication of the risk of violent recidivism. We suggest that some authorities in the field have proposed quite valid and reasonable hypotheses with respect to several issues. Among these are the following: that accuracy will be improved by the adjustment or moderation of numerical scores based on clinical opinions about rare risk factors or other considerations pertaining to the applicability to the case at hand; that there is something fundamentally distinct about protective factors so that they are not merely the obverse of risk factors, such that optimal accuracy cannot be achieved without consideration of such protective factors; and that assessment of dynamic factors is required for optimal accuracy and furthermore interventions aimed at such dynamic factors can be expected to cause reductions in violence risk. We suggest here that, while these are generally reasonable hypotheses, they have been inappropriately presented to practitioners as empirically supported facts, and that practitioners' assessment and communication about violence risk run beyond that supported by the available evidence as a result. We further suggest that this represents harm, especially in impeding scientific progress. Nothing here justifies stasis or simply surrendering to authoritarian custody with somatic treatment. Theoretically motivated and clearly articulated assessment and intervention should be provided for offenders, but in a manner that moves the field more firmly from hypotheses to evidence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Early Interventions for At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, Frankie; Klassen, Eydie; Koontz, Barbara; Nottingham, Cheryl; Vierthaler, Charlene

    This is a report on a school-wide ethnographic study of intervention strategies for at-risk students in kindergarten through second grade. A group of 5 teachers from an elementary school of approximately 250 students in a Midwest community of about 18,000 people (2 first-grade teachers, 2 second-grade teachers, and 1 music teacher) comprised the…

  7. Adaptation and Feasibility of a Communication Intervention for Mexican Immigrant Mothers and Children in a School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Children of Mexican immigrants are exposed to multiple ecological risks that heighten their likelihood of experiencing depressive symptoms. In previous studies, affirming parent-child communication has been found to be protective against depressive symptoms in Hispanic youth. Interventions focused on enhancing communication between parents and…

  8. Communication in reducing facility siting risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Today, social considerations are as important as technical ones in siting new nuclear facilities. Siting any industrial facility has become extremely difficult in this era of not in my backyard (NIMBY). Even if NIMBY does not arise locally, well-organized national opposition groups can be counted on to step in to fan the flames, especially when the industrial facility has to do with anything nuclear. It is now generally recognized that the greatest risk of failure for new nuclear facilities is not technical but social. Applying lessons gained from past experience and social science research can help reduce that risk. From these lessons, six principles for public interaction and communication stand out: (1) create goodwill now; (2) involve the community early; (3) establish the need; (4) communicate controls, not risk; (5) avoid jargon; (6) understand your public

  9. The art of risk communication - on risk, communication and theme management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    The controversies over nuclear power plants, genetic engineering and on great disasters like Eschede are examples of the importance of risk communication. The presented study outlines a communication ''charged by prejudice'' and develops successful behavioural models for companies and their managers [de

  10. "Communicate to vaccinate": the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Natalie; Hill, Sophie; Kaufman, Jessica; Lewin, Simon; Kis-Rigo, John; De Castro Freire, Sara Bensaude; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2013-05-11

    Vaccination is a cost-effective public health measure and is central to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality. However, childhood vaccination coverage remains sub-optimal in many settings. While communication is a key feature of vaccination programmes, we are not aware of any comprehensive approach to organising the broad range of communication interventions that can be delivered to parents and communities to improve vaccination coverage. Developing a classification system (taxonomy) organised into conceptually similar categories will aid in: understanding the relationships between different types of communication interventions; facilitating conceptual mapping of these interventions; clarifying the key purposes and features of interventions to aid implementation and evaluation; and identifying areas where evidence is strong and where there are gaps. This paper reports on the development of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' taxonomy. The taxonomy was developed in two stages. Stage 1 included: 1) forming an advisory group; 2) searching for descriptions of interventions in trials (CENTRAL database) and general health literature (Medline); 3) developing a sampling strategy; 4) screening the search results; 5) developing a data extraction form; and 6) extracting intervention data. Stage 2 included: 1) grouping the interventions according to purpose; 2) holding deliberative forums in English and French with key vaccination stakeholders to gather feedback; 3) conducting a targeted search of grey literature to supplement the taxonomy; 4) finalising the taxonomy based on the input provided. The taxonomy includes seven main categories of communication interventions: inform or educate, remind or recall, teach skills, provide support, facilitate decision making, enable communication and enhance community ownership. These categories are broken down into 43 intervention types across three target groups: parents or soon-to-be-parents; communities, community

  11. Towards risk-aware communications networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chołda, Piotr; Følstad, Eirik L.; Helvik, Bjarne E.; Kuusela, Pirkko; Naldi, Maurizio; Norros, Ilkka

    2013-01-01

    We promote introduction of risk-awareness in the design and operation of communications networks and services. This means explicit and systematic consideration of uncertainties related to improper behavior of the web of interdependent networks and the resulting consequences for individuals, companies and a society as a whole. Central activities are the recognition of events challenging dependability together with the assessment of their probabilities and impacts. While recognizing the complex technical, business and societal issues, we employ an overall risk framing approach containing risk assessment, response and monitoring. Our paradigm gathers topics that are currently dispersed in various fields of network activities. We review the current state of risk-related activities in networks, identify deficiencies and challenges, and suggest techniques, procedures, and metrics towards higher risk-awareness.

  12. Communicating Zika Risk: Using Metaphor to Increase Perceived Risk Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hang; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2018-02-27

    Effectively communicating the risks associated with emerging zoonotic diseases remains an important challenge. Drawing on research into the psychological effects of metaphoric framing, we explore the conditions under which exposure to the "nation as a body" metaphor influences perceived risk susceptibility, behavioral intentions, and policy support in the context of Zika virus. In a between-subjects experiment, 354 U.S. adults were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions as part of a 2 (severity message: high vs. low) × 2 (U.S. framing: metaphoric vs. literal) design. Results revealed an interaction effect such that metaphoric (vs. literal) framing increased perceived risk susceptibility in the high-severity condition only. Further analyses revealed that perceived risk susceptibility and negative affect mediated the path between the two-way interaction and policy support and behavioral intentions regarding Zika prevention. Overall, these findings complement prior work on the influence of metaphoric framing on risk perceptions, while offering practical insights for risk communicators seeking to communicate about Zika and other zoonotic diseases. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Efficacy of a Latino mother-child communication intervention in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of an adapted mother-child communication intervention for Latino immigrant mothers and their fourth- to sixth-grade children delivered after school. The intervention, Family Communication ("Comunicación Familiar"), was delivered at children's elementary schools in six sessions lasting 2 hr each. Significant improvements were found in children's reports of problem-solving communication, with their mother and mothers' reports of reduced family conflict. Strengths of the intervention are improved mother-child communication, acquisition of communication skills that can transfer to relationships within the classroom, and a design that allows delivery by nurses or other professional members of the school support team. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Culturally-grounded mother-daughter communication-focused intervention for Thai female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powwattana, Arpaporn; Thammaraksa, Pimrat; Manora, Sroy

    2018-02-05

    Teenage pregnancy-prevention interventions have fallen short in significantly decreasing risk of pregnancy for Thai populations. The "breaking the voice" ("rak luk khun tong pood") culture-appropriate teenage pregnancy-prevention program was developed using community-based research. Qualitative analyses of focus group data identified salient factors related to sexual communication and behavior. The integration of focus group results with theoretical constructs guided the development of an intervention to reduce risky sexual behavior by increasing communication between mothers and their adolescent daughters. A total of 157 mother-daughter dyads from congested areas in Bangkok participated in pilot testing of the intervention by the use of a survey. The findings indicated a significant increase in the frequency of and number of sexual risk communication (P assertiveness, and ability to decrease sexual risk among daughters (P < .05). "Breaking the voice" represents a female-focused and culturally-relevant intervention to combat teenage pregnancy. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Risk management: a proposal for communication strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fontana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disasters related to natural hazards have increased in the last few decades. This increment makes it necessary to develop non-structural risk prevention and mitigation measures to improve people’s safety. An effective non-structural measure that can improve the preparedness of the population is a locally adapted communication campaign that is focused on natural hazards. We have developed a hypothetical communication campaign for a specific area in the north of Italy, in which hydro-geological risk is of considerable importance. The content of the campaign is defined by the combination of the requirements of the law with the results of a survey conducted in the study area. The aim of the survey is to evaluate the level of risk perception among the residents, and their attitudes towards prevention activities. The operative procedure of the campaign is modeled on advertising strategies. The campaign is designed to reach each family, and it is aimed at affecting people’s everyday life through a horizontal communication strategy that involves flyers, billboards, umbrellas and a website. The use of umbrellas as a medium for the campaign is the key. People mostly use umbrellas when it rains. Rain is linked with hydrogeological risk. As the content of the campaign is printed on the umbrellas, each time people use these umbrellas, they remember the campaign. The campaign is integrated into a broader communication program that includes meetings with stakeholders, activities in schools, and public conferences. The final goal is to foster the creation of a shared knowledge about risk in the whole population.

  16. Standardised risk analysis as a communication tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluess, Ch.; Montanarini, M.; Bernauer, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: several European countries require a risk analysis for the production, storage or transport a dangerous goods. This requirement imposes considerable administrative effort for some sectors of the industry. In order to minimize the effort of such studies, a generic risk analysis for an industrial sector proved to help. Standardised procedures can consequently be derived for efficient performance of the risk investigations. This procedure was successfully established in Switzerland for natural gas transmission lines and fossil fuel storage plants. The development process of the generic risk analysis involved an intense discussion between industry and authorities about methodology of assessment and the criteria of acceptance. This process finally led to scientific consistent modelling tools for risk analysis and to an improved communication from the industry to the authorities and the public. As a recent example, the Holland-Italy natural gas transmission pipeline is demonstrated, where this method was successfully employed. Although this pipeline traverses densely populated areas in Switzerland, using this established communication method, the risk problems could be solved without delaying the planning process. (authors)

  17. The KinFact Intervention – A Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Family Communication About Cancer History

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClish, Donna; Gyure, Maria; Corona, Rosalie; Krist, Alexander H.; Rodríguez, Vivian M.; Maibauer, Alisa M.; Borzelleca, Joseph; Bowen, Deborah J.; Quillin, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Knowing family history is important for understanding cancer risk, yet communication within families is suboptimal. Providing strategies to enhance communication may be useful. Methods: Four hundred ninety women were recruited from urban, safety-net, hospital-based primary care women's health clinics. Participants were randomized to receive the KinFact intervention or the control handout on lowering risks for breast/colon cancer and screening recommendations. Cancer family history was reviewed with all participants. The 20-minute KinFact intervention, based in communication and behavior theory, included reviewing individualized breast/colon cancer risks and an interactive presentation about cancer and communication. Study outcomes included whether participants reported collecting family history, shared cancer risk information with relatives, and the frequency of communication with relatives. Data were collected at baseline, 1, 6, and 14 months. Results: Overall, intervention participants were significantly more likely to gather family cancer information at follow-up (odds ratio [OR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.01, 3.71) and to share familial cancer information with relatives (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.37, 2.48). Communication frequency (1=not at all; 4=a lot) was significantly increased at follow-up (1.67 vs. 1.54). Differences were not modified by age, race, education, or family history. However, effects were modified by pregnancy status and genetic literacy. Intervention effects for information gathering and frequency were observed for nonpregnant women but not for pregnant women. Additionally, intervention effects were observed for information gathering in women with high genetic literacy, but not in women with low genetic literacy. Conclusions: The KinFact intervention successfully promoted family communication about cancer risk. Educating women to enhance their communication skills surrounding family history may allow them to partner

  18. 76 FR 58519 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... discuss implications, for strategic communication, of recent theoretical developments on information use...

  19. The comprehensive ‘Communicate to Vaccinate’ taxonomy of communication interventions for childhood vaccination in routine and campaign contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Kaufman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication can be used to generate demand for vaccination or address vaccine hesitancy, and is crucial to successful childhood vaccination programmes. Research efforts have primarily focused on communication for routine vaccination. However, vaccination campaigns, particularly in low- or middle-income countries (LMICs, also use communication in diverse ways. Without a comprehensive framework integrating communication interventions from routine and campaign contexts, it is not possible to conceptualise the full range of possible vaccination communication interventions. Therefore, vaccine programme managers may be unaware of potential communication options and researchers may not focus on building evidence for interventions used in practice. In this paper, we broaden the scope of our existing taxonomy of communication interventions for routine vaccination to include communication used in campaigns, and integrate these into a comprehensive taxonomy of vaccination communication interventions. Methods Building on our taxonomy of communication for routine vaccination, we identified communication interventions used in vaccination campaigns through a targeted literature search; observation of vaccination activities in Cameroon, Mozambique and Nigeria; and stakeholder consultations. We added these interventions to descriptions of routine vaccination communication and categorised the interventions according to their intended purposes, building from an earlier taxonomy of communication related to routine vaccination. Results The comprehensive taxonomy groups communication used in campaigns and routine childhood vaccination into seven purpose categories: ‘Inform or Educate’; ‘Remind or Recall’; ‘Enhance Community Ownership’; ‘Teach Skills’; ‘Provide Support’; ‘Facilitate Decision Making’ and ‘Enable Communication’. Consultations with LMIC stakeholders and experts informed the taxonomy’s definitions and

  20. Risk communication and the Precautionary Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocca, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The perception of risks for environment and health deriving from globalization processes and an uncontrolled use of modern technologies is growing everywhere. The greater the capacity of controlling living conditions, the larger is the possibility of misusing this power. In environmental and occupational health research we tend to reduce the complexity of the observed phenomena in order to facilitate conclusions. In social and political sciences complexity is an essential element of the context, which needs to be continuously considered. The Precautionary Principle is a tool for facing complexity and uncertainty in health risk management. This paper is aimed at demonstrating that this is not only a problem of technical risk assessment. Great attention should also be paid to improve risk communication. Communication between the stakeholders (experts, decision makers, political and social leaders, media, groups of interest and people involved) is possibly the best condition to be successful in health risk management. Nevertheless, this process usually runs up against severe obstacles. These are not only caused by existing conflicts of interest. Differences in values, languages, perceptions, resources to have access to information, and to express one's own point of view are other key aspects.

  1. The Nevada initiative: A risk communication Fiasco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Solvic, P.; Mertz, C.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the only potential site to be studied for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. People in Nevada strongly oppose the program, managed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Survey research shows that the public believes there are great risks from a repository program, in contrast to a majority of scientists who feel the risks are acceptably small. Delays in the repository program resulting in part from public opposition in Nevada have concerned the nuclear power industry, which collects the fees for the federal repository program and believes it needs the repository as a final disposal facility for its high-level nuclear wastes. To assist the repository program, the American Nuclear Energy Council (ANEC), an industry group, sponsored a massive advertising campaign in Nevada. The campaign attempted to assure people that the risks of a repository were small and that the repository studies should proceed. The campaign failed because its managers misunderstood the issues underlying the controversy, attempted a covert manipulation of public opinion that was revealed, and most importantly, lacked the public trust that was necessary to communicate credibly about the risks of a nuclear waste facility. This article describes the advertising campaign and its effects. The manner in which the ANEC campaign itself became a controversial public issue is reviewed. The advertising campaign is discussed as it relates to risk assessment and communication. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity and ECB Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    This paper explores the interaction between credit risk and liquidity, in the context of the intervention by the European Central Bank (ECB), during the Euro-zone crisis. The laboratory for our investigation is the Italian sovereign bond market, the largest in the Euro-zone. We use a unique data...... between changes in Italian sovereign credit risk and liquidity in the secondary bond market, conditional on the level of credit risk, measured by the Italian sovereign credit default swap (CDS) spread. We demonstrate the existence of a threshold of 500 basis points (bp) in the CDS spread, above which...... there is a structural change in this relationship. Other global systemic factors also a ffect market liquidity, but the speci c credit risk of primary dealers plays only a modest role in a ffecting market liquidity, especially under conditions of stress. Moreover, the data indicate that there is a clear structural...

  3. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  4. Herbicides and forest ecosystems - approaches to risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon

    1992-01-01

    Abstract.It has become apparent to many risk experts that without good communication, risk assessment and risk management efforts may be largely in vain. For the public, perception is reality when it comes to the interpretation of risk information and the shaping of regulatory policy. The findings of several- risk communication experts are reviewed...

  5. RISK COMMUNICATION IN ACTION: THE TOOLS OF MESSAGE MAPPING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk Communication in Action: The Tools of Message Mapping, is a workbook designed to guide risk communicators in crisis situations. The first part of this workbook will review general guidelines for risk communication. The second part will focus on one of the most robust tools o...

  6. Communication skills intervention: promoting effective communication between nurses and mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dithole, K S; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria; Akpor, Oluwaseyi A; Moleki, Mary M

    2017-01-01

    Patients in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) often experience communication difficulties - usually associated with mechanical ventilation - resulting in psychological problems such as anxiety, fear, and depression. Good communication between nurses and patients is critical for success from personalised nursing care of each patient. The purpose of this study is to describe nurses' experience of a communication skills training intervention. A convenience sample of twenty intensive care nurses participated in the study. Data was collected by means of interviews with nurses. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis. Six themes emerged: (1) acceptance of knowledge and skills developed during workshops; (2) management support; (3) appreciation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices; (4) change in attitudes; and (5) the need to share knowledge with others and (6) inclusion of communication skills workshop training as an integral part of an orientation programme for all nurses. The findings of this study indicated that the application of augmentative and alternative communication devices and strategies can improve nurse-patient communication in intensive care units. Therefore, the implementation of communication skills training for intensive care nurses should constantly be encouraged and, indeed, introduced as a key element of ICU care training.

  7. Coping with paradoxes of risk communication: Observations and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.B.

    1993-01-01

    The maturation of the field of risk communication has resulted in several manuals, a National Research Council review, a Society for Risk Analysis subgroup, and critics. Critics Pieter-Jan Stalen and Rob Coppock, and Harry Otway and Brian Wynne, have pointed out that much risk communication is impractical or paradoxical. In this letter, the author supports many of the criticisms of these critics, but also discusses errors and omissions in their viewpoints that he feels will inhibit progress in effective risk communication. Topics discussed are motivations for risk communication, the practicality of advice, the audience for risk communication, credibility, and whose interests are best served by risk communication. The purpose of this essay is therefore to spur further debate on the issue of risk communication. 13 refs

  8. Low-Dose Risk, Decisions, and Risk Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, James; Slovic, Paul

    2001-01-01

    To conduct basic research on how people receive, evaluate, and form positions on scientific information and its relationship to low-dose radiation exposure. There are three major areas of study in our research program. First is the development of theories, frameworks and concepts essential to guiding data collection and analysis. The second area is a program of experimental studies on risk perception, evaluation of science information, and the structure of individual positions regarding low dose exposures. This involves the study of existing knowledge and the evaluation of science information presented within a variety of formats, as educational information, news media stories, and alternative communication methods (personal contact, small group interaction, email and internet, etc.). Third is the community-level studies to examine and record how the social conditions, under which science communications take place, influence the development of attitudes and opinions about: low- dose exposures, the available management options, control of radiation risks, and preferences for program and policy goals

  9. TOXOPLASMOSIS: FOOD SAFETY AND RISK COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Celano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, parasitic pathology supported by Toxoplasma gondii, is a typical example of multi-issue and inter-disciplinary on which, with equal intensity, converge the interests of various branches of human and veterinary medicine. The aim of research was the assessment of risk communication to pregnant women by doctors gynecologists involved in ASL’s territorial about toxoplasmosis, which can have serious effects on pregnancy and the unborn child. The results acquired during the investigation showed the need to develop and implement appropriate information campaigns and proper nutrition education.

  10. Current features on risk perception and risk communication of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1997-01-01

    Health effects and risks of radiation and radionuclides are being misunderstood by many members of general public. Many peoples have fear and anxieties for radiation. So far, the health effects from radiation at low dose and low dose rate have not been cleared on biological aspects. Then, we have quantitatively estimated health risks of low-dose radiation on the basis of linear dose response relationship without threshold from the viewpoints of radiation protection by using both epidemiological data, such as atomic bomb survivors, and some models and assumptions. It is important for researchers and relevant persons in radiation protection to understand the process of risk estimation of radiation and to communicate an exact knowledge of radiation risks of the public members. (author)

  11. Enhancing clinical communication in dermatologists: a personalized educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Papastefanou, Noni; Lionis, Christos

    2017-11-01

    Effective communication is a vital component of patient-centered consultations with favorable treatment outcomes. This study aimed in testing the effectiveness of a personalized, communication training program for dermatologists in their practices. Fifteen dermatologists were offered the educational intervention NO.TE.S. (Non-Technical Skills). Depending on the dermatologists' needs, seven to nine sessions with a 60-min duration were performed, focusing on: patient-centered care, principles of Neurolinguistic Programming, a guide to the medical interview, principles of motivational interviewing and self-care. After the program's completion, participants completed anonymously an 18-item evaluation questionnaire. All 14 participants would suggest NO.TE.S to a colleague. According to the main themes identified, their participation led to (i) re-consideration of the physician-patient relationship, (ii) more conscious application of the patient-centered model, (iii) improvement in communication skills, (iv) awareness of medical interview guides, (v) increase in self-confidence, and (vi) techniques of self-care. Eleven physicians (78.6%) declared improvement in patients' satisfaction, 14 (100%) in their own satisfaction, seven (50%) in adherence to therapeutic plan and seven (50%) in treatment outcomes. The one-to-one coaching is a convenient and well-received personalized means of enhancing clinical communication in dermatologists, leading to more patient-centered medical encounters with better treatment outcomes.

  12. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Tiffany Cool

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem: In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Context: Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. Action and outcome: The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. Lessons learnt: During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  13. Social media as a risk communication tool following Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Christine Tiffany; Claravall, Marie Chantal; Hall, Julie Lyn; Taketani, Keisuke; Zepeda, John Paul; Gehner, Monika; Lawe-Davies, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) Representative Office in the Philippines had no social media presence to share timely, relevant public health information. Risk communication is essential to emergency management for public health message dissemination. As social media sites, such as Facebook, are popular in the Philippines, these were adopted for risk communication during the response to Haiyan. The WHO Representative Office in the Philippines established Facebook, Twitter and Instagram accounts. Thirty days after these social medial channels were established, a gradual increase in followers was observed. Facebook saw the largest increase in followers which occurred as posted content gradually evolved from general public health information to more pro-active public health intervention and preparedness messaging. This included information on key health interventions encouraging followers to adopt protective behaviours to mitigate public health threats that frequently occur after a disaster. During the response to Haiyan, creating a social media presence, raising a follower base and developing meaningful messages and content was possible. This event underscored the importance of building a social media strategy in non-emergency times and supported the value of developing public health messages and content that both educates and interests the general public.

  14. Communication, interventions, and scientific advances in autism: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza, Danielle C; DeLuke, Susan V; Batista, Myra; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Christodulu, Kristin V; Frye, Cheryl A

    2010-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect approximately 1 in 150 children across the U.S., and are characterized by abnormal social actions, language difficulties, repetitive or restrictive behaviors, and special interests. ASD include autism (autistic disorder), Asperger Syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS or atypical autism). High-functioning individuals may communicate with moderate-to-high language skills, although difficulties in social skills may result in communication deficits. Low-functioning individuals may have severe deficiencies in language, resulting in poor communication between the individual and others. Behavioral intervention programs have been developed for ASD, and are frequently adjusted to accommodate specific individual needs. Many of these programs are school-based and aim to support the child in the development of their skills, for use outside the classroom with family and friends. Strides are being made in understanding the factors contributing to the development of ASD, particularly the genetic contributions that may underlie these disorders. Mutant mouse models provide powerful research tools to investigate the genetic factors associated with ASD and its co-morbid disorders. In support, the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain incorporates ASD-like social and communication deficits and high levels of repetitive behaviors. This commentary briefly reviews the reciprocal relationship between observations made during evidence-based behavioral interventions of high- versus low-functioning children with ASD and the accumulating body of research in autism, including animal studies and basic research models. This reciprocity is one of the hallmarks of the scientific method, such that research may inform behavioral treatments, and observations made during treatment may inform subsequent research. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  16. [Skilled communication as "intervention" : Models for systematic communication in the healthcare system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, M; Mayer, H; Zojer, E

    2015-02-01

    Specific communication training is currently not integrated into anesthesiology curricula. At the same time communication is an important key factor when working with colleagues, in the physician-patient relationship, during management of emergencies and in avoiding or reducing the legal consequences of adverse medical events. Therefore, focused attention should be brought to this area. In other high risk industries, specific communication training has been standard for a long time and in medicine there is an approach to teach and train these soft skills by simulation. Systematic communication training, however, is rarely an established component of specialist training. It is impossible not to communicate whereby nonverbal indications, such as gestures, mimic expression, posture and tone play an important part. Miscommunication, however, is common and leads to unproductive behavior. The cause of this is not always obvious. This article provides an overview of the communication models of Shannon, Watzlawick et al. and Schulz von Thun et al. and describes their limitations. The "Process Communication Model®" (PCM) is also introduced. An overview is provided with examples of how this tool can be used to look at the communication process from a systematic point of view. People have different psychological needs. Not taking care of these needs will result in individual stress behavior, which can be graded into first, second and third degrees of severity (driver behavior, mask behavior and desperation). These behavior patterns become exposed in predictable sequences. Furthermore, on the basis of this model, successful communication can be established while unproductive behavior that occurs during stress can be dealt with appropriately. Because of the importance of communication in all areas of medical care, opportunities exist to focus research on the influence of targeted communication on patient outcome, complications and management of emergencies.

  17. The impact of risk communications on public understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.E.; Bord, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of different modes of communicating information about risks that are cumulative, uncertain, and long-term (CULT). Do communications that emphasize potential ecological problems have a different impact from messages that discuss health concerns? Is a more emotional style more effective than a traditional standard approach? CULT risks, including those commonly associated with high-level radioactive waste, pose particular problems for risk communicators. nevertheless, the research shows that relatively simple risk communications can effectively lower risk estimates and reduce fears of negative consequences from CULT risks

  18. Interventions to improve communication between people with dementia and nursing staff during daily nursing care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiels, Mariska; Metzelthin, Silke F; Hamers, Jan P H; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G

    2017-01-01

    quality assessment demonstrated a high risk of bias in five of the six studies. Few studies have been identified with wide variation in interventions and outcome measures. In addition, the methodological shortcomings make it difficult, to draw conclusions about the effectiveness. More research is needed to develop and evaluate communication interventions. Additionally, it is useful to reach consensus on defining and measuring communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Communicating and Visualizing Erosion-associated Risks to Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Caspar; Simpson, Carolyn; Wainwright, John

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem worldwide, affecting agriculture, the natural environment and urban areas through its impact on flood risk, water quality, loss of nutrient-rich upper soil layers, eutrophication of water bodies, sedimentation of waterways and sediment-related damage to roads, buildings and infrastructure such as water, gas and electricity supply networks. This study focuses on risks to infrastructure associated with erosion and the interventions needed to reduce those risks. Deciding on what interventions to make means understanding better which parts of the landscape are most susceptible to erosion and which measures are most effective in reducing it. Effective ways of communicating mitigation strategies to stakeholders such as farmers, land managers and policy-makers are then essential if interventions are to be implemented. Drawing on the Decision-Support Matrix (DSM) approach which combines a set of hydrological principles with Participatory Action Research (PAR), a decision-support tool for Communicating and Visualizing Erosion-Associated Risks to Infrastructure (CAVERTI) was developed. The participatory component was developed with the Wear Rivers Trust, focusing on a case-study area in the North East of England. The CAVERTI tool brings together process understanding gained from modelling with knowledge and experience of a variety of stakeholders to address directly the problem of sediment transport. Development of the tool was a collaborative venture, ensuring that the problems and solutions presented are easily recognised by practitioners and decision-makers. This recognition, and ease of access via a web-based interface, in turn help to ensure that the tools get used. The web-based tool developed helps to assess, manage and improve understanding of risk from a multi-stakeholder perspective and proposes solutions to problems. We argue that visualization and communication tools co-developed by researchers and stakeholders are the best means

  20. Risk/Benefit Communication about Food-A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Fischer, A R H; Brennan, M; Bánáti, D; Lion, R; Meertens, R M; Rowe, G; Siegrist, M; Verbeke, W; Vereijken, C M J L

    2016-07-26

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted (1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and (2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviors. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest to researchers than others, perhaps reflecting the occurrence of a crisis, or policy concern. Three broad themes relevant to the development of best practice in risk (benefit) communication were identified: the characteristics of the target population; the contents of the information; and the characteristics of the information sources. Within these themes, independent and dependent variables differed considerably. Overall, acute risk (benefit) communication will require advances in communication process whereas chronic communication needs to identify audience requirements. Both citizen's risk/benefit perceptions and (if relevant) related behaviors need to be taken into account, and recommendations for behavioral change need to be concrete and actionable. The application of theoretical frameworks to the study of risk (benefit) communication was infrequent, and developing predictive models of effective risk (benefit) communication may be contingent on improved theoretical perspectives.

  1. Parent-based adolescent sexual health interventions and effect on communication outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Markham, Christine; Bluethmann, Shirley; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2015-03-01

    Parent-based adolescent sexual health interventions aim to reduce sexual risk behaviors by bolstering parental protective behaviors. Few studies of theory use, methods, applications, delivery and outcomes of parent-based interventions have been conducted. A systematic search of databases for the period 1998-2013 identified 28 published trials of U.S. parent-based interventions to examine theory use, setting, reach, delivery mode, dose and effects on parent-child communication. Established coding schemes were used to assess use of theory and describe methods employed to achieve behavioral change; intervention effects were explored in meta-analyses. Most interventions were conducted with minority parents in group sessions or via self-paced activities; interventions averaged seven hours, and most used theory extensively. Meta-analyses found improvements in sexual health communication: Analysis of 11 controlled trials indicated a medium effect on increasing communication (Cohen's d, 0.5), and analysis of nine trials found a large effect on increasing parental comfort with communication (0.7); effects were positive regardless of delivery mode or intervention dose. Intervention participants were 68% more likely than controls to report increased communication and 75% more likely to report increased comfort. These findings point to gaps in the range of programs examined in published trials-for example, interventions for parents of sexual minority youth, programs for custodial grandparents and faith-based services. Yet they provide support for the effectiveness of parent-based interventions in improving communication. Innovative delivery approaches could extend programs' reach, and further research on sexual health outcomes would facilitate the meta-analysis of intervention effectiveness in improving adolescent sexual health behaviors. Copyright © 2015 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  2. The Challenge of Communicating Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew, R.

    2015-12-01

    Worldwide, natural hazard risks, and especially flood risk, are increasing dramatically as populations grow, infrastructure deteriorates, and climate change worsens. Street level modeling technologies may help decision makers and the general public understand risk and explore options for building resilience. But there are challenges in linking powerful visualization technologies to people in ways that they trust, support and can use. Technology adoption depends on a host of social and psychological factors—for example, how have past experiences shaped perceptions? Where do people currently turn for information? Who do they trust? Who do they see as responsible for implementing response and resilience measures? What do people think about climate change and sea level rise? What are the values that will motivate them to act? The answers vary from place to place and group to group. Visualization technologies that are responsive to this type of information may be most effective. Through household level survey data collected at sites in California and Mexico, we identify factors that may help in designing effective flood risk communication tools.

  3. 77 FR 70450 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... 1. Contact Person: Lee L. Zwanziger, Risk Communication Staff, Food and Drug Administration, 10903...

  4. 77 FR 62242 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... Person: Lee L. Zwanziger, Risk Communication Staff, Office of Planning, Food and Drug Administration...

  5. 75 FR 20608 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... relevant to improving risk communication at FDA, and discuss applications or gaps for strategic planning of...

  6. 75 FR 65641 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register... Communication Advisory Committee would be held on November 8 and 9, 2010. On page 57280, in the first column...

  7. 76 FR 44017 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... and former members of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. FDA intends to make background...

  8. Chernobyl: four years later: attitudes, risk management and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Midden, C.H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl has had on risk management and risk communication in relation to risk perception; decisions and coping with uncertainty; and public opinion, personal attitudes, and public policy.

  9. Interdisciplinary Analysis of Drought Communication Through Social Media Platforms and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, M.

    2015-12-01

    As droughts continue to impact businesses and communities throughout the United States, there needs to be a greater emphasis on drought communication through interdisciplinary approaches, risk communication, and digital platforms. The purpose of this research is to provide an overview of the current literature on communicating drought and suggests areas for further improvement. Specifically, this research focuses on communicating drought through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. It also focuses on the conglomeration of theoretical frameworks within the realm of risk communication, to provide a strong foundation towards future drought communication. This research proposal provides a critical step to advocate for paradigmatic shifts within natural hazard communication.

  10. Communication that builds teams: assessing a nursing conflict intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotera, Anne Maydan; Mahon, Margaret M; Wright, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Quality communication is essential for building strong nursing teams. Structurational divergence (SD) theory explains how institutional factors can result in poor communication and conflict cycles; the theory has been developed in nursing context, although it is applicable to all organizational settings. We describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of an intervention to reduce SD and improve nurses' work life and team-member relationships. An intensive 9-hour course provided training in conflict/SD analysis and dialogic conflict/SD management to 36 working nurses from a variety of settings. Quantitative pre- and posttests were administered, with a comparison sample. The course reduced measures of negative conflict attitudes and behaviors: direct personalization, persecution feelings, negative relational effects, ambiguity intolerance, and triangulation (gossiping and complaining to uninvolved third parties). The course also increased important attitudes necessary for productive dialogue and conflict management: perceptions of positive relational effects, conflict liking, and positive beliefs about arguing. As compared with nonparticipants, participant posttests showed lower conflict persecution; higher recognition of positive relational effects; lower perceptions of negative relational effects; higher conflict liking; lower ambiguity intolerance; and lower tendency to triangulate. Qualitatively, participants perceived better understanding of, and felt more empowered to manage, workplace conflicts and to sustain healthier workplace relationships. This intervention can help nurses develop tools to improve system-level function and build productive team relationships.

  11. Context and Communication Strategies in Naturalistic Behavioural Intervention: A Framework for Understanding How Practitioners Facilitate Communication in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Hannah; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy

    2011-01-01

    There are many different approaches to intervention aimed at facilitating the social and communicative abilities of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Behavioural interventions seek to improve the social and communicative abilities of children with ASD through interaction. Recently there has been a move towards naturalistic…

  12. Communication of Audit Risk to Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, C. Wayne; Thompson, James H.

    1986-01-01

    This article focuses on audit risk by examining it in terms of its components: inherent risk, control risk, and detection risk. Discusses applying audit risk, a definition of audit risk, and components of audit risk. (CT)

  13. Development of a Communication Intervention for Older Adults With Limited Health Literacy : Photo Stories to Support Doctor-Patient Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops van 't Jagt, Ruth; de Winter, Andrea F; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Hoeks, John C J; Jansen, Carel J M

    2016-01-01

    Successful doctor-patient communication relies on appropriate levels of communicative health literacy, the ability to deal with and communicate about health information. This article aims to describe the development of a narrative- and picture-based health literacy intervention intended to support

  14. Maternal HIV Serostatus, Mother–Daughter Sexual Risk Communication and Adolescent HIV Risk Beliefs and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S.

    2012-01-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters’ abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter’s HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973

  15. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  16. Public dialogues on flood risk communication: Literature review : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orr, Paula; Forrest, Steven; Brooks, Katya; Twigger-Ross, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This literature review summarises the state of knowledge on communicating the risk of flooding to the public as of January 2014. The review considers how different audiences respond to risk communication and the factors which influence that response. The current systems and techniques for flood risk

  17. Crisis and emergency risk communication as an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara; W Seeger, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a model of communication known as crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC). The model is outlined as a merger of many traditional notions of health and risk communication with work in crisis and disaster communication. The specific kinds of communication activities that should be called for at various stages of disaster or crisis development are outlined. Although crises are by definition uncertain, equivocal, and often chaotic situations, the CERC model is presented as a tool health communicators can use to help manage these complex events.

  18. Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) risk assessment and risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eason, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) is a vertebrate pesticide widely used for possum control in New Zealand. Fluoroacetate is also a toxic component of poisonous plants found in Australia, South Africa, South America, and India. Because of its importance and effectiveness in pest control and the highly toxic nature of this compound, its acute sub-lethal and target organ toxicity have been extensively studied. In relation to its use as a pesticide its environmental fate, persistence, non-target impacts and general toxicology have been and continue to be extensively studied. Toxic baits must be prepared and used with extreme care, otherwise humans, livestock, and non-target wildlife will be put at risk. The high risk of secondary poisoning of dogs is a cause for concern. 1080 acts by interfering with cellular energy production. Possums die from heart failure, usually within 6-18 h of eating baits. Long-term exposure to sub-lethal doses can have harmful effects and strict safety precautions are enforced to protect contractors and workers in the bait manufacturing industry. Considerable care is taken when using 1080 to ensure that the risks of using it are outweighed by the ecological benefits achieved from its use. When its use is controversial, risk communicators must take care not to trivialise the toxicity of the compound. The benefits of 1080 use in conservation, pest control, and disease control should be weighed up alongside the risks of using 1080 and other techniques for pest control

  19. The influence of graphic format on breast cancer risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Nattinger, Ann B; McAuliffe, Timothy L

    2006-09-01

    Graphic displays can enhance quantitative risk communication. However, empiric data regarding the effect of graphic format on risk perception is lacking. We evaluate the effect of graphic format elements on perceptions of risk magnitude and perceived truth of data. Preferences for format also were assessed. Participants (254 female primary care patients) viewed a series of hypothetical risk communications regarding the lifetime risk of breast cancer. Identical numeric risk information was presented using different graphic formats. Risk was perceived to be of lower magnitude when communicated with a bar graph as compared with a pictorial display (p graphic format used to convey quantitative risk information effects key domains of risk perception. One must be cognizant of these effects when designing risk communication strategies.

