WorldWideScience

Sample records for rising college costs

  1. Opinion Leaders See Rising College Costs as Major Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A recent survey of federal government officials, corporate leaders in charge of personnel and research, and journalists found dramatically different views in some areas, but agreement in concern about college costs, financing, and lack of government spending for research. Most felt college is a fair value for the cost. (MSE)

  2. Cost Conscious: Incentive and Discount Programs Help Students Meet the Rising Cost of a Community College Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Aware that rising costs could force some community colleges to compromise their long-standing open-door policies, administrators have put in place programs and incentives to offset the higher price of the average community college education. This article features ideas and programs to help struggling community colleges cope with rising costs such…

  3. Colleges Struggle to Dispose of Hazardous Wastes in Face of Rising Costs and Increased Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magner, Denise K.

    1989-01-01

    After years of being ignored by federal regulators because of the low volume of hazardous waste in question, colleges and universities are facing increased enforcement of environmental laws concerning waste disposal and storage, at great cost in money, facilities, and personnel. (MSE)

  4. Nuclear costs: why do they keep rising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power has performed badly in recent years as a new investment everywhere except Japan and Korea. This has mainly been for orthodox financial and economic reasons. Among the factors contributing to this loss of competitiveness, persistently rising real capital costs have been particularly important. While the nuclear industry has believed it could control and reduce capital costs, increasing regulatory stringency has made designs more complex and correspondingly more costly. These cost increasing factors have far outweighed traditional cost reducing factors (like learning). The only lasting way to meet increasing stringency in safety at acceptably low cost is likely to be the development of new and simpler reactor designs. (author)

  5. High and rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  6. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  7. A Summary of: 25 Ways to Reduce the Cost of College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for College Affordability and Productivity (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Almost everyone agrees that colleges have become costly to attend and are a growing burden on society to finance. Rising tuition costs threaten the ability and desire of students to attend college. Are there things that can be done to significantly reduce the cost of college? The answer is an emphatic "yes." The Center for College Affordability…

  8. Nuclear operating costs are rising exponentially - official

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Information Agency of the United States Department of Energy has collected data on the operations of nuclear power plants in the United States. A statistical regression analysis was made of this data base. This shows that the escalation in annual, real non-fuel operating costs is such that the operating cost savings made by closing down an old nuclear plant would be sufficient to pay the capital and operating costs of replacing it with a brand new coal-fired plant. The main reason for the increasing operating and maintenance costs is the cost of replacement power i.e. the higher the economic penalty of plant breakdown the more the utility has to spend on maintenance. Another reason is time -not the age of the plant - but the year the data was collected. The economic case for nuclear power is seriously challenged. (U.K.)

  9. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  10. Population Aging in Iran and Rising Health Care Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirzaie

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion Based on the results of this research, it can be said that people throughout their life cycle always allocate a percentage of their total spending to health care costs, but the percentage of this allocation is different at different ages. In a way the demand for healthcare costs increases with aging, it rises significantly in the old age. At the macro level, due to an increase in the percentage of elderly in the population over the next decade, there will also be an increase in the share of health care costs.

  11. The Global Rise of the U.S. Community College Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Mayoral, Audree M.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter explores the theoretical and conceptual history of the global rise of the U.S. community college model, focusing on the common missing ingredient that remains elusive among the increasing numbers of these community-based institutions.

  12. The Community College and a Rising Global Imaginary: An Analysis of Practical Reasoning, 1950-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, David F.; Palmadessa, Allison L.

    2015-01-01

    Through an analysis of 245 issues of the "Community College Journal" published between 1950 and 2013, we show how three discourses--international understanding and geopolitics, economic competitiveness, and global citizenship--informed practical reasoning about a rising global imaginary and its implications for the community college. By…

  13. South Africa’s rising logistics costs: An uncertain future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A country’s competitiveness can be severely hampered by an uncompetitive freight logistics system. During the first decade of the 21st century, two in-depth models were developed for South Africa which provide a framework for measuring and improving the country’s freight logistics system – the cost of logistics survey and the freight demand model. These models also allow for the development of scenarios for key identified risks. The objectives of this study were to provide an overview of South Africa’s surface freight transport industry,identify key risks to national competitiveness and suggest ways in which these risks could be mitigated. Freight flows were modelled by disaggregating the national input–output model into 372 origin–destination pairs and 71 commodity groups, followed by distance decay gravity-modelling. Logistics costs were calculated by relating commodity-level freight flows to the costs of fulfilling associated logistical functions. South Africa’s economy is highly transport intensive. Excessive dependence on road freight transport exacerbates this situation. Furthermore, the road freight transport’s key cost driver is fuel, driven in turn by the oil price. Scenario analysis indicated the risk posed by this rising and volatile input and should provide impetus for policy instruments to reduce transport intensity. As such, this study concluded that a reduction in freight transport intensity is required to reduce exposure to volatile international oil prices.

