WorldWideScience

Sample records for rising obesity rates

  1. Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2013-09-01

    Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ≥ 6 points greater than their counterparts (p birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ≥5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role.

  2. Allegheny County Obesity Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Obesity rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  3. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  4. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  5. Food availability and the rising obesity prevalence in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Geok-Lin Khor

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 1.1 billion adultsand 115 million children worldwide are overweight.In Malaysia, the second and third National Healthand Morbidity Surveys in 1996 and 2006 respectivelyreported a three-fold increase in obesity prevalenceamong adults, surging from 4.4% to 14% over the10-year period. Evidence of rising childhood obesityhas also emerged. The aim of this article is to gatherevidence from food availability data for an insightinto population shifts in dietary patterns...

  6. Administrators' Pay Rises Less than Inflation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1990-01-01

    For the second time in three years, raises for administrators have fallen behind the inflation rate, says a survey conducted by the College and University Personnel Association. At public institutions increases have remained stable. At private institutions, which rely on tuition to finance their payroll, raises tended to vary more. (MLW)

  7. The Rising Rate of Rural Hospital Closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Thomas, Sharita R; Randolph, Randy K; Perry, Julie R; Thompson, Kristie W; Holmes, George M; Pink, George H

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, the rate of rural hospital closures has increased significantly. This study is a preliminary look at recent closures and a formative step in research to understand the causes and the impact on rural communities. The 2009 financial performance and market characteristics of rural hospitals that closed from 2010 through 2014 were compared to rural hospitals that remained open during the same period, stratified by critical access hospitals (CAHs) and other rural hospitals (ORHs). Differences were tested using Pearson's chi-square (categorical variables) and Wilcoxon rank test of medians. The relationships between negative operating margin and (1) market factors and (2) utilization/staffing factors were explored using logistic regression. In 2009, CAHs that subsequently closed from 2010 through 2014 had, in general, lower levels of profitability, liquidity, equity, patient volume, and staffing. In addition, ORHs that closed had smaller market shares and operated in markets with smaller populations compared to ORHs that remained open. Odds of unprofitability were associated with both market and utilization factors. Although half of the closed hospitals ceased providing health services altogether, the remainder have since converted to an alternative health care delivery model. Financial and market characteristics appear to be associated with closure of rural hospitals from 2010 through 2014, suggesting that it is possible to identify hospitals at risk of closure. As closure rates show no sign of abating, it is important to study the drivers of distress in rural hospitals, as well as the potential for alternative health care delivery models. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  8. Stakeholders views on why child overweight and obesity is rising in Lagos, Nigeria: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeteju A Adedini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: According to the World Health Organization, the number of obese children would increase to 70 million by 2025 if no intervention is made. An increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Lagos State, Nigeria has been established, but specific factors promoting its prevalence are unknown. The aim of this study was to elicit the views of stakeholders on the perceived causes for the rise in child overweight and obesity. Methods: Five focus group discussions were conducted with different groups of stakeholders involved in child care, namely: Parents, teachers, and healthcare givers. Participants were recruited using a purposive sampling method; a structured question guide was employed for the discussion sessions. The discussions were recorded, collated, and analyzed using grounded theory to extract themes. Results: Six themes emerged as factors responsible for the rise, of which civilization and lifestyle imbalance of the populace emerged as the prominent cause. Of the fifty respondents, 76% of respondents identified parents (particularly young mothers as major contributors to the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children of Lagos State; and 52.3% of the participants reported that a direct relationship exists between income class of parent and weight of a child resident in Lagos. Conclusion: Civilization and lifestyle imbalance, insecurity and congestion, low level of public awareness, inadequate educative and enlightenment programs, myths and societal perception were factors identified to responsible for the rise in the prevalence of child obesity in Lagos, Nigeria. Preventive strategies to control the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children residing in Lagos State should be considered for further studies.

  9. Eliciting a policy response for the rising epidemic of overweight-obesity in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, S; Reddy, K S

    2013-11-01

    India is experiencing multiple transitions with respect to nutrition patterns, epidemiology and demography. Along with staggering childhood undernutrition, a rapid rise in chronic diseases and their risk factors including overweight-obesity (O-O), among all sections of society, is compounding India's health challenges. We present an overview of the O-O scenario (prevalence, determinants) and profile existing initiatives to address this modifiable risk factor in India. Urgent attention from all sectors, committed resources, policy support and targeted actions are warranted to combat the dual burden of malnutrition. The health systems should be reoriented and strengthened, in addition to enabling actions in other sectors, to address prevention and control of non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors like O-O. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  10. Thresholds of sea-level rise rate and sea-level rise acceleration rate in a vulnerable coastal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Biber, Patrick; Bethel, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Feedbacks among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold helps address key challenges in ecology-nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, promotes communication between ecologists and resource managers, and facilitates decision-making in climate change policies. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to enhanced anthropogenic forces. Deriving these two thresholds depends on the temporal scale, the interaction of SLR with other environmental factors, and landscape metrics, which have not been fully accounted for before this study. We chose a representative marine-dominated estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Grand Bay in Mississippi, to test the concept of SLR thresholds. We developed a mechanistic model to simulate wetland change and then derived the SLR thresholds for Grand Bay. The model results show that the threshold of SLR rate in Grand Bay is 11.9 mm/year for 2050, and it drops to 8.4 mm/year for 2100 using total wetland area as a landscape metric. The corresponding SLR acceleration rate thresholds are 3.02 × 10 -4  m/year 2 and 9.62 × 10 -5  m/year 2 for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The newly developed SLR acceleration rate threshold can help quantify the temporal lag before the rapid decline in wetland area becomes evident after the SLR rate threshold is exceeded, and cumulative SLR a wetland can adapt to under the SLR acceleration scenarios. Based on the thresholds, SLR that will adversely impact the coastal wetlands in Grand Bay by 2100 will fall within the likely range of SLR under a high warming scenario (RCP8.5), highlighting the need to avoid RCP8.5 to preserve these marshes.

  11. High rates of obesity and non-communicable diseases predicted across Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Webber

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are a major public health concern across Latin America. A key modifiable risk factor for NCDs is overweight and obesity highlighting the need for policy to reduce prevalence rates and ameliorate rising levels of NCDs. A cross-sectional regression analysis was used to project BMI and related disease trends to 2050. We tested the extent to which interventions that decrease body mass index (BMI have an effect upon the number of incidence cases avoided for each disease. Without intervention obesity trends will continue to rise across much of Latin America. Effective interventions are necessary if rates of obesity and related diseases are to be reduced.

  12. Rising rates of Caesarean sections: an audit of Caesarean sections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the caesarean sections were carried out because of a previous CS; maternal request and HIV status also contributed to the high rate. Conclusion: The high CS rate in private practice is probably a window to the increased rates of Caesarean section being performed worldwide. This high rate is in keeping with trends ...

  13. Rising longitudinal trajectories in suicide rates: The role of firearm suicide rates and firearm legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Selby, Edward A; Butterworth, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    Firearms account for approximately half of all US suicide deaths each year despite being utilized in only a small minority of suicide attempts. We examined the extent to which overall suicide rates fluctuated relative to firearm and non-firearm suicide rates across a period of 16years (1999-2015). We further tested the notion of means substitution by examining the association between firearm suicide rates and non-firearm suicide rates. Lastly, we examined the extent to which the presence of specific laws related to handgun ownership previously shown cross-sectionally to be associated with lower suicide rates (universal background checks, mandatory waiting periods) were associated with an attenuated trajectory in suicide rates across the study period. As anticipated, whereas decreases in firearm suicide rates were associated with decreases in overall suicide rates (b=0.46, SE=0.07, psuicides were not associated with off-setting increases in suicides by other methods (b=-0.04, SE=0.05, p=0.36). Furthermore, the absence of universal background check (b=0.12, SE=0.05, p=0.028) and mandatory waiting period (b=0.16, SE=0.06, p=0.008) laws was associated with a more steeply rising trajectory of statewide suicide rates. These results mitigate concerns regarding means substitution and speak to the potential high yield impact of systematically implemented means safety prevention efforts focused on firearms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rising rates of hospital admissions for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Jens; Buch, Nina Pernille Gardshodn; Scharling, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia associated with excess morbidity and mortality. We studied temporal changes in hospital admission rates for atrial fibrillation using data from a prospective population-based cohort study spanning 2 decades (the Copenhagen City Heart Study).......Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia associated with excess morbidity and mortality. We studied temporal changes in hospital admission rates for atrial fibrillation using data from a prospective population-based cohort study spanning 2 decades (the Copenhagen City Heart Study)....

  15. Contributing Indications to the Rising Cesarean Delivery Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARBER, Emma L.; LUNDSBERG, Lisbet; BELANGER, Kathleen; PETTKER, Christian M.; FUNAI, Edmund F.; ILLUZZI, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine physician-documented indications for cesarean delivery in order to investigate the specific indications contributing to this increase. METHODS We analyzed rates of primary and repeat cesarean delivery, including indications for the procedure, among 32,443 live births at a major academic hospital between 2003–2009. Time trends for each indication were modeled to estimate the absolute and cumulative annualized relative risk of cesarean by indication over time and the relative contribution of each indication to the overall increase in primary cesarean delivery rate. RESULTS The cesarean delivery rate increased from 26% to 36.5% between 2003 and 2009; 50.0% of the increase was attributable to an increase in primary cesarean delivery. Among the documented indications, nonreassuring fetal status, arrest of dilation, multiple gestation, pre-eclampsia, suspected macrosomia, and maternal request increased over time, while arrest of descent, malpresentation, maternal-fetal indications, and other obstetric indications (eg, cord prolapse, placenta previa) did not increase. The relative contributions of each indication to the total increase in primary cesarean rate were: Non-reassuring fetal status (32%), labor arrest disorders (18%), multiple gestation (16%), suspected macrosomia (10%), pre-eclampsia (10%), maternal request (8%), maternal-fetal conditions (5%), and other obstetric conditions (1%). CONCLUSION Primary cesarean births accounted for 50% of the increasing cesarean rate. Among primary cesareans, more subjective indications (nonreassuring fetal status and arrest of dilation) contributed larger proportions than more objective indications (malpresentation, maternal-fetal, and obstetric conditions). PMID:21646928

  16. Maternal Blood Pressure Rise During Pregnancy and Offspring Obesity Risk at 4 to 7 Years Old: The Jiaxing Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Liu, Huijuan; Ong, Ken K; Huang, Tao; Guan, Yuhong; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Fenglei; Li, Duo

    2017-11-01

    Maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are suggested to affect obesity risk in offspring. However, little is known about the prospective association of rise in maternal blood pressure within normal range during pregnancy with this risk for obesity. To clarify the associations of diastolic and systolic blood pressure during pregnancy among normotensive women with the risk for obesity in offspring. Prospective cohort study. Southeast China. Up to 2013, a total of 88,406 mother-child pairs with anthropometric measurements of offspring age 4 to 7 years were included in the present analysis. Overweight/obesity risk in offspring. Among normotensive women, second- and third-trimester diastolic and systolic blood pressures were positively associated with risk for overweight/obesity in offspring: odds ratios per 10-mm Hg higher second- and third-trimester diastolic blood pressure were 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.09] and 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10), respectively, and for systolic blood pressure were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.11) and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.09). Each 10-mm Hg greater rise in blood pressure between first and third trimesters was associated with a higher risk for offspring overweight/obesity: diastolic, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10); systolic, 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07). Among all women (combining normotensive and hypertensive women), maternal hypertension in the second and third trimesters was associated with 49% and 14% higher risks for overweight/obesity in offspring, respectively. These results suggest that rise in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy and hypertension during pregnancy, independent of maternal body size before pregnancy, are risk factors for offspring childhood obesity.

  17. Sex differences in obesity associated with total fertility rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brooks

    Full Text Available The identification of biological and ecological factors that contribute to obesity may help in combating the spreading obesity crisis. Sex differences in obesity rates are particularly poorly understood. Here we show that the strong female bias in obesity in many countries is associated with high total fertility rate, which is well known to be correlated with factors such as low average income, infant mortality and female education. We also document effects of reduced access to contraception and increased inequality of income among households on obesity rates. These results are consistent with studies that implicate reproduction as a risk factor for obesity in women and that suggest the effects of reproduction interact with socioeconomic and educational factors. We discuss our results in the light of recent research in dietary ecology and the suggestion that insulin resistance during pregnancy is due to historic adaptation to protect the developing foetus during famine. Increased access to contraception and education in countries with high total fertility rate might have the additional benefit of reducing the rates of obesity in women.

  18. Unexpected plateauing of childhood obesity rates in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wabitsch, Martin; Moss, Anja; Kromeyer-Hauschild, Katrin

    2014-01-31

    Surveys performed in the past 10 to 15 years show a yet unexplained stabilization or decline in prevalence rates of childhood obesity in developed countries. The projected continuous increase in obesity prevalence throughout future decades seems not to occur at present. Apparently, saturation has been reached, which might be related to societal adjustments. Hence, we postulate a cumulative effect of public health programs for obesity prevention resulting, for example, in an increase in physical activity, and a decline in television viewing and in the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by children. Effective public health programs are urgently needed for developing countries, where obesity rates in children still continued to increase during the past decade.

  19. Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Eberle-Sudré, Kimberlee; Welch, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    "Rising Tide II: Do Black Students Benefit as Grad Rates Increase?" looks at a decade of graduation rates for African American students at four-year, public institutions that improved student success during the past decade. It shows that while a majority (almost 70 percent) of institutions we examined improved graduation rates for black…

  20. Rate of PSA rise predicts metastatic versus local recurrence after definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, C.I.; Strawderman, M.H.; Lin, X.; Kish, K.E.; McLaughlin, P.W.; Lichter, A.S.; Sandler, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: A rising PSA following treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate indicates eventual clinical failure, but the rate of rise can be quite different from patient to patient, as can the pattern of clinical failure. We sought to determine whether the rate of PSA rise could differentiate future local vs. metastatic failure. Materials and Methods: PSA values from our series of 671 patients treated between 1987 and 1994 with 3-D conformal radiotherapy for localized adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Patients who had a pre-treatment PSA and >4 post-treatment PSA values available, had received no hormonal therapy, and had information detailing clinical outcome were used in this analysis. First site of failure was determined by abnormal DRE or biopsy, abnormal bone scan or radiographic evidence of metastasis as directed by clinical symptoms or follow-up clinical exam. Each patient's PSA pattern was defined by the function PSA(t)=C 1 e - a 1 (t) + C 2 e a 2 (t) where -a 1 relates to the rate of decline and a 2 to the rate of rise, if any. Univariate analysis was used to determine the correlation between initial PSA or rising PSA and clinical failure. Adjacent category logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the rate of rise and pattern of clinical failure. Results: 671 patients were reviewed; 401 patients met the requirements and 2667 PSA values were analyzed. We confirmed the finding of others that pre-treatment PSA is a prognostic indicator: patients presenting with PSA 3-20ng/ml had a relative risk of 9 (p=0.03) and PSA>20ng/ml had a RR of 26 (p=0.002) for clinical failure when compared to presenting PSA 2 >1.5/year predicted metastatic as opposed to local failure when compared to PSA rise with a 2 between 0.5-1.5/yr or 1.5 log(ng/ml)/year vs. 0.5-1.5 log(ng/ml)/yr or <0.5 log(ng/ml)/yr. Conclusions: The rate of rise of PSA following definitive radiotherapy can predict clinical failure patterns, with a rapidly rising PSA indicating metastatic as opposed to

  1. Obesity detection rate among primary school students in the People's Republic of China: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yue-long Jin,* Ling-ling Ding,* Ying-shui Yao, Xiu-li Song, Hui Tang, Lian-ping He, Yan ChenFaculty of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Wannan Medical College, Anhui, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Obesity has become a major public health problem worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is rising alarmingly among children and adolescents in the People's Republic of China, with an estimated 120 million now in the obese range. It is estimated that 8% of children in the People's Republic of China are obese and 12% are overweight.Methods: Eligible papers on the prevalence of obesity among primary school students in the People's Republic of China and published between 2006 and 2011 were retrieved from PubMed and from online Chinese periodicals, ie, the full-text databases of VIP, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wan Fang. Meta-Analyst software was used to collate and analyze the detection rates cited in the papers retrieved.Results: After evaluation of the quality of the papers, 25 were finally included, giving a total sample population size for investigation of obesity of 219,763, in which 28,121 cases were detected. Meta-analysis showed that the combined obesity detection rate was 10.4% (95% confidence interval 8.6–12.6 among primary school students in the People's Republic of China, with a higher detection rate in boys (12.6% than in girls (7.2%. The prevalence of obesity was higher in the north (11.8% than in the south (9.5%, east (11.6%, and mid-west (8.0% regions. Obesity defined according to the World Health Organization weight-for-height standard (14.3% was higher than that using age-specific and gender-specific cutoff points for body mass index (9.0%.Conclusion: Our meta-analysis found an obesity prevalence rate of 10.4%, which does not seem as high as previous reports of childhood obesity rates in other countries. However, the prevalence of childhood

  2. Modeling study on the effects of pulse rise rate in atmospheric pulsed discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Hui

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a modeling study on the discharge characteristics driven by short pulsed voltages, focusing on the effects of pulse rise rate based on the fluid description of atmospheric plasmas. The numerical results show that the breakdown voltage of short pulsed discharge is almost linearly dependent on the pulse rise rate, which is also confirmed by the derived equations from the fluid model. In other words, if the pulse rise rate is fixed as a constant, the simulation results clearly suggest that the breakdown voltage is almost unchanged, although the amplitude of pulsed voltage increases significantly. The spatial distribution of the electric field and electron density are given to reveal the underpinning physics. Additionally, the computational data and the analytical expression also indicate that an increased repetition frequency can effectively decrease the breakdown voltage and current density, which is consistent with the experimental observation.

  3. The rise and the recent decline of childhood obesity in Swedish boys: the BEST cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygdell, M; Ohlsson, C; Célind, J; Saternus, J; Sondén, A; Kindblom, J M

    2017-05-01

    Childhood obesity increases the risk for adult obesity and diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate secular changes of childhood body mass index (BMI), overweight and obesity in boys born during 1946-2006, using the population-based BMI Epidemiology STudy (BEST) cohort in Gothenburg, Sweden. We collected height and weight from archived school health records for boys born every 5 years 1946-2006 (birth cohort 1946 n=1584, each birth cohort 1951-2006 n=425). Childhood BMI at 8 years of age was obtained for all the participants. Childhood BMI increased 0.18 kg m -2 (95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.20) per decade increase in birth year, during 1946-2006. The increase was significant from birth year 1971, peaked 1991 and was then followed by a stabilization or tendency to a reduction. Next, we aimed to thoroughly explore the trend after birth year 1991 and therefore expanded birth cohorts 1991 (n=1566), 2001 (n=6478) and 2006 (n=6515). Importantly, decreases in mean BMI (Pobesity (Pobesity (-44.3%, Pchildhood obesity. As childhood obesity is strongly associated with subsequent adult obesity, we anticipate a similar reduction in adult obesity during the coming decades in Swedish men.

  4. Using marketing muscle to sell fat: the rise of obesity in the modern economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Frederick J

    2011-01-01

    The large increase in obesity in the past 30 years has often been explained in rational choice terms; for example, a decline in food prices has engendered greater food consumption. On closer examination, this kind of explanation does not fit the facts of the current obesity epidemic. Instead, an unprecedented expansion in the scope, power, and ubiquity of food marketing has coincided with an unprecedented expansion in food consumption in predictable ways. Ongoing protestations that the causes of the recent increase in obesity are unknown may overstate the case. Ample evidence indicates that the obesity epidemic is, at least to a large degree, the result of increased marketing power over the American diet. Only by reigning in or countering marketing power can rationality be restored to the dietary choices of Americans.

  5. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  6. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity; Chile detiene el aumento de la obesidad infantil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorisek, Aleksandra Sasa [International Atomic Energy Agency, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure.

  7. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Vaccination Kuznets Curve: Do vaccination rates rise and fall with income?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yutaro

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new stylized fact about the relationship between income and childhood vaccination. It shows vaccination rates first rise but then fall as income increases. This pattern is observed in WHO country-level panel data, and in US county-level panel and individual-level repeated cross-section data. This data pattern suggests that both low and high-income parents are less likely to follow the standard vaccination schedule, and that such behavior is reflected in the vaccination rate at the population level. I provide several alternative explanations as to why we observe this data pattern, including avoidance measures, medical care, and social segregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Rising Interest Rates on Electric Utility Stock Prices: Regulatory Considerations and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihm, Steve [Seventhwave, Madison, WI (United States); Satchwell, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-26

    This technical brief identifies conditions under which utility regulators should consider implementing policy approaches that seek to mitigate negative outcomes due to an increase in interest rates. Interest rates are a key factor in determining a utility’s cost of equity and investors find value when returns exceed the cost of equity. Through historical observations of periods of rising and falling interest rates and application of a pro forma financial tool, we identify the key drivers of utility stock valuations and estimate the degree to which those valuations might be affected by increasing interest rates.3 We also analyze the efficacy of responses by utility regulators to mitigate potential negative financial impacts. We find that regulators have several possible approaches to mitigate a decline in value in an environment of increasing interest rates, though regulators must weigh the tradeoffs of improving investor value with potential increases in customer costs. Furthermore, the range of approaches reflects today’s many different electric utility regulatory models and regulatory responses to a decline in investor value will fit within state-specific models.

  10. Thresholds of sea-level rise rate and sea-level acceleration rate in a vulnerable coastal wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, W.; Biber, P.; Bethel, M.

    2017-12-01

    Feedback among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold help address the key challenge in ecology - nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, and promote communication between ecologists and policy makers. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to the enhanced anthropogenic forces. We developed a mechanistic model to simulate wetland change and derived the SLR thresholds for Grand Bay, MS, a micro-tidal estuary with limited upland freshwater and sediment input in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The new SLR acceleration rate threshold complements the threshold of SLR rate and can help explain the temporal lag before the rapid decline of wetland area becomes evident after the SLR rate threshold is exceeded. Deriving these two thresholds depends on the temporal scale, the interaction of SLR with other environmental factors, and landscape metrics, which have not been fully accounted for before this study. The derived SLR rate thresholds range from 7.3 mm/yr to 11.9 mm/yr. The thresholds of SLR acceleration rate are 3.02×10-4 m/yr2 and 9.62×10-5 m/yr2 for 2050 and 2100 respectively. Based on the thresholds developed, predicted SLR that will adversely impact the coastal wetlands in Grand Bay by 2100 will fall within the likely range of SLR under a high warming scenario (RCP8.5), and beyond the very likely range under a low warming scenario (RCP2.6 or 3), highlighting the need to avoid the high warming scenario in the future if these marshes are to be preserved.

  11. Leaf litter decomposition rates increase with rising mean annual temperature in Hawaiian tropical montane wet forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori D. Bothwell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Decomposing litter in forest ecosystems supplies nutrients to plants, carbon to heterotrophic soil microorganisms and is a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Despite its essential role in carbon and nutrient cycling, the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter decay in tropical forest ecosystems remains poorly resolved, especially in tropical montane wet forests where the warming trend may be amplified compared to tropical wet forests at lower elevations. We quantified leaf litter decomposition rates along a highly constrained 5.2 °C mean annual temperature (MAT gradient in tropical montane wet forests on the Island of Hawaii. Dominant vegetation, substrate type and age, soil moisture, and disturbance history are all nearly constant across this gradient, allowing us to isolate the effect of rising MAT on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient release. Leaf litter decomposition rates were a positive linear function of MAT, causing the residence time of leaf litter on the forest floor to decline by ∼31 days for each 1 °C increase in MAT. Our estimate of the Q10 temperature coefficient for leaf litter decomposition was 2.17, within the commonly reported range for heterotrophic organic matter decomposition (1.5–2.5 across a broad range of ecosystems. The percentage of leaf litter nitrogen (N remaining after six months declined linearly with increasing MAT from ∼88% of initial N at the coolest site to ∼74% at the warmest site. The lack of net N immobilization during all three litter collection periods at all MAT plots indicates that N was not limiting to leaf litter decomposition, regardless of temperature. These results suggest that leaf litter decay in tropical montane wet forests may be more sensitive to rising MAT than in tropical lowland wet forests, and that increased rates of N release from decomposing litter could delay or prevent progressive N limitation to net primary productivity with climate warming.

  12. Seabed Gradient Controlling Onshore Transport Rates of Surf Sand during Beach Retreat by Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Yi, Hi-Il

    2018-03-01

    A simple relationship is proposed for the onshore transport rates of surf-zone sand to evaluate the beach retreat caused by sea level rise. It suggests that the preservation potential of surf sand is proportional inversely to the seabed gradient during beach retreat. According to this relationship, the erosional remnants of surf sand would be more readily developed on a gentler shelf collectively as transgressive sand sheets. This finding may explain the previous studies regarding the Korean shelves that proposed that the Holocene transgressive sand sheets (HTSS) occur not in the steep eastern shelf but in the gentle western shelf. In line with such presence/absence of the HTSS are the results from some coastal seismic profiles obtained in the present study. The profiles indicate that sand deposits are restricted within the nearshore in the eastern coast, whereas they are persistently traceable to the offshore HTSS in the western coast. Tide is proven to have a negligible influence on the total duration of surf-zone processes. This study may be useful in predicting the consequences of the beach retreat that takes place worldwide as sea levels rise as a result of global warming.

  13. Rising U.S. income inequality, gender and individual self-rated health, 1972-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui

    2009-11-01

    The effect of income inequality on health has been a contested topic among social scientists. Most previous research is based on cross-sectional comparisons rather than temporal comparisons. Using data from the General Social Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau, this study examines how rising income inequality affects individual self-rated health in the U.S. from 1972 to 2004. Data are analyzed using hierarchical generalized linear models. The findings suggest a significant association between income inequality and individual self-rated health. The dramatic increase in income inequality from 1972 to 2004 increases the odds of worse self-rated health by 9.4 percent. These findings hold for three measures of income inequality: the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson Index, and the Theil entropy index. Results also suggest that overall income inequality and gender-specific income inequality harm men's, but not women's, self-rated health. These findings also hold for the three measures of income inequality. These findings suggest that inattention to gender composition may explain apparent discrepancies across previous studies.

  14. The rate of rise, fall and gravity spreading at Siahou diapir (Southern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftabi, P.; Roustaie, M.

    2009-04-01

    InSAR imaging can be used for extracting three dimensional information of the diapirs surface by using the phase part of the radar signal. We used InSAR to examine the cumulative surface deformation between 920706 to 060518, in a 10×10 km region surrounding the salt diapir at Kuh-e-Namak Siahou. The interferograms span periods was between 35-70 and 1248 days. Images acquired in 12 increments provided by ESA. This technique used here involves computation and subsequent combinations of interferometric phase gradient maps were used for mapping the salt flow deformation in the Zagros. Kuh-e-Namak Siahou is one of the salt extrusions currently active in the Zagros range in Iran. Salt rises from a mother salt horizon about 4 km deep and extruded as a dome with glacier on the surface. The geometry and inferred flow pattern of the salt changed between the increments, emphasizing that the extrusion rate and gravity spreading is not steady. Elevations in the salt mountain range from 1000 to 1640 meters and the displacements exceed to 20cm per year . Our InSAR study(Fig1) suggest that the dimensions and velocity of the salt movements are changing between 2 to 20mm per year(-0.7 to0.59 mm per day).The rate of surface dissolution changed between 2 to 4 cm a-1, and its rate of rise out of its orifice at 0 to 200 mm per year. The InSAR study suggest that the vigorous salt extrusion in Siahou is probably active.The deep source probably rise at a similar rates in the past but it fall in the time of InSAR study. The rate of fall was 260 mm per year(for 14 years). The InSAR images suggest that salt extrusion in Siahou flow laterally at rate 20-25 mm per year and the namakiers felt at -2 mm per month. The InSAR results indicated concentric and radial flow in the diapir from a central point at summit and spreading glaciers in sideways.Phase differences measured in our interferograms generally in the range of 0-260 mm/yr(-260 mm) within the studied period, with exceptional high rates

  15. Changes in alanine turnover rate due to nutritional and genetic obesity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yebras, M; Salvadó, J; Arola, L; Remesar, X; Segués, T

    1994-08-01

    The changes in alanine turnover were determined in Zucker rats, which were either genetically obese (fa/fa) or rendered obese by dietary treatment (cafeteria fed). The whole body rate of alanine turnover was higher in genetically obese rats than in rats in which obesity was induced by diet (cafeteria). This is possibly due to variations in the rate of the amino acid incorporation into proteins, since the rate of whole body alanine degradation is the same for both groups. Thus, the different pattern followed by alanine turnover rate in these types of obese animals reflects the differences in the nitrogen economy of these animals, pointing to a higher alanine utilization in the genetically obese animals and a conservative management of alanine in the cafeteria-fed animals.

  16. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  17. Maternal obesity and rate of cesarean delivery in Djibouti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsart, Anne-Frederique; N'guyen, Thai-Son; Dimtsu, Hirut; Ratsimanresy, Rachel; Dada, Fouad; Ali Hadji, Rachid

    2014-11-01

    To calculate the prevalence of maternal obesity and to determine the relation between obesity and cesarean delivery in an urban hospital in Djibouti. In an observational cohort study, all women who had a live birth or stillbirth between October 2012 and November 2013 were considered for inclusion. Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) was calculated throughout pregnancy, and women with a BMI of at least 30.0 were deemed to be obese. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the relation between cesarean and obesity. Overall, 100 (24.8%) of 404 women were obese before 14 weeks of pregnancy, as were 112 (25.2%) of 445 before 22 weeks, and 200 (43.2%) of 463 at delivery. Obesity before 22 weeks was associated with a 127% excess risk of cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio 2.27; 95% CI 1.07-4.82; P=0.032). Similar trends were found when the analyses were limited to the subgroup of women without a previous cesarean delivery or primiparae. Prevalence of maternal obesity is high in Djibouti City and is related to an excess risk of cesarean delivery, even after controlling for a range of medical and socioeconomic variables. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of an oil price rise on inflation, output, and the exchange rate in the case of subsidization policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, F R

    1982-01-01

    Since the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries raised the price of oil by 400% in 1974, the theory of supply inflation has received a great deal of attention. This study analyses the short and long run effects of an oil price rise on output, inflation, and the exchange rate. The study also analyses dynamic adjustments to the oil price rise in cases where oil-price subsidies are provided and where no subsidies are provided. In the no-subsidy case it is shown that the oil price rise can be inflationary or deflationary. The implications of the policy of subsidizing the price of oil is highlighted by taking account of a government budget constraint which in turn leads to the possibility of monetization as a source of financing the deficit, and thereby to higher output relative to the no subsidy case. As to the price level, the possibility is illustrated that subsidization can actually be more inflationary. The important element giving rise to the above possibility is the subsidy induced increase in the money supply. Exchange-rate flexibility is shown not to insulate the domestic price level against an oil price rise. In the long run the rate of inflation and exchange-rate variations are determined by the rate of growth of the money supply. The dynamic adjustment path of price and output is shown to be determined by the rate of adjustment of inflationary expectations.

  19. Social Determinants of Overweight and Obesity Rates by Elementary School in a Predominantly Hispanic School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Richard; Huerta, Gabriel; Karki, Menuka; Cantarero, Andrea

    This study analyzes the social determinants associated with the overweight or obesity prevalence of 85 elementary schools during the 2010-11 academic year in a predominantly Hispanic school district. A binomial logistic regression is used to analyze the aggregate overweight or obesity rate of a school by the percent of Hispanic students in each school, selected school and neighborhood characteristics, and its geographical location. The proportion of Hispanic enrollment more readily explains a school's aggregate overweight or obesity rate than social determinants or spatial location. Number of fast food establishments and the academic ranking of a school appear to slightly impact the aggregate prevalence rate. Spatial location of school is not a significant factor, controlling for other determinants. An elementary school's overall overweight or obesity rate provides a valuable health indicator to study the social determinants of obesity among Hispanics and other students within a local neighborhood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in lean and obese male Zucker rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, B.D.; Corll, C.B.; Porter, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The obese Zucker rat is an animal model of human juvenile-onset obesity. These rats exhibit numerous endocrine and metabolic abnormalities. Adrenalectomy of obese rats has been shown to reduce or reverse several of these abnormalities, thereby implying that corticosterone may contribute to the expression of obesity in this animal. Furthermore, it has been shown that the circadian rhythm of plasma corticosterone is disturbed in obese Zucker rats resulting in elevated morning plasma corticosterone concentrations in obese rats as compared to lean rats. In a effort to better elucidate the mechanism of the elevated morning levels of plasma corticosterone, the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was determined in the morning for lean and obese male Zucker rats (12 to 20 weeks). Additionally, the biliary and urinary excretion of labeled corticosterone and/or its metabolites were determined. The metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone was significantly greater in obese rats than in their lean counterparts. Both the metabolic clearance rate and the volume of compartments significantly correlated with body weight. No correlation was found between body weight and the elimination rate constant. The increased metabolic clearance rate of obese rats appeared to be due to an increase in the physiologic distribution of corticosterone and not to an alteration in the enzymes responsible for corticosterone metabolism. It appears that the metabolic clearance rate of corticosterone in obese Zucker rats does not contribute to elevated morning concentrations of plasma corticosterone previously observed in these animals. It suggests that the adrenal corticosterone secretion rate must actually be greater than one would expect from the plasma corticosterone concentrations alone

  1. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urban-rural Difference in Obesity Rate was not seen among First-year Iwate University Students

    OpenAIRE

    MITUSI, Takahiro; TATSUMI, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Official statistics indicate that adolescents in the Tohoku district exhibit unusually high rates of obesity, especially in the district’s rural areas. At the sametime, studies from other countries have shown that higher obesity rates are associated with lower levels of education, and lower obesity rates with higher levelsof education. To determine how these two trends interact in northern Japan, we conducted a crosssectional study of obesity rates among freshmen at a national university in t...

  3. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  4. Impacts of obesity and stress on neuromuscular fatigue development and associated heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, R K

    2015-02-01

    Obesity and stress are independently associated with decrements in neuromuscular functions. The present study examined the interplay of obesity and stress on neuromuscular fatigue and associated heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-eight non-obese (18.5obese (30⩽BMI) adults performed repetitive handgrip exertions at 30% of their maximum strength until exhaustion in the absence and presence of a mental arithmetic stressor. Dependent measures included gold standard fatigue indicators (endurance time and rate of strength loss), perceived effort and mental demand, heart rate and temporal (RMSSD: root mean square of successive differences between N-N intervals) and spectral (LF/HF: ratio of low to high frequency) indices of HRV. Stress negatively affected endurance time (Pobesity × stress interactions were found on endurance time (P=0.0073), rate of strength loss (P=0.027) and perceived effort (P=0.026), indicating that stress increased fatigability, particularly in the obese group. Both obesity (P=0.001) and stress (P=0.033) independently lowered RMSSD. Finally, stress increased LF/HF ratio (P=0.028) and the interaction of stress and obesity (P=0.008) indicated that this was augmented in the obese group. The present study provides the first evidence that stress-related neuromuscular fatigue development is accelerated in obese individuals. In addition, the stress condition resulted in poorer HRV indices, which is indicative of autonomic dysfunction, particularly in the obese group. These findings indicate that workers are more susceptible to fatigue in high-stress work environments, particularly those with higher BMI, which can increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries as well as cardiovascular diseases in this population.

  5. The relationship between obesity and elderly suicide rates: a cross-national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Shah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An inverse relationship between obesity and suicide has been observed in younger adults, but this has not been examined in the elderly. METHODS: A cross-national ecological study examined the independent relationship between the prevalence of obesity and elderly suicide rates, by controlling for potentially confounding variables, using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations. RESULTS: Elderly suicide rates in females were independently associated with the prevalence of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be exercised in attributing a causal relationship from this cross-sectional ecological study due to ecological fallacy and requires confirmation in individual-level case-control or cohort studies.

  6. Obesity and Prader-Willi Syndrome Affect Heart Rate Recovery from Dynamic Resistance Exercise in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diobel M. Castner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following exercise, heart rate decline is initially driven by parasympathetic reactivation and later by sympathetic withdrawal. Obesity delays endurance exercise heart rate recovery (HRR in both children and adults. Young people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS, a congenital cause for obesity, have shown a slower 60-s endurance exercise HRR compared to lean and obese children, suggesting compromised regulation. This study further evaluated effects of obesity and PWS on resistance exercise HRR at 30 and 60 s in children. PWS (8–18 years and lean and obese controls (8–11 years completed a weighted step-up protocol (six sets x 10 reps per leg, separated by one-minute rest, standardized using participant stature and lean body mass. HRR was evaluated by calculated HRR value (HRRV = difference between HR at test termination and 30 (HRRV30 and 60 (HRRV60 s post-exercise. PWS and obese had a smaller HRRV30 than lean (p < 0.01 for both. Additionally, PWS had a smaller HRRV60 than lean and obese (p = 0.01 for both. Obesity appears to delay early parasympathetic reactivation, which occurs within 30 s following resistance exercise. However, the continued HRR delay at 60 s in PWS may be explained by either blunted parasympathetic nervous system reactivation, delayed sympathetic withdrawal and/or poor cardiovascular fitness.

  7. Adapting to rates versus amounts of climate change: a case of adaptation to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegh, Soheil; Moreno-Cruz, Juan; Caldeira, Ken

    2016-10-01

    Adaptation is the process of adjusting to climate change in order to moderate harm or exploit beneficial opportunities associated with it. Most adaptation strategies are designed to adjust to a new climate state. However, despite our best efforts to curtail greenhouse gas emissions, climate is likely to continue changing far into the future. Here, we show how considering rates of change affects the projected optimal adaptation strategy. We ground our discussion with an example of optimal investment in the face of continued sea-level rise, presenting a quantitative model that illustrates the interplay among physical and economic factors governing coastal development decisions such as rate of sea-level rise, land slope, discount rate, and depreciation rate. This model shows that the determination of optimal investment strategies depends on taking into account future rates of sea-level rise, as well as social and political constraints. This general approach also applies to the development of improved strategies to adapt to ongoing trends in temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables. Adaptation to some amount of change instead of adaptation to ongoing rates of change may produce inaccurate estimates of damages to the social systems and their ability to respond to external pressures.

  8. Obesity among health service providers in Nigeria: danger to long ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Obesity is a global epidemic. There are rising rates of obesity and its associated disorders, especially in developing countries, including among Health Service Providers (HSPs). Obesity is associated with early retirement, increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, obesity has the potential of reducing long-term ...

  9. A livability rating system of a high-rise housing and its computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengrui

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the problems in housing choosing and purchasing in the high-rise residential buildings, this paper considers the factors that affect various livable degrees and analyzes the important degrees of the factors through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), quantifying the various factors by 10 point scoring system. Accordingly, this paper puts forward a habitable housing index, validating the correctness of the indicators by simulating the process of housing choosing through computer program.

  10. FREQUENCY RATE OF OBESITY AND LOW MOBILITY IN NORTH AMERICAN AND IRANIAN STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   INTRODUCTION: Obesity and low mobility are among the risk factors of stroke and cardiovascular diseases. A pilot double-center study evaluated frequency rate of obesity and low mobility in patients with ischemic stroke.   METHODS: This prospective clinical study was conducted on 100 consecutive stroke patients in Mackenzie hospital, Canada and 100 consecutive stroke patients in Ghaem hospital, Iran in 2007. The patients were age- and sex- matched. Diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made by stroke neurologists. Obesity and low mobility was detected based on the standard method in the two studied groups. Chi-Square and Fisher tests served for statistical analysis and P < 0.05 was declared as significant.   RESULTS: 92 males and 108 females with ischemic stroke were investigated. Obesity was present in 26% of the Canadians and 21% of Iranian stroke patients, df = 1, P = 0.403. Low mobility was reported in 29% of Canadian and 5% of Iranian stroke patients, df = 1, P < 0.0001. The frequency rate of obesity was not significantly different in the two groups and in each gender separately (P > 0.05, while the difference was significant for low mobility, P < 0.05.   CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference in frequency rate of obesity between Canadian and Iranian stroke patients. However, low mobility is significantly more frequent in the old Canadian individuals with stroke. Keywords: Obesity, Stroke, Race.

  11. Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Castro, Ana I.; Martinez-Olmos, Miguel A.; Canton, Ana; Ordoñez-Mayan, Lucia; Sajoux, Ignacio; Galban, Cristobal; Bellido, Diego; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2018-01-01

    Background The resting metabolic rate (RMR) decrease, observed after an obesity reduction therapy is a determinant of a short-time weight regain. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in RMR, and the associated hormonal alterations in obese patients with a very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK)-diet induced severe body weight (BW) loss. Method From 20 obese patients who lost 20.2 kg of BW after a 4-months VLCK-diet, blood samples and body composition analysis, determined by DXA...

  12. On the merging rates of envelope-deprived components of binary systems which can give rise to supernova events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornambe, Amedo

    1989-01-01

    We derive theoretical rates of mergings of envelope-deprived components of binary systems, which can give rise to supernova events. The effects of the various assumptions one is forced to make on the physical properties of the progenitor system and of its evolutionary behaviour through common envelope phases are discussed. Four cases have been analysed: CO-CO, He-CO, He-He double degenerate mergings and He star-CO dwarf merging. (author)

  13. [Morbidity rate of obesity in children in ukraine. Overweight as noncontagious disease risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Заболотна, Ірина Е

    The upsurge of prevalence rate of obesity and overweight that in the majority of cases traces back to childhood is a risk factor of the most common noncontagious diseases in adults. The aim was to analyze prevalence of obesity in children in Ukraine and to conduct the pilot study of medical condition of overweight children. Official state statistics of prevalence rate of obesity in kids and screening data of anthropometric characteristics, arterial tension levels, physical performance decrement and medical condition of children (boys - 50, girls - 90, average age - 15,1±0,1 years) was used in research. Data calculation performed by Statistica v. 6.0 software. Over the past few decades, the morbidity rate of obesity in children in Ukraine has greatly increased, especially in year class 15-17. Insufficient diagnosis of obesity in children is the consequence of the inadequacy of the existing system of preventive care and monitoring survey of decease risk factors. Children with body mass index (BMI) above normal have a risk of work decrement in 5,2 times (odds ratio, OR=5,2, CI95%: 1,7-10,6). Such children have higher risk of development of the diseases of the respiratory system (OR=8,1; CI95%: 3,9-13,6) and allergic dermatitis (OR=7,7; CI95%: 3,7-12,9). The odds ratio of arterial hypertension in such children is equal to 3,46±0,3 (95%CI: 2,0-5,9). According to prediction calculations, the situation with the increase of prevalence rate of obesity in children in Ukraine is unfavorable. The introduction of measures aimed at finding children with obesity, their registration and monitoring of patients' health with due regard to decease risk factors at the primary care level would conduce to improving prevention of obesity and prevention of alimentary diseases progression.

  14. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data ...

  15. Influence of duration and rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage on ozone concentration in the barrier glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovski, A.V.; Knysh, A.S.; Shvets, O.M.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    The barrier glow discharge between two planar electrodes, covered with dielectric, is studied under high-voltage pulsed power supply. Wide applications of such type of discharges, in particular, for ozone production, stimulated a number of investigations in this direction. In this work we investigated the dependence of ozone concentration on the duration and the rate of pulse rise of the applied voltage. The thyristor converter circuit with the shortening of input pulses on the base of the saturable throttle was used for the realization of this task. The output pulses with amplitude up to 15 kV, repetition frequency of 1 kHz, pulse duration of 0.3 μs (or 7 μs) and the rate of pulse rise of 0.1 μs were generated with this scheme. Measurements of the ozone concentration produced in the air mixture have shown that its value increased by factor two with variation of the rate of pulse rise from 0.5 μs to 0.1 μs (for pulse duration of 7 μs). The dependence of the ozone concentration on the variation of air mixture pressure in the discharge gap of reactor was investigated also. It was shown proportional increase of the output concentration of ozone with increasing the pressure value. Spectroscopic measurements carried out in the ultraviolet spectrum made it possible to analyze changing the concentration of ozone and nitric components. (author)

  16. Obesity and rates of clinical remission and low MRI inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Michael D; Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G; Emery, Paul; Baker, Daniel G; Baker, Joshua F

    2017-10-01

    Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of obesity on achieving clinical and imaging definitions of low disease activity. This study evaluated 470 patients with RA from GO-BEFORE and GO-FORWARD randomised clinical trials. Included patients had blinded clinical disease activity measures and MRI at baseline, 24 and 52 weeks. Synovitis, osteitis and total inflammation scores were determined using the RA MRI scoring system. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared odds of achieving Disease Activity Score using 28 joints and C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) remission, low component measures, or low MRI inflammation measures at 24 weeks in patients with obesity versus no obesity. At 24 weeks, patients with obesity were significantly less likely to achieve DAS28(CRP) remission (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.92, p=0.03). In contrast, patients with obesity had similar odds of achieving low synovitis (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.72, p=0.84) and inflammation scores (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.61 to 2.22, p=0.64) and greater odds of achieving low osteitis scores (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.10 to 3.84, p=0.02) versus normal weight patients. Patients with RA and obesity have lower rates of DAS28 remission but similar rates of low MRI activity compared with patients without obesity, suggesting that obesity and its associated comorbidities can bias clinical disease activity measures. NCT00361335 and NCT00264550; Post-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Oil prices and the rise and fall of the U.S. real exchange rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, R.A.; Norden, S. van.