  20. Climate change risk perception and communication: addressing a critical moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick

    2012-06-01

    Climate change is an increasingly salient issue for societies and policy-makers worldwide. It now raises fundamental interdisciplinary issues of risk and uncertainty analysis and communication. The growing scientific consensus over the anthropogenic causes of climate change appears to sit at odds with the increasing use of risk discourses in policy: for example, to aid in climate adaptation decision making. All of this points to a need for a fundamental revision of our conceptualization of what it is to do climate risk communication. This Special Collection comprises seven papers stimulated by a workshop on "Climate Risk Perceptions and Communication" held at Cumberland Lodge Windsor in 2010. Topics addressed include climate uncertainties, images and the media, communication and public engagement, uncertainty transfer in climate communication, the role of emotions, localization of hazard impacts, and longitudinal analyses of climate perceptions. Climate change risk perceptions and communication work is critical for future climate policy and decisions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Youth Suicide Risk: Evaluation and Crisis Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pereira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempts and suicidal behaviours represent a complex problem, with high prevalence in adolescence. The management of youth suicidal behaviour may occur in diverse contexts of child and adolescent psychiatric activity, not only in the emergency room, but also in liaison work and ambulatory consultation. In suicidal crisis intervention it ́s fundamental to involve the youth and the family as this represents a crucial moment for clinical assessment and treatment compliance. This review on child and adolescent suicidal behaviour focuses on characterizing and understanding the developmental features of these behaviours, risk and protection factors and it offers orientations about assessment and acute management of children and adolescents who present with suicidal behaviour.

  2. Five walls against risk communication of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    The author has made efforts to establish risk communication in the nuclear industry since the JCO criticality accident. Some people understood the importance and the usefulness of risk communication both for local residents and their own business. Others, however, thought it troublesome, costly, and useless for their organization and nuclear safety. I think, unfortunately, experiences after the Fukushima accident force them to hesitate at communicating risks with the public more and more. I will discuss why and how risk communication of nuclear technology is difficult. (author)

  3. Effects of clinical communication interventions in hospitals: a systematic review of information and communication technology adoptions for improved communication between clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Tran, Kim; Lo, Vivian; O'Leary, Kevin J; Morra, Dante; Quan, Sherman D; Perrier, Laure

    2012-11-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify, describe and assess interventions of information and communication technology on the processes of communication and associated patient outcomes within hospital settings. Studies published from the years 1996 to 2010 were considered and were selected if they described an evaluation of information and communication technology interventions to improve clinical communication within hospitals. Two authors abstracted data from full text articles, and the quality of individual articles were appraised. Results of interventions were summarized by their effect. There were 18 identified studies that evaluated the use of interventions that included alphanumeric paging, hands-free communication devices, mobile phones, smartphones, task management systems and a display based paging system. Most quantitative studies used a before and after study design and were of lower quality. Of all the studies, there was only one prospective randomized study, but this study used only simulated communication events. Quantitative studies identified improved perceptions of communication and some improvement in communication metrics. Qualitative studies described improvements in efficiency of communication but also issues of loss of control and reliability. Despite the rapid advancement in information and communications technology over the last decade, there is limited evidence suggesting improvements in the ability of health professionals to communicate effectively. Given the critical nature of communication, we advocate further evaluation of information and communication technology designed to improve communication between clinicians. Outcome measures should include measures of patient-oriented outcomes and efficiency for clinicians. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Discussions about nuclear and radiation risk information communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Wang Erqi; Peng Xianxun

    2013-01-01

    This paper described the definition and the objective of risk communication and the development of the risk communication research. It stated that how to establish a trustworthy relationship with public and the 8 aspects that should be done for keeping the relationship. With the analysis of the cognition and the influencing of the nuclear and radiation risk, this article figured out the factors which could influence the cognition of public on nuclear and radiation risk. Moreover, it explained the principles for enhancing the efficiency of the risk communication and the specific works in each phase of the risk communication. Finally, the suggestions for the development of the risk communication of the nuclear and radiation in China had been provided. (authors)

  5. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women's Breast Cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women's breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women's perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women's breast cancer healthcare.

  6. Non-responsiveness to intervention: children with autism spectrum disorders who do not rapidly respond to communication interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B; Lashley, Erin; Rispoli, Mandy Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    Providing a detailed description of two participants who failed to acquire functional communication skills following a verbal modelling intervention and Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training. Single-case research; Independent verbal requests, imitated verbal requests, word approximations and independent picture requests were assessed in a toddler and a pre-schooler with autism before and during two interventions. Although both participants used some vocalizations over the course of the study, experimental control was not demonstrated and the participants did not acquire a functional communication system prior to the cessation of intervention. Future research should include additional, detailed reports that provide insight to why some children with autism do not respond to particular communication interventions and should investigate the pairing of particular child characteristics with targeted interventions.

  7. Risky business: challenges and successes in military radiation risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Mark A; Geckle, Lori S; Davidson, Bethney A

    2012-01-01

    Given the general public's overall lack of knowledge about radiation and their heightened fear of its harmful effects, effective communication of radiation risks is often difficult. This is especially true when it comes to communicating the radiation risks stemming from military operations. Part of this difficulty stems from a lingering distrust of the military that harkens back to the controversy surrounding Veteran exposures to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War along with the often classified nature of many military operations. Additionally, there are unique military exposure scenarios, such as the use of nuclear weapons and combat use of depleted uranium as antiarmor munitions that are not found in the civilian sector. Also, the large, diverse nature of the military makes consistent risk communication across the vast and widespread organization very difficult. This manuscript highlights and discusses both the common and the distinctive challenges of effectively communicating military radiation risks, to include communicating through the media. The paper also introduces the Army's Health Risk Communication Program and its role in assisting in effective risk communication efforts. The authors draw on their extensive collective experience to share 3 risk communication success stories that were accomplished through the innovative use of a matrixed, team approach that combines both health physics and risk communication expertise.

  8. Health risk communication--a view from within industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, G H

    1991-01-01

    Health risk communication is discussed in respect to four principles of biomedical ethics: (1) autonomy, the need to protect confidentiality and provide decision-making information; (2) beneficence, an obligation to inform and to develop trust; (3) non-maleficence, not covering up study findings, not over- or underinterpreting data; and (4) justice, helping place risk in proper perspective. The epidemiologist's role in risk communication includes responsible interpretation of data, balanced and non-judgemental risk communication and careful attention to the biologic and population significance of study findings. Potential problem areas for epidemiologists which are discussed include deciding when risk is significant, working for an agency which does not want a communication to take place and the occasional need to violate confidentiality for overriding societal goals. The paper concludes with an example risk communication which illustrates some of the principles covered in the paper.

  9. Risk communication related to animal products derived from biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, D

    2005-04-01

    Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.

  10. 75 FR 57279 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... Committee will hear and discuss developments in FDA's ongoing communications programs, such as FDA's...

  11. 76 FR 16427 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... Communication Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and recommendations to... discuss developments in FDA's ongoing communications programs. The discussion will focus on the use of...

  12. Educational project on risk communication and reduction of the radon exposure in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrady, J.; Guhr, A.; Uhlig, R.

    2009-01-01

    The radon exposure in buildings is supposed to be the most important risk factor of lung cancer. In Saxony about 800 000 persons live in apartments with high radon exposure. The study discusses the effects of an educational project to communicate the facts on radon exposure in buildings and to develop risk awareness and individual initiatives to reduce the radon concentration. The project includes support and encouragement with respect of preventive and protective measures to improve the individual situation. Further items cover requirements for control and quantification of intervention impacts, development and optimization of specific strategies for a permanent risk communication in schools. Results of the pilot study are summarized.

  13. Threatening communication: A qualitative study of fear appeal effectiveness beliefs among intervention developers, policymakers, politicians, scientists, and advertising professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    Threatening communication is a widely applied method in behavior change interventions, which at the same time has been heavily criticized in the psychological literature. The current paper describes a study of the reasons for this persistent wide application of threatening communication. We conducted qualitative interviews with 33 key actors in behavior change intervention development in The Netherlands. Specifically, we interviewed intervention developers, policymakers, politicians, scientists, and advertising professionals. The interviews were transcribed and subsequently coded using NVivo. We found that participants most closely involved with the actual intervention development were generally convinced that threatening information was to be prevented, but often did not understand the exact processes involved. They were often under the impression that rather than a potent efficacy enhancing element, a behavioral suggestion would suffice to prevent threatening communication from backfiring. As participants were further removed from the actual intervention development, they generally tended to be more in favor of threatening communication. The main reasons for use of threatening information were to attract attention or prompt self-reflection through confrontation, because target population members were assumed to like threatening information and respond rationally to increased risk perceptions by changing their behavior, or simply because no alternatives were available. In addition, intervention developers frequently had to deal with supervisors or funders who preferred threatening communication. Thus, when communicating with practitioners, it seems fruitful to provide them with a toolbox of evidence-based behavior change methods that promote adaptive, rather than maladaptive, behavior; to promote basing interventions on the most relevant behavioral determinants as identified by determinant analyses; and to equip intervention developers with the tools to persuade

  14. Threatening communication: a qualitative study of fear appeal effectiveness beliefs among intervention developers, policymakers, politicians, scientists, and advertising professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-04-01

    Threatening communication is a widely applied method in behavior change interventions, which at the same time has been heavily criticized in the psychological literature. The current paper describes a study of the reasons for this persistent wide application of threatening communication. We conducted qualitative interviews with 33 key actors in behavior change intervention development in The Netherlands. Specifically, we interviewed intervention developers, policymakers, politicians, scientists, and advertising professionals. The interviews were transcribed and subsequently coded using NVivo. We found that participants most closely involved with the actual intervention development were generally convinced that threatening information was to be prevented, but often did not understand the exact processes involved. They were often under the impression that rather than a potent efficacy enhancing element, a behavioral suggestion would suffice to prevent threatening communication from backfiring. As participants were further removed from the actual intervention development, they generally tended to be more in favor of threatening communication. The main reasons for use of threatening information were to attract attention or prompt self-reflection through confrontation, because target population members were assumed to like threatening information and respond rationally to increased risk perceptions by changing their behavior, or simply because no alternatives were available. In addition, intervention developers frequently had to deal with supervisors or funders who preferred threatening communication. Thus, when communicating with practitioners, it seems fruitful to provide them with a toolbox of evidence-based behavior change methods that promote adaptive, rather than maladaptive, behavior; to promote basing interventions on the most relevant behavioral determinants as identified by determinant analyses; and to equip intervention developers with the tools to persuade

  15. Importance of risk communication during and after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2011-07-01

    Past nuclear accidents highlight communication as one of the most important challenges in emergency management. In the early phase, communication increases awareness and understanding of protective actions and improves the population response. In the medium and long term, risk communication can facilitate the remediation process and the return to normal life. Mass media play a central role in risk communication. The recent nuclear accident in Japan, as expected, induced massive media coverage. Media were employed to communicate with the public during the contamination phase, and they will play the same important role in the clean-up and recovery phases. However, media also have to fulfill the economic aspects of publishing or broadcasting, with the "bad news is good news" slogan that is a well-known phenomenon in journalism. This article addresses the main communication challenges and suggests possible risk communication approaches to adopt in the case of a nuclear accident. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. The impact of Thai family matters on parent-adolescent sexual risk communication attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Pamela K; Atwood, Katharine A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Fongkaew, Warunee; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Rosati, Michael J; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a combined family-based substance abuse and HIV-prevention intervention targeting families with 13-14-year-old children in Bangkok, Thailand. Families (n = 340) were randomly and proportionally selected from 7 districts in Bangkok with half randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Families in the intervention condition were exposed to 5 interactive booklets about adolescent substance use and risky sexual behavior. Trained health educators followed up by phone to encourage completion of each booklet. Primary outcomes reported in this article include whether the intervention increased the frequency of parent-child communication in general or about sexual risk taking in particular as well as whether the intervention reduced discomfort discussing sexual issues. The authors also tested to see whether booklet completion was associated with communication outcomes at the 6-month follow-up. Multivariate findings indicate that the intervention had a significant impact on the frequency of general parent-child communication on the basis of child reports. The intervention had a marginal impact on the frequency of parent-child communication about sexual issues on the basis of parent reports. Booklet completion was associated with reduced discomfort discussing sex and was marginally associated with frequency of parent-child discussion of sex on the basis of parent reports only. These findings indicate that a family-based program can influence communication patterns.

  17. Evaluating emergency risk communications: a dialogue with the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Craig W; Vanderford, Marsha L; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2008-10-01

    Evaluating emergency risk communications is fraught with challenges since communication can be approached from both a systemic and programmatic level. Therefore, one must consider stakeholders' perspectives, effectiveness issues, standards of evidence and utility, and channels of influence (e.g., mass media and law enforcement). Evaluation issues related to timing, evaluation questions, methods, measures, and accountability are raised in this dialogue with emergency risk communication specialists. Besides the usual evaluation competencies, evaluators in this area need to understand and work collaboratively with stakeholders and be attuned to the dynamic contextual nature of emergency risk communications. Sample resources and measures are provided here to aid in this emerging and exciting field of evaluation.

  18. Risk communication strategies : achieving a multidisciplinary consensus; La communication des risques : un consensus multidisciplinaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, B.; Cloutier, I. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Mathematiques et de Genie Industriel; Sabourin, J.P. [Ville de Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Risk management related to floods and dam failures requires input from a variety of stakeholders from both the private and the public sector. This paper provided details of a risk management communication strategy based on a consequence approach that established work sequence modes to achieve a multidisciplinary consensus of opinion. The communication of risk was considered as a bilateral exchange of information between concerned parties, who were divided into 2 spheres: (1) a public sphere which included interest groups, government agencies, individuals and the media; and (2) a technical sphere comprised of industry members, scientific experts, and government agencies. Divided between the 2 spheres, government agencies play a distinct role in both the communication and understanding of risk. In Quebec, municipal agencies are required to identify risk and develop plans that ensure public safety. Risk management plans developed by industry members are a valuable source of information for municipal authorities, who can identify vulnerabilities in their own risk communication strategies. In addition, members of the public play an important role in eliciting further risk communications to improve areas of vulnerability. Interest groups can demand further analyses from impartial sources on sensitive issues. Conflicting results offer a plurality of opinions that must be considered to obtain a consensus in risk assessment, which is the ultimate aim of all risk analyses and communications strategies. It was concluded that risk communication strategies benefit from the engagement of a variety of often conflicting views. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Emergency planning and risk communications in the event of a dam failure : a case study of the Lievre River watershed in Quebec; Planification des interventions et communication des risques en cas de rupture de barrages : cas du bassin de la Riviere du Lievre au Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassi, T [Quebec Ministere du Developpement durable, de l' Environnement et des Parcs, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Expertise Hydrique

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided an outline of risk management and communications strategies used by the Centre d'Expertise Hydrique du Quebec (CEHQ) in its dam safety program. The CEHQ manages, monitors and maintains dams in Quebec. Dam monitoring occurs on a yearly basis for high capacity dams. The Quebec Dam Safety Act (DSA) requires that each dam owner whose consequence category is assessed at moderate or higher to draw up an emergency action plan which is then supplied to the municipality where the dam is located. If an emergency occurs, a communication process is established between the CEHQ, the Municipal Civil Security Organization (OMSC) and the Quebec Ministry of Public Security (MSP). The emergency communications procedure was adopted by CEHG to clarify to the roles and responsibilities of each organization involved. CEHG's emergency planning committee is comprised of municipal agencies, dam officials, and a range of other partners. The committee was formed after a study conducted in 1997 which investigated the effects of flooding in the La Lievre watershed. Emergency planning for the municipalities involved has taken place in 6 steps, 5 of which have been put in place. The committee is currently preparing its risk communication strategy as the final stage in its emergency planning strategy. The purpose of the strategy is to both inform and create a greater sense of responsibility among members of the public. Several campaigns have been launched to inform citizens of the potential risks involved if any of the 17 dams which form part of the Lievre basin are breached. Dam officials are also planning to hold public meetings to inform citizens of the municipal zones and buildings at greater risk of flooding. It was concluded that the risk communication strategy adopted by the CEHQ will help municipalities, individuals, and communities to prepare adequate and informed emergency plans. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Deciding to Help : Effects of Risk and Crisis Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.H.; Kerstholt, J.H.; Giebels, E.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in

  1. Deciding to help : effects of risk and crisis communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Marije; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena; Giebels, Ellen

    This study aimed to gain insight into the (combined) effects of risk and crisis communication on adequate behaviour during a crisis situation. In addition, it adds to the existing literature by examining the effects of risk and crisis communication on psychological factors that are involved in

  2. Consumer responses to communication about food risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.; Houghton, J.R.; Kleef, van E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recent emphasis within policy circles has been on transparent communication with consumers about food risk management decisions and practices. As a consequence, it is important to develop best practice regarding communication with the public about how food risks are managed. In the current study,

  3. 78 FR 70954 - Risk Communications Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... awareness and understanding of the key risk messages, as well as whether the communications are having the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0001] Risk Communications Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  4. Role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnders, A.L.; Midden, C.J.H.; Wilke, H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how the effectiveness of risk communication is determined by the interaction between emotional and informative elements. An experiment is described that examined the role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. This experiment was based on the elaboration

  5. Design of risk communication strategies based on risk perception among farmers exposed to pesticides in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Frederico; Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; da Silva Peixoto Belo, Mariana Soares; Moreira, Josino Costa; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess pesticide exposure risk perception among farmers from three rural areas of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 66 adults and participatory workshops with 27 teenagers and analyzed through content analysis techniques. Systematized results were discussed at local meetings, and two risk communication initiatives were devised. Study results demonstrated the use of defensive strategies by men and a diminished risk perception among women. Teenagers relied on parents to develop their own work practices. These findings supported the importance of cultural and social determinants of farmers' understandings of risk and of the relevance of different pesticide exposure pathways. Risk perceptions and work practices are strongly influenced by local cultural patterns and, therefore, must be taken into account when developing effective intervention strategies, including risk communication initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Risk Perception and Communication in Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Terry L.

    2005-12-01

    A number of inventors and entrepreneurs are currently attempting to develop and commercially operate reusable launch vehicles to carry voluntary participants into space. The operation of these launch vehicles, however, produces safety risks to the crew, to the space flight participants, and to the uninvolved public. Risk communication therefore becomes increasingly important to assure that those involved in the flight understand the risk and that those who are not directly involved understand the personal impact of RLV operations on their lives. Those involved in the launch vehicle flight may perceive risk differently from those non-participants, and these differences in perception must be understood to effectively communicate this risk. This paper summarizes existing research in risk perception and communication and applies that research to commercial reusable launch vehicle operations. Risk communication is discussed in the context of requirements of United States law for informed consent from any space flight participants on reusable suborbital launch vehicles.

  7. Informing people about radiation risks: a review of obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on informing people about radiation risks. The paper focuses on obstacles to public understanding and effective risk communication. The paper concludes with a set of guidelines for communicating information about radiation risks to the public. The paper also includes an appendix that reviews the literature on one of the most important tools for communicating information about radiation risks: risk comparisons

  8. Systematic review of HIV prevention interventions in China: a health communication perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhiwen; Noar, Seth M; Zeng, Lily

    2014-02-01

    To examine whether communication strategies and principles have been utilized in the HIV prevention intervention programs conducted in China. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted using PsycINFO, Medline, and Academic Search Complete with combinations of a number of keywords. Studies were included if they (1) were conducted in China and published prior to October 2011; (2) tested interventions promoting HIV/sexual risk reduction; and (3) reported empirical outcome evaluations on HIV knowledge, condom use and other condom-related variables. Data on 11 dimensions were extracted and analyzed, including formative research, theory, message targeting, messenger and channels, process evaluation, evaluation design, outcome measures. The majority of the 45 intervention studies were not theory-based, did not report conducting formative research or process evaluation, used pretest-posttest control group designs, combined nonmedia channels, printed and visual materials, and employed HIV knowledge and condom use as outcome measures. Many HIV prevention interventions in China have been successful in reducing HIV risk-related outcomes. This literature has its weaknesses; however, the current review illuminates gaps in the literature and points to important future directions for research.

  9. Communicating actionable risk for terrorism and other hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michele M; Mileti, Dennis S; Kano, Megumi; Kelley, Melissa M; Regan, Rotrease; Bourque, Linda B

    2012-04-01

    We propose a shift in emphasis when communicating to people when the objective is to motivate household disaster preparedness actions. This shift is to emphasize the communication of preparedness actions (what to do about risk) rather than risk itself. We have called this perspective "communicating actionable risk," and it is grounded in diffusion of innovations and communication theories. A representative sample of households in the nation was analyzed using a path analytic framework. Preparedness information variables (including content, density, and observation), preparedness mediating variables (knowledge, perceived effectiveness, and milling), and preparedness actions taken were modeled. Clear results emerged that provide a strong basis for communicating actionable risk, and for the conclusion both that information observed (seeing preparedness actions that other have taken) and information received (receiving recommendations about what preparedness actions to take) play key, although different, roles in motivating preparedness actions among the people in our nation. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Communicating Flood Risk with Street-Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, B. F.; Matthew, R.; Houston, D.; Cheung, W. H.; Karlin, B.; Schubert, J.; Gallien, T.; Luke, A.; Contreras, S.; Goodrich, K.; Feldman, D.; Basolo, V.; Serrano, K.; Reyes, A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal communities around the world face significant and growing flood risks that require an accelerating adaptation response, and fine-resolution urban flood models could serve a pivotal role in enabling communities to meet this need. Such models depict impacts at the level of individual buildings and land parcels or "street level" - the same spatial scale at which individuals are best able to process flood risk information - constituting a powerful tool to help communities build better understandings of flood vulnerabilities and identify cost-effective interventions. To measure understanding of flood risk within a community and the potential impact of street-level models, we carried out a household survey of flood risk awareness in Newport Beach, California, a highly urbanized coastal lowland that presently experiences nuisance flooding from high tides, waves and rainfall and is expected to experience a significant increase in flood frequency and intensity with climate change. Interviews were completed with the aid of a wireless-enabled tablet device that respondents could use to identify areas they understood to be at risk of flooding and to view either a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) flood map or a more detailed map prepared with a hydrodynamic urban coastal flood model (UCI map) built with grid cells as fine as 3 m resolution and validated with historical flood data. Results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the UCI and FEMA maps at communicating the spatial distribution of flood risk, gender differences in how the maps affect flood understanding, and spatial biases in the perception of flood vulnerabilities.

  11. Defining moments in risk communication research: 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A

    2006-01-01

    Ten years ago, scholars suggested that risk communication was embarking on a new phase that would give increased attention to the social contexts that surround and encroach on public responses to risk information. A decade later, many researchers have answered the call, with several defining studies examining the social and psychological influences on risk communication. This article reviews risk communication research appearing in the published literature since 1996. Among studies, social trust, the social amplification of risk framework, and the affect heuristic figured prominently. Also common were studies examining the influence of risk in the mass media. Among these were content analyses of media coverage of risk, as well as investigations of possible effects resulting from coverage. The use of mental models was a dominant method for developing risk message content. Other studies examined the use of risk comparisons, narratives, and visuals in the production of risk messages. Research also examined how providing information about a risk's severity, social norms, and efficacy influenced communication behaviors and intentions to follow risk reduction measures. Methods for conducting public outreach in health risk communication rounded out the literature.

  12. The role of the media in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, J.; MacLean, D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the origins of risk communication; why the role of the media is difficult to study; the relationship between media coverage and public opinion; the relationship between media coverage and 'reality'; some dilemmas for journalists; the politics of risk communication. More research needs to be done on this issue. Because of the complexities advances will depend partly on cooperation among risk analysts, communications experts, political theorists and philosophers; in any case, progress is likely to be slow and the research costly. The paper demonstrates: It matters greatly that journalists and the rest of us understand the context and the consequences of press coverage of risk issues. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Development Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tony

    2014-01-01

    nuclear radiation from Fukushima" which focus on mis-information and fear mongering. Nuclear power and NTR are powerful resources that can open many doors for future prosperity and capability. With great power comes great responsibility. Radiation and its effects need to be better understood, quantified, and communicated. A human mission to mars has its own risks of deep space radiation and is considered a considerable risk at 400 milli-Sieverts per year in deep space and 245 milli-Sieverts per year on the surface of Mars as measured by the Mars Curiosity mission. Although these quantities of ionizing radiation are within the astronaut career limit, it exceeds the yearly average amounts of ionizing radiation. Astronaut crews have experienced these levels of radiation before, but for durations shorter than a year, and a mission to Mars could possibly be 3 years in length. There is also evidence that people can comfortably handle higher levels of ionizing radiation where the radiation occurs naturally like Ramsar, Iran when people can experience 270 milli-Sieverts per year. A risk posture that the development, test, and flight of an NTR will meet opposition from groups who oppose nuclear energy must be likely and the impact can be sever to the effort. Active risk mitigation must be taken for an NTR full-scale development project. The NTR design must take into account safety for transport and off nominal conditions. Nuclear fuel element must consider containment of fission products and Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) that may meet less opposition should be considered for safety and security reasons. Even though testing was conducted on Rover/NERVA safely and successfully in the 60's with exhaust sent heavenward in to open air, modern testing of NTR must consider full containment and no release of ionizing radiation to the public and must meet the current requirement of no more than 0.1 milli-Sieverts per year to the public. 0.1 milli-Sieverts is equivalent to eating one banana or

  14. Meeting CCS communication challenges head-on: Integrating communications, planning, risk assessment, and project management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S.; Gauvreau, L.; Hnottavange-Telleen, K.; Finley, R.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Archer Daniels Midland has implemented a comprehensive communications plan at the Illinois Basin - Decatur Project (IBDP), a one million metric tonne Carbon Capture and Storage project in Decatur, IL, USA funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. The IBDP Communication Plan includes consortium information, funding and disclaimer citations, description of target audiences, media communications guidelines, paper and presentations guidelines, site visit information, crisis communication, on-site photography regulations, and other components. The creation, development, and implementation processes for the IBDP Communication Plan (the Plan) are shared in this paper. New communications challenges, such as how to address add-on research requests, data sharing and management, scope increase, and contract agreements have arisen since the Plan was completed in January 2009, resulting in development of new policies and procedures by project management. Integrating communications planning, risk assessment, and project management ensured that consistent, factual information was developed and incorporated into project planning, and constitutes the basis of public communications. Successful integration has allowed the IBDP to benefit from early identification and mitigation of the potential project risks, which allows more time to effectively deal with unknown and unidentified risks that may arise. Project risks and risks associated with public perception can be managed through careful planning and integration of communication strategies into project management and risk mitigation. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  16. A combined microfinance and training intervention can reduce HIV risk behaviour in young female participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronyk, Paul M; Kim, Julia C; Abramsky, Tanya; Phetla, Godfrey; Hargreaves, James R; Morison, Linda A; Watts, Charlotte; Busza, Joanna; Porter, John Dh

    2008-08-20

    To assess effects of a combined microfinance and training intervention on HIV risk behavior among young female participants in rural South Africa. : Secondary analysis of quantitative and qualitative data from a cluster randomized trial, the Intervention with Microfinance for AIDS and Gender Equity study. Eight villages were pair-matched and randomly allocated to receive the intervention. At baseline and after 2 years, HIV risk behavior was assessed among female participants aged 14-35 years. Their responses were compared with women of the same age and poverty group from control villages. Intervention effects were calculated using adjusted risk ratios employing village level summaries. Qualitative data collected during the study explored participants' responses to the intervention including HIV risk behavior. After 2 years of follow-up, when compared with controls, young participants had higher levels of HIV-related communication (adjusted risk ratio 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.12), were more likely to have accessed voluntary counseling and testing (adjusted risk ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.06-2.56), and less likely to have had unprotected sex at last intercourse with a nonspousal partner (adjusted risk ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.96). Qualitative data suggest a greater acceptance of intrahousehold communication about HIV and sexuality. Although women noted challenges associated with acceptance of condoms by men, increased confidence and skills associated with participation in the intervention supported their introduction in sexual relationships. In addition to impacts on economic well being, women's empowerment and intimate partner violence, interventions addressing the economic and social vulnerability of women may contribute to reductions in HIV risk behavior.

  17. Effectiveness of Interventions to Reduce Coronary Heart Disease Risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of coronary heart disease risk reduction interventions. Methods: The effects of lipid lowering interventions as well as dietary and lifestyle modifications on some risk factors of CHD were studied retrospectively in 47 males and 53 female patients [aged 33 to 61 years; mean age 47.20 ...

  18. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Alves Bonow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%, chemical (96.2%, physiological (88.8%, and biological (62.9%. The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices’ ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning.

  19. Risk Perception and Risk Communication for Training Women Apprentice Welders: A Challenge for Public Health Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia; Vaz, Joana Cezar

    2013-01-01

    This research has aimed to identify the perceptions of women apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed and evaluate the identification of health disorders self-reported for women apprentice welders before and after implementation of a nursing socioenvironmental intervention. A quantitative study was performed with 27 women apprentice welders (first phase) and before and after an intervention with 18 women (second phase) in Southern Brazil in 2011. The data were analysed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.2%), chemical (96.2%), physiological (88.8%), and biological (62.9%). The results show a significant difference of the pre- and posttest averages for the musculoskeletal system and a posttest average increase for the integumentary, respiratory, and auditory system. A correlation of the women apprentices' ages and the identification of health disorders were made. It was understood that the perception of women apprentices regarding a particular set of occupational risks is essential for public health nursing to develop an effective risk communication as a positive tool for teaching and learning. PMID:24288604

  20. Developmental and Communication Disorders in Children with Intellectual Disability: The Place Early Intervention for Effective Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Udeme Samuel; Olisaemeka, Angela Nneka; Edozie, Isioma Sitamalife

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to discuss the place of intervention in the developmental and communication disorders of children with intellectual disability for the purpose of providing effective inclusion programme. The definition of early intervention was stated, areas affected by children communication disorder such as language comprehension, fluency,…

  1. The Labor Environment, Risk and Communication Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto César Machado

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this reflection makes a theoretical analysis on communication in the labor environment of the worker and its social consequences. He analyzes some theoretical precepts that have permeated the social representations and some reflections about it. It discusses the current legislation and makes a theoretical revision regarding the subject, passing through precepts of the language, as well as approaches cognitive values presented in the local and regional work environment and its operational risks, where it discusses the conceptions and the factors that related and articulated with some aspects of this research. The approaches presented in the planning and discussion about the work environment, its risks and the failures in interpersonal communication in the professional activity are analyzed, taking into account the theoretical presuppositions of social cognition in order to attend the approaches focused on the environment, communication and risks at work. In relation to the representations and the theoretical practices of this study, the bibliographic analysis about them makes efforts to conceptualize its closure related to the presented ideas. O Meio Ambiente Laboral, Risco e a Falha na Comunicação Resumo: esta reflexão faz uma análise teórica sobre a comunicação no meio ambiente laborativo do trabalhador e suas consequências sociais. Ele analisa alguns preceitos teóricos que perpassaram pelas representações sociais e algumas reflexões a respeito da mesma. Discute sobre a legislação vigente e faz uma revisão teórica a respeito do tema, perpassando por preceitos da linguagem, bem como aborda valores cognitivos apresentados no ambiente laborativo local, regional e seus riscos operacionais onde discute as concepções e os fatores que relacionaram e articularam junto a algumas vertentes desta investigação. As abordagens apresentadas no planejamento e discussão sobre o ambiente laborativo, seus riscos e as falhas na

  2. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  3. A new perspective on radiation risk communication in Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.R.

    2013-01-01

    The March 11, 2011 cascading disasters of the historic earthquake, unprecedented tsunami, and subsequent radioactive substances release from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant have shocked the world. But the specter of radiation exposure has complicated the earthquake and tsunami disaster aid activities. Herein is a personal commentary on the current status of the risk communication activities within the disaster populations in Fukushima prefecture. A literature review of the current scientific literature was performed focusing on risk communication within the Fukushima region during the disaster recovery phase. I have limited my commentary to only the 5 most relevant of the publications which focus exclusively on the issue of risk communication and the problems which have generated the urgency to improve risk communication. There were several themes which were consistently identified across the articles and echo some of the personal observations of the many types of responses which victims are now demonstrating: fear, anger, distrust, denial, confusion, uncertainty, ambivalence, and hyperbole stood out regarding their varied responses to the current radiological situation and, regarding the government role in risk communication, corruption and lack of transparency. Two recommendations for helping to address these issues in risk communication are the inclusion of a community intermediary and great use of community engagement in the disaster recovery process. Improved risk communication, perhaps using established guidelines and including both community intermediaries and improved community engagement, may prove useful within the radiation affected populations of Japan. (author)

  4. Latino Teen Theater: A Theater Intervention to Promote Latino Parent-Adolescent Sexual Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noone, Joanne; Castillo, Nancy; Allen, Tiffany L; Esqueda, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Latina teen pregnancy rates continue to be a health disparity in the United States. This study evaluated a parenting intervention using interactive theater to facilitate Latino parent-adolescent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention. The intervention, conducted in Spanish and with teen actors, consisted of scenes involving the audience. Fifty-nine parents participated in this 3-month prospective study. Spanish measures of comfort with communication, general communication, and parent-child sexual communication were employed comparing paired t tests for each scale. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed and demonstrated. Eighty-six percent of parents used information from the performance to talk to their child. Improvements in general communication (p < .02), sexual communication (p < .001), and comfort (p < .001) occurred. Interactive theater is an innovative approach to facilitate Latino parent communication about sexuality and pregnancy prevention.

  5. A Multidisciplinary Intervention Utilizing Virtual Communication Tools to Reduce Health Disparities: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Emerson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in technology are likely to provide new approaches to address healthcare disparities for high-risk populations. This study explores the feasibility of a new approach to health disparities research using a multidisciplinary intervention and advanced communication technology to improve patient access to care and chronic disease management. A high-risk cohort of uninsured, poorly-controlled diabetic patients was identified then randomized pre-consent with stratification by geographic region to receive either the intervention or usual care. Prior to enrollment, participants were screened for readiness to make a behavioral change. The primary outcome was the feasibility of protocol implementation, and secondary outcomes included the use of patient-centered medical home (PCMH services and markers of chronic disease control. The intervention included a standardized needs assessment, individualized care plan, intensive management by a multidisciplinary team, including health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and the use of a cloud-based glucose monitoring system. One-hundred twenty-seven high-risk, potentially eligible participants were randomized. Sixty-one met eligibility criteria after an in-depth review. Due to limited resources and time for the pilot, we only attempted to contact 36 participants. Of these, we successfully reached 20 (32% by phone and conducted a readiness to change screen. Ten participants screened in as ready to change and were enrolled, while the remaining 10 were not ready to change. Eight enrolled participants completed the final three-month follow-up. Intervention feasibility was demonstrated through successful implementation of 13 out of 14 health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and 100% of participants indicated that they would recommend the intervention to a friend. Protocol feasibility was demonstrated as eight of 10 participants completed the entire study protocol. At the end of the three-month intervention

  6. The public and effective risk communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Public perceptions of risk have often been dismissed on the basis of ¿irrationality¿, and have tended to be excluded from policy processes by risk assessors and managers. People¿s responses to different risks are determined by psychological factors. The technical risk estimates

  7. Current views on risk communication and their implications for crisis and reputation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.

    2001-01-01

    Organizations prepare for crisis communication by designing, implementing, and evaluating procedures, scenarios, and emergency measures. In addition to crisis communication, risk communication is a concern for many organizations as well. Risk communication is viewed as an interactive, multi-actor

  8. Communicating about risk: strategies for situations where public concern is high but the risk is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Hooker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we summarise research that identifies best practice for communicating about hazards where the risk is low but public concern is high. We apply Peter Sandman’s ‘risk = hazard + outrage’ formulation to these risks, and review factors associated with the amplification of risk signals. We discuss the structures that determine the success of risk communication strategies, such as the capacity for early communication to ‘capture’ the dominant representation of risk issues, the importance of communicating uncertainty, and the usefulness of engaging with communities. We argue that, when facing trade-offs in probable outcomes from communication, it is always best to choose strategies that maintain or build trust, even at the cost of initial overreactions. We discuss these features of successful risk communication in relation to a range of specific examples, particularly opposition to community water fluoridation, Ebola, and routine childhood immunisation.

  9. Can Communicating Personalised Disease Risk Promote Healthy Behaviour Change? A Systematic Review of Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Cameron, Elaine; Benton, Jack S; Deaton, Christi; Harvie, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    The assessment and communication of disease risk that is personalised to the individual is widespread in healthcare contexts. Despite several systematic reviews of RCTs, it is unclear under what circumstances that personalised risk estimates promotes change in four key health-related behaviours: smoking, physical activity, diet and alcohol consumption. The present research aims to systematically identify, evaluate and synthesise the findings of existing systematic reviews. This systematic review of systematic reviews followed published guidance. A search of four databases and two-stage screening procedure with good reliability identified nine eligible systematic reviews. The nine reviews each included between three and 15 primary studies, containing 36 unique studies. Methods of personalising risk feedback included imaging/visual feedback, genetic testing, and numerical estimation from risk algorithms. The reviews were generally high quality. For a broad range of methods of estimating and communicating risk, the reviews found no evidence that risk information had strong or consistent effects on health-related behaviours. The most promising effects came from interventions using visual or imaging techniques and with smoking cessation and dietary behaviour as outcomes, but with inconsistent results. Few interventions explicitly used theory, few targeted self-efficacy or response efficacy, and a limited range of Behaviour Change Techniques were used. Presenting risk information on its own, even when highly personalised, does not produce strong effects on health-related behaviours or changes which are sustained. Future research in this area should build on the existing knowledge base about increasing the effects of risk communication on behaviour.

  10. Mobile diabetes intervention study: testing a personalized treatment/behavioral communication intervention for blood glucose control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Charlene C; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Shardell, Michelle; Weed, Kelly; Clough, Suzanne S; Peeples, Malinda; Terrin, Michael; Bronich-Hall, Lauren; Barr, Erik; Lender, Dan

    2009-07-01

    National data find glycemic control is within target (A1ccommunication system, using mobile phones and patient/physician portals to allow patient-specific treatment and communication. All physicians receive American Diabetes Association (ADA) Guidelines for diabetes care. Patients with poor diabetes control (A1c> or =7.5%) at baseline (n=260) are enrolled in study groups based on PCP randomization. All study patients receive blood glucose (BG) meters and a year's supply of testing materials. Patients in three treatment groups select one of two mobile phone models, receive one-year unlimited mobile phone data and service plan, register on the web-based individual patient portal and receive study treatment phone software based on study assignment. Control group patients receive usual care from their PCP. The primary outcome is mean change in A1c over a 12-month intervention period. Traditional methods of disease management have not achieved adequate control for BG and other conditions important to persons with diabetes. Tools to improve communication between patients and PCPs may improve patient outcomes and be satisfactory to patients and physicians. This RCT is ongoing.