  14. The effects of rising energy costs and transportation mode mix on forest fuel procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, Peter; Gronalt, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Since fossil fuels have been broadly recognized as a non-renewable energy source that threatens the climate, sustainable and CO 2 neutral energy sources - such as forest fuels - are being promoted in Europe, instead. With the expeditiously growing forest fuel demand, the strategic problem of how to design a cost-efficient distribution network has evolved. This paper presents an MILP model, comprising decisions on modes of transportation and spatial arrangement of terminals, in order to design a forest fuel supply network for Austria. The MILP model is used to evaluate the impacts of rising energy costs on procurement sources, transport mix and procurement costs on a national scale, based on the example of Austria. A 20% increase of energy costs results in a procurement cost increase of 7%, and another 20% increase of energy costs would have similar results. While domestic waterways become more important as a result of the first energy cost increase, rail only does so after the second. One way to decrease procurement costs would be to reduce the share of empty trips with truck and trailer. Reducing this share by 10% decreases the average procurement costs by up to 20%. Routing influences the modal split considerably, and the truck transport share increases from 86% to 97%, accordingly. Increasing forest fuel imports by large CHPs lowers domestic competition and also enables smaller plants to cut their procurement costs. Rising forest fuel imports via ship will not significantly decrease domestic market shares, but they will reduce procurement costs considerably. (author)

  15. Intended College Attendance: Evidence from an Experiment on College Returns and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Bleemer, Zachary; Zafar, Basit

    2015-01-01

    Despite a robust college premium, college attendance rates in the US have remained stagnant and exhibit a substantial socioeconomic gradient. We focus on information gaps – specifically, incomplete information about college benefits and costs – as a potential explanation for these patterns. For this purpose, we conduct an information experiment about college returns and costs embedded within a representative survey of US household heads. We show that, at the baseline, perceptions of college c...

  16. College Costs, Prices and the Great Recession. Lumina Issue Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nate

    2014-01-01

    As states and families begin to recover from the effects of the Great Recession, some of the urgency about college affordability may start to ease. The most recent "Trends in College Pricing" report shows tuition rising more slowly than in recent years (Baum and Ma 2013). Growth in Pell grant applications is also expected to slow as…

  17. On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Debbie; Szabo-Kubitz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    "On the Verge: Costs and Tradeoffs Facing Community College Students" documents California community college students' struggles to cover college expenses beyond tuition, their experiences with financial aid, and the troubling tradeoffs they face when available resources do not stretch far enough. Consistent with a growing body of…

  18. Capital Costs: A Conceptual Framework for Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Samuel G.

    2004-01-01

    The increased attention to costs in recent years at colleges and universities draws attention to the matter of whether all costs are reflected and accounted for in the institution's internal and external financial reports. One category--capital costs--is thought by some to be overlooked at times. The possible neglect of capital costs in…

  19. Increased costs to US pavement infrastructure from future temperature rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, B. Shane; Guido, Zack; Gudipudi, Padmini; Feinberg, Yarden

    2017-10-01

    Roadway design aims to maximize functionality, safety, and longevity. The materials used for construction, however, are often selected on the assumption of a stationary climate. Anthropogenic climate change may therefore result in rapid infrastructure failure and, consequently, increased maintenance costs, particularly for paved roads where temperature is a key determinant for material selection. Here, we examine the economic costs of projected temperature changes on asphalt roads across the contiguous United States using an ensemble of 19 global climate models forced with RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. Over the past 20 years, stationary assumptions have resulted in incorrect material selection for 35% of 799 observed locations. With warming temperatures, maintaining the standard practice for material selection is estimated to add approximately US$13.6, US$19.0 and US$21.8 billion to pavement costs by 2010, 2040 and 2070 under RCP4.5, respectively, increasing to US$14.5, US$26.3 and US$35.8 for RCP8.5. These costs will disproportionately affect local municipalities that have fewer resources to mitigate impacts. Failing to update engineering standards of practice in light of climate change therefore significantly threatens pavement infrastructure in the United States.

  20. Improvement of the cost-benefit analysis algorithm for high-rise construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafurov Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific nature of high-rise investment projects entailing long-term construction, high risks, etc. implies a need to improve the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis. An improved algorithm is described in the article. For development of the improved algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects, the following methods were used: weighted average cost of capital, dynamic cost-benefit analysis of investment projects, risk mapping, scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis of critical ratios, etc. This comprehensive approach helped to adapt the original algorithm to feasibility objectives in high-rise construction. The authors put together the algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects on the basis of risk mapping and sensitivity analysis of critical ratios. The suggested project risk management algorithms greatly expand the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis in investment projects, namely: the “Project analysis scenario” flowchart, improving quality and reliability of forecasting reports in investment projects; the main stages of cash flow adjustment based on risk mapping for better cost-benefit project analysis provided the broad range of risks in high-rise construction; analysis of dynamic cost-benefit values considering project sensitivity to crucial variables, improving flexibility in implementation of high-rise projects.