    1993-12-01

    It is examined whether a link exists between oil price shocks and the U.S. real effective exchange rate. Data used for the study are described and their time series properties and the long-run explanatory power of oil prices for the real exchange rate are examined. Apparent causal relationships between exchange rates and oil prices are examined. An unrestricted error correction model is reduced until an error correction model with reasonable properties is derived. Results show that the two variables appear to be cointegrated and that causality runs from oil prices to the exchange rate and not vice-versa. The single equation error correction model linking these two variables is stable and captures much of the in- and out-of-sample movement in the exchange rate in dynamic simulation. Tests are presented to show that the error correction model has significant post-sample predictive ability for both the size and sign of changes in the real effective exchange rate. The results suggest that oil prices may have been the dominant source of persistant real exchange rate shocks over the post-Bretton Woods period and that energy prices may have important implications for future work on exchange rate behaviour. 61 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  19. Maternal ratings of child health and child obesity, variations by mother's race/ethnicity and nativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H; Altman, Claire E

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether indicators of child health, focusing on obesity, are associated with maternal ratings of child health (MRCH) and its variation by mother's ethnicity/nativity, focusing on Hispanics. The early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten cohort kindergarten-eighth grade waves (n = 48,814) and nested general linear mixed modeling are used to examine excellent MRCH. The only indicator of child health that varies by mother's ethnicity/nativity for MRCH is child obesity. Child obesity did not influence MRCH for foreign-born Hispanic mothers, especially among less acculturated mothers, though significant differences among immigrants by acculturation were not found. However, among native-born white, black, and Hispanic mothers child obesity was associated with a lower likelihood of excellent MRCH even after controls for socioeconomic characteristics, family characteristics, and other indicators of child health are included. MRCH reflect not only child's actual health, but also the mother's perception of what contributes to poor child health. Our findings suggest that less acculturated foreign-born Hispanic mothers are less likely to associate child obesity with poor child health. Cultural orientations that prefer heavier children or are unlikely to associate child obesity with poor child health may contribute to the higher levels of obesity found among their children.

  20. HIV infection connected to rising anal cancer rates in men in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes substantially to the epidemic of anal cancer in men, but not women in the United States, according to new research from NCI. Chart shows overall incidence rates of anal cancers in general population

  1. Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Chooi Mei; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Ho, Chin Siong

    2016-12-01

    Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m -2 , the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m -2 , and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m -2 . © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Association between rising professional liability insurance premiums and primary cesarean delivery rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Karna; Grobman, William A; Lee, Todd A; Holl, Jane L

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the association between changes in Illinois professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists and singleton primary cesarean delivery rates. Data from the National Center for Health Statistics were used to identify all singleton births between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation occurring in Illinois from 1998 through 2003. Primary cesarean delivery rates for women delivered between 37 weeks and 44 weeks of gestation per 1,000 gravid women eligible to have a primary cesarean delivery were calculated for each Illinois county. The annual medical professional liability premium for each county in Illinois was represented by the reported professional liability insurance rate charges (adjusted to 2004 dollars) from the ISMIE Mutual Insurance Company. Separate analyses were conducted for nulliparous and multiparous women. The independent association between county-level primary cesarean delivery rates and the previous year's insurance premiums was evaluated using linear regression models. During the study period, 817,521 women were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The county-level mean primary cesarean delivery rate increased from 126 to 163 per 1,000 (Pinsurance premiums also rose significantly (from $60,766 in 1997 to $83,167 in 2002, Pinsurance premium increase, the primary cesarean delivery rate increased by 15.7 per 1,000 for nulliparous women. This association also was evident for multiparous women, who had an increase in cesarean deliveries of 4.7 per 1,000 for every $10,000 increase. Higher rates of primary cesarean delivery are associated with increased medical professional liability premiums for obstetrician-gynecologists in Illinois. II.

  3. Rising rates of caesarean deliveries at full cervical dilatation: a concerning trend.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Unterscheider, J

    2011-08-01

    To audit caesarean sections performed at full cervical dilatation over a three year period in a tertiary referral centre in Ireland. To evaluate (i) the rate of caesarean deliveries in the second stage of labour, (ii) the indication for delivery and (iii) the associated fetal and maternal morbidity in this cohort of women.

  4. The rise in caesarean birth rate in Sagamu, Nigeria: reflection of changes in obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, O T; Sotunsa, J O; Sule-Odu, A O

    2004-06-01

    A retrospective and comparative study of women delivered by caesarean section over two different 3-year periods was conducted at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, Nigeria. The caesarean section rate (CSR) increased from 10.3% in 1989-1991 to 23.1% in 2000-2003. The most frequent indication in both periods was different: prolonged/obstructed labour (20.0%) in 1989-1991 and antepartum haemorrhage (14.9%) in 2000-2003. Malpresentation, antepartum haemorrhage and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia were responsible for 51.7% of the difference in the CSR recorded between both periods. The CSR rose from 13.3% to 25.0% while the instrumental vaginal delivery (IVD) rate decreased significantly by 11.4% among the nulliparous women between the periods. Increase in CSR can be attributed mainly to reduction in IVD rate and alteration in the management of labour complications and induction policy. Strategies to reduce the CSR should cut across all indications and focus on encouraging instrumental vaginal deliveries, especially among nulliparous women.

  5. High rates of child hypertension associated with obesity: a community survey in China, India and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Pamela A; Anthony, Denis; Fenton, Brenda; Matthews, David R; Stevens, Denise E

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and epidemiological evidence suggests that it is increasing in parallel with obesity in children and adolescents in low- and middle-income countries. To identify and determine the relationship between overweight, obesity and hypertension in a community sample of school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 12,730 school children aged 12-18 years in China, India and Mexico as part of the Community Interventions for Health programme, an international study evaluating community interventions to reduce non-communicable disease by addressing the three main risk factors of tobacco use, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of body mass index and gender and hypertension. Prevalence rates of hypertension were 5.2% in China, 10.1% in India and 14.1% in Mexico, and pre-hypertension rates in China, India and Mexico were 13.4%, 9.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Overweight and obesity prevalence rates varied by country and were 16.6% in China, 4.1% in India and 37.1% in Mexico. In all countries there was a significant association between overweight and obesity and rates of hypertension. Overweight children were 1.7-2.3 times more likely to be hypertensive and obese children 3.5-5.5 more likely to show hypertension than those of normal weight. Rates of hypertension and overweight and obesity are high in school children in China, India and Mexico, and increased bodyweight is a significant risk factor for hypertension.

  6. Effect of Obesity on Complication Rate After Elbow Arthroscopy in a Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Fashandi, Ahmad H; Chhabra, A Bobby; Deal, D Nicole

    2016-03-01

    To use a national insurance database to explore the association of obesity with the incidence of complications after elbow arthroscopy in a Medicare population. Using Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes, we queried the PearlDiver database for patients undergoing elbow arthroscopy. Patients were divided into obese (body mass index [BMI] >30) and nonobese (BMI arthroscopy were identified from 2005 to 2012; 628 patients (22.5%) were coded as obese or morbidly obese, and 628 matched nonobese patients formed the control group. There were no differences between the obese patients and matched control nonobese patients regarding type of elbow arthroscopy, previous elbow fracture or previous elbow arthroscopy. Obese patients had greater rates of all assessed complications, including infection (odds ratio [OR] 2.8, P = .037), nerve injury (OR 5.4, P = .001), stiffness (OR 1.9, P = .016) and medical complications (OR 6.9, P arthroscopy in a Medicare population, including infection, nerve injury, stiffness, and medical complications. Therapeutic Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On the merging rates of envelope-deprived components of binary systems which can give rise to supernova events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornambe, Amedeo

    1989-08-01

    Theoretical rates of mergings of envelope-deprived components of binary systems, which can give rise to supernova events are described. The effects of the various assumptions on the physical properties of the progenitor system and of its evolutionary behavior through common envelope phases are discussed. Four cases have been analyzed: CO-CO, He-CO, He-He double degenerate mergings and He star-CO dwarf merging. It is found that, above a critical efficiency of the common envelope action in system shrinkage, the rate of CO-CO mergings is not strongly sensitive to the efficiency. Below this critical value, no CO-CO systems will survive for times larger than a few Gyr. In contrast, He-CO dwarf systems will continue to merge at a reasonable rate up to 20 Gyr, and more, also under extreme conditions.

  8. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S.; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Design Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Setting Ontario. Participants Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Main outcome measures Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. Results There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Conclusion Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. PMID:28209703

  9. Relationship between adiposity and heart rate recovery following an exercise stress test in obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rocha da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare differences in heart rate (HR response during and following exercise in obese older women with different percent body fat levels. Ninety older, obese women aged 60-87 years participated in the study, were categorized, and enrolled to one of two groups based on a lower percent body fat (LPBF ≤ 41.10 % or higher percent body fat (HPBF > 41.10 % as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The peak HR during exercise and in the first and second minutes of recovery period were compared between groups. The HPBF group presented a lower peak HR during exercise (p = 0.001 and an impaired HR recovery (p = 0.001 when compared to LPBF group. The present study demonstrated that older women who were in exceedingly obese level have an impaired heart rate response during exercise and in the recovery period, indicating possible autonomic dysfunction.

  10. Passing rates on physical fitness. Effects of age, gender, physical activity, overweight and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Monteiro de Vilhena e Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the influence of gender, age, physicalactivity (PA and overweight/obesity on health-related physical fitness (HRPF passing rates. Asample of 581 boys and 529 girls, aged 6 to 10 years and enrolled in first cycle primary schoolsin Albergaria-a-Velha, Portugal, was studied. Weight and height were measured and BMI wascalculated. The FITNESSGRAM test battery was applied. The cut-off values of Cole et al.(2000 for overweight and obesity were used. PA levels were estimated using the questionnaireof Godin and Shephard. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. No positiveassociation was observed between PA and HRPF. Age does not seem to have an impact onHRPF passing rates.

  11. Pay attention : strict assessors, rising rates make property taxes a field to watch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olstad, K.; Nelson, B.

    2000-01-01

    Some important information regarding the changing property tax regime for members within Alberta's oil and gas community were discussed. It was suggested that proper attention to property taxes, which are considered to be the third highest fixed cost within the industry, can give companies many advantages. New regulations in the taxation system in Alberta will affect linear property such as flowlines and pipelines, gas plants and compressor stations as well as petrochemical and fertilizer plants. Instead of relying on self-reporting, the provincial government will use data filed with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB). Under this new system, a company will have to take real steps to deactivate an asset. This will mean added expense and management time. In some cases companies will choose to avoid the additional steps and pay a higher active rate for assets producing no revenue. Another new change will lie in the fact that companies will have to pay close attention to the deadline of October 31 for filing changes of status with the AEUB, including filing changes in machinery and equipment. February 15 will be the winter deadline for companies to appeal any assessments. Another major tax change is that the province will make linear assessment in the name of the licensee of a well or pipeline. The Alberta government is also considering offsetting the adjustments of the tax rate. 1 fig

  12. Effects of obesity and diabetes on rate of bone density loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, W D; Morin, S N; Majumdar, S R; Lix, L M

    2018-01-01

    In this large registry-based study, women with diabetes had marginally greater bone mineral density (BMD) loss at the femoral neck but not at other measurement sites, whereas obesity was not associated with greater BMD loss. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rapid BMD loss explains the increased fracture risk associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity observed in prior studies. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) which may be less protective against fracture than previously assumed. Inconsistent data suggest that rapid BMD loss may be a contributing factor. We examined the rate of BMD loss in women with diabetes and/or obesity in a population-based BMD registry for Manitoba, Canada. We identified 4960 women aged ≥ 40 years undergoing baseline and follow-up BMD assessments (mean interval 4.3 years) without confounding medication use or large weight fluctuation. We calculated annualized rate of BMD change for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck in relation to diagnosed diabetes and body mass index (BMI) category. Baseline age-adjusted BMD was greater in women with diabetes and for increasing BMI category (all P obese women but BMI did not significantly affect hip BMD loss.

  13. Monitoring Rates of Subsidence and Relative Sea-Level Rise in Low-Elevation Coastal Zones: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornqvist, T. E.; Jankowski, K. L.; Fernandes, A. M.; Keogh, M.; Nienhuis, J.

    2017-12-01

    Low-elevation coastal zones (LECZs) that often host large population centers are particularly vulnerable to accelerating rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR). Traditionally, tide-gauge records are used to obtain quantitative data on rates of RSLR, given that they are perceived to capture the rise of the sea surface, as well as land subsidence which is often substantial in such settings. We argue here that tide gauges in LECZs often provide ambiguous data because they ultimately measure RSLR with respect to a benchmark that is typically anchored tens of meters deep. This is problematic because the prime target of interest is usually the rate of RSLR with respect to the land surface. We illustrate this problem with newly obtained rod surface elevation table - marker horizon (RSET-MH) data from coastal Louisiana (n = 274) that show that shallow subsidence in the uppermost 5-10 m accounts for 60-85% of total subsidence. Since benchmarks in this region are anchored at 23 m depth on average, tide-gauge records by definition do not capture this important process and thus underestimate RSLR by a considerable amount. We show how RSET-MH data, combined with GPS and satellite altimetry data, enable us to bypass this problem. Rates of RSLR in coastal Louisiana over the past 6-10 years are 12 ± 8 mm/yr, considerably higher than numbers reported in recent studies based on tide-gauge analysis. Subsidence rates, averaged across this region, total about 9 mm/yr. It is likely that the problems with tide-gauge data are not unique to coastal Louisiana, so we suggest that our new approach to RSLR measurements may be useful in LECZs worldwide, with considerable implications for metropolitan areas like New Orleans that are located within such settings.

  14. Food Insecurity, Self-Rated Health, and Obesity among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Linda L.; Robb, Cliff A.; McKinley, Erin M.; Wood, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of food insecurity among college students ranges from 14% to 59%. Most of the research to date has examined the determinants of food insecurity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between food insecurity and self-rated health and obesity among college students living off campus. Methods:…

  15. Overdiagnosis and rising rate of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): time for reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutis, D; Thakar, R; Sultan, A H

    2017-11-01

    To determine the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) using three-dimensional (3D) endoanal ultrasound (EA-US) and to compare symptoms and anal manometry measurements between women with anal sphincters adequately repaired and those with persistent anal sphincter defects. The EA-US images of women with clinically diagnosed and repaired OASIS, defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal tear, who attended the perineal clinic at Croydon University Hospital over a 10-year period (2003-2013) were reanalyzed by a single expert blind to symptoms and the results of clinical examination. St Mark's Incontinence Scores (SMIS) and anal manometry measurements were obtained and compared between women with an intact anal sphincter and those with an anal sphincter scar and between those with an intact anal sphincter and those with a defect. Anal manometry measurements were compared between women with an external anal sphincter (EAS) defect and those with an internal anal sphincter (IAS) defect. The images of 908 women were reanalyzed. No evidence of OASIS was found in 64 (7.0%) women, an EAS scar alone was detected in 520 (57.3%) and an anal sphincter defect in 324 (35.7%). Of the 324 women with a defect, 112 had an EAS defect, 90 had an IAS defect and 122 had a combined IAS and EAS defect. SMIS results were significantly higher in women with an anal sphincter defect compared with those with no evidence of OASIS (P = 0.018), but there was no significant difference in scores between women with an intact sphincter and those with an EAS scar only. Women with a defect had a significantly lower maximum resting pressure (median (range), 44 (8-106) vs 55 (29-86) mmHg; P 40) vs 25 (10-40) mm; P = 0.003). Seven percent of women with a clinical diagnosis of OASIS were wrongly diagnosed. We believe that this rate may differ from that of other units but training methods and competency assessment tools for the diagnosis and repair of OASIS need

  16. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can ... more calories than you burn. And most Americans' diets are too high in calories and are ... factors Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and ...

  17. The Obesity Epidemic: The United States as a Cautionary Tale for the Rest of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Imes, Christopher C.; Burke, Lora E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic and its prevalence continues to increase in many developed and developing countries. This brief review provides an update on the prevalence of obesity in the United States (US) and globally, reviews the underlying mechanism of several comorbidities associated with obesity, and discusses the economic burden of obesity. Although the overall prevalence of obesity in the US is not increasing, racial and ethnic minorities continue to struggle with rising obesity rates....

  18. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Cooksey-Stowers

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision. Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16. Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05 and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01. Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  19. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D

    2017-11-14

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity ( p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality ( p food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity.

  20. Food Swamps Predict Obesity Rates Better Than Food Deserts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey-Stowers, Kristen; Schwartz, Marlene B.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of food environments, characterized as food swamps, on adult obesity rates. Food swamps have been described as areas with a high-density of establishments selling high-calorie fast food and junk food, relative to healthier food options. This study examines multiple ways of categorizing food environments as food swamps and food deserts, including alternate versions of the Retail Food Environment Index. We merged food outlet, sociodemographic and obesity data from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Environment Atlas, the American Community Survey, and a commercial street reference dataset. We employed an instrumental variables (IV) strategy to correct for the endogeneity of food environments (i.e., that individuals self-select into neighborhoods and may consider food availability in their decision). Our results suggest that the presence of a food swamp is a stronger predictor of obesity rates than the absence of full-service grocery stores. We found, even after controlling for food desert effects, food swamps have a positive, statistically significant effect on adult obesity rates. All three food swamp measures indicated the same positive association, but reflected different magnitudes of the food swamp effect on rates of adult obesity (p values ranged from 0.00 to 0.16). Our adjustment for reverse causality, using an IV approach, revealed a stronger effect of food swamps than would have been obtained by naïve ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates. The food swamp effect was stronger in counties with greater income inequality (p < 0.05) and where residents are less mobile (p < 0.01). Based on these findings, local government policies such as zoning laws simultaneously restricting access to unhealthy food outlets and incentivizing healthy food retailers to locate in underserved neighborhoods warrant consideration as strategies to increase health equity. PMID:29135909

  1. Determination of pump flow rate during cardiopulmonary bypass in obese patients avoiding hemodilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santambrogio, Luisa; Leva, Cristian; Musazzi, Giorgio; Bruno, Piergiorgio; Vailati, Andrea; Zecchillo, Franco; Di Credico, Germano

    2009-01-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass the pump flow is usually set on 2.4 L/min/m(2) of body surface area (BSA) to guarantee adequate tissue perfusion without differences for patient constitutional type. The present study attempts to evaluate the adequacy of pump flow rate in obese patients, considering the ideal weight instead of the real one, avoiding the overflow side effects and hemodilution. Obese patients with body mass index (BMI) > 30 presented for cardiac surgery were randomized in two groups: in one the cardiopulmonary bypass was led traditionally, in the other, pump flow rate was calculated on ideal BMI of 25. Demographics, preoperative tests, and monitoring data were registered. Mortality at hospital discharge and 30 days after were analyzed. The pump flow rate between the groups was different (4.46 vs. 4.87; p = 0.004); there were no differences in organ perfusion (SvO(2); diuresis) and mortality, but the study group presented fewer complications and blood transfusions. The BSA is widely used as the biometric unit to normalize physiologic parameters included pump flow rate, but it is disputable if this practice is correct also in obese patients. The study group, in which pump flow rate was set on ideal BSA, presented no difference in diuresis and mixed venous saturation but fewer complications and fewer perioperative blood transfusions.

  2. Rates and Predictors of Obesity Among African American Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Li, Chien-Ching; McConnell, Elizabeth; Aranda, Frances; Smith, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine rates of and risk factors for obesity in a community sample of African American sexual minority women (SMW). Data were collected using self-administered paper-and-pencil survey questionnaires (n = 219). Participants were primarily middle aged (M = 40.1; standard deviation [SD] = 10.5 years), well educated (56.9% with a college education and above), insured (82.3%), and had a median income range from $30,000 to $39,999. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 31.6 (SD = 8.0). Based on BMI scores, over half of the participants were identified as obese (53.9%) and 25.6% were overweight. A number of comorbid illnesses were reported that could be exacerbated by excess weight, including arthritis (21.3%), adult-onset diabetes (4.9%), back problems (23.2%), high cholesterol (15.3%), high blood pressure (19.2%), and heart disease (12%). Multiple risk factors for obesity were observed, including infrequent exercise (American SMW report high rates of obesity, chronic health conditions exacerbated by weight, and health and dietary behaviors that increase risk for weight-related health disparities. These study findings have implications for additional research and intervention development.

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Improves Heart Rate Variability in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Baumann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obese children and adolescents are at high risk of developing cardiovascular diseases later in life. We hypothesized that cardiovascular prophylaxis with omega-3 fatty acids could benefit them. In our study, 20 children and adolescents (mean body mass index percentile: 99.1; mean age: 11.0 years underwent two ambulatory 24 h Holter electrocardiography (ECG recordings (before and after at least 3 months of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Time domain heart rate variability (HRV and heart rate (HR were examined for these patients. As a control, we used 24 h Holter ECG recordings of 94 nonobese children and adolescents. Time domain HRV parameters, which are indicators of vagal stimulation, were significantly lower in obese patients than in healthy controls, but HR was higher (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal [SDNN] interbeat intervals: −34.02%; root mean square of successive differences [RMSSD] between normal heartbeats: −40.66%; percentage of consecutive RR intervals [pNN50]: −60.24%; HR: +13.37%. After omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, time domain HRV parameters and HR of obese patients were similar to the values of healthy controls (SDNN interbeat intervals: −21.73%; RMSSD: −19.56%; pNN50: −25.59%; HR: +3.94%. Therefore, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be used for cardiovascular prophylaxis in obese children and adolescents.

  4. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  5. Rising Rate of Liver Transplantation in the Baby Boomer Generation with Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Osama; Joseph-Talreja, Mairin; Yoo, Eric R; Perumpail, Ryan B; Cholankeril, George; Harrison, Stephen A; Younossi, Zobair M; Wong, Robert J; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2017-09-28

    Background and Aims: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most rapidly growing indication for liver transplantation (LT) in the United States and is on a trajectory to become the leading indication for LT in the next decade. We aimed to study the trends in NASH-related LT among persons born between 1945 and 1965, the baby boomer (BB) generation. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis using population-based data from the United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network registry from 2004-2015 to evaluate the birth cohort-specific trends in liver transplant waitlist registrations and liver transplant surgeries in patients with NASH. We stratified our study population into three birth cohorts: 1) birth before 1945, 2) birth between 1945 and 1965, and 3) birth after 1965. Results: The overall rates of NASH-related waitlist registrations and liver transplant surgeries steadily increased from 2004 to 2015 and were reflective of a sharp rise noted in the NASH BB sub-group. From 2004 to 2015, the proportion of BB patients with NASH added to LT waitlist demonstrated an incremental growth, 60.6% in 2004 versus 83.2% in 2015 ( p < 0.01). Among the liver transplant recipients with NASH, the proportion represented by the BB cohort increased from 56.3% in 2004 to 80.0% in 2015 ( p < 0.01). Conclusions: We report rising rates of waitlist registration and LT for the indication of NASH. More importantly, the BB sub-cohort was mainly responsible for these alarming trends.

  6. Intentional weight loss reduces mortality rate in a rodent model of dietary obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Weindruch, Richard; Heymsfield, Steven B; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Boozer, Carol N; Yi, Nengjun; Wang, Chenxi; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Allison, David B

    2005-04-01

    We used a rodent model of dietary obesity to evaluate effects of caloric restriction-induced weight loss on mortality rate. Research Measures and Procedures: In a randomized parallel-groups design, 312 outbred Sprague-Dawley rats (one-half males) were assigned at age 10 weeks to one of three diets: low fat (LF; 18.7% calories as fat) with caloric intake adjusted to maintain body weight 10% below that for ad libitum (AL)-fed rat food, high fat (HF; 45% calories as fat) fed at the same level, or HF fed AL. At age 46 weeks, the lightest one-third of the AL group was discarded to ensure a more obese group; the remaining animals were randomly assigned to one of three diets: HF-AL, HF with energy restricted to produce body weights of animals restricted on the HF diet throughout life, or LF with energy restricted to produce the body weights of animals restricted on the LF diet throughout life. Life span, body weight, and leptin levels were measured. Animals restricted throughout life lived the longest (p < 0.001). Life span was not different among animals that had been obese and then lost weight and animals that had been nonobese throughout life (p = 0.18). Animals that were obese and lost weight lived substantially longer than animals that remained obese throughout life (p = 0.002). Diet composition had no effect on life span (p = 0.52). Weight loss after the onset of obesity during adulthood leads to a substantial increase in longevity in rats.

  7. Sex differences in rates of obesity in bipolar disorder: postulated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Anusha; Cha, Danielle S; Powell, Alissa M; Jalil, Dalya; McIntyre, Roger S

    2014-02-01

    The increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women with bipolar disorder (BD), relative to men with BD and individuals of both sexes in the general population, provides the impetus to identify factors that contribute to the differential association of obesity with BD in women. We conducted a selective PubMed search of English-language articles published from September 1990 to June 2012. The key search terms were bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome cross-referenced with gender, sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The search was supplemented with a manual review of relevant article reference lists. Articles selected for review were based on author consensus, the use of a standardized experimental procedure, validated assessment measures, and overall manuscript quality. It is amply documented that adults with BD are affected by the metabolic syndrome at a rate higher than the general population. Women with BD, when compared to men with BD and individuals of both sexes in the general population, have higher rates of abdominal obesity. The course and clinical presentation of BD manifest differently in men and women, wherein women exhibit a higher frequency of depression predominant illness, a later onset of BD, more seasonal variations in mood disturbance, and increased susceptibility to relapse. Phenomenological factors can be expanded to include differences in patterns of comorbidity between the sexes among patients with BD. Other factors that contribute to the increased risk for abdominal obesity in female individuals with BD include reproductive life events, anamnestic (e.g., sexual and/or physical abuse), lifestyle, and iatrogenic. A confluence of factors broadly categorized as broad- and sex-based subserve the increased rate of obesity in women with BD. It remains a testable hypothesis that the increased abdominal obesity in women with BD mediates the increased SMR from CVD. A clinical

  8. Slower eating rate is independent to gastric emptying in obese minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, D; Guérin, S; Malbert, C H

    2010-11-02

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether the altered eating behavior observed in the context of a diet-induced metabolic syndrome is related to changes of the gastric emptying and autonomic balance. Eight adult male Göttingen minipigs were subjected during 5months to ad libitum Western diet (WD). Several factors were compared between the lean (before WD) and obese conditions: general activity and eating behavior, gastric emptying, adiposity, glycemia and insulinemia during IVGTT, and heart rate variability (HRV). In our model, obesity did not alter the gastric emptying (258±26 vs. 256±14 min, P>0.10) but induced insulin resistance: increased basal insulinemia (12.6±0.8 to 36.6±6.1 mU/l, P5E-4±0.7E-4 to 2.5E-4±0.2E-4 min(-1) per mU.l(-1) of insulin, P0.10). Fed ad libitum with WD, animals overate durably (P<0.001). During a 30-min meal test though, the ingestion speed, the food ingested (1076±48 vs. 520±52 g) and energy intake decreased in the obese condition (P<0.05), which can be explained by the fragmentation of the daily caloric intake. These data suggest that the slower eating rate and increased number of meals observed in obese minipigs without neuropathy is independent to gastric emptying. The explanation may be sought rather in central modifications induced by obesity that might modify the food perception and/or motivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The cost-effectiveness and consumer acceptability of taxation strategies to reduce rates of overweight and obesity among children in Australia: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comans, Tracy A; Whitty, Jennifer A; Hills, Andrew P; Kendall, Elizabeth; Turkstra, Erika; Gordon, Louisa G; Byrnes, Josh M; Scuffham, Paul A

    2013-12-14

    Childhood obesity is a recognised public health problem and around 25% of Australian children are overweight or obese. A major contributor is the obesogenic environment which encourages over consumption of energy dense nutrient poor food. Taxation is commonly proposed as a mechanism to reduce consumption of poor food choices and hence reduce rates of obesity and overweight in the community. An economic model will be developed to assess the lifetime benefits and costs to a cohort of Australian children by reducing energy dense nutrient poor food consumption through taxation mechanisms. The model inputs will be derived from a series of smaller studies. Food options for taxation will be derived from literature and expert opinion, the acceptability and impact of price changes will be explored through a Citizen's Jury and a discrete choice experiment and price elasticities will be derived from the discrete choice experiment and consumption data. The health care costs of managing rising levels of obesity are a challenge for all governments. This study will provide a unique contribution to the international knowledge base by engaging a variety of robust research techniques, with a multidisciplinary focus and be responsive to consumers from diverse socio-economic backgrounds.

  10. Association of physical capacity with heart rate variability based on a short-duration measurement of resting pulse rate in older adults with obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-De Liao

    Full Text Available Obesity can limit physical capacity and lower physical activity levels in elderly people. Low physical activity levels may be mediated by autonomic dysfunction with decreased heart rate variability (HRV. However, the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and low physical capability remains unclear. This cross-sectional study investigated the association of low physical capability with HRV in older adults with obesity.We recruited 231 old man and 210 old women with a mean (range age of 65.5 (51-78 and 62.9 (52-76 years, respectively. Physical capability was measured using mobility tasks, including functional reach, single-leg stance (SLS, gait speed (GS, timed up and go, and timed chair rise (TCR, and the scores on these tasks were merged and transformed into a global physical capability score (GPCS. HRV was measured using a 7-min resting pulse-based technique, and the time- and frequency-domain indices of HRV were obtained including standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN, root mean square of successive differences at rest (rMSSD, and high-frequency (HF power. All HRV indices were natural log (ln transformed for analysis. Participants were divided into high, moderate, and low physical-capability groups according to their physical performance. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to test differences in HRV indices among physical-capability groups with participants' characteristics serving as covariates. A stepwise regression model was established to identify the determinants of HRV indices. We used hierarchical regression analysis to identify the association of the GPCS with HRV indices.In both men and women, the low physical-capability group exhibited significantly increased heart rate (P <0.05 and decreased HRV in terms of a decreased ln[SDNN] (P <0.001, ln[rMSSD] (P <0.05 and ln[HF] (P <0.05, compared with the high physical-capability group. GS positively predicted ln[SDNN], whereas SLS, GS, and TCR were

  11. Socioeconomic Status, Health Behaviors, Obesity and Self-Rated Health among Older Arabs in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaila, R N Rabia

    2017-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health are well documented. Recently, researchers have shown interest in exploring the mechanisms by which measures of SES operate through it to impact SRH, such as material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. To examine the relationships between SES indicators and self-rated health (SRH); and to determine whether health behaviors and obesity mediate the association between SES indicators and SRH. A secondary analysis of data previously collected through the third survey of socioeconomic and health status of the Arab population in Israel, in which the SRH of 878 Arab-Israelis age 50 or older were analyzed using logistic regression. The results showed that higher education level and current employment in old age are associated with better SRH. However, neither subjective economic status nor family income was associated with SRH. Greater physical activity was found to be related to good\\very good SRH, while obesity was associated with less than good SRH. Finally, health behaviors (physical activity) and obesity were revealed as mediators between SES indicators (education and employment status) and SRH. The results highlight the importance of high education level and employment status in old age to reduce health inequalities. The findings also show that the relationship between SES and SRH can operate through behavioral mechanisms (i.e., physical activity) and their consequences (i.e., obesity), that can, however, be changed in old age.

  12. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  13. Metabolic and Hormonal Determinants of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Renal Hemodynamics in Severely Obese Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Vitolo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Renal function is often compromised in severe obesity. A true measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR is unusual, and how estimation formulae (EstForm perform in such individuals is unclear. We characterized renal function and hemodynamics in severely obese individuals, assessing the reliability of EstForm. Methods: We measured GFR (mGFR by iohexol plasma clearance, renal plasma flow (RPF by 123I-ortho-iodo-hippurate, basal and stimulated vascular renal indices, endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation using flow-mediated dilation (FMD as well as metabolic and hormonal profile in morbid, otherwise healthy, obese subjects. Results: Compared with mGFR, the better performing EstForm was CKD-EPI (5.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 bias by Bland-Altman analysis. mGFR was directly related with RPF, total and incremental glucose AUC, and inversely with PTH and h8 cortisol. Patients with mGFR below the median shown significantly higher PTH and lower vitamin D3. Basal or dynamic renal resistive index, FMD, pulse wave velocity were not related with mGFR. In an adjusted regression model, renal diameter and plasma flow remained related with mGFR (R2 = 0.67, accounting for 15% and 21% of mGFR variance, respectively. Conclusions: CKD-EPI formula should be preferred in morbid obesity; glucose increments during oral glucose tolerance test correlate with hyperfiltration; RPF and diameter are independent determinants of mGFR; slightly high PTH values, frequent in obesity, might influence mGFR.

  14. Underdiagnosis and Lower Rates of Office Visits for Overweight/Obese Pediatric Patients in Rural Compared with Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, Christine; McElligott, James; Morella, Kristen; Basco, William

    2017-07-01

    This study compared the number of children enrolled in Medicaid in rural and urban areas of South Carolina with an overweight/obesity diagnosis and the mean rates of office visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed. Medicaid claims data from 2012 for children in three South Carolina counties, categorized as urban, rural high resource, and rural low resource, were used to identify those who had been diagnosed as being overweight/obese during any encounter. Logistic and Poisson regressions were performed to predict whether overweight/obese children in each county would receive an overweight/obesity visit diagnosis and to calculate the mean rate of total office visits with an overweight/obesity diagnosis in each county. A total of 1233 children enrolled in Medicaid were diagnosed as being overweight/obese at any encounter in the designated counties. Well visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed varied significantly, with 42.6%, 28%, and 11% in urban, rural high-resource counties, and rural low-resource counties, respectively ( P overweight/obese at a well visit. All of the children had a low number of total office visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed. When comparing the counties, urban children (1.22 visits per year) had more visits than rural low-resource children (0.75 visits per year, P Overweight/obesity is underdiagnosed in rural children enrolled in Medicaid in South Carolina, which affects the number of children who receive help to manage their weight. Interventions to overcome barriers of diagnosis and management are necessary to address childhood obesity properly.

  15. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sarwat; Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section) in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%), compared with the women with higher education (40.3%). C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and rural areas and

  16. Rising trends and inequalities in cesarean section rates in Pakistan: Evidence from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys, 1990-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwat Mumtaz

    Full Text Available Despite global efforts to improve maternal health, many developing countries including Pakistan have failed to achieve the target of a 75% reduction in maternal deaths by 2015. Addressing socioeconomic inequalities in access to emergency obstetric care is crucial for reducing the maternal mortality rate. This study was done to examine the time trends and socioeconomic inequalities in the utilization of cesarean section (C-section in Pakistan during 1990-2013. We used data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS conducted during 1990 to 2013. All these surveys are nationally representative surveys of ever-married women aged 15-49 years with a sample size of 6611, 10,023, and 13,558 women in 1990-1991, 2006-2007, and 2012-2013, respectively, with an overall response rate of over 90%. The unit of analysis for this study was women with their most recent live birth in the five years preceding the surveys. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were employed to investigate the prevalence of cesarean sections according to selected sociodemographic characteristics of women. C-section rates were found to have increased during this period, with an especially significant rise from 2.7% in 1990-1991 to 15.8% in 2012-2013 with lower utilization among the non-educated women (7.5%, compared with the women with higher education (40.3%. C-section rates ranged from 5.5% in the poorest women to 35.3% in the richest women. Only 11.5% of the rural women had a C-section compared to 25.6% of the urban women. A greater likelihood of having a cesarean section was observed in the richest, highly educated, and urban-living women while there was no significant difference observed in cesarean section rates between the private and public sectors in all three surveys. To improve maternal health, routine monitoring and evaluation of the provision of emergency obstetric services are needed to address the underuse of C-section in poor and

  17. Association between bariatric surgery and rate of hospitalisations for stable angina pectoris in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yuichi J; Tsugawa, Yusuke; Iso, Hiroyasu; Brown, David Fm; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and stable angina pectoris (SAP) are important public health problems in the USA. However, little is known about whether weight reduction affects the rate of SAP-related morbidities. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that bariatric surgery is associated with a lower rate of hospitalisations for SAP in obese adults. We performed a self-controlled case series study of obese adults with SAP who underwent bariatric surgery using a population-based inpatient database in three states (California, Florida and Nebraska) from 2005 to 2011. The primary outcome was hospitalisation for SAP. We used conditional logistic regression to compare the rate of the outcome event during sequential 12-month periods, using presurgery months 13-24 as a reference period. Our sample consisted of 953 patients with SAP who underwent bariatric surgery. The median age was 57 years, 51% were women, and 78% were non-Hispanic white. During the reference period, 25.3% (95%CI, 22.5% to 28.1%) had a hospitalisation for SAP. The rate remained stable in the subsequent 12-month presurgery period (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.84 (95% CI, 0.69 to 1.02); p=0.07). In the first 12-month period after bariatric surgery, we observed a significantly lower rate (9.1% (95% CI, 7.3% to 11.0%); aOR 0.33 (95% CI, 0.26 to 0.43); p<0.0001). Similarly, the rate remained significantly lower in the subsequent 13-24 months after bariatric surgery (8.7% (95% CI, 6.9% to 10.5%); aOR 0.31 (95% CI, 0.24 to 0.41); p<0.0001). In this population-based study of obese adults with SAP, we found that the rate of hospitalisations for SAP was lower by two-thirds after bariatric surgery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  19. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnapriya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  20. [Detection rates of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents with different ethnicities in Xinjiang Uigur areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haixia; Li, Xiaomei; Tao, Jing; Ma, Yitong; Yang, Yining; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bangdang; Xie, Xiang; Yang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the detection rates of overweight and obesity among Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents in Xinjiang. Random samples were used to analyze the detection rates on overweight and obesity based on data from Han,Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years from 3 regions-Hetian, Kashi and Fuhai prefectures in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Anthropometric data including weight and height was collected. Overweight and obesity were defined according to body mass index [BMI, weight (kg)/height (m²)] cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC)aged 7-14 years. The present study was performed in 11 894 Han, Uygur and Kazakh Children and adolescents aged 7-14 years. The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 5.6% and 2.9% respectively, which the difference between male and female was significant (χ² = 39.765, P overweight and obesity rate showed differences, with detection rate of overweight among Kazakh students was 12.0% , higher than the other ethnic groups. The obesity detection rate was 7.2% among Han students, which was the highest of the three ethnic groups, with differences statistically significant(χ² = 363.885, P overweight and obesity decreased with increasing age in various ethnic groups, showing a clear downward trend, with the peak at 7-9 year-olds and the difference was statistically significant(χ² = 101.479, P overweight and obesity among children and adolescents were significantly lower in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region than the national average level, with differences also seen in different ethnic, gender and age groups.

  1. Electronic Health Record Data Versus the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): A Comparison of Overweight and Obesity Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Luke M; Shan, Ying; Voils, Corrine I; Kloke, John; Hanrahan, Lawrence P

    2017-06-01

    Estimating population-level obesity rates is important for informing policy and targeting treatment. The current gold standard for obesity measurement in the United States-the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)-samples health system-level measurement. To assess the feasibility of using body mass index (BMI) data from the electronic health record (EHR) to assess rates of overweight and obesity and compare these rates to national NHANES estimates. Using outpatient data from 42 clinics, we studied 388,762 patients in a large health system with at least 1 primary care visit in 2011-2012. We compared crude and adjusted overweight and obesity rates by age category and ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic, Other) between EHR and NHANES participants. Adjusted overweight (BMI≥25) and obesity rates were calculated by a 2-step process. Step 1 accounted for missing BMI data using inverse probability weighting, whereas step 2 included a poststratification correction to adjust the EHR population to a nationally representative sample. Adjusted rates of obesity (BMI≥30) for EHR patients were 37.3% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 37.1-37.5] compared with 35.1% (95% CI, 32.3-38.1) for NHANES patients. Among the 16 different obesity class, ethnicity, and sex strata that were compared between EHR and NHANES patients, 14 (87.5%) contained similar obesity estimates (ie, overlapping 95% CIs). EHRs may be an ideal tool for identifying and targeting patients with obesity for implementation of public health and/or individual level interventions.

  2. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  3. Evaluation of Specific Metabolic Rates of Major Organs and Tissues: Comparison Between Nonobese and Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, ZiMian; Ying, Zhiliang; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Zhang, Junyi; Heller, Martin; Later, Wiebke; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Müller, Manfred J.

    2011-01-01

    Elia (1992) identified the specific resting metabolic rates (Ki) of major organs and tissues in young adults with normal weight: 200 for liver, 240 for brain, 440 for heart and kidneys, 13 for skeletal muscle, 4.5 for adipose tissue and 12 for residual mass (all units in kcal/kg per day). The aim of the present study was to assess the applicability of Elia’s Ki values for obese adults. A sample of young women (n = 80) was divided into two groups, nonobese (BMI

  4. Effects of energy drink consumption on corrected QT interval and heart rate variability in young obese Saudi male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed; Majeed, Farrukh; Yar, Talay; AlRahim, Ahmed; Alhawaj, Ali Fouad; Alzaki, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has adverse effects on the heart that might be potentiated in obese individuals. Since the incidence of obesity and use of energy drinks is high among Saudi youth, we used non-invasive tests to study hemodynamic changes produced by altered autonomic cardiac activ.ity following consumption of energy drinks in obese male students. This cross-sectional study was carried out at Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, over a one-year period from December 2013 to December 2014. In Saudi male university students we measured continuous ECG recordings and a one-minute deep breathing maneuver to measure the expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio, the mean heart rate range (MHRR), the mean percentage variability. (M%VHR) and the corrected QT interval (QTc) at 0, 30 and 60 minutes after consumption of energy drink. We enrolled 31 students (18 overweight/obese and 13 normal weights. QTc was significantly in.creased at 60 min as compared with the resting state in overweight/obese subjects (P=.006). Heart rate variability was significantly less in obese as compared with normal weight subjects at 60 minutes as indicated by E:I ratio, (P=.037), MHRR (P=.012), M%VHR (P=.040) after energy drink consumption. Significant increases in diastolic (P=.020) and mean arterial blood pressure (P=.024) were observed at 30 minutes in the obese group. Hemodynamic changes after intake of energy drinks in obese subjects indicate that obesity and energy drinks could synergistically induce harmful effects. This finding warrants efforts to caution the obese on intake of energy drinks and timely intervention to motivate changes in lifestyle.