  11. Risk Communication and the Pharmaceutical Industry: what is the reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian; Chakraborty, Sweta

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication is central to the risk management strategy of a pharmaceutical company. Pharmaceutical companies primarily communicate risk through labelling tools such as the Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC), package insert, patient information leaflet (PIL) and the carton, which are currently regulated based on templates such as those of the EU. Recent research raises concern about how effective the SmPC is alone in communicating risk. There is some evidence that carton design can influence risk comprehension. Processes to check new trade names cannot be confused with existing names is a simple measure to mitigate one form of risk. Given the central role and the vast amount of resource that is consumed, it is surprising there has not been extensive original research to see whether product information such as the SmPC is a good tool for communicating risk. Recently, EU agencies have assessed the communication value of the PIL and revised the template and guidelines. However, no evaluation of user testing has been conducted at European level since the introduction of these new requirements. As regards 'Dear Healthcare Professional Communications', there is inconsistent evidence about their ability to change patient and physician behaviour. There is a dearth of evidence about what sort of communications materials are the most effective under which circumstances. The use of templates restricts the flexibility of companies to adapt their risk messages to their targets. Effective communication requires understanding how different audiences perceive the message and what the fundamental drivers are for altering patient and prescriber behaviour to be safer. This requires careful consideration of the relationship between risk communication, perception and management. However, the focus of a company's risk communication plan is normally on the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) regions and their regulations. Although the same regulatory tools are

  12. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Raghuram, L; Korah, Ipeson P; Raj, D Victor [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004 (India)

    2003-09-01

    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp.

  13. Interventions to improve teamwork and communications among healthcare staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, P; Rathbone, J; Catchpole, K

    2011-04-01

    Concern over the frequency of unintended harm to patients has focused attention on the importance of teamwork and communication in avoiding errors. This has led to experiments with teamwork training programmes for clinical staff, mostly based on aviation models. These are widely assumed to be effective in improving patient safety, but the extent to which this assumption is justified by evidence remains unclear. A systematic literature review on the effects of teamwork training for clinical staff was performed. Information was sought on outcomes including staff attitudes, teamwork skills, technical performance, efficiency and clinical outcomes. Of 1036 relevant abstracts identified, 14 articles were analysed in detail: four randomized trials and ten non-randomized studies. Overall study quality was poor, with particular problems over blinding, subjective measures and Hawthorne effects. Few studies reported on every outcome category. Most reported improved staff attitudes, and six of eight reported significantly better teamwork after training. Five of eight studies reported improved technical performance, improved efficiency or reduced errors. Three studies reported evidence of clinical benefit, but this was modest or of borderline significance in each case. Studies with a stronger intervention were more likely to report benefits than those providing less training. None of the randomized trials found evidence of technical or clinical benefit. The evidence for technical or clinical benefit from teamwork training in medicine is weak. There is some evidence of benefit from studies with more intensive training programmes, but better quality research and cost-benefit analysis are needed. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. How do family physicians communicate about cardiovascular risk? Frequencies and determinants of different communication formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner-Jehle, Stefan; Senn, Oliver; Wegwarth, Odette; Rosemann, Thomas; Steurer, Johann

    2011-04-05

    Patients understand information about risk better if it is communicated in numerical or visual formats (e.g. graphs) compared to verbal qualifiers only. How frequently different communication formats are used in clinical primary care settings is unknown. We collected socioeconomic and patient understanding data using questionnaires and audio-recorded consultations about cardiovascular disease risk. The frequencies of the communication formats were calculated and multivariate regression analysis of associations between communication formats, patient and general practitioner characteristics, and patient subjective understanding was performed. In 73% of 70 consultations, verbal qualifiers were used exclusively to communicate cardiovascular risk, compared to numerical (11%) and visual (16%) formats. Female GPs and female patient's gender were significantly associated with a higher use of verbal formats compared to visual formats (p=0.001 and p=0.039, respectively). Patient subjective understanding was significantly higher in visual counseling compared to verbal counseling (p=0.001). Verbal qualifiers are the most often used communication format, though recommendations favor numerical and visual formats, with visual formats resulting in better understanding than others. Also, gender is associated with the choice of communication format. Barriers against numerical and visual communication formats among GPs and patients should be studied, including gender aspects. Adequate risk communication should be integrated into physicians' education.

  15. How do family physicians communicate about cardiovascular risk? Frequencies and determinants of different communication formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemann Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients understand information about risk better if it is communicated in numerical or visual formats (e.g. graphs compared to verbal qualifiers only. How frequently different communication formats are used in clinical primary care settings is unknown. Methods We collected socioeconomic and patient understanding data using questionnaires and audio-recorded consultations about cardiovascular disease risk. The frequencies of the communication formats were calculated and multivariate regression analysis of associations between communication formats, patient and general practitioner characteristics, and patient subjective understanding was performed. Results In 73% of 70 consultations, verbal qualifiers were used exclusively to communicate cardiovascular risk, compared to numerical (11% and visual (16% formats. Female GPs and female patient's gender were significantly associated with a higher use of verbal formats compared to visual formats (p = 0.001 and p = 0.039, respectively. Patient subjective understanding was significantly higher in visual counseling compared to verbal counseling (p = 0.001. Conclusions Verbal qualifiers are the most often used communication format, though recommendations favor numerical and visual formats, with visual formats resulting in better understanding than others. Also, gender is associated with the choice of communication format. Barriers against numerical and visual communication formats among GPs and patients should be studied, including gender aspects. Adequate risk communication should be integrated into physicians' education.

  16. Improving Asthma Communication in High-Risk Children

    OpenAIRE

    Butz, Arlene M.; Walker, Jennifer; Land, Cassia Lewis; Vibbert, Carrie; Winkelstein, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Few child asthma studies address the specific content and techniques needed to enhance child communication during asthma preventive care visits. This study examined the content of child and parent communications regarding their asthma management during a medical encounter with their primary care provider (PCP). The majority of parents and children required prompting to communicate symptom information to the PCP during the clinic visit. Some high-risk families may require an asthma advocate to...

  17. The @RISK Study: Risk communication for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welschen, Laura M C; Bot, Sandra D M; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M; van der Weijden, Trudy; Nijpels, Giel

    2010-08-05

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk to develop severe diabetes related complications, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk to develop CVD can be estimated by means of risk formulas. However, patients have difficulties to understand the outcomes of these formulas. As a result, they may not recognize the importance of changing lifestyle and taking medication in time. Therefore, it is important to develop risk communication methods, that will improve the patients' understanding of risks associated with having diabetes, which enables them to make informed choices about their diabetes care.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an intervention focussed on the communication of the absolute 10-year risk to develop CVD on risk perception, attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour in patients with T2DM. The conceptual framework of the intervention is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Self-regulation Theory. A randomised controlled trial will be performed in the Diabetes Care System West-Friesland (DCS), a managed care system. Newly referred T2DM patients of the DCS, younger than 75 years will be eligible for the study. The intervention group will be exposed to risk communication on CVD, on top of standard managed care of the DCS. This intervention consists of a simple explanation on the causes and consequences of CVD, and possibilities for prevention. The probabilities of CVD in 10 year will be explained in natural frequencies and visualised by a population diagram. The control group will receive standard managed care. The primary outcome is appropriateness of risk perception. Secondary outcomes are attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour and illness perception. Differences between baseline and follow-up (2 and 12 weeks) between groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The study was powered on 120 patients in each group. This innovative risk

  18. Operation and evaluation of online risk communication assistant tool, 'ORCAT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Katsumura, Soichiro; Furuta, Kazuo; Matsumura, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Risk communication about the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal is necessary for public acceptance of HLW disposal program. Online Risk Communication Assistant Tool (ORCAT) system is developed in order to support risk communication for high-level radioactive disposal on World Wide Web. We have carried out two test operations of ORCAT system. First test operation is carried out from Jun. 26 to Feb. 13, 2003. After the first operation, we improved the ORCAT system, and carried out the second test operation from Dec. 4 to 22, 2004. In the second test operation, 20 participants replayed the questionnaire about usability of ORCAT system. In consequence, we found that the ORCAT system remains what need to refine, but is evaluated useful to the risk communication about the HLW disposal. (author)

  19. Teamwork, communication and safety climate: a systematic review of interventions to improve surgical culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Greg D; Shannon, Evan M; Dawes, Aaron J; Rollo, Johnathon C; Nguyen, David K; Russell, Marcia M; Ko, Clifford Y; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda A

    2015-07-01

    To define the target domains of culture-improvement interventions, to assess the impact of these interventions on surgical culture and to determine whether culture improvements lead to better patient outcomes and improved healthcare efficiency. Healthcare systems are investing considerable resources in improving workplace culture. It remains unclear whether these interventions, when aimed at surgical care, are successful and whether they are associated with changes in patient outcomes. PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched from January 1980 to January 2015. We included studies on interventions that aimed to improve surgical culture, defined as the interpersonal, social and organisational factors that affect the healthcare environment and patient care. The quality of studies was assessed using an adapted tool to focus the review on higher-quality studies. Due to study heterogeneity, findings were narratively reviewed. The 47 studies meeting inclusion criteria (4 randomised trials and 10 moderate-quality observational studies) reported on interventions that targeted three domains of culture: teamwork (n=28), communication (n=26) and safety climate (n=19); several targeted more than one domain. All moderate-quality studies showed improvements in at least one of these domains. Two studies also demonstrated improvements in patient outcomes, such as reduced postoperative complications and even reduced postoperative mortality (absolute risk reduction 1.7%). Two studies reported improvements in healthcare efficiency, including fewer operating room delays. These findings were supported by similar results from low-quality studies. The literature provides promising evidence for various strategies to improve surgical culture, although these approaches differ in terms of the interventions employed as well as the techniques used to measure culture. Nevertheless, culture improvement appears to be associated with other positive effects, including

  20. Effects of risk communication on natural hazards on real estate owners' risk perception and risk behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchecker, M.; Maidl, E.

    2012-04-01

    In the last decade, in most of the European countries risk maps on natural hazards have been elaborated but there is so far little experience how to efficiently communicate these maps to the public. Recently, the public authorities of Zurich informed the owners of buildings located within the hazard zone on urban flood risks The owners received official letters containing information on potential danger, the probability of flood events, constructional safety measures, and guidelines for appropriate actions in case of an immediate flood. In the cover letter they were also encouraged to achieve more detailed information about the particular risks for their building using an online accessible risk map within a geographic information system (GIS). This risk communication campaign was based on the expectation that informing citizens increases their risk awareness and that citizens aware of risks are more likely to undertake actions to protect themselves and their property. There is, however, little empirical evidence that these expected outcomes can be achieved by written forms of risk communication. With this project we aim to find out to which degree a campaign of written risk communication can shape land owners risk perception and risk behaviour, and which other factors (e.g. trust in authorities, risk, risk zone category of the building) contributed to these outcomes... In collaboration with public authorities we conducted a survey among 1500 owners of buildings in the hazard zones in Zurich (50 % in blue zone, 50 % in yellow and yellow-white zone), that is 14% of all persons who were addressed by the authorities of the city. The standardized questionnaire comprises in particular items measuring respondents' evaluation of the virtual and physical information material, the time they spent for studying the information material, the dimensions of their risk perception, their acceptability of risks and their preparedness to implement constructional and other safety

  1. Risk Communication and Climate Justice Planning: A Case of Michigan’s Huron River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chingwen Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Communicating climate risks is crucial when engaging the public to support climate action planning and addressing climate justice. How does evidence-based communication influence local residents’ risk perception and potential behavior change in support of climate planning? Built upon our previous study of Climate Justice maps illustrating high scores of both social and ecological vulnerability in Michigan’s Huron River watershed, USA, a quasi-experiment was conducted to examine the effects of Climate Justice mapping intervention on residents’ perceptions and preparedness for climate change associated hazards in Michigan. Two groups were compared: residents in Climate Justice areas with high social and ecological vulnerability scores in the watershed (n=76 and residents in comparison areas in Michigan (n=69. Measurements for risk perception include perceived exposure, sensitivity, and adaptability to hazards. Results indicate that risk information has a significant effect on perceived sensitivity and level of preparedness for future climate extremes among participants living in Climate Justice areas. Findings highlight the value of integrating scientific risk assessment information in risk communication to align calculated and perceived risks. This study suggests effective risk communication can influence local support of climate action plans and implementation of strategies that address climate justice and achieve social sustainability in local communities.

  2. Communicating health risks to the public: a global perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillier, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    ... under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the author of this work. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Communicating health risks to the public : a global perspective 1. Health risk communication I. Hillier, Dawn, 1950- 614.4'4 ISBN-13: 978-0-566-08672-4 ISBN-10: 0 566 08672 7 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ...

  3. Remediation of social communication impairments following traumatic brain injury using metacognitive strategy intervention: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emma; Cornwell, Petrea; Copley, Anna; Doig, Emmah; Fleming, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    To perform a pilot study to evaluate whether a novel metacognitive, goal-based intervention improved and maintained the social communication skills of adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eight community-dwelling participants with TBI completed three study phases: (1) baseline, (2) eight-week intervention targeting social communication impairments and (3) follow-up. Participants completed the Profile of Pragmatic Impairment in Communication (PPIC), LaTrobe Communication Questionnaire (LCQ) and Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) at the commencement of baseline phase, pre- and post-intervention and completion of the follow-up phase. During the intervention programme phase, participants attended two 1-hour therapy sessions (one individual; one group) per week focusing on remediating impaired social communication skills using metacognitive strategy intervention and goal-based therapy. Variable changes in PPIC feature-summary scores were observed post-intervention. A non-significant improvement in LCQ scores was also observed. There was a significant increase in GAS goal T-scores following the intervention, with six of the eight participants achieving or exceeding their expected level of performance on all goals. A goal-driven, metacognitive approach to intervention may assist individuals with TBI to achieve their personal social communication goals, with benefits reported by participants and observable during conversations. Further research is required.

  4. Role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijnders, A L; Midden, C J; Wilke, H A

    2001-10-01

    This article describes how the effectiveness of risk communication is determined by the interaction between emotional and informative elements. An experiment is described that examined the role of negative emotion in communication about CO2 risks. This experiment was based on the elaboration likelihood model and the related heuristic systematic model of attitude formation. The results indicated that inducing fear of CO2 risks leads to systematic processing of information about energy conservation as a risk-reducing strategy. In turn, this results in more favorable attitudes toward energy conservation if strong arguments are provided. Individual differences in concern seem to have similar effects.

  5. Risk communication and radiological/nuclear terrorism: a strategic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Steven M

    2011-11-01

    It is now widely recognized that effective communication is a crucial element in radiological/nuclear terrorism preparedness. Whereas in the past, communication and information issues were sometimes viewed as secondary in comparison with technical concerns, today the need to improve risk communication, public information, and emergency messaging is seen as a high priority. The process of improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication can be conceptualized as occurring in four overlapping phases. The first phase involves the recognition that communication and information issues will be pivotal in shaping how a radiological/nuclear terrorism incident unfolds and in determining its outcome. This recognition has helped shape the second phase, in which various research initiatives have been undertaken to provide an empirical basis for improved communication. In the third and most recent phase, government agencies, professional organizations and others have worked to translate research findings into better messages and informational materials. Like the first and second phases, the third phase is still unfolding. The fourth phase in risk communication for radiological/nuclear terrorism-a mature phase-is only now just beginning. Central to this phase is a developing understanding that for radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication to be fully effective, it must go beyond crafting better messages and materials (as essential as that may be). This emerging fourth phase seeks to anchor radiological/nuclear communication in a broader approach: one that actively engages and partners with the public. In this article, each of the four stages is discussed, and future directions for improving radiological/nuclear terrorism risk communication are explored.

  6. Risk communication on the siting of radioactive waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru; Torii, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Siting of radioactive waste management facilities frequently raise arguments among stakeholders such as a municipal government and the residents. Risk communication is one of the useful methods of promoting mutual understanding on related risks among stakeholders. In Finland and Sweden, siting selection procedures of repositories for spent nuclear fuels have been carried out successfully with risk communication. The success reasons are analyzed based on the interviews with those who belong to the regulatory authorities and nuclear industries in both countries. Also, in this paper, risk communication among the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA), a local government and the general public, which was carried out during the establishment process of additional radioactive waste treatment facilities in Takizawa Village, Iwate Prefecture, is analyzed based on articles in newspapers and interviews with persons concerned. The analysis results showed that good risk communication was not carried out because of the lack of confidence on the JRIA, decision making rules, enough communication chances and economic benefits. In order to make good use of these experiences for the future establishment of radioactive waste management facilities, the lessons learned from these cases are summarized and proposals for good risk communication (establishment of exploratory committee and technical support system for decision making, and measurements to increase familiarity of radioactive waste) are discussed. (author)

  7. Tailoring in risk communication by linking risk profiles and communication preferences: The case of speeding of young car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Sarah; Baumann, Eva; Klimmt, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Speeding is one of the most relevant risk behaviors for serious and fatal accidents, particularly among young drivers. This study presents a tailoring strategy for anti-speeding communication. By referring to their motivational dispositions toward speeding derived from motivational models of health behavior, young car drivers were segmented into different risk groups. In order to ensure that risk communication efforts would actually be capable to target these groups, the linkage between the risk profiles and communication preferences were explored. The study was conducted on the basis of survey data of 1168 German car drivers aged between 17 and 24 years. The data reveal four types of risk drivers significantly differing in their motivational profiles. Moreover, the findings show significant differences in communication habits and media use between these risk groups. By linking the risk profiles and communication preferences, implications for tailoring strategies of road safety communication campaigns are derived. Promising segmentation and targeting strategies are discussed also beyond the current case of anti-speeding campaigns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk communication: Anthropogenically induced climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankenberg, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of the greenhouse effect, conventional thermal power plants should be substituted by maximum energy conservation, use of renewable energies, and low-risk, high-tech nuclear power plants. Motor traffic exhausts could be eliminated by alternative fuels, and trace gas reducers, such as tropical rain forests, preserved by financial adjustments. CFC's are to be reduced in any case in order to lower the ozone risk. (DG) [de

  9. Pilot research project of risk communication on nuclear technology and its utilization. Toward communication and collaboration with community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2003-01-01

    Although the importance of risk communication has been pointed out over the last decade in nuclear community, both public authorities and nuclear industry have not conducted the definite actions yet. It will be reflected in the public eye that nuclear community's attitude toward communication and consultation with the public about risk issues is half-hearted, comparing with chemical and food safety fields which recently launched their risk communication activities. In this study, we conduct risk communication experiments on some risk issues associated with nuclear technology and its utilization in Tokai village, for the purpose of establishment of risk communication in our society that might be one of the new relationships between science and technology and society. The outcomes of FY2002 study are the following threefold; 1) preparation of risk communication experiments on nuclear technology and its utilization, 2) assessment of social effects of risk communication activities, 3) preparation of practical guidebook for risk communication experiments. (J.P.N.)

  10. Communicate to vaccinate”: the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccination is a cost-effective public health measure and is central to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality. However, childhood vaccination coverage remains sub-optimal in many settings. While communication is a key feature of vaccination programmes, we are not aware of any comprehensive approach to organising the broad range of communication interventions that can be delivered to parents and communities to improve vaccination coverage. Developing a classification system (taxonomy) organised into conceptually similar categories will aid in: understanding the relationships between different types of communication interventions; facilitating conceptual mapping of these interventions; clarifying the key purposes and features of interventions to aid implementation and evaluation; and identifying areas where evidence is strong and where there are gaps. This paper reports on the development of the ‘Communicate to vaccinate’ taxonomy. Methods The taxonomy was developed in two stages. Stage 1 included: 1) forming an advisory group; 2) searching for descriptions of interventions in trials (CENTRAL database) and general health literature (Medline); 3) developing a sampling strategy; 4) screening the search results; 5) developing a data extraction form; and 6) extracting intervention data. Stage 2 included: 1) grouping the interventions according to purpose; 2) holding deliberative forums in English and French with key vaccination stakeholders to gather feedback; 3) conducting a targeted search of grey literature to supplement the taxonomy; 4) finalising the taxonomy based on the input provided. Results The taxonomy includes seven main categories of communication interventions: inform or educate, remind or recall, teach skills, provide support, facilitate decision making, enable communication and enhance community ownership. These categories are broken down into 43 intervention types across three target groups: parents or soon

  11. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  12. The spectre of uncertainty in communicating technological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broesius, Michael T. [Univ. of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The literature does not clearly describe the potential moral and ethical conflicts that can exist between technology sponsors and the technical communicators whose job it is to present potentially risky technology to the non-technical people most likely to be imperiled by such risk. Equally important, the literature does not address the issue of uncertainty -- not the uncertainty likely to be experienced by the community at risk, but the unreliable processes and methodologies used by technology sponsors to define, quantify, and develop strategies to mitigate technological risks. In this paper, the author goes beyond a description of risk communication, the nature of the generally predictable interaction between technology advocates and non-technically trained individuals, and current trends in the field. Although that kind of information is critical to the success of any risk communication activity, and he has included it when necessary to provide background and perspective, without knowing how and why risk assessment is done, it has limited practical applicability outside the sterile, value-free vacuum in which it is usually framed. Technical communicators, particularly those responsible for communicating potential technological risk, must also understand the social, political, economic, statistical, and ethical issues they will invariably encounter.

  13. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  14. Interventions Designed To Promote Parent-Teen Communication about Sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Douglas; Miller, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes different approaches used to increase parent-child communication about sexuality and summarizes studies that have measured their impact. Focuses primarily on the impact of programs on parent-child communication, but also summarizes the limited research on the impact of such programs on adolescent sexual behavior, or on other determinants…

  15. Nanotechnology risk perceptions and communication: emerging technologies, emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara; Satterfield, Terre

    2011-11-01

    Nanotechnology involves the fabrication, manipulation, and control of materials at the atomic level and may also bring novel uncertainties and risks. Potential parallels with other controversial technologies mean there is a need to develop a comprehensive understanding of processes of public perception of nanotechnology uncertainties, risks, and benefits, alongside related communication issues. Study of perceptions, at so early a stage in the development trajectory of a technology, is probably unique in the risk perception and communication field. As such it also brings new methodological and conceptual challenges. These include: dealing with the inherent diversity of the nanotechnology field itself; the unfamiliar and intangible nature of the concept, with few analogies to anchor mental models or risk perceptions; and the ethical and value questions underlying many nanotechnology debates. Utilizing the lens of social amplification of risk, and drawing upon the various contributions to this special issue of Risk Analysis on Nanotechnology Risk Perceptions and Communication, nanotechnology may at present be an attenuated hazard. The generic idea of "upstream public engagement" for emerging technologies such as nanotechnology is also discussed, alongside its importance for future work with emerging technologies in the risk communication field. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Communicating Health Risks under Pressure: Homeland Security Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrahan, K.G.; Collie, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Threat and Consequence Assessment Division (TCAD) within the National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) has developed a tool for rapid communication of health risks and likelihood of exposure in preparation for terrorist incidents. The Emergency Consequence Assessment Tool (ECAT) is a secure web-based tool designed to make risk assessment and consequence management faster and easier for high priority terrorist threat scenarios. ECAT has been designed to function as 'defensive play-book' for health advisors, first responders, and decision-makers by presenting a series of evaluation templates for priority scenarios that can be modified for site-specific applications. Perhaps most importantly, the risk communication aspect is considered prior to an actual release event, so that management or legal advisors can concur on general risk communication content in preparation for press releases that can be anticipated in case of an actual emergency. ECAT serves as a one-stop source of information for retrieving toxicological properties for agents of concern, estimating exposure to these agents, characterizing health risks, and determining what actions need to be undertaken to mitigate the risks. ECAT has the capability to be used at a command post where inputs can be checked and communicated while the response continues in real time. This front-end planning is intended to fill the gap most commonly identified during tabletop exercises: a need for concise, timely, and informative risk communication to all parties. Training and customization of existing chemical and biological release scenarios with modeling of exposure to air and water, along with custom risk communication 'messages' intended for public, press, shareholders, and other partners enable more effective communication during times of crisis. For DOE, the ECAT could serve as a prototype that would be amenable to

  17. Evaluation of a visual risk communication tool: effects on knowledge and perception of blood transfusion risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Mehta, M D

    2003-06-01

    Effective risk communication in transfusion medicine is important for health-care consumers, but understanding the numerical magnitude of risks can be difficult. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a visual risk communication tool on the knowledge and perception of transfusion risk. Laypeople were randomly assigned to receive transfusion risk information with either a written or a visual presentation format for communicating and comparing the probabilities of transfusion risks relative to other hazards. Knowledge of transfusion risk was ascertained with a multiple-choice quiz and risk perception was ascertained by psychometric scaling and principal components analysis. Two-hundred subjects were recruited and randomly assigned. Risk communication with both written and visual presentation formats increased knowledge of transfusion risk and decreased the perceived dread and severity of transfusion risk. Neither format changed the perceived knowledge and control of transfusion risk, nor the perceived benefit of transfusion. No differences in knowledge or risk perception outcomes were detected between the groups randomly assigned to written or visual presentation formats. Risk communication that incorporates risk comparisons in either written or visual presentation formats can improve knowledge and reduce the perception of transfusion risk in laypeople.

  18. The globalization of risk and risk perception: why we need a new model of risk communication for vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi; Brocard Paterson, Pauline; Erondu, Ngozi

    2012-11-01

    Risk communication and vaccines is complex and the nature of risk perception is changing, with perceptions converging, evolving and having impacts well beyond specific geographic localities and points in time, especially when amplified through the Internet and other modes of global communication. This article examines the globalization of risk perceptions and their impacts, including the example of measles and the globalization of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine risk perceptions, and calls for a new, more holistic model of risk assessment, risk communication and risk mitigation, embedded in an ongoing process of risk management for vaccines and immunization programmes. It envisions risk communication as an ongoing process that includes trust-building strategies hand-in-hand with operational and policy strategies needed to mitigate and manage vaccine-related risks, as well as perceptions of risk.

  19. Social intervention and risk reduction - indirect countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, N.A.; Morrey, M.

    1996-01-01

    An indirect countermeasure (IC) is an action which is intended to mitigate detrimental effects experienced by individuals or the community after an accident. Indirect countermeasures (ICs) achieve this, both by averting radiation risks arising from the accident, but by removing or reducing other risks and sources of stress or harm to which the community may be subject. ICs naturally fall into two categories: social action ICs, which range from introducing compensation payments to providing information centres; and risk reducing ICs which mitigate risks to which the population might be exposed, such as radon. By including a consideration of ICs in an assessment of the optimal response, it is likely that a decision maker will become aware of a greater range of harms and benefits that might result from the application of a countermeasure. The decision maker will then be in a better position to judge the appropriateness of any action. (author)

  20. A systematic review of Functional Communication Training (FCT) interventions involving augmentative and alternative communication in school settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Virginia L; Lyon, Kristin J; Loman, Sheldon L; Sennott, Samuel

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to summarize single-case intervention studies in which Functional Communication Training (FCT) involving augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) was implemented in school settings. Overall, the findings suggest that FCT involving AAC was effective in reducing challenging behaviour and promoting aided or unaided AAC use among participants with disability. FCT was more effective for the participants who engaged in less severe forms of challenging behaviour prior to intervention. Additionally, FCT was more effective when informed by a descriptive functional behaviour assessment and delivered within inclusive school settings. Implications for practice and directions for future research related to FCT for students who use AAC are addressed.

  1. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cardiovascular risk after preeclampsia : The effect of communicating risk factors on intended healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, Anouk; Kroeze, Willemieke; de Groot, Christianne J.M.; Teunissen, Pim W.

    Objective: We studied the effect of communicating cardiovascular risk factors on intended healthy behavior in women with a history of preeclampsia or uncomplicated pregnancy. Methods: Intention for healthy behavior was assessed before and after cardiovascular risk assessment. Changes were calculated

  3. Promoting language and social communication development in babies through an early storybook reading intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michelle I; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David; Gillon, Gail T

    2017-12-15

    This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent-child interactions during ESR. Parent-child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3-12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. A significant time-group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.

  4. Pharmacist intervention reduces gastropathy risk in patients using NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Cuevas, Victoria; Lopez-Briz, Eduardo; Guardiola-Chorro, M Teresa

    2008-12-01

    To establish a detection and intervention strategy in order to reduce the number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) users at risk of gastropathy from receiving either inadequate or no gastroprotection. Community Pharmacies in Valencia, Spain. Prospective longitudinal intervention study without control group carried out by 79 Community Pharmacies. Patients over 18 who asked for any systemic NSAID were interviewed according to standard procedure. Pharmacist intervention was carried out when a patient at risk of serious NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications due to inadequate or no gastric protection was identified. The doctor responsible was informed in order to then be able to assess the need to prescribe gastroprotection or change it if inadequate. In the case of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, pharmacist intervention mainly involved replacing NSAIDs for safer medications. Firstly, the number of patients who had no prescribed gastroprotection or inadequate gastroprotection was determined. Pharmacist intervention then brought about changes in pharmacotherapy in this situation. Of the 6,965 patients who asked for NSAIDs during the study period, 3,054 (43.9%) presented NSAID gastropathy risk factors. 35.6% of the latter (1,089) were not prescribed gastroprotection or were prescribed inadequate gastroprotection. Pharmacist intervention was carried out in 1,075 of these cases. On 391 occasions such risk situations were reported to doctors, who accepted pharmacist intervention on 309 occasions (79.0%) and then either prescribed gastroprotection (77% of cases); changed it (13.9%); withdrew the NSAID (5.8%) or substituted it (3.2%). 235 Pharmacist interventions took place when dispensing OTC NSAIDs. Our strategy allowed us to identify a large number of patients who asked for NSAIDs in Community Pharmacies and who were at risk of NSAID gastropathy, as they received either inadequate gastroprotection or no gastroprotection whatsoever. Moreover, the

  5. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies.

  6. Public responses to Chernobyl: lessons for risk management and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1988-01-01

    The question of how the public in many European countries and the US perceived the danger of the radiation fallout from Chernobyl and how they reacted to the management of risk in each country is addressed. In addition, the lessons learned about communicating risk are discussed on the basis of studies of public attitudes and the effects of media coverage. (author)

  7. Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases at Gilgel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies. The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. METHODS: ...

  8. 77 FR 31025 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... on communicating and understanding uncertainty, and risk perception and information seeking when facing multiple risks. FDA intends to make background material available to the public no later than 2... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001...

  9. Cartograms Facilitate Communication of Climate Change Risks and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döll, Petra

    2017-12-01

    Communication of climate change (CC) risks is challenging, in particular if global-scale spatially resolved quantitative information is to be conveyed. Typically, visualization of CC risks, which arise from the combination of hazard, exposure and vulnerability, is confined to showing only the hazards in the form of global thematic maps. This paper explores the potential of contiguous value-by-area cartograms, that is, distorted density-equalizing maps, for improving communication of CC risks and the countries' differentiated responsibilities for CC. Two global-scale cartogram sets visualize, as an example, groundwater-related CC risks in 0.5° grid cells, another one the correlation of (cumulative) fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions with the countries' population and gross domestic product. Viewers of the latter set visually recognize the lack of global equity and that the countries' wealth has been built on harmful emissions. I recommend that CC risks are communicated by bivariate gridded cartograms showing the hazard in color and population, or a combination of population and a vulnerability indicator, by distortion of grid cells. Gridded cartograms are also appropriate for visualizing the availability of natural resources to humans. For communicating complex information, sets of cartograms should be carefully designed instead of presenting single cartograms. Inclusion of a conventionally distorted map enhances the viewers' capability to take up the information represented by distortion. Empirical studies about the capability of global cartograms to convey complex information and to trigger moral emotions should be conducted, with a special focus on risk communication.

  10. Examination of an antecedent communication intervention to reduce tangibly maintained challenging behavior: A controlled analog analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, M.F.; Fragale, C.; Gainey, S.; Kang, S.Y.; Koch, H.; Shubert, J.; El Zein, F.; Longino, D.; Chung, M.; Xu, Z.W.; White, P.J.; Lang, R.B.; Davis, T.; Rispoli, M.; Lancioni, G.E.; Didden, H.C.M.; Healy, O.; Kagohara, D.; Meer, L. van der; Sigafoos, J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. individual

  11. Brief Communication: The dark side of risk and crisis communication: legal conflicts and responsibility allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolobig, A.

    2015-06-01

    Inadequate, misinterpreted, or missing risk and crisis communication may be a reason for practitioners, and sometimes science advisors, to become the subjects of criminal investigations. This work discusses the legal consequences of inadequate risk communication in these situations. After presenting some cases, the discussion focuses on three critical issues: the development of effective communication protocols; the role, tasks, and responsibilities of science advisors; and the collateral effects of practitioners' defensive behaviours. For example, if the avoidance of personal liability becomes a primary objective for practitioners, it may clash with other objectives, such as the protection of vulnerable communities or the transparency of decision making. The conclusion presents some ideas for future research on the legal aspects of risk communication.

  12. Risk communication between Experts and the Public: Perceptions and Intentions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart; Verhost, Philippe; Bouzon, Arlette

    2002-01-01

    This paper develops a conceptual and theoretical analysis of risk communication in cases where experts and the public have widely divergent views about the size of a risk: experts find it very small but some members of the public have an opposite view. Other members of the public agree with the experts. Applications are chosen from the risk management problems inhere in the handling of spent nuclear fuel. It is pointed out that the conflicting views have very different bases.The role of trust is analyzed and while it is a crucial issue, it is much broader than what has usually been assumed. Trust refers not only to social trust (i.e. trust in experts or authorities/corporation) but also to basic notions regarding knowledge and science. In a communication situation, the communicated position with regard to risk seems may not be perceived correctly by any of the parties, and positions tend to be entrenched

  13. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  14. Risk communication, public participation and the Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Simmons, P.; Wynne, B.; Irwin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Risk communication and public participation are considered in the context of the forthcoming requirements of the 'Seveso II' Directive. The discussion draws substantially on the findings of a research project which has investigated public perceptions of the risks from major accident hazards in seven communities in the UK. Implications for the Directive's requirements on emergency information provision, public access to safety reports and consultation on emergency plans are considered. Our conclusions stress the need for risk communication to be seen as a long term and ongoing process, involving active listening to public reasoning about risk and a sensitivity to the context in which communication is taking place. In meeting both needs and rights to information and encouraging and enabling public participation, we conclude that the Directive should contribute in some degree to an improved environment for dialogue and the building of trust. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. The impact of an intervention in intercultural communication on doctor-patient interaction in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouten, Barbara C; Meeuwesen, Ludwien; Harmsen, Hans A M

    2005-09-01

    Findings of scarcely available studies indicate that there are substantial gaps in intercultural doctor-patient communication. In order to improve intercultural communication in medical practice in The Netherlands, an educational intervention was developed. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of this intervention on doctor-patient communication. Participants (general practitioners: n=38; patients: n=124) were assigned at random to an intervention or a control group. GPs in the intervention group received 2.5 days training on intercultural communication. Patients in the intervention group were exposed to a videotaped instruction in the waiting room, right before the consultation. Data were collected through videotapes of visits of ethnic minority patients to their GP and home interviews with the patients after their medical visit. Communication behaviour was assessed using the Roter interaction analysis system (RIAS). Interview length was assessed as well. The length of the medical encounter increased significantly after having received the intervention. Total number of GP utterances increased significantly too. When comparing relative frequencies on affective and instrumental verbal behaviour of both patients and doctors, no significant changes could be detected. It is concluded that there seems to be some change in doctor-patient interaction, but RIAS may not be suitable to detect subtle changes in the medical communication process. It is recommended to use other analysis methods to assess cultural differences in medical communication. Knowledge about possible antecedents of gaps in intercultural medical communication should be increased in order to be able to design effective interventions for intercultural doctor-patient communication.

  16. HIV risk and preventive interventions in transgender women sex workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941

  17. Research of the tasks on risk communication enforcement (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Masaru; Aoyama, Isao; Ishizaka, Kaoru; Ohata, Yuki; Fukuike, Iori; Miyagawa, Hiroshi; Ishimori, Yuu

    2017-01-01

    From 1955 to 2001, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) carried out research and development projects related to uranium exploration, mining, refining, conversion and enrichment at/around Ningyo-toge in Japan. Subsequently, JAEA has been carrying out remediation of the uranium mine legacy sites and decommissioning of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. JAEA has many experiences of communication with local stakeholders from these projects. Among such experiences, management of the waste rock sites became local concern in 1988, 27 years after completion of the exploration. The issue was resolved in 2012 after several efforts. From this experience, it was suggested that the lack of information sharing with local stakeholders and that the inadequate support to stakeholder's requests caused the delay of problem solving. Therefore, sustainable relationship with local stakeholders for over decades is important for JAEA Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center. As reference, similar domestic cases were investigated and strategies for risk communication were planned. As follows; (1) Clarify roles and responsibilities of communication staffs for sustainable communicating with local residents. (2) Identify gaps in risk communication knowledge among center and local residents and work toward filling those gaps. (3) Improve the effectiveness of Ningyo-toge center's website and PR-magazines as primary mechanism for communicating with wide stakeholders. (4) Investigate new communication methods for sustainable communicating, such as combination of environmental restoration studies by experts and environmental learning activities by residents. (author)

  18. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  19. Communication about melanoma and risk reduction after melanoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Vivian M; Berwick, Marianne; Hay, Jennifer L

    2017-12-01

    Melanoma patients are advised to perform regular risk-reduction practices, including sun protection as well as skin self-examinations (SSEs) and physician-led examinations. Melanoma-specific communication regarding family risk and screening may promote such behaviors. To this end, associations between patients' melanoma-specific communication and risk reduction were examined. Melanoma patients (N = 169) drawn from a population-based cancer registry reported their current risk-reduction practices, perceived risk of future melanoma, and communication with physicians and relatives about melanoma risk and screening. Patients were, on average, 56 years old and 6.7 years' post diagnosis; 51% were male, 93% reported "fair/very fair" skin color, 75% completed at least some college, and 22% reported a family history of melanoma. Patients reported varying levels of regular (always/nearly always) sun protection: sunscreen use (79%), shade seeking (60%), hat use (54%), and long-sleeve shirt use (30%). Only 28% performed thorough SSE regularly, whereas 92% reported undergoing physician-led skin examinations within the past year. Participants who were female, younger, and had a higher perceived risk of future melanoma were more likely to report past communication. In adjusted analyses, communication remained uniquely associated with increased sunscreen use and SSE. Encouraging melanoma patients to have a more active role in discussions concerning melanoma risk and screening with relatives and physicians alike may be a useful strategy to promote 2 key risk-reduction practices post melanoma diagnosis and treatment. Future research is needed to identify additional strategies to improve comprehensive risk reduction in long-term melanoma patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Non-communicable disease risk factors and treatment preference of obese patients in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Kathryn; Senekal, Marjanne; Harbron, Janetta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insights into the characteristics of treatment seekers for lifestyle changes and treatment preferences are necessary for intervention planning. Aim: To compile a profile of treatment-seeking obese patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) or NCD risk factors and to compare patients who choose group-based (facility-based therapeutic group [FBTG]) versus usual care (individual consultations) treatment. Setting: A primary healthcare facility in Cape Town, South Africa. ...