  1. Improvement of the cost-benefit analysis algorithm for high-rise construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Andrey; Skotarenko, Oksana; Plotnikov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The specific nature of high-rise investment projects entailing long-term construction, high risks, etc. implies a need to improve the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis. An improved algorithm is described in the article. For development of the improved algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects, the following methods were used: weighted average cost of capital, dynamic cost-benefit analysis of investment projects, risk mapping, scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis of critical ratios, etc. This comprehensive approach helped to adapt the original algorithm to feasibility objectives in high-rise construction. The authors put together the algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects on the basis of risk mapping and sensitivity analysis of critical ratios. The suggested project risk management algorithms greatly expand the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis in investment projects, namely: the "Project analysis scenario" flowchart, improving quality and reliability of forecasting reports in investment projects; the main stages of cash flow adjustment based on risk mapping for better cost-benefit project analysis provided the broad range of risks in high-rise construction; analysis of dynamic cost-benefit values considering project sensitivity to crucial variables, improving flexibility in implementation of high-rise projects.

  2. Rising costs call for new European refining strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, B.N.C.

    1993-01-01

    The outlook for the global refining industry is for increased spending and reduced margins, largely because of efforts to improve the environment. A look at these trends through the end of the decade is thus in order. Three major industry thrusts are proposed to see refiners through this uncertain period. Three main thrusts are necessary: fixed costs must be reduced by re-engineering business processes and reexamining noncore business units against total and marginal costs. In this respect the best refiners are well ahead of the good ones. New cooperative ways of meeting regulations must be sought, to avoid wasteful over capacity. Joint ventures and alliances with competitors will be needed. The cooperative principle upstream must be extended and new strategies must be sought to meet product demand changes and reduce feedstock costs. The picture that is presented is tough, largely because of the wish to improve the environment. The question that must be continually reviewed is ''Have governments got the right balance in these regulations between the environment and the downstream industry?''

  3. 38th Annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agron, Joe

    2009-01-01

    The nation's colleges are feeling the pinch of the economic downturn, and maintenance and operations (M&O) budgets especially are under pressure. This article presents data from the 38th annual Maintenance & Operations Cost Study for colleges that can help one in benchmarking expenditures at one's institution. Data provided only targets two-year…

  4. Model of investment appraisal of high-rise construction with account of cost of land resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolelova, Ella; Shibaeva, Marina; Trukhina, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    The article considers problems and potential of high-rise construction as a global urbanization. The results of theoretical and practical studies on the appraisal of investments in high-rise construction are provided. High-rise construction has a number of apparent upsides in modern terms of development of megapolises and primarily it is economically efficient. Amid serious lack of construction sites, skyscrapers successfully deal with the need of manufacturing, office and living premises. Nevertheless, there are plenty issues, which are related with high-rise construction, and only thorough scrutiny of them allow to estimate the real economic efficiency of this branch. The article focuses on the question of economic efficiency of high-rise construction. The suggested model allows adjusting the parameters of a facility under construction, setting the tone for market value as well as the coefficient for appreciation of the construction net cost, that depends on the number of storey's, in the form of function or discrete values.

  5. Wage and Benefit Changes in Response to Rising Health Insurance Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Goldman; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many companies have defined-contribution benefit plans requiring employees to pay the full cost (before taxes) of more generous health insurance choices. Research has shown that employee decisions are quite responsive to these arrangements. What is less clear is how the total compensation package changes when health insurance premiums rise. This paper examines employee compensation decisions during a three-year period when health insurance premiums were rising rapidly. The data come from a si...

  6. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive study on the breakfast model in a college population and to analyze the energy and nutrients provided, in connection with established nutritional requirements. Registry of food intake for breakfast (on rising and mid-morning snack) of a school day in a sample of 740 college students (286 men and 454 women) with ages ranging 19-24 years. Gender, age, weight, height, and body mass index, and type of residence were collected from each interviewee. Percentages intakes of nutrients have been calculated in proportion to established dietary recommendations (%IR). 93.2% had breakfast on rising and 83.8% took a mid-morning snack daily, and 53.5% do both intakes. The most common foods were dairy products (92.6%), cereals (58.8%) and sweet food (57.9%) at breakfast, and cereals (46.6%), fruits (40.7%) and sausages (34.9%) at mid-morning. The %IR of the calorie intake was 24.4% in males and 24.6% in females (n.s.). The %IR of the cholesterol intake was 38.2% in males and 23.9% in females (p breakfast. This breakfast model differs from the prototype of a healthy diet through an excessive consumption of sweet foods (early breakfast) and meat and derivatives (snack). Half of interviewee did not a mid-morning snack and the morning caloric intake was below recommended. In the case of university students concerned about the potentially negative effect it may have on academic performance. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Do the benefits of college still outweigh the costs?