  5. Effect of a weight reduction program on baseline and stress-induced heart rate variability in children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurak, Nazar; Sauer, Helene; Weimer, Katja; Dammann, Dirk; Zipfel, Stephan; Horing, Björn; Muth, Eric R; Teufel, Martin; Enck, Paul; Mack, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Autonomic dysregulation is a well-established feature in adults with obesity but not in children. Since this dysregulation could contribute to weight dynamics, this study aimed to compare autonomic regulation in children with obesity and normal-weight peers and to track autonomic status during weight reduction. Sixty children with obesity and 27 age- and sex-matched normal-weight healthy participants were included. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed at baseline and during a mental stress test and a subsequent recovery period. Children with obesity were investigated both upon admission and discharge. Upon admission, no significant differences in HRV parameters were found for normal-weight participants and those with obesity. Inpatient treatment led to significant changes in HRV with increase in general variability (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval (SDNN), P Children with obesity had sympathetic activation similar to normal-weight controls during mental stress with subsequent return to baseline values, and weight loss did not affect this profile. A weight reduction program induced a change in autonomic activity in children with obesity toward parasympathetic dominance but had no influence on autonomic nervous system reactivity during stress conditions. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  6. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of heart rate time series in obesity and during weight-reduction surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, I; Morgan, J; Baxter, J; Lewis, M J

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with abnormal cardiac regulation by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), this being reversed by weight loss. Bariatric (weight-reduction) surgery can induce substantial long-term weight reductions. This study compares the acute influence on ANS control of two different types of bariatric surgery involving laparascopic and open procedures. To distinguish between the cardiac influences of surgery and obesity, we perform the same analysis for laparascopic surgery in non-obese patients. Eight morbidly obese and five non-obese patients underwent surgery. Obese patients received either laparoscopic procedures (group A: n = 5, BMI = 44.3 ± 2.7 kg m 2 ) or open procedures (group B: n = 3, BMI = 55.2 ± 4.5 kg m 2 ) and non-obese patients received a laparoscopic procedure (group C: n = 5, BMI = 30.8 ± 5.8 kg m −2 ). Holter ECG was recorded and heart rate variability (HRV) was quantified together with measures of complexity (sample entropy) and structure (Hurst coefficient, scaling coefficient) of the heart rate data. Multifractal characteristics of heart rate data, not previously reported for obese patients, are also quantified and interpreted. Mixed model ANOVA was used to assess the magnitudes of each quantified variable, with surgical group and perioperative time as main factors. HRV measures were influenced only during anaesthesia (LFn increase: p = 0.009; HFn decrease: p = 0.033) and did not discriminate between patient groups. Multifractality was the only characteristic of heart rate data that discriminated between patient groups, being significantly (p < 0.001) greater in non-obese (group C) compared with obese patients (groups A and B, who had similar multifractal properties). Multifractality was also enhanced during anaesthesia (p = 0.028) but did not differ for other stages. We conclude that obesity per se rather than response to surgery is the cause of reduced multifractality. Reduced multifractality in obesity might reflect a diminished

  7. Study on pulsed-discharge devices with high current rising rate for point spot short-wavelength source in dense plasma observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachinami, Fumitaka; Anzai, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Toru; Kikuchi, Takashi; Harada, Nob.

    2014-01-01

    A pulsed-power generator with high current rise based on a pulse-forming-network was studied toward generating intense point-spot X-ray source. To obtain the high rate of current rise, we have designed the compact discharge device with low circuit inductance. The results indicate that the inductance of the compact discharge device was dominated by a gap switch inductance. To reduce the gap switch inductance and operation voltage, the feasible gap switch inductance in the vacuum chamber has been estimated by the circuit simulation. The gap switch inductance can be reduced by the lower pressure operation. It means that the designed discharge device achieves the rate of current rise of 10 12 A/s

  8. Heart rate recovery improves after weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of weight loss on heart rate recovery (HRR) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 10-week prospective clinical intervention. Clinical research unit. Fifty-seven overweight and obese women with PCOS (age: 29.8 +/- 0.8 years; body mass index [BMI] 36.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). A dietary plan of 5-6 MJ/day ( approximately 30% energy restricted). Heart rate recovery (defined as the reduction in heart rate after 1 minute from peak heart rate after a graded treadmill test to exhaustion), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and sex steroids before and after the intervention. The mean percentage of weight loss was (-6.7 +/- 0.4%). There were significant reductions in waist circumference (-6.9 +/- 0.6 cm), blood pressure (-4.9/-2.5 +/- 1.2/1.2 mm Hg), fasting insulin (-3.4 +/- 0.7 mU/L), fasting glucose (-0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/L), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.43 +/- 0.09), T (-0.38 +/- 0.07 nmol/L), free androgen index (-2.86 +/- 0.58), and an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG] (5.86 +/- 1.12 nmol/L). The HRR improved from 30.9 +/- 1.1 to 38.0 +/- 1.1 beats/min and that was related to the reduction in body weight (r = -0.34) and waist circumference (r = -0.27). Weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS is associated with improvements in HRR, which suggests improved autonomic function. This highlights the importance of weight loss to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk in these women. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emot...

  10. Delayed effects of obese and overweight population conditions on all-cause adult mortality rate in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert A Okunade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMI to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia (DC estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult population overweight and obesity rates separately to the all-cause mortality rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality. Cross-sectional and panel data regression models are separately estimated for the delayed effects of obese and overweight BMIs on the all-cause mortality rate. Controlling for the independent effects of economic, socio-demographic and other factors on the all-cause mortality rate, our findings confirm that the estimated panel data models are more appropriate. The panel data regression results reveal that the obesity-mortality link strengthens significantly after multiple years in the condition. The faster mortality response to obesity detected here is conjectured to arise from the significantly more obese. Compared with past studies postulating a static (rather than delayed effects, the statistically significant lagged effects of adult population BMI pathology in this study are novel and insightful. And, as expected, these lagged effects are more severe in the obese than overweight population segment. Public health policy implications of this social science study findings agree with those of the clinical sciences literature advocating timely lifestyle modification interventions (e.g., smoking cessation to slow premature mortality linked to unhealthy BMIs.

  11. Business travel and self-rated health, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Catherine A; Rundle, Andrew G

    2011-04-01

    To assess associations between extent of travel for business and health. Associations between business travel and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed using medical record data from 13,057 patients provided by EHE International, Inc. Compared with light travelers (1 to 6 nights per month), nontravelers were more likely to report poor/fair health (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33 to 1.87) and the odds ratios increased with increasing travel, reaching 2.61 (95% CI: 1.57 to 4.33) among extensive travelers (>20 nights per month). Compared with light travelers, the odds ratios for obesity were highest among nontravelers (odds ratio = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.50) and extensive travelers (odds ratio = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.94). Although the differences were small, nontravelers and extensive travelers had the highest diastolic blood pressure and lowest high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Poor self-rated health and obesity are associated with extensive business travel.

  12. The contribution of gastric digestion and ingestion of amino acids on the postprandial rise in oxygen consumption, heart rate and growth of visceral organs in pythons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Simonsen, Lasse Stærdal; Wang, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the contribution of gastric and intestinal processes to the postprandial rise in metabolism in pythons (Python regius), we measured oxygen consumption after ligation of the pyloric sphincter to prevent the chyme from entering the intestine. Pyloric blockade reduced the postprandial rise in metabolism during the first 18h after ingestion of mice amounting to 18% of the snake's body mass by 60%. In another series of the experiments, we showed that infusion of amino acids directly into the stomach or the intestine elicited similar metabolic responses. This indicates a lower gastric contribution to the SDA response than previously reported. To include an assessment of the gastric contribution to the postprandial cardiovascular response, we also measured blood and heart rate. While heart rate increased during digestion in snakes with pyloric blockade, there was no rise in the double-blocked heart rates compared to fasting controls. Thus, the non-adrenergic-non-cholinergic factor that stimulates heart rate during digestion does not stem from the stomach. Finally, there was no growth of the visceral organs in response to digestion when chyme was prevented from reaching the intestine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporal trends in obesity, osteoporosis treatment, bone mineral density, and fracture rates: a population-based historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, William D; Lix, Lisa M; Yogendran, Marina S; Morin, Suzanne N; Metge, Colleen J; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2014-04-01

    Diverging international trends in fracture rates have been observed, with most reports showing that fracture rates have stabilized or decreased in North American and many European populations. We studied two complementary population-based historical cohorts from the Province of Manitoba, Canada (1996-2006) to determine whether declining osteoporotic fracture rates in Canada are attributable to trends in obesity, osteoporosis treatment, or bone mineral density (BMD). The Population Fracture Registry included women aged 50 years and older with major osteoporotic fractures, and was used to assess impact of changes in osteoporosis treatment. The BMD Registry included all women aged 50 years and older undergoing BMD tests, and was used to assess impact of changes in obesity and BMD. Model-based estimates of temporal changes in fracture rates (Fracture Registry) were calculated. Temporal changes in obesity and BMD and their association with fracture rates (BMD Registry) were estimated. In the Fracture Registry (n=27,341), fracture rates declined 1.6% per year (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3% to 2.0%). Although osteoporosis treatment increased from 5.6% to 17.4%, the decline in fractures was independent of osteoporosis treatment. In the BMD Registry (n=36,587), obesity increased from 12.7% to 27.4%. Femoral neck BMD increased 0.52% per year and lumbar spine BMD increased 0.32% per year after covariate adjustment (pobesity or osteoporosis treatment. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  14. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in overweight/obese and non-obese subjects and its relation to pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghani, Tarig H; Alawad, Azza O; Ibrahim, Rihab M; Abdelmoniem, Asim M

    2015-08-15

    Few studies investigated the association between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and indicators of pulmonary function. This study was conducted to estimate BMR in overweight/obese and non-obese healthy subjects using four commonly used predictive equations and to investigate its relation to the indicators of lung function tests (LFT). A cross sectional study was conducted in Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. A total of 201 students (98 males and 103 females) participated in the study. Four different values of BMR were calculated for each participant using four different predictive equations (Harris-Benedict, Mifflin, FAO/WHO/UNU and Henry-Rees). A portable All-flow spirometer (Clement Clarke International, Harlow, UK) was used for measurements of LFT. Significantly higher values of spirometric indicators (p BMR values predicted with the four equations were significantly higher in the males compared to the females and among the overweight/obese compared to the non-obese subjects (p BMR values and the indicators of LFT was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Mean values of LFT indicators are not related to the estimated values of BMR. A practical calculation of BMR based on direct measurement of oxygen consumption is recommended to confirm the absence of this association.

  15. The causes of childhood obesity: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Papoutsi, Georgia; Drichoutis, Andreas; Nayga, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates are rapidly rising in many countries. Since it is highly likely that obesity will persist into adulthood, current rates undermine the health and future of people in developed as well as developing countries. This public health epidemic carries significant economic, social as well as individual-level consequences and has become a research topic of significant interest for various disciplines including economics. We survey the literature in economics and related discipli...

  16. Impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zalesin, Kerstyn C

    2012-02-01

    Obesity promotes a cascade of secondary pathologies including diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, thrombosis, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, and OSA, which collectively heighten the risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity may also be an independent moderator of cardiac risk apart from these comorbid conditions. Rates of obesity and cardiac disease continue to rise in a parallel and exponential manner. Because obesity is potentially one of the most modifiable mediators of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, effective treatment and prevention interventions should have a profound and favorable impact on public health.

  17. Determining rates of overweight and obese status in children using electronic medical records: Cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birken, Catherine S; Tu, Karen; Oud, William; Carsley, Sarah; Hanna, Miranda; Lebovic, Gerald; Guttmann, Astrid

    2017-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese status in children by age, sex, and visit type, using data from EMRALD ® (Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database). Heights and weights were abstracted for children 0 to 19 years of age who had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Using the most recent visit, the proportions and 95% CIs of patients defined as overweight and obese were compared by age group, sex, and visit type using the World Health Organization growth reference standards. Ontario. Children 0 to 19 years of age who were rostered to a primary care physician participating in EMRALD and had at least one well-child visit from January 2010 to December 2011. Proportion and 95% CI of children with overweight and obese status by age group; proportion of children with overweight and obese status by sex (with male sex as the referent) within each age group; and proportion of children with overweight and obese status at the most recent well-child visit type compared with other visit types by age group. There were 28 083 well-child visits during this period. For children who attended well-child visits, 84.7% of visits had both a height and weight documented. Obesity rates were significantly higher in 1- to 4-year-olds compared with children younger than 1 (6.1% vs 2.3%; P overweight and obese status were lower using data from well-child visits compared with other visits. Electronic medical records might be useful to conduct population-based surveillance of overweight or obese status in children. Methodologic standards, however, should be developed. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  18. Resting heart rate and its relationship with general and abdominal obesity in young male Saudi university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yar, T.

    2010-01-01

    An elevated resting heart rate (Rhr) has been linked with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Obese people have altered autonomic balance that could lead to elevated Rhr and altered responses to postural changes. As no comparative data are available on Rhr in young normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) adults in Saudi Arabia, the present study was aimed at finding out the effect of adiposity on RHR and RHR response to change in posture. Methods: Second-year male students (n=231; age:19-20 years), were recruited from the Dammam University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during the period September 2008 to October 2009. Anthropometric measures were obtained and indices of obesity (body mass index [EMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-stature ratio [WSR]) were calculated. RHR in standing and supine positions were obtained from radial pulse. Pearson's correlation (r) between obesity indices and RHR as well as the differences between RHR in NW and OB groups were calculated. Results: General obesity (BMI greater or equal to 25.0 kg/m1 was found in 45.5% students. Central obesity (WC>85 cm or WSR>50.0) was found in 36.8% students. RHR was significantly correlated with BMI, WC and WSR (r=O.305, 0.300, 0.299 respectively, p< O.01) . Subjects above the obesity indices cut-off points had significantly higher values of RHR in both standing and supine positions compared to NW individuals (p<0.05). There was a greater reduction in RHR on changing the posture to supine state in OB group. Conclusion: A significantly higher RHR and a greater change in RHR on changing the posture point towards an altered autonomic balance in OB group of young adolescent males. This underscores the need to implement health education program to combat obesity at school and college levels. (author)

  19. [Estimated glucose disposal rate in patients under 18 years of age with type 1 diabetes mellitus and overweight or obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo Atance, Enrique; Ballester Herrera, M José; Giralt Muiña, Patricio; Ruiz Cano, Rafael; León Martín, Alberto; Giralt Muiña, Juan

    2013-01-01

    To assess the estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR), insulin dose, and lipoprotein profile in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and overweight or obesity as compared to children with T1DM and normal weight. A total of 115 patients (aged 5-16 years) with T1DM on intensive insulin therapy were recruited. The following parameters were measured: weight, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, insulin dose, eGDR, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and lipoprotein profile. Results were stratified by sex and age. No significant differences were found in eGDR between children with normal weight, overweight, and obesity. However, obese children older than 11 years had lower eGDR values (9.3±1.3 vs 10.1±0.8 mg kg(-1)min(-1); p<0.01). Insulin dose was higher in overweight and obese children, especially in IU/m2/day (37.7 vs 36.1 vs. 29.4 respectively; p<0.01). Obese children had higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than children with overweight and normal weight (106.5 vs 91.7 vs 91.5mg/dL respectively; p<0.01). No correlation was found between waist circumference and the different markers of insulin resistance. Values of eGDR values were lower in obese children with T1DM older than 11 years, and this may therefore be considered a marker of insulin resistance. Insulin dose was higher in diabetic patients with overweight or obesity, specially in IU/m2/day. Obese children with T1DM had a lipoprotein profile of cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Sea-Level Rise and Storms on Soil Accretion Rates in the Mangrove Forests of Everglades National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, J. M.; Breithaupt, J.; Smith, T., III; Sanders, C. J.; Peterson, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a range of valuable ecosystem services including sequestering large quantities of organic carbon (OC) in their soils at rates higher than other forests. Whether or not mangrove soils continue to be a sink for OC will be determined by the mangrove ecosystems' response to climate change-induced stressors. The threats of rising sea level outpacing mangrove forest soil accretion and increased wave energy associated with this rise may become the primary climate change-induced stressors on mangrove ecosystems. The threat from wave energy is amplified during storm events, which could increasingly damage mangrove forests along the coastline. However, storms may enhance accretion rates at some sites due to delivery of storm surge material, which could increase the system's ability to keep pace with sea-level rise (SLR). To investigate these processes we measure soil accretion rates over the last 100 years (via 210Pb dating) within the mangrove forests of Everglades National Park, which are situated within the largest contiguous mangrove forest in North America. Accretion rates range from 2 to 2.8 mm per year for sites within 10 km of the Gulf of Mexico. These rates match (within error) or exceed SLR over the last 100 years. Sites farther inland than 10 km have slightly lower accretion rates. Throughout the system organic matter accumulation is the most important source material contributing to accretion. The more seaward sites also show an important contribution from carbonate material. Soil cores from the most seaward sites exhibited visual laminations and Ca peaks (determined via x-ray fluorescence). These are indicators of storm surge deposits. While higher sea level might produce more damage and loss of mangrove forest along open water (e.g., Gulf of Mexico), our findings suggest some sites will have enhanced accretion rates due to supplementation with storm surge material.

  1. Policy Approaches to Offset Childhood Food Insecurity and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Danielle M.; Broberg, Katharine A.; McGuire, Jenifer K.

    2009-01-01

    Policies originally designed to address food insecurity are in need of revision due to rising rates of obesity among those they serve. Within the context of national policies, this article uses an ecological perspective to consider the links between food insecurity and obesity. The recommendations include adjusting the nutritional standards of the…

  2. In the Cafeteria and beyond, Colleges Take On Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    College students are a generally healthy lot. But as they grow heavier each year, reflecting the national rise in obesity rates, campus officials are trying to promote healthier habits--and, they hope, mitigate the impact of a sobering trend. More than one-third of college students have a body-mass index, the main measurement for obesity, that…

  3. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  4. Peripheral reduction of FGFR4 with antisense oligonucleotides increases metabolic rate and lowers adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xing Xian; Watts, Lynnetta M; Manchem, Vara Prasad; Chakravarty, Kaushik; Monia, Brett P; McCaleb, Michael L; Bhanot, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a primary risk factor for multiple metabolic disorders. Many drugs for the treatment of obesity, which mainly act through CNS as appetite suppressants, have failed during development or been removed from the market due to unacceptable adverse effects. Thus, there are very few efficacious drugs available and remains a great unmet medical need for anti-obesity drugs that increase energy expenditure by acting on peripheral tissues without severe side effects. Here, we report a novel approach involving antisense inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in peripheral tissues. Treatment of diet-induce obese (DIO) mice with FGFR4 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) specifically reduced liver FGFR4 expression that not only resulted in decrease in body weight (BW) and adiposity in free-feeding conditions, but also lowered BW and adiposity under caloric restriction. In addition, combination treatment with FGFR4 ASO and rimonabant showed additive reduction in BW and adiposity. FGFR4 ASO treatment increased basal metabolic rate during free-feeding conditions and, more importantly, prevented adaptive decreases of metabolic rate induced by caloric restriction. The treatment increased fatty acid oxidation while decreased lipogenesis in both liver and fat. Mechanistic studies indicated that anti-obesity effect of FGFR4 ASO was mediated at least in part through an induction of plasma FGF15 level resulted from reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression. The anti-obesity effect was accompanied by improvement in plasma glycemia, whole body insulin sensitivity, plasma lipid levels and liver steatosis. Therefore, FGFR4 could be a potential novel target and antisense reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression could be an efficacious therapy as an adjunct to diet restriction or to an appetite suppressant for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  5. Peripheral reduction of FGFR4 with antisense oligonucleotides increases metabolic rate and lowers adiposity in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Xian Yu

    Full Text Available Obesity is a primary risk factor for multiple metabolic disorders. Many drugs for the treatment of obesity, which mainly act through CNS as appetite suppressants, have failed during development or been removed from the market due to unacceptable adverse effects. Thus, there are very few efficacious drugs available and remains a great unmet medical need for anti-obesity drugs that increase energy expenditure by acting on peripheral tissues without severe side effects. Here, we report a novel approach involving antisense inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4 in peripheral tissues. Treatment of diet-induce obese (DIO mice with FGFR4 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO specifically reduced liver FGFR4 expression that not only resulted in decrease in body weight (BW and adiposity in free-feeding conditions, but also lowered BW and adiposity under caloric restriction. In addition, combination treatment with FGFR4 ASO and rimonabant showed additive reduction in BW and adiposity. FGFR4 ASO treatment increased basal metabolic rate during free-feeding conditions and, more importantly, prevented adaptive decreases of metabolic rate induced by caloric restriction. The treatment increased fatty acid oxidation while decreased lipogenesis in both liver and fat. Mechanistic studies indicated that anti-obesity effect of FGFR4 ASO was mediated at least in part through an induction of plasma FGF15 level resulted from reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression. The anti-obesity effect was accompanied by improvement in plasma glycemia, whole body insulin sensitivity, plasma lipid levels and liver steatosis. Therefore, FGFR4 could be a potential novel target and antisense reduction of hepatic FGFR4 expression could be an efficacious therapy as an adjunct to diet restriction or to an appetite suppressant for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

  6. Obesity and economic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  7. Impact of macro-level socio-economic factors on rising suicide rates in South Korea: panel-data analysis in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jihyung; Knapp, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in suicide rates in South Korea, particularly in the aftermath of the Asian economic crisis in the late 1990s, compares with the declining suicide rates observed in most other OECD countries over the same period. This study aimed to examine an array of macro-level societal factors that might have contributed to the rising suicide trend in South Korea. We first investigated whether this trend was unique to South Korea, or ubiquitous across five Asian countries/areas that are geographically and culturally similar (South Korea, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), using WHO mortality data and national statistics (1980-2009). Age-standardised suicide rates (per 100,000 population) were calculated for each gender and age group (15-24, 25-44, 45-64, and 65+) for each country. Both panel data and country-specific time-series analyses were employed to investigate the impact of economic change and social integration/regulation on suicide. Despite similarities in geography and culture, the rising trend of suicide rates was unique to South Korea. This atypical trend was most apparent for people aged 65 and over, which was in sharp contrast to the decreasing suicide trends observed in the other four Asian countries. The results of the panel data analyses generally pointed to a negative relationship between economic growth and suicide rates, particularly for working-aged people. The results of the time-series analyses further suggested that low levels of social integration, as indicated by rising divorce rates, may also have a role in rising suicide rates in South Korea, particularly for older people. Furthermore, the association between suicide rates and economic adversity (unemployment and economic downturn) was most salient among middle-aged men in South Korea. Compared to four other East Asian countries/areas (Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Taiwan), South Korea has uniquely experienced a rising trend of suicide rates over the past three decades

  8. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  9. Does body fat percentage predict post-exercise heart rate response in non-obese children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezdimirovic, Tatjana; Stajer, Valdemar; Semeredi, Sasa; Calleja-Gonzalez, Julio; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-05-24

    A correlation between adiposity and post-exercise autonomic regulation has been established in overweight and obese children. However, little information exists about this link in non-obese youth. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between body fat percentage (BFP) and heart rate recovery after exercise [post-exercise heart rate (PEHR)], a marker of autonomic regulation, in normal-weight children and adolescents. We evaluated the body composition of 183 children and adolescents (age 15.0±2.3 years; 132 boys and 51 girls) who performed a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill, with the heart rate monitored during and immediately after exercise. A strong positive trend was observed in the association between BFP and PEHR (r=0.14; p=0.06). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that our model explained 18.3% of the variance in PEHR (p=0.00), yet BFP accounted for only 0.9% of the variability in PEHR (p=0.16). The evaluation of the contribution of each independent variable revealed that only two variables made a unique statistically significant contribution to our model (pfatness seems to poorly predict PEHR in our sample of non-obese children and adolescents, while non-modifiable variables (age and gender) were demonstrated as strong predictors of heart rate recovery. The low amount of body fat reported in non-obese young participants was perhaps too small to cause disturbances in autonomic nervous system regulation.

  10. Examining the evidence for a recent acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise using combined instrumental and proxy data, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, A.; Horton, B. P.

    2007-12-01

    Whilst accelerated rates of relative sea-level (RSL) rise are potentially one of the most devastating impacts of future climate change, our understanding of decadal scale changes in sea-level is poor. This paper seeks to address this knowledge gap by combining tide gauge and high-precision geological reconstructions of relative sea-level of sufficient resolution and duration to detect any recent acceleration in the rate of sea-level rise. We offer a high resolution relative sea-level history for the last ~2000 years from the Albemarle - Pamlico Estuarine System in North Carolina. Contemporary foraminifera were collected from five back barrier marshes to create a regional scale modern training set. The use of multiple marshes from a region increases the ecological and environmental diversity included within the training set and reduces the probability of a no modern analogue outcome. To merge the five spatially distinct sites and to relate each to local tide levels we used the VDatum transformation tool. This method relates all samples to a common orthometric datum (NAVD88) and reduces error. We developed an accurate and precise transfer function to reconstruct former sea levels based upon the modern observable relationship between foraminifera and elevation with respect to the tidal frame. We applied the transfer function to salt-marsh core(s) from Sand Point (Roanoke Island), North Carolina to produce a late Holocene RSL record. An age-depth model was produced from composite chronologies of 210Pb, 14C and pollen chrono-horizons. We validated our approach by comparing geological based reconstructions and instrumental tide gauge records. Our records show that in the last ~2000 years sea level has risen at a background rate of ~1.1mm/yr. There is evidence for two recent accelerations in the rate of sea-level rise during the late 19th and 20th centuries to a current rate of ~4mm/yr.

  11. The association between the geography of fast food outlets and childhood obesity rates in Leeds, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Lorna K; Edwards, Kimberley L

    2010-11-01

    To analyse the association between childhood overweight and obesity and the density and proximity of fast food outlets in relation to the child's residential postcode. This was an observational study using individual level height/weight data and geographic information systems methodology. Leeds in West Yorkshire, UK. This area consists of 476 lower super-output areas. Children aged 3-14 years who lived within the Leeds metropolitan boundaries (n=33,594). The number of fast food outlets per area and the distance to the nearest fast food outlet from the child's home address. The weight status of the child: overweight, obese or neither. 27.1% of the children were overweight or obese with 12.6% classified as obese. There is a significant positive correlation (pfood outlets and higher deprivation. A higher density of fast food outlets was significantly associated (p=0.02) with the child being obese (or overweight/obese) in the generalised estimating equation model which also included sex, age and deprivation. No significant association between distance to the nearest fast food outlet and overweight or obese status was found. There is a positive relationship between the density of fast food outlets per area and the obesity status of children in Leeds. There is also a significant association between fast food outlet density and areas of higher deprivation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced land subsidence in Galveston Bay, Texas: Interaction between sediment accumulation rates and relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mukaimi, Mohammad E.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Williams, Joshua R.

    2018-07-01

    Galveston Bay is the second largest estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, with a watershed containing one of largest concentrations of petroleum and chemical industries globally, as well as Houston, the fifth largest metropolitan area in the USA. Throughout the last century, extensive groundwater extraction to support these industries and an expanding population has resulted in significantly enhanced land subsidence (0.6-3.0 cm yr-1). The highest subsidence rates observed in the bay are within the lower 15 km of the San Jacinto River/Houston Ship Channel region (SJR/HSC), with distal areas in East and West Galveston Bays having subsidence rates on the order of 0.2 cm yr-1. In order to investigate the impacts of subsidence on sedimentation, a series of 22 vibracores were collected throughout the bay, and 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotope geochronologies and grain size distributions were determined. Sediment accumulation rates are highest (1.9 ± 0.5 cm yr-1) in the SJR/HSC, and decrease (sedimentation rates are significantly (p sedimentation rates are lower (as much as 50%) than estimated RSLR, indicating a sediment accretionary deficit. In areas (e.g., Scott Bay) within the SJR/HSC, the bay has deepened by more than 1.5 m, suggesting that sediment accumulation cannot keep pace with RSLR. Ultimately, this has resulted in a loss of coastal wetlands and a conversion of marine habitats from relatively shallow to deeper water settings.

  13. Obese Japanese adults with type 2 diabetes have higher basal metabolic rates than non-diabetic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2011-01-01

    Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (pBMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences.

  14. Best-fitting prediction equations for basal metabolic rate: informing obesity interventions in diverse populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabounchi, N S; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A

    2013-10-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) represents the largest component of total energy expenditure and is a major contributor to energy balance. Therefore, accurately estimating BMR is critical for developing rigorous obesity prevention and control strategies. Over the past several decades, numerous BMR formulas have been developed targeted to different population groups. A comprehensive literature search revealed 248 BMR estimation equations developed using diverse ranges of age, gender, race, fat-free mass, fat mass, height, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index and weight. A subset of 47 studies included enough detail to allow for development of meta-regression equations. Utilizing these studies, meta-equations were developed targeted to 20 specific population groups. This review provides a comprehensive summary of available BMR equations and an estimate of their accuracy. An accompanying online BMR prediction tool (available at http://www.sdl.ise.vt.edu/tutorials.html) was developed to automatically estimate BMR based on the most appropriate equation after user-entry of individual age, race, gender and weight.

  15. Numerical studies of tool diameter on strain rates, temperature rises and grain sizes in friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhao; Qi, Wu [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2015-10-15

    Fully coupled thermo-mechanical model is used to obtain the true strain components. The sizes of the TMAZ and the SZ are predicted according to the different behaviors of the traced material particles. The strain rate and the temperature histories are used to calculate the Zener-Hollomon parameter and then the grain size in the SZ. Results indicate that the contribution from the temperatures is much more important than the one from the deformations. The strain rates at the advancing side are higher than the ones at the retreating side on the top surface but become symmetrical on the bottom surface. The widths of the TMAZ and the SZ become narrower in smaller shoulder diameter. Smaller shoulder can lead to smaller grain size in the SZ.

  16. Formation of 1.4 MeV runaway electron flows in air using a solid-state generator with 10 MV/ns voltage rise rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesyats, G. A.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.; Rostov, V. V.; Romanchenko, I. V.; Sadykova, A. G.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Shunailov, S. A.; Ul'masculov, M. R.; Yalandin, M. I.

    2018-04-01

    Fulfillment of the condition that the voltage rise time across an air gap is comparable with the time of electron acceleration from a cathode to an anode allows a flow of runaway electrons (REs) to be formed with relativistic energies approaching that determined by the amplitude of the voltage pulse. In the experiment described here, an RE energy of 1.4 MeV was observed by applying a negative travelling voltage pulse of 860-kV with a maximum rise rate of 10 MV/ns and a rise time of 100-ps. The voltage pulse amplitude was doubled at the cathode of the 2-cm-long air gap due to the delay of conventional pulsed breakdown. The above-mentioned record-breaking voltage pulse of ˜120 ps duration with a peak power of 15 GW was produced by an all-solid-state pulsed power source utilising pulse compression/sharpening in a multistage gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line.

  17. Strange metal from Gutzwiller correlations in infinite dimensions: Transverse transport, optical response, and rise of two relaxation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenxin; Žitko, Rok; Shastry, B. Sriram

    2017-09-01

    Using two approaches to strongly correlated systems, the extremely correlated Fermi liquid theory and the dynamical mean field theory, we compute the transverse transport coefficients, namely, the Hall constants RH and Hall angles θH, and the longitudinal and transverse optical response of the U =∞ Hubbard model in the limit of infinite dimensions. We focus on two successive low-temperature regimes, the Gutzwiller-correlated Fermi liquid (GCFL) and the Gutzwiller-correlated strange metal (GCSM). We find that the Hall angle cotθH is proportional to T2 in the GCFL regime, while upon warming into the GCSM regime it first passes through a downward bend and then continues as T2. Equivalently, RH is weakly temperature dependent in the GCFL regime, but becomes strongly temperature dependent in the GCSM regime. Drude peaks are found for both the longitudinal optical conductivity σx x(ω ) and the optical Hall angles tanθH(ω ) below certain characteristic energy scales. By comparing the relaxation rates extracted from fitting to the Drude formula, we find that in the GCFL regime there is a single relaxation rate controlling both longitudinal and transverse transport, while in the GCSM regime two different relaxation rates emerge. We trace the origin of this behavior to the dynamical particle-hole asymmetry of the Dyson self-energy, arguably a generic feature of doped Mott insulators.

  18. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kocoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI, survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients’ hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p=0.230. The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.. Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor.

  20. Personalized Hydration Strategy Attenuates the Rise in Heart Rate and in Skin Temperature Without Altering Cycling Capacity in the Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Melo-Marins

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal hydration plan [i.e., drink to thirst, ad libitum (ADL, or personalized plan] to be adopted during exercise in recreational athletes has recently been a matter of debate and, due to conflicting results, consensus does not exist. In the present investigation, we tested whether a personalized hydration strategy based on sweat rate would affect cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses and exercise capacity in the heat. Eleven recreational male cyclists underwent two familiarization cycling sessions in the heat (34°C, 40% RH where sweat rate was also determined. A fan was used to enhance sweat evaporation. Participants then performed three randomized time-to-exhaustion (TTE trials in the heat with different hydration strategies: personalized volume (PVO, where water was consumed, based on individual sweat rate, every 10 min; ADL, where free access to water was allowed; and a control (CON trial with no fluids. Blood osmolality and urine-specific gravity were measured before each trial. Heart rate (HR, rectal, and skin temperatures were monitored throughout trials. Time to exhaustion at 70% of maximal workload was used to define exercise capacity in the heat, which was similar in all trials (p = 0.801. Body mass decreased after ADL (p = 0.008 and CON (p < 0.001 and was maintained in PVO trials (p = 0.171. Participants consumed 0 ml in CON, 166 ± 167 ml in ADL, and 1,080 ± 166 ml in PVO trials. The increase in mean body temperature was similar among trials despite a lower increase in skin temperature during PVO trial in comparison with CON (2.1 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.5°C, p = 0.0038. HR was lower toward the end of TTE in PVO (162 ± 8 bpm in comparison with ADL (168 ± 12 bpm and CON (167 ± 10 bpm, p < 0.001. In conclusion, a personalized hydration strategy can reduce HR during a moderate to high intensity exercise session in the heat and halt the increase in skin

  1. Personalized Hydration Strategy Attenuates the Rise in Heart Rate and in Skin Temperature Without Altering Cycling Capacity in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Marins, Denise; Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; da Silva-Santos, Gabriel Lucas Leite; Freire-Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Lee, Jason Kai Wei; Laitano, Orlando

    2018-01-01

    The optimal hydration plan [i.e., drink to thirst, ad libitum (ADL), or personalized plan] to be adopted during exercise in recreational athletes has recently been a matter of debate and, due to conflicting results, consensus does not exist. In the present investigation, we tested whether a personalized hydration strategy based on sweat rate would affect cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses and exercise capacity in the heat. Eleven recreational male cyclists underwent two familiarization cycling sessions in the heat (34°C, 40% RH) where sweat rate was also determined. A fan was used to enhance sweat evaporation. Participants then performed three randomized time-to-exhaustion (TTE) trials in the heat with different hydration strategies: personalized volume (PVO), where water was consumed, based on individual sweat rate, every 10 min; ADL, where free access to water was allowed; and a control (CON) trial with no fluids. Blood osmolality and urine-specific gravity were measured before each trial. Heart rate (HR), rectal, and skin temperatures were monitored throughout trials. Time to exhaustion at 70% of maximal workload was used to define exercise capacity in the heat, which was similar in all trials ( p  = 0.801). Body mass decreased after ADL ( p  = 0.008) and CON ( p  skin temperature during PVO trial in comparison with CON (2.1 ± 0.6 vs. 2.9 ± 0.5°C, p  = 0.0038). HR was lower toward the end of TTE in PVO (162 ± 8 bpm) in comparison with ADL (168 ± 12 bpm) and CON (167 ± 10 bpm), p  hydration strategy can reduce HR during a moderate to high intensity exercise session in the heat and halt the increase in skin temperature. Despite these advantages, cycling capacity in the heat remained unchanged.

  2. Obesity, stigma and public health planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lynne; Edwards, Nancy; Garrard, Michael; Sims-Jones, Nicki; Clinton, Kathryn; Ashley, Lisa

    2009-03-01

    Given the rise in obesity rates in North America, concerns about obesity-related costs to the health care system are being stressed in both the popular media and the scientific literature. With such constant calls to action, care must be taken not to increase stigmatization of obese people, particularly of children. While there is much written about stigma and how it is exacerbated, there are few guidelines for public health managers and practitioners who are attempting to design and implement obesity prevention programs that minimize stigma. We examine stigmatization of obese people and the consequences of this social process, and discuss how stigma is manifest in health service provision. We give suggestions for designing non-stigmatizing obesity prevention public health programs. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  3. Short-term heart rate variability in asthmatic obese children: effect of exhaustive exercise and different humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvan, K; Dabidi Roshan, V; Mahmudi, S A

    2015-11-01

    Asthmatic obese children experience changes in functional capacity and autonomic control. Previous heart rate variability (HRV) studies were based on 24-hour recordings, little research has been conducted on the short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children, primarily during physical effort indifferent environmental humidity conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aerobic activity on short-term HRV in asthmatic obese children under two different environmental humidity conditions. Ten obese boys with mild asthma as experimental group and 15 obese healthy boys with the same conditions were involved as a control group. Protocol included progressive and exhaustive aerobic activities on a calibrated ergometer pedal bicycle in two various environmental humidity 35±5% and 65±5%. HRV was measured by PADSY MEDSET Holter monitoring device during three phases; pre-test, mid-test and post-test. Then, short-term HRV was assessed from calculation of the mean R-R interval measured on HRV at each phases. HRV significantly decreased at mid-test and post-test among asthmatic and health children. However, the aforesaid changes were significantly higher in the asthmatic than health children following. Moreover, decrease of short-term HRV was significantly greater in the 35±5% than 65±5% environmental humidity. Our findings suggest from the autonomic standpoint, asthmatic and non-asthmatic children respond differently to exhaustive exercise induced stress. Aerobic exercise at an environment with high humidity compared with the low humidity appears to have additional benefits on short-term HRV in that it enhances the parasympathetic and autonomic modulation of the heart in asthmatic obese children.

  4. Cortisol production rate is similarly elevated in obese women with or without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-07-01

    The pituitary-adrenal axis in obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is marked by increased urinary excretion of cortisol and its metabolites. It is not as yet clear whether the increased cortisol production in PCOS is related to obesity per se. We investigated 15 obese PCOS women with a body mass index of 30-54 kg/m(2) and 15 healthy obese controls (body mass index 31-60 kg/m(2)) with a regular menstrual cycle. Patients and control women underwent 24-h blood sampling at 20-min intervals. Cortisol concentrations were measured with a sensitive assay. Data were analyzed with a new deconvolution program, approximate entropy, and cosinor regression. Basal, pulsatile, and total cortisol production expressed per liter distribution volume, per square meter body surface, and as absolute amount per 24 h was similar in PCOS patients and matched healthy control women. In addition, the regularity of cortisol secretion and the diurnal properties were identical. Compared with 10 lean control women, mean cortisol production per liter distribution volume was similar in the three groups, but the total 24-h cortisol production was increased in obese control women and PCOS women. This study demonstrates equally increased cortisol production in PCOS women and obese healthy control women.

  5. Childhood Obesity: Current Situation and Future Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-07-01

    The early origins of overweight and obesity and the opportunities for early prevention are explored. Overweight and obesity prevalence globally has increased at an alarming rate. No single intervention can halt the rise of the obesity epidemic. Particular attention is given to exploring causative factors and preventive measures in early life, when biological determinants of risk trajectories, feeding behaviour and dietary preferences are shaped. Some lifestyle and nutrition modifications in pregnancy and infancy can reduce subsequent obesity risk. Also postnatal infant gut colonisation may modify later obesity risk, but currently available evidence does not allow firm conclusions. Surprisingly, about 3.2 times more systematic reviews (SR) than randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were published on "probiotics" and health, and even 7.9 times more SR than RCTs on "probiotics" and obesity, which is not helpful. Multiple research opportunities exist for exploring the early origins of obesity to contribute towards halting the rise in obesity prevalence. Exploring the early development of the microbiome in its complexity, its dependence on dietary and other exogenous factors, and its metabolic and regulatory functions is promising. Meaningful progress for obesity prevention can most likely be achieved by combining several strategies.

  6. Associations of Heart Rate With Inflammatory Markers Are Modulated by Gender and Obesity in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudisio, Alice; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gemma, Antonella; Ferrucci, Luigi; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2015-07-01

    Faster resting heart rate (HR), which is associated with inflammation and elevated cortisol levels, is a risk factor for excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, inflammation, and elevated cortisol levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interaction of Body Mass Index (BMI) with inflammation and cortisol in modulating HR in older subjects. We analyzed data of 895 participants aged 65+ enrolled in the "InCHIANTI" study, in sinus rhythm, and not taking beta blockers or digoxin. Linear regression was performed to assess the adjusted association between HR, IL-6, and cortisol levels. The model was also analyzed stratifying for BMI tertiles. Logistic regression was adopted for evaluating the association of HR exceeding the mean value with Il-6 and serum cortisol. According to multivariable linear regression, IL-6 and cortisol levels were associated with HR (B = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.43-2.42; p = .005 and B = .34, 95% CI = 0.17-.51; p cortisol). Logistic regression confirmed that IL-6 and cortisol levels were associated with HR above the mean value in the highest BMI tertile (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.15-3.97; p = .009 and OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03-1.25; p = .009, respectively). Faster HR is associated with proinflammatory state in elderly patients; this association seems to be limited to women with higher BMI. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Association Between Obesity and Chronic Kidney Disease, Defined by Both Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albuminuria, in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Ji; Hwang, Seun Deuk; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Kimm, Heejin; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Jee, Sun Ha; Lim, Soo

    2017-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has often been defined based on glomerular filtration rate (GFR) alone. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guideline highlights albuminuria in the CKD definition. Thus, we investigated the association between obesity and CKD, as defined by both GFR and albuminuria, in Korean adults. We used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014 data (N = 19,331, ≥19 years old) representing the national Korean population. CKD was classified by (1) estimated GFR (eGFR) obesity and each CKD category were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The prevalence rates of CKD GFR , CKD ACR , and CKD Risk were 2.2%, 6.7%, and 8.1%, respectively. Compared with the normal body mass index (BMI; 18.5-22.9 kg/m 2 ) group, men with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 had 1.88 times greater risk of CKD GFR in the adjusted model [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-2.80; P = 0.002]; BMI was not significantly associated with CKD GFR in women. In contrast, both men and women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 had 1.58 and 1.40 times higher risk of CKD ACR (95% CI, 1.21-2.07 and 1.08-1.81, respectively, both P Obese men and women had 1.65 and 1.38 times higher risk of CKD Risk (95% CI, 1.29-2.12 and 1.09-1.75, respectively, both P Obesity was significantly associated with an increased ACR-based CKD risk. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the role of overweight and obesity in the development and progression of CKD.

  8. in the assessment of the rate of disability in patients with morbid obesity – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyn Sosada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to the constant increase in the number of morbidly obese patients, an adequate tool for assessing the functioning and disability of these patients is being sought. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (IC F could be that tool. Objectives. The aim of this study is to examine the usefulness of the IC F scale in assessing the functioning of morbidly obese patients in two selected areas in reference to recognized scales. Material and methods . The study group included 76 patients with morbid obesity qualified for bariatric treatment. The ICF was applied to assess the function and limitations of each individual. Two domains of the IC F were selected: Body Functions and Structures and Activities and Participation. The usefulness of the IC F was compared to that of the Barthel and EPQ-R scales. Results . In morbidly obese patients, a correlation between motor functions and IC F and BMI, as well as age, was observed. A significant correlation was observed between BMI and psychomotor control, appropriateness and range of emotions experienced, age and amount of sleep, quality of sleep, memory retrieval and psychomotor functions. Women’s mental functions were significantly worse than those of men. In terms of interpersonal relations, a correlation between BMI and regulating behavior within interactions was observed. Conclusions . The IC F is a useful tool for the study and description of the functioning of patients with morbid obesity. The selected domains are described better than by the previously used Barthel scale. Women with morbid obesity tend to have more impaired mental functioning than morbidly obese men.

  9. Reversible conformational transition gives rise to 'zig-zag' temperature dependence of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky VYu; Melik-Nubarov, N S; Siksnis, V A; Grinberg VYa; Burova, T V; Levashov, A V; Mozhaev, V V

    1994-01-15

    We have obtained unusual 'zig-zag' temperature dependencies of the rate constant of irreversible thermoinactivation (k(in)) of enzymes (alpha-chymotrypsin, covalently modified alpha-chymotrypsin, and ribonuclease) in a plot of log k(in) versus reciprocal temperature (Arrhenius plot). These dependencies are characterized by the presence of both ascending and descending linear portions which have positive and negative values of the effective activation energy (Ea), respectively. A kinetic scheme has been suggested that fits best for a description of these zig-zag dependencies. A key element of this scheme is the temperature-dependent reversible conformational transition of enzyme from the 'low-temperature' native state to a 'high-temperature' denatured form; the latter form is significantly more stable against irreversible thermoinactivation than the native enzyme. A possible explanation for a difference in thermal stabilities is that low-temperature and high-temperature forms are inactivated according to different mechanisms. Existence of the suggested conformational transition was proved by the methods of fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of delta H and delta S for this transition, determined from calorimetric experiments, are highly positive; this fact underlies a conclusion that this heat-induced transition is caused by an unfolding of the protein molecule. Surprisingly, in the unfolded high-temperature conformation, alpha-chymotrypsin has a pronounced proteolytic activity, although this activity is much smaller than that of the native enzyme.