  1. TeamSTEPPS for health care risk managers: Improving teamwork and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Marcia

    2016-07-01

    Ineffective communication among the health care team is a leading cause of errors in the patient care setting. Studies assessing training related to communication and teamwork in the clinical team are prevalent, however, teamwork training at the administrative level is lacking. This includes individuals in leadership positions such as health care risk managers. The purpose was to determine the impact of an educational intervention on the knowledge and attitudes related to communication and teamwork in the health care risk management population. The educational intervention was an adaptation of a national teamwork training program and incorporated didactic content as well as video vignettes and small group activities. Measurement of knowledge and attitudes were used to determine the impact of the education program. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed pre- and postcourse. Findings indicate that teamwork education tailored to the needs of the specific audience resulted in knowledge gained and improved attitudes toward the components of teamwork. The attitudes that most significantly improved were related to team structure and situation monitoring. There was no improvement in participants' attitudes toward leadership, mutual support, and communication. Team training has been shown to improve safety culture, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. Including risk managers in training on teamwork, communication, and collaboration can serve to foster a common language among clinicians and management. In addition, a measurement related to implementation in the health care setting may yield insight into the impact of training. Qualitative measurement may allow the researcher to delve deeper into how these health care facilities are using team training interventions. © 2016 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  2. Priorities for autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudell, Michael; Tabor, Holly K; Dawson, Geraldine; Rossi, John; Newschaffer, Craig

    2013-11-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are an issue of increasing public health significance. The incidence of autism spectrum disorders has been increasing in recent years, and they are associated with significant personal and financial impacts for affected persons and their families. In recent years, a large number of scientific studies have been undertaken, which investigate genetic and environmental risk factors for autism, with more studies underway. At present, much remains unknown regarding autism spectrum disorder risk factors, but the emerging picture of causation is in many cases complex, with multiple genes and gene-environment interactions being at play. The complexity and uncertainty surrounding autism spectrum disorder risk factors raise a number of questions regarding the ethical considerations that should be taken into account when undertaking autism spectrum disorder risk communication. At present, however, little has been written regarding autism spectrum disorder risk communication and ethics. This article summarizes the findings of a recent conference investigating ethical considerations and policy recommendations in autism spectrum disorder risk communication, which to the authors' knowledge is the first of its kind. Here, the authors discuss a number of issues, including uncertainty; comprehension; inadvertent harm; justice; and the appropriate roles of clinicians, scientists, and the media in autism spectrum disorder risk communication.

  3. Affective Stancetaking in the English Communicative Situation of Risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Ushchyna, Valentyna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. The article deals with the study of psycholinguistic and sociocognitive dynamics of stancetaking in the communicative situation of risk. The concept of risk presupposes decision making, while the process of decision making is seen here as a stancetaking on risk. A speaker’s stance includes subjective expressions of the speaker’s attitude towards the object of conversation, his mood, evaluations, perspective, knowledge, point of view and opinion. Stances are reflected at different le...

  4. Communicating the risks, and the benefits, of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Emmanuelle

    2009-01-01

    Issues surrounding the wide spectrum of (perceived) risks and possible benefits associated with the rapid advance of modern nanotechnology are deliberated. These include the current realities of nanotechnological hazards, their impact vis-à-vis perceived nanotech-risks and perceived nanotech-benefits, and the consequent repercussions on the public and society. It is argued that both the risks and the benefits of nanoscientific advances must be properly communicated if the public is to support this emerging technology. PMID:19823594

  5. Towards Community-Based Communication Intervention for Severely Handicapped Children. Report ASS/BBS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alant, Erna

    This report describes the development of a community-based service for the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication strategies with regard to children with severe disabilities in South Africa. The intervention process was developed by the Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication of the University of Pretoria. The…

  6. Functional Communication Training: A Contemporary Behavior Analytic Intervention for Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Merges, Eileen

    2001-01-01

    This article describes functional communication training (FCT) with students who have autism. FCT involves teaching alternative communication strategies to replace problem behaviors. The article reviews the conditions under which this intervention is successful and compares the method with other behavioral approaches. It concludes that functional…

  7. Randomized Comparison of Two Communication Interventions for Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    This randomized group experiment compared the efficacy of 2 communication interventions (Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching [RPMT] and the Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS]) in 36 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Each treatment was delivered 3 times per week, in 20-min sessions, for 6 months. The results…

  8. A Communication-Based Intervention for Nonverbal Children with Autism: What Changes? Who Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kate; Pasco, Greg; McElduff, Fiona; Wade, Angie; Howlin, Pat; Charman, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the form and function of spontaneous communication and outcome predictors in nonverbal children with autism following classroom-based intervention (Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS] training). Method: 84 children from 15 schools participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of PECS (P. Howlin, R.…

  9. A randomized pilot trial of a videoconference couples communication intervention for advanced GI cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laura S; Keefe, Francis J; Baucom, Donald H; Olsen, Maren; Zafar, S Yousuf; Uronis, Hope

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a couple-based communication intervention for advanced GI cancer delivered via videoconference. Thirty-two couples were randomly assigned to either couples communication skills training (CCST) or an education comparison intervention, both delivered via videoconference. Participation was limited to couples who reported communication difficulties at screening. Patients and partners completed measures of relationship functioning and individual functioning at baseline and post-intervention. Eighty-eight percent of randomized dyads completed all six sessions and reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention. Between-group effect sizes suggested that the CCST intervention led to improvements in relationship satisfaction for patients and partners and to improvements in intimacy and communication for patients. A couples-based communication intervention delivered via videoconference is feasible and acceptable in the context of advanced cancer. Preliminary findings suggest that the intervention shows promise in contributing to enhanced relationship functioning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Effectiveness of a Handwriting Intervention With At-Risk Kindergarteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Sheryl Eckberg; Pfeiffer, Beth

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of an occupational therapist-led handwriting intervention for special education and at-risk kindergarteners. We incorporated a two-group, pretest-posttest design. Both groups consisted of kindergarteners receiving individualized education program (IEP) or Response to Intervention (RtI) support. An occupational therapist provided biweekly group handwriting instruction using the Size Matters Handwriting Program to students in the intervention group (n = 23). The control group (n = 12) received the standard handwriting instruction. Students in the intervention group demonstrated significantly greater gains in handwriting legibility than students in the control group. Students in the intervention group also demonstrated significantly greater gains in the prereading skills of uppercase letter recognition, lowercase letter recognition, and letter sound recognition. This study provides preliminary support for an occupational therapist-led handwriting intervention to improve writing legibility and letter recognition in kindergarteners receiving RtI and IEP supports. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Wildfire communication and climate risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyn S. Wilson; Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric. Toman

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the late 19th century and most of the 20th century, risks associated with wildfire were addressed by suppressing fires as quickly as possible. However, by the 1960s, it became clear that fire exclusion policies were having adverse effects on ecological health, as well as contributing to larger and more damaging wildfires over time. Although federal fire...

  12. Juvenile myopia progression, risk factors and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrowitz, Elliott H

    2012-07-01

    The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1-2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors.

  13. Pharmaceutical company perspectives on current safety risk communications in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urushihara, Hisashi; Kobashi, Gen; Masuda, Hideaki; Taneichi, Setsuko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawakami, Koji; Matsuda, Tsutomu; Ohta, Kaori; Sugimori, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    In 1987, a group infection of hepatitis in patients receiving a contaminated fibrinogen product was first reported to the Japanese regulatory agency. Eventually, this serious drug incident involved more than 10,000 cases of infection. In response, the Government of Japan established a responding inspection committee in 2008 to make recommendations for the restructuring of drug regulatory administration. The final report was issued in 2010. One agenda item of this restructuring was the improvement of drug-related safety risk communications. Our research group on drug safety risk communications, which is funded by the Government of Japan, surveyed pharmaceutical companies regarding their perspective on current risk communications. The survey was conducted using an anonymous questionnaire developed for this study which included the three operational domains of targets, contents, and measures of drug risk communication. Fifty-two of the 74 member companies of the Post-marketing Surveillance Subcommittee of the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufacturer's Association participated, and this response rate of more than 70% was considered sufficient to ensure the external validity of the survey results. Results showed that the most highly prioritized aspect of risk messaging was the strength of evidence, and that outcome evaluation of risk communication gained recognition. Further, while physicians and pharmacists were the most prioritized communication targets, pharmacovigilance departments devoted the most resources to regulators, at more than 30%. The Internet was recognized as a useful public source of risk information, whereas Drug Guides for Patients delivered on the web were considered under-recognized. Further discussion of these results with the aim of enhancing the restructuring of the Japanese drug regulatory administration system are warranted.

  14. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2016-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  15. Lost in Interpretation – Communicating Risk to the Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschenmoser, P.

    2017-01-01

    Communicating radiation incidents and emergencies to the public always has been challenging. No other type of emergency is related to such disproportional risk perception, so little public knowledge about the subject matter and so many contradicting expert analyses when it comes to public communications. The rise of social media and citizen journalism resulted in a dramatic acceleration of global communications and widespread misinformation. News does not break on television anymore but on Twitter, Facebook & Co. As a consequence, professional communicators not only have to take initiative considerably faster than in the past and deal with rumours. Their message has to be brief and on the point and is sometimes limited to just some 140 characters, the maximum length of a Tweet. More than ever it is essential to timely communicate in plain language and to clearly tell what needs to be done to be safe and to remain safe. Otherwise, the public will be lost in interpretation. (author)

  16. Speak no evil: The promotional heritage of nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwin, L.

    1990-01-01

    Louis Gwin addresses the critically important problem of nuclear risk communication. His research suggests that while an orderly evacuation of the population actually at risk may be workable in theory, the more likely occurrence is widespread panic and gridlock. Gwin's research suggests that existing programs of nuclear risk communication actually make this problem worse. He found that those who had received no prior information on what to do in an emergency were significantly more likely to do the right thing (e.g., await further instructions) than those who had received instructions. With utilities themselves retaining the ultimate responsibility for developing communication programs, it is not surprising that they have been reluctant; to issue instructions on what to do in the event of a nuclear accident is to acknowledge that such accidents can and do occur. Gwin makes no attempt to protray the nuclear industry as purposefully dishonest or evil. The bottom line is that programs that combine the communication of emergency plans with a latent desire to reassure the public fail in their primary purpose. As Gwin observes the key issue is one of trust. People see such communications as little more than propaganda put out by industry for its own purposes and do not trust the utilities to tell them what to do in the event of an accident. It will be every man for himself, with potentially disastrous consequences. How do we restore trust in nuclear risk communications? Gwin offers a number of valuable suggestions such as placing communication responsibility in state or local agencies or in FEMA, and to ensure some form of public participation in the development and communication of emergency plans. This is an excellent study of an important and timely subject. It provides a much needed picture of just how badly our plans are likely to work in the next nuclear emergency. Gwin's warning should be heeded by policymakers now, while there is still time

  17. The evolution of risk communication at the Weldon Spring site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, S.; Sizemore, M.; Meyer, L.; MacDonell, M.; Haroun, L.

    1993-01-01

    Clear risk communication is one of the keys to establishing a positive relationship with the public at an environmental restoration site. This effort has been evolving at the Weldon Spring site over the past few years, with considerable input from the local community. The recent signing of the major cleanup decision for this site, which identifies on-site disposal as the remedy reflects the strength of the communication program that has evolved for the project

  18. Marburg biosafety and biosecurity scale (MBBS): a framework for risk assessment and risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Apfel, Franklin; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Current risk assessment and risk communication of biosafety and biosecurity concerns lack a convenient metric and conceptual framework. The absence of such a systematic tool makes communication more difficult and can lead to ambiguous public perception of and response to laboratory biosafety incidents and biosecurity threats. A new 7-category scoring scale is proposed for incidents and situations in laboratories related to the handling of human and animal pathogens. The scale aims to help clarify risk categories, facilitate coordination and communication, and improve public understanding of risk related to biosafety and biosecurity.

  19. A Trial of an iPad™ Intervention Targeting Social Communication Skills in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of…

  20. A Review of Information and Communication Technology Enhanced Social Work Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chitat; Holosko, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Information and communications technology (ICT) has impacted almost all human service disciplines and currently is evolving in social work. This study provides a systematic review of ICT-enhanced social work interventions, with particular reference to their intervention fidelity (IF), validity, and the role of ICT in the helping…

  1. An Emergency Department Intervention to Increase Parent-Child Tobacco Communication: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Huang, Bin; Slap, Gail B.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a randomized trial of parents and their 9- to 16-year-old children to pilot test an emergency department (ED)-based intervention designed to increase parent-child tobacco communication. Intervention group (IG) parents received verbal/written instructions on how to relay anti-tobacco messages to their children; control group (CG)…

  2. Risk perception and communication in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodoo, Alexander; Hugman, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    In this narrative review, a brief summary of theoretical approaches to risk perception is followed by an analysis of some of the special factors influencing risk perception and risk communication in sub-Saharan Africa. Examples of recent and emergent local medicines and vaccine controversies in several countries are given along with evidence and analysis of how they were managed. These demonstrate, among other things, the extent to which ethnic, religious and cultural issues influence popular perception, and the power of rumour and anecdote in shaping public opinion and official responses to events. Where safety monitoring systems exist, they are in their infancy, with limited capacity for data collection, credible scientific review, effective public communication and robust crisis management. Although increasing democratic freedoms, including less restricted media, and evolving health systems are addressing the challenges and give hope for further progress, there are still deep and intractable issues that inhibit transparent and effective risk communication and stand in the way of African populations comprehending medicines and their risks in safer and more balanced ways. Some proposals for future change and action are offered, including the pursuit of a deeper understanding of local and national values, assumptions and beliefs that drive risk perception; tailoring public health planning and communications to specifically-targeted regions and populations; strengthening of safety surveillance and data-collection systems; giving higher priority to medicines safety issues in healthcare training and public education.

  3. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  4. Risk communication on the construction of radioactive waste treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoshi, Minoru

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, risk communications among the Japan Radioisotope Association (JRIA), a local government and the general public which were carried out during the development process of a radioactive waste treatment facility in Takizawa Village, Iwate Prefecture are analyzed based on the articles of newspapers and the interviews with the concerned people. The analysis results show good risk communications were not carried out because of the absence of the confidence to the JRIA, decision making rules and the merits. In order to make good use of this experience for the future development of radioactive waste management facilities, the lessons learned from this case are summarized and the check lists for good risk communication are proposed. (author)

  5. The effect of bright lines in environmental risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.N.; Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, K.V.; Payne, J.

    1993-01-01

    Bright lines in environmental risk communication refer to the specific levels at which an environmental risk becomes a serious health threat and action should be taken to mitigate its effects. This study examined the effect of ''bright lines'' in risk communication by emphasizing the radon exposure threshold level of 4 picocuries per liter. Specifically, the authors developed a computer-assisted interview containing bright-line versions of risk information. The bright-line version contained a range of possible radon levels, the corresponding number of estimated lung cancer cases, the relative health risk from radon compared to other health risks, and the EPA guidelines for mitigating levels above 4 picocuries in the home. The non-bright line version was identical to the bright-line version, except it did not include the EPA's mitigation recommendations. Effect measures included respondents' change in perceived risk after reading their materials, intended testing behavior, and advice to their neighbor for a specified radon level either above or below the 4 picocury threshold level. This paper discusses broader policy implications for designing effective risk communication programs

  6. On-scene crisis intervention: psychological guidelines and communication strategies for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Effective emergency mental health intervention for victims of crime, natural disaster or terrorism begins the moment the first responders arrive. This article describes a range of on-scene crisis intervention options, including verbal communication, body language, behavioral strategies, and interpersonal style. The correct intervention in the first few moments and hours of a crisis can profoundly influence the recovery course of victims and survivors of catastrophic events.

  7. Risk perception, scientific culture and communication media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Lobo, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The people who asked me to give a talk for the Spanish Nuclear Society's 28th Annual Meeting, at the invitation of WIN (Women in Nuclear), have challenged me, or at least that is what my colleagues believe, to tackle the difficult task of venturing into fields unfamiliar to anyone who is not involved in University teaching in communication and journalism. However, the challenge was very appealing to me, first of all because it was an invitation from WIN (Women in Nuclear), which I would like to congratulate, together with the Steering Committee, for having selected Salamanca as the meeting venue in this very important year for this city (it has been selected as European cultural city for 2002, along with the Belgian city of Bruges), If there is any place that has been immersed in scientific culture throughout the centuries it is Salamanca, where every one of its stones could tell us a history of the convergence and divergence between knowledge and society. This Universidad Pontificia of Salamanca also encloses centuries of wisdom within its walls. I have mentioned the first reason for accepting the challenge: the invitation from WIN Espana. The second reason why I accepted is that, some years ago, the world of nuclear energy, them unknown to me, started coming up in conversations with friends, one of whom works in this field. That history of discovery began in a levelly little Swiss town, in Grundenwald, not far from Eintein's Bern, whom I will mention later on

  8. Assessing Mand Topography Preference When Developing a Functional Communication Training Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnavatana, S Shanun; Wolfe, Katie; Aguilar, Alexandra N

    2018-05-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) is a common function-based behavioral intervention used to decrease problem behavior by teaching an alternative communication response. Therapists often arbitrarily select the topography of the alternative response, which may influence long-term effectiveness of the intervention. Assessing individual mand topography preference may increase treatment effectiveness and promote self-determination in the development of interventions. This study sought to reduce arbitrary selection of FCT mand topography by determining preference during response training and acquisition for two adults with autism who had no functional communication skills. Both participants demonstrated a clear preference for one mand topography during choice probes, and the preferred topography was then reinforced during FCT to reduce problem behavior and increase independent communication. The implications of the results for future research on mand selection during FCT are discussed.

  9. Intensity of exposure to a patient activation intervention and patient engagement in medical visit communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Chidinma; Bowie, Janice; Roter, Debra; Carson, Kathryn A; Lee, Bone; Monroe, Dwyan; Cooper, Lisa A

    2017-07-01

    We examined associations between intensity of exposure to a community health worker (CHW) delivered communication activation intervention targeting low-income patients with hypertension. We analyzed question-asking behaviors of patients assigned to the intervention arms (n=140) in a randomized controlled trial. Intensity of exposure to the intervention was operationalized as the duration of face-to-face coaching and number of protocol-specified topics discussed. Mixed effects models characterized the relationship between intensity of exposure and patients' communication in a subsequent medical visit. The number of topics discussed during the coaching session was positively associated with patients' asking psychosocial-related questions during their visit. The duration of the coaching session was positively associated with patients' use of communication engagement strategies to facilitate their participation in the visit dialogue. Exposure to a physician trained in patient-centered communication did not influence these relationships. A dose-response relationship was observed between exposure to a CHW- delivered communication activation intervention and patient-provider communication. This study supports the use of CHWs in activating patients toward greater communication in the therapeutic exchange. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating Risk Communication After the Fukushima Disaster Based on Nudge Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Michio; Tsubokura, Masaharu

    2017-03-01

    Using nudge theory and some examples of risk communication that followed the Fukushima disaster, this article discusses the influences and justifications of risk communication, in addition to how risk communication systems are designed. To assist people in making decisions based on their own value systems, we provide three suggestions, keeping in mind that people can be influenced (ie, "nudged") depending on how risk communication takes place: (1) accumulate knowledge on the process of evaluating how the method of risk communication and a system's default design could impact people; (2) clarify the purpose and outcomes of risk communication; and (3) see what risk communication might be ethically unjustifiable. Quantitative studies on risk communication and collective narratives will provide some ideas for how to design better risk communication systems and to help people make decisions. Furthermore, we have shown examples of unjustifiable risk communication.

  11. The effectiveness of information and communication technology-based psychological interventions for paediatric chronic pain: protocol for a systematic review, meta-analysis and intervention content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Angeline; Morrissey, Eimear; Egan, Jonathan; McGuire, Brian E

    2016-10-18

    Resource and geographic barriers are the commonly cited constraints preventing the uptake of psychological treatment for chronic pain management. For adults, there is some evidence to support the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a mode of treatment delivery. However, mixed findings have been reported for the effectiveness and acceptability of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents. This is a protocol for a review that aims to (i) evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions delivered using information and communication technology for children and adolescents with chronic pain and (ii) identify the intervention components and usability factors in technology-based treatments associated with behaviour change. We will conduct a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological interventions for paediatric chronic pain delivered using ICT. We plan to directly compare ICT-based, psychological interventions with active control, treatment as usual or waiting list control conditions. This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials will be included and the literature search will comprise Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Library on Wiley, including CENTRAL and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Grey literature including theses, dissertations, technical and research reports will also be examined. Two review authors will independently conduct study selection, relevant data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. Risk of bias in included studies will be assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool criteria. Two qualified coders will independently code behaviour change techniques according to the behaviour change taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically

  12. Interprofessional communication skills training for serious illness: evaluation of a small-group, simulated patient intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Alison M; Engelberg, Ruth A; Back, Anthony L; Ford, Dee W; Downey, Lois; Shannon, Sarah E; Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Edlund, Barbara; Christianson, Phyllis; Arnold, Richard W; O'Connor, Kim; Kross, Erin K; Reinke, Lynn F; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Fryer-Edwards, Kelly; Alexander, Stewart C; Tulsky, James A; Curtis, J Randall

    2014-02-01

    Communication with patients and families is an essential component of high-quality care in serious illness. Small-group skills training can result in new communication behaviors, but past studies have used facilitators with extensive experience, raising concerns this is not scalable. The objective was to investigate the effect of an experiential communication skills building workshop (Codetalk), led by newly trained facilitators, on internal medicine trainees' and nurse practitioner students' ability to communicate bad news and express empathy. Trainees participated in Codetalk; skill improvement was evaluated through pre- and post- standardized patient (SP) encounters. The subjects were internal medicine residents and nurse practitioner students at two universities. The study was carried out in anywhere from five to eight half-day sessions over a month. The first and last sessions included audiotaped trainee SP encounters coded for effective communication behaviors. The primary outcome was change in communication scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention. We also measured trainee characteristics to identify predictors of performance and change in performance over time. We enrolled 145 trainees who completed pre- and post-intervention SP interviews-with participation rates of 52% for physicians and 14% for nurse practitioners. Trainees' scores improved in 8 of 11 coded behaviors (p<0.05). The only significant predictors of performance were having participated in the intervention (p<0.001) and study site (p<0.003). The only predictor of improvement in performance over time was participating in the intervention (p<0.001). A communication skills intervention using newly trained facilitators was associated with improvement in trainees' skills in giving bad news and expressing empathy. Improvement in communication skills did not vary by trainee characteristics.

  13. Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Communication impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. Patients who cannot articulate their needs respond with frustration and agitation, resulting in poor optimization of post-stroke functions. A key component of patient-centred care is the ability of staff to communicate in a way that allows them to understand the patient’s needs. We developed a patient-centred communication intervention targeting registered and unregulated nursing staff caring for complex continuing care patients with communication impairments post stroke. Research objectives include 1) examining the effects of the intervention on patients’ quality of life, depression, satisfaction with care, and agitation; and (2) examining the extent to which the intervention improves staff’s attitudes and knowledge in caring for patients with communication impairments. The intervention builds on a previous pilot study. Methods/design A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design in a complex continuing care facility is being used. Patients with a communication impairment post-stroke admitted to the facility are eligible to participate. All staff nurses are eligible. Baseline data are collected from staff and patients. Follow-up will occur at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Subject recruitment and data collection from 60 patients and 30 staff will take approximately 36 months. The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention consists of three components: (1) development of an individualized patient communication care plan; (2) a one-day workshop focused on communication and behavioural management strategies for nursing staff; and (3) a staff support system. The intervention takes comprehensive patient assessments into account to inform the development of communication and behavioural strategies specifically tailored to each patient. Discussion The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention will provide staff with strategies to facilitate interactions with

  14. Patient-centred communication intervention study to evaluate nurse-patient interactions in complex continuing care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGilton Katherine S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. Patients who cannot articulate their needs respond with frustration and agitation, resulting in poor optimization of post-stroke functions. A key component of patient-centred care is the ability of staff to communicate in a way that allows them to understand the patient’s needs. We developed a patient-centred communication intervention targeting registered and unregulated nursing staff caring for complex continuing care patients with communication impairments post stroke. Research objectives include 1 examining the effects of the intervention on patients’ quality of life, depression, satisfaction with care, and agitation; and (2 examining the extent to which the intervention improves staff’s attitudes and knowledge in caring for patients with communication impairments. The intervention builds on a previous pilot study. Methods/design A quasi-experimental repeated measures non-equivalent control group design in a complex continuing care facility is being used. Patients with a communication impairment post-stroke admitted to the facility are eligible to participate. All staff nurses are eligible. Baseline data are collected from staff and patients. Follow-up will occur at 1 and 3 months post-intervention. Subject recruitment and data collection from 60 patients and 30 staff will take approximately 36 months. The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention consists of three components: (1 development of an individualized patient communication care plan; (2 a one-day workshop focused on communication and behavioural management strategies for nursing staff; and (3 a staff support system. The intervention takes comprehensive patient assessments into account to inform the development of communication and behavioural strategies specifically tailored to each patient. Discussion The Patient-Centred Communication Intervention will provide staff with strategies to

  15. Using a Teaching Intervention and Calibrated Peer Review™ Diagnostics to Improve Visual Communication Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saterbak, Ann; Moturu, Anoosha; Volz, Tracy

    2018-03-01

    Rice University's bioengineering department incorporates written, oral, and visual communication instruction into its undergraduate curriculum to aid student learning and to prepare students to communicate their knowledge and discoveries precisely and persuasively. In a tissue culture lab course, we used a self- and peer-review tool called Calibrated Peer Review™ (CPR) to diagnose student learning gaps in visual communication skills on a poster assignment. We then designed an active learning intervention that required students to practice the visual communication skills that needed improvement and used CPR to measure the changes. After the intervention, we observed that students performed significantly better in their ability to develop high quality graphs and tables that represent experimental data. Based on these outcomes, we conclude that guided task practice, collaborative learning, and calibrated peer review can be used to improve engineering students' visual communication skills.

  16. RISK ANALYSIS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND COMMUNICATION OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Parada Vasques Prado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at evaluating the risk analysis process in Information Technology and Communication (ICT outsourcing conducted by organizations of the private sector. The research is characterized by being a descriptive, quantitative and transversal type study, which was used the survey method. Data were collected through questionnaire, the sample is not random and we used a convenience sampling process. The research made contributions to understanding the risk analysis process in ICT services outsourcing, and identified statistically significant relationships between risk analysis, organization's size and its industry, and between risk analysis and diversity of outsourced services

  17. Risk communication in the case of the Fukushima accident: Impact of communication and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2016-10-01

    Risk communication about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011 was often not transparent, timely, clear, nor factually correct. However, lessons related to risk communication have been identified and some of them are already addressed in national and international communication programmes and strategies. The Fukushima accident may be seen as a practice scenario for risk communication with important lessons to be learned. As a result of risk communication failures during the accident, the world is now better prepared for communication related to nuclear emergencies than it was 5 years ago The present study discusses the impact of communication, as applied during the Fukushima accident, and the main lessons learned. It then identifies pathways for transparent, timely, clear and factually correct communication to be developed, practiced and applied in nuclear emergency communication before, during, and after nuclear accidents. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:683-686. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Communicating risk using absolute risk reduction or prolongation of life formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2014-01-01

    . The COMRADE questionnaire was used to measure patients' confidence in their decision and satisfaction with the risk communication. RESULTS: Of the 240 patients included for analyses, 112 were allocated to POL information and 128 to ARR. Patients redeeming a statin prescription totalled six (5.4%) when...... informed using POL, and 32 (25.0%) when using ARR. The level of confidence in decision and satisfaction with risk communication did not differ between the risk formats. CONCLUSION: Patients redeemed statin prescriptions less often when their GP communicated treatment effectiveness using POL compared......BACKGROUND: It is important that patients are well-informed about risks and benefits of therapies to help them decide whether to accept medical therapy. Different numerical formats can be used in risk communication but It remains unclear how the different formats affect decisions made by real...

  19. Risk communication for existing exposure situation after the nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The title subject is explained for its better understanding and recognition. The present state (Oct. 2011) where crisis of Fukushima Nuclear Accident has reached a settlement with release of 0.1 GBq/hr from the reactor container, is called the existing exposure situation. Radiation risk must be reduced under such a situation as people have to live in. Risk is defined to be a probability of matters undesirable, its size is assessed by various conditions and assumptions, it is manageable on its assessment, but its realization largely depends on subjectivity. Measures for lessening the risk usually accompany a load and disadvantage, leading to an antinomy structure (trade-off), of which problem is ultimately an ethical task of public health and cannot be solved in the form everybody agrees with. Therefore, a mutual consent among concerned people is required for deciding the principle of the risk management, for which the risk communication is essential. Risk communication about radiation is an unavoidable task of medical staffs as guided by International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) (2001), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2008) reports, World Health Organization (WHO), etc. However, the communication about radiation has now become also a task of the ordinary public under the present situation. For this, medical staffs are expected to play their role by acquiring the statistical literacy as well as with the radiological concept because the risk assessment accompanies the uncertainty. The author concludes that the risk communication is a problem of resolution to act, not of coping with. (T.T.)

  20. Guidelines for communicating about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibly, and ethically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, V.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses guidelines for communicating information about the risks of nuclear energy effectively, responsibility, and ethically. It consists of four parts: guidelines for communicating risk information; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk-related numbers and statistics; guidelines for presenting and explaining risk comparisons; and problems frequently encountered in communicating risk information

  1. The impact of a parent-directed intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Shelley E; Cross, Donna S; Shaw, Thérèse M

    2008-11-01

    Given the likelihood of engaging in the hazardous use of tobacco and alcohol increases during teenage years, pre-adolescence is a critical time to implement prevention programmes. While social factors other than those associated with parenting play a role in determining a child's risk for initiation of tobacco and alcohol use, parents can have a significant influence on their children's decisions about these issues. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an in-home parent-directed drug education intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol. A group randomised intervention trial was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. Schools were selected using stratified random sampling and randomised to three study conditions. A total of 1201 parents of 10- 11-year-old children were recruited from 20 schools. The impact of a self-help intervention, comprised of five communication sheets containing information and activities designed to encourage parents to talk with their 10- 11-year-old child about issues related to smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, was assessed. Intervention-group parents were more likely to have spoken with their children, to have spoken more recently, to have engaged the child during the discussion and to have addressed the topics identified as being protective of children's involvement in tobacco and alcohol. In addition, the duration of talks about alcohol was longer than for parents in the comparison group. Parents of 10- 11-year-old children appear to be receptive to participating in a home-based drug-related educational intervention and the parent-directed intervention seems to have enhanced parent-child tobacco- and alcohol-related communication.

  2. [Targeting high-risk drugs to optimize clinical pharmacists' intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouterde, Anne-Laure; Bourdelin, Magali; Maison, Ophélie; Coursier, Sandra; Bontemps, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    By the Order of 6 April 2011, the pharmacist must validate all the prescriptions containing "high-risk drugs" or those of "patients at risk". To optimize this clinical pharmacy activity, we identified high-risk drugs. A list of high-risk drugs has been established using literature, pharmacists' interventions (PI) performed in our hospital and a survey sent to hospital pharmacists. In a prospective study (analysis of 100 prescriptions for each high-risk drug selected), we have identified the most relevant to target. We obtained a statistically significant PI rate (P<0.05) for digoxin, oral anticoagulants direct, oral methotrexate and colchicine. This method of targeted pharmaceutical validation based on high-risk drugs is relevant to detect patients with high risk of medicine-related illness. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Food for thought - Communicating food-related risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sturloni Giancarlo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a continuous series of food alerts have caught the attention of the media and the public in Europe. First, eggs and pork contaminated with dioxins; then, “mad cow” disease, while, all along in the background, a battle against genetically modified plants has been in progress. These food alerts have had complex repercussions on the perception of risks associated with food production. Experts have often been divided over these issues, and the uncertainty of scientific data has been indicated on more than one occasion as one of the factors that influence risk perception. However, the most important factor seems to be undoubtedly the way in which the risk has been communicated (or not communicated to the public. Therefore, risk communication analysis offers an excellent opportunity to understand the profound changes that are taking place in relations among the scientific community, mass media and other members of civil society now that they are fully aware that scientific and technological innovation, the real driving force of modern industrial society, is a source of development but also a source of risks which are not always acceptable. Within this different context, a debate open to all interested parties appears to have become a dire necessity for the “risk society”, especially as far as food is concerned because food has extremely important psychological, ethical and cultural values.

  4. Challenges to communicate risks of human-caused earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    The awareness of natural hazards has been up-trending in recent years. In particular, this is true for earthquakes, which increase in frequency and magnitude in regions that normally do not experience seismic activity. In fact, one of the major concerns for many communities and businesses is that humans today seem to cause earthquakes due to large-scale shale gas production, dewatering and flooding of mines and deep geothermal power production. Accordingly, without opposing any of these technologies it should be a priority of earth scientists who are researching natural hazards to communicate earthquake risks. This presentation discusses the challenges that earth scientists are facing to properly communicate earthquake risks, in light of the fact that human-caused earthquakes are an environmental change affecting only some communities and businesses. Communication channels may range from research papers, books and class room lectures to outreach events and programs, popular media events or even social media networks.

  5. Evaluating the parent-adolescent communication toolkit: Usability and preliminary content effectiveness of an online intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toombs, Elaine; Unruh, Anita; McGrath, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the Parent-Adolescent Communication Toolkit, an online intervention designed to help improve parent communication with their adolescents. Participant preferences for two module delivery systems (sequential and unrestricted module access) were identified. Usability assessment of the PACT intervention was completed using pre-test and posttest comparisons. Usability data, including participant completion and satisfaction ratings were examined. Parents ( N  =   18) of adolescents were randomized to a sequential or unrestricted chapter access group. Parent participants completed pre-test measures, the PACT intervention and posttest measures. Participants provided feedback for the intervention to improve modules and provided usability ratings. Adolescent pre- and posttest ratings were evaluated. Usability ratings were high and parent feedback was positive. The sequential module access groups rated the intervention content higher and completed more content than the unrestricted chapter access group, indicating support for the sequential access design. Parent mean posttest communication scores were significantly higher ( p  Communication Toolkit has potential to improve parent-adolescent communication but further effectiveness assessment is required.

  6. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundertmark, Charles [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. and University of Phoenix (United States); Hoopes, Jack [Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. (United States); Flowers, Len [Roy F. Weston Company (United States); Jackson, David G [U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  7. Improving Sexual Risk Communication with Adolescents Using Event History Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…

  8. Planning risk communication for UMTRA project groundwater restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundertmark, Charles; Hoopes, Jack; Flowers, Len; Jackson, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is entering a new phase in which groundwater contamination will become a growing focus as surface remedial action draws toward completion. Planning for risk communication associated with the groundwater project will be a major factor in the successful initiation of the program. (author)

  9. An intervention to improve interprofessional collaboration and communications: a comparative qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kathleen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Conn, Lesley Gotlib; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Russell, Ann; Reeves, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Interprofessional communication and collaboration are promoted by policymakers as fundamental building blocks for improving patient safety and meeting the demands of increasingly complex care. This paper reports qualitative findings of an interprofessional intervention designed to improve communication and collaboration between different professions in general internal medicine (GIM) hospital wards in Canada. The intervention promoted self-introduction by role and profession to a collaborating colleague in relation to the shared patient, a question or communication regarding the patient, to be followed by an explicit request for feedback from the partner professional. Implementation and uptake of the intervention were evaluated using qualitative methods, including 90 hours of ethnographic observations and interviews collected in both intervention and comparison wards. Documentary data were also collected and analysed. Fieldnotes and interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Our findings suggested that the intervention did not produce the anticipated changes in communication and collaboration between health professionals, and allowed us to identify barriers to the implementation of effective collaboration interventions. Despite initially offering verbal support, senior physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals minimally explained the intervention to their junior colleagues and rarely role-modelled or reiterated support for it. Professional resistances as well as the fast paced, interruptive environment reduced opportunities or incentive to enhance restrictive interprofessional relationships. In a healthcare setting where face-to-face spontaneous interprofessional communication is not hostile but is rare and impersonal, the perceived benefits of improvement are insufficient to implement simple and potentially beneficial communication changes, in the face of habit, and absence of continued senior clinician and management support.

  10. Communication interventions to improve adherence to infection control precautions: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Post, Jeffrey; Morris, Sarah; Westbrook, Johanna; Wobcke, Wayne; Calcroft, Ross; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-02-06

    Ineffective communication of infection control requirements during transitions of care is a potential cause of non-compliance with infection control precautions by healthcare personnel. In this study, interventions to enhance communication during inpatient transfers between wards and radiology were implemented, in the attempt to improve adherence to precautions during transfers. Two interventions were implemented, comprising (i) a pre-transfer checklist used by radiology porters to confirm a patient's infectious status; (ii) a coloured cue to highlight written infectious status information in the transfer form. The effectiveness of the interventions in promoting adherence to standard precautions by radiology porters when transporting infectious patients was evaluated using a randomised crossover trial at a teaching hospital in Australia. 300 transfers were observed over a period of 4 months. Compliance with infection control precautions in the intervention groups was significantly improved relative to the control group (p group was 38%. Applying the coloured cue resulted in a compliance rate of 73%. The pre-transfer checklist intervention achieved a comparable compliance rate of 71%. When both interventions were applied, a compliance rate of 74% was attained. Acceptability of the coloured cue was high, but adherence to the checklist was low (40%). Simple measures to enhance communication through the provision of a checklist and the use a coloured cue brought about significant improvement in compliance with infection control precautions by transport personnel during inpatient transfers. The study underscores the importance of effective communication in ensuring compliance with infection control precautions during transitions of care.