    OpenAIRE

    Abel, Jaison R.; Deitz, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, students have been paying more to attend college and earning less upon graduation—trends that have led many observers to question whether a college education remains a good investment. However, an analysis of the economic returns to college since the 1970s demonstrates that the benefits of both a bachelor’s degree and an associate’s degree still tend to outweigh the costs, with both degrees earning a return of about 15 percent over the past decade. The return has remained hig...

  8. The High Rise Low Cost Housing : Sustainable Neighbourhood Elements (Green Elements) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahi, Noraziah; Mohamad, Ismail; Mohamad Zin, Rosli; Munikanan, Vikneswaran; Junaini, Syahrizan

    2018-03-01

    The sustainable development is a vital measure to alleviate the greenhouse gas effect, global warming and any other environment issues. The sustainable neighbourhood concept is not new in Malaysia, However, the concept still needs attention and awareness from the stakeholders. This paper discusses on the sustainable neighbourhood elements specifically green elements application on the high rise low cost housing in Malaysia. Malaysia should have focused sustainable neighbourhood planning and design especially on the high rise low cost housing therefore the future generation can be benefited from this type development.

  9. Rationalization and Student/School Personhood in U.S. College Admissions: The Rise of Test-Optional Policies, 1987 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Jared

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the rise of "test-optional" college admissions policies since the 1990s. I argue that the rationalization of college admissions policies after World War II contributed to the rise of "meritocratic" stratification (in policy) and standardized tests, like the SAT, but it also led to the expansion and…

  10. Community College Finance: A Cost Analysis of Community College Expenditures Related to Maintenance and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a costing model for maintenance and operations expenditures among 16 single-campus California community college districts and assess the impact of a variety of variables including size of student enrollment, physical plant age, acreage, gross square footage, and general obligation facility bonds on district…

  11. Rising Mal-Employment and the Great Recession: The Growing Disconnection between Recent College Graduates and the College Labor Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    This article looks at the phenomenon of mal-employment among college graduates in the United States, beginning with an overview of labor-market trends and the effects of the Great Recession on the job-market experiences of young people, including recent college graduates. It then defines "mal-employment" and examines its incidence over…

  12. Global cost analysis on adaptation to sea level rise based on RCP/SSP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, N.; Tamura, M.; Yotsukuri, M.; Kuwahara, Y.; Yokoki, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low-lying areas are the most vulnerable to sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change in the future. In order to adapt to SLR, it is necessary to decide whether to retreat from vulnerable areas or to install dykes to protect them from inundation. Therefore, cost- analysis of adaptation using coastal dykes is one of the most essential issues in the context of climate change and its countermeasures. However, few studies have globally evaluated the future costs of adaptation in coastal areas. This study tries to globally analyze the cost of adaptation in coastal areas. First, global distributions of projected inundation impacts induced by SLR including astronomical high tide were assessed. Economic damage was estimated on the basis of the econometric relationship between past hydrological disasters, affected population, and per capita GDP using CRED's EM-DAT database. Second, the cost of adaptation was also determined using the cost database and future scenarios. The authors have built a cost database for installed coastal dykes worldwide and applied it to estimating the future cost of adaptation. The unit costs of dyke construction will increase with socio-economic scenario (SSP) such as per capita GDP. Length of vulnerable coastline is calculated by identifying inundation areas using ETOPO1. Future cost was obtained by multiplying the length of vulnerable coastline and the unit cost of dyke construction. Third, the effectiveness of dyke construction was estimated by comparing cases with and without adaptation.As a result, it was found that incremental adaptation cost is lower than economic damage in the cases of SSP1 and SSP3 under RCP scenario, while the cost of adaptation depends on the durability of the coastal dykes.

  13. The College Advantage: Weathering the Economic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Jayasundera, Tamara; Cheah, Ban

    2012-01-01

    The rising cost of college education and high unemployment levels among recent college graduates are raising the question "Is college worth its cost?" in the minds of many Americans. A recent study published by the Associated Press found that one out of every two recent college graduates is jobless or underemployed, suggesting maybe college isn't…