  10. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, R G; Verhaagen, B; Wesselink, P R; Versluis, M; van der Sluis, L W M

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in bovine incisors were exposed to a standardized volume of NaOCl at different temperatures (24 °C and 38 °C) and exposure times (20, 60 and 180 s). The irrigant was refreshed and ultrasonically activated four times for 20 s followed by a 40 s rest interval, with no refreshment and no activation as the controls. The reaction rate was determined by measuring the amount of active chlorine in the NaOCl solution before and after being exposed to dentine during the specific experimental conditions. Calorimetry was used to measure the electrical-to-sonochemical conversion efficiency during ultrasonic activation. Refreshment, activation and exposure time all increased the reaction rate of NaOCl (P reaction rate of NaOCl (P > 0.125). The reaction rate of NaOCl with dentine is enhanced by refreshment, ultrasonic activation and exposure time. Temperature rise of irrigant during ultrasonic activation was not sufficient to alter the reaction rate. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Rates of secondary hyperparathyroidism after bypass operation for super-morbid obesity: An overlooked phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael G; Ward, Marc A; Applewhite, Megan K; Wong, Harry; Prachand, Vivek; Angelos, Peter; Kaplan, Edwin L; Grogan, Raymon H

    2017-03-01

    With over 110,000 bariatric operations performed in the United States annually, it is important to understand the biochemical abnormalities causing endocrine dysfunction associated with these procedures. Here we compare 2 malabsorptive procedures, duodenal switch and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, to determine the role malabsorption plays in secondary hyperparathyroidism in this population. Data from all super-obese patients undergoing duodenal switch or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between August 2002 and October 2005 were prospectively collected. Postoperatively, all patients received 1,200 mg of calcium citrate and 1,000 IU vitamin D3 per American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery guidelines. Beginning in 2007, duodenal switch patients were instructed to add daily vitamin D3 10,000 IU. Statistical analyses included Student t test, multivariate, and univariate logistic regression. Of 283 patients with a body mass index ≥50, 170 (60.1%) underwent duodenal switch, while 113 (39.9%) underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Of 132 (46.6%) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism, 101 (59.4%) had undergone duodenal switch and 31 (27.4%) had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Symptoms were more common in the duodenal switch group (33 patients [19.4%]) than Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (11 patients [9.7%]). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that the extent of bypass and duration of follow-up were the only 2 independent predictive risk factors for developing secondary hyperparathyroidism. Although vitamin D levels improved with increased vitamin D3 supplementation in 2007, rates of secondary hyperparathyroidism increased. Despite routine postoperative calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation, secondary hyperparathyroidism is common after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and duodenal switch. The degree of iatrogenic malabsorption correlates with the incidence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. These rates suggest current supplementation guidelines are not sufficient in

  12. The coupling of bay hydrodynamics with sediment supply and micro-tidal wetland stability under high rates of relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Xu, K.; Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Meng, X.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Due to global sea level rise, local subsidence and sediment deficit, the Mississippi River (MR) deltaic plain has lost a total of 25% of coastal Louisiana's wetlands during the last century, leading to huge losses of ecological services, economic and social crises. Ecosystem-based restoration strategies which rely on coastal system processes and feedbacks are urgently needed. Understanding linkages between estuarine and coastal systems and the adjacent marshlands will help the designing strategies. To investigate bay hydrodynamics and its impacts on the adjacent micro-tidal wetland stability, hourly measurements of wave, tidal current, and benthic sediment concentration in summer, winter, and spring of 2015-2016 were conducted in Fourleague Bay, Louisiana, USA. The bay-marsh system has been stable for almost 80 years under high relative sea level rising rate, which is 11 km southeast of the Atchafalaya River mouth, with a water depth of 1-3 m. High-temporal resolution data indicate that benthic sediment resuspension is mainly caused by wind-driven waves with a dominant periodicity of 4.8 d. The sediment flux reaches 28 g·m-1·s-1 per unit depth in cm during the events. Net sediment transport is northwestward in summer, and southeastward in winter and spring. Sediment flux available for surrounding marsh varies from 0-500 g·m-1·s-1. An optimal inundation depth of 50 cm is estimated by the equilibrium wetland elevation change model under high relative sea level rising rate of 1.57 cm·yr-1. Seasonal variations of river discharge and wind direction (particularly speeds >3 m·s-1) greatly impact potential sediment contribution from bay to the surrounding wetlands. Three sediment transport regimes are concluded based on the seasonal variations of river discharge and wind direction: the `bypassing' season, the resuspension-accumulation season, and the combined `bypassing' and resuspension-accumulation season. The bay hydrodynamic processes and their impacts on the

  13. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  14. Statistical review of US macronutrient consumption data, 1965-2011: Americans have been following dietary guidelines, coincident with the rise in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Evan; Cragg, Michael; deFonseka, Jehan; Hite, Adele; Rosenberg, Melanie; Zhou, Bin

    2015-05-01

    For almost 50 y, the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has measured the caloric consumption, and body heights and weights of Americans. The aim of this study was to determine, based on that data, how macronutrient consumption patterns and the weight and body mass index in the US adult population have evolved since the 1960s. We conducted the first comprehensive analysis of the NHANES data, documenting how macronutrient consumption patterns and the weight and body mass index in the US adult population have evolved since the 1960s. Americans in general have been following the nutrition advice that the American Heart Association and the US Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services have been issuing for more than 40 y: Consumption of fats has dropped from 45% to 34% with a corresponding increase in carbohydrate consumption from 39% to 51% of total caloric intake. In addition, from 1971 to 2011, average weight and body mass index have increased dramatically, with the percentage of overweight or obese Americans increasing from 42% in 1971 to 66% in 2011. Since 1971, the shift in macronutrient share from fat to carbohydrate is primarily due to an increase in absolute consumption of carbohydrate as opposed to a change in total fat consumption. General adherence to recommendations to reduce fat consumption has coincided with a substantial increase in obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gut microbiota composition may relate to weight loss rate in obese pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieler, Ida Nordang; Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Vitger, Anne Désiré

    2017-01-01

    Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight-loss and the composi......Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight......-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention. Faecal samples were...

  16. Predicting the impacts of Mississippi River diversions and sea-level rise on spatial patterns of eastern oyster growth rate and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; La Peyre, Megan K.; Hu, Kelin; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2017-01-01

    There remains much debate regarding the perceived tradeoffs of using freshwater and sediment diversions for coastal restoration in terms of balancing the need for wetland restoration versus preserving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production. Further complicating the issue, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence are also expected to affect estuarine water quality. In this study, we developed a process-based numerical modeling system that couples hydrodynamic, water quality, and oyster population dynamics. We selected Breton Sound Estuary (BSE) (∼2740 km2) in the eastern Mississippi River Deltaic Plain since it is home to several of the largest public oyster seed grounds and private leases for the Gulf coast. The coupled oyster population model was calibrated and validated against field observed oyster growth data. We predicted the responses of oyster population in BSE to small- (142 m3 s−1) and large-scale (7080 m3 s−1) river diversions at the Caernarvon Freshwater Diversion structure planned in the 2012 Coastal Master Plan (Louisiana) under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative sea-level rise (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) compared to a baseline condition (Year 2009). Model results showed that the large-scale diversion had a stronger negative impact on oyster population dynamics via freshening of the entire estuary, resulting in reduced oyster growth rate and production than RSLR. Under the large-scale diversion, areas with optimal oyster growth rates (>15 mg ash-free dry weight (AFDW) oyster−1 wk−1) and production (>500 g AFDW m−2 yr−1) would shift seaward to the southeastern edge of the estuary, turning the estuary into a very low oyster production system. RSLR however played a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of oyster growth rate and production. RSLR would result in an overall estuary-wide decrease in oyster growth rate and production as a

  17. Obesity and health expenditures: evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Johar, Meliyanni

    2015-04-01

    Rising rates of obesity are a public health concern in every industrialized country. This study investigates the relationship between obesity and health care expenditure in Australia, where the rate of obesity has tripled in the last three decades. Now one in four Australians is considered obese, defined as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) of 30 or over. The analysis is based on a random sample survey of over 240,000 adults aged 45 and over that is linked at the individual-level to comprehensive administrative health care claims for the period 2006-2009. This sub-population group has an obesity rate that is nearly 30% and is a major consumer of health services. Relative to the average annual health expenditures of those with normal weight, we find that the health expenditures of those with a BMI between 30 and 35 (obese type I) are 19% higher and expenditures of those with BMI greater than 35 (obese type II/III) are 51% higher. We find large and significant differences in all types of care: inpatient, emergency department, outpatient and prescription drugs. The obesity-related health expenditures are higher for obese type I women than men, but in the obese type II/III state, obesity-related expenditures are higher for men. When we stratify further by age groups, we find that obesity has the largest impact among men over age 75 and women aged 60-74 years old. In addition, we find that obesity impacts health expenditures not only through its link to chronic diseases, but also because it increases the cost of recovery from acute health shocks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  19. Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Heart Rate Variability and Body Fat Percentage in Obese Hispanic Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Gregory; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Nordvall, Michael; Chernykh, Oksana; Adames, Jason; Wong, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole-body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n = 13) or a nonexercising control group (n = 14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group by time interaction (P < .05) for heart rate, sympathovagal balance, and body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P < .05); and R-R intervals significantly increased (P < .05) following WBVT compared to no changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r = .63, P < .05). Our findings indicate that WBVT improves HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

  20. Temporal variation of accumulation rates on a natural salt marsh in the 20th century determined by 137Cs chronologies – the impact of sea level rise and increased inundation frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Svinth, Steffen; Pejrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Salt marshes are potentially threatened by sea level rise if sediment supply is unable to balance the rising sea. A rapid sea level rise is one of the pronounced effects of global warming and global sea level is at present rising at an elevated rate of about 3.4 mm y-1 on average. This increasing...... in sediment deposition is significant and gives reason for concern as it may be the first sign of a sedimentation deficiency which could be threatening this and other salt marshes in the case of a rapidly rising sea level. Our work demonstrates that the assumption of a constant relationship between salt marsh...... with salt marsh accretion is most probably not valid in the present case study and it may well be that this is also the case for many other salt marshes, especially if sea level continues to rise rapidly as indicated by some climate change scenarios....

  1. Gut microbiota composition may relate to weight loss rate in obese pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieler, Ida Nordang; Bin Shamzir Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Vitger, Anne Désiré

    2017-01-01

    Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight......-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention. Faecal samples were...... collected and the dogs were weighed at week 0, week 6 and week 12. GM composition was determined using MiSeq-based tag-encoded 16S rRNA gene high-throughput amplicon sequencing, and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by gas-liquid chromatography. Total weight loss, food allowance and GM were...

  2. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown.We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models.Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era.HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  3. Evidence that a tax on sugar sweetened beverages reduces the obesity rate: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera Escobar, Maria A; Veerman, J Lennert; Tollman, Stephen M; Bertram, Melanie Y; Hofman, Karen J

    2013-11-13

    Excess intake of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been shown to result in weight gain. To address the growing epidemic of obesity, one option is to combine programmes that target individual behaviour change with a fiscal policy such as excise tax on SSBs. This study evaluates the literature on SSB taxes or price increases, and their potential impact on consumption levels, obesity, overweight and body mass index (BMI). The possibility of switching to alternative drinks is also considered. The following databases were used: Pubmed/Medline, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, Econlit, National Bureau of Economics Research (NBER), Research Papers in Economics (RePEc). Articles published between January 2000 and January 2013, which reported changes in diet or BMI, overweight and/or obesity due to a tax on, or price change of, SSBs were included. Nine articles met the criteria for the meta-analysis. Six were from the USA and one each from Mexico, Brazil and France. All showed negative own-price elasticity, which means that higher prices are associated with a lower demand for SSBs. Pooled own price-elasticity was -1.299 (95% CI: -1.089 - -1.509). Four articles reported cross-price elasticities, three from the USA and one from Mexico; higher prices for SSBs were associated with an increased demand for alternative beverages such as fruit juice (0.388, 95% CI: 0.009 - 0.767) and milk (0.129, 95% CI: -0.085 - 0.342), and a reduced demand for diet drinks (-0.423, 95% CI: -0.628 - -1.219). Six articles from the USA showed that a higher price could also lead to a decrease in BMI, and decrease the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Taxing SSBs may reduce obesity. Future research should estimate price elasticities in low- and middle-income countries and identify potential health gains and the wider impact on jobs, monetary savings to the health sector, implementation costs and government revenue. Context-specific cost-effectiveness studies would

  4. The relationship between ethnicity and obesity in Asian and Pacific Islander populations: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James; Busch, Jessica; Hammatt, Zoë; Novotny, Rachel; Harrigan, Rosanne; Grandinetti, Andrew; Easa, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to explore the potential relationship between ethnicity and obesity, and obesity-related risks, with a particular emphasis on disparities between Asian and Pacific Islander populations. We conducted a comprehensive search of available medical literature related to the rise of obesity in the United States, factors contributing to obesity, evidence-based clinical guidelines, and obesity and related risks as they occur in Hawaii. In conducting this search, we sought to illuminate obesity rates in Asians and Pacific Islanders in connection with various factors, such as diet and lifestyle, acculturation, and body image, as they occur in diverse cultural contexts. We found that the rates of obesity and related risks were highest in Native Hawaiians and Samoans. Based upon our review of the literature, we conclude that further research is necessary to address the relationship between ethnicity and obesity risk factors in Asian and Pacific Islander populations.

  5. Trends of lip, oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers in Australia 1982–2008: overall good news but with rising rates in the oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyawardana, Anura; Johnson, Newell W

    2013-01-01

    Considerable global variation in the incidence of lip, of oral cavity and of pharyngeal cancers exists. Whilst this reflects regional or population differences in risk, interpretation is uncertain due to heterogeneity of definitions of sites and of sub-sites within this anatomically diverse region. For Australia, limited data on sub-sites have been published. This study examines age-standardised incidence trends and demography from 1982 to 2008, the latest data available. Numbers of cases within ICD10:C00-C14 were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, recorded by sex, age, and sub-site. Raw data were re-analysed to calculate crude, age-specific and age-standardised incidence using Segi’s world-standard population. Time-trends were analysed using Joinpoint regression. Lip, Oral Cavity and Pharyngeal (excluding nasopharynx) cancers, considered together, show a biphasic trend: in men rising 0.9% pa from 1982 to 1992, and declining 1.6% pa between 1992 and 2008. For females: rises of 2.0% pa 1982–1997; declines of 2.8% pa 1997–2008. Lip cancer is declining especially significantly. When the Oropharynx is considered separately, steadily increasing trends of 1.2% pa for men and 0.8% pa for women were observed from 1982 to 2008. Although overall rates of lip/oral/oropharyngeal cancer are declining in Australia, these are still high. This study revealed steady increases in cancers of the oropharynx, beginning in the late 1990s. Continued efforts to reduce the burden of these cancers are needed, focused on reduction of the traditional risk factors of alcohol and tobacco, and with special emphasis on the possible role of human papillomavirus and sexual hygiene for cancers of the oropharynx

  6. Effect of interval training intensity on fat oxidation, blood lactate and the rate of perceived exertion in obese men

    OpenAIRE

    Alkahtani, Shaea A; King, Neil A; Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of 4-week moderate- and high-intensity interval training (MIIT and HIIT) on fat oxidation and the responses of blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods Ten overweight/obese men (age?=?29 ?3.7?years, BMI?=?30.7 ?3.4?kg/m2) participated in a cross-over study of 4-week MIIT and HIIT training. The MIIT training sessions consisted of 5-min cycling stages at mechanical workloads 20% above and 20% below 45%VO2...

  7. The relationship of temperature rise to specific absorption rate and current in the human leg for exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the high frequency band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wainwright, P R

    2003-01-01

    Of the biological effects of human exposure to radiofrequency and microwave radiation, the best-established are those due to elevation of tissue temperature. To prevent harmful levels of heating, restrictions have been proposed on the specific absorption rate (SAR). However, the relationship between SAR and temperature rise is not an invariant, since not only the heat capacity but also the efficiency of heat dissipation varies between different tissues and exposure scenarios. For small enough SAR, the relationship is linear and may be characterized by a 'heating factor'. Under whole-body irradiation the SAR may be particularly high in the ankles due to the concentration of current flowing through a relatively small cross-sectional area. In a previous paper, the author has presented calculations of the SAR distribution in a human leg in the high frequency (HF) band. In this paper, the heating factor for this situation is derived using a finite element approximation of the Pennes bio-heat equation. The sensitivity of the results to different blood perfusion rates is investigated, and a simple local thermoregulatory model is applied. Both time-dependent and steady-state solutions are considered. Results confirm the appropriateness of the ICNIRP reference level of 100 mA on current through the leg, but suggest that at higher currents significant thermoregulatory adjustments to muscle blood flow will occur

  8. Obesity is associated with lack of inhibitory control and impaired heart rate variability reactivity and recovery in response to food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitoni, Grazia Fernanda; Ottaviani, Cristina; Petta, Anna Maria; Zingaretti, Pietro; Aragona, Massimiliano; Sarnicola, Antonio; Antonucci, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    Recent theories compare obesity with addiction in terms of lack of inhibitory control in both clinical populations. The present study hypothesized impaired inhibition in obese patients reflected both in executive functions and reduced vagal tone (indexed by a decrease in heart rate variability; HRV) in response to food stimuli. Twenty-four inpatients with obesity (19 women) and 37 controls (24 women) underwent ECG monitoring during baseline, food stimuli viewing, and a recovery phase. Tests and questionnaires assessing inhibitory control and psychopathological dispositions were also administered. As hypothesized, patients were characterized by deficits in all the tests measuring inhibitory capacities. Results also show greater HRV reduction and impaired HRV recovery in response to food stimuli in obese patients compared to controls. The drive to eat experienced by obese patients in the absence of caloric need may rely on impairments in inhibitory and vagal functioning. Results are discussed in terms of implications for therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Obesity and rates of clinical remission and low MRI inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Michael D.; Østergaard, Mikkel; Conaghan, Philip G.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives O besity has been proposed as a risk factor for refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated the impact of obesity on achieving clinical and imaging definitions of low disease activity. Methods T his study evaluated 470 patients with RA from GO-BEFORE and GO-FORWARD randomised...... clinical trials. Included patients had blinded clinical disease activity measures and MRI at baseline, 24 and 52 weeks. Synovitis, osteitis and total inflammation scores were determined using the RA MRI scoring system. Multivariable logistic regression analyses compared odds of achieving Disease Activity...

  10. The Financial Costs, Behaviour and Psychology of Obesity: A One Health Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, E; Birch, L; Endenburg, N; German, A J; Neilson, J; Seligman, H; Takashima, G; Day, M J

    2017-05-01

    People who are overweight or have obesity are estimated to comprise 30% of the global population and up to 59% of companion dogs and cats are estimated to be above their optimal body weight. The prevalence of human and companion obesity is increasing. The direct and indirect costs of obesity and associated comorbidities are significant for human and veterinary healthcare. There are numerous similarities between obesity in people and companion animals, likely related to the shared environmental and lifestyle elements of this multifactorial disease. While the study of human obesity is relatively robust, research conducted in pets is generally limited to small studies, studies with cross-sectional designs or reports that have yet to be replicated. Greater understanding of human obesity may elucidate some of the factors driving the more recent rise in pet obesity. In particular, there are overlapping features of obesity in children and pets that are, in part, related to dependency on their 'parents' for care and feeding. When feeding is used in a coercive and controlling fashion, it may lead to undesirable feeding behaviour and increase the risk for obesity. A 'responsive parenting' intervention teaches parents to respond appropriately to hunger-satiety cues and to recognize and respond to others' distress. Such interventions may impact on childhood overweight and obesity and have the potential to be adapted for use with companion animals. Social behaviour towards people with obesity or owners of pets with obesity is often driven by beliefs about the cause of the obesity. Educating healthcare professionals and the public about the multifactorial nature of this complex disease process is a fundamental step in reducing the bias and stigma associated with obesity. Children living in low-income households have particularly high rates of obesity and as household income falls, rates of obesity also rise in pets and their owners. There are risk regulators (i.e. dynamic

  11. An Economic Analysis of Obesity in Europe: Health, Medical Care and Absenteeism Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanz de Galdeano

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is not only a health but also an economic phenomenon with potentially important direct and indirect economic costs that are unlikely to be fully internalized by the obese. In the US, obesity prevalence is the highest among OECD countries and the issue has long been the focus of policy debate and academic research. However, European obesity rates are rising and there is still a lack of economic analysis of the obesity phenomenon in Europe. This paper attempts to fill in this gap by usi...

  12. The fast food and obesity link: consumption patterns and severity of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ginny; Sunil, Thankam S; Hinojosa, Pedro

    2012-05-01

    Rates of extreme forms of obesity are rapidly rising, as is the use of bariatric surgery for its treatment. The aim of the present study was to examine selected behavioral factors associated with severity of obesity among preoperative bariatric surgery patients in the San Antonio area, focusing specifically on the effects of fast food consumption. We used ordered logistic regression to model behavioral and attitudinal effects on obesity outcomes among 270 patients. These outcomes were based on the severity of obesity and were measured on the basis of body mass index. Our results indicated that, among the behavioral factors, fast food consumption exerted the largest influence on higher levels of obesity. These remained after controlling for several social and demographic characteristics. Our findings suggest that higher rates of fast food consumption are connected to the increasing rates of severe obesity. Given that morbid and super morbid obesity rates are growing at a more advanced pace than moderate obesity, it is necessary to explore the behavioral characteristics associated with these trends.

  13. Determining the Relationship between U.S. County-Level Adult Obesity Rate and Multiple Risk Factors by PLS Regression and SVM Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Center for Disease Control (CDC has shown that the obesity rate doubled among adults within the past two decades. This upsurge was the result of changes in human behavior and environment. Partial least squares (PLS regression and support vector machine (SVM models were conducted to determine the relationship between U.S. county-level adult obesity rate and multiple risk factors. The outcome variable was the adult obesity rate. The 23 risk factors were categorized into four domains of the social ecological model including biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment. Of the 23 risk factors related to adult obesity, the top eight significant risk factors with high normalized importance were identified including physical inactivity, natural amenity, percent of households receiving SNAP benefits, and percent of all restaurants being fast food. The study results were consistent with those in the literature. The study showed that adult obesity rate was influenced by biological/behavioral factor, socioeconomic status, food environment, and physical environment embedded in the social ecological theory. By analyzing multiple risk factors of obesity in the communities, may lead to the proposal of more comprehensive and integrated policies and intervention programs to solve the population-based problem.

  14. Notwithstanding High Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, Smoking Remains the Most Important Factor in Poor Self-rated Health and Hospital Use in an Australian Regional Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Mary Haines

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To classify a rural community sample by their modifiable health behaviours and identify the prevalence of chronic conditions, poor self-rated health, obesity and hospital use. Method: Secondary analysis of a cross- sectional self-report questionnaire in the Hume region of Victoria, Australia. Cluster analysis using the two-step method was applied to responses to health behaviour items. Results: 1,259 questionnaires were completed. Overall 63% were overweight or obese. Three groups were identified: ‘Healthy Lifestyle’ (63%, ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ (25% and ‘Smokers’ (12%. ‘Healthy lifestyle’ were older and more highly educated than the other two groups while ‘Non Smoking, Unhealthy Lifestyle’ were more likely to be obese. ‘Smokers’ had the highest rate of poor self-rated health. Prevalence of chronic conditions was similar in each group (>20%. ‘Smokers’ were twice as likely to have had two or more visits to hospital in the preceding year even after adjustment for age, gender and education. Conclusion: High rates of overweight and obesity were identified but ‘Smokers’ were at the greatest risk for poor self-rated health and hospitalisation. Implications for Public Health: Within an environment of high rates of chronic ill health and obesity, primary care clinicians and public health policy makers must maintain their vigilance in encouraging people to quit smoking.

  15. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Uroflowmetric changes, success rate and complications following Tension-free Vaginal Tape Obturator (TVT-O) operation in obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Reham; El-Faissal, Yahia M; Hashem, Ahmed T; Gad Allah, Sherine H

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcome of Tension-free Vaginal Tape Obturator (TVT-O) operation in the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in obese females, with respect to uroflowmetric changes, success rate and postoperative complications. This prospective observational study included 26 patients with USI at the Obstetrics & Gynecology department-Cairo University hospital during the year 2015. The participants had body mass index (BMI)≥30. Patients underwent TVT-O operation. Follow up of the patients was performed by cough test and uroflowmetry after one week, one month, three months and six months. Postoperative complications such as groin pain, sense of incomplete emptying, need to strain to complete micturition and urinary tract infection were recorded. Comparisons between groups were done using Chi square, Phi-Cramer test for categorical variables. The mean age for the subjects was 43.58±9.01years. The mean BMI was 33.4±2.1. The success rate of TVT-O operation was 21 out of 26 patients (≈81%). Normal maximum flow rate was in 88% of patients at week one and was normal in 100% of patients at months three and six (p=0.101 & 0.101). Postoperative groin pain was the main complaint during the first week after operation and decreased significantly from week one to the 1st month postoperative (84.62% & 65.38%, P=0.041). TVT-O operation showed a high success rate in treatment of USI in obese patients without affecting the voiding function of the bladder as proven by the uroflowmetry. The main postoperative complaint was the groin pain which significantly improved after one month. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in obese children and adolescents considering pubertal stages and anthropometric characteristics or body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Patrizi, A; De Col, A; Saezza, A; Sartorio, A

    2014-06-01

    To develop and crossvalidate new equations for predicting basal metabolic rate (BMR) in obese children and adolescents in relation to pubertal stages, anthropometric characteristics or body composition. A total of 1696 obese Caucasian children and adolescents (mean body mass index z-score: 3.5±0.8) participated in this study. BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Equations were derived by stepwise multiple regression analysis using a calibration cohort of 848 subjects, and the equations were crossvalidated with a Bland and Altman method in the remaining 848 subjects. Two new specific equations based on gender (1: males; 0: females), pubertal stages (from 1 to 5, assessed according Marshall & Tanner methods) and body weight (BW, kg), stature (m) or body composition (kg) were generated as follows: (1) BMR=(BW × 0.044)+(stature × 2.836)-(pubertal stage × 0.148)+(gender × 0.781)-0.551 (adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)adj)= 0.69 and root mean squared error (RMSE)=0.954 MJ); (2) BMR=(FFM × 0.082)+(FM × 0.037)-(pubertal stage × 0.125)+(gender × 0.706)+2.528 (R(2)adj= 0.70 and RMSE=0.943 MJ). In the crossvalidation group, mean-predicted BMR was not significantly different from the mean-measured BMR (MBMR) for all children and adolescents, as well as for boys and girls (differenceBMR was predicted accurately (90-110% of MBMR) in 67% of subjects. The new prediction equations considering the pubertal stages allow an accurate and more appropriate (vs equations using chronological age) estimation of BMR in obese children and adolescents.

  18. The dramatic increase in total knee replacement utilization rates in the United States cannot be fully explained by growth in population size and the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losina, Elena; Thornhill, Thomas S; Rome, Benjamin N; Wright, John; Katz, Jeffrey N

    2012-02-01

    Total knee replacement utilization in the United States more than doubled from 1999 to 2008. Although the reasons for this increase have not been examined rigorously, some have attributed the increase to population growth and the obesity epidemic. Our goal was to investigate whether the rapid increase in total knee replacement use over the past decade can be sufficiently attributed to changes in these two factors. We used data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to estimate changes in total knee replacement utilization rates from 1999 to 2008, stratified by age (eighteen to forty-four years, forty-five to sixty-four years, and sixty-five years or older). We obtained data on obesity prevalence and U.S. population growth from federal sources. We compared the rate of change in total knee replacement utilization with the rates of population growth and change in obesity prevalence from 1999 to 2008. In 2008, 615,050 total knee replacements were performed in the United States adult population, 134% more than in 1999. During the same time period, the overall population size increased by 11%. While the population of forty-five to sixty-four-year-olds grew by 29%, the number of total knee replacements in this age group more than tripled. The number of obese and non-obese individuals in the United States increased by 23% and 4%, respectively. Assuming unchanged indications for total knee replacement among obese and non-obese individuals with knee osteoarthritis over the last decade, these changes fail to account for the 134% growth in total knee replacement use. Population growth and obesity cannot fully explain the rapid expansion of total knee replacements in the last decade, suggesting that other factors must also be involved. The disproportionate increase in total knee replacements among younger patients may be a result of a growing number of knee injuries and expanding indications for the procedure.

  19. Validation of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) in the obese with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouel, Melissa; Raman, Jayanthi; Hay, Phillipa; Smith, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    Obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) are both associated with deficiencies in executive function. The Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) is a self-report measure that assesses executive function. This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese population, with and without BED, and to explore the differences on the BRIEF-A in the obese, with and without BED, compared to normative sample. 98 obese participants (70 BED) completed the BRIEF-A, DASS-21 and several performance-based measures of executive function. 30 participants completed a repeat assessment two months later. There was evidence of good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, however evidence for construct and convergent validity was mixed. Additionally, it was found that obese individuals report significantly more executive function difficulties on the BRIEF-A than the normative sample. Further, obese with BED report more executive function difficulties than those without. This study shows some evidence of sound psychometric properties of the BRIEF-A in an obese sample, however more research is required to understand the nature of executive function being measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention or standard care (control. Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12 and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48 occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intake (p = 0.03, specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA (p = 0.045 with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06. There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  1. Influence of segmental body composition and adiposity hormones on resting metabolic rate and substrate utilization in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, K R; Smith-Ryan, A E; Blue, M N M; Mock, M G; Trexler, E T

    2017-06-01

    Low resting metabolic rate (RMR) and high carbohydrate reliance at rest are associated with weight gain, but are highly variable in obese individuals. This study determined the relationship of total and segmental body composition and adiposity hormones with RMR and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in overweight and obese adults. In 49 men (n = 23) and premenopausal women (n = 26) [mean ± SD; age = 35.0 ± 8.9 years; body mass index (BMI) = 33.6 ± 5.2 kg·m -2 ; percent body fat (%fat) = 40.0 ± 8.0%], RMR and RER were evaluated using indirect calorimetry. Total and segmental body composition [fat mass (FM), percent fat (%fat), lean mass (LM), visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasted blood and saliva samples were analyzed for insulin, leptin, estradiol, and cortisol. In men (M) and women (W), RMR significantly correlated (p  0.05). Segmental evaluation of body composition, specifically in the lower extremities and abdomen, may be an effective and efficient way to evaluate metabolic status. Sex-specific evaluations are also imperative.

  2. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  3. Childhood Obesity: Epidemiological and Clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ELAMIN, Abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...

  4. Surrogate obesity negatively impacts pregnancy rates in third-party reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeUgarte, Daniel A; DeUgarte, Catherine M; Sahakian, Vicken

    2010-02-01

    In a retrospective cohort review of third-party reproduction, we observed that surrogate body mass index (BMI) negatively impacts implantation rates in oocyte-donor in vitro fertilization cycles. A BMI > or =35 kg/m(2) cutoff is associated with a statistically significant decrease in pregnancy rates but not miscarriage rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preoperative weight loss in super-obese patients: study of the rate of weight loss and its effects on surgical morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Santo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59. The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98 and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%. The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight, the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study.

  6. Lower obesity rate during residence at high altitude among a military population with frequent migration: a quasi experimental model for investigating spatial causation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson D Voss

    Full Text Available We sought to evaluate whether residence at high altitude is associated with the development of obesity among those at increased risk of becoming obese. Obesity, a leading global health priority, is often refractory to care. A potentially novel intervention is hypoxia, which has demonstrated positive long-term metabolic effects in rats. Whether or not high altitude residence confers benefit in humans, however, remains unknown. Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective study design, we observed all outpatient medical encounters for overweight active component enlisted service members in the U.S. Army or Air Force from January 2006 to December 2012 who were stationed in the United States. We compared high altitude (>1.96 kilometers above sea level duty assignment with low altitude (<0.98 kilometers. The outcome of interest was obesity related ICD-9 codes (278.00-01, V85.3x-V85.54 by Cox regression. We found service members had a lower hazard ratio (HR of incident obesity diagnosis if stationed at high altitude as compared to low altitude (HR 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.65; p<0.001. Using geographic distribution of obesity prevalence among civilians throughout the U.S. as a covariate (as measured by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the REGARDS study also predicted obesity onset among service members. In conclusion, high altitude residence predicts lower rates of new obesity diagnoses among overweight service members in the U.S. Army and Air Force. Future studies should assign exposure using randomization, clarify the mechanism(s of this relationship, and assess the net balance of harms and benefits of high altitude on obesity prevention.

  7. An inpatient lifestyle-change programme improves heart rate recovery in overweight and obese children and adolescents (LOGIC Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Désirée C; Rank, Melanie; Christle, Jeff; Langhof, Helmut; Siegrist, Monika; Halle, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Impaired heart rate recovery (HRR) is a strong predictor of overall mortality and cardio-metabolic risk. This study aimed at investigating (1) the effect of participation in a lifestyle-change programme for weight loss on HRR in overweight and obese children and (2) potential associations between the changes in one minute HRR (HRR1) and fitness, weight loss and cardio-metabolic risk. The analysis included 429 individuals (169 boys) aged 13.9 ± 2.3 years who participated in an inpatient weight loss programme for four to six weeks. At baseline and the end of the programme clinical investigations were performed, including blood analyses, blood pressure, anthropometry and maximal cycle ergometer exercise testing with continuous heart rate (HR) monitoring. HRR was calculated as the difference between the highest exercising HR and HR at one, three and five minutes post-exercise. Average body weight decreased from 90.7 ± 22.5 kg to 81.9 ± 20.0 kg and peak exercise capacity increased from 1.66 ± 0.38 W/kg to 2.05 ± 0.45 W/kg (p exercise capacity (p inpatient weight loss programme in overweight and obese children. This was not associated with improvements in body weight and cardio-metabolic risk; hence HRR would be a valuable addition to cardiovascular risk assessment in this group. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  8. Age of overwash and rate of relative sea-level rise inferred from detrital heads and microatolls of medieval corals at Anegada, British Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer, W.; Feuillet, N.; Robert, H.; Brian, A.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Deschamps, P.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.; Fuentes, Z.

    2012-12-01

    , four form an older group with ages between 1150±35 and 1240±20 14C yr BP, and one is an outlier at 1960±40 14C yr BP. In three of the areas, including those farthest from the reef, all the dated heads are in the young group. The other two areas show a mix of young and older ages. The outlier age was measured on an eroded fragment of the small brain coral Manicina areolata. The ages of the young group correspond to AD 1200-1450 if the local shift in marine-reservoir age (ΔR) was between 0 and -200 14C yr. The mix of ages and degrees of preservation can thus be explained by a single overwash event in AD 1200-1450 that dislodged and brought ashore both live and dead corals. Of the fifty coral boulders observed, at least five have a microatoll shape indicative of outward and upward growth limited by lowest tide level. All five are D. strigosa. Their cup-shaped morphology suggests that relative sea level (RSL) was rising before they died. X-radiography of one of them shows a growth rate of 8 mm/yr and a RSL rise averaging 3-4 mm/yr during the last 70 years before death. This submergence was interrupted by a few centimeter-scale steps of emergence. [Companion abstracts: Atwater, Wei

  9. Effects of high-intensity interval training on physical capacities and substrate oxidation rate in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Tringali, G; Caccavale, M; De Micheli, R; Abbruzzese, L; Sartorio, A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O 2 max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O 2 max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37.5 kg m -2 ) participated in this study. Before starting (week 0, W0) and at the end of the weight-management program (week 3, W3), body composition was assessed by an impedancemeter; basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rate were measured during exercise and post-exercise recovery by indirect calorimetry. At W3, body mass (BM) and fat mass (FM) decreased significantly in all groups, the decreases being significantly greater in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups (BM: -8.4 ± 1.5 vs -6.3 ± 1.9 vs -4.9 ± 1.3 kg and FM: -4.2 ± 1.9 vs -2.8 ± 1.2 vs -2.3 ± 1.4 kg, p < 0.05, respectively). V'O 2 peak, expressed in relative values, changed significantly only in the HI and HIIT groups by 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.007 ± 0.004 L kg FFM -1  min -1 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HI and HIIT subgroups exhibited a greater absolute rate of fat oxidation between 50 and 70 % V'O 2 peak at W3. No significant changes were observed at W3 in BMR, energy expenditure during exercise and post-exercise recovery. A 3-week weight-management program induced a greater decrease in BM and FM in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups, and greater increase in V'O 2 peak and fat oxidation rate in the HI and HIIT than in the LI subgroup.

  10. Best practices in policy approaches to obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ashley M; Horowitz, Carol R

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly rising rate of obesity has prompted a variety of policy responses at national, regional, and local levels. Yet, many have expressed concern that these policy responses have a limited evidence base, are overly paternalistic, and have the potential to increase rather than shrink obesity-related disparities. The purpose of this article is to evaluate obesity policies in terms of the adequacy of evidence for action and along two ethical dimensions: their potential effect on liberty and equity. To evaluate evidence, we engage in a systematic review of reviews and rate policies in terms of the sufficiency of evidence of effectiveness at combating obesity. We then apply a libertarian-paternalist framework to assess policies in terms of their impact on liberty and inverse-equity theory to assess impact on disparities. This article provides a framework to assist decision-makers in assessing best practices in obesity using a more multi-faceted set of dimensions.

  11. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND LIPID PROFILE IN NON OBESE YOUNG INDIAN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Malathi; Balamurugan; Gomathi

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT (BACKGROUND): Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrinopathy of premenopausal women and is a most frequent cause of infertility. There are more stringent reports of cardiovascular events and infrequent investigations of lipid levels in lean PCOS. AIMS: To assess the cardiac autonomicity using Heart Rate Variabi...

  12. Is practice rate rather than exercise intensity more important in health benefits of moderately obese postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, S; Joffroy, S; Gaubert, I; Sanguignol, F; Auneau, G; Guiraud, T; Mauriège, P

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of brisk walking on physical fitness, body composition and fasting lipid-lipoprotein profile of women 50-65 years-old, once adherence or exercise intensity is considered. A sample of 159 healthy, sedentary, obese postmenopausal women (body mass index [BMI]=29-35 kg/m2) was subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min-walking, at 60% of heart rate reserve (HRR), during 16 weeks. Body composition, physical fitness and fasting lipid-lipoprotein profile were assessed before and after the intervention. Among the three tertiles of adherence to exercise sessions (87%) women displaying the greatest one were characterized by the highest reduction in body weight (-1.9±2.7 kg) (mean±SD), fat mass (-2.0±2.3 kg) and waist girth (-4.4±3.4 cm) and the best improvement in physical fitness (7.3±3.5 mL O2/kg/min), (P63% HRR) did not show between-group differences in body composition or physical fitness. Also, the fasting lipid-lipoprotein profile was improved by a reduction of cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and by an increase in HDL cholesterol, irrespective of the participants' adherence (0.05Health benefits appear at 78 minutes of brisk walk per week and increase with adherence to training, in moderately obese and initially sedentary, postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 5-year-old children in Saint Lucia by three methods of classification and a comparison with historical rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K; Bird, J; Canning, P M; Frizzell, L M; Smith, L M

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if child obesity rates have risen in the Caribbean nation of Saint Lucia, as found globally, and whether under-nutrition coexists, as in other developing nations. The average adult in Saint Lucia is overweight, thus considerable child obesity might be expected, but there are no current data. Heights and weights were obtained from a sample (n= 425) of the 2001 birth cohort of Saint Lucian children measured during the nation-wide 2006/2007 Prior to School Entry Five-Year Assessment. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight were estimated by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cole et al. and new World Health Organization (WHO) methods. Previously reported 1976 estimates, including children ≤60 months of age only, based on National Centre for Health Statistics curves, were adjusted to new WHO equivalents using an algorithm developed by Yang and de Onis, and compared with rates in our subsample of children ≤60 months of age (n= 99). Regardless of classification method, overweight and obesity rates were high: 14.4% and 9.2% (WHO); 11.3% and 12.0% (CDC); and 9.9% and 7.1% (Cole et al.), respectively. Underweight estimates also varied: 4.7% (WHO); 11.3% (CDC) and 6.6% (Cole et al.). Obesity in our young subsample (15.2%; WHO) was more than 3 times the adjusted 1976 rate (4.3%). Obesity among Saint Lucian pre-schoolers has tripled in 30 years. Our findings also suggest that this country, like many undergoing a 'nutrition transition', faces the dual challenge of over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Routine monitoring of overweight and underweight is needed in Saint Lucia, as is the implementation and evaluation of programmes to address these problems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. PPARs, Obesity, and Inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, R.; Duval, C.N.C.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders is rising rapidly, increasing the burden on our healthcare system. Obesity is often accompanied by excess fat storage in tissues other than adipose tissue, including liver and skeletal muscle, which may lead to local insulin

  15. Sharply higher rates of iron deficiency in obese Mexican women and children are predicted by obesity-related inflammation rather than by differences in dietary iron intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cepeda-Lopez, A.C.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Boonstra, A.; Aeberli, I.; Gonzalez-Salazar, F.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Villalpando, S.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obese individuals may be at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID), but it is unclear whether this is due to poor dietary iron intakes or to adiposity-related inflammation. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relations between body mass index (BMI), dietary iron, and

  16. School-Based Programs Aimed at the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity: Evidence-Based Interventions for Youth in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…

  17. Endoscopic Devices for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity.

  18. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  19. Effects of vildagliptin versus sitagliptin, on cardiac function, heart rate variability and mitochondrial function in obese insulin-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Pintana, Hiranya; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been shown to cause insulin resistance, which is characterized by hyperinsulinaemia with metabolic inflexibility. Insulin resistance is associated with cardiac sympathovagal imbalance, cardiac dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, vildagliptin and sitagliptin, are oral anti-diabetic drugs often prescribed in patients with cardiovascular disease. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the effects of vildagliptin and sitagliptin in a murine model of insulin resistance. Experimental Approach Male Wistar rats weighing 180–200 g, were fed either a normal diet (20% energy from fat) or a HFD (59% energy from fat) for 12 weeks. These rats were then divided into three subgroups to receive vildagliptin (3 mg·kg−1·day−1), sitagliptin (30 mg·kg−1·day−1) or vehicle for another 21 days. Metabolic parameters, oxidative stress, heart rate variability (HRV), cardiac function and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Key Results Rats that received HFD developed insulin resistance characterized by increased body weight, plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress levels along with a decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction, depressed HRV, cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and cardiac mitochondrial morphology changes were observed in HFD rats. Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin decreased plasma insulin, total cholesterol and oxidative stress as well as increased HDL level. Furthermore, vildagliptin and sitagliptin attenuated cardiac dysfunction, prevented cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction and completely restored HRV. Conclusions and Implications Both vildagliptin and sitagliptin share similar efficacy in cardioprotection in obese insulin-resistant rats. PMID:23488656

  20. Differential associations between glomerular filtration rate and duration of obesity depending on the presence or absence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Juan; Sánchez-Hernández, Joan; Vilallonga, Ramon; Romeo, June H

    2016-07-01

    A robust and consistent association between increasing body mass index (BMI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been reported in several observational studies. Obesity remains the main preventable risk factor for CKD because it largely mediates diabetes and hypertension, the 2 most common etiologies for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Obesity is associated weakly with early stages of kidney disease but strongly with kidney progression to ESKD, even after adjustment for hypertension and diabetes. To assess the relationship between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and trans-thoracic echocardiography left ventricular function parameters in a cohort of patients with obesity. Cross-sectional study involving 324 obese (BMI=44.0±2.2Kg/m(2)) apparently healthy asymptomatic patients with an eGFR >60ml/min/1.73m(2). Each patient underwent transthoracic echocardiography and a blood testing. The eGFR was addressed by the CKD-EPI formula. All patients had a normal systolic function whereas 24.5% disclosed diastolic dysfunction (DD). Hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus prevalence were 34.5% and 4.5% (respectively). All patients disclosed an eGFR >60ml/min while none of them disclosed hyperfiltration (eGFR >120ml/min). eGFR correlated inversely with BMI and the duration of obesity and positively with diastolic function parameters (Pobesity (PObesity and its duration are likely to impose hemodynamic changes affecting simultaneously both heart (diastolic dysfunction) and kidney (decreased glomerular filtration rate). Larger prospective studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of STONE, CROES and Guy's nephrolithometry scoring systems for predicting stone-free status and complication rates after percutaneous nephrolithotomy in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Yanaral, Fatih; Savun, Metin; Ozdemir, Harun; Sarilar, Omer; Binbay, Murat

    2017-07-29

    In this study, we aim to evaluate the accuracy of STONE (stone size, tract length, obstruction, number of involved calyces, and essence/stone density), Clinical Research Office of the Endourological Society (CROES), and Guy's nephrolithometry scoring systems (NSS) in obese patients. The charts of patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) between June 2008 and June 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Calculations of the STONE, CROES, and Guy's NSS were performed by a resident who was well informed regarding each NSS. Patients were classified under nine scores according to STONE, four grades according to CROES, and four grades according to Guy's NSS. In total, 248 obese patients were enrolled in the study. Stone size was significantly higher in patients without stone-free status (p = 0.001). In patients who were stone-free and those with residual stones, the mean STONE score was 9.71 and 9.23 (p = 0.160), CROES was 172 and 129 (p = 0.001), and Guy's NSS was 1.67 and 2.75 (p = 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis identified the CROES and Guy's NSS were independent factors for PNL success in obese patients (p = 0.01 and p = 0.01, respectively). The CROES and Guy's NSS showed good accuracy with PNL success (AUC = 0.777 and AUC = 0.844, respectively). None of the three NSS systems were statically associated with a complication rate (p = 0.23 for STONE, p = 0.14 for CROES, and p = 0.51 for Guy's NSS). Our study demonstrated that CROES and Guy's NSS were independent predictors of stone-free rate following PNL in obese patients. Our study also revealed that three of the NSSs were not useful for predicting PNL complications in obese patients.