  11. Communication with parents concerning withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining interventions in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Annie; Barrington, Keith; Farlow, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    The nature and content of the conversations between the healthcare team and the parents concerning withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining interventions for neonates vary greatly. These depend upon the status of the infant; for some neonates, death may be imminent, while other infants may be relatively stable, yet with a potential risk for surviving with severe disability. Healthcare providers also need to communicate with prospective parents before the birth of premature infants or neonates with uncertain outcomes. Many authors recommend that parents of fragile neonates receive detailed information about the potential outcomes of their children and the choices they have provided in an unbiased and empathetic manner. However, the exact manner this is to be achieved in clinical practice remains unclear. Parents and healthcare providers may have different values regarding the provision of life-sustaining interventions. However, parents base their decisions on many factors, not just probabilities. The role of emotions, regret, hope, quality of life, resilience, and relationships is rarely discussed. End-of-life discussions with parents should be individualized and personalized. This article suggests ways to personalize these conversations. The mnemonic "SOBPIE" may help providers have fruitful discussions: (1) What is the Situation? Is the baby imminently dying? Should withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining interventions be considered? (2) Opinions and options: personal biases of healthcare professionals and alternatives for patients. (3) Basic human interactions. (4) Parents: their story, their concerns, their needs, and their goals. (5) Information: meeting parental informational needs and providing balanced information. (6) Emotions: relational aspects of decision making which include the following: emotions, social supports, coping with uncertainty, adaptation, and resilience. In this paper, we consider some aspects of this complex process. Copyright

  12. Beyond Words: Amplification of Cancer Risk Communication on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Yulia A; Krieger, Janice L

    2017-10-01

    Social media provide a unique channel for disseminating evidence-based information to diverse audiences and organizational and private stakeholders, thus facilitating a dialog about health and health risks. Guided by the social amplification of risk framework, the goal of this study was to assess the level of audience engagement with messages posted on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Facebook page and evaluate the differences in the audience information behavior toward risk-related and non-risk posts. Data included 1,975 posts published on the NCI Facebook page as well as the corresponding 4,537 comments, 77,298 shares, and 145,462 likes. Links and images were the top two most frequent types of content for both risk-related and non-risk posts, but risk-related messages were more amplified through comments, shares, and likes. Comparing the modality of risk-related messages, videos, contrary to the prediction, were not more effective in attracting audience engagement than images. Finally, comments to risk-related posts did not repeat risk-related language suggesting that future studies should examine risk signal recognition and dissemination as separate behaviors. This study's findings emphasize the importance of focused investigation of message design strategies and message effects on the dissemination and amplification of communication related to health risks.

  13. Communicating risk and promoting disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, Renata; May Leung, May; Brown, Mason

    2014-03-01

    This review aims to identify and assess evidence on interventions to communicate risk and promote disease mitigation measures in epidemics and emerging disease outbreak settings. The study focuses on data that are relevant to low and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using five major electronic databases (Pubmed Medline, Biomed Central, EMBASE, Science of Citation Index, and Cochrane Library) and other sources to identify relevant studies published from January 2002 to July 2013. The review was guided by the socio-ecological model/perspective of public health and the ideation theory and focused on interventions at the community, healthcare, and multi-sectoral settings, which also reflect key intervention levels of the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Eligible quantitative studies were selected according to specific study criteria and assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) framework. Conversely, qualitative studies, reviews, case studies, and editorials were not included. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers. Twenty-nine relevant studies from 16 countries were included. Most studies focused on a single intervention or intervention level, rather than multi-sectoral interventions. The majority of the evidence relates to programs aimed at behavioral and social results (or relevant intermediate steps) within a specific population group. Two studies included implications for improvements in health service delivery, two studies examined the intervention's impact on health systems-related outcomes, and three had also implications for environmental health outcomes. Cost- and health equity-related implications for select evidence were also discussed. The paucity of well-designed quantitative evaluations of interventions to communicate health risk and promote disease control measures in LMICs does not allow for any definitive conclusions. Yet, the review identified several promising

  14. Workplace Interventions to Reduce Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Anne N

    2011-02-01

    The worksite is ideal for implementing interventions to reduce obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Although worksite health promotion is not new, employer-sponsored wellness programs have become more widespread due to the rising prevalence and high cost of obesity. Over the past two decades, employers and researchers focused efforts on individual-based programs to change employees' nutrition and exercise behaviors, but more recently, the worksite environment has been targeted. Overall, there is good evidence that individual-based worksite programs can produce modest weight loss, but the evidence for effects on other risk factors and on long-term health outcomes and costs is inconsistent. There is less evidence for the benefit of environmental-based interventions, and more data will be needed to establish conclusions about the benefits of these types of interventions. A major challenge for employers and researchers in the future will be to find the balance between effectiveness and economic viability of worksite wellness programs.

  15. Integrated Intervention for Diabetes Risk After Gestational Diabetes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will work with at-risk women from poor communities who use the public health system in the cities of Cape Town and Johannesburg. The proposed intervention involves offering women a special test to see whether they have diabetes six weeks after delivery, along with counselling about healthy lifestyles from a ...

  16. Government interventions and default risk: Does one size fit all?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the financial sector rescue packages provided by the national governments during the 2008 financial crisis. This study questions the implicit assumption that government interventions have an uniform effect on the default risk of individual banks. After testing the

  17. Communication and marketing as climate change-intervention assets a public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maibach, Edward W; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2008-11-01

    The understanding that global climate change represents a profound threat to the health and well-being of human and nonhuman species worldwide is growing. This article examines the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behavior in ways consistent with climate change prevention and adaptation objectives. Specifically, using a framework based on an ecologic model of public health, the paper examines: (1) the potential of communication and marketing interventions to influence population behaviors of concern, including support for appropriate public policies; (2) potential target audiences for such programs; and (3) the attributes of effective climate change messages. Communication and marketing interventions appear to have considerable potential to promote important population behavior change objectives, but there is an urgent need for additional translational research to effectively harvest this potential to combat climate change.

  18. [Interventions to promote social communication in children with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli-Fortea, I; Rosello-Miranda, B; Berenguer-Forner, C; Colomer-Diago, C; Grau-Sevilla, M D

    2017-02-24

    The difficulties encountered when it comes to social communication are one of the core disorders experienced by persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This problem leads to feelings of loneliness and social exclusion, which negatively affect the quality of life. To review the characteristics of the main interventions in this field in high-functioning ASD. Strategies employed include social stories, comic-strip conversations or videomodelling, and interventions mediated by peers and multicomponent treatments. The design of the programmes used today has evolved towards more ecological approaches that take the family, teachers and companions into account in the treatment. The most recent literature reviews have found evidence of significant improvements following their implementation, which has been reflected in better social competence and lesser feelings of loneliness. The social communication intervention must combine individualised instruction with consideration of the child's environment and the motivation towards communicative interaction.

  19. The Mediating Role of Partner Communication Frequency on Condom Use Among African-American Adolescent Females Participating in an HIV Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Jessica M.; Lang, Delia L.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Latham, Teaniese P; Wingood, Gina M.; Hardin, James W.; Rose, Eve S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Although effective HIV prevention interventions have been developed for adolescents, few interventions have explored whether components of the intervention are responsible for the observed changes in behaviors post-intervention. This study examined the mediating role of partner communication frequency on African-American adolescent females’ condom use post-participation in a demonstrated efficacious HIV risk-reduction intervention. Main Outcome Measures Percent condom use in the past 60 days and consistent condom use in the past 6o days across the 12-month follow-up period. Design As part of a randomized controlled trial of African-American adolescent females (N=715), 15-21 years, seeking sexual health services, completed a computerized interview at baseline (prior to intervention) and again 6- and 12-month follow-up post-intervention participation. The interview assessed adolescents’ sexual behavior and partner communication skills, among other variables, at each time point. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) techniques, both logistic and linear regression models were employed to test mediation over the 12-month follow-up period. Additional tests were conducted to assess the significance of the mediated models. Results Mediation analyses observed that partner communication frequency was a significant partial mediator of both proportion condom-protected sex acts (p =.001) and consistent condom use (p = .001). Conclusion Partner communication frequency, an integral component of this HIV intervention, significantly increased as a function of participating in the intervention partially explaining the change in condom use observed 12-months post-intervention. Understanding what intervention components are associated with behavior change is important for future intervention development. PMID:21843001

  20. Communication intervention in children with severe disabilities and multilingual backgrounds: perceptions of pedagogues and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Gonda

    2011-12-01

    Increasing global population movement has resulted in a corresponding increase of children with severe and multiple disabilities and complex communication needs who at home are exposed to languages different from the language used at school. The aim of this study was to highlight facilitating as well as limiting factors for effective communication intervention for these children both in school and within the family. Based on observations, qualitative research interviews and analysis in the tradition of grounded theory the results indicate that the quality of parent-teacher-interaction is central to effective communication intervention and culturally sensitive use of communication aids. Challenges for teachers as well as parents to achieve a mutually satisfying interaction are addressed, and issues regarding the language use with children with severe disabilities and a multilingual and multicultural background and the inclusion of their parents in school based activities are discussed.

  1. Radon risks: Attitudes, perceptions and actions. Risk communication series. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.

    1989-08-01

    As many as 8 million homes in the United States may have elevated radon levels, with accompanying lung cancer risks several orders of magnitude higher than for most other environmental risks. The U.S. Environmental Protection Program (EPA) does not have clear regulatory authority over radon, so has relied on an information program. Less than 5% of homes have been tested, which is disappointing from a public health stance. The report summarizes the available research on communicating about the risk from radon from the perspective of a psychologist. The research results are critiqued to draw practical conclusions for radon policy and suggest the most important topics for further risk communication research.

  2. Characterizing Social Networks and Communication Channels in a Web-Based Peer Support Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jason E; Curran, Michaela; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Hanneman, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Web and mobile (mHealth) interventions have promise for improving health outcomes, but engagement and attrition may be reducing effect sizes. Because social networks can improve engagement, which is a key mechanism of action, understanding the structure and potential impact of social networks could be key to improving mHealth effects. This study (a) evaluates social network characteristics of four distinct communication channels (discussion board, chat, e-mail, and blog) in a large social networking intervention, (b) predicts membership in online communities, and (c) evaluates whether community membership impacts engagement. Participants were 299 cancer survivors with significant distress using the 12-week health-space.net intervention. Social networking attributes (e.g., density and clustering) were identified separately for each type of network communication (i.e., discussion board, blog, web mail, and chat). Each channel demonstrated high levels of clustering, and being a community member in one communication channel was associated with being in the same community in each of the other channels (φ = 0.56-0.89, ps < 0.05). Predictors of community membership differed across communication channels, suggesting that each channel reached distinct types of users. Finally, membership in a discussion board, chat, or blog community was strongly associated with time spent engaging with coping skills exercises (Ds = 1.08-1.84, ps < 0.001) and total time of intervention (Ds = 1.13-1.80, ps < 0.001). mHealth interventions that offer multiple channels for communication allow participants to expand the number of individuals with whom they are communicating, create opportunities for communicating with different individuals in distinct channels, and likely enhance overall engagement.

  3. Characterizing Social Networks and Communication Channels in a Web-Based Peer Support Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Michaela; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Hanneman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Web and mobile (mHealth) interventions have promise for improving health outcomes, but engagement and attrition may be reducing effect sizes. Because social networks can improve engagement, which is a key mechanism of action, understanding the structure and potential impact of social networks could be key to improving mHealth effects. This study (a) evaluates social network characteristics of four distinct communication channels (discussion board, chat, e-mail, and blog) in a large social networking intervention, (b) predicts membership in online communities, and (c) evaluates whether community membership impacts engagement. Participants were 299 cancer survivors with significant distress using the 12-week health-space.net intervention. Social networking attributes (e.g., density and clustering) were identified separately for each type of network communication (i.e., discussion board, blog, web mail, and chat). Each channel demonstrated high levels of clustering, and being a community member in one communication channel was associated with being in the same community in each of the other channels (φ = 0.56–0.89, ps < 0.05). Predictors of community membership differed across communication channels, suggesting that each channel reached distinct types of users. Finally, membership in a discussion board, chat, or blog community was strongly associated with time spent engaging with coping skills exercises (Ds = 1.08–1.84, ps < 0.001) and total time of intervention (Ds = 1.13–1.80, ps < 0.001). mHealth interventions that offer multiple channels for communication allow participants to expand the number of individuals with whom they are communicating, create opportunities for communicating with different individuals in distinct channels, and likely enhance overall engagement. PMID:27327066

  4. COMMUNICATION SKILLS, A SOLUTION DIMINISHING RISKS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisoara Duica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest approaches in the field, the integrated marketing communication requires a planned organizational approach, creating and maintaining in time good relations with the customers of its products or services, but also with its other stakeholders. According to the data provided by the National Statistics Institute (INS, the year 2014 is the first year in history when the Romanian exports exceeded the amount of EUR 50 billion. However, within the context of the economic crisis, numerous Romanian brands have disappeared from the market and Romania risks becoming a simple outlet market if the local companies do not improve their communication processes and skills, as sources of competitive advantage by which the Romanian products and services may differ in relation to those of the E.U. member countries. Within the context of business globalization and of the knowledge society, the present paper is trying to identify ways of developing the communication skills, which can be integrated in a formal risk management system, allowing the decrease of the risks triggered by the cultural differences specific of communication in international business.

  5. Risk communication. The key of the policy success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covalschi, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    Today, in a democratic society, nuclear power development is subject to public acceptance. The acceptance of the nuclear activities development implies both the approval by the government's proper authorities and also the standpoints of the civil society, expressed in forms more or less institutionalized. The public has an important role to play in addressing issues of health, safety and environment. Therefore, all activities of a nuclear organization need to be both transparent and should provide for the public's appropriate involvement, with input not only from the nuclear community, but also from members of the public, interested groups, media, as well as public representatives in local and national councils and groups. How to communicate clearly with the public is a very challenging job that requires special attention. Risk communication is the art or practice of talking about scientific information and principles to a non - expert audience. Its goal is to convey accurate and trustworthy information about safety to decision - makers, the public, or anyone else with an interest in the safety of the public or themselves. The science of communication, public education for a proper perception of risks are the key for attaining social acceptance of any technology that is about to become part of the sustainable development process and hence, of nuclear energy. The paper describes the way our nuclear organization is acting and the results in risk communication activity it achieves. (author)

  6. Design of the BRISC study: a multicentre controlled clinical trial to optimize the communication of breast cancer risks in genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockhuysen-Vermey, Caroline F; Henneman, Lidewij; van Asperen, Christi J; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Menko, Fred H; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M

    2008-10-03

    Understanding risks is considered to be crucial for informed decision-making. Inaccurate risk perception is a common finding in women with a family history of breast cancer attending genetic counseling. As yet, it is unclear how risks should best be communicated in clinical practice. This study protocol describes the design and methods of the BRISC (Breast cancer RISk Communication) study evaluating the effect of different formats of risk communication on the counsellee's risk perception, psychological well-being and decision-making regarding preventive options for breast cancer. The BRISC study is designed as a pre-post-test controlled group intervention trial with repeated measurements using questionnaires. The intervention-an additional risk consultation-consists of one of 5 conditions that differ in the way counsellee's breast cancer risk is communicated: 1) lifetime risk in numerical format (natural frequencies, i.e. X out of 100), 2) lifetime risk in both numerical format and graphical format (population figures), 3) lifetime risk and age-related risk in numerical format, 4) lifetime risk and age-related risk in both numerical format and graphical format, and 5) lifetime risk in percentages. Condition 6 is the control condition in which no intervention is given (usual care). Participants are unaffected women with a family history of breast cancer attending one of three participating clinical genetic centres in the Netherlands. The BRISC study allows for an evaluation of the effects of different formats of communicating breast cancer risks to counsellees. The results can be used to optimize risk communication in order to improve informed decision-making among women with a family history of breast cancer. They may also be useful for risk communication in other health-related services. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14566836.

  7. Design of the BRISC study: a multicentre controlled clinical trial to optimize the communication of breast cancer risks in genetic counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menko Fred H

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding risks is considered to be crucial for informed decision-making. Inaccurate risk perception is a common finding in women with a family history of breast cancer attending genetic counseling. As yet, it is unclear how risks should best be communicated in clinical practice. This study protocol describes the design and methods of the BRISC (Breast cancer RISk Communication study evaluating the effect of different formats of risk communication on the counsellee's risk perception, psychological well-being and decision-making regarding preventive options for breast cancer. Methods and design The BRISC study is designed as a pre-post-test controlled group intervention trial with repeated measurements using questionnaires. The intervention-an additional risk consultation-consists of one of 5 conditions that differ in the way counsellee's breast cancer risk is communicated: 1 lifetime risk in numerical format (natural frequencies, i.e. X out of 100, 2 lifetime risk in both numerical format and graphical format (population figures, 3 lifetime risk and age-related risk in numerical format, 4 lifetime risk and age-related risk in both numerical format and graphical format, and 5 lifetime risk in percentages. Condition 6 is the control condition in which no intervention is given (usual care. Participants are unaffected women with a family history of breast cancer attending one of three participating clinical genetic centres in the Netherlands. Discussion The BRISC study allows for an evaluation of the effects of different formats of communicating breast cancer risks to counsellees. The results can be used to optimize risk communication in order to improve informed decision-making among women with a family history of breast cancer. They may also be useful for risk communication in other health-related services. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14566836.

  8. TU-F-16A-01: Communicating Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollough, C; Kofler, J; Wagner, L; Brateman, L

    2014-01-01

    The radiobiological risks associated with medical imaging are generally considered to be small, if existent. However, the public view of the risk of medical radiation at diagnostic levels can be substantially different from the clinical reality. Radiation science is not taught to the general public, and so perception of radiation risks can be based on a variety sources, including some that may be misleading, incorrect, or sensationalized. Consequently, patients can have significant concerns about procedures they or their loved ones might have had or that might be needed in their medical care. It is the responsibility of the physicist to be able to communicate risk in a manner that is clear, understandable, and respectful. This session will present a number of real life scenarios of patient or family concern about radiation risks. The panel will, through demonstration or discussion, present various options for handling each situation. The audience will be involved in discussion and critique of the approaches presented. Learning Objectives: To gain insight to the patients perspective on radiation risk and how to respond professionally to their concerns. To learn basic principles for effectively communicating with patients about radiation risk. To gain tools and approaches for addressing a wide range of patient concerns

  9. Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigere Chagutah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has frequently been struck by damaging climate hazards which increasingly continue to threaten sustainable development efforts. Ominously, climate models predict that the incidence of major ‘wet’ events, such as floods and cyclones will increase in frequency against the background of a changing climate. Unfortunately, local mechanisms for communicating and raising public awareness of the consequent risks and appropriate risk reduction options remain weak. At the core of policy responses to the threat posed by climate related hazards, the South African government has adopted a disaster risk reduction approach to disaster management. This article details how, among many other measures to limit the adverse impacts of natural hazards, South Africa’s National Disaster Management Framework calls for the implementation of effective public awareness activities to increase the knowledge among communities of the risks they face and what risk-minimising actions they can take. Emphasis is laid on the importance of information provision and knowledge building among at-risk communities. Citing established theories and strategies, the author proposes a participatory development communication approach through Development Support Communication strategies for the provision of disaster risk reduction public awareness activities by government and other disaster risk reduction role-players in South Africa. By way of a review of completed studies and literature, the article provides guidance on the planning and execution of successful public communication campaigns and also discusses the constraints of communication campaigns as an intervention for comprehensive disaster risk reduction.

  10. monIT: A Portuguese Risk Communication Project on EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carla; Sebastiao, Daniel; Carpinteiro, Goncalo; Fernandes, Carlos A.; Correia, Luis M.

    2006-01-01

    The monIT project is a risk communication programme, aiming at providing information on exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communication systems in Portugal. monIT's website, www.lxlit.pt/monit, is the main interface for dissemination of information. Besides including relevant information about EMF for both the general public and the technical community, this website provides results from extensive measurement campaigns performed all over Portugal during the last three years. This paper presents the project's structure and activities, practical results achieved and ends with some conclusions and action lines for future work. (author)

  11. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity, and European Central Bank Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We examine the dynamic relation between credit risk and liquidity in the Italian sovereign bond market during the eurozone crisis and the subsequent European Central Bank (ECB) interventions. Credit risk drives the liquidity of the market. A 10% change in the credit default swap (CDS) spread leads...... to a 13% change in the bid-ask spread, the relation being stronger when the CDS spread exceeds 500 basis points. The Long-Term Refinancing Operations of the ECB weakened the sensitivity of market makers’ liquidity provision to credit risk, highlighting the importance of funding liquidity measures...

  12. Nuclear risk and communication: the essential role of safety authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hautin, N.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: whether concerning mad cow disease, asbestos, nuclear, OGM or now, dioxin in French meat, public health risks have been making the headlines of newspapers for a while. And, firms whose activity is associated with these risks are in effect in the defendants box. Therefore, communicating becomes difficult: their word is suspect and, debates quite rapidly exceed the firm competencies to become a socio-cultural conflict. This paper explores in nuclear fields the essential role of safety authorities in such communication cases. Our surveys and the comparative case study between the pipe at La Hague and 'contaminated' nuclear transports in France are eloquent: the messages of nuclear firms is perceived through their image of a State within the State built from the past and reinforced by the negative prism of the news. Regular and technical arguments (the respect of norms) entertain the debate rather than hush it. That is why we could infer an objective, and independent opinion is required, one different from the firm, the public and ministries: its role of referee could allow a constructive dialog between the public and the firm. Risk communication nature and efficiency depend on that (cf. the diagram). As a solution, we think about a legitimate authority organization identified by the public first, but by other actors as well. From the public point of view, if we see the place of pressure groups (e.g. Greenpeace) in the debate as a measure of the lack of trust in the independence of safety authorities, we can infer that it is a reaffirmation of democracy which is demanded by the French public, which could be satisfied with powerful safety authorities. That is why safety authorities have an essential role to play, beyond this of control, in nuclear risk communication towards the public. Diagram: communication path between a nuclear firm and the public during conflict. (author)

  13. A trial of an iPad™ intervention targeting social communication skills in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Petrou, Alexandra; Scott-Barrett, Juliet; Dicks, Pamela; Graham, Catherine; O'Hare, Anne; Pain, Helen; McConachie, Helen

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated a technology-based early intervention for social communication skills in pre-schoolers in a randomised controlled trial. Participants were 54 children aged under 6 years with a diagnosis of autism, assigned to either intervention or control conditions. The app engaged children, who played consistently, regardless of developmental level, and was rated highly by parents. There were no significant group differences in parent-report measures post-intervention, nor in a measure of parent-child play at follow-up. Therefore, this intervention did not have an observable impact on real-world social communication skills and caution is recommended about the potential usefulness of iPad(™) apps for amelioration of difficulties in interaction. However, positive attitudes among participants, lack of harms and the potential of apps to deliver therapeutic content at low economic cost suggest this approach is worth pursuing further, perhaps targeting other skill domains. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Improving physician-patient communication about cancer pain with a tailored education-coaching intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Richard L; Slee, Christina; Kalauokalani, Donna K; Dean, Dionne Evans; Tancredi, Daniel J; Kravitz, Richard L

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the effect of a theoretically grounded, tailored education-coaching intervention to help patients more effectively discuss their pain-related questions, concerns, and preferences with physicians. Grounded in social-cognitive and communication theory, a tailored education-coaching (TEC) intervention was developed to help patients learn pain management and communication skills. In a RCT, 148 cancer patients agreed to have their consultations audio-recorded and were assigned to the intervention or a control group. The recordings were used to code for patients' questions, acts of assertiveness, and expressed concerns and to rate the quality of physicians' communication. Patients in the TEC group discussed their pain concerns more than did patients in the control group. More active patients also had more baseline pain and interacted with physicians using participatory decision-making. Ratings of physicians' information about pain were higher when patients talked more about their pain concerns. The study demonstrates the efficacy of a theoretically grounded, coaching intervention to help cancer patients talk about pain control. Coaching interventions can be effective resources for helping cancer patients communicate about their pain concerns if they are theoretically grounded, can be integrated within clinical routines, and lead to improve health outcomes. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decision making biases in the communication of earthquake risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, M. B.; Steacy, S.; Begg, S. H.; Navarro, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    L'Aquila, with 6 scientists convicted of manslaughter, shocked the scientific community, leading to urgent re-appraisal of communication methods for low-probability, high-impact events. Before the trial, a commission investigating the earthquake recommended risk assessment be formalised via operational earthquake forecasts and that social scientists be enlisted to assist in developing communication strategies. Psychological research has identified numerous decision biases relevant to this, including hindsight bias, where people (after the fact) overestimate an event's predictability. This affects experts as well as naïve participants as it relates to their ability to construct a plausible causal story rather than the likelihood of the event. Another problem is availability, which causes overestimation of the likelihood of observed rare events due to their greater noteworthiness. This, however, is complicated by the 'description-experience' gap, whereby people underestimate probabilities for events they have not experienced. That is, people who have experienced strong earthquakes judge them more likely while those who have not judge them less likely - relative to actual probabilities. Finally, format changes alter people's decisions. That is people treat '1 in 10,000' as different from 0.01% despite their mathematical equivalence. Such effects fall under the broad term framing, which describes how different framings of the same event alter decisions. In particular, people's attitude to risk depends significantly on how scenarios are described. We examine the effect of biases on the communication of change in risk. South Australian participants gave responses to scenarios describing familiar (bushfire) or unfamiliar (earthquake) risks. While bushfires are rare in specific locations, significant fire events occur each year and are extensively covered. By comparison, our study location (Adelaide) last had a M5 quake in 1954. Preliminary results suggest the description

  16. Evaluating communication to optimise consumer-directed energy efficiency interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Awareness campaigns, education and training programmes, label schemes and smart metering are all initiatives based on the principle that more and better information will encourage consumers to use less energy. Initiatives of this type can realise efficiency savings of up to 30%, and are likely to remain politically popular while preferred by the public to legislation or fines. While widespread, such programmes can have mixed performance, with savings often not reaching potential. This article investigates whether existing theoretical models can usefully be combined for evaluations of such message-oriented programmes. To do this it examines relationships between the variables of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using empirical data from participants exposed to energy behaviour change projects. Analysis revealed that when used together, the theories may offer insight into the impact of messaging. While a single exploratory study can only describe what has occurred, it offers initial evidence to advocate further analysis of the potential of the combined framework. The author offers an illustration of how the framework might be utilised by other schemes by example of its application to a major EU project to save energy in Europe’s public buildings. - Highlights: • Consumer energy saving schemes have huge potential as a route to emissions reduction. • Mixed performance could be addressed by focus on impact of communication. • Evidence from exploratory study supports case for proposed evaluation framework. • Framework is illustrated at varying stages: planning, mid-term, and impact

  17. The perception of the risk and the system of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    The measures that are applied to regulate a certain practice, are based on the risk that implies the practice and in the acceptance of the above mentioned risk from the part affected by the practice. If the perception of the risk does not correspond to the reality the situation is unstable and it is possible to lose the control of the situation. When discrepancies exist in the Perception of the Risk on the part of different sectors of the society, they can produce serious conflicts that affect the establishment of the protection measures. The problem of the 'perception of the risk' rests on the fact that the technical people and the public use generally different reasoning and therefore its coincidence is almost fortuitous. The intuitive perception of the risk is often narrowly tied to a 'symbolic mechanism' and once established the symbolic relation can produce a psychological phenomenon by means of which the individuals resist to the reality, and the symbols make prevail over the facts in order not to alter the interior symbolic pre-established scheme. The perception of the risk appears in two different groups of persons: 1) The persons affected by the risk (the public); and 2) The persons who can modify this risk (operators). It is important that the perception of the risk is compatible with the scientific hypotheses to avoid conflicts in the situation 1 and to assure the control in the situation 2 (safety culture). The 'perception of the risk' is fundamental to support the control of a practice and it is possible to modify it across the communication. It is necessary to know which are all The Factors that affect the perception of the risk to be able to design a strategy of suitable communication. Across different studies it has been learned which are the factors that affect the perception of risk: 1) Some factors depend on the proper characteristics of the risk; 2) Others depend on the proper characteristics of the individuals and finally; 3) Other factors

  18. The role of stakeholder involvement in risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    2004-01-01

    Inviting stakeholders to be part of the decision making process in risk analysis and management improves the likelihood that the resulting decision will be accepted. Unfortunately, early public involvement may compromise, however, the objective of efficient and effective risk reduction or violate the principle of fairness. Another problem is that the public consists of many groups with different value structures and preferences. Without a systematic procedure to reach consensus on values and preferences, the public's position often appears as unclear. Participatory processes are thus needed that combine technical expertise, rational decision making, and public values and preferences. The recent report by the National Academy of Sciences encourages risk professionals to foster citizen participation and public involvement in risk management. The report emphasizes the need for a combination of assessment and dialogue which the authors have framed the 'analytic-deliberative' approach. The popularity associated with the concepts of two-way-communication, trust-building, and citizen participation, however, obscures the challenge of how to put these noble goals into practice and how to ensure that risk management reflects competence, efficiency, and fair burden sharing. This paper discusses the potential and requirements for stakeholder participation in the field of risk management and communication. (orig.)

  19. Institutional Trust and Communication in the Perception and Social Construction of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Vallejos Romero

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's objective, in general, is to offer a conceptual discussion on the perception and construction of risk and, in particular, on the observation and criticism of interventions that are implemented in relation to environmental risk expressed in Chile and Latin America. The proposal, framed in the perspective of social theory and the sociology of risk, suggests some theoretical-methodological lines to approach socioenvironmental problems, particular to modernity, that are expressed through constructions and perceptions that local actors (common and key develop and which studies evidence as a negative externality for the health and quality of life of the population. Specifically, this articles attempts to observe, from a different perspective, the problematization of social perception of risk and to work with two variables that the literature shows as relevant at the time of explaining risks in our localities: trust and risk communication, which we believe are also necessary to take into account when thinking of models of environmental intervention which can improve public policies and instruments of management regarding socioenvironmental risks.

  20. A Randomized Comparison of the Effect of Two Prelinguistic Communication Interventions on the Acquisition of Spoken Communication in Preschoolers with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized group experiment compared the efficacy of 2 communication interventions (Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching [RPMT] and the Picture Exchange Communication System [PECS]) on spoken communication in 36 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Method: Each treatment was delivered to children for a…

  1. Dynamics of the public concern and risk communication program implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaryabova, Victoria; Israel, Michel

    2015-09-01

    The public concern about electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure varies due to different reasons. A part of them are connected with the better and higher quality of information that people receive from science, media, Internet, social networks, industry, but others are based on good communication programs performed by the responsible institutions, administration and persons. Especially, in Bulgaria, public concern follows interesting changes, some of them in correlation with the European processes of concern, but others following the economic and political processes in the country. Here, we analyze the dynamics of the public concern over the last 10 years. Our explanation of the decrease of the people's complaints against EMF exposure from base stations for mobile communication is as a result of our risk communication program that is in implementation for >10 years.

  2. Nursing staff's communication modes in patient transfer before and after an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindblom-Rising, Kristina; Wahlstrom, Rolf; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Buer, Nina; Nilsson-Wikmar, Lena

    2010-10-01

    The objective was to explore and describe nursing staff's body awareness and communication in patient transfers and evaluate any changes made after an educational intervention to promote staff competence in guiding patients to move independently. In total, 63 nursing staff from two hospitals wrote weekly notes before and after the intervention. The topics were: A) reflect on a transfer during the last week that you consider was good and one that was poor; B) reflect on how your body felt during a good and a poor transfer. The notes were analysed with content analysis. The results showed five different communication modes connected with nursing staff's physical and verbal communication. These communication modes changed after 1 year to a more verbal communication, focusing on the patient's mobility. The use of instructions indicated a new or different understanding of patient transfer, which may contribute to a development of nursing staff's competence. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present findings indicate that patient transfer consists of communication. Therefore, verbal and bodily communication can have an integral part of training in patient transfer; furthermore, the educational design of such programmes is important to reach the goal of developing new understanding and enhancing nursing staff's competence in patient transfer.

  3. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467

  4. What not to say: risk communication for botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Deborah C; Drury, Allison; Cavanaugh, Clint; Shoaf, Kimberley

    2008-03-01

    This formative research study used qualitative methods to test the suitability of messages about botulism for the general public. Nine focus group interviews and 27 cognitive interviews were conducted with diverse audiences to pretest radio, television, and fact sheet messages predicated on a hypothetical terrorist attack using botulinum toxin. Narrative data were collected, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using content domains based on risk and health communication theories. While participants accepted the need for materials, the messages produced contained images and references describing botulism as a toxin-caused illness spread both by food and water contamination as well as by airborne means. The audience's lack of understanding of the term toxin and an imperfect understanding of airborne transmission of a toxic substance meant that some people interpreted botulism as being an infectious disease rather than a type of poisoning. The communication materials did not clearly show how the set of botulism symptoms are unique and described the anti-toxin as "not a cure," thus compounding the audience's misunderstanding. Using models from cognitive and developmental psychology, our findings were interpreted to show that certain terms evoke or elicit long-held conceptual frameworks that lay audiences use to explain medical phenomena. Relevant to botulism, poisoning events are distinct from infectious diseases, but prepared messages did not reinforce these distinctions. Ignoring how people organize preexisting health information when trying to communicate new information is a prescription for failure, especially in a crisis risk communication scenario. Findings from this study have been used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to reformulate pre-event crisis risk communication materials for botulism.

  5. A Communication Intervention to Reduce Resistiveness in Dementia Care: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kristine N; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Herman, Ruth; Bossen, Ann

    2017-08-01

    Nursing home (NH) residents with dementia exhibit challenging behaviors or resistiveness to care (RTC) that increase staff time, stress, and NH costs. RTC is linked to elderspeak communication. Communication training (Changing Talk [CHAT]) was provided to staff to reduce their use of elderspeak. We hypothesized that CHAT would improve staff communication and subsequently reduce RTC. Thirteen NHs were randomized to intervention and control groups. Dyads (n = 42) including 29 staff and 27 persons with dementia were videorecorded during care before and/or after the intervention and at a 3-month follow-up. Videos were behaviorally coded for (a) staff communication (normal, elderspeak, or silence) and (b) resident behaviors (cooperative or RTC). Linear mixed modeling was used to evaluate training effects. On average, elderspeak declined from 34.6% (SD = 18.7) at baseline by 13.6% points (SD = 20.00) post intervention and 12.2% points (SD = 22.0) at 3-month follow-up. RTC declined from 35.7% (SD = 23.2) by 15.3% points (SD = 32.4) post intervention and 13.4% points (SD = 33.7) at 3 months. Linear mixed modeling determined that change in elderspeak was predicted by the intervention (b = -12.20, p = .028) and baseline elderspeak (b = -0.65, p communication and reduce RTC, providing an effective nonpharmacological intervention to manage behavior and improve the quality of dementia care. No adverse events occurred. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Community-based interventions to enhance knowledge, protective attitudes and behaviors towards canine rabies: results from a health communication intervention study in Guangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In China canine rabies poses a serious public health problem in that human mortality ranks the second highest globally. While rabies health education interventions are advocated by WHO to be critical components of modern rabies control and prevention programs, available studies have not adequately investigated the relative efficacy of their implementation in at-risk populations. This study aims to measure and compare the effect on knowledge and protective behavior towards rabies of health education interventions that include a novel Short Messaging Service via cell phone (SMS and rabies health information sessions (IS. Methods The study used a between-subject design involving repeated measures of rabies-related KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice. A total of 350 randomly selected villagers were randomly allocated into three intervention (SMS, IS and SMS + IS and one control group. The content of SMS and IS covered topics about rabies prevention and route of transmission. The SMS intervention consisted of ten separate messages delivered three times two weeks after the pretest; the IS intervention was conducted once immediately after the pretest. A validated questionnaire was used to capture demographic information and KAP information. Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to contrast the effects of interventions. Results Our results indicate that overall SMS outperforms IS at improving knowledge and protective behavior against rabies. Our results suggest that a combined intervention of SMS and IS can result in higher scores than any of the two in isolation. The impact of SMS, IS and SMS + IS is greatest on knowledge, followed by attitude and practice scores. Conclusion This study demonstrated that health communication modes based on SMS, IS and a combination of the two are all effective to improve rabies-related KAP in the short term. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of SMS as an additional tool

  7. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  8. Risk management in methodologies of information technology and communications projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carrillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/10/02 - Accepted: 2013/12/13At present there are methodologies that have several alternatives and methods to manage projects of Information and Communication Technologies. However, these do not cover a solution for the technology events that can occur in the industry, government, education, among others. In the technology market there are several models to identify and analyze risks according to relevant aspects of their area of specialty e.g. projects, in software development, communications, information security and business alignment. For this reason, this research conducted an evaluation of risk management activities of the methodologies used mostly to know which of them includes more correspondence with basic elements of IT using a rating scale.

  9. Alcohol impairs predation risk response and communication in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Acosta Oliveira

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol exposure on Danio rerio have been studied from the perspectives of developmental biology and behavior. However, little is known about the effects of ethanol on the prey-predator relationship and chemical communication of predation risk. Here, we showed that visual contact with a predator triggers stress axis activation in zebrafish. We also observed a typical stress response in zebrafish receiving water from these conspecifics, indicating that these fish chemically communicate predation risk. Our work is the first to demonstrate how alcohol effects this prey-predator interaction. We showed for the first time that alcohol exposure completely blocks stress axis activation in both fish seeing the predator and in fish that come in indirect contact with a predator by receiving water from these conspecifics. Together with other research results and with the translational relevance of this fish species, our data points to zebrafish as a promising animal model to study human alcoholism.

  10. Risk Communication as a Tool for Training Apprentice Welders: A Study about Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Severo, Luana de Oliveira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Turik, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The present study has aimed to identify the perceptions of apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed; identify types of occupational accidents involving apprentice welders; and report the development of a socioenvironmental education intervention as a tool for risk communication for apprentice welders. A quantitative study was performed with 161 apprentice welders in Southern Brazil in 2011. Data collection was performed via structured interviews with the apprentice welders about risk perception, occupational accidents, and time experienced in welding. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.9%), chemical (95%), physiological (86.3%), and biological (51.5%). In this sample, 39.7% of apprentice welders reported occupational accidents and 27.3% reported burning. The inferential analysis showed that the frequency of risk perception factors increases with the length of experience, and apprentice welders who have experienced accidents during welding activity perceive a higher amount of risk factors than those who have never experienced them. It is concluded that apprentice welders perceive risks and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their activity. PMID:23326211

  11. Decrease Risk Behavior HIV Infected on Construction Laborers with Behavior Change Communication (BCC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of BCC approach to the reduction of contracting HIV risk behavior in the construction laborers. Method: This study used operational research design. In this study measures the effectiveness of behavior change of construction workers on the prevention of HIV transmission by comparing the behavior of the construction workers before and after the intervention. The subjects of this study were 150 people risk group of construction workers who work and are spread throughout the city of Surabaya. This research was carried out into three phases, namely, phase preintervention research, intervention research, and post-intervention phase of the study. Implemented in the first year and second year praintervensi stage implemented intervention and post-intervention phases. Result: The results of this study showed that 72% of construction workers is productive (18–35 years and visit his family more than once a month (38%. There is 20% of construction workers had sex with commercial sex workers and no one was using drugs. By 50% of construction workers never get information about HIV/AIDS and as many as 48% never use the services of HIV/AIDS. Discussion: External motivation construction workers associated with the utilization of behavioral HIV/AIDS services with sufficient correlation. Strong external motivation is influenced by risk behaviors of HIV/AIDS were conducted and the desire to get help. Weak external motivation is influenced by a lack of exposure to information related to HIV/AIDS services. The results of the FGD stakeholders have the perception is the same if a construction worker is a high risk group of contracting HIV. Most of the construction workers not have enough knowledge for the prevention of HIV transmission because they do not have access to HIV care and behavior are at risk of contracting HIV by construction workers. Keywords: construction workers, behavior change communication, behavior

  12. Social media in food risk and benefit communication

    OpenAIRE

    Rutsaert, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    The overall objective of this doctoral thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the role social media can fulfil for the communication of food-related risks and benefits. Social media is the collective name for a number of online applications, including social networks, video- and picture-sharing websites, blogs, and microblogs, that allow users to generate and share information online. As a consequence users now control how information is found and used instead of the producers....