  14. Prevalence and cost of imaging in inpatient falls: the rising cost of falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fields J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Fields,1 Tahani Alturkistani,2 Neal Kumar,3 Arjun Kanuri,3 Deeb N Salem,1 Samson Munn,2 Deborah Blazey-Martin1 1Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; 3Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Objective: To quantify the type, prevalence, and cost of imaging following inpatient falls, identify factors associated with post-fall imaging, and determine correlates of positive versus negative imaging. Design: Single-center retrospective cohort study of inpatient falls. Data were collected from the hospital's adverse event reporting system, DrQuality. Age, sex, date, time, and location of fall, clinical service, Morse Fall Scale/fall protocol, admitting diagnosis, and fall-related imaging studies were reviewed. Cost included professional and facilities fees for each study. Setting: Four hundred and fifteen bed urban academic hospital over 3 years (2008–2010. Patients: All adult inpatient falls during the study period were included. Falls experienced by patients aged <18 years, outpatient and emergency patients, visitors to the hospital, and staff were excluded. Measurements and main results: Five hundred and thirty inpatient falls occurred during the study period, average patient age 60.7 years (range 20–98. More than half of falls were men (55% and patients considered at risk of falls (56%. Falls were evenly distributed across morning (33%, evening (34%, and night (33% shifts. Of 530 falls, 178 (34% patients were imaged with 262 studies. Twenty percent of patients imaged had at least one positive imaging study attributed to the fall and 82% of studies were negative. Total cost of imaging was $160,897, 63% ($100,700 from head computed tomography (CT. Conclusion: Inpatient falls affect patients of both sexes, all ages, occur at any time of day and lead to expensive imaging, mainly from head CTs. Further study should be targeted toward

  15. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  16. Preventable Complications Driving Rising Costs in Management of Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anahita; Desai, Sapan S; Patel, Bhavin; Seabrook, Gary R; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian; Rossi, Peter J; Malinowski, Michael; Lee, Cheong J

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that drive increasing health-care costs associated with the management of critical limb ischemia in elective inpatients. Patients with a primary diagnosis code of critical limb ischemia (CLI) were identified from the 2001-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Demographics, CLI management, comorbidities, complications (bleeding, surgical site infection [SSI]), length of stay, and median in-hospital costs were reviewed. Statistical analysis was completed using Students' t-test and Mann-Kendall trend analysis. Costs are reported in 2011 US dollars corrected using the consumer price index. From 2001 to 2011, there were a total of 451,823 patients who underwent open elective revascularization as inpatients for CLI. Costs to treat CLI increased by 63% ($12,560 in 2001 to $20,517 in 2011, P cost of care. From 2001 to 2011, the number of patient comorbidities (7.56-12.40) and percentage of endovascular cases (13.4% to 27.4%) increased, accounting for a 6% annual increase in total cost despite decreased median length of stay (6 to 5 days). Patients who developed SSI had total costs 83% greater than patients without SSIs ($30,949 vs. $16,939; P costs 41% greater than nonbleeding patients ($23,779 vs. $16,821, P cost of CLI treatment is increasing and driven by rising endovascular use, SSI, and bleeding in the in-patient population. Further efforts to reduce complications in this patient population may contribute to a reduction in health care-associated costs of treating CLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Our winters of discontent : addressing the problem of rising home heating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.; Wysocki, A.

    2006-03-01

    The cost of space heating may soon increase due to rising fuel prices in international energy markets and the absence of federal and provincial energy security policies. This report examined the benefits and disadvantages of 2 approaches to assist those with limited incomes to meet heating requirements: (1) offering Low Income Fuel Assistance (LIFA) as a one-time payment during the heating season; and (2) the elimination of taxes for home heating fuels. The cost of home heating fuels and their impacts on consumers and governments were considered. A review of the Nova Scotia government's Keep the Heat program noted that the program was not responsive to increases in the price of home heating fuel, particularly if increases in a year exceeded the level of assistance. It was suggested that the removal of heating sales taxes could provide unnecessary windfalls to households with large homes, as well as windfall profits for landlords if savings were not passed on to tenants. Using Nova Scotia as a case study, an alternative support system was considered that guaranteed a set price for heating fuel for those in need. It was suggested that this approach could cost less than a lump-sum payment or the elimination of taxes on home-heating fuel. In addition, the approach would provide low-income consumers with predictable and affordable prices. It was concluded that as space heating energy costs continue to rise, all government fuel assistance programs run the risk of becoming larger and more costly. Other solutions included reducing Canada's dependence on fossil fuels through the use of solar energy; the reduction of residential energy demand; and the promotion of district heating. 26 refs., 9 tabs., 3 figs

  18. The emergence of rural transport strategies in response to rising fuel costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Dana; Pearlmutter, David; Schwartz, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Rising and sometimes volatile fuel prices pose a challenge for rural organizations reliant on long distance transport. To understand the coping mechanisms used by such organizations, we survey rural business strategies in Israel, where fuel prices are high and urban development is concentrated in the country's geographic center. The businesses surveyed are operated by kibbutzim, historically collective communities that are now in various stages of privatization. Analysis of the ‘transport strategies’ employed by nearly 100 organizations in three regions of varying remoteness and isolation shows that firms rely on distinct strategies such as localization and high value density. Localization was found to be prevalent in all regions, as it requires little capital investment. Strategies exploiting high value density, including information-based services, were prevalent in remote and isolated regions where sensitivity to transport costs is acute. Non-remote firms were less inclined toward strategic adaptation, preferring non-disruptive changes such as cheaper shipping modes. The development implications of these transport strategies are consistent with rural economic trends observed throughout the developed world. If transport costs continue to rise, rural firms may shrink the radius of their sales and labor pools, or search for more lucrative products to reduce their relative transport costs. - Highlights: ► We survey transport strategies used by rural businesses in Israeli kibbutzim. ► The seven distinct strategies identified include localization and value density. ► Localization is used in all regions and value density in remote and isolated regions. ► Development implications are consistent with economic trends in other rural regions. ► Rural firms will likely respond to high fuel costs by strategic transport adaptation.