  2. The Use of Heart Rate Monitors in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Randall; Davis, Kathryn L.; McCord, Tim; Schmidt, Dave; Slezak, Alex M.

    2009-01-01

    The ever-rising rate of obesity and the need for increased physical activity for young children is well documented. Data suggests that today's youth are not participating in enough quality health-enhancing physical activity either in or outside of school. Heart rate monitors have been used by adult exercisers for many years to monitor and assess…

  3. Increased rate of arterial stiffening with obesity in adolescents: a five-year follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Dangardt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We prospectively and longitudinally determined the effects of childhood obesity on arterial stiffening and vascular wall changes. Changes in arterial stiffness measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV and vascular morphology of the radial (RA and dorsal pedal arteries (DPA were examined in obese adolescents compared to lean subjects in a 5-year follow-up study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 28 obese subjects and 14 lean controls participated in both baseline (14 years old and follow-up studies. PWV was measured by tonometer (SphygmoCor® and recorded at RA and carotid artery, respectively. Intima thickness (IT, intima-media thickness (IMT and RA and DPA diameters were measured using high-resolution ultrasound (Vevo 770™. Over the course of 5 years, PWV increased by 25% in the obese subjects as compared to 3% in the controls (p = 0.01. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP increased by 23% in the obese subjects as opposed to 6% in controls (p = 0.009. BMI increased similarly in both groups, as did the IT and IMT. The change in PWV was strongly associated to the baseline BMI z -score (r = 0.51, p<0.001, as was the change in DBP (r = 0.50, p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: During the transition from early to late adolescence, there was a general increase in arterial stiffness, which was aggravated by childhood obesity. The increase in arterial stiffness and DBP after 5 years was closely correlated to the baseline BMI z -score, indicating that childhood obesity has an adverse impact on vascular adaptation.

  4. Ciliary dysfunction and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, C A; Héon, E; Zhen, M

    2010-01-01

    Obesity associates with increased health risks such as heart disease, stroke and diabetes. The steady rise in the obese population worldwide poses an increasing burden on health systems. Genetic factors contribute to the development of obesity, and the elucidation of their physiological functions helps to understand the cause, and improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment for this disorder. Primary cilia are evolutionarily conserved organelles whose dysfunctions lead to human disorders now defined as ciliopathies. Human ciliopathies present pleiotropic and overlapping phenotypes that often include retinal degeneration, cystic renal anomalies and obesity. Increasing evidence implicates an intriguing involvement of cilia in lipid/energy homeostasis. Here we discuss recent studies in support of the key roles of ciliary genes in the development and pathology of obesity in various animal models. Genes affecting ciliary development and function may pose promising candidate underlying genetic factors that contribute to the development of common obesity.

  5. Rising Rates of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leading to Liver Transplantation in Baby Boomer Generation with Chronic Hepatitis C, Alcohol Liver Disease, and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis-Related Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholankeril, George; Yoo, Eric R; Perumpail, Ryan B; Liu, Andy; Sandhu, Jeevin S; Nair, Satheesh; Hu, Menghan; Ahmed, Aijaz

    2017-09-26

    We aim to study the impact of the baby boomer (BB) generation, a birth-specific cohort (born 1945-1965) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-related liver transplantation (LT) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We performed a retrospective analysis using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)/Organ Procurement Transplant Network (OPTN) database from 2003 to 2014 to compare HCC-related liver transplant surgery trends between two cohorts-the BB and non-BB-with a secondary diagnosis of HCV, ALD, or NASH. From 2003-2014, there were a total of 8313 liver transplant recipients for the indication of HCC secondary to HCV, ALD, or NASH. Of the total, 6658 (80.1%) HCC-related liver transplant recipients were BB. The number of liver transplant surgeries for the indication of HCC increased significantly in NASH (+1327%), HCV (+382%), and ALD (+286%) during the study period. The proportion of BB who underwent LT for HCC was the highest in HCV (84.7%), followed by NASH (70.3%) and ALD (64.7%). The recommendations for birth-cohort specific HCV screening stemmed from a greater understanding of the high prevalence of chronic HCV and HCV-related HCC within BB. The rising number of HCC-related LT among BB with ALD and NASH suggests the need for increased awareness and improved preventative screening/surveillance measures within NASH and ALD cohorts as well.

  6. "Eat, my child". Overweight and obesity among children in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Minos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity in developing countries is a topic that hasn't found its way in the economic literature yet. Despite the fact that obesity rates are rising worldwide and the phenomenon is very present even among the poorest of households in developing countries, most of the attention is still drawn towards industrialized ones. This paper utilizes the South African NIDS panel data set to highlight some of the aspects policy makers should bear in mind. In particular, drivers of the phenomenon...

  7. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  8. Canine and feline obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....

  9. Was the economic crisis 1997-1998 responsible for rising suicide rates in East/Southeast Asia? A time-trend analysis for Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Sen; Gunnell, David; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2009-04-01

    In 1997-1998 a widespread economic crisis hit the economies of many East/Southeast Asian countries; its impact on suicide rates across the region has not been systematically documented. We investigated the impact of the Asian economic crisis (1997-1998) on suicide in Japan, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Thailand. Suicide and population data for the period 1985-2006 were extracted from the World Health Organisation's mortality database and Taiwanese mortality statistics. Sex-specific age-standardised suicide rates for people aged 15years or above were analysed using joinpoint regression. Trends in divorce, marriage, unemployment, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and alcohol consumption were compared with trends in suicide rates graphically and using time-series analysis. Suicide mortality decreased in the late 1980s and early 1990s but subsequently increased markedly in all countries except Singapore, which had steadily declining suicide rates throughout the study period. Compared to 1997, male rates in 1998 rose by 39% in Japan, 44% in Hong Kong and 45% in Korea; rises in female rates were less marked. Male rates also rose in Thailand, but accurate data were incomplete. The economic crisis was associated with 10,400 more suicides in 1998 compared to 1997 in Japan, Hong Kong and Korea. Similar increases in suicide rates were not seen in Taiwan and Singapore, the two countries where the economic crisis had a smaller impact on GDP and unemployment. Time-series analyses indicated that some of the crisis's impact on male suicides was attributable to increases in unemployment. These findings suggest an association of the Asian economic crisis with a sharp increase in suicide mortality in some, but not all, East/Southeast Asian countries, and that these increases were most closely associated with rises in unemployment.

  10. Duration of unemployment and suicide in Australia over the period 1985-2006: an ecological investigation by sex and age during rising versus declining national unemployment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Page, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2013-03-01

    The relationship between unemployment and suicide may be sensitive to demographic factors, national unemployment rates, and length of time without employment. This study investigated these factors in relation to suicide in Australia for the period 1985-2006, in an ecological study. The outcome variable was annual suicide rate by age group, sex and the eight states and territories over 22 years of observation (total observations=1760). The main predictor variable was the average duration of unemployment in the population, categorised into three time periods (4 weeks). Poisson regression models were used to investigate the relationship between duration of unemployment and suicide over the years 1985-2006 in a series of cross-sectional analyses. Interaction analyses indicated significant differences during periods of declining or increasing labour market opportunity and by age group. During periods of declining unemployment rates in the country, longer durations of unemployment were associated with higher male suicide rates. During periods of increasing unemployment in the country, longer unemployment duration was associated with lower male suicide rates. Effect modification was also apparent by age-group, with stronger associations between unemployment duration and male suicide evident in those aged 25-34 and 55-64, and weaker associations in those aged 15-24 and 44-54 years. Longer length of unemployment was not associated with an increase in female suicide rates. The labour market opportunities in Australia modified the effect of duration of unemployment on suicide, and the effect was more prominent in men and older age groups. This may reflect social norms and acceptability about unemployment, as well as life-stage influences associated with transitions into and out of the labour market.

  11. Impact of the raising immunizations safely and effectively (RISE) program on healthcare worker influenza immunization rates in long term care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, David A; Handler, Steven M; Hoffman, Erika L; Perera, Subashan

    2012-11-01

    National influenza immunization rates for healthcare workers (HCW) in long-term care (LTC) remain unacceptably low. This poses a serious public health threat to residents. Prior work has suggested high staff turnover rates as a contributing factor to low immunization rates. There is a critical need to identify and deploy successful models of HCW influenza immunization programs to LTC facilities. This report describes one potential model that has been successfully initiated in a network of LTC facilities. All facilities served by a single regional LTC pharmacy were invited to participate in a HCW influenza immunization program. This voluntary immunization program began in 2005 and continues to the present. As part of the program, the pharmacy promoted organizational change by assuming oversight and control of HCW immunization policies and processes for all facilities. Primary and secondary outcomes are the number of facilities reaching HCW influenza immunization rates of 60% and 80%. Fourteen of the 16 LTC facilities participated. Facilities were diverse and included both nursing and assisted living facilities; unionized and nonunionized facilities; and urban, suburban, and rural facilities. The pharmacy provided educational and communication materials, centralized data collection using a standardized definition for HCW immunization rates, and facility feedback. All 14 LTC facilities achieved the primary goal of 60% and nearly two thirds reached the secondary goal of 80%. Twenty percent reached the new Healthy People 2020 goal of 90%. It is possible for LTC facilities to improve HCW immunization rates using a pharmacy based, voluntary HCW influenza immunization approach. Such an approach may help attenuate the negative influence of staff turnover on HCW immunizations. Attainment of the new Health People 2020 goals still remains a challenge and may require mandatory programs. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  12. Influence of refreshment/activation cycles and temperature rise on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macedo, R.G.; Verhaagen, B.; Wesselink, P.R.; Versluis, Michel; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of multiple refreshment/activation cycles and temperature on the reaction rate of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with bovine dentine during ultrasonic activated irrigation (UAI) under laboratory conditions. Methodology The root canal walls of 24 standardized root canals in

  13. Obesity among health service providers in Nigeria: danger to long term health worker retention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwuala, Sandra Omozehio; Ayankogbe, Olayinka Olufunmi; Olatona, Foluke Adenike; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; OkparaIgwe, Ukandu; Sabir, Anas Ahmad; Fasanmade, Olufemi Adetola

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic. There are rising rates of obesity and its associated disorders, especially in developing countries, including among Health Service Providers (HSPs). Obesity is associated with early retirement, increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, obesity has the potential of reducing long-term retention of HSPs in inadequately staffed health systems of developing countries. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of and factors associated with obesity among HSPs of a tertiary health care facility in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out with a questionnaire, which included the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form (IPAQ-SF). Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30kg/m2. Statistical significance was set at p obese and 134 (44.7%) were overweight, 149(49.7%) had central obesity. After adjusting for confounding variables using multivariate logistic regression, age > 40 years (OR 3.51, p=0.003), female gender (OR 2.84, p=0.007) and earning a monthly salary of ≤ 200,000 naira relative to 201,000-400,000 naira (OR 2.58, p=0.006) were significantly associated with obesity. Obesity was prevalent among these Nigerian HSPs. This calls for concern, especially with the implication of loosing health workers to obesity related disorders and early retirement.

  14. Obesity: from the agricultural revolution to the contemporary pediatric epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Keila N; Knudson, Jarrod D

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is pandemic in Western society. Currently, approximately 100 million Americans are overweight (body mass index > 25 kg/m2) or obese (body mass index > 30 kg/m2). The pandemic is largely attributable to the relatively recent (from an evolutionary perspective) adoption of a sedentary lifestyle, coupled with the high availability of foods with high caloric content in Western cultures. These factors superimposed on dated genotypes have given rise to the global obesity epidemic. Over the past two decades, the discovery of leptin and other new molecules (e.g., adiponectin, resistin, ghrelin) has shed significant light on the pathophysiologic mechanisms of obesity-related morbidities, many of which became apparent through human epidemiologic studies during the last half of the 20th century. Of high concern for modern Western societies is the pediatric obesity epidemic, which stands to cripple Western cultures, both literally and financially in terms of health care costs and exhaustion of finite medical resources. The prevalence of childhood obesity has more than tripled since the 1960s, and 12.5 million (~17%) of children and teenagers are obese in the United States today. The rate of increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is staggering, and the collective efforts of the pediatric medical community and scientists are essential for battling the epidemic. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Increased OXPHOS activity precedes rise in glycolytic rate in H-RasV12/E1A transformed fibroblasts that develop a Warburg phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluk Helma

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Warburg phenotype in cancer cells has been long recognized, but there is still limited insight in the consecutive metabolic alterations that characterize its establishment. We obtained better understanding of the coupling between metabolism and malignant transformation by studying mouse embryonic fibroblast-derived cells with loss-of-senescence or H-RasV12/E1A-transformed phenotypes at different stages of oncogenic progression. Results Spontaneous immortalization or induction of senescence-bypass had only marginal effects on metabolic profiles and viability. In contrast, H-RasV12/E1A transformation initially caused a steep increase in oxygen consumption and superoxide production, accompanied by massive cell death. During prolonged culture in vitro, cell growth rate increased gradually, along with tumor forming potential in in vitro anchorage-independent growth assays and in vivo tumor formation assays in immuno-deficient mice. Notably, glucose-to-lactic acid flux increased with passage number, while cellular oxygen consumption decreased. This conversion in metabolic properties was associated with a change in mitochondrial NAD+/NADH redox, indicative of decreased mitochondrial tricarboxic acid cycle and OXPHOS activity. Conclusion The high rate of oxidative metabolism in newly transformed cells is in marked contrast with the high glycolytic rate in cells in the later tumor stage. In our experimental system, with cells growing under ambient oxygen conditions in nutrient-rich media, the shift towards this Warburg phenotype occurred as a step-wise adaptation process associated with augmented tumorigenic capacity and improved survival characteristics of the transformed cells. We hypothesize that early-transformed cells, which potentially serve as founders for new tumor masses may escape therapies aimed at metabolic inhibition of tumors with a fully developed Warburg phenotype.

  16. The rise of the photosynthetic rate when light intensity increases is delayed in ndh gene-defective tobacco at high but not at low CO2 concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eMartin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The 11 plastid ndh genes have hovered frequently on the edge of dispensability, being absent in the plastid DNA of many algae and certain higher plants. We have compared the photosynthetic activity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, cv. Petit Havana with five transgenic lines (ndhF, pr-ndhF, T181D, T181A and ndhF FC and found that photosynthetic performance is impaired in transgenic ndhF-defective tobacco plants at rapidly fluctuating light intensities and higher than ambient CO2 concentrations. In contrast to wild type and ndhF FC, which reach the maximum photosynthetic rate in less than one min when light intensity suddenly increases, ndh defective plants (ndhF and T181A show up to a 5 min delay in reaching the maximum photosynthetic rate at CO2 concentrations higher than the ambient 360 ppm. Net photosynthesis was determined at different CO2 concentrations when sequences of 130, 870, 61, 870 and 130 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR sudden light changes were applied to leaves and photosynthetic efficiency and entropy production were determined as indicators of photosynthesis performance. The two ndh-defective plants, ndhF and T181A, had lower photosynthetic efficiency and higher entropy production than wt, ndhF FC and T181D tobacco plants, containing full functional ndh genes, at CO2 concentrations above 400 ppm. We propose that the Ndh complex improves cyclic electron transport by adjusting the redox level of transporters during the low light intensity stage. In ndhF-defective strains, the supply of electrons through the Ndh complex fails, transporters remain over-oxidized (specially at high CO2 concentrations and the rate of cyclic electron transport is low, impairing the ATP level required to rapidly reach high CO2 fixation rates in the following high light phase. Hence, ndh genes could be dispensable at low but not at high atmospheric concentrations of CO2.

  17. Rising CO2 interacts with growth light and growth rate to alter photosystem II photoinactivation of the coastal diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available We studied the interactive effects of pCO(2 and growth light on the coastal marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana CCMP 1335 growing under ambient and expected end-of-the-century pCO(2 (750 ppmv, and a range of growth light from 30 to 380 µmol photons·m(-2·s(-1. Elevated pCO(2 significantly stimulated the growth of T. pseudonana under sub-saturating growth light, but not under saturating to super-saturating growth light. Under ambient pCO(2 susceptibility to photoinactivation of photosystem II (σ(i increased with increasing growth rate, but cells growing under elevated pCO(2 showed no dependence between growth rate and σ(i, so under high growth light cells under elevated pCO(2 were less susceptible to photoinactivation of photosystem II, and thus incurred a lower running cost to maintain photosystem II function. Growth light altered the contents of RbcL (RUBISCO and PsaC (PSI protein subunits, and the ratios among the subunits, but there were only limited effects on these and other protein pools between cells grown under ambient and elevated pCO(2.

  18. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial.

  19. Measuring the Rate of Change in Sea Level and Its Adherence to USACE Sea Level Rise Planning Scenarios Using Timeseries Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. D.; Huang, N.; Huber, M.; Veatch, W.; Moritz, H.; Obrien, P. S.; Friedman, D.

    2017-12-01

    In 2013, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) issued guidance for all Civil Works activities to incorporate the effects of sea level change as described in three distinct planning scenarios.[1] These planning scenarios provided a useful framework to incorporate these effects into Civil Works activities, but required the manual calculation of these scenarios for a given gage and set of datum. To address this need, USACE developed the Sea Level Change Curve Calculator (SLCCC) in 2014 which provided a "simple, web-based tool to provide repeatable analytical results."[2]USACE has been developing a successor to the SLCCC application which retains the same, intuitive functionality to calculate these planning scenarios, but it also allows the comparison of actual sea level change between 1992 and today against the projections, and builds on the user's ability to understand the rate of change using a variety of timeseries metrics (e.g. moving averages, trends) and related visualizations. These new metrics help both illustrate and measure the complexity and nuances of sea level change. [1] ER 1000-2-8162. http://www.publications.usace.army.mil/Portals/76/Publications/EngineerRegulations/ER_1100-2-8162.pdf. [2] SLCC Manual. http://www.corpsclimate.us/docs/SLC_Calculator_Manual_2014_88.pdf.

  20. Of nannies and nudges: the current state of U.S. obesity policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, R

    2015-08-01

    In the sprawling American political debates over obesity, which date back a decade and a half, 'nanny state' has been a rhetorical cudgel used to oppose those seeking even modest state action to address rising obesity rates. This essay explores obesity policy through the prism of state involvement, focusing on four possible types of response to what virtually all those involved--physicians and nutritional scientists, public-health advocacy groups, even food industry executives--agree is a serious threat to individual and collective health. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Practitioner Review: Bridging the Gap between Research and Clinical Practice in Pediatric Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelalian, Elissa; Wember, Yana Markov; Bungeroth, Heidi; Birmaher, Vered

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obesity is a significant public health concern, with rising prevalence rates in both developed and developing countries. This is of particular significance given that overweight children and adolescents are at increased risk for multiple medical comorbidities, as well as psychosocial and behavioral difficulties. The current…

  2. An increased rate of falling leads to a rise in fracture risk in postmenopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis: a prospective multinational cohort study (GLOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogues, Xavier; Javaid, M Kassim; Wyman, Allison; Arden, Nigel K; Azagra, Rafael; Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Compston, Juliet E; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Sambrook, Philip N; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo

    2013-06-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis have increased bone mass but no decrease in fractures. The association between self-reported osteoarthritis and incident falls and fractures was studied in postmenopausal women. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women is a prospective multinational cohort of 60,393 non-institutionalised women aged ≥55 years who had visited primary care practices within the previous 2 years. Questionnaires were mailed at yearly intervals. Patients were classified as having osteoarthritis if they answered yes to the question, 'Has a doctor or other health provider ever said that you had osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease?', and this was validated against primary care records in a subsample. Information on incident falls, fractures and covariates was self-reported. Cox and Poisson models were used for incident fractures and number of falls, respectively, to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and rate ratios (RRs) for baseline osteoarthritis status. Of 51 386 women followed for a median of 2.9 years (interquartile range 2.1-3.0), 20 409 (40%) reported osteoarthritis. The adjusted HR for osteoarthritis predicting fracture was 1.21 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.30; pfalls was 1.24 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.26; pfalls (HR 1.06 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.15; p=0.13)). Postmenopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis have a 20% increased risk of fracture and experience 25% more falls than those without osteoarthritis. These data suggest that increased falls are the causal pathway of the association between osteoarthritis and fractures.

  3. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Michelle N; Howell, Tony

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects? A Summary of Evidence12

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and human observational data link energy restriction (ER) to reduced rates of carcinogenesis. Most of these studies have involved continuous energy restriction (CER), but there is increasing public and scientific interest in the potential health and anticancer effects of intermittent energy restriction (IER) or intermittent fasting (IF), which comprise periods of marked ER or total fasting interspersed with periods of normal eating. This review summarizes animal studies that assessed tumor rates with IER and IF compared with CER or ad libitum feed consumption. The relevance of these animal data to human cancer is also considered by summarizing available human studies of the effects of IER or IF compared with CER on cancer biomarkers in obese, overweight, and normal-weight subjects. IER regimens that include periods of ER alternating with ad libitum feed consumption for 1, 2, or 3 wk have been reported to be superior to CER in reducing tumor rates in most spontaneous mice tumor models. Limited human data from short-term studies (≤6 mo) in overweight and obese subjects have shown that IER can lead to greater improvements in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment) than can CER, with comparable reductions in adipokines and inflammatory markers and minor changes in the insulin-like growth factor axis. There are currently no data comparing IER or IF with CER in normal-weight subjects. The benefits of IER in these short-term trials are of interest, but not sufficient evidence to recommend the use of IER above CER. Longer-term human studies of adherence to and efficacy and safety of IER are required in obese and overweight subjects, as well as normal-weight subjects. PMID:27422504

  5. The Politics of Obesity: A Current Assessment and Look Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Rogan

    2009-01-01

    Context: The continuing rise in obesity rates across the United States has proved impervious to clinical treatment or public health exhortation, necessitating policy responses. Nearly a decade's worth of political debates may be hardening into an obesity issue regime, comprising established sets of cognitive frames, stakeholders, and policy options. Methods: This article is a survey of reports on recently published studies. Findings: Much of the political discussion regarding obesity is centered on two “frames,” personal-responsibility and environmental, yielding very different sets of policy responses. While policy efforts at the federal level have resulted in little action to date, state and/or local solutions such as calorie menu labeling and the expansion of regulations to reduce unhealthy foods at school may have more impact. Conclusions: Obesity politics is evolving toward a relatively stable state of equilibrium, which could make comprehensive reforms to limit rising obesity rates less feasible. Therefore, to achieve meaningful change, rapid-response research identifying a set of promising reforms, combined with concerted lobbying action, will be necessary. PMID:19298424

  6. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Racil, G; Coquart, JB; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thr...

  7. Are there risk factors that increase the rate of staple line leakage in patients undergoing primary sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedix, Frank; Benedix, Diana D; Knoll, Christian; Weiner, Rudolf; Bruns, Christiane; Manger, Thomas; Stroh, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is currently being performed with increasing frequency worldwide. It offers an excellent weight loss and resolution of comorbidities in the short term with a very low incidence of complications. However, the ever present risk of a staple line leak is still a major concern. Since 2005, data from obese patients that undergo bariatric procedures in Germany are prospectively registered in an online database and analyzed at the Institute of Quality Assurance in Surgical Medicine. For the current analysis, all patients that had undergone primary sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity within a 7-year period were considered. Using the GBSR, data from 5.400 LSGs were considered for analysis. Staple line leak rate decreased during the study period from 6.5 to 1.4 %. Male gender, higher BMI, concomitant sleep apnea, conversion to laparotomy, longer operation time, use of both buttresses and oversewing, and the occurrence of intraoperative complications were associated with a significantly higher leakage rate. On multivariate analysis, operation time and year of procedure only had a significant impact on staple line leak rate. The results of the current study demonstrated that there are factors that increase the risk of a leakage which would enable surgeons to define risk groups, to more carefully select patients, and to offer a closer follow-up during the postoperative course with early recognition and adequate treatment. All future efforts should be focused on a further reduction of serious complications to make the LSG a widely accepted and safer procedure.

  8. Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...

  9. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Ethnic variations in overweight and obesity among children over time: findings from analyses of the Health Surveys for England 1998-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, S; Morris, S; Kinra, S; Vallejo-Torres, L; Viner, R M

    2014-06-01

    The increase in the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents in England since the mid-1990s has been dramatic. Cross-sectional evidence suggests ethnic variations in childhood obesity prevalence. The objective of the study was to examine whether and how ethnic variations in childhood overweight/obesity have changed over time, and are affected by socioeconomic factors. This study uses logistic regression to analyse ethnic differences in the relative likelihood of being at or above the age- and gender-specific thresholds for overweight and obesity developed by the International Obesity Task Force among children aged between 2 and 15 from 11 ethnic groups included in the Health Surveys for England between 1998 and 2009, adjusting for age, gender, year of data collection and equivalized household income. We separately analyse the likelihood of being at or above the thresholds for overweight (but below those for obesity) and obesity. Trends in overweight/obesity over time among ethnic minority groups do not follow those of white English children. Black African children had higher rates of overweight and obesity, which appear to have peaked, and black Caribbean children had higher rates of obesity than other groups examined, which appear to continue rising. These differences were not explained by socioeconomic variations between groups. Policies are required that encourage healthy lifestyles among ethnic minority young people, while engaging with the complexities associated with these choices during childhood and adolescence. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  12. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2017-04-13

    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR 2W ) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR 2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR 2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2

  13. PPARs, Obesity, and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinke Stienstra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide prevalence of obesity and related metabolic disorders is rising rapidly, increasing the burden on our healthcare system. Obesity is often accompanied by excess fat storage in tissues other than adipose tissue, including liver and skeletal muscle, which may lead to local insulin resistance and may stimulate inflammation, as in steatohepatitis. In addition, obesity changes the morphology and composition of adipose tissue, leading to changes in protein production and secretion. Some of these secreted proteins, including several proinflammatory mediators, may be produced by macrophages resident in the adipose tissue. The changes in inflammatory status of adipose tissue and liver with obesity feed a growing recognition that obesity represents a state of chronic low-level inflammation. Various molecular mechanisms have been implicated in obesity-induced inflammation, some of which are modulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the regulation of numerous biological processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism, and overall energy homeostasis. Importantly, PPARs also modulate the inflammatory response, which makes them an interesting therapeutic target to mitigate obesity-induced inflammation and its consequences. This review will address the role of PPARs in obesity-induced inflammation specifically in adipose tissue, liver, and the vascular wall.

  14. Economic crisis and women’s employment rate in a Sub-Saharan African country : Explaining the rise in women’s employment rate in the urban areas of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.R. Wamuthenya (Wambui Rose)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFocusing on urban Kenya, this paper attempts to identify the sources of the temporal increase in women’s employment rate between 1986 and 1998. The paper relies on labour survey data, household responses to coping strategies and case studies. The analysis presented in the paper shows

  15. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 4- to 10-year-old children in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in parental reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schmidt, Steffen; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2017-04-01

    The nationwide 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regular monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing parent-reported height and weight from 5155 children aged 4-10 years. Since parental reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from parent reports, weight status categories based on parent-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure. The corrected prevalence rates derived from KiGGS Wave 1 for overweight, including obesity, in children aged 4-10 years in Germany showed that stagnation is reached compared to the KiGGS baseline study (2003-2006). The rates for overweight, including obesity, in Germany have levelled off. However, they still remain at a high level, indicating a need for further public health action. What is Known: • In the last decades, prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen. Now a days, the prevalence seems to be stagnating. • In Germany, prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are only available from regional or non-representative studies. What is New: • This article gives an update for prevalence rates of overweight and obesity amongst children aged 4-10 years in Germany based on a nationwide and representative sample. • Results show that stagnation in prevalence rates for overweight in children in Germany is reached.

  16. Economic crisis and women’s employment rate in a Sub-Saharan African country: Explaining the rise in women’s employment rate in the urban areas of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Wamuthenya, Wambui Rose

    2010-01-01

    textabstractFocusing on urban Kenya, this paper attempts to identify the sources of the temporal increase in women’s employment rate between 1986 and 1998. The paper relies on labour survey data, household responses to coping strategies and case studies. The analysis presented in the paper shows that the bulk of the increase in women’s insertion into the labour market comes from an increase in the work participation of married women. While women’s higher educational endowments, particularly t...

  17. Diet-related determinants of childhood obesity in urban settings: a comparison between Shanghai and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, M M; Fu, H; Agaronov, A; Freudenberg, N

    2015-04-01

    Over the past three decades, both Shanghai and New York City (NYC), have experienced dramatic rises in childhood obesity rates. Given the role that obesity plays in the aetiology of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, the elevated rates are a major concern. Despite differences in governance systems and cultures, Shanghai and NYC have experienced rapid industrialization, a growing population and a rise in income inequality. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Shanghai and NYC is greater than their respective national rate. However, the trajectory and development of this epidemic has differed between the cities. The distribution of obesity by race and ethnicity, socio-economic status, sex, and age differs markedly between the two cities. To reduce prevalence and inequities within this complex epidemic requires an understanding of the dynamic changes in living conditions among social groups in each city and the behaviours that are influenced by such changes. By comparing changes in the influences on dietary behaviours, such as food distribution, pricing, gender values, and media and marketing, this highlights opportunities for Shanghai, NYC, and other world cities with high or rising rates of childhood obesity to inform future program and policy initiatives. It reiterates the importance of a comprehensive and multilevel approach that includes action at the individual, family, community, municipal, national, and global levels. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesity as a Possible Risk Factor for Lost-time Injury in Registered Nurses: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Gillian; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behnam; Gohar, Basem; Nowrouzi, Behdin

    2015-01-01

    Time-loss injuries are still a major occurrence in Canada, injuring thousands of Canadian workers each year. With obesity rates on the rise across the country, as well as around the world, it is important that the possible effects of obesity in the workplace be fully understood, especially those effects linked to lost-time injuries. The aim of this paper was to evaluate predictors of workplace lost-time injuries and how they may be related to obesity or high body mass index by examining facto...

  19. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac β-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of [ 3 H]dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of β-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension

  20. Pocket money, eating behaviors, and weight status among Chinese children : The Childhood Obesity Study in China mega-cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Miao; Xue, Hong; Jia, Peng; Zhao, Yaling; Wang, Zhiyong; Xu, Fei; Wang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Both the obesity rate and pocket money are rising among children in China. This study examined family correlates of children's pocket money, associations of pocket money with eating behaviors and weight status, and how the associations may be modified by schools' unhealthy food restrictions in urban

  1. Clinical Specificities in Obesity Care: The Transformations and Dissolution of ‘Will’ and ‘Drives’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, E.

    2016-01-01

    Public debate about who or what is to blame for the rising rates of obesity and overweight shifts between two extreme opinions. The first posits overweight as the result of a lack of individual will, the second as the outcome of bodily drives, potentially triggered by the environment. Even though

  2. Epidemiology of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in many parts of the world. In White populations living in the west and north of Europe, Australia, and the United States, the prevalence of obesity is similarly high in men and women. In countries with relatively low gross national

  3. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.

  4. Is obesity a disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumarac-Dumanović Mirjana 0000-0002-6216-6650

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a complex entity that can have many causes, such as endocrine (like thyroid dysfunction or hyperfunctioning of the suprarenall gland-Cushing’s syndrome but often obesity is from a combination of inactivity and overeating. On the other side, there are genetic factors that produce a tendency to overweight even with the consumption of what would be for most people an appropriate number of calories. Whether the causes are hormonal, genetic or reside in the brain (its reward system or the circuitry that underlies habit, perception of portion size, the choice of food... is often difficult to sort out. Proponents contend that obesity is a disease because it meets the definition of disease. Obesity decreases life expectancy and impairs the normal body functions, also it can be caused by genetic factors. Opponents contend that obesity is not a disease because it is a preventable risk factor for other diseases. Obesity is the result of eating too much as well as it is caused by exercising too little. Formaly disease or condition obesity is associated with a variety of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, and may also be responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Understanding the pathophysiology of obesity has grown significantly over the last few decades. Pathogenetic mechanisms in obesity and in the development of comorbidities that accompany obesity exhibit many of the characteristics of inflammatory processes. A key role in the pathogenesis of obesity could play the immune system. Despite identifying many critical players in these processes and finding new therapeutic modalities in the fight against obesity, treatment of obesity is still a great challenge and mostly with not-so-successful outcomes.

  5. OBESITY - STRATEGIES FOR THE PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The last decades there has been characterizes by a worrying rise in obesity among both adults and in children's services. Obesity is considered disease XXI century. Obesity includes a medical field which accumulates a major issue and objective public health in developed countries, a vital prognosis health problem in medical practice and, not least, an aesthetic problem, psychosocial implications. The word comes from the Latin obese, "obesus" = fat, corpulent. Since ancient times, 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates noticed danger overweight "corpulence is not only a disease itself, but is a risk factor." Subsequently, the Indian surgeon Sushruta (VI century BC noted connection between obesity and heart disease. In Europe in medieval and Renaissance, obesity was considered a sign of wealth and prosperity among senior officials.

  6. Halting the obesity epidemic: a public health policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M; Jacobson, M F

    2000-01-01

    Traditional ways of preventing and treating overweight and obesity have almost invariably focused on changing the behavior of individuals, an approach that has proven woefully inadequate, as indicated by the rising rates of both conditions. Considering the many aspects of American culture that promote obesity, from the proliferation of fast-food outlets to almost universal reliance on automobiles, reversing current trends will require a multifaceted public health policy approach as well as considerable funding. National leadership is needed to ensure the participation of health officials and researchers, educators and legislators, transportation experts and urban planners, and businesses and nonprofit groups in formulating a public health campaign with a better chance of success. The authors outline a broad range of policy recommendations and suggest that an obesity prevention campaign might be funded, in part, with revenues from small taxes on selected products that provide "empty" calories-such as soft drinks-or that reduce physical activity-such as automobiles.

  7. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis in obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villablanca, Pedro A; Alegria, Jorge R; Mookadam, Farouk; Holmes, David R; Wright, R Scott; Levine, James A

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease. The global increase in sedentary lifestyle is an important factor contributing to the rising prevalence of the obesity epidemic. Traditionally, counseling has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise, with disappointing results. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is an important component of daily energy expenditure. It represents the common daily activities, such as fidgeting, walking, and standing. These high-effect NEAT movements could result in up to an extra 2000 kcal of expenditure per day beyond the basal metabolic rate, depending on body weight and level of activity. Implementing NEAT during leisure-time and occupational activities could be essential to maintaining a negative energy balance. NEAT can be applied by being upright, ambulating, and redesigning workplace and leisure-time environments to promote NEAT. The benefits of NEAT include not only the extra calories expended but also the reduced occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. We believe that to overcome the obesity epidemic and its adverse cardiovascular consequences, NEAT should be part of the current medical recommendations. The content of this review is based on a literature search of PubMed and the Google search engine between January 1, 1960, and October 1, 2014, using the search terms physical activity, obesity, energy expenditure, nonexercise activity thermogenesis, and NEAT. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. ObesiTV: how television is influencing the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Rebecca; Vikre, Emily Kuross; Oppenheimer, Sophie; Chang, Hannah; Kanarek, Robin B

    2012-08-20

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the United States. Over the last several decades, the prevalence of obesity among both adults and children has grown at an alarming rate and is now reaching epidemic proportions. The increase in obesity has been associated with rises in a host of other chronic conditions including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. While the causes of obesity are multifaceted, there is growing evidence that television viewing is a major contributor. Results of numerous studies indicate a direct association between time spent watching television and body weight. Possible explanations for this relationship include: 1) watching television acts as a sedentary replacement for physical activity; 2) food advertisements for nutrient-poor, high-calorie foods stimulate food intake; and 3) television viewing is associated with "mindless" eating. In addition to decreasing physical activity and increasing the consumption of highly palatable foods, television viewing can also promote weight gain in indirect ways, such as through the use of targeted product placements in television shows; by influencing social perceptions of body image; and airing programs that portray cooking, eating and losing weight as entertainment. This paper will provide an interdisciplinary review of the direct and indirect ways in which television influences the obesity epidemic, and conclude with ways in which the negative impact of television on obesity could be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Perspectives in obesity and pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mariona, Federico G.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is currently recognized as a health epidemic worldwide. Its prevalence has doubled in the last three decades. Obesity is a complex clinical picture associated with physical, physiologic, hormonal, genetic, cultural, socioeconomic and environmental factors. The rate of obesity is also increasing in the pregnant women population. Maternal obesity is associated with less than optimal obstetrical, fetal and neonatal outcomes. It is also associated with significant adverse long-term effect...

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  12. Obesity in childhood and adolescence: evidence based clinical and public health perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, J J

    2006-01-01

    A global epidemic of paediatric obesity occurred in recent years, and prevalence of obesity is continuing to rise. In the developed world obesity is now the most common disease of childhood and adolescence. Paediatric obesity is not a cosmetic issue, being associated with a significant burden of ill health both for obese children and for adults who were obese as children. Health professionals tend to underestimate the impact of paediatric obesity, and lack the skills, knowledge, and time to t...

  13. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racil, G; Coquart, J B; Elmontassar, W; Haddad, M; Goebel, R; Chaouachi, A; Amri, M; Chamari, K

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS) or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS), with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC) (p = 0.017). The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was significant (p = 0.019, ES = 0.48 and p = 0.010, ES = 0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively). The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP) (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively) followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  14. Obesity among schoolchildren in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Osman M; Hulett, Judie

    2005-06-01

    The threat of worldwide obesity in children is a reality and has become pandemic. Previously a concern of only developed countries, rapid, escalating rates of overweight children now dominate the public health concerns of middle-and low-income nations as well. There are, of course, many influences that have literally shaped the global population, but there is also a recent observable pattern that is shared by those developing countries with increasingly obese children: a grand structural shift in diet and activity levels on every continent and in every region has occurred in the last quarter century, accompanied by rising rates of obesity. Two central public health concerns drive the need for effective interventions: the immediate health of children and the imminently crushing blow that is coming to health care systems and developing economies due to high rates of chronic disease. In developed nations, the role of gatekeeper has shifted to childcare providers, media, and schools, but in the developing world the traditional role of the mother as home manager has remained intact. Accepting the mother as the primary care provider within the child's nuclear environment places the mother as the guardian of the family's resources, which may be a viable alternative to the types of health-promotion efforts found in past ineffective models.

  15. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  16. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  17. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  18. Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Malavolti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families.

  19. Techniques, assessment, and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in combating obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K Papamargaritis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dimitrios K Papamargaritis, Dimitrios J Pournaras, Carel W Le RouxImperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Obesity is an epidemic disease, and its prevalence is predicted to rise in the future. Many health and social comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, arthritis, infertility, eating disorders, unemployment, and low quality of life, have been associated with obesity. Nowadays, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for severe obesity. An increasing body of literature demonstrates significant remission of obesity-related comorbidities and an increase in life expectancy after surgical treatment. Unfortunately, serious complications can appear after surgery, and the careful preoperative assessment of patients is necessary to estimate the indications and contraindications of bariatric surgery. Recent studies report the lower complication and mortality rates when bariatric procedures are performed in high-volume centers. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques of the currently used surgical procedures and the clinical effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Additionally, the possible complications and mortality rates after bariatric surgery are discussed.Keywords: obesity, surgery, assessment, clinical effectiveness, complications

  20. Trends in the Relationship Between Obesity and Disability, 1988-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Virginia W; Alley, Dawn E; Dowd, Jennifer Beam

    2017-09-15

    Rising obesity rates, coupled with population aging, have elicited serious concern over the impact of obesity on disability in later life. Prior work showed a significant increase in the association between obesity and disability from 1988 to 2004, calling attention to disability as a cost of longer lifetime exposure to obesity. It is not known whether this trend has continued. We examined functional impairment and impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) (defined as severe or moderate to severe) for adults aged 60 years or older (n = 16,770) over 3 time periods in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The relative odds of impairment for obese individuals versus normal-weight individuals significantly increased from period 1 (1988-1994) to period 2 (1999-2004) for all outcomes. In period 3 (2005-2012), this association remained stable for functional and severe ADL impairment and decreased for moderate-to-severe ADL impairment. The fraction of population disability attributable to obesity followed a similar trend. The trend of an increasing association between obesity and disability has leveled off in more recent years, and is even improving for some measures. These findings suggest that public health and policy concerns that obesity would continue to become more disabling over time have not been borne out. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. High and rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  2. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  3. Does artificial light-at-night exposure contribute to the worldwide obesity pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybnikova, N A; Haim, A; Portnov, B A

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide overweight and obesity rates are on the rise, with about 1 900 billion adults being defined as overweight and about 600 million adults being defined as obese by the World Health Organization (WHO). Increasing exposure to artificial light-at-night (ALAN) may influence body mass, by suppression of melatonin production and disruption of daily rhythms, resulting in physiological or behavioral changes in the human body, and may thus become a driving force behind worldwide overweight and obesity pandemic. We analyzed most recent satellite images of night time illumination, available from the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), combining them with country-level data on female and male overweight and obesity prevalence rates, reported by the WHO. The study aims to identify and measure the strength of association between ALAN and country-wide overweight and obesity rates, controlling for per capita GDP, level of urbanization, birth rate, food consumption and regional differences. ALAN emerged as a statistically significant and positive predictor of overweight and obesity (t>1.97; Pworldwide. Regional differences in the strength of association between ALAN and excessive body mass are also noted. This study is the first population-level study that confirms the results of laboratory research and cohort studies in which ALAN was found to be a contributing factor to excessive body mass in humans.

  4. DNA methylation in obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pokrywka

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes, have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described.