  13. Social marketing-based communications to integrate and support the HEALTHY study intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth gr...

  14. Biological Risks to Public Health: Lessons from an International Conference to Inform the Development of National Risk Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Bhatiasevi, Aphaluck; Chaib, Fadela; Baggio, Ombretta; Banluta, Christina; Hollenweger, Lilian; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication. The international conference on "Risk communication strategies before, during and after public health emergencies" provided a platform to present current strategies, facilitate learning from recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, and discuss recommendations to inform risk communication strategy development. The discussion concluded with 4 key areas for improvement in risk communication: consider communication as a multidimensional process in risk communication, broaden the biomedical paradigm by integrating social science intelligence into epidemiologic risk assessments, strengthen multisectoral collaboration including with local organizations, and spearhead changes in organizations for better risk communication governance. National strategies should design risk communication to be proactive, participatory, and multisectoral, facilitating the connection between sectors and strengthening collaboration.

  15. Effects of a Computer-Based Intervention Program on the Communicative Functions of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzroni, Orit E.; Tannous, Juman

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the use of computer-based intervention for enhancing communication functions of children with autism. The software program was developed based on daily life activities in the areas of play, food, and hygiene. The following variables were investigated: delayed echolalia, immediate echolalia, irrelevant speech, relevant…

  16. Examination of an Antecedent Communication Intervention to Reduce Tangibly Maintained Challenging Behavior: A Controlled Analog Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark; Fragale, Christina; Gainey, Summer; Kang, Soyeon; Koch, Heather; Shubert, Jennifer; El Zein, Farah; Longino, Deanna; Chung, Moon; Xu, Ziwei; White, Pamela; Lang, Russell; Davis, Tonya; Rispoli, Mandy; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Healy, Olive; Kagohara, Deborah; van der Meer, Larah; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of an antecedent communication intervention on challenging behavior for three students with developmental disorders. Students were taught to request tangible items that were identified as reinforcers for challenging behavior in a prior functional analysis. Individual participant multielement and reversal designs were used…

  17. Assertive Communication and Teamwork: Results of an Intervention Program to the Supervisors of a Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca, Jesús H.

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" on assertive communication and teamwork competences. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pretest - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors from a private company, 13 in the experimental…

  18. Training Teaching Staff to Facilitate Spontaneous Communication in Children with Autism: Adult Interactive Style Intervention (AISI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossyvaki, Lila; Jones, Glenys; Guldberg, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the way adults interact with children with autism can have a great impact on their spontaneous communication. However, to date, few studies have focused on modifying adults' behaviour and even fewer have been conducted in school settings which actively involve teaching staff in designing the intervention.…

  19. Effects of an intervention aimed at improving nurse-patient communication in an oncology outpatient clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Mette Trøllund; Jensen, Mette Lund; Andersen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    skills training program in nursing cancer care. Twenty-four nurses in an oncology outpatient clinic participated and were randomly assigned to the intervention program or a control group. A total of 413 patients treated in the clinic during 2 recruitment periods (before and after the communication skills...

  20. The Effects of a Nutrition Media Literacy Intervention on Parents' and Youths' Communication about Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Austin, Bruce W; French, Brian F; Cohen, Marilyn A

    2018-01-01

    Interventions addressing links between media exposure and obesity risk for school-age youth have not explicitly addressed the role of family communication about media. Youths' influence attempts on parents to purchase advertised foods can create conflict and negatively affect parental food choices. This study tested whether a family-based media literacy curriculum improves parents' media management skills and decreases youths' susceptibility to appealing but unrealistic food marketing. A matched-group pretest/posttest field experiment of parent-youth dyads with control group (N = 100 dyads, youth M = 11 years of age) tested the six-session curriculum. Hypotheses were analyzed using a Bayesian structural equation model. The curriculum increased parents' active negative mediation to foster youths' critical thinking about food marketing, b* = 0.35, 95% CCI [0.17, 0.50], increased parent Efficacy for making healthy dietary changes for their families, b* = 0.59, 95% CCI [0.41, 0.75], and fostered family discussion about nutrition labels (total effect = 0.22). Additionally, cumulative influences of Perceived Desirability and Wishful Identification on youths' requests for marketed foods were reduced (total effect = 0.04). Media literacy education can empower parents and improve youths' critical thinking to reduce effects of food marketing on families and improve use of media to obtain nutrition information.

  1. The influence of narrative risk communication on feelings of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-05-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of narrative and non-narrative risk communication about sunbed use on ease of imagination and feelings of cancer risk. A total of 233 female sunbed users in the general Dutch population were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a narrative message (i.e., personal testimonial), a non-narrative cognitive message (i.e., factual risk information using cognitive-laden words), or a non-narrative affective message (i.e., factual risk information using affective-laden words). Ease of imagination and feelings of risk were assessed directly after the risk information was given (T1). Three weeks after the baseline session, feelings of risk were measured again (T2). The results revealed that sunbed users who were exposed to narrative risk information could better imagine themselves developing skin cancer and reported higher feelings of skin cancer risk at T1. Moreover, ease of imagination mediated the effects of message type on feelings of risk at T1 and T2. The findings provide support for the effects of narrative risk communication in influencing feelings of cancer risk through ease of imagination. Cancer prevention programmes may therefore benefit from including narrative risk information. Future research is important to investigate other mechanisms of narrative information and their most effective content and format. What is already known on this subject? Evidence is growing for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours. Narratives have increasingly been considered as an effective format for persuasive risk messages and studies have shown narrative risk communication to be effective in influencing cognitive risk beliefs. What does this study add? Increasing understanding of how feelings of cancer

  2. Behavioral Nutrition Interventions Using e- and m-Health Communication Technologies: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M

    2016-07-17

    e- and m-Health communication technologies are now common approaches to improving population health. The efficacy of behavioral nutrition interventions using e-health technologies to decrease fat intake and increase fruit and vegetable intake was demonstrated in studies conducted from 2005 to 2009, with approximately 75% of trials showing positive effects. By 2010, an increasing number of behavioral nutrition interventions were focusing on body weight. The early emphasis on interventions that were highly computer tailored shifted to personalized electronic interventions that included weight and behavioral self-monitoring as key features. More diverse target audiences began to participate, and mobile components were added to interventions. Little progress has been made on using objective measures rather than self-reported measures of dietary behavior. A challenge for nutritionists is to link with the private sector in the design, use, and evaluation of the many electronic devices that are now available in the marketplace for nutrition monitoring and behavioral change.

  3. Electronic communication based interventions for hazardous young drinkers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Rourke, L; Humphris, G; Baldacchino, A

    2016-09-01

    Previous reviews have specifically looked at computer-based or Internet-based approaches. However, there has been no systematic review focused upon electronic communication based interventions for hazardous young drinkers. Out of 3298 relevant citations, 13 papers consisting of 11 studies met the inclusion criteria. Effectiveness of intervention delivery was assessed using behavioural outcomes. Eight papers delivered interventions using the Web, three implemented text messaging, one used a mobile phone app and the remaining paper used a social networking site. The ability to provide personalized electronic feedback resulted in a reduction in alcohol consumption, frequency of binge drinking, and drinking in a non-risky way. However, intervention length did not appear to have an impact on overall effectiveness. Usage of text messaging and Social Network Sites (SNS) increased accessibility and ease of engaging in an intervention that is appealing and acceptable for young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors of cerebrovascular diseases and their intervention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En XU

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovascular diseases are important causes of clinical death and disability because of high prevalence and morbidity and easy to recurrence. A number of risk factors have involved in the progress of cerebrovascular diseases, which include uncontrolled and controlled risk factors. The former refers to old age, gender, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, genetic factors, etc. The latter includes hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation and other cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, asymptomatic carotid stenosis, obesity, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle, alcoholism, metabolic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, etc. Meanwhile, hypertension is the most important one in the above-mentioned risk factors. It would effectively reduce or postpone the onset of cerebrovascular diseases through proper intervention and management on those risk factors. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.01.006

  5. Hanford Site's Integrated Risk Assessment Program: No-intervention risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Dukelow, J.S. Jr.; Stenner, R.D.

    1994-08-01

    The long-term goal of the Integrated Risk Assessment program (IRAP) is to estimate risks to workers, the public, organizations, and groups with reserved rights to Site access, the ecosystem, and natural resources to aid in managing environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site. For each of these, information is needed about current risks, risks during cleanup, and endstate risks. The objective is three-fold: to determine if and when to remediate, and to what extent; to identify information unavailable but needed to make better cleanup decisions; to establish technology performance criteria for achieving desired cleanup levels; to understand costs and benefits of activities from a Site-wide perspective. The no-intervention risk, assessment is the initial evaluation of public health risks conducted under IRAP. The objective is to identify types of activities that the US Department of Energy (DOE) must accomplish for closure of the Hanford Site, defined as no further DOE intervention. There are two primary conclusions from the no-intervention risk assessment. First, some maintenance and operations activities at Hanford must be continued to protect the public from grave risks. However, when large Hanford expenditures are compared to cleanup progress, funds expended for maintenance and operations must be put in proper perspective. Second, stakeholder's emphasis on public risks at Hanford, as indicated by remediation priorities, are not in line with those estimated. The focus currently is on compliance with regulations, and on dealing with issues which are visible to stakeholders

  6. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  7. Impact of National HIV and AIDS Communication Campaigns in South Africa to Reduce HIV Risk Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15–55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30% across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA.

  8. Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evaluating the Impact of a Home-Based Intervention to Promote Their Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConkey, Roy; Truesdale-Kennedy, Maria; Crawford, Heather; McGreevy, Elaine; Reavey, Michaela; Cassidy, Arlene

    2010-01-01

    The complexities that practitioners face in evaluating interventions are illustrated in this article. An early intervention programme (known as Keyhole), based mainly around Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communications handicapped CHildren (TEACCH), Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and Hanen approaches, was delivered…

  9. Risk communication: Translating technically complex information to facilitate informed decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, W.M.; Turner, E.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a review of risk communication and related literature, including policy material, this paper describes the newly revamped risk management program of the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and some of the risk-related issues being confronted as the high-level waste management program moves forward. It also describes preliminary activities underway in which the OCRWM is developing strategies for risk communication. The authors offer a definition of risk management as comprised by the components of risk assessment and risk communication. The paper explores the discrepant views that experts and nonexperts have with respect to what constitutes a valid risk assessment model. By illustrating differences in the assessment of risk by experts and lay people, the paper demonstrates how these differences can create challenges in communicating risk and making decisions about risk. Finally, the paper discusses ways in which risk communication could be enhance, and elaborates on the OCRWM's commitment to improve its overall risk management efforts

  10. An empirical analysis of communication flow, strategy and stakeholders' participation in the risk communication literature 1988-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurabardhi, Z.; Gutteling, Jan M.; Kuttschreuter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Risk communication during the years has shown its vitality and has proved its importance as a field of research. This article provides a brief record of the development of risk communication in the environmental and technological domain by examining some of the trends resulting from the analysis of

  11. Effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in improving communication and psychosocial exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B

    2007-07-01

    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain.

  12. Alzheimer's disease prevention: from risk factors to early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Minguillón, Carolina; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis

    2017-09-12

    Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant.In this manuscript, we review current strategies for AD prevention, from primary prevention strategies based on identifying risk factors and risk reduction, to secondary prevention initiatives based on the early detection of the pathophysiological hallmarks and intervention at the preclinical stage of the disease. Firstly, we summarize the evidence on several AD risk factors, which are the rationale for the establishment of primary prevention programmes as well as revising current primary prevention strategies. Secondly, we review the development of public-private partnerships for disease prevention that aim to characterize the AD continuum as well as serving as platforms for secondary prevention trials. Finally, we summarize currently ongoing clinical trials recruiting participants with preclinical AD or a higher risk for the onset of AD-related cognitive impairment.The growing body of research on the risk factors for AD and its preclinical stage is favouring the development of AD prevention programmes that, by delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia for only a few years, would have a huge impact on public health.

  13. Communicating Radiation Risk to the Population of Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, N.; Taira, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Nakashima-Hashiguchi, K.; Orita, M.; Yamashita, S.

    2016-01-01

    Radiological specialists from Nagasaki University have served on the medical relief team organized at Fukushima Medical University Hospital (Fukushima City) ever since the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. Furthermore, we have conducted the radiation crisis communication efforts by spreading correct information on the health effects of radiation as 'advisors on radiation health risk control'. Nagasaki University has been assisting the reconstruction efforts of Kawauchi Village in Fukushima Prefecture, which was the first village to declare that residents could safely return to their homes because radiation doses were found to be at comparatively low levels. In April 2013, Nagasaki University and the Kawauchi government office concluded an agreement concerning comprehensive cooperation toward reconstruction of the village. As a result, we established a satellite facility of the university in the village. In conclusion, training of specialists who can take responsibility for long-term risk communication regarding the health effects of radiation as well as crisis communication in the initial phase of the accident is an essential component of all such recovery efforts. Establishment of a training system for such specialists will be very important both for Japan and other countries worldwide. (authors)

  14. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  15. The elaboration likelihood model and communication about food risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, L J; Howard, C; Hedderley, D; Shepherd, R

    1997-12-01

    Factors such as hazard type and source credibility have been identified as important in the establishment of effective strategies for risk communication. The elaboration likelihood model was adapted to investigate the potential impact of hazard type, information source, and persuasive content of information on individual engagement in elaborative, or thoughtful, cognitions about risk messages. One hundred sixty respondents were allocated to one of eight experimental groups, and the effects of source credibility, persuasive content of information and hazard type were systematically varied. The impact of the different factors on beliefs about the information and elaborative processing examined. Low credibility was particularly important in reducing risk perceptions, although persuasive content and hazard type were also influential in determining whether elaborative processing occurred.

  16. Perception of risk and benefit in patient-centered communication and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakim A

    2011-05-01

    elicits the latter’s preferences. Clinicians and patients often have divergent views on desired interventions and outcomes, and providers should be aware of their personal biases.Keywords: perception, risk, benefit, preference, patient-centered, communication

  17. Heuristics and biases in cardiovascular disease prevention: How can we improve communication about risk, benefits and harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; McKinn, Shannon; Lau, Annie; Jansen, Jesse; Doust, Jenny; Trevena, Lyndal; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2018-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines recommend medication based on the probability of a heart attack/stroke in the next 5-10 years. However, heuristics and biases make risk communication challenging for doctors. This study explored how patients interpret personalised CVD risk results presented in varying formats and timeframes. GPs recruited 25 patients with CVD risk factors and varying medication history. Participants were asked to 'think aloud' while using two CVD risk calculators that present probabilistic risk in different ways, within a semi-structured interview. Transcribed audio-recordings were coded using Framework Analysis. Key themes were: 1) numbers lack meaning without a reference point; 2) risk results need to be both credible and novel; 3) selective attention to intervention effects. Risk categories (low/moderate/high) provided meaningful context, but short-term risk results were not credible if they didn't match expectations. Colour-coded icon arrays showing the effect of age and interventions were seen as novel and motivating. Those on medication focused on benefits, while others focused on harms. CVD risk formats need to be tailored to patient expectations and experiences in order to counteract heuristics and biases. Doctors need access to multiple CVD risk formats to communicate effectively about CVD prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, C. E-mail: claire.cousins@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Sharp, C

    2004-06-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up.

  19. Medical interventional procedures--reducing the radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, C.; Sharp, C.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, the number of percutaneous interventional procedures using radiation has increased significantly, with many secondary care clinicians using fluoroscopically guided techniques. Many procedures can deliver high radiation doses to patients and staff, with the potential to cause immediate and delayed radiation effects. The challenge for interventionists is to maximize benefit, whilst minimizing radiation risk to patients and staff. Non-radiologist clinicians are often inadequately trained in radiation safety and radiobiology. However, clinical governance and legislation now requires a more rigorous approach to protecting patients and staff. Protection can be ensured, and risks can be controlled, by appropriate design, procurement and commissioning of equipment; quality assurance; and optimal operational technique, backed by audit. Interventionists need knowledge and skills to reduce the risks. Appropriate training should include awareness of the potential for radiation injury, equipment operational parameters, doses measurement and recording methods and dose reduction techniques. Clinical governance requires informed consent, appropriate patient counselling and follow-up

  20. Young people at risk of psychosis: a user-led exploration of interpersonal relationships and communication of psychological difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Rory; Morrison, Anthony P

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to qualitatively explore experiences and perceptions of interpersonal relationships and interpersonal communication among young people at risk of psychosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Participants had entered into a service providing psychological interventions for young people assessed to be at a high risk of developing psychosis (Northwest UK). Our sample comprised one female and seven male participants (n = 8), ranging in age from 16 to 28 years, with a mean age of 22.4 years. Analyses identified three central themes: difficulty with interpersonal relationships and reduced opportunities for helpful communication, difficulty talking to others about psychological problems, and experiences of talking to others about psychological problems. Individuals at risk of psychosis may have experienced significant difficulties with interpersonal relationships. Such difficulties may contribute directly to the development of unusual psychological experiences, and to an inability or reluctance to communicate these to others. In addition, commonly held stigmatizing ideas associated with unusual psychological experiences may contribute to a fear among at-risk individuals that they are 'going mad', and this may lead to concealment of their difficulties, and to delayed help-seeking. For at-risk individuals, helpful communication of psychological distress offers significant benefits, including improved psychological and emotional well-being and reduced risk of psychosis. Thus, while concealment of distress may directly impact on the development of unusual psychological difficulties, communication of such difficulties may be central to recovery.

  1. Development of radio dramas for health communication pilot intervention in Canadian Inuit communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot-Matta, Cassandra; Wilcke, Markus; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-03-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to develop a culturally appropriate health intervention over radio within the Inuit community of Pangnirtung, Nunavut (NU), Canada. The radio dramas were developed, recorded and tested pre-intervention through the use of Participatory Process and informed by the extended elaboration likelihood model (EELM) for education-communication. The radio messages were tested in two focus groups (n = 4 and n = 5) to determine fidelity of the radio dramas to the EELM theory. Focus group feedback identified that revisions needed to be made to two characteristics required of educational programmes by the EELM theorem: first, the quality of the production was improved by adding Inuit youth recorded music and second, the homophily (relatability of characters) of radio dramas was improved by re-recording the dramas with voices of local youth who had been trained in media communication studies. These adjustments would not have been implemented had pre-intervention testing of the radio dramas not taken place and could have reduced effectiveness of the overall intervention. Therefore, it is highly recommended that media tools for health communication/education be tested with the intended target audience before commencement of programmes. Participatory Process was identified to be a powerful tool in the development and sustainability of culturally appropriate community health programming. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Communication skills training in a nursing home: Effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sprangers (Suzan); K. Dijkstra (Katinka); A. Romijn-Luijten (Anna)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEffective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home

  3. Understanding and acknowledging the ice throw hazard - consequences for regulatory frameworks, risk perception and risk communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, R. E.; Drapalik, M.; Butt, B.

    2017-11-01

    This study attempts to provide the necessary framework required to make sufficiently informed decisions regarding the safety implications of ice throw. The framework elaborates on how to cope with uncertainties, and how to describe results in a meaningful and useful manner to decision makers. Moreover, it points out the moral, judicial and economical obligations of wind turbine owners such that they are able to minimize risk of ice throws as much as possible. Building on the strength of knowledge as well as accounting for uncertainty are also essential in enabling clear communication with stakeholders on the most important/critical/vital issues. With increasing empirical evidence, one can assign a higher confidence level on the expert opinions on safety. Findings regarding key uncertainties of ice risk assessments are presented here to support the ongoing IEA Wind Task 19's work on creating the international guidelines on ice risk assessment due in 2018 (Krenn et al. 2017)[1-6]. In addition the study also incorporates the findings of a Norwegian information project, which focuses on the ice throw hazard for the public (Bredesen, Flage, Butt, Winterwind 2018)[7-9]. This includes measures to reduce damage and hazard from wind turbines for the general public. Recent theory of risk assessment questions the use of risk criteria for achieving optimum risk reduction and favours the use of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Given the several practical problems associated with the ALARA approach (e.g. judicial realization), a joint approach, which uses a minimum set of criteria as well as the obligation to meet ALARA is suggested (associated with acceptable cost). The actual decision about acceptance criteria or obligations is a societal one, thus suggestions can be made at best. Risk acceptance, risk perception and risk communication are inextricably linked and should thus never be considered separately. Risk communication can shape risk perception

  4. Reducing Youth Risk Behaviors Through Interactive Theater Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of risk behaviors in secondary schools is a key concern for parents, teachers, and school administrators. School is one of the primary contexts of socialization for young people; thus, the investment in school-based programs to reduce risk behaviors is essential. In this study, we report on youth who participated in an intervention designed to improve decision-making skills based on positive youth development approaches. We examine changes in decision-making skills before and after involvement in the Teen Interactive Theater Education (TITE program and retrospective self-assessment of change in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs as a result of participating in TITE (n = 127. Youth that reported increases in knowledge, abilities, and beliefs due to the intervention (n = 89 were more likely to think about the consequences of their decisions and list options before making a decision compared to their counterparts that reported less overall learning (n = 38. Implications for intervention research and stakeholders are discussed.

  5. Passing crisis and emergency risk communications: the effects of communication channel, information type, and repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2015-05-01

    Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk score for contrast induced nephropathy following percutaneous coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Amal Abdel; Tohamy, Khalid Y.

    2009-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an important cause of acute renal failure. Identification of risk factors of CIN and creating a simple risk scoring for CIN after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is important. A prospective single center study was conducted in Kuwait chest disease hospital. All patients admitted to chest disease hospital for PCI from March to May 2005 were included in the study. Total of 247 patients were randomly assigned for the development dataset and 100 for the validation set using the simple random method. The overall occurrence of CIN in the development set was 5.52%. Using multivariate analysis; basal Serum creatinine, shock, female gender, multivessel PCI, and diabetes mellitus were identified as risk factors. Scores assigned to different variables yielded basal creatinine > 115 micron mol/L with the highest score(7), followed by shock (3), female gender, multivessel PCI and diabetes mellitus had the same score (2). Patients were further risk stratified into low risk score ( 1 2). The developed CIN model demonstrated good discriminative power in the validation population. In conclusion, use of a simple risk score for CIN can predict the probability of CIN after PCI; this however needs further validation in larger multicenter trials. (author)

  7. Threatening communication: A qualitative study of fear appeal effectiveness beliefs among intervention developers, policymakers, politicians, scientists, and advertising professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-01-01

    Threatening communication is a widely applied method in behavior change interventions, which at the same time has been heavily criticized in the psychological literature. The current paper describes a study of the reasons for this persistent wide application of threatening communication. We conducted qualitative interviews with 33 key actors in behavior change intervention development in The Netherlands. Specifically, we interviewed intervention developers, policymakers, politicians, scientis...

  8. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  9. Radioactive Waste Transport: Managing Risk Perception and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of a national transportation system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste that merits public trust and confidence will require the delivery of consistent, accurate and timely transportation messages; stakeholder and public understanding of the need for, and safety of, shipments; and effective two-way communication to address stakeholder concerns in its decision-making processes. Building the trust and consent of stakeholders and the public is complex and challenging. In order to accomplish this goal, it is imperative to understand how and why members of society develop various perceptions of risks and assessments of benefits with regard to the nuclear energy cycle. Understanding the basis and reasons for the public's beliefs concerning the nuclear energy cycle will allow OCRWM to more effectively address concerns regarding the national transportation program. This paper will examine how a person's gender, sources of information, world-view, culture, emotion, cognition, and other factors affect their beliefs and perceptions of risk. It will also explore the reasons why nuclear energy and nuclear waste are viewed with such a distinctly different attitude than other hazardous materials that pose a comparable or greater hazard. Drawing on research from prominent experts in risk perception and communication methods, this study will conduct a unique investigation into the perspectives of a diverse set of key stakeholders and experts involved in the transportation process. This paper will present several hypotheses on why there are unique challenges involved in communicating about transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other nuclear fuel cycle activities, and also present recommendations for remediating such challenges. (authors)

  10. Reputation, relationships, risk communication, and the role of trust in the prevention and control of communicable disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina; de Andrade, Marisa; MacDonald, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Population-level compliance with health protective behavioral advice to prevent and control communicable disease is essential to optimal effectiveness. Multiple factors affect perceptions of trustworthiness, and trust in advice providers is a significant predeterminant of compliance. While competency in assessment and management of communicable disease risks is critical, communications competency may be equally important. Organizational reputation, quality of stakeholder relationships and risk information provision strategies are trust moderating factors, whose impact is strongly influenced by the content, timing and coordination of communications. This article synthesizes the findings of 2 literature reviews on trust moderating communications and communicable disease prevention and control. We find a substantial evidence base on risk communication, but limited research on other trust building communications. We note that awareness of good practice historically has been limited although interest and the availability of supporting resources is growing. Good practice and policy elements are identified: recognition that crisis and risk communications require different strategies; preemptive dialogue and planning; evidence-based approaches to media relations and messaging; and building credibility for information sources. Priority areas for future research include process and cost-effectiveness evaluation and the development of frameworks that integrate communication and biomedical disease control and prevention functions, conceptually and at scale.

  11. Communication skills training in a nursing home: effects of a brief intervention on residents and nursing aides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff. PMID:25653513

  12. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864..

  13. Prioritization of intervention methods for prevention of communicable diseases in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, A. W.

    Water, sanitation, housing and hygienic behavior plays dominant role in the transmission and intensification of diseases. To effectively utilize limited financial resources, it is important to prioritize disease intervention methods in order to minimize mortality and morbidity cases. Realization of the environmental health components that respond to the practical effects of their contribution to transmission of diseases has greater chances of effectively enhancing health. Data of frequency of diseases and mortality rate were collected from four municipal hospitals from districts of Ilala, Kinondoni, Temeke and Kibaha in Dar es Salaam and Coast Regions. The populations at risk were sub-categorized in relation to age; below five years and above five years. The age parameter assists on envisaging the major causes to be either in-house or in public domain. Data were analyzed to assess the role of water quality, water quantity, excreta disposal, waste disposal and hygiene education on spreading the diseases in order to come up with scientifically evaluated information. Scores were given to each intervention method depending on its importance in controlling a particular disease. The results indicate that incidences of malaria, skin and eye infections, pneumonia and diarrhea are frequent in these districts. Children under 5 years are particularly affected by pneumonia and diarrhea more than adults. Malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are the major causes of mortality rates in these districts. Fatality cases are caused largely by malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea for children less than 5 years, but malaria, tuberculosis and pneumonia are responsible for mortality rates in adults and children over 5 years. Statistical analysis revealed that in all districts, hygiene education is the major factor responsible for transmission of diseases accounting for 32-39%. Other factors, which are the major contributors to the incidences of diseases, are inadequacy of water (15.6-22.5%) and

  14. The risk communication using the special website of the society of risk analysis for the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsubokawa, Hiroaki; Nagasaka, Toshinari; Sunaga, Yohei; Lee, Taiyoung; Taguchi, Hitoshi; Usuda, Yuichiro

    2011-01-01

    The Society for Risk Analysis Japan built the special website that reply to the people who are concerning the risk related to the Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. Although, there were many risk communication activities between the specialists of the risk research and citizens on the website, there are some significant problems for the risk communication using the website. This report summarizes the result of our activity. (author)

  15. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the NRAMP project and presents a synopsis of the NRAMP effort which occurred from 1995 to 2000. The primary goals of the DOE in awarding the cooperative agreement establishing NRAMP were to (I) use a risk-based approach to evaluate the consequences of alternative actions in DOE's Environmental Remediation Programs at sites in Nevada and (2) use a neutral and credible institution outside the DOE to perform the risk assessments and contribute to public education about environmental management issues at the Nevada Test Site. (author)

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of a patient storytelling DVD intervention to encourage physician-patient communication about nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael J; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Outman, Ryan C; Ray, Midge N; Gary, Lisa C; Chen, Lang; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Allison, Jeroan J; Saag, Kenneth G

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally-sensitive, patient storytelling intervention to enhance physician-patient communication about NSAID risk. A group randomized trial of 40 medical practices in Alabama was conducted. Patients within intervention practices received a 13-minute DVD that included patient stories related to their experiences with NSAIDs, adverse effects, and importance of communication with their physicians. The proportion of patients who: (1) spoke with their physician about NSAID risk; and (2) used both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDS were primary outcomes. Generalized estimating equations for panel data were used for analysis. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed no significant differences between intervention (n=102) and control (n=106) groups for patients speaking with their physician about NSAID risk or concomitant use of prescription/OTC NSAIDs (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.11, p=0.670; OR=0.87, p=0.632, respectively). For 54% of patients who watched the DVD, per-protocol (PP) analyses trended toward increased odds of patients speaking with their physician about prescription NSAID risk compared to the control group [OR=1.37, p=0.354] and lower odds of concomitant prescription/OTC NSAIDs use [OR=0.79, p=0.486]. A patient storytelling intervention in DVD format alone may not increase patient-physician interaction. Strategies that facilitate use of patient educational materials delivered by DVD are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of a Latino Mother-Child Communication Intervention in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Diane B.; Cowell, Julia Muennich; Fogg, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Children of Latino immigrants in the United States encounter ecological stressors that heighten their risk for depressive symptoms, externalizing behavior, and problems in school. Studies have shown that affirming parent-child communication is protective of child depressive symptoms and accompanying problems. The purpose of this study was to…

  18. Radiogenic health effects: communicating risks to the general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzelczyk, Jadwiga

    1999-01-01

    Harmful effects of prolonged radiation exposures were recognized early on following the discovery of X-rays by W.C. Roentgen in 1895. The type and severity of radiogenic effects are functions of a number of factors, radiation quality and quantity, chemical toxicity, and radiosensitivity of irradiated tissues being the most significant ones. Currently, there are several human registries for radiogenic cancers. Atomic bomb and nuclear test survivors, and populations exposed to medical irradiation constitute the largest study cohorts. Two general types of radiogenic effects have emerged from these registries: prompt and delayed. While the effects of acute exposures are very well documented, investigations of the effects of low-level exposures require the use of mathematical models. Communicating the risks of lower-level chronic radiation exposures to the general public remains a challenging task. The most effective approaches include clear interpretation and placing radiation risks in perspective: risks versus benefits, and comparisons with risks carried by common activities in which we all engage. (author)

  19. NASA's Agency-Wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon; Duda, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of NASA's risk analysis communication programs associated with changing environmental policies. The topics include: 1) NASA Program Transition; 2) Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC); and 3) Regulatory Tracking and Communication Process.

  20. Risk communication formats for low probability events: an exploratory study of patient preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadarola Stephen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clear communication about the possible outcomes of proposed medical interventions is an integral part of medical care. Despite its importance, there have been few studies comparing different formats for presenting probabilistic information to patients, especially when small probabilities are involved. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential usefulness of several new small-risk graphic communication formats. Methods Information about the likelihoods of cancer and cancer prevention associated with two hypothetical cancer screening programs were used to create an augmented bar chart, an augmented grouped icon display, a flow chart, and three paired combinations of these formats. In the study scenario, the baseline risk of cancer was 53 per 1,000 (5.3%. The risk associated with cancer screening option A was 38 per 1,000 (3.8% and the risk associated with screening option B was 29 per 1,000 (2.9%. Both the augmented bar chart and the augmented grouped icon display contained magnified views of the differences in cancer risk and cancer prevention associated with the screening programs. A convenience sample of 29 subjects (mean age 56.4 years; 76% men used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP to indicate their relative preferences for the six formats using 15 sequential paired comparisons. Results The most preferred format was the combined augmented bar chart + flow diagram (mean preference score 0.43 followed by the combined augmented icon + augmented bar chart format (mean preference score 0.22. The overall differences among the six formats were statistically significant: Kruskal-Wallis Chi Square = 141.4, p Conclusion These findings suggest that patients may prefer combined, rather than single, graphic risk presentation formats and that augmented bar charts and icon displays may be useful for conveying comparative information about small risks to clinical decision makers. Further research to confirm and extend these

  1. Effectiveness of information and communication technologies interventions to increase mental health literacy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Jing Ling; Tay, Yi Fen; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2018-06-13

    Most mental health conditions affect adolescent and young adults. The onset of many mental disorders occurs in the young age. This is a critical period to implement interventions to enhance mental health literacy (MHL) and to prevent the occurrence of mental health problems. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of information and communication technologies interventions on MHL (recognition of conditions, stigma and help-seeking). The authors searched for both published and unpublished studies. Nineteen studies were included with 9 randomized controlled trials and 10 quasi-experimental studies. Informational interventions were useful to enhance MHL of less-known disorders such as anxiety disorder and anorexia, but not depression. Interventions that were effective in enhancing depression MHL comprised active component such as videos or quizzes. Interventions that successfully elevated MHL also reduced stigma. Elevated MHL levels did not improve help-seeking, and reduction in stigma levels did not enhance help-seeking behaviours. Future good quality, large-scale, multi-sites randomized controlled trials are necessary to evaluate MHL interventions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Effects of a risk-based online mammography intervention on accuracy of perceived risk and mammography intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Holli H; Gibson, Laura; Skubisz, Christine; Forquer, Heather; Mello, Susan; Schapira, Marilyn M; Armstrong, Katrina; Cappella, Joseph N

    2016-10-01

    This experiment tested the effects of an individualized risk-based online mammography decision intervention. The intervention employs exemplification theory and the Elaboration Likelihood Model of persuasion to improve the match between breast cancer risk and mammography intentions. 2918 women ages 35-49 were stratified into two levels of 10-year breast cancer risk (<1.5%; ≥1.5%) then randomly assigned to one of eight conditions: two comparison conditions and six risk-based intervention conditions that varied according to a 2 (amount of content: brief vs. extended) x 3 (format: expository vs. untailored exemplar [example case] vs. tailored exemplar) design. Outcomes included mammography intentions and accuracy of perceived breast cancer risk. Risk-based intervention conditions improved the match between objective risk estimates and perceived risk, especially for high-numeracy women with a 10-year breast cancer risk ≤1.5%. For women with a risk≤1.5%, exemplars improved accuracy of perceived risk and all risk-based interventions increased intentions to wait until age 50 to screen. A risk-based mammography intervention improved accuracy of perceived risk and the match between objective risk estimates and mammography intentions. Interventions could be applied in online or clinical settings to help women understand risk and make mammography decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preschool Deployment of Evidence-Based Social Communication Intervention: JASPER in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Shire, Stephanie Y; Shih, Wendy; Gelfand, Carolyn; Kasari, Connie

    2016-06-01

    Few research-developed early intervention models have been deployed to and tested in real world preschool programs. In this study, teaching staff implemented a social communication modularized intervention, JASPER, in their daily program. Sixty-six preschool children with autism in twelve classrooms (12 teachers) were randomized to receive immediate JASPER training (IT) or were waitlisted (WL) for 3 months with a 1-month follow up. Measures of core deficits (initiations of joint engagement, joint attention gestures and language, play skills) and standardized cognitive measures were improved for IT over WL children. IT teachers achieved and maintained high fidelity. Teachers can implement evidence-based interventions with significant improvements in core deficits of their children with ASD.