  19. 20 CFR 404.272 - Indexes we use to measure the rise in the cost-of-living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cost-of-living. 404.272 Section 404.272 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.272 Indexes we use to measure the rise in the cost-of-living. (a) The bases. To measure...

  20. Economic justification of costs at inspection of industrial safety of high-rise marine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garibin, Pavel; Ol'khovik, Evgeniy; Rastorguev, Igor

    2018-03-01

    The task of technical and economic regulation within mutual international recognition of testing laboratories are considered. Codes and procedures within requirements of international ISO/IEC standards of a series 17000 for elimination of non-tariff barriers and interlaboratory exchange of experts in the field of high-rise marine construction are considered. In paper, the methods of assessment of formation of economically justified cost of works at inspection and monitoring of technical condition of high-rise marine wharf engineering port structure based on settlement and actual labor input were applied. For the countries of EU, data on the average cost of works of testing laboratory within a week have been taken as a basis. Such approach will be objective as considers only expenses on obligatory actions in the course of inspection of technical condition of port engineering constructions. The analysis of public results of financial activities of the accredited organizations allowed to calculate the main indicators of the size of necessary profit and overheads at observance of all requirements imposed to test laboratories including taking into account their future technical development. The offered practice corresponds to the general direction by mutual international recognition of independent testing laboratories and can be use in the future.

  1. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190

  2. Rising food costs & global food security: Key issues & relevance for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gustafson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  3. Rising food costs & global food security: key issues & relevance for India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Daniel J

    2013-09-01

    Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.

  4. Efficiency and cost effectiveness of retrofitting ventilation in low-rise housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowser, D.; Fugler, D.

    2000-01-01

    Effective and inexpensive ventilation systems that can be retrofitted to existing low-rise housing to improve indoor air quality in existing housing stock is discussed. In a project by CMHC ten retrofit ventilation systems in single family residential buildings were tested in an effort to identify homes with specific indoor air quality concerns and to evaluate the performance of these retrofit systems by monitoring air quality before and after installation. Measurements were taken over a two-to-three day period with normal occupancy. In one case radon contamination was also measured directly before and after the retrofit. Cost estimates were based on capital, operating and maintenance expenses. This paper describes the results of three sample case studies. One of these involved a home with high concentration of radon gas. The recommended solution was fan-assisted removal of soil gases as the only way to ensure substantial reductions in concentration. Cost of the system was $2,450, plus $79 annual operating expenses. The second case involved a basement apartment with odour and moisture build-up. To solve the problem, an exhaust-only ventilation system with multiple pick-up points was installed at a cost of $750. Annual operating costs are estimated at $171. The third case study described a dwelling with windows and exhaust ducts showing condensation and mold on the bathroom ceiling. Balanced mechanical ventilation via an HRV was installed to exhaust the moist air from the house and to supply fresh dry air. In this case cost of the system was $1,345 installed, plus annual operating costs of $117. It was stressed that different houses have different requirements. Therefore it is important to be fully aware of the amount of natural ventilation a house has, prior to determining whether the solution demands additional ventilation requirements or simply redistribution. 1 ref., 3 figs

  5. Rising labor costs, earnings management, and financial performance of health care providers around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gang Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Amid increasing interest in how government regulation and market competition affect the cost and financial sustainability in health care sector, it remains unclear whether health care providers behave similarly to their counterparts in other industries. The goal of this chapter is to study the degree to which health care providers manipulate accruals in periods of financial difficulties caused, in part, by the rising costs of labor. We collected the financial information of health care provider in 43 countries from 1984 to 2013 and conducted a pooled cross-sectional study with country and year fixed-effects. The empirical evidence shows that health care providers with higher wage costs are more likely to smooth their earnings in order to maintain financial sustainability. The finding of this study not only informs regulators that earnings management is pervasive in health care organizations around the world, but also contributes to the studies of financial booktax reporting alignment, given the existing empirical evidence linking earnings management to corporate tax avoidance in this very sector.