  5. Prevention of obesity : weighing ethical arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. ten Have (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTaxes on unhealthy food, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools, or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees: efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity sometimes raise questions about what is ethically acceptable. This thesis examines

  6. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced 18F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni; Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced 18 F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: ≤1 ng/ml, 1 to ≤2 ng/ml, 2 to ≤4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups ≤1, 1 to ≤2, 2 to ≤4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA ≤2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt ≤6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve ≤2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of 18 F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, 18 F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt ≤6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not 18 F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  7. Influence of PSA, PSA velocity and PSA doubling time on contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT detection rate in patients with rising PSA after radical prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillaci, Orazio [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Calabria, Ferdinando [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Pozzilli (Italy); Tavolozza, Mario; Caracciolo, Cristiana Ragano; Orlacchio, Antonio; Danieli, Roberta; Simonetti, Giovanni [University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Biopathology and Diagnostic Imaging, Interventional, Rome (Italy); Agro, Enrico Finazzi; Miano, Roberto [University Hospital ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in restaging patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy in relation to PSA, PSA velocity (PSAve) and PSA doubling time (PSAdt). PET/CT was performed in 49 patients (age range 58-87 years) with rising PSA (mean 4.13 ng/ml) who were divided in four groups according to PSA level: {<=}1 ng/ml, 1 to {<=}2 ng/ml, 2 to {<=}4 ng/ml, and >4 ng/ml. PSAve and PSAdt were measured. PET and CT scans were interpreted separately and then together. PET/CT diagnosed relapse in 33 of the 49 patients (67%). The detection rates were 20%, 55%, 80% and 87% in the PSA groups {<=}1, 1 to {<=}2, 2 to {<=}4 and >4 ng/ml, respectively. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 18 patients (38.9%) with a PSA {<=}2 ng/ml, and in 26 of 31 (83.9%) with a PSA >2 ng/ml. PET/CT was positive in 7 of 25 patients (84%) with PSAdt {<=}6 months, and in 12 of 24 patients (50%) with PSAdt >6 months, and was positive in 26 of 30 patients (86%) with a PSAve >2 ng/ml per year, and in 7 of 19 patients (36.8%) with PSAve {<=}2 ng/ml per year. PET alone was positive in 31 of 49 patients (63.3%), and of these 31 patients, CT was negative in 14 but diagnosed bone lesions in 2 patients in whom PET alone was negative. CT with the administration of intravenous contrast medium did not provide any further information. Detection rate of {sup 18}F-choline imaging is closely related to PSA and PSA kinetics. In particular, {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT is recommended in patients with PSA >2 ng/ml, PSAdt {<=}6 months and PSAve >2 ng/ml per year. CT is useful for detecting bone metastases that are not {sup 18}F-choline-avid. The use of intravenous contrast agent seems unnecessary. (orig.)

  8. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Health impact and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrine S. Farrag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood OR adolescence AND obesity AND (MENA or each country AND ("last five years" [PDat]. Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.

  9. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Health impact and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has serious consequences both immediately and in adulthood. The rates of obesity in children and adolescents are rising rapidly in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. We systematically searched the literature to explore adverse effects associated with childhood obesity in this region and the management efforts for dealing with it. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies that examined adverse effects of childhood obesity gave fairly consistent results, revealing associations with higher blood pressure, pre-diabetes, metabolic abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk. Little or no overall effect on rates of childhood obesity has yet been demonstrated by interventions used to manage the problem. Obesity has a considerable impact on the health of children and adolescents, and the countries of the MENA region should endorse strategies and programs to prevent and manage this problem in an effective way.

  10. What is Obesity Doing to Your Gut?

    OpenAIRE

    LEE, Yeong Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a fast-emerging epidemic in the Asia-Pacific region, with numbers paralleling the rising global prevalence within the past 30 years. The landscape of gut diseases in Asia has been drastically changed by obesity. In addition to more non-specific abdominal symptoms, obesity is the cause of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, various gastrointestinal cancers (colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer and ga...

  11. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick, Carl B.; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood and youth obesity represent significant US public health challenges. Recent findings that the childhood obesity ‘‘epidemic’’ may have slightly abated have been met with relief from health professionals and popular media. However, we document that the overall trend in youth obesity rates masks a significant and growing class gap between youth from upper and lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Until 2002, obesity rates increased at similar rates for all adolescents, but sinc...

  12. Serum Neuropeptide Y and Leptin Levels compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare serum NPY and leptin levels between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. The secondary objective was to compare these peptides between non-obese and obese pregnant women. Methods: Fasting venous blood was collected from non-pregnant women before open abdominal surgery and from pregnant women when admitted to the delivery room during the latent phase of labor. Results: There were 12 non-obese and 14 obese subjects in the non-pregnant group and 9 non-obese and 30 obese subjects in the pregnant group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was comparable, but heart rate (HR was higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. Mean±S.E.M serum NPY levels were lower in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group in overall (0.54±0.02 and 1.34±0.08, respectively, non-obese (0.53±0.05 and 1.23±0.14, respectively, and obese (0.54±0.03 and 1.43±0.09, respectively subjects (p<0.01 for all, but these were comparable between obese and non- obese pregnant subjects. Serum NPY was positively correlated with SBP (R=0.281, p<0.05, but negatively correlated with HR (R=-0.324, p<0.01. Serum leptin levels were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant groups, but were significantly higher in obese than non-obese pregnant subjects (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences in overall and pregnant subjects (p<0.001 all. Conclusion: In pregnancy, decreased NPY levels might be associated with inhibition of SBP rising as well as increased HR. Leptin levels might not be associated with pregnancy, but associated mainly with obesity.

  13. Updated prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in 11- to 17-year-old adolescents in Germany. Results from the telephone-based KiGGS Wave 1 after correction for bias in self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettschneider, Anna-Kristin; Brettschneidera, Anna-Kristin; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Kuhnert, Ronny; Schmidt, Steffen; Wiegand, Susanna; Ellert, Ute; Kurth, Bärbel-Maria

    2015-11-06

    The nationwide "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents" (KiGGS), conducted in 2003-2006, showed an increase in the prevalence rates of overweight and obesity compared to the early 1990s, indicating the need for regularly monitoring. Recently, a follow-up-KiGGS Wave 1 (2009-2012)-was carried out as a telephone-based survey, providing self-reported height and weight. Since self-reports lead to a bias in prevalence rates of weight status, a correction is needed. The aim of the present study is to obtain updated prevalence rates for overweight and obesity for 11- to 17-year olds living in Germany after correction for bias in self-reports. In KiGGS Wave 1, self-reported height and weight were collected from 4948 adolescents during a telephone interview. Participants were also asked about their body perception. From a subsample of KiGGS Wave 1 participants, measurements for height and weight were collected in a physical examination. In order to correct prevalence rates derived from self-reports, weight status categories based on self-reported and measured height and weight were used to estimate a correction formula according to an established procedure under consideration of body perception. The correction procedure was applied and corrected rates were estimated. The corrected prevalence of overweight, including obesity, derived from KiGGS Wave 1, showed that the rate has not further increased compared to the KiGGS baseline survey (18.9 % vs. 18.8 % based on the German reference). The rates of overweight still remain at a high level. The results of KiGGS Wave 1 emphasise the significance of this health issue and the need for prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.

  14. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  15. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  16. Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Russell-Mayhew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc., little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems; psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape, and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors. We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

  17. The Prevalence of Obesity in a Nigerian Military Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Taiwo Adebayo Obashina Ayodele Ogunbiyi Ishiaku Baba Abdulkareem Nurudeen Ayoola Hussain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Worldwide, obesity is increasing in prevalence, nearing epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Also, there are reports of rising prevalence in Africa. Obesity is an important aetiological factor for many non-communicable diseases. Recent anecdotal reports indicate that the prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and bronchial asthma is increasing among Nigerian military personnel; however, the rate of possible aetiological factors such as obesity is not known. Obesity can be evaluated using the body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist to height ratio (WHR. However, for epidemiological convenience and study within populations, the BMI is satisfactory. Methodology: A cross sectional study. Data of Nigerian military personnel�s annual medical examination conducted between January and March 2010 were retrieved to compute body mass index using World Health Organisation (WHO criteria. Results: 39.6% of personnel were overweight or obese. Most of these were aged between 30 and 39 years. While there were differences in the BMI of males and females, this did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: To manage weight problems, focused health education, increased physical activity and nutritional advice are necessary. Modalities such as waist circumference should be added to annual medical examination of military personnel to improve the predictive value of the examination. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 313-318

  18. International epidemic of childhood obesity and television viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guran, T; Bereket, A

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21st century. The prevalence of this problem has increased at an alarming rate in many countries. The main causes of childhood obesity are; sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy eating patterns, genetic factors, socio-economic status, race/ethnicity, media and marketing, and the physical environment. Children are clearly being targeted as a receptive market by the manufacturing industry. Undoubtedly, television provides one of the most powerful media through which products can be advertised. Furthermore, food advertising accounted for the largest percentage of these advertisements in virtually all countries. Detailed nutritional analysis of food advertisements identified that up to 90% of food products have a high fat, sugar or salt content. Therefore TV viewing is recently identified as one of the risk factors contributing to development of childhood obesity by several mechanisms. This review provides some facts and figures about the global trend of rising obesity among children, amount and content of television and especially food advertisements being watched by children and its possible mechanisms how to cause adverse effects on children's health and contribute to childhood obesity.

  19. Serum adiponectin level in obese and non-obese COPD patients during acute exacerbation and stable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mohammad Omar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Serum adiponectin was significantly higher in obese and nonobese COPD than controls, the rising is more during exacerbation than stable condition and more in non obese than obese COPD and non significant correlation between changes in adiponectin and ventilatory functions was found.

  20. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  1. A systematic review of childhood obesity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region: Prevalence and risk factors meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrag, Nesrine S; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Farag, Mohamed K

    2017-01-01

    Obesity rates are rising globally, but there is evidence that young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are at particularly high risk. We systematically searched the literature to map the MENA region for prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity, and examine the underlying risk factors and adverse effects associated with obesity in this region. Inclusion criteria were: English-language, non-basic-science focused articles that used any of the standard obesity definitions and were conducted in the MENA countries within the last five years. We searched PubMed using combinations of key terms ((childhood) OR adolescence) AND obesity) AND (MENA or each country) AND ("last five years" [PDat]). Studies demonstrated an increasing prevalence of obesity among many countries in the MENA region, especially in the Gulf area. Notably, in Kuwait, prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 25.6% and 34.8% among young males and 20.8% and 20.5% among females. A meta-analysis revealed that physical inactivity, increased screen time, and higher social status were risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood and adolescent obesity is a major challenge facing countries of the MENA region. Further research is needed to fully investigate the role of nutrition and other specific risk factors and evaluate various interventions to manage this pervasive and growing health problem.

  2. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  3. Is Maternal Employment Related to Childhood Obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children...

  4. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI or waist (abdominal obesity. Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results In men, the prevalences of overweight (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 45.5% and 16.9%, respectively, higher than in women (28.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist ≥102 in men and ≥88 cm in women was higher in women than in men (30.6% vs. 23.9%. Obesity and abdominal obesity increased with age and decreased with higher educational level in both genders. In women, the prevalence of obesity was lower among former and current smokers, whereas in men the prevalence of obesity was higher in former smokers but did not differ between current and never smokers. Multivariate analysis showed age to be positively related, and education and physical activity to be negatively related with obesity and abdominal obesity in both genders, whereas differential effects of smoking were found between genders. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher than BMI-derived obesity in the Swiss population. Women presented with more abdominal obesity than men. The association between smoking and obesity levels appears to differ between genders.

  5. Factors mediating the depression in the adult obese outpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelj-Rakić Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is rising to epidemic proportions at the alarming rate in both developed and underdeveloped countries around the world. Current prevalence data from individual national studies suggest that the obesity prevalence in the European countries ranges from 10% to 20% for men, and 10% to 25% for women. Health consequences of obesity imply both a number of fatal and non-fatal health problems (out of which the most common are cardiovascular problems, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, cancers, and also a wide spectrum of psychological consequences from diminished self-esteem to clinical depression. Causal relationship between obesity and many chronic diseases is evidence- based. At the same time, there are marked differences in research data regarding causal obesity-depression relationship. Several studies have found no direct association between obesity and depression, while in others the prevalence of depression in obese patients was up to 50%. Gender, obesity grade, socioeconomic status and asking for professional help are named as moderators and mediators of this relationship. Among recommended screening methods, BDI-II is the most frequently used in the adult outpatient departments. Objective The aim of the study was to determine possible risk factors of depression in adult obese patients treated for obesity. Gender, obesity and education level as well as marital status were analyzed as possible moderators of depression-obesity relationship. Method The research included 267 patients, 38.0±14.6 years of age, who referred to the Outpatient Nutrition Department for dietetic consultation or nutritional medical therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by BMI (kg/mІ, calculated from measured values of body weight and height according to WHO recommendations. An estimate of the existence and/or depression level was investigated by Beck Depression Inventory - self administered questionnaire recommended for use

  6. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  7. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  8. Maternal depression, stress and feeding styles: towards a framework for theory and research in child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Behadli, Ana F; Sharp, Carla; Hughes, Sheryl O; Obasi, Ezemenari M; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of rising rates of obesity in children and adults in the USA, and modest effect sizes for obesity interventions, the aim of the present narrative review paper is to extend the UNICEF care model to focus on childhood obesity and its associated risks with an emphasis on the emotional climate of the parent-child relationship within the family. Specifically, we extended the UNICEF model by applying the systems approach to childhood obesity and by combining previously unintegrated sets of literature across multiple disciplines including developmental psychology, clinical psychology and nutrition. Specifically, we modified the extended care model by explicitly integrating new linkages (i.e. parental feeding styles, stress, depression and mother's own eating behaviour) that have been found to be associated with the development of children's eating behaviours and risk of childhood obesity. These new linkages are based on studies that were not incorporated into the original UNICEF model, but suggest important implications for childhood obesity. In all, this narrative review offers important advancements to the scientific understanding of familial influences on children's eating behaviours and childhood obesity.

  9. Prevalence and change of central obesity among US Asian adults: NHANES 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefeng; Chen, Yang; Boucher, Nicole L; Rothberg, Amy E

    2017-08-25

    Central obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. The prevalence of central obesity has not been reported fully among Asian adults in the United States (US). Cross-sectional data of 1288 Asian adults aged 20 years or over was selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with a stratified multi-stage sampling design. The prevalence of central obesity was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and Chi-square tests were conducted to test the significance of the prevalence differences across characteristic groups. The overall prevalence of central obesity among US Asian adults was 58.1% in 2011-2014. The prevalence of central obesity was higher in older adults (73.5%) than in young adults (45.4%) (p young adults (39.2% vs 51.5%), men (45.4% vs 56.6%), adults with college education or above (54.2% vs 61.7%) and non-poor adults (55.4% vs 62.4%). Compared with men, women had higher prevalence in each subgroup of age, education, poverty, and length of time (except for the subgroup of "born in the US") (all p obesity is prevalent in Asian adults, particularly in older adults and women. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat obesity in Asian adults as Asians are incurring the greatest increase in type 2 diabetes in parallel with the rising rate of central adiposity.

  10. The success of sleeve gastrectomy in the management of metabolic syndrome and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shabbir, Asim; Dargan, Dallan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The rapid reversal of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity by surgical means has challenged accepted doctrines regarding the management of metabolic syndrome. Sleeve gastrectomy, which developed initially as a preparatory procedure for biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, has seen an exponential rise in popularity as an effective lone laparoscopic bariatric procedure. Superior excess weight loss, a low complication rate, and excellent food tolerance, combine...

  11. Beating Obesity: Factors Associated with Interest in Workplace Weight Management Assistance in the Mining Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Tamara D.; Thomas, Drew L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of overweight and obese Australians are high and continue to rise, putting a large proportion of the population at risk of chronic illness. Examining characteristics associated with preference for a work-based weight-loss program will enable employers to better target programs to increase enrolment and benefit employees' health and fitness for work. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at two Australian mining sites. The survey collected information on employe...

  12. Hormonal and neural mechanisms of food reward, eating behaviour and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan; Tulloch, Alastair; Gold, Mark S; Avena, Nicole M

    2014-09-01

    With rising rates of obesity, research continues to explore the contributions of homeostatic and hedonic mechanisms related to eating behaviour. In this Review, we synthesize the existing information on select biological mechanisms associated with reward-related food intake, dealing primarily with consumption of highly palatable foods. In addition to their established functions in normal feeding, three primary peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and insulin) play important parts in food reward. Studies in laboratory animals and humans also show relationships between hyperphagia or obesity and neural pathways involved in reward. These findings have prompted questions regarding the possibility of addictive-like aspects in food consumption. Further exploration of this topic may help to explain aberrant eating patterns, such as binge eating, and provide insight into the current rates of overweight and obesity.

  13. Assessment of obesity management in medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treyzon Leo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is a growing international health problem that has already reached epidemic proportions, particularly within the United States where a majority of the population is overweight or obese. Effective methods of treatment are needed, and should be taught to physicians by efficient means. There exists a disconnect between the rising obesity prevalence with its high toll on medical resources, and the lack of obesity education provided to practitioners in the course of their training. One particular shortfall is the lack of representation of obesity on standardized medical examinations. Physician attitudes toward obesity are influenced by their lack of familiarity with the management of the disease. This may include dietary restriction, increasing physical activity, behavior modification, pharmacotherapy, and surgical interventions. Thus, curricular changes in the medical education of obesity could help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  14. [Twenty-four hour time and frequency domain variability of systolic blood pressure and heart rate in an experimental model of arterial hypertension plus obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Lazartiques, E; Cabrol, P; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M

    1998-08-01

    Modifications of heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) variabilities (V) have been reported in the human syndrome arterial hypertension plus insulin-resistance. The aim of this study was to characterize the 24 h SBPV and HRV in both time and frequency domains during weight increase in dogs fed ad libitum with a high fat diet. Implantable transmitter units for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate were surgically implanted in five beagle male dogs. BP and HR were continuously recorded using telemetric measurements during 24 hours, before and after 6 and 9 weeks of hypercaloric diet in quiet animals submitted to a 12h light-dark cycle. To study nychtemeral cycle of SBP and HR, two periods were chosen: day (from 6.00 h to 19.00 h) and night (from 23.00 h to 6.00 h). Spontaneous baroreflex efficiency was measured using the sequence method. Spectral variability of HR and SBP was analyzed using a fast Fourier transformation on 512 consecutive values and normalized units of low (LF: 50-150 mHz, reflecting sympathetic activity) and high (HF: respiratory rate +/- 50 mHz, reflecting parasympathetic activity) frequency bands were calculated. The energy of total spectrum (from 0.004 to 1 Hz) was also studied. Body weight (12.4 +/- 0.9 vs 14.9 +/- 0.9 kg, p vs 147 +/- 1 mmHg, p vs night: 71 +/- 1 bpm) but not after 9 weeks (day: 91 +/- 4 bpm ; night: 86 +/- 2 bpm). Concomitantly, the efficiency of spontaneous baroreflex decreased at 6 weeks (36 +/- 1 vs 42 +/- 2 mmHg/ms, p energy of HRV was found after 6 but not after 9 weeks. LF energy of SBPV was increased at 6 but not at 9 weeks (table). [table: see text] In conclusion, this study shows that an hyperlipidic and hypercaloric diet induces transient variations in autonomic nervous system activity which could be the physiopathological link between obesity, insulin-resistance and arterial hypertension.

  15. Greater effects of high- compared with moderate-intensity interval training on cardio-metabolic variables, blood leptin concentration and ratings of perceived exertion in obese adolescent females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Racil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of high- vs. moderate-intensity interval training on cardiovascular fitness, leptin levels and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE in obese female adolescents. Forty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups receiving either a 1:1 ratio of 15 s of effort comprising moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT at 80% maximal aerobic speed: MAS or high-intensity interval training (HIIT at 100% MAS, with matched 15 s recovery at 50% MAS, thrice weekly, or a no-training control group. The HIIT and MIIT groups showed improved (p˂0.05 body mass (BM, BMI Z-score, and percentage of body fat (%BF. Only the HIIT group showed decreased waist circumference (WC (p=0.017. The effect of exercise on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was significant (p=0.019, ES=0.48 and p=0.010, ES=0.57, HIIT and MIIT, respectively. The decrease of rate-pressure product (RPP (p<0.05, ES=0.53 and ES=0.46, HIIT and MIIT, respectively followed the positive changes in resting heart rate and blood pressures. Blood glucose, insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment index for insulin decreased (p<0.05 in both training groups. Significant decreases occurred in blood leptin (p=0.021, ES=0.67 and p=0.011, ES=0.73 and in RPE (p=0.001, ES=0.76 and p=0.017, ES=0.57 in HIIT and MIIT, respectively. In the post-intervention period, blood leptin was strongly associated with %BF (p<0.001 and VO2max (p<0.01 in the HIIT and MIIT groups, respectively, while RPE was strongly associated with BM (p<0.01 in the HIIT group. The results suggest that high-intensity interval training may produce more positive effects on health determinants in comparison with the same training mode at a moderate intensity.

  16. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity Causes & Consequences CDC Reports Improvement in Childhood Obesity among Young Children Participating in WIC Data & Statistics Adult Obesity Facts Childhood Obesity Facts Data, Trends and ...

  17. Obesity and inequities. Guidance for addressing inequities in overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    ABSTRACT This policy guidance aims to support European policy-makers to improve the design, implementation and evaluation of interventions and policies to reduce inequities in overweight and obesity. The prevalence of obesity in Europe is rising in many countries, and rising fastest in low...... socioeconomic population groups. There is a strong relationship between obesity and low socioeconomic status, especially for women. Reducing health inequities is a key strategic objective of Health 2020 – the European policy framework for health and well-being endorsed by the 53 Member States of the WHO...... to reduce the unequal distribution of obesity in Europe, through approaches which address the social determinants of obesity and the related health, social and economic consequences ofthe obesity inequity gradient....

  18. The influence of obesity on the complication rate and outcome of total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Servien, Elvire; Dunn, Warren; Dahm, Diane; Bramer, Jos A M; Haverkamp, Daniel

    2012-10-17

    The increase in the number of individuals with an unhealthy high body weight is particularly relevant in the United States. Obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) is a well-documented risk factor for the development of osteoarthritis. Furthermore, an increased prevalence of total knee arthroplasty in obese individuals has been observed in the last decades. The primary aim of this systematic literature review was to determine whether obesity has a negative influence on outcome after primary total knee arthroplasty. A search of the literature was performed, and studies comparing the outcome of total knee arthroplasty in different weight groups were included. The methodology of the included studies was scored according to the Cochrane guidelines. Data extraction and pooling were performed. The weighted mean difference for continuous data and the weighted odds ratio for dichotomous variables were calculated. Heterogeneity was calculated with use of the I2 statistic. After consensus was reached, twenty studies were included in the data analysis. The presence of any infection was reported in fourteen studies including 15,276 patients (I2, 26%). Overall, infection occurred more often in obese patients, with an odds ratio of 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 2.47). Deep infection requiring surgical debridement was reported in nine studies including 5061 patients (I2, 0%). Deep infection occurred more often in obese patients, with an odds ratio of 2.38 (95% CI, 1.28 to 4.55). Revision of the total knee arthroplasty, defined as exchange or removal of the components for any reason, was documented in eleven studies including 12,101 patients (I2, 25%). Revision for any reason occurred more often in obese patients, with an odds ratio of 1.30 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.67). Obesity had a negative influence on outcome after total knee arthroplasty.

  19. Transcriptome and DNA Methylome Analysis in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity Predicts Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice. Strikingly, colonic DNA methylome was pre-programmed by obesity at young age, priming for a tumor-prone gene signature after aging. Furthermore, obesity-related changes were substantially preserved after short-term weight loss, but they were largely reversed after long-term weight loss. We provided mechanistic insights into increased CRC risk in obesity.

  20. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-07-08

    There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv) mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed.

  1. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Ponterio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36. Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed.

  2. Obesity and Pelvic Floor Disorders: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pomian, Andrzej; Lisik, Wojciech; Kosieradzki, Maciej; Barcz, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are becoming a worldwide health problem associated with numerous co-morbidities. National costs of obesity and pelvic flor disorders have been rising since the 1950s across the world. Obesity is thought to have a very strong effect on pelvic floor disorders, and, considering the high prevalence of both problems worldwide, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the association between these pathologies as well as the impact of obesity on treatment efficacy. This review i...

  3. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deuster, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic levels and yet the incidence continues to rise. The current study is seeking to examine the hypothesis that obesity may reflect dysfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...

  4. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deuster, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic levels and yet the incidence continues to rise. The current study is seeking to examine the hypothesis that obesity may reflect dysfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...

  5. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deuster, Patricia A

    2006-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic levels and yet the incidence continues to rise. The current study is seeking to examine the hypothesis that obesity may reflect dysfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (H PA...

  6. Physiologic and Endocrine Correlates of Overweight and Obesity in African Americans and Caucasians

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deuster, Patricia A; Poth, Merrily; Sbrocco, Tracey; Faraday, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic levels and yet the incidence continues to rise. The current study is seeking to examine the hypothesis that obesity may reflect dysfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...

  7. Obesity and drug pharmacology: a review of the influence of obesity on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Hoogd, S. De; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Knibbe, C.A.

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The rising prevalence of obesity confronts clinicians with dosing problems in the (extreme) overweight population. Obesity has a great impact on key organs that play a role in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, however the ultimate impact of these changes on

  8. Reduction of Portion Size and Eating Rate Is Associated with BMI-SDS Reduction in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: Results on Eating and Nutrition Behaviour from the Observational KgAS Study

    OpenAIRE

    Torbahn, Gabriel; Gellhaus, Ines; Koch, Benjamin; von Kries, Rüdiger; Obermeier, Viola; Holl, Reinhard W.; Fink, Katharina; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Treatment of paediatric obesity focuses on changes of nutrition and eating behaviour and physical activity. The evaluation of the patient education programme by KgAS was utilised to analyse the association of changes of portion size, eating rate and dietary habits with BMI-SDS reductions. Methods: Patients (n = 297) were examined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and after 1-year follow-up at different out-patient centres. Their parents completed questionnaires including...

  9. Laparoscopic colectomy in the obese, morbidly obese, and super morbidly obese: when does weight matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Bradley J; Nishtala, Madhuri; Brady, Justin T; Crawshaw, Benjamin P; Franklin, Morris E; Delaney, Conor P; Steele, Scott R

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that obese patients (BMI >30) undergoing laparoscopic colectomy have longer operative times and increased complications when compared to non-obese cohorts. However, there is little data that specifically evaluates the outcomes of obese patients based on the degree of their obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of increasing severity of obesity on patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy. A retrospective review was performed of all patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy between 1996 and 2013. Patients were classified according to their BMI as obese (BMI 30.0-39.9), morbidly obese (BMI 40.0-49.9), and super obese (BMI >50). Main outcome measures included conversion rate, operative time, estimated blood loss, post-operative complications, and length of stay. There were 923 patients who met inclusion criteria. Overall, 604 (65.4%), 257 (27.9%), and 62 (6.7%) were classified as obese (O), morbidly obese (MO), and super obese (SO), respectively. Clinicopathologic characteristics were similar among the three groups. The SO group had significantly higher conversion rates (17.7 vs. 7 vs. 4.8%; P = 0.031), longer average hospital stays (7.1 days vs. 4.9 vs. 3.4; P = 0.001), higher morbidity (40.3 vs. 16.3 vs. 12.4%; P = 0.001), and longer operative times (206 min vs. 184 vs. 163; P = 0.04) compared to the MO and O groups, respectively. The anastomotic leak rate in the SO (4.8%; P = 0.027) and MO males (4.1%; P = 0.033) was significantly higher than MO females (2.2%) and all obese patients (1.8%). Increasing severity of obesity is associated with worse perioperative outcomes following laparoscopic colectomy.

  10. The rising home birth trend in America

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlan Aliyev; Chastidy Roldan; Bulent Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US). Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of h...

  11. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  12. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects.

  13. The worldwide obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M

    2001-11-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  14. Obesity vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many pa...

  15. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  16. Required friction during overground walking is lower among obese compared to non-obese older men, but does not differ with obesity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Sara L; Garman, Christina R; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and aging have been independently associated with altered required friction during walking, but it is unclear how these factors interact to influence the likelihood of slipping. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences related to obesity and aging on required friction during overground walking. Fourteen older non-obese, 11 older obese, 20 younger non-obese, and 20 younger obese adults completed walking trials at both a self-selected and hurried speed. When walking at a hurried speed, older obese men walked at a slower gait speed and exhibited lower frictional demands compared both to older non-obese men and to younger obese men. No differences in required friction were found between non-obese and obese younger adults. These results suggest that the increased rate of falls among obese or older adults is not likely due to a higher risk of slip initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Providing prenatal care to pregnant women with overweight or obesity: Differences in provider communication and ratings of the patient-provider relationship by patient body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Cole, Katie O; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bleich, Sara N; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Roter, Debra L

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association of women's body weight with provider communication during prenatal care. We coded audio recordings of prenatal visits between 22 providers and 117 of their patients using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Multivariate, multilevel Poisson models were used to examine the relationship between patient pre-pregnancy body mass index and provider communication. Compared to women with normal weight, providers asked fewer lifestyle questions (IRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44-0.99, p=0.04) and gave less lifestyle information (IRR 0.51, 95% CI 0.32-0.82, p=0.01) to women with overweight and obesity, respectively. Providers used fewer approval (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51-0.91, p=0.01) and concern statements (IRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.86, p=0.002) when caring for women with overweight and fewer self-disclosure statements caring for women with obesity (IRR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.84 p=0.02). Less lifestyle and rapport building communication for women with obesity may weaken patient-provider relationship during routine prenatal care. Interventions to increase use of patient-centered communication - especially for women with overweight and obesity - may improve prenatal care quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict coronary heart disease risk in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryo; Yamakage, Hajime; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Wada, Hiromichi; Otani, Sumire; Yonezawa, Kazuya; Ogo, Atsushi; Okajima, Taiichiro; Adachi, Masahiro; Araki, Rika; Yoshida, Kazuro; Saito, Miho; Nagaoka, Tadasu; Toyonaga, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Ota, Itsuro; Oishi, Mariko; Miyanaga, Fumiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which indicator of chronic kidney disease most closely correlates with 10-year Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk among serum creatinine, serum cystatin C (S-CysC), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated creatinine-based GFRs (eGFRcre), and estimated CysC-based GFRs (eGFRcys) in patients with obesity and diabetes. Serum creatinine, S-CysC, UACR, and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were examined in 468 outpatients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, free of severe renal dysfunction or previous history of cardiovascular disease, as a cross-sectional survey using baseline data from the multi-centered Japan Diabetes and Obesity Study. S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with the 10-year Framingham CHD risk than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ρ = 0.318; S-CysC, ρ = 0.497; UACR, ρ = 0.174; eGFRcre, ρ = -0.291; eGFRcys, ρ = -0.521; P obesity and diabetes.

  19. HiRISE: The People's Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/). Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/) and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish/), opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  20. Pediatric obesity. An introduction ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children’s health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children’s environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  1. Reimagining Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    This article draws on Mills' sociological imagination (from the 1959 publication "The Sociological Imagination") to consider the connections between personal trouble and social issues when it comes to the causes and consequences of obesity. These connections may be important for assuaging the "obesity bias" that pervades our…

  2. [Childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  3. [Consequences of obesity in children and teenagers: a problem that requires attention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liria, Reyna

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide pandemic and children are a vulnerable group. In America, it was estimated that in 2010, 15.2% of 18 year-old children could suffer from this. Obesity in children and teenagers has a negative impact on health and on the load of diseases at this stage of life, and later on in adulthood, having a negative impact on the economy of a country due to the rise of risks of chronic diseases, health expenses and indirect costs as a result of the disease. Peru is going through an epidemiological transition, with unsolved malnutrition problems and high child obesity rates (10% of children under five), thus being one of the countries with a higher increase of child obesity in recent years in Latin America. Childhood and adolescence are considered critical periods because eating habits and physical activity start at this point; and because most obese children and teenagers will maintain those habits until they reach adulthood. For this reason, it is essential to seek strategies and interventions that prevent overweight and obesity among children and teenagers in order to improve the health conditions of a country.

  4. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  5. Short-term effects of a hypocaloric diet with low glycemic index and low glycemic load on body adiposity, metabolic variables, ghrelin, leptin, and pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Geórgia F; Passos, Eduardo P; Moulin, Cileide C

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is related to hormonal disorders that affect the reproductive system. Low-glycemic index (LGI) diets seem to exert a positive effect on weight loss and on metabolic changes that result from obesity. We investigated the effects of a hypocaloric diet with an LGI and low glycemic load on anthropometric and metabolic variables, ghrelin and leptin concentrations, and the pregnancy rate in overweight and obese infertile women who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). The study was a randomized block-design controlled trial in which we analyzed 26 overweight or obese infertile women. Patients were assigned to a hypocaloric LGI-diet group or a control group and followed the protocol for 12 wk. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, serum lipids, reproductive hormones, leptin, acylated ghrelin, number of oocytes retrieved in the IVF cycle, and pregnancy rate were determined. There were greater reductions in body mass, BMI, percentage of body fat, waist:hip ratio, and leptin in the LGI-diet group than in the control group (P diet group had 85.4% more oocytes retrieved than did the control group (7.75 ± 1.44 and 4.18 ± 0.87, respectively; P = 0.039) in the IVF cycle. Three patients (21.4%) in the LGI group experienced a spontaneous pregnancy during the follow-up, which generated 3 live births. The hypocaloric LGI diet promoted a decrease in BMI, percentage of body fat, and leptin concentrations, which improved oocyte development and pregnancy rate. These results support the clinical recommendation to advise overweight and obese women to lose weight through a balanced diet before being submitted for treatment with assisted reproduction technologies. A hypocaloric diet combined with LGI foods seems to be beneficial for these patients, but additional studies are required before this treatment is recommended. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02416960

  6. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  7. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  8. ASSESSMENT OF REAL FUNCTION IN PATIENS WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Popova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrospective study analyzed the glomerular filtration rate (GFR calculated using the formulas of Cockcroft–Gault (ml/min and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD (ml/min/1.73 м2 in 1504 patients. The patients had been selected from 7124 visitors to the outpatient unit in 2010: those were overweight (body mass index (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2;n = 657, obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; n = 615, and normal-weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/м; n = 236 who formed a control group. All the patients were examined in the outpatient unit and the V.Kh. Vasilenko Clinic of Internal Propedeutics, Gastroenterology and Hepatology.Analysis of the mean values of GFR calculated using the Cockcroft Gault formula (ml/min established that the mean GFR increased with BMI from 95 ml/min in overweight persons to 135 ml/min in morbid obesity; in the control group the mean GFR was 82.5 ml/min. The correlation coefficient was 0.35; р < 0.05. There was a reduction in the GFR calculated using the MDRD formula (ml/min/1.73 м² in the obese patients compared to the controls (69 and 79.4 ml/min/1.73 м2, respectively. The correlation coefficient was 0.15; р < 0.05. Analysis of the distribution of the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD in obese patients with the GFR estimated using the Cockcroft Gault formula (ml/min ascertained that in the obesity groups there was a preponderance of patients with high GFR; the number of these patients increased with higher BMI from 53 % in overweight to 91.5 % in morbid obesity. The correlation coefficient was 0.26; р < 0.05. Analysis of the distribution of the stages of CKD in obese patients with the GFR calculated using the MDRD formula showed a rise in the number of patients with Stage III CKD (from 12 % in overweight to 22.8 % in obesity; 4.7 % in the control group. Moreover, a group of patients (2 % with Stage IV CKD in morbid obesity was identified. The correlation coefficient was 0.15; р < 0.05.

  9. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  10. Health risks associated with obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    by three factors: first is the amount of fat, second is the distribution of fat ... The negative effects of obesity on health and cardiovascular ..... second and tenth leading causes of death in South Africa, respectively. ... Slow glucose removal rate.

  11. Association Between Obesity and Migraine in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Jelena M; Vieira, Julio R; Lipton, Richard B; Bond, Dale S

    2017-08-25

    Migraine is a common and highly disabling condition that is particularly prevalent among women and especially women of reproductive age. The tremendous rise in adiposity in the Western world has led to an epidemic of obesity in women. The particular effects of obesity on women with migraine of various ages are the focus of this review. Conflicting findings from various studies with different approaches and populations have made challenging definitive conclusions about associations between migraine and obesity. While the association between obesity and migraine frequency has been consistently demonstrated and obesity is considered a risk factor for progression from episodic to chronic migraine, the association between obesity and migraine prevalence is still somewhat debated and appears to be dependent on gender and age, with the most consistent effects observed in women younger than 55 years of age. Association between migraine and obesity is most commonly observed in women of reproductive age. The multimodal changes associated with age and hormonal change in women likely play a role in this relationship, as obesity does not appear to be related to migraine in women over 55 years of age. Future studies focusing on the migraine-obesity relationship in women should examine the effects of age, endogenous hormonal state, and exogenous hormones on migraine and obesity.

  12. Trends in overweight and obesity in Lebanon: evidence from two national cross-sectional surveys (1997 and 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though the obesity epidemic continues to grow in various parts of the world, recent reports have highlighted disparities in obesity trends across countries. There is little empirical evidence on the development and growth of obesity in Lebanon and other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Acknowledging the need for effective obesity preventive measures and for accurate assessment of trends in the obesity epidemic, this study aims at examining and analyzing secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity over a 12-year period in Lebanon. Methods Based on weight and height measurements obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1997 and 2009 on subjects 6 years of age and older, BMI was calculated and the prevalence of obesity was determined based on BMI for adults and BMI z-scores for children and adolescents, according to WHO criteria. Age -and sex- adjusted odds ratios for overweight and obesity were determined, with the 1997 year as the referent category. Annual rates of change in obesity prevalence per sex and age group were also calculated. Results The study samples included a total of 2004 subjects in the 1997 survey and 3636 in the 2009 survey. Compared to 1997, mean BMI values were significantly higher in 2009 among all age and sex groups, except for 6–9 year old children. Whereas the prevalence of overweight appeared stable over the study period in both 6–19 year old subjects (20.0% vs. 21.2%) and adults aged 20 years and above (37.0% vs. 36.8%), the prevalence of obesity increased significantly (7.3% vs. 10.9% in 6–19 year olds; 17.4% vs. 28.2% in adults), with the odds of obesity being 2 times higher in 2009 compared to 1997, in both age groups (OR = 1.96, 95% CI:1.29-2.97 and OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.67-2.43, respectively). The annual rates of change in obesity prevalence ranged between +4.1% in children and adolescents and +5.2% in adults. Conclusion The study’s findings highlight an

  13. Leucine and protein metabolism in obese Zucker rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang She

    Full Text Available Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs are circulating nutrient signals for protein accretion, however, they increase in obesity and elevations appear to be prognostic of diabetes. To understand the mechanisms whereby obesity affects BCAAs and protein metabolism, we employed metabolomics and measured rates of [1-(14C]-leucine metabolism, tissue-specific protein synthesis and branched-chain keto-acid (BCKA dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC activities. Male obese Zucker rats (11-weeks old had increased body weight (BW, 53%, liver (107% and fat (∼300%, but lower plantaris and gastrocnemius masses (-21-24%. Plasma BCAAs and BCKAs were elevated 45-69% and ∼100%, respectively, in obese rats. Processes facilitating these rises appeared to include increased dietary intake (23%, leucine (Leu turnover and proteolysis [35% per g fat free mass (FFM, urinary markers of proteolysis: 3-methylhistidine (183% and 4-hydroxyproline (766%] and decreased BCKDC per g kidney, heart, gastrocnemius and liver (-47-66%. A process disposing of circulating BCAAs, protein synthesis, was increased 23-29% by obesity in whole-body (FFM corrected, gastrocnemius and liver. Despite the observed decreases in BCKDC activities per gm tissue, rates of whole-body Leu oxidation in obese rats were 22% and 59% higher normalized to BW and FFM, respectively. Consistently, urinary concentrations of eight BCAA catabolism-derived acylcarnitines were also elevated. The unexpected increase in BCAA oxidation may be due to a substrate effect in liver. Supporting this idea, BCKAs were elevated more in liver (193-418% than plasma or muscle, and per g losses of hepatic BCKDC activities were completely offset by increased liver mass, in contrast to other tissues. In summary, our results indicate that plasma BCKAs may represent a more sensitive metabolic signature for obesity than BCAAs. Processes supporting elevated BCAA]BCKAs in the obese Zucker rat include increased dietary intake, Leu and protein

  14. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  15. Morbidity of severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, J G

    2001-10-01

    Although obesity is an easy diagnosis to make, its etiologies, pathophysiology, and symptomatology are extraordinarily complex. Progress in surgical technique and anesthesiological management has substantially improved the safety of performing operations on the severely obese in the last 20 years. These improvements have occurred more or less empirically, without a full understanding of etiology or pathophysiology, although this has advanced concomitantly with improvements in practice. This review has attempted to provide a framework to facilitate progress in the neglected areas of patient selection and choice of operation, in an effort to improve long-term outcome. Despite the disparate etiologies of obesity and its diverse comorbidities and complications, there are unifying interdependent pathogenetic mechanisms of great relevance to the practice of antiobesity surgery. The rate of eating, whether driven by HPA dysfunction, ambient stress, or related hereditary susceptibility factors including the increased energy demands of an expanded body fat mass, participates in a cycle that results in disordered satiety (see Fig. 3). This leads to substrate overload, causing extensive metabolic abnormalities such as atherogenesis, insulin resistance, thrombogenesis, and carcinogenesis. This interpretation of the pathophysiology of obesity ironically accords with the original meaning of the word obesity: "to overeat." The ultimate solution to the problem of obesity--preventing it--will not be forthcoming until the food industry is forced to lower production and change its marketing strategies, as the liquor and tobacco industries in the United States were compelled to do. This cannot occur until the large and fast-growing populations of industrialized nations become educated in the personal implications of the energy principle. Regardless of whether school curricula are modified to prioritize health education, the larger problems of cultural and economic change remain for

  16. Obesity, insulin resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Joham, Anju Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) affects 12 to 21% of Australian reproductive-aged women and is a major public health concern (1-5). Whilst reproductive features (anovulation, infertility) are prominent, PCOS also has major metabolic [obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular disease risk factors] and psychological features (6-8). Obesity is a major chronic disease, with rising prevalence and diverse health impacts. The interplay between PCOS and weight contributes t...

  17. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is elevated in obese adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamchybekov, Uran; Figulla, Hans R.; Gerdes, Norbert; Jung, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The prevalence of obesity in childhood and adolescence is continuing rising. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) participates in inflammatory and immune responses as a pro-inflammatory cytokine. The present study aimed to investigate MIF in overweight adolescents. Methods:

  18. Obesity and female infertility: potential mediators of obesity's impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Darcy E; Moley, Kelle H

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide upward trend in obesity has been dramatic, now affecting more than 20% of American women of reproductive age. Obesity is associated with many adverse maternal and fetal effects prenatally, but it also exerts a negative influence on female fertility. Obese women are more likely to have ovulatory dysfunction due to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who are also obese demonstrate a more severe metabolic and reproductive phenotype. Obese women have reduced fecundity even when eumenorrheic and demonstrate poorer outcomes with the use of in vitro fertilization. Obesity appears to affect the oocyte and the preimplantation embryo, with disrupted meiotic spindle formation and mitochondrial dynamics. Excess free fatty acids may have a toxic effect in reproductive tissues, leading to cellular damage and a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Altered levels of adipokines, such as leptin, in the obese state can affect steroidogenesis and directly affect the developing embryo. The endometrium is also susceptible, with evidence of impaired stromal decidualization in obese women. This may explain subfecundity due to impaired receptivity, and may lead to placental abnormalities as manifested by higher rates of miscarriage, stillbirth, and preeclampsia in the obese population. Many interventions have been explored to mitigate the effect of obesity on infertility, including weight loss, physical activity, dietary factors, and bariatric surgery. These data are largely mixed, with few high quality studies to guide us. As we improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity in human reproduction we hope to identify novel treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cushing's syndrome: a model for sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drey, Michael; Berr, Christina M; Reincke, Martin; Fazel, Julia; Seissler, Jochen; Schopohl, Jochen; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Zopp, Stefanie; Reisch, Nicole; Beuschlein, Felix; Osswald, Andrea; Schmidmaier, Ralf

    2017-09-01

    Obesity and its metabolic impairments are discussed as major risk factors for sarcopenia leading to sarcopenic obesity. Cushing's syndrome is known to be associated with obesity and muscle atrophy. We compared Cushing's syndrome with matched obese controls regarding body composition, physical performance, and biochemical markers to test the hypothesis that Cushing's syndrome could be a model for sarcopenic obesity. By propensity score matching, 47 controls were selected by body mass index and gender as obese controls. Fat mass and muscle mass were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle function was assessed by chair rising test and hand grip strength. Biochemical markers of glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation (hsCRP) were measured in peripheral blood. Muscle mass did not differ between Cushing's syndrome and obese controls. However, Cushing's syndrome patients showed significantly greater chair rising time (9.5 s vs. 7.3 s, p = 0.008) and significantly lower hand grip strength (32.1 kg vs. 36.8 kg, p = 0.003). Cushing's syndrome patients with impaired fasting glucose have shown the highest limitations in hand grip strength and chair rising time. Similar to published data in ageing medicine, Cushing's syndrome patients show loss of muscle function that cannot be explained by loss of muscle mass. Impaired muscle quality due to fat infiltration may be the reason. This is supported by the observation that Cushing's syndrome patients with impaired glucose metabolism show strongest deterioration of muscle function. Research in sarcopenic obesity in elderly is hampered by confounding comorbidities and polypharmacy. As Cushing's syndrome patients are frequently free of comorbidities and as Cushing's syndrome is potentially curable we suggest Cushing's syndrome as a clinical model for further research in sarcopenic obesity.