  4. The challenge of Risk Communication: an Australian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschatzky, Valentina; Haynes, Katharine; McAneney, John

    2013-04-01

    Last October, in a landmark case, six scientists and a government official associated with the Italian National Commission for the Forecast and Prevention of Major Risks were found guilty of multiple counts of manslaughter. The trial followed a magnitude 6.3 earthquake near the Italian city of L'Aquila that killed 309 people in April 2009. The alleged crime was not a failure to predict the earthquake, but rather one of inadequately communicating the level of risk, and, presumably in the view of the judge, deliberate obfuscation. Risk communication is about providing the public with information needed to minimise injury, loss of life and damage to property. Mostly, even when well executed, this is, at best, only partially successful. The usual outcome is a public who, despite warnings and for any number of reasons, do not undertake protective behaviour. Nevertheless, despite the difficulty of motivating behavioural change, the public deserve correct and objective information. The L'Aquila situation is not without precedent: on June 25, 1997, a major dome collapse of the Soufrière Hills Volcano on the Caribbean Island of Montserrat killed 19 people within a designated exclusion zone. At the inquest, the advice provided by the scientists involved with the monitoring and risk assessment of the volcano was closely scrutinised. In the end, however, the scientists were not implicated in the deaths and the advice they provided was not challenged. The scientists on Montserrat, like those of the Major Risk Commission in Italy, had come under great pressure to bend their science to the social and political needs of the island; unlike the scientists on trial in Italy, they resisted. Similar questions were posed of fire authorities and scientists after the 2009 bushfires (wildfires) in Victoria, Australia, and the death of 173 people. A longstanding Australian bushfire community safety strategy was the 'prepare, stay and defend [homes], or leave early policy'. It arose from

  5. The Effect of Information Communication Technology Interventions on Reducing Social Isolation in the Elderly: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ru Regina; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-28

    The aging of the population is an inexorable change that challenges governments and societies in every developed country. Based on clinical and empirical data, social isolation is found to be prevalent among elderly people, and it has negative consequences on the elderly's psychological and physical health. Targeting social isolation has become a focus area for policy and practice. Evidence indicates that contemporary information and communication technologies (ICT) have the potential to prevent or reduce the social isolation of elderly people via various mechanisms. This systematic review explored the effects of ICT interventions on reducing social isolation of the elderly. Relevant electronic databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SSCI, Communication Studies: a SAGE Full-Text Collection, Communication & Mass Media Complete, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library, and IEEE Xplore) were systematically searched using a unified strategy to identify quantitative and qualitative studies on the effectiveness of ICT-mediated social isolation interventions for elderly people published in English between 2002 and 2015. Narrative synthesis was performed to interpret the results of the identified studies, and their quality was also appraised. Twenty-five publications were included in the review. Four of them were evaluated as rigorous research. Most studies measured the effectiveness of ICT by measuring specific dimensions rather than social isolation in general. ICT use was consistently found to affect social support, social connectedness, and social isolation in general positively. The results for loneliness were inconclusive. Even though most were positive, some studies found a nonsignificant or negative impact. More importantly, the positive effect of ICT use on social connectedness and social support seemed to be short-term and did not last for more than six months after the intervention. The results for self-esteem and control over one's life

  6. Effect of a Patient-Centered Communication Intervention on Oncologist-Patient Communication, Quality of Life, and Health Care Utilization in Advanced Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Ronald M.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Fenton, Joshua J.; Fiscella, Kevin; Hoerger, Michael; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Xing, Guibo; Gramling, Robert; Mohile, Supriya; Franks, Peter; Kaesberg, Paul; Plumb, Sandy; Cipri, Camille S.; Street, Richard L.; Shields, Cleveland G.; Back, Anthony L.; Butow, Phyllis; Walczak, Adam; Tattersall, Martin; Venuti, Alison; Sullivan, Peter; Robinson, Mark; Hoh, Beth; Lewis, Linda; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Observational studies demonstrate links between patient-centered communication, quality of life (QOL), and aggressive treatments in advanced cancer, yet few randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of communication interventions have been reported. OBJECTIVE To determine whether a combined intervention involving oncologists, patients with advanced cancer, and caregivers would promote patient-centered communication, and to estimate intervention effects on shared understanding, patient-physician relationships, QOL, and aggressive treatments in the last 30 days of life. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cluster RCT at community- and hospital-based cancer clinics in Western New York and Northern California; 38 medical oncologists (mean age 44.6 years; 11 (29%) female) and 265 community-dwelling adult patients with advanced nonhematologic cancer participated (mean age, 64.4 years, 146 [55.0%] female, 235 [89%] white; enrolled August 2012 to June 2014; followed for 3 years); 194 patients had participating caregivers. INTERVENTIONS Oncologists received individualized communication training using standardized patient instructors while patients received question prompt lists and individualized communication coaching to identify issues to address during an upcoming oncologist visit. Both interventions focused on engaging patients in consultations, responding to emotions, informing patients about prognosis and treatment choices, and balanced framing of information. Control participants received no training. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prespecified primary outcome was a composite measure of patient-centered communication coded from audio recordings of the first oncologist visit following patient coaching (intervention group) or enrollment (control). Secondary outcomes included the patient-physician relationship, shared understanding of prognosis, QOL, and aggressive treatments and hospice use in the last 30 days of life. RESULTS Data from 38 oncologists (19 randomized

  7. Ethical Implications of Seismic Risk Communication in Istanbul - Insights from a Transdisciplinary, Film-based Science Communication Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickert, Johanna; Stewart, Iain S.

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade, social science studies indicate that there is little or no correlation between the provision of scientific information about geohazards and risks and the adaptive changes in individual or community behaviour that would reduce risk. Bridging that gap to effectively convey hazard science 'the last mile' to those communities at risk raises a number of ethical issues about the role and responsibilities of geoscientists as communicators. Those issues emerge from a methodological shift away from the dominant interpretation of seismic risk communication as a transfer of scientific facts to "the public", towards more inclusive transdisciplinary communication strategies that incorporate peer-role models, adopt social network-based strategies and directly engage with communities in motivating preparedness actions. With this methodological shift comes ethical dilemmas. What are the target-groups that should be prioritised? What are the professional expectations and levels of personal engagement required of geo-communicators? How able and willing are geoscientists to include other forms of knowledge (e.g. from local communities or other disciplines)? What media formats can reconcile argumentative, informational "matters of fact" with sociocultural and psychological "matters of concern"? How should scientists react to political controversies related to risk mitigation and its communication? In the context of these ethical concerns, many geoscientist struggle to switch from conventional communication modes in which they are the technical 'experts' to more community-centered, participatory modes of public engagement. We examine this research question through a case study on seismic risk communication challenges in Istanbul, a megacity with one of the highest seismic vulnerabilities in the world. Currently, there are few formal mechanisms to facilitate interchange between academic geoscientists and the general public in Istanbul. In order to reduce the city

  8. From science to decision-making: taking the risk to communicate on risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Geoscientists and decision-makers have the same responsibility toward the society: reducing the damaging consequences induced by natural phenomena. They have to work together, geoscientists to improve the knowledge and decision-makers to take the "best" decision, both to design and implement balanced solutions, both to communicate. Feedback shows that if the collaboration between them has already improved, a lot has still to be done, especially in terms of communication; endless litany, geoscientists don't communicate in the right way! In a hyperspecialized technological and segmented society with sophisticated methods of communication, geoscientists don't use appropriate tools and terminology. It's true, and a lot of examples can be shown that highlight this! Risks is based on complex concepts, on notions that are poorly understood, even by scientists themselves, especially the concepts of probability and occurrence of phenomena. But the problem rest as well on the role and on the responsibility of the geoscientists. Risk management experts address geosciences and technology to identify problems and define protection, including prohibitive measures (such as not allowing building in hazardous areas). Policy makers and local planners want to know where to develop territories. On one hand the identification of problems, on the other hand the needs of solutions. Dialectic is not the same. When responsibility, money and image are the three main pillars of decision-making, long-term modeling and uncertainty, are the basic ones for geosciences. In our participative democracies people want to be actor of the development of their own territories; they want more freedom, more protection and less tax. Face to unrealistic political answers geoscientists have to explain and convince. It's not possible to gain on everything and some are going to loose. Shall geoscientists let decision-makers communicate on topics they hardly understand? No. Shall geoscientists communicate on

  9. Cost-effectiveness of environmental-structural communication interventions for HIV prevention in the female sex industry in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Michael; Kerrigan, Deanna; Moreno, Luis; Rosario, Santo; Gomez, Bayardo; Jerez, Hector; Weiss, Ellen; Barrington, Clare

    2006-01-01

    Behavior change communication often focuses on individual-level variables such as knowledge, perceived risk, self-efficacy, and behavior. A growing body of evidence suggests, however, that structural interventions to change the policy environment and environmental interventions designed to modify the physical and social environment further bolster impact. Little is known about the cost-effectiveness of such comprehensive intervention programs. In this study we use standard cost analysis methods to examine the incremental cost-effectiveness of two such interventions conducted in the Dominican Republic in sex establishments. In Santo Domingo the intervention was environmental; in Puerto Plata it was both environmental and structural (levying financial sanctions on sex establishment owners who failed to follow the intervention). The interventions in both sites included elements found in more conventional behavior change communication (BCC) programs (e.g., community mobilization, peer education, educational materials, promotional stickers). One key aim was to examine whether the addition of policy regulation was cost-effective. Data for the analysis were gleaned from structured behavioral questionnaires administered to female sex workers and their male regular paying partners in 41 sex establishments conducted pre- and post-intervention (1 year follow-up); data from HIV sentinel surveillance, STI screening results conducted for the intervention; and detailed cost data we collected. We estimated the number of HIV infections averted from each of the two intervention models and converted these estimates to the number of disability life years saved as compared with no intervention. One-way, two-way, three-way, and multivariate sensitivity analysis were conducted on model parameters. We examine a discount rate of 0%, 3% (base case), and 6% for future costs and benefits. The intervention conducted in Santo Domingo (community mobilization, promotional media, and interpersonal

  10. Integrating Language, Pragmatics, and Social Intervention in a Single-Subject Case Study of a Child with a Developmental Social Communication Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Catherine; Gaile, Jacqueline; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This clinical focus article presents an illustration of a complex communication intervention, the Social Communication Intervention Programme (SCIP), as delivered to a child who has a social communication disorder (SCD). The SCIP intervention combined language processing and pragmatic and social understanding therapies in a program of…

  11. A Patient Navigator Intervention to Reduce Hospital Readmissions among High-Risk Safety-Net Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Richard B; Galbraith, Alison A; Burns, Marguerite E; Vialle-Valentin, Catherine E; Larochelle, Marc R; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2015-07-01

    Evidence-based interventions to reduce hospital readmissions may not generalize to resource-constrained safety-net hospitals. To determine if an intervention by patient navigators (PNs), hospital-based Community Health Workers, reduces readmissions among high risk, low socioeconomic status patients. Randomized controlled trial. General medicine inpatients having at least one of the following readmission risk factors: (1) age ≥60 years, (2) any in-network inpatient admission within the past 6 months, (3) length of stay ≥3 days, (4) admission diagnosis of heart failure, or (5) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The analytic sample included 585 intervention patients and 925 controls. PNs provided coaching and assistance in navigating the transition from hospital to home through hospital visits and weekly telephone outreach, supporting patients for 30 days post-discharge with discharge preparation, medication management, scheduling of follow-up appointments, communication with primary care, and symptom management. The primary outcome was in-network 30-day hospital readmissions. Secondary outcomes included rates of outpatient follow-up. We evaluated outcomes for the entire cohort and stratified by patient age >60 years (425 intervention/584 controls) and ≤60 years (160 intervention/341 controls). Overall, 30-day readmission rates did not differ between intervention and control patients. However, the two age groups demonstrated marked differences. Intervention patients >60 years showed a statistically significant adjusted absolute 4.1% decrease [95% CI: -8.0%, -0.2%] in readmission with an increase in 30-day outpatient follow-up. Intervention patients ≤60 years showed a statistically significant adjusted absolute 11.8% increase [95% CI: 4.4%, 19.0%] in readmission with no change in 30-day outpatient follow-up. A patient navigator intervention among high risk, safety-net patients decreased readmission among older patients while increasing readmissions

  12. Themes addressed by couples with advanced cancer during a communication skills training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laura S; Fish, Laura; Steinhauser, Karen

    2018-04-25

    Couple-based communication interventions have beneficial effects for patients with cancer and their partners. However, few studies have targeted patients with advanced stages of disease and little is known about how best to assist couples in discussing issues related to life-limiting illness. The purpose of the present study was to identify themes couples addressed during a couple communication skills intervention, and the frequency with which they discussed issues related to end-of-life. Content analyses were conducted on recordings of 72 sessions from 12 couples facing advanced gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. Coding was based six themes identified a priori from the framework for understanding what patients and family value at end of life. The percent of couples addressing each theme was calculated to gauge level of importance and acceptability of these topics. The majority of couples addressed topics previously identified as salient at end-of-life, including clear decision making, affirmation of the whole person, pain and symptom management, contributing to others, and preparation for death. In addition, novel aspects to these themes emerged in the context of couples' conversations, illustrating the importance of the couple relationship in adjusting to life with a life-limiting illness and anticipating the transition to end-of-life. Findings suggest that couples likely would be receptive to an intervention that combines training in communication skills with guidance in focusing on issues related to life completion to assist with transitions at end of life. Such interventions might enhance both individuals' abilities to cope with illness-related symptoms and demands, enjoy the time they have together, and derive meaning from the experience. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A 5A's communication intervention to promote physical activity in underserved populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Jennifer K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a clinician training intervention to improve physical activity counseling in underserved primary care settings using the 5As. The 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange are a clinical tool recommended for health behavior counseling in primary care. Methods/Design The study is a two-arm randomized pilot pragmatic trial to examine a primary care clinician communication intervention on use of the 5As in discussion of physical activity in audio-recorded office visits in an ethnically diverse, low-income patient population. The study setting consists of two federally qualified community health centers in Rochester, NY. Eligible clinicians (n=15 are recruited and randomized into two groups. Group 1 clinicians participate in the training intervention first; Group 2 clinicians receive the intervention six months later. The intervention and its outcomes are informed by self-determination theory and principles of patient-centered communication. Assessment of outcomes is blinded. The primary outcome will be the frequency and quality of 5As discussions as judged by evaluating 375 audio-recorded patient visits distributed over baseline and in the post-intervention period (immediately post and at six months. Secondary outcomes will be changes in patients’ perceived competence to increase physical activity (Aim 2 and patients and clinicians beliefs regarding whether pertinent barriers to promoting exercise have been reduced. (Aim 3. Exploratory outcomes (Aim 4 are potential mediators of the intervention’s effect and whether the intervention affects actual enrollment in the community program recommended for exercise. The analysis will use repeated measures (in the form of recorded office visits from each clinician at each time point and aggregate measures of Groups 1 and 2 over time. Discussion Results will help elucidate the role of 5As communication training for clinicians on

  14. Women, mercury and artisanal gold mining : Risk communication and mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, J. J.; Veiga, M. M.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    Artisanal miners employ rudimentary techniques for minéral extraction and often operate under hazardous, labour intensive, highly disorganized and illegal conditions. Gold is the main mineral extracted by artisanal miners, and the ecological and human health impacts resulting from mercury (Hg) use in gold extraction warrant special consideration. More than 30% of world's 13 million artisanal miners are women and, as they are often perceived to be less suited for labour intensive mining methods, the majority of women work in the processing aspect of artisanal mining, including amalgamation with Hg. As women are also predominantly responsible for food preparation, they are in an excellent position to respond to health risks associated with consumption of Hg-contaminated foods in impacted areas. In addition to their influence on consumption habits, women in artisanal mining communities may be in a position to effect positive change with respect to the technologies employed. Thus, gender sensitive approaches are necessary to reduce exposure risks to women and their families, promote clean technologies and support the development of stronger, healthier artisanal mining communities. This paper describes the roles of women in artisanal gold mining, highlights their importance in reducing the Hg exposure in these communities, and provides insight into how risks from Hg pollution can effectively be communicated and mitigated.

  15. Community Gardens as Environmental Health Interventions: Benefits Versus Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, W K; Webb, M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle. Community gardens are not limited to developed countries. They also exist in developing low-income countries but usually serve a different purpose of food security. Despite their benefits, community gardens can become a source of environmental toxicants from the soil of mostly empty lands that might have been contaminated by toxicants in the past. Therefore, caution should be taken about gardening practices and the types of foods to be grown on such soil if there was evidence of contamination. We present community gardens as additional solutions to the epidemic of chronic diseases in low-income urban communities and how it can have a positive physical, mental and social impact among participants. On balance, the benefits of engaging in community gardens are likely to outweigh the potential risk that can be remedied. Quantitative population studies are needed to provide evidence of the benefits and health impacts versus potential harms from community gardens.

  16. RISK MANAGEMENT AND RISK COMMUNICATION IN MOZAMBIQUE: THE CASE OF ARMS AND AMMUNITION DEPOTS OF MALHAZINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bussotti

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk management and risk communication affect everybody’s daily life. Local authorities have the duty to manage public structures, to inform civilians of the risks coming from these structures, to implement prophylaxis procedures. Military storage sites are fully included in this category. This article presents – through a qualitative methodology based on risk analysis – how risk management and communication in weapons and ammunition warehouses is managed in a “partially free” country, using as a case-study, the Malhazine depot in Mozambique, which resulted in more than 100 deaths. In 2007, an extraordinary accident related to the management of obsolete conventional weapons occurred at the Malazhine warehouse. In this circumstance, the Mozambican Government adopted a policy of classifying the information “highly confidential”. This policy aimed at obscuring facts and responsibilities by hiding the causes of such a huge tragedy. This article concludes with the consideration that a high level of confidentiality in treating issues of public interest, such as the one kept in regard to Malhazine, does not help public authorities to effectively manage and prevent similar risks from occurring again, with resulting negative impacts on local populations.

  17. Meta-analyses on behavioral interventions to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergidis, Paschalis I; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-06-01

    Different behavioral interventions have found to be efficacious in reducing high-risk sexual activity. Interventions have been evaluated in both original research and meta-analytic reviews. Most of the studies have shown that interventions are efficacious among different study populations. In adolescents, both in- and out-of-the classroom interventions showed a decrease in the risk of unprotected sex. In African Americans, greater efficacy was found for interventions including peer education. For Latinos, effect was larger in interventions with segmentation in the same gender. Geographic and social isolation are barriers in approaching MSM. For IDUs, interventions provided within a treatment program have an impact on risk reduction above that produced by drug treatment alone. Finally, people diagnosed with HIV tend to reduce their sexual risk behavior. However, adherence to safe sex practices for life can be challenging. Relentless efforts for implementation of behavioral interventions to decrease high-risk behavior are necessary to decrease HIV transmission.

  18. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). Methods. The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001–2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. Results. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees’ data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Conclusions. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies. PMID:28892436

  19. Communicating on risk and safety in terms of awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, L.; Andersson, Kjell

    1999-01-01

    'Safety awareness' is proposed as a possibly constructive concept for the purpose of promoting initiatives in nuclear safety work and gaining improved understanding when communicating on nuclear safety. Safety is thus conceived as resulting essentially from and actually constituting awareness of critical factors in regard of safety. The concept aims specifically at promoting the view of 'safety' as 'awareness of required conditions for being in control of risk'. It aims as well at making clearer sense in calling for constant improvement of safety, according to practice in a safety culture. This proposed view would be expected to lead to applying the usual types of safety criteria but offers the merit of attracting due attention to 'awareness goals' in process oriented safety management which are fundamental to maintaining and improving safety. Applications are discussed in regard of communicating on nuclear safety between decision-makers and the general public, developing and maintaining safety culture, integrating specialist expert contributions in over-all safety assessment, setting safety goals and using safety indicators

  20. Risk communication system for high level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Akihide; Uda, Akinobu; Shimoda, Hirosi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Ito, Kyoko; Wakabayashi, Yasunaga

    2005-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding and acceptance of the task of implementing high level radioactive waste disposal, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. First, text mining method was introduced to identify the core public interest, examining public comments on the technical report of high level radioactive waste disposal. Then we designed the dialog-mode contents based on the theory of norm activation by Schwartz. Finally, the discussion board was mounted on the web site. By constructing such web communication system which includes knowledge base contents, introspective contents, and interactive discussion board, we conducted the experiment for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The participants of the experiment increased their interest in the topics with which they were not familiar and actively posted their opinions on the BBS. The dialog-mode contents were significantly more effective than the knowledge-based contents in promoting introspection that brought people into a greater awareness of problems such as social dilemma. (author)

  1. A Conceptual Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Lin, Leesa; Gamhewage, Gaya M

    2017-09-01

    To articulate a conceptual framework in support of evaluation activities in emergency risk communications (ERC). The framework proposed is based on a systematic review of the scientific literature (2001-2016) combined with data derived from a series of semistructured interviews with experts and practitioners in ERC, and it is designed to support local, national, and international public health organizations in implementing evaluation studies in ERC. We identified a list of ERC outcomes from the full-text review of 152 articles and categorized these into 3 groups, depending upon the level at which the outcome was measured: (1) information environment, (2) population, and (3) public health system. We analyzed interviewees' data from 18 interviews to identify practices and processes related to the effectiveness of ERC and included these as key structural components and processes in the developed evaluation framework. Researchers and public health practitioners interested in the evaluation of ERC can use the conceptual framework described in this article to guide the development of evaluation studies and methods for assessing communication outcomes related to public health emergencies.

  2. [Communication on health and safety risk control in contemporary society: an interdisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses communication as a technology for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, within the context of a "risk society". As a component of Risk Analysis, risk communication is a technology that appears in risk literature, with well defined objectives, principles and models. These aspects are described and the difficulties are stressed, taking into consideration the multiple rationales related to risks in the culture and the many different aspects of risk regulation and control in the so-called "late modernity". Consideration is also given to the complexity of the communications process, guided by theoretical and methodological discussions in the field. In order to understand the true value of the communications field for risk control with health and safety protection and promotion, this paper also offers an overview of communication theories that support discussions of this matter, proposing a critical approach to models that include the dimensions of power and culture in the context of a capitalist society.

  3. Communicating Geographical Risks in Crisis Management: The Need for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon; Argyris, Nikolaos; Haywood, Stephanie M; Hort, Matthew C; Smith, Jim Q

    2017-10-23

    In any crisis, there is a great deal of uncertainty, often geographical uncertainty or, more precisely, spatiotemporal uncertainty. Examples include the spread of contamination from an industrial accident, drifting volcanic ash, and the path of a hurricane. Estimating spatiotemporal probabilities is usually a difficult task, but that is not our primary concern. Rather, we ask how analysts can communicate spatiotemporal uncertainty to those handling the crisis. We comment on the somewhat limited literature on the representation of spatial uncertainty on maps. We note that many cognitive issues arise and that the potential for confusion is high. We note that in the early stages of handling a crisis, the uncertainties involved may be deep, i.e., difficult or impossible to quantify in the time available. In such circumstance, we suggest the idea of presenting multiple scenarios. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Communicating radon risk effectively: Radon testing in Maryland. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desvousges, W.H.; Smith, V.K.; Rink, H.H.

    1988-10-01

    Two sets of materials and corresponding delivery strategies for communicating radon risk were evaluated, compared with a 'no-special-treatment' strategy in a comparison community. One community received radio public-service announcements and utility bill inserts. The second received these plus posters, local government sponsorship of a radon awareness week, and local slide presentations. The most-intensive efforts (multiple channels, multiple hits) were more effective than the less intensive effort, which had little impact compared with no special treatment. From a marketing perspective, the effort was very successful, increasing the share of homeowners who tested for radon from 5% to 15%. This may not be viewed as sufficiently effective from a public-health perspective, however

  5. The future of risk communication and the role of the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sweta; Bouder, Frederic

    2013-02-01

    Risk communication is an interactive two-way process that various stakeholders (e.g., patients, regulators, industry) utilize to address prescription drug safety. This paper will specifically examine the pharmaceutical industry's engagement with risk communication as a tool for information exchange with patients and other stakeholders about the associated risks related to its medicines. Risk communications are not solely meant to inform; and rather effective two-way risk communications have the potential to change behavioral outcomes for the purpose of individual and societal benefit. Despite this indispensable role of risk communication for the pharmaceutical industry, more research is needed for the appropriate development and dissemination of risk communications. A crucial missing component for the crafting of pharmaceutical risk communications is the understanding of risk perceptions from the patient/consumer's perspective. This is necessary to see where any divergences in views may lie between the industry and its final consumer, which is crucial in tailoring communications to target a specific erroneous belief or to address what might be deemed as a needed behavioral shift. It is also necessary to develop communications in consideration of the levels of public trust in the industry as well as other perceived actors in the healthcare system. Even the most meticulously crafted and tested risk communications will fail to fulfill their purpose if the role of trust is not taken into consideration. These considerations can lead to the establishment of a "social contract" that effectively addresses what is required from both parties for continued and mutually beneficial interactions. Conducting risk perception research, addressing the role of trust, establishing a social contract, and having a realistic outlook on the impact of risk communications are necessary considerations as pharmaceutical risk communication evolves for the future.

  6. Mentoring At-Risk Middle School Students to Reduce Communication Apprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T.; Procopio, Claire H.

    2017-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the efficacy of mentoring at-risk students in a number of fields from physical education to math and science. While separate research has found that many at-risk students lack effective communication skills, little research has explored the potential of communication mentoring in improving at-risk students' communication…

  7. Parental monitoring, parent-adolescent communication about sex, and sexual risk among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brian C; Huebner, David M

    2014-08-01

    Parental monitoring and parent-adolescent communication about sex protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among heterosexual adolescents, but it is unknown if these findings generalize to young men who have sex with men (YMSM). Sexual orientation-specific stressors, including "coming out" to parents, complicate the family context of YMSM. We examined associations between parental monitoring, communication about sex, outness to cohabitating parents, and sexual behaviors. Ethnically diverse YMSM ages 14-19 provided cross-sectional data (n = 257). Monitoring and outness to parents interacted to predict recent same-sex unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). For YMSM who reported mixed or uncertain outness to parents, higher levels of perceived parental monitoring were associated with greater risk of UAI. Higher levels of communication about sex were associated with greater risk of UAI for YMSM out to parents. Parental monitoring and communication about sex might not protect YMSM against sexual risk in the same way they protect heterosexual youth. Future research should examine whether adapted forms of family factors could protect YMSM, and family-based HIV risk-reduction interventions for YMSM should be attuned to the unique ways family factors function within this group.

  8. AWARENESS OF NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS AMONG RURAL SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharudha Shivalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral interventions for Non Communicable Diseases (NCD abeyance would profit the most, if initiated at an early age. Major risk factors of NCDs are changing life style and behavior pattern which are largely due to practices adopted in younger age. Students' awareness about NCDs and their risk factors is an important part of population based prevention strategy. Objective: To assess the awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among rural intermediate school children. Methodology: A School based cross sectional study was conducted in Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi from July - Aug 2010. Intermediate school children from eight inter-colleges of Chiraigaon development block were the study subjects. Pretested questionnaire was used in the study and frequency and proportions were used to analyze the data. Results: Less than one third of the children were aware about Diabetes and Hypertension (27% and 31% respectively. Only 18% knew about Body Mass Index (BMI as an indicator of obesity. In general awareness of NCDs was more in boys than girl. Conclusion: Over all awareness of NCDs and their risk factors among students was not satisfactory. There is a need and scope for health education activity regarding NCDs and their risk factors to promote healthy life style among these school children.

  9. A home-based intervention using augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques in rural Kenya: what are the caregivers' experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gona, J K; Newton, C R; Hartley, S; Bunning, K

    2014-01-01

    Caring for a child with complex communication needs associated with a developmental condition frequently adds stress to the caregiver. Furthermore, professional assistance is scarce in low-income rural settings. For such children speech is frequently unachievable. Augmentative and alternative communication provides options for supplementing or replacing speech with other techniques. The current study aimed to examine the experiences of caregivers in Kenya before and after a home-based intervention using augmentative and alternative communication techniques with children with complex communication needs. Caregivers were interviewed pre- and post-intervention. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and translated into English. Content analysis was applied through the stages of text familiarization and topic organization. Emergent themes and their sub-themes were identified and labelled. Connections between themes were established and interpretations made. The procedure was completed by a second researcher independently. Conflicting ideas were jointly discussed until consensus was achieved. Four themes emerged from the data: communication process; struggle; normality; and supernatural power. Before intervention, the caregivers acknowledged their expertise in communications with the child, while also revealing their sense of isolation, burden and pain. Normality was present as a source of comparison and also an aspirational goal. Post-intervention more positive language was used to describe the child. There was an 'opening up' of communication that recognized the child's strengths and some social support systems were re-established. The power of the supernatural was recognized before and after intervention. Caring of a child with complex communication needs presents many challenges. A home-based intervention using augmentative and alternative communication techniques appears to have been a catalyst for some positive transformations in the caregivers

  10. Preventing and Managing Cardiometabolic Risk: The Logic for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Carreón

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk (CMR, also known as metabolic syndrome or insulin resistance syndrome, comprises obesity (particularly central or abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Leading to death from diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, the root cause of CMR is inadequate physical activity, a Western diet identified primarily by low intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and high in saturated fat, as well as a number of yet-to-be-identified genetic factors. While the pathophysiological pathways related to CMR are complex, the universal need for adequate physical activity and a diet that emphasizes fruits and vegetables and whole grains, while minimizing food high in added sugars and saturated fat suggests that these behaviors are the appropriate focus of intervention.

  11. Distance factor on reducing scattered radiation risk during interventional fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini Salleh; Mohd Khalid Matori; Muhammad Jamal Mat Isa; Zainal Jamaluddin; Mohd Firdaus Abdul Rahman; Mohd Khairusalih Mohd Zin

    2012-01-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is subspecialty of diagnostic radiology where minimally invasive procedures are performed using an x-ray as a guidance. This procedure can deliver high radiation doses to patient and medical staff compared with other radiological method due to long screening time. The use of proper shielding, shorten the exposure time and keep the distance are the practices to reduce scattered radiation risks to staff involve in this procedure. This project is to study the distance factor on reducing the scattered radiation effect to the medical staff. It also may provide the useful information which can be use to establish the scattered radiation profile during the IR for the sake of radiation protection and safety to the medical staff involved. (author)

  12. Strengths and Gaps in Physicians' Risk Communication: A Scenario Study of the Influence of Numeracy on Cancer Screening Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Dafina; Kostopoulou, Olga; Delaney, Brendan C; Cokely, Edward T; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2018-04-01

    Many patients have low numeracy, which impedes their understanding of important information about health (e.g., benefits and harms of screening). We investigated whether physicians adapt their risk communication to accommodate the needs of patients with low numeracy, and how physicians' own numeracy influences their understanding and communication of screening statistics. UK family physicians ( N = 151) read a description of a patient seeking advice on cancer screening. We manipulated the level of numeracy of the patient (low v. high v. unspecified) and measured physicians' risk communication, recommendation to the patient, understanding of screening statistics, and numeracy. Consistent with best practices, family physicians generally preferred to use visual aids rather than numbers when communicating information to a patient with low (v. high) numeracy. A substantial proportion of physicians (44%) offered high quality (i.e., complete and meaningful) risk communication to the patient. This was more often the case for physicians with higher (v. lower) numeracy who were more likely to mention mortality rates, OR=1.43 [1.10, 1.86], and harms from overdiagnosis, OR=1.44 [1.05, 1.98]. Physicians with higher numeracy were also more likely to understand that increased detection or survival rates do not demonstrate screening effectiveness, OR=1.61 [1.26, 2.06]. Most physicians know how to appropriately tailor risk communication for patients with low numeracy (i.e., with visual aids). However, physicians who themselves have low numeracy are likely to misunderstand the risks and unintentionally mislead patients by communicating incomplete information. High-quality risk communication and shared decision making can depend critically on factors that improve the risk literacy of physicians.

  13. Periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes: exposure, risk and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, B; Stringer, M; Jeffcoat, Marjorie K

    2007-06-01

    Despite the many advances in medicine, the rate of preterm birth has not significantly decreased in the United States over the past several decades. In fact, the rate rose in 2003 to more than 12% of all births in the United States. This equates to over half a million premature births in the United States alone. Consequently, the identification of risk factors for preterm birth which are amenable to intervention would have far-reaching and long-lasting effects. There is emerging evidence of a relationship between periodontal health and adverse pregnancy outcomes, particularly preterm birth/preterm low-birth-weight infants. Therefore this chapter explores the putative association between periodontal disease and infant prematurity, as well as the results of intervention studies which treated periodontal disease in order to reduce the incidence of prematurity. Of 31 published studies, 22 show a positive association between premature birth and periodontal disease. Ongoing studies are addressing the efficacy of periodontal treatment for decreasing the incidence of infant prematurity.

  14. Use of focus groups to develop methods to communicate cardiovascular disease risk and potential for risk reduction to people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Hermione C; Dudley, Christina; Barrow, Beryl; Kennedy, Ian; Griffin, Simon J; Holman, Rury R

    2009-10-01

    People need to perceive a risk in order to build an intention-to-change behaviour yet our ability to interpret information about risk is highly variable. We aimed to use a user-centred design process to develop an animated interface for the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine to illustrate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and the potential to reduce this risk. In addition, we sought to use the same approach to develop a brief lifestyle advice intervention. Three focus groups were held. Participants were provided with examples of materials used to communicate CVD risk and a leaflet containing a draft brief lifestyle advice intervention and considered their potential to increase motivation-to-change behaviours including diet, physical activity, and smoking in order to reduce CVD risk. Discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed and coded and recurring themes sought. Sixty-two percent of participants were male, mean age was 66 years (range = 47-76 years) and median age at leaving full-time education was 18 years (range = 15-40 years). Sixteen had type 2 diabetes and none had a prior history of CVD. Recurring themes from focus group discussions included the following: being less numerate is common, CVD risk reduction is important and a clear visual representation aids comprehension. A simple animated interface of the UKPDS Risk Engine to illustrate CVD risk and the potential for reducing this risk has been developed for use as a motivational tool, along with a brief lifestyle advice intervention. Future work will investigate whether use of this interactive version of the UKPDS Risk Engine and brief lifestyle advice is associated with increased behavioural intentions and changes in health behaviours designed to reduce CVD risk.

  15. Increased bleeding risk during percutaneous coronary interventions by arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndrepepa, Gjin; Groha, Philipp; Lahmann, Anna L; Lohaus, Raphaela; Cassese, Salvatore; Schulz-Schüpke, Stefanie; Kufner, Sebastian; Mayer, Katharina; Bernlochner, Isabell; Byrne, Robert A; Fusaro, Massimiliano; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Schunkert, Heribert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to assess the association between arterial hypertension and bleeding in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of arterial hypertension on bleeding risk of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI is unknown. This study included 14,180 patients who underwent PCI. Bleeding was defined using the Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria. Arterial hypertension was defined as treatment with antihypertensive drugs or a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure value >90 mm Hg documented on at least 2 occasions. The primary outcome was bleeding rate within 30 days of PCI. Overall, 11,066 patients (78.0%) had arterial hypertension. Bleeding events occurred in 1,232 patients with arterial hypertension and 278 patients without arterial hypertension (11.1% vs 8.9%; odds ratio [OR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.46, P arterial hypertension and 175 patients without arterial hypertension (6.6% vs 5.6%: OR = 1.19 [1.01-1.41], P = 0.049). Non-access-site bleeding occurred in 502 patients with and 103 patients without arterial hypertension (4.5% vs 3.3%; OR = 1.39 [1.12-1.72], P = 0.003). After adjustment, arterial hypertension was significantly associated with any bleeding (adjusted OR = 1.41 [1.19-1.67], P arterial hypertension increased the risk of non-access-site bleeding (P = 0.002), whereas systolic blood pressure at the time of PCI increased the risk of access site bleeding (P = 0.018). Arterial hypertension is associated with increased risk of bleeding during PCI procedures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [A communication intervention in autism spectrum disorder by means of the programme 'More than Words'. A case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baixauli-Fortea, I; Gascon-Herranz, N; de Carlos-Isla, M; Colomer-Diago, C

    2018-03-01

    The 'More than Words' programme aims to enable parents to take advantage of day-to-day situations as communication learning settings, through the use of instruction in responsive-type interaction strategies. To describe the effects of this programme on the communication skills of a child with autism spectrum disorder and on the language the parents use to address him. A three-phase design (pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention) was employed, in which the responsive interactions of the parents and the child's communicative acts were measured. The intervention can modify the parents' communicative style, especially when the family receives guidance from a speech therapist. Nevertheless, the responsive nature of the parents' communication tends to diminish when the intervention finishes. Conversely, the child's communicative acts increase, with a medium-sized effect of the treatment. The 'More than Words' programme can be a good starting point for parents to become familiar with strategies that foster communication with their children who have autism spectrum disorder.

  17. Mediation Analysis of the Efficacy of the Eban HIV/STD Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Jemmott, John B; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Pequegnat, Willo; Wingood, Gina M; Wyatt, Gail E; Landis, J Richard; Remien, Robert H

    2016-06-01

    Targeting couples is a promising behavioral HIV risk-reduction strategy, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of such interventions are unknown. We report secondary analyses testing whether Social-Cognitive-Theory variables mediated the Eban HIV-risk-reduction intervention's effects on condom-use outcomes. In a multisite randomized controlled trial conducted in four US cities, 535 African American HIV-serodiscordant couples were randomized to the Eban HIV risk-reduction intervention or attention-matched control intervention. Outcomes were proportion condom-protected sex, consistent condom use, and frequency of unprotected sex measured pre-, immediately post-, and 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Potential mediators included Social-Cognitive-Theory variables: outcome expectancies and self-efficacy. Mediation analyses using the product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework revealed that condom-use outcome expectancy, partner-reaction outcome expectancy, intention, self-efficacy, and safer-sex communication improved post-intervention and mediated intervention-induced improvements in condom-use outcomes. These findings underscore the importance of targeting outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and safer-sex communication in couples-level HIV risk-reduction interventions.

  18. [The perils of risk communication and the role of the mass media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, C; Brosius, H-B

    2013-01-01

    Based on theories and empirical results from communication science, the present paper provides an overview of the role of mass media in risk communication. It is guided by the following questions: How do risk issues find their way into the media and how does the media depict them? How do mass-mediated risk messages affect people's perception of risks, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior? What potential does the media have in disseminating health risk information in campaigns? Hence, the present paper aims to provide a basis for the appropriate use of mass media in health risk communication so as to make use of the potential of mass media without neglecting its limits.

  19. The KnowRISK project: Tools and strategies for risk communication and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchio, Gemma; Amaral Ferreira, Mónica; Falsaperla, Susanna; Piangiamore, Giovanna Lucia; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Solarino, Stefano; Crescimbene, Massimo; Eva, Elena; Reitano, Danilo; Þorvaldsdottir, Solveig; Sousa Silva, Delta; Rupakhety, Rajesh; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Damage of non-structural elements of buildings (i.e. partitions, ceilings, cladding, electrical and mechanical systems and furniture) is known to cause injuries and human losses. Also it has a significant impact on earthquake resilience and is yet being worldwide underestimated. The project KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) is financed by the European Commission to develop prevention measures that may reduce non-structural damage in urban areas. Pilot areas of the project are within the three European participating countries, namely Portugal, Iceland and Italy. They were chosen because they are prone to damage level 2 and 3 (EMS-98, European Macroseismic Scale) that typically affects non-structural elements. We will develop and test a risk communication strategy taking into account the needs of households and schools, putting into practice a portfolio of best practice to reduce the most common non-structural vulnerabilities. We will target our actions to different societal groups, considering their cultural background and social vulnerabilities, and implement a participatory approach that will promote engagement and interaction between the scientific community, practitioners and citizens to foster knowledge on everyone's own neighborhoods, resilience and vulnerability. A Practical Guide for citizens will highlight that low-cost actions can be implemented to increase safety of households, meant as being the places where the most vulnerable societal groups, including children and elderly people, spend much of their time. Since our actions towards communication will include education, we will define tools that allow a clear and direct understanding of elements exposed to risk. Schools will be one of our target societal groups and their central role played at the community level will ensure spreading and strengthening of the communication process. Schools are often located in old or re-adapted buildings, formerly used for

  20. Parent Communication Prompt to Increase Shared Decision-Making: A New Intervention Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M. Hubner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveShared decision-making (SDM is the process by which patients, clinicians, and in pediatrics, parents/caregivers, discuss treatment options, communicate available evidence for or against the different options, share preferences and values, and eventually arrive at a joint decision. This study evaluates the use of a novel, universally applicable, SDM intervention, provided to parents, intended to promote engagement and participation with their child’s clinician.MethodsTwo-arm randomized controlled trial comparing the impact of a SDM-focused intervention prompt to a neutral comparison prompt on perception of SDM participation. Participants included English-speaking parents of children (0–17 years attending one Developmental-Behavioral Pediatric (DBP clinic and their child’s clinician. Prior to visit start, parents received either the intervention prompt encouraging engagement with the clinician in decision-making, or the comparison prompt reminding them to request a school/work excuse note if needed. After the visit, SDM was assessed by both parents and DBP clinicians. SDM was scored as present if the respondent answered “strongly agree” to all SDM-related items. Logistic regression tested effects of visit, child, parent, clinician characteristics, and intervention group status on parent-reported SDM. Cohen’s kappa assessed alignment between parent and clinician perceptions of SDM.ResultsOf 88 parents screened, 50 (61% met eligibility criteria and agreed to participate (intervention n = 26; comparison n = 24. Eligible participants (parents and clinicians for analysis completed the surveys with no missing data. Overall, SDM was present in 76% of parents and 34% of clinicians. With high rates of parent-reported SDM in both intervention and comparison groups, no main intervention effect was detected. Compared to the comparison group, there was greater alignment between parent and clinician perception of SDM in the

  1. Assertive Communication and Teamwork: Results of an Intervention Program to the Supervisors of a Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H. Montes de Oca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effect of the implementation of the program "Manage your Talent" in competence assertive communication skills and teamwork. A quasi-experimental research design was used with pre-test - intervention - post-test with control group. The sample included 28 supervisors of a private company, 13 in the experimental group and 15 in the control group. A type of purposive sample was used. The results suggest a positive impact of the program to significantly increase competition achievement assertive communication (U = 3.5, Z = 4.58, *** P <.000, just as in effective dialogue dimensions (U = 8.0, feedback (U = 10.0, conflict resolution (U= 7.0 and non-verbal communication (U = 4.0, the skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were effective dialogue and nonverbal communication. In the other, the increase was lower. Regarding competition teamwork (U = 0.00, Z = 4.837, *** P <.000, just as in the dimensions (U = 9.0, Goal Achievement (U = 15.0, democratic environment (U= 12.0 and decision making (U = 7.0. The skills of this competence in the highest increase was recorded were the subject property, democratic environment and goal achievement. Minor increase in decision-making for managing consensus.