  6. Performance Funding Policy Effects on Community College Outcomes: Are Short-Term Certificates on the Rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Amy Y.; Kennedy, Alec I.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Performance funding (PF) policies allocate a portion of state funding to colleges based on student outcomes. This study is the first to account for policy type and design differences, and explores the impact of performance funding on three levels of credential completions: short-term certificates, medium-term certificates, and…

  7. Formation of costs of high-rise objects of housing and civil purpose based on enlarged norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorotyntseva, Anna; Ovsiannikov, Andrei; Bolgov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    When determining the cost of capital construction objects, for purposes of pre-design workings out and purposes of initial maximum initial price determination on tenders, construction price norms are used (CPNs). Modern CPNs are not designed to determine the value of high-rise buildings. It is necessary to adapt modern CPNs to get opportunity for the possibility to take into account special cost factors in determining the cost of high-rise buildings. The main ways can be: selection of new representative objects or application of additional correction factors.

  8. The rise of low-cost sensing for managing air pollution in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Martani, Claudio; Biskos, George; Neophytou, Marina; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Bell, Margaret; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2015-02-01

    Ever growing populations in cities are associated with a major increase in road vehicles and air pollution. The overall high levels of urban air pollution have been shown to be of a significant risk to city dwellers. However, the impacts of very high but temporally and spatially restricted pollution, and thus exposure, are still poorly understood. Conventional approaches to air quality monitoring are based on networks of static and sparse measurement stations. However, these are prohibitively expensive to capture tempo-spatial heterogeneity and identify pollution hotspots, which is required for the development of robust real-time strategies for exposure control. Current progress in developing low-cost micro-scale sensing technology is radically changing the conventional approach to allow real-time information in a capillary form. But the question remains whether there is value in the less accurate data they generate. This article illustrates the drivers behind current rises in the use of low-cost sensors for air pollution management in cities, while addressing the major challenges for their effective implementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fed Up with Rising Premiums, Colleges Go into the Insurance Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Audrey William

    2006-01-01

    American universities are turning to captive companies, a highly specialized form of self-insurance, in an effort to cope with ever-increasing premiums. Indiana University formed the Old Crescent Insurance Company in 2005 to provide coverage for the institution's eight campuses, a move that gives it more control over costs while allowing the…

  10. Investigation on the Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overrun for High-Rise Building Projects In Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haslinda, A.; Xian, T. Wei; Norfarahayu, K.; Muhamad Hanafi, R.; Fikri, H. Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Time and cost overruns have become one prominent issue for most construction projects around the world. Project costing and timeframe extension had been causing a lot of wastage and loss of opportunity for many parties involved. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the factors influencing time and cost overruns for high-rise construction projects in Penang, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey was distributed to the project managers who had been or currently involved in the high-rise building projects in Penang to get their input and perceptions for each factor identified as well as its frequency of occurrence. In order to rank all the factors gathered, the mean index of the most distinguishing factors and its frequency of occurrence were multiplied to get the severity index. The results revealed that for time overrun, the most predominant causes were due to design changes, inadequate planning and scheduling and poor labor productivity. Meanwhile, the predominant causes of cost overrun were poor pre-construction budget and material cost planning, inaccurate quantity take-off and materials cost increased by inflation. The significance of establishing the issues related to time and cost overruns for the high-rise building construction project is to provide a greater insight and understanding on the causes of delays, particularly among the main project players: contractors, client, and consultants.

  11. Early to bed, early to rise! Sleep habits and academic performance in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Arne H; Lettieri, Christopher J; Eliasson, Arn H

    2010-02-01

    Prior studies have placed emphasis on the need for adequate total sleep time for student performance. We sought to investigate the relative importance of total sleep time compared to the timing of sleep and wakefulness for academic performance. We performed a questionnaire-based survey of college students in October 2007. The questionnaire gathered detailed information on sleep habits including naps, reasons for missing sleep, academic performance, study habits, time spent working outside of school, and stimulant use. Compared to those with the lowest academic performance, students with the highest performance had significantly earlier bedtimes (p = 0.05) and wake times (p = 0.008). Napping tended to be more common among high performers (p = 0.07). Of importance, there were no significant differences in total sleep time with or without naps, weekend sleep habits, study time, gender, race, reasons for staying up at night, nor in use of caffeinated beverages, over-the-counter stimulant pills, or use of prescription stimulants. Timing of sleep and wakefulness correlated more closely with academic performance than total sleep time and other relevant factors. These findings have important implications for programs intended to improve academic performance by targeting sleep habits of students.

  12. Theory and Evidence of Switching Costs in the Market for College Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation develops and estimates a model of switching costs in the market for college textbooks. First, in a theoretical setting, this paper characterizes the professor's adoption decision, which includes a trade-off between time and course quality. The professor faces a time cost when he switches textbooks. This switching cost leads…

  13. 78 FR 71501 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 381 [Docket No. 2013-9 CRB NCEB COLA] Cost... announce a cost of living adjustment (COLA) of 2% in the royalty rates that colleges, universities, and... change in the cost of living for the rate codified at Sec. 381.5(c)(3) relating to compositions in the...