  20. International application of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation in obesity reduction: factors that may influence policy effectiveness in country-specific contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Techakehakij, Win

    2012-09-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxation is becoming of increasing interest as a policy aimed at addressing the rising prevalence of obesity in many countries. Preliminary evidence indicates its potential to not only reduce obesity prevalence, but also generate public revenue. However, differences in country-specific contexts create uncertainties in its possible outcomes. This paper urges careful consideration of country-specific characteristics by suggesting three points in particular that may influence the effectiveness of a volume-based soft drink excise tax: population obesity prevalence, soft drink consumption levels, and existing baseline tax rates. Data from 19 countries are compared with regard to each point. The authors suggest that SSB or soft drink taxation policy may be more effective in reducing obesity prevalence where existing obesity prevalence and soft drink consumption levels are high. Conversely, in countries where the baseline tax rate is already considered high, SSB taxation may not have a noticeable impact on consumption patterns or obesity prevalence, and may incur negative feedback from the beverage industry or the general public. Thorough evaluation of these points is recommended prior to adopting SSB or soft drink taxation as an obesity reduction measure in any given country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Obesity Prevention in the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams-White, Marissa; Deuster, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments. Although published research within the military setting directed towards obesity prevention is limited, many innovative programs have been launched and need to be followed forward. The review of past and ongoing efforts can be an important step in identifying specific areas needing improvement, gaps that should be considered, lessons learned, and characteristics of successful programs that should be disseminated as best practices and further expanded.

  2. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors. 

  3. Prevalence of obesity and its correlates in school going adolescents of Haldwani, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Aggarwal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With a rising trend of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs in the present world, overweight and obesity has gained importance as it is not only a disease in itself but also risk factor for majority of other NCDs. A dramatic increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescent has raised the concern of various public health physicians especially in developing country like India. Aims & Objective: To study the prevalence of overweight and obesity & its correlates among school going adolescents of Haldwani block. Material & Methods: School based cross sectional study was done among the adolescents of 8th to 12th standard. To calculate the maximum sample size prevalence of obesity was assumed to be 50%, taking absolute error of 5%, design effect of 2 and 10% non-response rate the sample was calculated to be 880, rounded off to 900. Samples were collected from 30 clusters/schools using simple random sampling. Data was collected using a pre-designed, semi-structured and pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Results: Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 13% (CI = 10.8 - 15.2%. Overweight and obesity was found to be significantly associated with urban area, private school, Socio-economic class I, non-vegetarian diet, physical inactivity and playing videogames, working on laptops and computer on univariate analysis. On applying binary logistic regression factors like private schools, socioeconomic class I, non-vegetarian diet and physical inactivity were again found to be significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Prevalence of obesity was found to be more in adolescents having modifiable risk factors.  

  4. The Relationship of Obesity to Increasing Health-Care Burden in the Setting of Orthopaedic Polytrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Heather; Murray, Mark; Vassaur, John; Jupiter, Daniel C; Regner, Justin L; Chaput, Christopher D

    2015-11-18

    With the rise of obesity in the American population, there has been a proportionate increase of obesity in the trauma population. The purpose of this study was to use a computed tomography-based measurement of adiposity to determine if obesity is associated with an increased burden to the health-care system in patients with orthopaedic polytrauma. A prospective comprehensive trauma database at a level-I trauma center was utilized to identify 301 patients with polytrauma who had orthopaedic injuries and intensive care unit admission from 2006 to 2011. Routine thoracoabdominal computed tomographic scans allowed for measurement of the truncal adiposity volume. The truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index was calculated from the computed tomography-based volumes based on a previously validated algorithm. A truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index of obese patients and ≥ 30 kg/m(2) denoted obese patients. The need for orthopaedic surgical procedure, in-hospital mortality, length of stay, hospital charges, and discharge disposition were compared between the two groups. Of the 301 patients, 21.6% were classified as obese (truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index of ≥ 30 kg/m(2)). Higher truncal three-dimensional reconstruction body mass index was associated with longer hospital length of stay (p = 0.02), more days spent in the intensive care unit (p = 0.03), more frequent discharge to a long-term care facility (p obesity on patients with polytrauma. Obese patients were found to have higher total hospital charges, longer hospital stays, discharge to a continuing-care facility, and a higher rate of orthopaedic surgical intervention. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  5. Assessing long-term QALYs gain from averting and reversing overweight and obesity in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techakehakij, Win

    2016-10-01

    Interventions to tackle childhood obesity have been devised in response to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. However, efficiency of these interventions remains a concern. Cost-utility analysis, representing health benefits in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), is a type of economic evaluation that has widely been recommended in assessing efficiency of health interventions. However, certain limitations in using QALYs remain specifically difficult in QALYs estimation. This study estimates the long-term QALYs gain from reversing childhood obesity in Thailand. An economic model was developed to estimate long-term QALYs of the youth aged 3-18 for the BMI status in childhood, which were categorized into three groups: normal weight, overweight, and obese. Long-term QALYs were estimated between ages 35 and 100, according to children's age, sex, and BMI status. Differences in QALYs between BMI status groups were calculated to represent the QALYs gain for youth from reversing obesity and overweight. The future outcomes were discounted at 3 % per annum in the base-case analysis; the discount rates of 0, 1.5, 3.5, and 5 % were also applied in the sensitivity analyses. QALYs gained from reversing childhood obesity increase with age, starting from 0.040 and 0.083 QALYs at age 3 to 0.590 and 0.553 QALYs at age 18 in boys and girls, respectively. Reversing overweight and obesity in girls produces more QALYs than in boys between ages 3 and 17. Efficiency is an important issue in allocating public healthcare resources to maximize social benefits. The results of this study facilitate long-term QALYs estimation with respect to BMI status in childhood, which could encourage more routine economic evaluation of child obesity interventions and maximize their health benefits.

  6. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  7. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24-159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects...... without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile...

  9. Study on closed pressure vessel test. Effect of heat rate, sample weight and vessel size on pressure rise due to thermal decomposition; Mippeigata atsuryoku yoki shiken ni kansuru kenkyu. Atsuryoku hassei kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsusokudo, shiryoryo oyobi youki saizu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Kenji.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering

    1999-02-28

    We have attempted to devise a new closed pressure vessel test apparatus in order to evaluate the violence of thermal decomposition of self-reactive materials and have examined some influencing factors, such as heat rate, sample weight, filling factor (sample weight/vessel size) and vessel size on Pmax (maximum pressure rise) and dP/dt (rate of pressure rise) due to their thermal decomposition. As a result, the following decreasing orders of Pmax and dP/dt were shown. Pmax: ADCA>BPZ>AIBN>TCP dP/dt: AIBN>BPZ>ADCA>TCP Moreover, Pmax was not almost influenced by heat rate, while dP/dt increased with an increase in heat rate in the case of BPZ. Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in sample weight and the degree of increase depended on the kinds of materials. In addition, it was shown that Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in vessel size at a constant filling factor. (author)

  10. Heart rate index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Pedersen, F H; Svendsen, J H

    1992-01-01

    after the myocardial infarction. A significant correlation (Spearman's correlation coefficient rs, p less than 0.05) was found between LVEF at rest and the following variables assessed at exercise test: 1) the heart rate at rest, 2) rise in heart rate, 3) ratio between maximal heart rate and heart rate...... at rest, 4) rise in systolic blood pressure, 5) rate pressure product at rest, 6) rise in rate pressure product, 7) ratio (rHR) between maximal rate pressure product and rate pressure product at rest, 8) total exercise time. The heart rate was corrected for effects caused by age (heart index (HR...

  11. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  12. Future of obesity prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has risen sharply during the last 4 decades imposing a serious health burden to modern society. Obesity is known to cause and exacerbate many chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, stroke, obstructive sleep apnea and certain cancers, among many others. The rise in obesity prevalence is mainly caused by overconsumption of energy, coupled to a sedentary life in susceptible individuals. Weight homeostasis is paramount for survival and its control is coordinated by neural and endocrine signals emanating from the fat tissue, digestive system and brain. During thousands of years humans were challenged by nutrient deprivation, developing an efficient mechanism to store energy. It explains the difficulty in losing weight, making obesity prevention the main effective health approach to halt the obesity epidemic.

  13. The Epidemiology of Obesity: A Big Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of overweight and obesity presents a major challenge to chronic disease prevention and health across the life course around the world. Fueled by economic growth, industrialization, mechanized transport, urbanization, an increasingly sedentary lifestyle, and a nutritional transition to processed foods and high calorie diets over the last 30 years, many countries have witnessed the prevalence of obesity in its citizens double, and even quadruple. Rising prevalence of childhood obesity, in particular, forebodes a staggering burden of disease in individuals and healthcare systems in the decades to come. A complex, multifactorial disease, with genetic, behavioral, socioeconomic, and environmental origins, obesity raises risk of debilitating morbidity and mortality. Relying primarily on epidemiologic evidence published within the last decade, this non-exhaustive review discusses the extent of the obesity epidemic, its risk factors—known and novel—, sequelae, and economic impact across the globe. PMID:25471927

  14. Obesity and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources About Policymakers Media ASA Member Toolkit Risks Obesity Explore this page: Obesity How does being overweight ... What you can do to reduce your risk? Obesity More than one-third of Americans are obese ...

  15. Cancer and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Cancer and obesity Overweight and obesity are associated with cancer Language: ... a cancer associated with overweight and obesity. Problem Obesity is a leading cancer risk factor. What’s happening? ...

  16. Comparison of obesity, overweight and elevated blood pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Overweight and obesity in children, and adolescents is on the rise globally. Affected children are prone to cardio-metabolic problems later in life, especially hypertension. The prevalence of obesity/overweight may differ depending on school type. Private schools are attended mostly by children of the affluent, ...

  17. The prevalence and Predictors of generalised obesity in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases has become a global epidemic even in the developing nations of the world. Epidemiologic transition with rapid urbanisation is important variable implicated in the rising prevalence of obesity. The prevalence of this major risk factor for ...

  18. Factors predisposing to obesity: a review of the literature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity is not only a problem found in the adult population but ... The rising prevalence of obesity is a worldwide problem affecting not only the developed world but also .... undergo catch-up growth.35 It is known that BMI falls in neonatal life.

  19. Challenges of childhood obesity in a developing economy: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Obesity once considered a high income country's malady is now on the rise in most developing countries particularly in urban settings. Most of these ... Also obese children have higher risk of orthopaedic problems and psychological disturbances like low -self esteem and bullying. This can also lead to ...

  20. Genes and diet in obesity-related type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, F.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ?30, and type 2 diabetes is rising rapidly worldwide. It is therefore important to study the underlying, etiologic mechanisms of obesity and type 2 diabetes to gain insight into their development, which could eventually lead to

  1. Neurocognitive correlates of obesity and obesity-related behaviors in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, J.; Matheson, BE.; Kaye, WH.; Boutelle, KN.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates have risen dramatically over the past few decades. Although obesity has been linked to poorer neurocognitive functioning in adults, much less is known about this relationship in children and adolescents. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between obesity and obesity-related behaviors with neurocognitive functioning in youth. We reviewed articles from 1976 to 2013 using PsycInfo, PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar. Search terms inclu...

  2. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  3. Neural correlates of pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Amanda S; Martin, Laura E; Savage, Cary R

    2011-06-01

    Childhood obesity rates have increased over the last 40 years and have a detrimental impact on public health. While the causes of the obesity epidemic are complex, obesity ultimately arises from chronic imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. An emerging area of research in obesity has focused on the role of the brain in evaluating the rewarding properties of food and making decisions about what and how much to eat. This article reviews recent scientific literature regarding the brain's role in pediatric food motivation and childhood obesity. The article will begin by reviewing some of the recent literature discussing challenges associated with neuroimaging in children and the relevant developmental brain changes that occur in childhood and adolescence. The article will then review studies regarding neural mechanisms of food motivation and the ability to delay gratification in children and how these responses differ in obese compared to healthy weight children. Increasing our understanding about how brain function and behavior may differ in children will inform future research, obesity prevention, and interventions targeting childhood obesity. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Understanding Obesity Perceptions in America: An Exploratory Study of Public Perceptions of the Problem and Possible Actions for Health Product Marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Dennis; Chandra, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Many healthcare professionals have stated that obesity is a major problem in the United States. The rate of obesity in young people has been rising until just recently, when it was reported to have leveled off. The authors examine the problem in terms of people's perception of how great a problem it is, along with examining their perception of the causes and possible remedies for the problem. If the general population does not believe that a problem exists, then corrective action will be hampered. Then, the authors examine what impact this has on marketing products to address this problem.

  5. An obese young man with uncontrolled diabetes and insatiable hunger: Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abilash Nair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare cause of obesity. With the rising incidence of obesity, clinicians need to be aware of genetic causes of obesity and when to suspect them. A case of PWS, which was diagnosed in adulthood, has been discussed. This case is special because of lack of history of floppiness in infancy and predominance behavioral problems.

  6. Iron biology, immunology, aging and obesity: four fields connected by the small peptide hormone, hepcidin

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well-known that obesity and aging have a negative impact on iron status and immune response, but little is known about the additional impact that obesity may have on iron homeostasis and immunity in the elderly. This question is relevant given the rising numbers of elderly obese individuals a...

  7. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  8. A Review of Obesity and Its Relationship with the Built Environment: Implications for Health Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is an important worldwide public health problem. Obesogenic environments have been associated with increasing rates of overweight and obesity. The relationship between obesity and the built environment, along with its implications for health education are discussed in this article.

  9. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  10. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian

    2016-01-01

    in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion. PARTICIPANTS/METHODS: The study was conducted...... as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control...

  11. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  12. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ectopic” sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23–24.9 kg/m2 for overweight and ≥25 kg/m2 for obesity, WC ≥80 cm for women and ≥90 cm for men for abdominal obesity for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more

  13. Neural correlates to food-related behavior in normal-weight and overweight/obese participants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Ho

    Full Text Available Two thirds of US adults are either obese or overweight and this rate is rising. Although the etiology of obesity is not yet fully understood, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the central nervous system has a principal role in regulating eating behavior. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging and survey data were evaluated for correlations between food-related problem behaviors and the neural regions underlying responses to visual food cues before and after eating in normal-weight individuals and overweight/obese individuals. In normal-weight individuals, activity in the left amygdala in response to high-calorie food vs. nonfood object cues was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores during fasting, suggesting that those with impaired satiety scores may have an abnormal anticipatory reward response. In overweight/obese individuals, activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in response to low-calorie food cues was negatively correlated with impaired satiety during fasting, suggesting that individuals scoring lower in satiety impairment were more likely to activate the DLPFC inhibitory system. After eating, activity in both the putamen and the amygdala was positively correlated with impaired satiety scores among obese/overweight participants. While these individuals may volitionally suggest they are full, their functional response to food cues suggests food continues to be salient. These findings suggest brain regions involved in the evaluation of visual food cues may be mediated by satiety-related problems, dependent on calorie content, state of satiation, and body mass index.

  14. Hypogonadism in a male-to-female transsexual with super obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanian, S; Irwig, M S

    2013-08-01

    The global obesity epidemic is having a profound impact on the health of populations. From a reproductive standpoint, obesity has been associated with infertility and hypogonadism. We present the case of a 29-year-old male-to-female transsexual with super obesity (body mass index >50) who was found to have profound hypogonadism with total and free testosterone levels in the normal female reference range. There is virtually no literature on the hormonal sequelae of obesity in transsexual people. The patient was prescribed an aromatase inhibitor, letrozole 2.5 mg twice daily for 2 weeks, to determine the role of oestrogen in the hypogonadism. The aromatase inhibitor reduced the serum oestradiol concentration from 125 to 6.9 pm. There were dramatic corresponding rises in total testosterone (2.8 to 10.7 nm), luteinising hormone (4.1 to 20.5 mIU ml(-1) ) and follicle stimulating hormone (1.8 to 15.3 mIU ml(-1) ). This diagnostic test demonstrated the important role of oestrogen in mediating the hypogonadism. After the testing, the patient was started on oestrogen therapy after a careful discussion of the benefits versus risks of oestrogen therapy. We anticipate that similar cases of hypogonadism in male-to-female transsexuals will likely become more common in an era of increased obesity rates. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Are single children more likely to be overweight or obese than those with siblings? The influence of China's one-child policy on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jungwon; Xue, Hong; Wang, Vivian H C; Li, Miao; Wang, Youfa

    2017-10-01

    China's one-child policy (1979-2015) has affected Chinese parenting practices and children's health behaviors and also may have contributed to increased childhood obesity. However, very limited research has investigated the association between one-child policy and childhood obesity. We examined characteristics of single-child families and the influence of one-child policy (indicated by single-child status) on children's weight status and related health behaviors. Data from children aged 6-18years old in the 2011 (n=1580) and 2000 (n=2317) China Health and Nutrition Survey were cross-sectionally analyzed with multilevel models. From 2000 to 2011, the rates about doubled for being a single-child (30.1% to 57.0%) and being overweight or obese (OWB, 6.6% to 16.5%) along with urbanization (27.5% to 37.1%). Single-child families had higher levels of parental education, household income and urban residence than families with ≥ two children (pchildren with siblings, single children were more likely to be OWB; the association became stronger over time (OR=4.5 (1.7-12.4) in 2011 and 1.7 (1.0-2.8) in 2000). Also, single children had less recreational screen time, but similar physical activity levels; however single urban children were more likely to have excess total energy intake (OR=5.70 (1.58-20.60)) than those with siblings. Being single-child is about four times more likely to be overweight/obesity than those having siblings, and the association became stronger over time in China. China's one-child policy might have contributed to its rising childhood obesity rates. Obesity intervention programs may need to account for the influence of the one-child policy in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  17. Obesity as a Possible Risk Factor for Lost-time Injury in Registered Nurses: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Jordan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Time-loss injuries are still a major occurrence in Canada, injuring thousands of Canadian workers each year. With obesity rates on the rise across the country, as well as around the world, it is important that the possible effects of obesity in the workplace be fully understood, especially those effects linked to lost-time injuries. The aim of this paper was to evaluate predictors of workplace lost-time injuries and how they may be related to obesity or high body mass index by examining factors associated with lost-time injuries in the health care sector, a well-studied industry with the highest number of reported time loss injuries in Canada. A literature review focusing on lost-time injuries in Registered Nurses (RNs was conducted using the keywords and terms: lost time injury, workers' compensation, occupational injury, workplace injury, injury, injuries, work, workplace, occupational, nurse, registered nurse, RN, health care, predictors, risk factors, risk, risks, cause, causes, obese, obesity, and body mass index. Data on predictors or factors associated with lost-time injuries in RNs were gathered and organized using Loisel's Work Disability Prevention Management Model and extrapolated upon using existing literature surrounding obesity in the Canadian workplace.

  18. SaludableOmaha: development of a youth advocacy initiative to increase community readiness for obesity prevention, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Stewart, Catherine; Robbins, Regina; Riggs, Cara; Mayberger, Susan; Cervantes, Alberto; Huang, Terry T-K

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in minority populations continue to rise despite leveling national trends. Although interventions that address social and environmental factors exist, processes that create demand for policy and environmental change within communities have not been identified. We developed a pilot program in South Omaha, a Nebraska Latino community, based on the community readiness model (CRM), called SaludableOmaha. We used CRM to explore the potential of youth advocacy to shift individual and community norms regarding obesity prevention in South Omaha and to advocate for health-promoting community environments. We used CRM to assess supply and demand for health programs, engage the community, determine the community's baseline readiness to address childhood obesity, and guide youth advocacy program development. We conducted our project in 2 phases. In the first, we trained a cohort of youth. In the second, the youth cohort created and launched a Latino health movement, branded as SaludableOmaha. A third phase, which is currently under way, is directed at institutionalizing youth advocacy in communities. At baseline, the community studied was at a low stage of readiness for change. Our program generated infrastructure and materials to support the growth and institutionalization of youth advocacy as a means of increasing community readiness for addressing obesity prevention. CRM is an important tool for addressing issues such as childhood obesity in underserved communities because it provides a framework for matching interventions to the community. Community partnerships such as SaludableOmaha can aid the adoption of obesity prevention programs.

  19. Physical Fitness, Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, or Diet—What Are the Correlates of Obesity in Polish School Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyż, Stanisław H.; Toriola, Abel L.; Starościak, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Marek; Paul, Yvonne; Oyeyemi, Adewale L.

    2017-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of rising prevalence of overweight and obesity and its co-morbidities among children in western-high income developed countries. In the European Union, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing fastest among Polish children. Yet, there is paucity of evidence on the relationship of behavioral factors with body weight status of children in Poland. This study examined the association of obesity with physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet among Polish children. A total of 641 children (10–15 years) recruited from the Lower Silesia region of Poland participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants’ anthropometrics, physical fitness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and dietary intake were assessed. Outcome variables were weight categories (according to body mass index [BMI], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], and percentage body fat [% BF]). The strongest negative correlation was found between VO2max and %BF (r = −0.39, p children by 13%, 26% and 19%, respectively as compared to the group of obese children. VO2max and weight and obesity indices were strongly correlated in both gender and age groups. Education and intervention programs to increase physical fitness (VO2max) through aerobic training are recommended for Physical Education teachers, parents and children in order to reduce the rate of overweight and obesity among children in the Lower Silesia region of Poland. PMID:28632175

  20. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  1. Treating Obesity As a Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Obesity, And What You Can Do Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic Stress Management How Does Stress Affect You? ... Keeping the Weight Off • Obesity - Introduction - Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic - Treating Obesity as a Disease - Childhood Obesity ...

  2. Economic policy and the double burden of malnutrition: cross-national longitudinal analysis of minimum wage and women's underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2018-04-01

    To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.

  3. The Rise of Blog Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the growth of blogs in popular culture, and the fact that they are becoming more widely accepted in the media industry. The rise and popularity of blogs--short for "Web logs"--are causing journalism educators to overhaul their teachings. In fact, blogging's influence varies from one university program to the next, just like…

  4. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  5. Educational inequality as a predictor of rising back pain prevalence in Austria-sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald

    2016-04-01

    Back pain (BP) represents a widespread public health problem in Europe. The morbidity depends on several indicators, which must be investigated to discover risk groups. The examination of trends in socioeconomic developments should ensure a better understanding of the complex link between socioeconomic-status and BP. Therefore, the role of social inequalities for BP has been investigated among Austrian subpopulations over a 24-year period. Self-reported data from nationally representative health surveys (1983-2007) were analyzed and adjusted for self-report bias (N=121 486). Absolute changes (ACs) and aetiologic fractions (AF) were calculated to measure trends. To quantify the extent of social inequality, the relative index of inequality was computed based on educational levels. The prevalence of BP nearly doubled between 1983 and 2007. When investigating educational groups, subjects with low educational level were most prevalent. Obese persons generally showed higher rates of BP than non-obese subjects. Continuously rising trends across the different educational groups were more evident in men. The AC was highest in obese men with high education (+32.9%). Education-related inequalities for BP were more evident in men than women. Educational level is an important social indicator for BP. A gradient for low to high educational level in the trends of BP prevalence was clearly identified and stable only among men. We presume that the association 'education' and 'physical workload leading to BP' is more relevant for men than for women. The implementation of effective approaches to BP, in combination with target group-specific interventions focusing on educational status, is recommended. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. BMC Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoqing; McConn, Betty R.; Liu, Dongmin; Cline, Mark A.; Gilbert, Elizabeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Broiler chickens are compulsive feeders that become obese as juveniles and are thus a unique model for metabolic disorders in humans. However, little is known about the relationship between dietary composition, fasting and refeeding and adipose tissue physiology in chicks. Our objective was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and fasting and refeeding affect chick adipose physiology during the early pos...

  7. Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellova Amir Masrizal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is performed by genetic, environmental, and complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Fatness levels in obese children are indicative of increased risk for elevated blood pressure, cholesterol, and lipoprotein ratios children and adolescents. Serum cholesterol and blood pressure are related to raise atherosclerotic lesion. Certain cardiovascular disease risk factors in obese children are related to the earliest stages of atherosclerosis disease. Obese children have the high risk factors of certain cardiovascular disease. Genetic factors affecting metabolic rate can be successfully managed by the introduction of environmental factors such as decrease caloric intake and increase physical activity. The treatment of obesity and of atherosclerotic patients should include dietary restriction (protein sparing modified fast and hypocaloric balanced diet, nutrition education, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and familial support. Success fully management of obesity can improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity.

  8. Reduction of misclassification rates of obesity by body mass index using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans to improve subsequent prediction of per cent fat mass in a Caucasian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susie Dawn; Astrup, Arne; Skovgaard, Ib

    2011-01-01

    Recognition is increasing for the errors of body mass index (BMI) in classification of excess body fat. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is accurate to assess body fat mass per cent (%FM), but is underutilized clinically. We examined the prevalence of obesity misclassification by BMI....... The majority of men with BMI 25–27 kg m-2 and women with BMI 24–26 kg m-2 were misclassified. Using multiple scan data (189 men, 311 women) and calculating the patient-specific constant C = (1 - %FM/100)3/2 ¥ BMI from baseline BMI and %FM, misclassification rates were halved for both genders when a personal...... threshold, BMIT, was used ([BMIT = C/(0.75)3/2] for men and [BMIT = C/(0.65)3/2] for women). We conclude that simple formulae allow evaluation of fatness of individual patients more accurately than BMI, with the use of one baseline DXA scan, and enable the establishment of patient-specific obesity treatment...

  9. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  10. The Climate Science Special Report: Rising Seas and Changing Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    GMSL has risen by about 16-21 cm since 1900. Ocean heat content has increased at all depths since the 1960s, and global mean sea-surface temperature increased 0.7°C/century between 1900 to 2016. Human activity contributed substantially to generating a rate of GMSL rise since 1900 faster than during any preceding century in at least 2800 years. A new set of six sea-level rise scenarios, spanning a range from 30 cm to 250 cm of 21st century GMSL rise, were developed for the CSSR. The lower scenario is based on linearly extrapolating the past two decades' rate of rise. The upper scenario is informed by literature estimates of maximum physically plausible values, observations indicating the onset of marine ice sheet instability in parts of West Antarctica, and modeling of ice-cliff and ice-shelf instability mechanisms. The new scenarios include localized projections along US coastlines. There is significant variability around the US, with rates of rise likely greater than GMSL rise in the US Northeast and the western Gulf of Mexico. Under scenarios involving extreme Antarctic contributions, regional rise would be greater than GMSL rise along almost all US coastlines. Historical sea-level rise has already driven a 5- to 10-fold increase in minor tidal flooding in several US coastal cities since the 1960s. Under the CSSR's Intermediate sea-level rise scenario (1.0 m of GMSL rise in 2100) , a majority of NOAA tide gauge locations will by 2040 experience the historical 5-year coastal flood about 5 times per year. Ocean changes are not limited to rising sea levels. Ocean pH is decreasing at a rate that may be unparalleled in the last 66 million years. Along coastlines, ocean acidification can be enhanced by changes in the upwelling (particularly along the US Pacific Coast); by episodic, climate change-enhanced increases in freshwater input (particularly along the US Atlantic Coast); and by the enhancement of biological respiration by nutrient runoff. Climate models project

  11. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  12. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  13. Vital Signs – Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.

  14. Obesity and sexual dysfunction in younger Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingelise; Heitman, B. L.; Wagner, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Proportion of populations that are overweight and obese are on the rise and generally affecting more than 50% of the adult Western male population. It is, therefore, of interest to look at possible associations between obesity and sexual function in a homogeneous population. AIM......: To examine a possible association between sexual disorders (erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorders, and sexual desire disorders) and obesity among younger men born and living in Denmark. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study of sexual health among Danish younger men. Questionnaires were...... the younger obese nonsmokers than obese smokers. Premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, and sexual desire disorders were all unrelated to overweight or obesity. CONCLUSION: Obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) seems associated with ED among younger men aged 20-45 years. Health programs directed toward...

  15. Chronodisruption and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. CONTENT:Regularly alternating periods of light and darkness, such as normally occur with the rising and the setting of the sun, are essential for the maintenance of undisturbed circadian rhythms in all organisms including humans. The light-dark environment, as detected by specialized photoreceptors in the retinas, impacts the endogenous circadian clock in the anterior hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nuclei. These nuclei, via both neural and humoral signals, communicate with cells throughout the organism to establish regular circadian rhythms. The introduction of artificial sources of light roughly 150 years ago has significantly undermined the naturally occurring light-dark environment and, likewise, has disturbed circadian rhythms since light is now available at unusual times, i.e., at night. Light at night is known to cause circadian disruption and melatonin suppression. Many potentially pathophysiological consequences of these artificial light-mediated changes, include cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insomnia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cognitive disorders may be aggravated by the increased exposure to light at night, which is inevitable in well-developed societies that have undergone extensive electrification. SUMMARY: Therefore, it is plausible that resetting of the circadian clock can be used as a new approach to attenuate obesity. Feeding regimens, such as restricted feeding, calorie restriction and intermittent fasting, provide a time cue and reset the circadian clock and

  16. Modeling the clinical and economic implications of obesity using microsimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, W; Huang, J; Chen, F; Iacobucci, W; Mocarski, M; Dall, T M; Perreault, L

    2015-01-01

    for obese adults rise more rapidly with aging relative to normal weight adults.

  17. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Sherina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013, ethnicity (p = 0.001, religion (p = 0.002, schooling (p = 0.020, educational level (p = 0.016, marital status (p = 0.001 and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

  18. Prevalence and change of central obesity among US Asian adults: NHANES 2011–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central obesity is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. The prevalence of central obesity has not been reported fully among Asian adults in the United States (US. Methods Cross-sectional data of 1288 Asian adults aged 20 years or over was selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with a stratified multi-stage sampling design. The prevalence of central obesity was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs and Chi-square tests were conducted to test the significance of the prevalence differences across characteristic groups. Results The overall prevalence of central obesity among US Asian adults was 58.1% in 2011–2014. The prevalence of central obesity was higher in older adults (73.5% than in young adults (45.4% (p < 0.0001. Women had 13.4% higher prevalence than men (64.4% vs 51.0%, p < 0.0001. The prevalence increased over time (2011–2012 vs 2013–2014 in young adults (39.2% vs 51.5%, men (45.4% vs 56.6%, adults with college education or above (54.2% vs 61.7% and non-poor adults (55.4% vs 62.4%. Compared with men, women had higher prevalence in each subgroup of age, education, poverty, and length of time (except for the subgroup of “born in the US” (all p < 0.05 and in the subgroup of “married or living with partner” for marital status (p < 0.0001. Conclusion Central obesity is prevalent in Asian adults, particularly in older adults and women. More efforts are needed to prevent and treat obesity in Asian adults as Asians are incurring the greatest increase in type 2 diabetes in parallel with the rising rate of central adiposity.

  19. Internet addiction, sleep and health-related life quality among obese individuals: a comparison study of the growing problems in adolescent health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliacik, Kayi; Bolat, Nurullah; Koçyiğit, Cemil; Kanik, Ali; Selkie, Ellen; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Catli, Gonul; Dundar, Nihal Olgac; Dundar, Bumin Nuri

    2016-12-01

    The rapid rise in the global prevalence of obesity suggests that environmental factors may be responsible. The increased use of technology is associated with increased rates of obesity due to declines in physical activity and significant sedentary life style. Internet addiction is also a growing health issue associated with diminished physical activity and poor sleep quality as well as various health problems. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between Internet addiction and adolescent obesity-related problems. In this case-control study, 71 adolescents with obesity were recruited from the outpatient clinic at Tepecik Teaching Hospital and Katip Celebi University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 64 non-obese adolescents that were matched with patients in the study group by age and gender. All subjects completed socio-demographic forms, an Internet addiction scale, the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Adolescents with obesity were significantly more likely to have Internet addiction (p = 0.002), lower quality of life (p Internet addiction and less physical activity were associated with increased odds of obesity. The results indicated a significant association between Internet addiction and obesity. Health practitioners should take possible Internet addiction, online activities, and physical activities into consideration in follow-up of obese adolescents. In addition to pharmacologic therapies and dietary interventions, providing behavioral therapy targeting healthy Internet use may be promising to reduce the effects of obesity in adolescence.

  20. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  1. Implicit Messages Regarding Unhealthy Foodstuffs in Chinese Television Advertisements: Increasing the Risk of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela; Schulz, Peter J; Schirato, Tony; Hall, Brian J

    2018-01-04

    Previous studies indicated that television (TV) advertising is associated with higher rates of obesity. The rate of obesity and overweight continues to rise in mainland China, bringing into question whether TV advertising to young audiences might be partly to blame. This study investigated messaging delivered through TV advertisements regarding healthy and unhealthy foodstuffs. A total of 42 major food brands and 480 advertisements were analysed for content in this study. The results showed that the majority of TV spots advertised products with poor nutritional content and had a potential to mislead audiences concerning products' actual nutritional value. The tactics of repetition and appeals of premium offerings on food brands have a potential to influence the purchase intentions. Additional qualitative observation involving the social bond, social context and cultural factors pertaining to mood alterations were highlighted. The discussion addressed product attributes reflected by culture and the implicit messages of marketing claims may increase the risk of obesity. Thus, public health policymakers and researchers were encouraged to act urgently to evaluate the obesity risks of unhealthy food advertised in the media and to support healthy foods.

  2. Implicit Messages Regarding Unhealthy Foodstuffs in Chinese Television Advertisements: Increasing the Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Angela; Schirato, Tony; Hall, Brian J.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that television (TV) advertising is associated with higher rates of obesity. The rate of obesity and overweight continues to rise in mainland China, bringing into question whether TV advertising to young audiences might be partly to blame. This study investigated messaging delivered through TV advertisements regarding healthy and unhealthy foodstuffs. A total of 42 major food brands and 480 advertisements were analysed for content in this study. The results showed that the majority of TV spots advertised products with poor nutritional content and had a potential to mislead audiences concerning products’ actual nutritional value. The tactics of repetition and appeals of premium offerings on food brands have a potential to influence the purchase intentions. Additional qualitative observation involving the social bond, social context and cultural factors pertaining to mood alterations were highlighted. The discussion addressed product attributes reflected by culture and the implicit messages of marketing claims may increase the risk of obesity. Thus, public health policymakers and researchers were encouraged to act urgently to evaluate the obesity risks of unhealthy food advertised in the media and to support healthy foods. PMID:29300366

  3. Trends of obesity and abdominal obesity in Tehranian adults: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmiran Parvin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the increasing trend of obesity reported in current data, this study was conducted to examine trends of obesity and abdominal obesity among Tehranian adults during a median follow-up of 6.6 years. Methods Height and weight of 4402 adults, aged 20 years and over, participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS, were measured in 1999-2001(phase I and again in 2002-2005(phase II and 2006-2008 (phase III. Criteria used for obesity and abdominal obesity defined body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 and waist circumference ≥ 94/80 cm for men/women respectively. Subjects were divided into10-year groups and the prevalence of obesity was compared across sex and age groups. Results The prevalence of obesity was 15.8, 18.6 and 21% in men and 31.5, 37.7 and 38.6% in women in phases I, II and III respectively (p Conclusion This study demonstrates alarming rises in the prevalences of both obesity and abdominal obesity in both sexes especially in young men, calling for urgent action to educate people in lifestyle modifications.

  4. Reduction of Portion Size and Eating Rate Is Associated with BMI-SDS Reduction in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: Results on Eating and Nutrition Behaviour from the Observational KgAS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbahn, Gabriel; Gellhaus, Ines; Koch, Benjamin; von Kries, Rüdiger; Obermeier, Viola; Holl, Reinhard W; Fink, Katharina; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of paediatric obesity focuses on changes of nutrition and eating behaviour and physical activity. The evaluation of the patient education programme by KgAS was utilised to analyse the association of changes of portion size, eating rate and dietary habits with BMI-SDS reductions. Patients (n = 297) were examined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and after 1-year follow-up at different out-patient centres. Their parents completed questionnaires including estimation of children's portion size, eating rate and frequency of food intake. Associations of 1- and 2-year changes in BMI-SDS and behaviour were calculated for patients with complete data in BMI-SDS, portion size, eating rate, frequency of green, yellow and red food intake (n = 131) by multiple linear regression models. Significant changes were found in the desired direction for BMI-SDS, portion size, eating rate and the intake of unfavourable red food items both after 1 and 2 years as well as for the consumption of favourable green food items after 1 year. Significant positive associations with BMI-SDS reduction after 1 and 2 years were detected for portion size (Cohen's f2 0.13 and 0.09) and eating rate (Cohen's f2 0.20 and 0.10), respectively. Reduced portion sizes and eating rates are associated with BMI-SDS reduction after 1 and 2 years. These findings suggest to focus on appropriate portion sizes and reduced eating rates in patient education programmes. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  5. Reduction of Portion Size and Eating Rate Is Associated with BMI-SDS Reduction in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents: Results on Eating and Nutrition Behaviour from the Observational KgAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Torbahn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of paediatric obesity focuses on changes of nutrition and eating behaviour and physical activity. The evaluation of the patient education programme by KgAS was utilised to analyse the association of changes of portion size, eating rate and dietary habits with BMI-SDS reductions. Methods: Patients (n = 297 were examined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and after 1-year follow-up at different out-patient centres. Their parents completed questionnaires including estimation of children's portion size, eating rate and frequency of food intake. Associations of 1- and 2-year changes in BMI-SDS and behaviour were calculated for patients with complete data in BMI-SDS, portion size, eating rate, frequency of green, yellow and red food intake (n = 131 by multiple linear regression models. Results: Significant changes were found in the desired direction for BMI-SDS, portion size, eating rate and the intake of unfavourable red food items both after 1 and 2 years as well as for the consumption of favourable green food items after 1 year. Significant positive associations with BMI-SDS reduction after 1 and 2 years were detected for portion size (Cohen's f2 0.13 and 0.09 and eating rate (Cohen's f2 0.20 and 0.10, respectively. Conclusion: Reduced portion sizes and eating rates are associated with BMI-SDS reduction after 1 and 2 years. These findings suggest to focus on appropriate portion sizes and reduced eating rates in patient education programmes.

  6. Are there healthy obese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  8. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  9. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  10. The obesity epidemic and disordered sleep during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2010-12-01

    The obesity pandemic is claiming its presence even among youngest of children and is clearly on the rise. Although the extent and implications of this massive increase in the prevalence of overweight and obese children are unclear, they are anticipated to be deleterious to global health outcomes and life expectancy. The potential interrelationships between sleep and obesity have gained recent attention. In this chapter, we initially examine the critical evidence supporting or refuting such proposed associations. In addition, the potential reciprocal roles of obesity and obstructive sleep apnea in the facilitation of their pathophysiology are also reviewed, along with their amplificatory effects on their respective morbidities.

  11. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  12. Obesity, social inequality and economic rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Thea; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kærgård, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the economic literature related to obesity and consumer decisions, pursuing the overall question, whether the current obesity epidemic and its social bias can be viewed as a result of rational consumption behaviour. We address a number of potential explanations based on consumers......' utility maximisation behaviour, which all may contribute to explain the ongoing rise in obesity prevalence in many western countries. In addition to standard neoclassical explanations of obesity, we discuss moral hazard aspects, the role of network externalities, self-control problems and habitual...... behaviour. We include all of these aspects of the individual weight decision in a unified theoretical framework and present existing empirical evidence for each effect. Based on our analysis, we discuss the different economic explanations and give suggestions for future research....

  13. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among obese and non-obese patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.B.; Rehman, H.U.; Hafeezullah, M.; Gul, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globally, obesity is now recognised as an epidemic. The degree of obesity is proportional to the rate of development of cardiovascular diseases, hence, resulting in a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality. Apart from obesity, diabetes mellitus is another well recognised risk factor contributing to coronary artery disease. The precise prevalence of obesity-related diabetes varies with age, race and gender; and is yet unknown in our population. We therefore, carried out study with the aim to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in obese and non-obese patients with diagnosed coronary artery disease. Methods: This hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Cardiology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, from March 15, 2005 to May 30, 2006. A total of 200 patients with diagnosed coronary artery disease were enrolled, 100 were classified as obese and 100 as non-obese. Results: Among these, 139 patients were male and 61 female. A total of 88 were found to be diabetic, 54 of these were obese and 34 non-obese (p =0.004). Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus was significantly more frequent among obese patients with coronary artery disease as compared to non obese patients with coronary artery disease. (author)

  14. Prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance among obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Ghergherechi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. ­Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to ­estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose

  15. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  16. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  17. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  18. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  19. Implementation and evaluation of an incentivized Internet-mediated walking program for obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulman, Donna M; Damschroder, Laura J; Smith, Ryan G; Resnick, Paul J; Sen, Ananda; Krupka, Erin L; Richardson, Caroline R

    2013-12-01

    In response to rising health care costs associated with obesity rates, some health care insurers are adopting incentivized technology-enhanced wellness programs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the large-scale implementation of an incentivized Internet-mediated walking program for obese adults and to examine program acceptance, adherence, and impact. A mixed-methods evaluation was conducted to investigate program implementation, acceptance, and adherence rates, and physical activity rates among program participants. Program implementation was shaped by national and state policies, data security concerns, and challenges related to incentivizing participation. Among 15,397 eligible individuals, 6,548 (43 %) elected to participate in the walking program, achieving an average of 6,523 steps/day (SD 2,610 steps). Participants who uploaded step counts for 75 % of days for a full year (n = 2,885) achieved an average of 7,500 steps (SD 3,093). Acceptance and participation rates in this incentivized Internet-mediated walking program suggest that such interventions hold promise for engaging obese adults in physical activity.

  20. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  1. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaor, Melissa Orlandin; Pilbrow, Lesley; Tonkin, Carol; Parker, Richard A; Compston, Juliet

    2010-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a recognized risk factor for fragility fracture, whereas obesity is widely believed to be protective. As part of a clinical audit of guidance from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), we have documented the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity in postmenopausal women younger than 75 years of age presenting to our Fracture Liaison Service (FLS). Between January 2006 and December 2007, 1005 postmenopausal women aged less than 75 years with a low-trauma fracture were seen in the FLS. Of these women, 805 (80%) underwent assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and values for BMI were available in 799. The prevalence of obesity (BMI 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) and morbid obesity (BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2)) in this cohort was 19.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Normal BMD was reported in 59.1% of obese and 73.1% of morbidly obese women, and only 11.7% and 4.5%, respectively, had osteoporosis (p obesity in postmenopausal women presenting to the FLS with low-trauma fracture. Most of these women had normal BMD, as measured by DXA. Our findings have important public heath implications in view of the rapidly rising increase in obesity in many populations and emphasize the need for further studies to establish the pathogenesis of fractures in obese individuals and to determine appropriate preventive strategies. Copyright 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via

  3. [Association between obesity and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Corsini, Gino; Romero, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.

  4. Obesity and Student Performance at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William

    2005-01-01

    To review the state of research on the association between obesity among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating obesity, school performance, and rates of student absenteeism. A table with brief descriptions of each study's research methodology and outcomes is included. Research demonstrates…

  5. "Let's Move!" to End Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…

  6. Obesity in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T

    2002-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were

  7. A Major Chronic Disease: Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Ergul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to draw attention to obesity in adolescence and its potential risks and put forward its consequences in terms of public health as well as offer solutions. Today, obesity has become one of the most frequent chronic diseases of childhood. The tendency to obesity is at an alarming level and the annual increase in this age group is gradually rising. In the 2003 report of the International Obesity Commission, it was stated that one out of ten children aged between 5-17 worldwide was overweight or obese. In addition to social and psychological problems resulting from obesity, it is known to be closely related with very serious diseases such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It is also known that obesity shortens life expectancy and that the process starts in the childhood period of many obese adults. Struggling with obesity actually means struggling with many other diseases. It is also of major significance for the future of our country to struggle with especially childhood obesity. In terms of public health, it is of primary importance to detect, avoid and cure obesity in this period. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 223-230

  8. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  9. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...