  2. Parents' Adoption of Social Communication Intervention Strategies: Families Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Are Minimally Verbal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…

  3. Examining Parent Perceptions Regarding the Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Felita

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. This quantitative study examined parent perceptions regarding augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) interventions for their children with autism to determine if, according to parent perceptions, a relationship existed between AAC and functional communication. Those faced with cognitive and developmental delays like autism face…

  4. A Bioecological Framework to Evaluate Communicative Participation Outcomes for Preschoolers Receiving Speech-Language Therapy Interventions in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Barbara J.; Rosenbaum, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Preschool Speech and Language Program (PSLP) in Ontario, Canada, is a publicly funded intervention service for children from birth to 5 years with communication disorders. It has begun a population-level programme evaluation of children's communicative participation outcomes following therapy. Data are currently being collected for…

  5. Maternal verbal responses to communication of infants at low and heightened risk of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leezenbaum, Nina B; Campbell, Susan B; Butler, Derrecka; Iverson, Jana M

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates mothers' responses to infant communication among infants at heightened genetic risk (high risk) of autism spectrum disorder compared to infants with no such risk (low risk). A total of 26 infants, 12 of whom had an older sibling with autism spectrum disorder, were observed during naturalistic in-home interaction and semistructured play with their mothers at 13 and 18 months of age. Results indicate that overall, mothers of low-risk and high-risk infants were highly and similarly responsive to their infants' communicative behaviors. However, examination of infant vocal and gestural communication development together with maternal verbal responses and translations (i.e. verbally labeling a gesture referent) suggests that delays in early communication development observed among high-risk infants may alter the input that these infants receive; this in turn may have cascading effects on the subsequent development of communication and language. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  7. Evolving strategies, opportunistic implementation: HIV risk reduction in Tanzania in the context of an incentive-based HIV prevention intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Packel

    Full Text Available Behavior change communication (BCC interventions, while still a necessary component of HIV prevention, have not on their own been shown to be sufficient to stem the tide of the epidemic. The shortcomings of BCC interventions are partly due to barriers arising from structural or economic constraints. Arguments are being made for combination prevention packages that include behavior change, biomedical, and structural interventions to address the complex set of risk factors that may lead to HIV infection.In 2009/2010 we conducted 216 in-depth interviews with a subset of study participants enrolled in the RESPECT study - an HIV prevention trial in Tanzania that used cash awards to incentivize safer sexual behaviors. We analyzed community diaries to understand how the study was perceived in the community. We drew on these data to enhance our understanding of how the intervention influenced strategies for risk reduction.We found that certain situations provide increased leverage for sexual negotiation, and these situations facilitated opportunistic implementation of risk reduction strategies. Opportunities enabled by the RESPECT intervention included leveraging conditional cash awards, but participants also emphasized the importance of exploiting new health status knowledge from regular STI testing. Risk reduction strategies included condom use within partnerships and/or with other partners, and an unexpected emphasis on temporary abstinence.Our results highlight the importance of increasing opportunities for implementing risk reduction strategies. We found that an incentive-based intervention could be effective in part by creating such opportunities, particularly among groups such as women with limited sexual agency. The results provide new evidence that expanding regular testing of STIs is another important mechanism for providing opportunities for negotiating behavior change, beyond the direct benefits of testing. Exploiting the latent demand for

  8. Perception and communication of risk in decision making by persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Mabel; Savage, Beverley; Taylor, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    Communication of risks must involve people with dementia meaningfully to ensure informed and inclusive decision-making processes. This qualitative study explored concepts of risk from the perspective of persons with dementia and their experiences of communicating risk with family members and professionals. Data was analysed using grounded theory. Seventeen people in Northern Ireland with mild-moderate dementia who had recently made a decision about their daily life or care involving consideration of risks were interviewed between November 2015 and November 2016. A wide range of actual or feared risks were identified relating to: daily activities; hobbies and socialising; mental health and medicines; and risks to and from others. 'Risk' often held emotional rather than probability connotations. Constructive communications to address issues were presented. Problem-solving models of both active and passive decision-making about risks were evident. Effective risk communication in informed decision-making processes about health and social care is discussed.

  9. Ethics, Risk, and Media Intervention: Women’s Breast Cancer in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mahmoud; Nahon-Serfaty, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence and mortality rates are of concern among Latin American women, mainly due to the growing prevalence of this disease and the lack of compliance to proper breast cancer screening and treatment. Focusing on Venezuelan women and the challenges and barriers that interact with their health communication, this paper looks into issues surrounding women’s breast cancer, such as the challenges and barriers to breast cancer care, the relevant ethics and responsibilities, the right to health, breast cancer risk perception and risk communication, and the media interventions that affect Venezuelan women’s perceptions and actions pertaining to this disease. In particular, it describes an action-oriented research project in Venezuela that was conducted over a four-year period of collaborative work among researchers, practitioners, NGOs, patients, journalists, and policymakers. The outcomes include positive indications on more effective interactions between physicians and patients, increasing satisfactions about issues of ethical treatment in providing healthcare services, more sufficient and responsible media coverage of breast cancer healthcare services and information, a widely supported declaration for a national response against breast cancer in Venezuela, and the creation of a code of ethics for the Venezuelan NGO that led the expansion of networking in support of women’s breast cancer healthcare. PMID:27867750

  10. Effect of mHealth on modifying behavioural risk-factors of non-communicable diseases in an adult, rural population in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Malvika; Banerjee, Bratati; Ingle, G K; Garg, Suneela

    2017-01-01

    The rising trend of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has led to a "dual burden" in low and middle-income (LAMI) countries like India which are still battling with high prevalence of communicable diseases. The incorporation of a target specially dedicated to NCDs within the goal 3 of the newly adopted Sustainable Development Goals indicates the importance the world now accords to prevention and control of these diseases. Mobile phone technology is increasingly viewed as a promising communication channel that can be utilized for primary prevention of NCDs by promoting behaviour change and risk factor modification. A "Before and After" Intervention study was conducted on 400 subjects, over a period of one year, in Barwala village, Delhi, India. An mHealth intervention package consisting of weekly text messages and monthly telephone calls addressing lifestyle modification for risk factors of NCDs was given to the intervention group, compared to no intervention package in control group. After Intervention Phase, significant reduction was seen in behavioural risk factors (unhealthy diet and insufficient physical activity) in the intervention group compared to control group. Body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure and fasting blood sugar level also showed significant difference in the intervention group as compared to controls. Our study has demonstrated the usefulness of mHealth for health promotion and lifestyle modification at community level in a LAMI country. With the growing burden of NCDs in the community, such cost effective and innovative measures will be needed that can easily reach the masses.

  11. Modifiable Risk Factors and Interventions for Childhood Obesity Prevention within the First 1,000 Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilo, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity. Promising obesity prevention interventions include those beginning during the first 1,000 days, using a multicomponent approach, with roots in nutrition education theories or behavior change communication that can continue over time. However, the limited number of completed interventions to date (within pediatric clinics or in home-based or community settings) may not be scalable to the magnitude needed for sustainable obesity prevention. Scale-up interventions that can be maintained for the durations needed, addressing infant and young child feeding and other modifiable risk factors associated with childhood obesity are needed. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Social Communication Effects of Peer-Mediated Recess Intervention for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon; Kamps, Debra; Heitzman-Powell, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Children with ASD face enormous challenges in the area of social functioning. Research has shown that impairments in social functioning distinguish this population from both typically developing children and children with disabilities. This study incorporated several evidence-based social skills-teaching procedures (i.e., direct instruction, priming, prompting, peer-mediation, contingent reinforcement, and token economies) directly in the recess setting to increase appropriate social behaviors for four children with ASD (ages 6–8). Elements of Peer Networks and Pivotal Response Training (two types of social skills intervention packages in the literature) were included. Results showed significant increases in social communication between focus children and their peers, as well as generalization of skills to non-intervention recesses. PMID:26312064

  13. Improving communication after ended adjuvant treatment - experiences of a coaching intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Connie; Ammentorp, Jette; Birkelund, Regner

    Background: Cancer is a potential life-threatening illness likely to trigger existential concerns related to the meaning of life, hope or faith. Such concerns have shown to influence patients’ perception of their identity and have also proven to worsen physical symptoms related to their cancer...... illness. To improve the conditions for cancer survivors the objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a coaching intervention aimed to improve the communication with the patients. Methods & Materials: Three nurses participated in a two-day training program focusing on coaching methods. A total...... of participating in the intervention were collected through qualitative interviews. Data were analyzed in accordance with the phenomenological-hermeneutic tradition. Results: The patients described a comprehensive process of regaining mental as well as physical strength and well-being after ended treatment...

  14. Development and feasibility of an objective measure of patient-centered communication fidelity in a pediatric obesity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to develop a measure of person-centered communication (PCC) and demonstrate feasibility for use in primary care child obesity interventions. Helping Healthy Activity and Nutrition Directions was a primary care intervention for families of overweight or obese 5- to 8-year-old childr...

  15. How to encourage non-donors to be more willing to donate blood? Testing of binding communication based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, D; Blondé, J; Girandola, F

    2017-06-01

    Our study aims to test the effectiveness of binding communication based interventions (vs classical persuasive communication based ones) inciting non-donors to act in favour of blood donation. The implementation of effective communication interventions represents a major public health issue. Nevertheless, persuasive media campaigns appear to have little effect on behaviours. Even though non-donors hold a positive attitude towards blood donation, they are not inclined to donate. As an alternative to producing behavioural changes, many recent studies have shown the superiority of binding communication over persuasive communication. All participants, non-donors, were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (type of communication: persuasive vs binding) × 2 (source credibility: low vs high) factorial design. Then, they were asked to report their intention to donate blood, and their intention to distribute leaflets regarding blood donation. Binding communication is a more effective strategy for increasing intention towards blood donation compared with persuasive communication, especially when combined with high credibility source. Accordingly this study calls for more consideration of knowledge of social psychology to design effective communication interventions and increase the number of donations. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  16. Nutritional interventions for adolescents using information and communication technologies (ICTs: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Rhaisa do Amaral E Melo

    Full Text Available A cost-effective and interactive way of promoting healthy nutrition behaviors among adolescents is using information and communication technologies (ICTs. We systematically reviewed studies to identify technologies and their main characteristics used for nutritional interventions for adolescents, as well as to evaluate their quality and effectiveness. Our full protocol is available on the PROSPERO website (#CRD42016035882. A search was conducted across five databases for articles describing nutritional interventions that used ICTs designed mainly for healthy adolescents. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental and observational studies, and full and original papers, all of them published from 2005 to 2015, were included. Study quality was assessed by the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Our search yielded 559 titles and abstracts. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Participants were recruited mostly from schools. Study follow-up ranged from two weeks to two years. Four interventions were based on the Social Cognitive Theory. Interventional strategies included computer games, programs, text messages, and interactive CD-ROMs. Nine studies used computer-mediated ICTs. Five studies focused on multiple behaviors simultaneously. Participants were exposed to interventions only once, daily, weekly, or according to a pre-determined number of lessons. Five studies had significant outcomes. Our quality assessment revealed three studies to be weak due to non-representativeness of their samples and usage of non-validated questionnaires. Besides the heterogeneity and poor quality of the analyzed studies, it can be suggested that long-term interventions for adolescents that make use of frequent exposure to technological resources, and that have a theoretical component aimed at a single health behavior change, tend to be more successful.

  17. The Process and Impact of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Communication and Decision-Making Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Kelly N; Frader, Joel; Sorce, Lauren; Clayman, Marla L; Persell, Stephen D; Fragen, Patricia; Ciolino, Jody D; Campbell, Laura C; Arenson, Melanie; Aniciete, Danica Y; Brown, Melanie L; Ali, Farah N; White, Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Stakeholder-developed interventions are needed to support pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) communication and decision-making. Few publications delineate methods and outcomes of stakeholder engagement in research. We describe the process and impact of stakeholder engagement on developing a PICU communication and decision-making support intervention. We also describe the resultant intervention. Stakeholders included parents of PICU patients, healthcare team members (HTMs), and research experts. Through a year-long iterative process, we involved 96 stakeholders in 25 meetings and 26 focus groups or interviews. Stakeholders adapted an adult navigator model by identifying core intervention elements and then determining how to operationalize those core elements in pediatrics. The stakeholder input led to PICU-specific refinements, such as supporting transitions after PICU discharge and including ancillary tools. The resultant intervention includes navigator involvement with parents and HTMs and navigator-guided use of ancillary tools. Subsequent research will test the feasibility and efficacy of our intervention.

  18. The Process and Impact of Stakeholder Engagement in Developing a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Communication and Decision-Making Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frader, Joel; Sorce, Lauren; Clayman, Marla L; Persell, Stephen D; Fragen, Patricia; Ciolino, Jody D; Campbell, Laura C; Arenson, Melanie; Aniciete, Danica Y; Brown, Melanie L; Ali, Farah N; White, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder-developed interventions are needed to support pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) communication and decision-making. Few publications delineate methods and outcomes of stakeholder engagement in research. We describe the process and impact of stakeholder engagement on developing a PICU communication and decision-making support intervention. We also describe the resultant intervention. Stakeholders included parents of PICU patients, healthcare team members (HTMs), and research experts. Through a year-long iterative process, we involved 96 stakeholders in 25 meetings and 26 focus groups or interviews. Stakeholders adapted an adult navigator model by identifying core intervention elements and then determining how to operationalize those core elements in pediatrics. The stakeholder input led to PICU-specific refinements, such as supporting transitions after PICU discharge and including ancillary tools. The resultant intervention includes navigator involvement with parents and HTMs and navigator-guided use of ancillary tools. Subsequent research will test the feasibility and efficacy of our intervention. PMID:28725847

  19. Prevention options for positives: the effects of a health communication intervention for men who have sex with men living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Randall, Liisa M; Peterson, Mark; Peterson, Amy; Klein, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    This article reports the results of a small-scale quasi-experiment that tested the efficacy of the Prevention Options for Positives intervention. The experiment tested for the outcomes of group sessions combined with individual-level counseling (ILC) versus ILC-only for men who have sex with men who are HIV positive. Both arms of the intervention were based on behavior change theory and dealt specifically with communication outcomes. The results indicate that the group- and individual-level interventions combined have a greater impact on risk communication behaviors with main partners than did the ILC-only sessions. group-session/ILC participants were more likely to decide not to have sex if they were drunk or high, and more likely to tell their partner and ask their partner about HIV status than were participants in the ILC groups. Knowledge about HIV was relatively high, and there was little change across groups. The Prevention Options for Positives intervention influenced the relative importance of various referent groups, but normative beliefs were not affected. The implications of these findings for communication practice and research with HIV-positive men who have sex with men are addressed.

  20. Threatening communication: diffusing the scientific evidence on fear appeal effectiveness among intervention developers and other groups of key actors

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Gerjo; Verboon, Peter; Ruiter, Robert; Peters, Gjalt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Threat-based (fear-appeal) interventions are often ineffective yet popular. The current paper reports the evaluation of an intervention that was designed to discourage using threatening communication and that targeted those responsible for this popularity (intervention developers, campaign leaders, policy makers, politicians, scientists and advertising professionals). METHODS: Of the 153 participants who started, 102 completed both the first phase and the six-week follow-up measur...

  1. Risk perception and communication strategies for the disposal of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taghizadegan, R.; Tschurlovits, M.

    2005-01-01

    The public perception of the risk due to disposal of nuclear material depends less on risk as a quantifiable measure, but rather on particular patterns of societal communication. Only an understanding of these patterns and the underlying motives permits effective risk communication in the form of a risk dialogue. Risk becomes a social code word and risk communication a social process, which is determined by ''rituals'' like stigmas and taboos on one hand, and on the other hand competing world views. The latter are analyzed by means of ''Cultural Theory'' and thus diverging perceptions of risks are explained. Finally, some communication strategies on the risks and uncertainties of the disposal of nuclear material are presented. (orig.)

  2. Impact of a brief intervention on patient communication and barriers to pain management: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Meredith Y; DuHamel, Katherine N; Egert, Jennifer; Winkel, Gary

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a brief pain communication/education intervention on patient outcomes in breast cancer. We hypothesized that our intervention would improve patient communication and reduce misconceptions ("Barriers") concerning pain management, and that patients with lower Barriers, or who perceived their physician as being more facilitative and receptive, would report better outcomes. Female breast cancer patients with persistent pain (n=89) were randomly assigned to either a 30-min in-person pain education/communication intervention or control condition and followed for 12 weeks. Intervention group patients reported a significant decrease in pain Barriers but not in other outcomes. Overall, patients with lower barrier scores reported less distress and better emotional well-being. Patients who scored higher in active communication (e.g., asking questions, giving information) reported fewer Barriers and better pain relief. Individuals who perceived their physicians as being more receptive reported better pain management while those who perceived their physicians as being both more receptive and facilitative were more satisfied with their health care. A brief education/communication intervention reduced patients' Barriers to pain management but did not impact other patient outcomes. Pain outcomes may be improved by addressing patients' pain misconceptions and emphasizing a receptive and responsive communication style. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Parent-child communication processes: preventing children's health-risk behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesch, Susan K; Anderson, Lori S; Krueger, Heather A

    2006-01-01

    Review individual, family, and environmental factors that predict health-risk behavior among children and to propose parent-child communication processes as a mechanism to mediate them. Improving parent-child communication processes may: reduce individual risk factors, such as poor academic achievement or self-esteem; modify parenting practices such as providing regulation and structure and acting as models of health behavior; and facilitate discussion about factors that lead to involvement in health-risk behaviors. Assessment strategies to identify youth at risk for health-risk behavior are recommended and community-based strategies to improve communication among parents and children need development.

  4. The critical role of communications in a multilevel obesity-prevention intervention: Lessons learned for alcohol educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Daniel P; Sliwa, Sarah A; Folta, Sara C; Economos, Christina D; Goldberg, Jeanne P

    2017-01-01

    Multilevel interventions to prevent underage drinking are more effective than individual-level strategies, and messaging campaigns are key to such approaches. Recognizing the benefits of translating best practices across public health domains, this paper details the communications campaign from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), an exemplar for multilevel community-based approaches to address pediatric obesity, highlighting lessons learned for alcohol educators. All elements of SUS, including the communications strategy, were developed collaboratively with local partners. Communication initiatives included community-engaged brand development to unify diverse intervention components; school-based communications to promote new opportunities for healthy eating and physical activity; and media partnerships to promote healthy behaviors community-wide. The overall SUS intervention was effective in reducing prevalence of overweight/obesity among first- to third-graders in Somerville relative to control communities. Process evaluation showed that communications successfully reached diverse community segments and raised awareness of and receptivity to changes. Communications campaigns are essential components of multilevel interventions addressing public health challenges including obesity and underage drinking. Such communications should be developed collaboratively with the target audience and stakeholders, designed to engage community members at multiple levels through multiple channels within a systems framework, and sustained through local partnerships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Addressing the issue of falls off playground equipment: an empirically-based intervention to reduce fall-risk behaviors on playgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Matheis, Shawn

    2007-08-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of an intervention to reduce fall-risk behaviors on playgrounds among children 6-11 years of age. Children completed posters indicating risky playground behaviors they would and would not do. In the intervention group, video and audio presentations were used to expose children to injury occurrences so that injury vulnerability was communicated in a fear-evoking way. In the control group, children only completed the pre- and post-intervention measures. Significant decreases in intentions to risk-take were obtained in the intervention, but not the control group. Effectiveness did not vary with children's age or sex, but was greater for those scoring high in sensation-seeking. A fear-appeals approach proved successful to reduce intended fall-risk behaviors, particularly for children high in sensation-seeking whose risk-taking is motivated by affect arousal.

  6. Educational interventions to train healthcare professionals in end-of-life communication: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Han-Oh; Oczkowski, Simon J W; Hanvey, Louise; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; You, John J

    2016-04-29

    Practicing healthcare professionals and graduates exiting training programs are often ill-equipped to facilitate important discussions about end-of-life care with patients and their families. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions aimed at providing healthcare professionals with training in end-of-life communication skills, compared to usual curriculum. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, ERIC and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from the date of inception to July 2014 for randomized control trials (RCT) and prospective observational studies of educational training interventions to train healthcare professionals in end-of-life communication skills. To be eligible, interventions had to provide communication skills training related to end-of-life decision making; other interventions (e.g. breaking bad news, providing palliation) were excluded. Our primary outcomes were self-efficacy, knowledge and end-of-life communication scores with standardized patient encounters. Sufficiently similar studies were pooled in a meta-analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE. Of 5727 candidate articles, 20 studies (6 RCTs, 14 Observational) were included in this review. Compared to usual teaching, educational interventions to train healthcare professionals in end-of-life communication skills were associated with greater self-efficacy (8 studies, standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.57;95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-0.75; P communication scores (8 studies, SMD 0.69; 95% CI 0.41-0.96; p communication training may improve healthcare professionals' self-efficacy, knowledge, and EoL communication scores compared to usual teaching. Further studies comparing two active educational interventions are recommended with a continued focus on contextually relevant high-level outcomes. PROSPERO CRD42014012913.

  7. Scientific risk communication about controversial issues influences public perceptions of scientists' political orientations and credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vraga, Emily; Myers, Teresa; Kotcher, John; Beall, Lindsey; Maibach, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Many scientists communicate with the public about risks associated with scientific issues, but such communication may have unintended consequences for how the public views the political orientations and the credibility of the communicating scientist. We explore this possibility using an experiment with a nationally representative sample of Americans in the fall of 2015. We find that risk communication on controversial scientific issues sometimes influences perceptions of the political orientations and credibility of the communicating scientist when the scientist addresses the risks of issues associated with conservative or liberal groups. This relationship is moderated by participant political ideology, with liberals adjusting their perceptions of the scientists' political beliefs more substantially when the scientist addressed the risks of marijuana use when compared with other issues. Conservatives' political perceptions were less impacted by the issue context of the scientific risk communication but indirectly influenced credibility perceptions. Our results support a contextual model of audience interpretation of scientific risk communication. Scientists should be cognizant that audience members may make inferences about the communicating scientist's political orientations and credibility when they engage in risk communication efforts about controversial issues.

  8. Impact of audit and feedback and pay-for-performance interventions on pediatric hospitalist discharge communication with primary care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor-Sojo, Javier; Creek, Tracy; Leong, Traci

    2015-01-01

    The study team sought to improve hospitalist communication with primary care providers (PCPs) at discharge through interventions consisting of (a) audit and feedback and (b) inclusion of a discharge communication measure in the incentive compensation for pediatric hospitalists. The setting was a 16-physician pediatric hospitalist group within a tertiary pediatric hospital. Discharge summaries were selected randomly for documentation of communication with PCPs. At baseline, 57% of charts had documented communication with PCPs, increasing to 84% during the audit and feedback period. Following the addition of a financial incentive, documentation of communication with PCPs increased to 93% and was sustained during the combined intervention period. The number of physicians meeting the study's performance goal increased from 1 to 14 by the end of the study period. A financial incentive coupled with an audit and feedback tool was effective at modifying physician behavior, achieving focused, measurable quality improvement gains. © 2014 by the American College of Medical Quality.

  9. Parent-delivered early intervention in infants at risk for ASD: Effects on electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily J H; Dawson, Geraldine; Kelly, Jean; Estes, Annette; Jane Webb, Sara

    2017-05-01

    Prospective longitudinal studies of infants with older siblings with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have indicated that differences in the neurocognitive systems underlying social attention may emerge prior to the child meeting ASD diagnostic criteria. Thus, targeting social attention with early intervention might have the potential to alter developmental trajectories for infants at high risk for ASD. Electrophysiological and habituation measures of social attention were collected at 6, 12, and 18 months in a group of high-risk infant siblings of children with ASD (N = 33). Between 9 and 11 months of age, infant siblings received a parent-delivered intervention, promoting first relationships (PFR), (n = 19) or on-going assessment without intervention (n = 14). PFR has been previously shown to increase parental responsivity to infant social communicative cues and infant contingent responding. Compared to infants who only received assessment and monitoring, infants who received the intervention showed improvements in neurocognitive metrics of social attention, as reflected in a greater reduction in habituation times to face versus object stimuli between 6 and 12 months, maintained at 18 months; a greater increase in frontal EEG theta power between 6 and 12 months; and a more comparable P400 response to faces and objects at 12 months. The high-risk infants who received the intervention showed a pattern of responses that appeared closer to the normative responses of two groups of age-matched low-risk control participants. Though replication is necessary, these results suggest that early parent-mediated intervention has the potential to impact the brain systems underpinning social attention in infants at familial risk for ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 961-972. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Point Is to Change It! Introduction to Critical Political Interventions in Media and Communication Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sašo Slaček Brlek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to provide a historical overview and an introduction to the interviews with Bodgan Osolnik, Breda Pavlič, Cees Hamelink, Daya K. Thussu, Peter Golding and Dan Hind presented in this special section. Following Marx, we entitled the section The Point Is to Change It! Critical Political Interventions in Media and Communication Studies. We discuss the need for critical theory to bridge the divide between theory and practice because this notion is central to all of the interviews in one way or another. We also provide a historical contextualization of important theoretical as well as political developments in the 1970s and 1980s. This period may be seen as a watershed era for the critical political economy of communication and for the political articulation of demands for a widespread transformation and democratization in the form of the New World Information and Communication Order initiative. We believe that many contemporary issues have a long history, with their roots firmly based in this era. The historical perspective therefore cannot be seen as nostalgia, but as an attempt to understand the historical relations of power and how they have changed and shifted. In our view, the historical perspective is crucial not only for understanding long-lasting historical trends, but also to remind ourselves that the world is malleable, and to keep alive the promises of the progressive struggles of the past.

  11. Threshold Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communication for Health Risks Related to Hazardous Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoppe, Brenda O; Convertino, Matteo

    2018-04-10

    Emergency risk communication (ERC) programs that activate when the ambient temperature is expected to cross certain extreme thresholds are widely used to manage relevant public health risks. In practice, however, the effectiveness of these thresholds has rarely been examined. The goal of this study is to test if the activation criteria based on extreme temperature thresholds, both cold and heat, capture elevated health risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) combined with a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model is used to derive the exposure-response functions between daily maximum heat index and mortality (1998-2014) and morbidity (emergency department visits; 2007-2014). Specific causes considered include cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, and diabetes. Six extreme temperature thresholds, corresponding to 1st-3rd and 97th-99th percentiles of local exposure history, are examined. All six extreme temperature thresholds capture significantly increased relative risks for all-cause mortality and morbidity. However, the cause-specific analyses reveal heterogeneity. Extreme cold thresholds capture increased mortality and morbidity risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and extreme heat thresholds for renal disease. Percentile-based extreme temperature thresholds are appropriate for initiating ERC targeting the general population. Tailoring ERC by specific causes may protect some but not all individuals with health conditions exacerbated by hazardous ambient temperature exposure. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice.

  13. Can risk communication provide assistance in nuclear energy disputes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadd, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    The continued use of nuclear technology in Canada appears to he limited by a lack of public acceptance of fuel waste disposal strategies. The outcome of the recent environmental assessment process conducted on the deep geological disposal concept bears-out this point. A brief review of transcripts from the he public hearing portion of this process indicates that public sentiment on the issue includes anti-nuclear attitudes and concern over equity, safety, and trust. This paper discusses Canadian sentiment on the issue and suggests that it is in line with public views on similar issues in other nations. The field of risk communication has played a significant role in understanding the root causes of public opposition. This paper suggests that the field is well-placed to play an expanded role in resolving the issues underlying public concerns, (e.g., lack of trust, public disenfranchisement with the decision making process); however, this is a supportive role. It is suggested that broad-based involvement, commitment, and collaboration among all stake holders in this dispute are necessary if improvement is to be achieved. (author)

  14. Temporal stability of the psychological determinants of trust: Implications for communication about food risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Miles, S.

    2003-01-01

    There has been much debate about the role of trust in information sources in risk communication. Recent food scares have highlighted the need for both the development of effective risk communication strategies and investigation into whether trust differs between different information sources. In the

  15. Communicating Risk with Parents: Exploring the Methods and Beliefs of Outdoor Education Coordinators in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallat, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the risk communication strategies currently being employed by seven outdoor education co-ordinators in Government schools in Victoria, Australia. Of particular interest are the beliefs and assumptions held by these co-ordinators in relation to communicating risk with parents. Current policy stipulates that parents must be…

  16. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents’ full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  17. Communicating with parents of high-risk infants in neonatal intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wendy; Ross, Sue

    2006-05-01

    Good communication between parents and staff about the likely outcome of high-risk infants is essential to ensure parents' full involvement in decision-making. The present paper discusses the literature on this topic to explore the best practices for professionals communicating with parents of high-risk infants.

  18. Risk communication policy design: Cyprus compared to France and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourenq, Sophie; Boustras, George; Gutteling, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at analyzing differences between risk communication policies in Cyprus, compared to the Netherlands, and France. It analyzes risk communication policies indirectly through a qualitative analysis of the information provided by official websites, which are considered to be proxies of

  19. Social media as a useful tool in food risk and benefit communication? A strategic orientation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutsaert, P.; Pieniak, Z.; Regan, A.; McConnon, A.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Lores, M.; Lozano, N.; Guzzon, A.; Santare, D; Verbeke, W.

    2014-01-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the determinants of risk perception and in identifying the necessary components of effective food risk and benefit communication, this has not been matched with the development of efficient and appropriate communication tools. Little work

  20. Disaster Managers’ Perception of Effective Visual Risk Communication for General Public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charriere, M.K.M.; Bogaard, T.A.; Mostert, E.

    2012-01-01

    Risk communication is one of the measures that should be implemented to increase the awareness and preparedness of the general public in order to attain disaster risk reduction. Among the various forms that can be used in communication campaigns, visualizations are appropriate to disseminate

  1. Speech and language therapists' approaches to communication intervention with children and adults with profound and multiple learning disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbart, Juliet; Chadwick, Darren; Buell, Susan

    2014-11-01

    People with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PMLD) have communication impairments as one defining characteristic. To explore speech and language therapists' (SLTs) decision making in communication interventions for people with PMLD, in terms of the intervention approaches used, the factors informing the decisions to use specific interventions and the extent to which the rationales underpinning these decisions related to the components of evidence based practice (EBP), namely empirical evidence, clinical experience and client/carer views and values. A questionnaire on communication assessment and intervention for people with PMLD was sent to SLTs in the UK to elicit information on: the communication intervention approaches they used; their rationales for their intervention choices; their use of published evidence to inform decision making. Intensive interaction and objects of reference were the communication interventions most often used with people with PMLD, with some differences between children and adults evident. Rationales provided conformed somewhat to the EBP framework though extension of the existing framework and addition of practical and organizational considerations led to a revised typology of rationale for decision making. Rationales most frequently related to the empowerment, development and behavioural preferences of the person with PMLD. Empirical research evidence was seldom mentioned by SLTs as informing intervention decision making leading to very diverse practice. There is a need for further research on the effectiveness of commonly used but under-evaluated interventions. There is also a need to alert SLTs to the evidence base supporting other approaches, particularly switch-based, cause and effect approaches. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. Using the Clear Communication Index to Improve Materials for a Behavioral Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kathleen J; Alexander, Ramine; Perzynski, Katelynn M; Kruzliakova, Natalie; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2018-02-08

    Ensuring that written materials used in behavioral interventions are clear is important to support behavior change. This study used the Clear Communication Index (CCI) to assess the original and revised versions of three types of written participant materials from the SIPsmartER intervention. Materials were revised based on original scoring. Scores for the entire index were significantly higher among revised versions than originals (57% versus 41%, p < 0.001); however, few revised materials (n = 2 of 53) achieved the benchmark of ≥90%. Handouts scored higher than worksheets and slide sets for both versions. The proportion of materials scored as having "a single main message" significantly increased between versions for worksheets (7% to 57%, p = 0.003) and slide sets (33% to 67%, p = 0.004). Across individual items, most significant improvements were in Core, with four-items related to the material having a single main message. Findings demonstrate that SIPsmartER's revised materials improved after CCI-informed edits. They advance the evidence and application of the CCI, suggesting it can be effectively used to support improvement in clarity of different types of written materials used in behavioral interventions. Implications for practical considerations of using the tool and suggestions for modifications for specific types of materials are presented.

  3. Effectiveness of a Stroke Risk Self-Management Intervention for Adults with Prehypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Young Song, RN, PhD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Our preliminary results indicate that the stroke risk self-management intervention is feasible and associated with improvement in self-management of stroke risk factors for primary stroke prevention among a prehypertensive population.

  4. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    ... in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  5. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    ... skills in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  6. How Do Obstetric and Neonatology Teams Communicate Prior to High-Risk Deliveries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Suresh, Gautham K

    2018-01-01

     Improving communication in healthcare improves the quality of care and patient outcomes, but communication between obstetric and neonatal teams before and during a high-risk delivery is poorly studied.  We developed a survey to study communication between obstetric and neonatal teams around the time of a high-risk delivery. We surveyed neonatologists from North America and asked them to answer questions about their institutions' communication practices.  The survey answers revealed variations in communication practices between responders. Most institutions relied on nursing to communicate obstetric information to the neonatal team. Although a minority of institutions used a standardized communication process to summon neonatology team or to communicate in the delivery room, these reported higher rates of information sharing and greater satisfaction with communication between services.  Standardized communication procedures are an underutilized method of communication and have the potential to improve communication around high-risk deliveries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Risk Communication: A Key for Fostering a More Resilient Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was not only triggered by natural events combined with technical failures, but was a human induced disaster. From the bitter lessons, we have learned that human and organizational factors associated with emergency planning, response and decision-making for nuclear safety need to be more carefully reviewed and enhanced. Elements of social sciences, especially, risk management and risk communication here play a key role. Risk communication is an established concept within risk analysis frameworks. It is a vital tool to convey the meaning of scientific assessment and risk management, share safety related information, and exchange views and values amongst varying stakeholder groups. Risk communication aims at building trust through this process and human interactions. However, it would not be an overstatement that the essence of risk communication is not fully understood. As a result, it is either partially integrated into risk management practice or remains unconducive. The marginalisation of risk communication is observed in a variety of risk communication practices, or more evidently, in perception gaps between lays and experts about risks.

  8. THE EMOTIONAL PROSODY OF U.S. FATAL AIR-ACCIDENT DOCKETS ONLINE: RISKING RISK COMMUNICATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кармен Санчо Гинда

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk communication is grounded in both rationality and emotion (Fischhoff & Kadvany 2011, Bo-holm & Corvellec 2014. Recent investigations have proved that emotions do affect risk and danger percep-tions by functioning as ‘mediators’ (Xie et al. 2011 and become important in decision-making. My study explores how emotion is induced by the National Transportation Safety Board of the United States of America (NTSB for short to influence the mentalities and behaviours of its broad mixed audience and thus increase risk prevention. With that research purpose in mind, I examine an electronic corpus of over 500 online samples of fatal aviation dockets issued yearly online by the NTSB between the time span 2010-2015 and contained in its website databases. The emotional engagement deployed to mediate the perceptions of risk and danger by the general public constitutes a unique genre among all other world transportation agencies, since through informative vividness it pursues to activate the processes of memory, inference (i.e. judgement and decision-making. I take Stubbs’ (2001 concept of ‘discursive prosody’ as point of departure and resort to a blended theoretical framework that combines Narratology, Corpus Linguistics, Critical Discourse Analysis, and Proximisation (Cap 2013 and Positioning (Harré & van Langenhove 1999 Theories. I will show that the NTSB’s emotional prosody is more rhetorical than lexical and that the narrative strategies of focalisation and speech representation play a salient role. To conclude I will reflect on some of the possible consequences of over-exploiting emotional engagement in risk communication.

  9. Vaccine Hesitancy: In Search of the Risk Communication Comfort Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Joshua; Dubé, Eve; Driedger, Michelle

    2017-03-03

    This paper reports the findings of a national online survey to parents of children aged 5 and younger. The objectives of the study were to assess parental understanding of childhood immunizations, identify sources of information that they trust for vaccine-related content, assess where parents with young children stand on the key issues in the public debate about vaccination, and identify which risk communication messages are most effective for influencing the behaviours of vaccine hesitant parents. A total of 1,000 surveys (closed and open-ended questions) were administered in November 2015 using the Angus Reid Forum Panel, a key consumer panel consisting of approximately 150,000 Canadian adults aged 18 and older, spread across all geographic regions of Canada. Approximately 92% of the Canadian parents surveyed consider vaccines safe and effective, and trust doctors and public health officials to provide timely and credible vaccine-related information. However, a concerning number of them either believe or are uncertain whether there is a link between vaccines and autism (28%), worry that vaccines might seriously harm their children (27%), or believe the pharmaceutical industry is behind the push for mandatory immunization (33%). Moreover