  10. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  11. Epidemiologic transitions: migration and development of obesity and cardiometabolic disease in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Terrence

    2013-01-01

    For centuries, the challenge has been the maintenance of bodyweight in the face of marginal food availability. Since the industrial revolution, energy expenditure related to economic activity and domestic life has fallen progressively as technological innovation has replaced muscular power with labor-saving devices. This fall in activity energy expenditure however has not been associated over this entire period with population weight gain. In the 1970s and the 1980s, there was an abrupt uptick in the rate of rise of relative weight in industrialized countries followed rapidly by developing countries. This has led to high and increasing rates of overweight and obesity in high-income countries worldwide, but also an alarming inclusion of low- and middle-income populations in this obesity epidemic. The precise drivers of these concurrent epidemics are not agreed, but probably include on the one hand an increase in dietary energy intake resulting from the impact of industrialization and globalization on food availability and price. On the other, there is the facilitating underlying status of a steadily falling activity energy expenditure as muscle power as an input into economic production as well as household and leisure activities has been supplanted. The rise in population weight without accompanying linear growth manifests as obesity. The accretion of fat as well as the response to other environmental exposures during progressive industrialization and modernization has evoked an accompanying epidemic of cardiometabolic pathology that has significant impact on health as well as macroeconomics. Given the power and presumed irreversibility of industrialization and globalization, our ability to reverse these obesity epidemics is heavily dependent on new knowledge being developed which gives insight with prevention and therapeutic implications on the proximal and distal drivers of this progressive positive energy balance. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger

  12. 75 FR 7197 - Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... of February 9, 2010 Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Across our country, childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates and, as... is committed to redoubling our efforts to solve the problem of childhood obesity within a generation...

  13. Nurse-Led School-Based Child Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.

    2015-01-01

    School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…

  14. "Salud America!" Developing a National Latino Childhood Obesity Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J.; Green, Lawrence W.; Ottoson, Judith

    2011-01-01

    U.S. childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, with one third of children overweight or obese. Latino children have some of the highest obesity rates, a concern because they are part of the youngest and fastest-growing U.S. minority group. Unfortunately, scarce research data on Latinos hinders the development and implementation of…

  15. Comparative Aspects of Human, Canine, and Feline Obesity and Factors Predicting Progression to Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Margarethe Hoenig

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and diabetes mellitus are common diseases in humans, dogs and cats and their prevalence is increasing. Obesity has been clearly identified as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in humans and cats but recent data are missing in dogs, although there is evidence that the unprecedented rise in canine obesity in the last decade has led to a rise in canine diabetes of similar magnitude. The insulin resistance of obesity has often been portrayed as major culprit in the loss of glucose control...

  16. Metabolic syndrome and its characteristics among obese patients attending an obesity clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termizy, H M; Mafauzy, M

    2009-04-01

    The increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome worldwide is closely related to the rising obesity epidemic. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence and identify the associated and prognostic factors that influence the risk of metabolic syndrome among obese patients attending the Obesity Clinic at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. A study was conducted involving 102 obese persons who attended the Obesity Clinic from January 1 to December 31, 2005. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome among obese patients was 40.2 percent. The prevalence was higher in females (43.7 percent) than in males (32.3 percent). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was noted to increase with increasing body mass index class, from class 1 to class 2. However, the prevalence was lower in obesity class 3. The prevalence of metabolic comorbidities of raised blood pressure, reduced high density lipoprotein, high triglyceride and raised fasting blood glucose was 42, 40, 36 and 17 percent, respectively. A quarter of obese patients in this study had no other comorbidity. Based on logistic regression multivariable analysis, age was the only significant associated factor that influenced the risk of having metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high and the highest comorbidity was high blood pressure. Age was the only significant risk factor of having this syndrome.

  17. Relation between Childhood Obesity and Adult Cardiovascular Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M. Allcock

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.

  18. Combined Oocyte Retrieval and Robot-assisted Hysterectomy in a Super Morbidly Obese Patient with Endometrial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Esther H; Brady, Paula C; Smith, Kimberly Keefe; Davis, Michelle R; Muto, Michael G; Ashby, Rachel K; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2018-03-01

    To report on the unique, innovative management of a super morbidly obese patient presenting for fertility preservation in the setting of Grade 2 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma. A back-to-back oocyte retrieval and robot-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy (RA-TLH) with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) was performed in a 37-year-old nulligravid woman with super morbid obesity (BMI 63 kg/m 2 ) with endometrial cancer. the successful retrieval of oocytes for fertility preservation and oncologic intervention via RA-TLH with BSO in the same operative and anesthetic episode. This combined procedure strategy was successful in our case and is a feasible option for similar high-risk patients in the future. Identifying safe and effective approaches for oocyte retrieval in morbidly obese patients represents a pressing need as obesity rates rise among reproductive-aged women. Back-to-back oocyte retrieval and RA-TLH with BSO are not only feasible, but could also decrease significant anesthetic risks for morbidly obese patients. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  20. A National Collaborative for Building the Field of Childhood Obesity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Rising rates of childhood obesity over the past 2 decades have spurred a number of public- and private-sector initiatives aimed at halting or even reversing this trend. Recognizing common interests in this issue, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NIH, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation began conversations about creating a formal collaboration aimed at accelerating efforts to address childhood obesity by coordinating research agendas and providing support for evidence-building activities. The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) was launched in February 2009, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture joined in 2010. Using the model provided by other previously successful collaborations, such as the Youth Tobacco Cessation Collaborative, NCCOR has emphasized several principles suggested by Petrovich as key elements for successful partnerships: (1) delineate a common purpose by identifying key knowledge gaps in the field; (2) create a shared identity around that common purpose; (3) develop structures for democratic and respectful collaboration so as to strategically coordinate efforts for maximum national impact; (4) identify effective leaders capable of articulating challenges in the field and inspiring a commitment of minds and the resolve to address identified needs; (5) facilitate continuous knowledge exchange and synthesis to keep the field informed; and (6) support assessment of progress and feedback loops for ensuring continual progress. This paper examines how NCCOR has used these principles to help build the field of research, evaluation, and surveillance for childhood obesity prevention and management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic disease and impacts renal health in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Chen, Hui; Pollock, Carol A.; Saad, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    Obesity, together with insulin resistance, promotes multiple metabolic abnormalities and is strongly associated with an increased risk of chronic disease including type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The incidence of obesity continues to rise in astronomical proportions throughout the world and affects all the different stages of the lifespan. Importantly, the proportion of women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese is increasing at an alarming rate and has potential ramifications for offspring health and disease risk. Evidence suggests a strong link between the intrauterine environment and disease programming. The current review will describe the importance of the intrauterine environment in the development of metabolic disease, including kidney disease. It will detail the known mechanisms of fetal programming, including the role of epigenetic modulation. The evidence for the role of maternal obesity in the developmental programming of CKD is derived mostly from our rodent models which will be described. The clinical implication of such findings will also be discussed. PMID:29483369

  2. Sustainable childhood obesity prevention through community engagement (SCOPE) program: evaluation of the implementation phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Bonnie; Daly, Amelia; Mâsse, Louise C; Collet, Jean-Paul; Higgins, Joan Wharf; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Amed, Shazhan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood obesity rates are steadily rising. Sustainable Childhood Obesity Prevention Through Community Engagement (SCOPE) is a community-based participatory action research (PAR) program aimed at preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to describe community perspectives on, and elicit feedback about, SCOPE's first phase of implementation in two pilot cities in British Columbia, Canada. A case study was implemented using interviews and questionnaires to obtain feedback about SCOPE from two groups: SCOPE coordinators and stakeholders (i.e., individuals and organizations that were a member of the community and engaged with SCOPE coordinators). Participants were recruited via email and (or) by telephone. Coordinators completed a telephone interview. Stakeholders completed a questionnaire and (or) a telephone interview. Thematic analysis was conducted. Participants included 2 coordinators and 15 stakeholders. Participants similarly interpreted SCOPE as a program focused on raising awareness about childhood obesity prevention, while engaging multiple community sectors. Overall, participants valued the program's role in facilitating networking and partnership development, providing evidence-based resources, technical expertise, and contributing funding. Participants felt that SCOPE is sustainable. However, participants felt that barriers to achieving healthy weights among children included those related to the built environment, and social, behavioral, and economic obstacles. Perspectives on factors that facilitated and acted as barriers to SCOPE's first phase of implementation were obtained from the SCOPE communities and may be used to enhance the sustainability of SCOPE and its applicability to other BC communities.

  3. Developing a Partnership for Change: The National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Rising obesity rates in the U.S. over the past several decades, particularly among children and adolescents, led to an increased focus on research addressing obesity prevention and public- and private-sector initiatives on healthy eating and physical activity. Groups conducting prevention initiatives recognized that their ability to achieve and sustain cross-sector environmental, policy, and systems-level solutions was hampered by limited evidence in those areas. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NIH, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation began to discuss forming a partnership that could accelerate progress to prevent childhood obesity by coordinating research and evaluation agendas and collaboratively building an evidence base. This paper describes the formation, structure, and operations of the National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research, the resulting partnership between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, NIH, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, and since 2010, the U.S. Department of Agriculture. It includes a discussion of lessons learned from, and benefits of, this collaborative model. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  5. Prevalence of hypertension among obese and non-obese patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.B.; Noor, L.; Awan, Z.A.; Shahab-ud-Din; Shah, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globally, obesity is now recognised as an epidemic. The degree of obesity is proportional to the rate of development of cardiovascular diseases, hence, resulting in a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality. Apart from obesity, hypertension is another well recognised risk factor contributing to coronary artery disease (CAD). The precise prevalence of obesity-related hypertension varies with age, race and gender; and is yet unknown in our population. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in obese and non-obese patients with diagnosed CAD. Methods: This hospital based descriptive study was conducted in Cardiology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar from March 15, 2007 to May 30, 2008. A total of 200 patients with diagnosed CAD were enrolled, 100 were found obese and 100 non-obese. Results: Among these, a total of 111 (55.5%) were found to be hypertensive, 66 (59.46%) of these were obese and 45 (40.54%) non-obese (p=0.003). Conclusion: Obese patients with CAD had significantly more frequent hypertension. (author)

  6. The Impact of Familial Predisposition to Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Aas Nielsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached alarming rates world-wide. The aetiology seems to be an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and a surrogate measure of this complex interaction is suggested as familial predisposition. Familial predisposition to obesity and related cardiovascular disease (CVD complications constitute the presence of obesity and/or obesity-related complications in primarily blood-related family members. The approaches of its measurement and applicability vary, and the evidence especially of its influence on obesity and obesity treatment in childhood is limited. Studies have linked a familial predisposition of obesity, CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and thromboembolic events, and type 2 diabetes mellitus to BMI as well as other adiposity measures in children, suggesting degrees of familial aggregation of metabolic derangements. A pattern of predispositions arising from mothers, parents or grandparents as being most influential have been found, but further comprehensive studies are needed in order to specify the exact implications of familial predisposition. In the scope of childhood obesity this article reviews the current literature regarding familial predisposition to obesity and obesity-related complications, and how these familial predispositions may impact obesity in the offspring.

  7. The Impact of Familial Predisposition to Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Louise Aas; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached alarming rates world-wide. The aetiology seems to be an interplay between genetic and environmental factors, and a surrogate measure of this complex interaction is suggested as familial predisposition. Familial predisposition to obesity and related cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications constitute the presence of obesity and/or obesity-related complications in primarily blood-related family members. The approaches of its measurement and applicability vary, and the evidence especially of its influence on obesity and obesity treatment in childhood is limited. Studies have linked a familial predisposition of obesity, CVD (hypertension, dyslipidaemia and thromboembolic events), and type 2 diabetes mellitus to BMI as well as other adiposity measures in children, suggesting degrees of familial aggregation of metabolic derangements. A pattern of predispositions arising from mothers, parents or grandparents as being most influential have been found, but further comprehensive studies are needed in order to specify the exact implications of familial predisposition. In the scope of childhood obesity this article reviews the current literature regarding familial predisposition to obesity and obesity-related complications, and how these familial predispositions may impact obesity in the offspring. PMID:26465142

  8. School-based programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity: evidence-based interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K; Nagle, Brian J; Arredondo, Elva M; Barquera, Simón; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be gathered from such interventions. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1965 and December 2010. Interventions were considered eligible if they had a school-based component, were done in Latin America, evaluated an obesity related outcome (body mass index [BMI], weight, %body fat, waist circumference, BMI z-score), and compared youth exposed vs not exposed. Ten studies were identified as having a school-based component. Most interventions had a sample of normal and overweight children. The most successful interventions focused on prevention rather than treatment, had longer follow-ups, a multidisciplinary team, and fewer limitations in execution. Three prevention and 2 treatment interventions found sufficient improvements in obesity-related outcomes. We found sufficient evidence to recommend school-based interventions to prevent obesity among youth in Latin America. Evidence-based interventions in the school setting should be promoted as an important component for integrated programs, policies, and monitoring frameworks designed to reverse the childhood obesity in the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  10. Superphenix set to rise again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Superphenix, France's seemingly jinxed fast breeder reactor, which has not produced a single kilowatt of energy in more than 3 years, looks set to rise up next year like the mythical bird it is named after. The $5 billion reactor, the largest fast breeder in the world, has just been given the seal of approval by a public commission ordered by the government to look at the pros and cons of restarting. It still has hoops to jump through: a safety check and approval from the ministries of industries and environment. But the consortium of French, Italian, and German power utilities that run the plant are confident they can get it running by next summer. The Superphenix that rises out of the ashes will, however, be a different species of bird from the one planned 20 years ago. The consortium plans to turn the reactor into a debreeder, one that will incinerate more plutonium than it produces and so eat into Europe's plutonium stockpile. Calculations by Superphenix staff and the Atomic Energy Commission indicate that a plutonivorous fast breeder could incinerate 15 to 25 kilograms of plutonium while producing 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity-scarcely enough to make a dent in the tonnes of plutonium produced by Electricite de France's reactors each year. The Superphenix consortium is anxious to get the reactor back on line. The annual cost of upkeep and repair of the idle plant and salaries for its 700 staff may reach $140 million this year, 20% more than if the plant was running normally. If restarted, the existing core and a second one ready on the shelf will generate electricity worth $1.3 billion

  11. A Review of Adult Obesity Research in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K G

    2016-06-01

    A literature search of articles as detailed in the paper Bibliography of clinical research in Malaysia: methods and brief results, using the MESH terms Obesity; Obesity, Abdominal; and Overweight; covering the years 2000 till 2015 was undertaken and 265 articles were identified. Serial population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increased rapidly in Malaysia in the last decade of the twentieth century. This follows the rising availability of food per capita which had been begun two to three decades previously. Almost every birth cohort, even up to those in their seventh decade increased in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1996 and 2006. However, the rise in prevalence in obesity appears to have plateaued after the first decade of the twentieth century. Women are more obese than men and Malays and Indians are more obese than Chinese. The Orang Asli (Aborigines) are the least obese ethnic group in Malaysia but that may change with socioeconomic development. Neither living in rural areas nor having low income protects against obesity. On the contrary, a tertiary education and an income over RM4,000/month is associated with less obesity. Malaysians are generally not physically active enough, in the modes of transportation they use and how they use their leisure time. Other criteria and measures of obesity have been investigated, such as the relevance of abdominal obesity, and the Asian criteria or Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs value of 23.0 kg/m 2 for overweight and 27.0 kg/m 2 for obesity, with the view that the risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases start to increase at lower values in Asians compared to Europeans. Nevertheless the standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for obesity are still most widely used and hence is the best common reference. Guidelines for the management of obesity have been published and projects to combat obesity are being run. However, more effort needs to be invested. Studies on intervention

  12. Ethical considerations in the treatment of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Perryman, Mandy; Sidoti,Kara

    2015-01-01

    Mandy L Perryman,1 Kara A Sidoti,2 1Department of Leadership and Counselor Education, University of Mississippi, MS, USA; 2Lynchburg College, Lynchburg, VA, USA Abstract: Rates of obesity in children and adolescents appear to be stabilizing, though the prevalence of extreme obesity in this population remains fairly consistent at 4%. Childhood obesity contributes to serious health complications, such as hypertension, orthopedic problems, hormonal imbalances, and adult obesity. Psychological, ...

  13. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look into the litera......, focusing on trends in waist circumference rather than BMI leads to a less optimistic conclusion: the public health problem of obesity is still increasing.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.98....... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...

  14. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  15. Metabolic syndrome but not obesity measures are risk factors for accelerated age-related glomerular filtration rate decline in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Vidar T N; Schei, Jørgen; Solbu, Marit D; Jenssen, Trond G; Melsom, Toralf; Eriksen, Bjørn O

    2018-05-01

    Rapid age-related glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decline increases the risk of end-stage renal disease, and a low GFR increases the risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease. High body mass index and the metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, but their role in accelerating age-related GFR decline independent of cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes is not adequately understood. We studied body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and metabolic syndrome as risk factors for accelerated GFR decline in 1261 middle-aged people representative of the general population without diabetes, cardiovascular disease or kidney disease. GFR was measured as iohexol clearance at baseline and repeated after a median of 5.6 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined as fulfilling three out of five criteria, based on waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. The mean GFR decline rate was 0.95 ml/min/year. Neither the body mass index, waist circumference nor waist-hip ratio predicted statistically significant changes in age-related GFR decline, but individuals with baseline metabolic syndrome had a significant mean of 0.30 ml/min/year faster decline than individuals without metabolic syndrome in a multivariable adjusted linear regression model. This association was mainly driven by the triglyceride criterion of metabolic syndrome, which was associated with a significant 0.36 ml/min/year faster decline when analyzed separately. Results differed significantly when GFR was estimated using creatinine and/or cystatin C. Thus, metabolic syndrome, but not the body mass index, waist circumference or waist-hip ratio, is an independent risk factor for accelerated age-related GFR decline in the general population. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S

    2011-12-12

    Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.

  17. Rising prevalence of back pain in Austria: considering regional disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal conditions and leads to high health care costs. Information about geographic variations in highly prevalent diseases/disorders represents important implications for public health planning to face structural challenges. The present study aims to investigate regional trends in the prevalence of back pain and the role of obesity and social inequalities among Austrian adults. A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1973-2007) was carried out (N = 178,818). Back pain was measured as self-reported presence. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) was adjusted for self-report bias. For the regional analyses, Austria was divided into Western, Central and Eastern Austria. A relative index of inequality (RII) was computed to quantify the extent of social inequality. A continuous rise in back pain prevalence was observed in the three regions and among all investigated subgroups. In 2007 the age-standardised prevalence was similar in Central (36.9 %), Western (35.2 %) and Eastern Austria (34.3 %). The absolute change in back pain prevalence was highest among obese subjects in Central Austria (women: + 29.8 %, men: + 32.5 %). RIIs were unstable during the study period and in 2007 highest in Eastern Austria. Variation and trends in back pain are not attributable to geographic variation in Austria: an assumed East-West gradient in Austria has not been confirmed. Nevertheless our study confirms that back pain dramatically increased in all Austrian regions and investigated subgroups. This worrying trend should be further monitored and public health interventions should be implemented increasingly, especially among obese women and men.

  18. Respiratory Management of Perioperative Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, David Ae; Pirrone, Massimiliano; Zhang, Changsheng; Fisher, Daniel F; Kacmarek, Robert M; Berra, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    With a rising incidence of obesity in the United States, anesthesiologists are faced with a larger volume of obese patients coming to the operating room as well as obese patients with ever-larger body mass indices (BMIs). While there are many cardiovascular and endocrine issues that clinicians must take into account when caring for the obese patient, one of the most prominent concerns of the anesthesiologist in the perioperative setting should be the status of the lung. Because the pathophysiology of reduced lung volumes in the obese patient differs from that of the ARDS patient, the best approach to keeping the obese patient's lung open and adequately ventilated during mechanical ventilation is unique. Although strong evidence and research are lacking regarding how to best ventilate the obese surgical patient, we aim with this review to provide an assessment of the small amount of research that has been conducted and the pathophysiology we believe influences the apparent results. We will provide a basic overview of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the obese respiratory system and review studies concerning pre-, intra-, and postoperative respiratory care. Our focus in this review centers on the best approach to keeping the lung recruited through the prevention of compression atelectasis and the maintaining of physiological lung volumes. We recommend the use of PEEP via noninvasive ventilation (NIV) before induction and endotracheal intubation, the use of both PEEP and periodic recruitment maneuvers during mechanical ventilation, and the use of PEEP via NIV after extubation. It is our hope that by studying the underlying mechanisms that make ventilating obese patients so difficult, future research can be better tailored to address this increasingly important challenge to the field of anesthesia. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Obesity and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.

  20. Obesity and dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinfeld, Noah S

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a number of dermatoses. It affects cutaneous sensation, temperature regulation, foot shape, and vasculature. Acanthosis nigricans is the most common dermatological manifestation of obesity. Skin tags are more commonly associated with diabetes than with obesity. Obesity increases the incidence of cutaneous infections that include: candidiasis, intertigo, candida folliculitis, furunculosis, erythrasma, tinea cruris, and folliculitis. Less common infections include cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and gas gangrene. Leg ulcerations, lymphedema, plantar hyperkeratosis, and striae are more common with obesity. Hormonal abnormalities and genetic syndromes (Prader-Willi) are related to obesity and its dermatoses; however, cellulite is not related to obesity.

  1. Sleep and Obesity: A focus on animal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Teske, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in obesity prevalence in the modern world parallels a significant reduction in restorative sleep (Agras et al., 2004; Dixon et al., 2007; Dixon et al., 2001; Gangwisch and Heymsfield, 2004; Gupta et al., 2002; Sekine et al., 2002; Vioque et al., 2000; Wolk et al., 2003). Reduced sleep time and quality increases the risk for obesity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Hicks et al., 1986; Imaki et al., 2002; Jennings et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2006). A majority of the theories linking human sleep disturbances and obesity rely on self-reported sleep. However, studies with objective measurements of sleep/wake parameters suggest a U-shaped relationship between sleep and obesity. Studies in animal models are needed to improve our understanding of the association between sleep disturbances and obesity. Genetic and experimenter-induced models mimicking characteristics of human obesity are now available and these animal models will be useful in understanding whether sleep disturbances determine propensity for obesity, or result from obesity. These models exhibit weight gain profiles consistently different from control animals. Thus a careful evaluation of animal models will provide insight into the relationship between sleep disturbances and obesity in humans. In this review we first briefly consider the fundamentals of sleep and key sleep disturbances, such as sleep fragmentation and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), observed in obese individuals. Then we consider sleep deprivation studies and the role of circadian alterations in obesity. We describe sleep/wake changes in various rodent models of obesity and obesity resistance. Finally, we discuss possible mechanisms linking sleep disturbances with obesity. PMID:22266350

  2. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  3. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  4. Timescales for detecting a significant acceleration in sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D; Wahl, Thomas; Rohling, Eelco J; Price, René M; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B; Calafat, Francisco M; Dangendorf, Sönke

    2014-04-14

    There is observational evidence that global sea level is rising and there is concern that the rate of rise will increase, significantly threatening coastal communities. However, considerable debate remains as to whether the rate of sea level rise is currently increasing and, if so, by how much. Here we provide new insights into sea level accelerations by applying the main methods that have been used previously to search for accelerations in historical data, to identify the timings (with uncertainties) at which accelerations might first be recognized in a statistically significant manner (if not apparent already) in sea level records that we have artificially extended to 2100. We find that the most important approach to earliest possible detection of a significant sea level acceleration lies in improved understanding (and subsequent removal) of interannual to multidecadal variability in sea level records.

  5. Therapies for inter-relating diabetes and obesity - GLP-1 and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Torekov, Signe S; Holst, Jens Juul

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased mortality, morbidity as well as public health care expenses worldwide. The need for effective and long-lasting pharmaceutical treatment is obvious. The record of anti-obesity...... drugs has been poor so far and the only efficient treatment today is bariatric surgery. Research has indicated that appetite inhibiting hormones from the gut may have a therapeutic potential in obesity. The gut incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), appears to be involved in both peripheral...... and central pathways mediating satiety. Clinical trials have shown that two GLP-1 receptor agonists exenatide and liraglutide have a weight-lowering potential in non-diabetic obese individuals. Furthermore, they may also hold a potential in preventing diabetes as compared to other weight loss agents. AREAS...

  6. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  7. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  8. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  9. Perceived health status : is obesity perceived as a risk factor and disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tommy L.S. Visscher; Jeroen Lakerveld; Nanna Olsen; Leanne Küpers; Sofia Ramalho; Laura Keaver; Christina Brei; Jan-Inge Bjune; Silvia Ezquerro; Volkan Yumuk

    2017-01-01

    One might expect that a perception of obesity being a risk factor and disease, contributes to effective obesity prevention and management strategies. However, obesity rates continue to increase worldwide. The question arises whether obesity is truly perceived as a risk factor and a disease. This

  10. Gut Microbiota: a contributing factor to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve M Harakeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review.Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity.

  11. Developing a holistic approach to obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenny; Wimpenny, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical background and relevance of a holistic approach to obesity management by nurses. There is a global rise in the number of people with obesity, such that it now represents one of the major health challenges. However, nurses are often influenced by physical and dietetic focused approaches and could fail to acknowledge a range of other factors that can impact on weight management. As part of the development of a holistic approach to obesity a literature search was undertaken to establish relevant theoretical perspectives that underpin practice in physical, psychological and social aspects of care (focused on the period 1995-2005). In addition, experiences of working in a secondary care weight management clinic were also drawn upon. Psychobiological, attribution and social support theories were identified that could contribute to a better understanding of obesity. If these theoretical perspectives and supporting evidence can be integrated in a holistic approach to care and management it might be possible to promote better health and well-being in those with obesity. Creating a greater understanding of the range of theoretical perspectives and supporting evidence related to obesity could, it is argued, provide enhanced care and management. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Gut Microbiota: A Contributing Factor to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve M.; Khan, Imran; Kumosani, Taha; Barbour, Elie; Almasaudi, Saad B.; Bahijri, Suhad M.; Alfadul, Sulaiman M.; Ajabnoor, Ghada M. A.; Azhar, Esam I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, a global epidemic of the modern era, is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. The pervasiveness of obesity and overweight in both developed as well as developing populations is on the rise and placing a huge burden on health and economic resources. Consequently, research to control this emerging epidemic is of utmost importance. Recently, host interactions with their resident gut microbiota (GM) have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of many metabolic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and CVD. Around 1014 microorganisms reside within the lower human intestine and many of these 1014 microorganisms have developed mutualistic or commensal associations with the host and actively involved in many physiological processes of the host. However, dysbiosis (altered gut microbial composition) with other predisposing genetic and environmental factors, may contribute to host metabolic disorders resulting in many ailments. Therefore, delineating the role of GM as a contributing factor to obesity is the main objective of this review. Obesity research, as a field is expanding rapidly due to major advances in nutrigenomics, metabolomics, RNA silencing, epigenetics, and other disciplines that may result in the emergence of new technologies and methods to better interpret causal relationships between microbiota and obesity. PMID:27625997

  13. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Randall W.

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change and concomitant rising sea level will have a profound impact on Florida's coastal and marine systems. Sea-level rise will increase erosion of beaches, cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies, inundate coastal marshes and other important habitats, and make coastal property more vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Yet most coastal areas are currently managed under the premise that sea-level rise is not significant and the shorelines are static or can be fixed in place by engineering structures. The new reality of sea-level rise and extreme weather due to climate change requires a new style of planning and management to protect resources and reduce risk to humans. Scientists must: (1) assess existing coastal vulnerability to address short term management issues and (2) model future landscape change and develop sustainable plans to address long term planning and management issues. Furthermore, this information must be effectively transferred to planners, managers, and elected officials to ensure their decisions are based upon the best available information. While there is still some uncertainty regarding the details of rising sea level and climate change, development decisions are being made today which commit public and private investment in real estate and associated infrastructure. With a design life of 30 yrs to 75 yrs or more, many of these investments are on a collision course with rising sea level and the resulting impacts will be significant. In the near term, the utilization of engineering structures may be required, but these are not sustainable and must ultimately yield to "managed withdrawal" programs if higher sea-level elevations or rates of rise are forthcoming. As an initial step towards successful adaptation, coastal management and planning documents (i.e., comprehensive plans) must be revised to include reference to climate change and rising sea-level.

  14. Dicarbonyl stress in clinical obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masania, Jinit; Malczewska-Malec, Malgorzata; Razny, Urszula; Goralska, Joanna; Zdzienicka, Anna; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Gruca, Anna; Stancel-Mozwillo, Julita; Dembinska-Kiec, Aldona; Rabbani, Naila; Thornalley, Paul J

    2016-08-01

    The glyoxalase system in the cytoplasm of cells provides the primary defence against glycation by methylglyoxal catalysing its metabolism to D-lactate. Methylglyoxal is the precursor of the major quantitative advanced glycation endproducts in physiological systems - arginine-derived hydroimidazolones and deoxyguanosine-derived imidazopurinones. Glyoxalase 1 of the glyoxalase system was linked to anthropometric measurements of obesity in human subjects and to body weight in strains of mice. Recent conference reports described increased weight gain on high fat diet-fed mouse with lifelong deficiency of glyoxalase 1 deficiency, compared to wild-type controls, and decreased weight gain in glyoxalase 1-overexpressing transgenic mice, suggesting a functional role of glyoxalase 1 and dicarbonyl stress in obesity. Increased methylglyoxal, dicarbonyl stress, in white adipose tissue and liver may be a mediator of obesity and insulin resistance and thereby a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Increased methylglyoxal formation from glyceroneogenesis on adipose tissue and liver and decreased glyoxalase 1 activity in obesity likely drives dicarbonyl stress in white adipose tissue increasing the dicarbonyl proteome and related dysfunction. The clinical significance will likely emerge from on-going clinical evaluation of inducers of glyoxalase 1 expression in overweight and obese subjects. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin and increased total body interstitial fluid volume in obesity likely makes levels of glycation of plasma protein unreliable indicators of glycation status in obesity as there is a shift of albumin dwell time from plasma to interstitial fluid, which decreases overall glycation for a given glycemic exposure.

  15. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n?=?37,639) and children/adolescents (n?=?28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes...

  16. Obesity trend in the United States and economic intervention options to change it: A simulation study linking ecological epidemiology and system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H-J; Xue, H; Liu, S; Huang, T T K; Wang, Y C; Wang, Y

    2018-05-29

    To study the country-level dynamics and influences between population weight status and socio-economic distribution (employment status and family income) in the US and to project the potential impacts of socio-economic-based intervention options on obesity prevalence. Ecological study and simulation. Using the longitudinal data from the 2001-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N = 88,453 adults), we built and calibrated a system dynamics model (SDM) capturing the feedback loops between body weight status and socio-economic status distribution and simulated the effects of employment- and income-based intervention options. The SDM-based simulation projected rising overweight/obesity prevalence in the US in the future. Improving people's income from lower to middle-income group would help control the rising prevalence, while only creating jobs for the unemployed did not show such effect. Improving people from low- to middle-income levels may be effective, instead of solely improving reemployment rate, in curbing the rising obesity trend in the US adult population. This study indicates the value of the SDM as a virtual laboratory to evaluate complex distributive phenomena of the interplay between population health and economy. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rising Sludge in Secondary Settlers Due to Denitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Dupont, Rene; Grau, Peter

    1993-01-01

    High suspended solids concentrations in settler effluents can be caused by rising sludge, which is the effect of flotation of solids by nitrogen gas resulting from biological denitrification. Many factors influence the nitrogen gas bubble evolution. The most important factor is the rate...

  18. GLP-1/glucagon receptor co-agonism for treatment of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel A.; Brandt, Sara J; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Over a relatively short period, obesity and type 2 diabetes have come to represent a large medical and economic burden to global societies. The epidemic rise in the prevalence of obesity has metabolic consequences and is paralleled by an increased occurrence of other diseases, such as diabetes......, cancer and cardiovascular complications. Together, obesity and type 2 diabetes constitute one of the more preventable causes of premature death and the identification of novel, safe and effective anti-obesity drugs is of utmost importance. Pharmacological attempts to treat obesity have had limited...

  19. Obesity and drug pharmacology: a review of the influence of obesity on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Cornelis; De Hoogd, Sjoerd; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2018-03-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity confronts clinicians with dosing problems in the (extreme) overweight population. Obesity has a great impact on key organs that play a role in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, however the ultimate impact of these changes on how to adapt the dose may not always be known. Areas covered: In this review, physiological changes associated with obesity are discussed. An overview is provided on the alterations in absorption, distribution, drug metabolism and clearance in (morbid) obesity focusing on general principles that can be extracted from pharmacokinetic studies. Also, relevant pharmacodynamic considerations in obesity are discussed. Expert opinion: Over the last two decades, increased knowledge is generated on PK and PD in obesity. Future research should focus on filling in the knowledge gaps that remain, especially in connecting obesity-related physiological changes with changes in PK and/or PD and vice versa. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop physiologically based PK and PD models on the basis of quantitative systems pharmacology principles. Moreover, efforts should focus on thorough prospective evaluation of developed model-based doses with subsequent implementation of these dosing recommendations in clinical practice.

  20. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  1. Health consequences of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anindya Kumar; Sarkar, Neille; Chatterjee, Tapabrata

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular and endocrine effects of childhood obesity as well as prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with it. 49 obese and overweight children aged between 6 and 11 years as study group and 45 healthy non-obese controls of same age were selected for the study. Both the groups were evaluated for height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid fractions, insulin level, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose and C-reactive protein. Screening for metabolic syndrome was performed following most acceptable criteria. The study group children had significantly higher blood pressure, altered lipid fractions and high C-reactive Protein. Criteria-wise insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein also were found at significantly higher rate among obese children. The metabolic syndrome existed at a high prevalence of 14.1% in the study group. Obesity in childhood causes cardiovascular and endocrine dysregulation with onset of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome even in absence of significant evidence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in this age group.

  2. What Is Driving Obesity? A Review on the Connections Between Obesity and Motorized Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Douglas M; Jacobson, Sheldon H

    2017-03-01

    Traveling by automobile rather than walking or cycling can encourage obesity by eliminating physical activity. As national obesity rates in the USA have reached 37.9% in 2014, understanding the connections between obesity and transportation choices can help policymakers in the public health community propose effective obesity interventions at the national level. Following from foundational studies examining associations between the built environment and leisure walking, recent studies consider a diverse set of transportation choices regarding mode (e.g., automobile, walking, public transit) and purpose (e.g., commuting, leisure), along with studies on the effectiveness of several transportation-related interventions for obesity. The reviewed studies point toward potential interventions for obesity; there is emerging evidence that commuting by public transit may be one such intervention. Moreover, new data-gathering tools such as global positioning systems, geographic information systems, and accelerometers may alleviate statistical obstacles in conducting future studies.

  3. Efficacy of obesity indices and age in predicting diabetes: study on a transitional tribe of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungreiphy, N K; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between blood sugar level and obesity, and the interplay of socioeconomic change, and to investigate the efficacy of different obesity indices and age in predicting diabetes. Cross-sectional study was carried out among 603 adult Tangkhul Nagas of NE India. Anthropometric measurements, random blood sugar level, general and regional obesity indices were evaluated along with their information on socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Socioeconomic change observed among the Tangkhuls influence the rise of overweight/obesity and blood sugar level. Obesity and elevated blood sugar level were highly prevalent and interrelated. Diabetes and obesity were also found to be associated with age. Central obesity indices were highly associated with blood sugar level. Odds ratio showed the likelihood of developing prediabetes/diabetes among centrally obese participants. Correlation between blood sugar level, age and obesity indices showed that waist hip ratio had the highest correlation with blood sugar. It implies the higher reliability of central obesity than general obesity or age in determining blood sugar level. The transition of the Tangkhul Naga tribe in terms of socioeconomic and lifestyle factors contributes to the escalating prevalence of overweight/obesity and diabetes. The rising epidemic is not restricted to highly urbanized societies but now has penetrated even to traditional and transitional tribes owing to their changing lifestyle. Different facets of the complex associations between obesity, age, diabetes and socioeconomic change were observed. Central obesity indicator, waist hip ratio emerge as the paramount predictors of prediabetes/diabetes.

  4. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  5. Evaluation of the overweight/obese child--practical tips for the primary health care provider: recommendations from the Childhood Obesity Task Force of the European Association for the Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie J; Nowicka, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    in the primary care setting. The tips and tools provided are based on data from the recent body of work that has been published in this field, official statements of several scientific societies along with expert opinion provided by the members of the Childhood Obesity Task Force (COTF) of the European......The prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is on the rise. The majority of overweight or obese children are treated by primary health care providers including paediatricians, family practitioners, dieticians, nurses, and school health services - and not by specialists. The majority...... of obese children have no underlying medical disorder causing their obesity yet a significant proportion might suffer from obesity-related co-morbidities. This text is aimed at providing simple and practical tools for the identification and management of children with or at risk of overweight and obesity...

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesity-related genes and the risk of esophageal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, James D; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Stark, Mitchell S; Green, Adèle C; Hayward, Nicholas K; Montgomery, Grant W; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C

    2008-04-01

    Rates of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus (EAC) and esophagogastric junction (EGJAC) have been rising rapidly in recent decades, in contrast to the declining rates of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC). Obesity is a major risk factor for both EAC and EGJAC, but not ESCC, and there is speculation that obesity promotes adenocarcinoma development through endocrine and related pathways. We therefore compared the prevalence of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine candidate genes previously implicated in obesity pathways (LEP, LEPR, ADIPOQ, POMC, PPARalpha, PPARgamma, RXRgamma, GHRL, and INSIG2) in a large Australian case-control study comprising DNA samples from 260 EAC cases, 301 EGJAC cases, 213 ESCC cases, and 1,352 population controls. No SNPs were associated with EGJAC or ESCC. Although several SNPs seemed to be associated with EAC on crude analysis [ADIPOQ (rs1501299), LEP (5'-untranslated region), PPARgamma (H447H), and GHRL (M72L)], effect sizes were modest and none of the associations was significant after correcting for multiple comparisons. Further, we found no consistent evidence that any of the genotypes were associated with risk of EAC or EGJAC within strata of body mass index (30 kg/m(2)). In conclusion, our data suggest that these SNPs do not play a major role in esophageal carcinogenesis.

  7. Commentary on "Psychiatric Aspects of Child and Adolescent Obesity: A Review of the Past 10 Years"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.

    2004-01-01

    This article is a brief review of child and adolescent obesity over the past ten years. The starting point for the review is the well-known fact that there has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity among children, adolescents, and adults in the United Sates (Ogden et al., 2002). The rise has occurred across all age and ethnic groups,…

  8. Obesity - an indication for GLP-1 treatment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torekov, S S; Madsbad, S; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is common and associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality; therefore, treatment is of great interest. At present, bariatric surgery is the only truly successful treatment of severe obesity. Mimicking one of the effects of bariatric surgery, namely the increased secretion...... of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, by artificially increasing the levels of GLP-1 might prove successful as obesity treatment. Recent studies have shown that GLP-1 is a physiological regulator of appetite and food intake. The effect on food intake and satiety is preserved in obese subjects and GLP-1 may...... therefore have a therapeutic potential. The GLP-1 analogues result in a moderate average weight loss, which is clinically relevant in relation to reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Inspired by the hormone profile after gastric bypass, a future strategy in obesity drug...

  9. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform

  10. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-06-03

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  11. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Vigtlin, G.

    1983-06-01

    A fast rise, low impedance pulse generator developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is described. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  12. Obesity and cognitive decline: role of inflammation and vascular changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason C.D. Nguyen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity in middle age is increasing markedly, and in parallel the prevalence of metabolic disorders including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes is also rising. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both obesity and metabolic disorders are associated with poorer cognitive performance, cognitive decline, and dementia. In this review we discuss the effects of obesity on cognitive performance, including both clinical and preclinical observations, and discuss some of the potential mechanisms involved, namely inflammation and vascular and metabolic alterations.

  13. Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Russ

    2004-09-01

    I examined the association between urban sprawl and the risk for being overweight or obese among US adults. A measure of urban sprawl in metropolitan areas was derived from the 2000 US Census; individual-level data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. I used multilevel analysis to assess the association between urban sprawl and obesity. After I controlled for gender, age, race/ethnicity, income, and education, for each 1-point rise in the urban sprawl index (0-100 scale), the risk for being overweight increased by 0.2% and the risk for being obese increased by 0.5%. The current obesity epidemic has many causes, but there is an association between urban sprawl and obesity.

  14. Persistent Organic Pollutants as Risk Factors for Obesity and Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxue; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Cai, Zongwei; Chung, Arthur C K

    2017-11-02

    The rising prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be fully explained by known risk factors, such as unhealthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle, and family history. This review summarizes the available studies linking persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to obesity and diabetes and discusses plausible underlying mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggest that POPs may act as obesogens and diabetogens to promote the development of obesity and diabetes and induce metabolic dysfunction. POPs are synthesized chemicals and are used widely in our daily life. These chemicals are resistant to degradation in chemical or biological processes, which enable them to exist in the environment persistently and to be bio-accumulated in animal and human tissue through the food chain. Increasingly, epidemiologic studies suggest a positive association between POPs and risk of developing diabetes. Understanding the relationship of POPs with obesity and diabetes may shed light on preventive strategies for obesity and diabetes.

  15. Obesity and hypertension in Latin America: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruilope, L M; Nunes Filho, A C B; Nadruz, W; Rodríguez Rosales, F F; Verdejo-Paris, J

    In the countries of Central America, South America and the Caribbean, there has been a dramatic rise in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in the last few decades. Epidemiological evidence highlights a consistent correlation between obesity and hypertension, and the presence of obesity predisposes an individual to a greater risk of hypertension although the mechanisms remain unclear. Obesity and hypertension are two key drivers of the cardio-renal disease continuum, and patients with uncontrolled cardiovascular risk in their mid-life will likely have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular and renal outcomes in old age. This article summarizes the current status for the prevalence and consequences of obesity and hypertension in Latin America, with the aim of initiating a call to action to all stakeholders for greater implementation of primary prevention strategies, particularly in the young. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatic glucose utilization in hepatic steatosis and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keramida, Georgia; Hunter, James; Peters, Adrien?Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Whether hepatic glucose utilization rate (glucose phosphorylation rate; MRglu) is increased in steatosis and/or obesity is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the separate relationships of steatosis and obesity with MRglu. Sixty patients referred for routine PET/CT had dynamic PET imaging over the abdomen for 30?min post-injection of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), followed by Patlak?Rutland graphical analysis of the liver us...

  17. Metabolic Effects of Obesity and Its Interaction with Endocrine Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Hoenig, Margarethe

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pet dogs and cats is a significant problem in developed countries, and seems to be increasing in prevalence. Excess body fat has adverse metabolic consequences, including insulin resistance, altered adipokine secretion, changes in metabolic rate, abnormal lipid metabolism, and fat accumulation in visceral organs. Obese cats are predisposed to endocrine and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and hepatic lipidosis. A connection likely also exists between obesity and diabetes mellitus in dogs. No system has been developed to identify obese pets at greatest risk for development of obesity-associated metabolic diseases, and further study in this area is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Backward- and forward-looking responsibility for obesity: policies from WHO, the EU and England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Hartlev, Mette

    2015-01-01

    ackground: In assigning responsibility for obesity prevention a distinction may be drawn between who is responsible for the rise in obesity prevalence (‘backward-looking responsibility’), and who is responsible for reducing it (‘forward-looking responsibility’). Methods: We study how the two aspe...

  19. Perception of child obesity among the elites in Bodija, Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Child obesity is on the rise globally and evidence suggests that this upward trend has continued into the 21st century. Genetic, dietary and/or physical activity patterns are important factors explaining why increasing number of children and adolescents are becoming obese. Evidence also suggests that social class position ...

  20. Multiple Levels of Social Disadvantage and Links to Obesity in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hedwig; Harris, Kathleen M.; Lee, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Background: The rise in adolescent obesity has become a public health concern, especially because of its impact on disadvantaged youth. This article examines the role of disadvantage at the family-, peer-, school-, and neighborhood-level, to determine which contexts are related to obesity in adolescence and young adulthood. Methods: We analyzed…


</