  14. 76 FR 74703 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 381 [Docket No. 2011-9 CRB NCEB COLA] Cost... announce a cost of living adjustment (``COLA'') of 3.5% in the royalty rates that colleges, universities... Judges shall publish a notice of the change in the cost of living as determined by the Consumer Price...

  15. What's Happened to College Tuition and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    Attention focused on increasing college tuition and federal concerns about college cost containment may be obscuring other issues in the rising cost of college education, including accumulated 1970s deficits, faculty salaries, changes in the enrollment mix, the needs for automation and accountability, and instructional facility and equipment…

  16. Forward-Thinking Teens: The Effects of College Costs on Adolescent Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of college costs on teenagers' engagement in risky behaviors before they are old enough to attend college. Individuals with brighter prospects for future schooling attainment may engage in less drug and alcohol use and risky sexual activity because they have more to lose if such behaviors have harmful effects in…

  17. E-Commerce May Help Colleges Cut Costs and Paperwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    Describes the increasing trend of incorporating electronic commerce methods to purchasing systems at colleges and universities. Provides examples from the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University (Massachusetts), California State University at Fullerton, and the University of California at Los Angeles. (DB)

  18. College Costs and Family Income: The Affordability Issue at UC and CSU. Report 11-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jessika

    2011-01-01

    Rising costs are putting an education at California's public universities out of reach for many Californians. Eroding state funding for higher education has meant that more costs are passed on to students and their families in the form of increased fees. Room and board and other costs have grown much faster than inflation. Incomes have not kept…

  19. The Rise and Fall in Out-of-Pocket Costs in Australia: An Analysis of the Strengthening Medicare Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun Yee; Greene, Jessica; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; van Gool, Kees

    2017-08-01

    After a period of steady decline, out-of-pocket (OOP) costs for general practitioner (GP) consultations in Australia began increasing in the mid-1990s. Following the rising community concerns about the increasing costs, the Australian Government introduced the Strengthening Medicare reforms in 2004 and 2005, which included a targeted incentive for GPs to charge zero OOP costs for consultations provided to children and concession cardholders (older adults and the poor), as well as an increase in the reimbursement for all GP visits. This paper examines the impact of those reforms using longitudinal survey and administrative data from a large national sample of women. The findings suggest that the reforms were effective in reducing OOP costs by an average of $A0.40 per visit. Decreases in OOP costs, however, were not evenly distributed. Those with higher pre-reform OOP costs had the biggest reductions in OOP costs, as did those with concession cards. However, results also reveal increases in OOP costs for most people without a concession card. The analysis suggests that there has been considerable heterogeneity in GP responses to the reforms, which has led to substantial changes in the fees charged by doctors and, as a result, the OOP costs incurred by different population groups. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Summerville, Jessica R.; Cullis, Bethia L.; Druker, Eric R.; Rutledge, Gabriel B.; Braxton, Peter J.; Coleman, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Since the end of the Cold War, the perceived need for Navy ships has dropped, and so the shipbuilding budget has dropped. Seemingly coincidental with this budgetary pressure, and perversely aggravating the problem, ship costs began to rise steeply. We will set aside that ships have grown in weight by about three percent per year since World War II and that ever-more weapon systems are being put into them, and confine ourselves to discu...

  1. Let the bleeding begin: rising costs are starting to crush oilpatch profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1997-01-01

    Reasons for the increase in the cost and decrease in profits in the oil industry were investigated. The most likely cause for the cost increase and hence the diminishing profit margin, was identified as a simple supply and demand increase in the cost of exploration and drilling: seismic crews, drilling rigs, well servicing and labour have all increased by an average of some 10 per cent as a result of the heavy demand for these services to support the growth that companies seek. Concentrated ownership in the drilling sector is partially to blame. A severe shortage of skilled labour, and an increase in land prices are some of the other possible causes. While some industry observers expect the worst, others are confident that gradually falling profits will prompt a market correction. The tightening of investment capital will slow down rates of drilling and land acquisition, gradually easing prices downward. Volume contracting ahead of time, booking seismic crews and rigs for an entire season at a fixed cost, and technological improvements also offer hope of forcing costs down. Heavy investment by industry majors in new oilsands and heavy oil developments is yet another promise of maintaining profit margins in the oil patch while reducing the industry''s reliance on conventional light crude

  2. Generational differences in American students' reasons for going to college, 1971-2014: The rise of extrinsic motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Donnelly, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    We examined generational differences in reasons for attending college among a nationally representative sample of college students (N = 8 million) entering college between 1971-2014. We validated the items on reasons for attending college against an established measure of extrinsic and intrinsic values among college students in 2014 (n = 189). Millennials (in college 2000s-2010s) and Generation X (1980s-1990s) valued extrinsic reasons for going to college ("to make more money") more, and anti-extrinsic reasons ("to gain a general education and appreciation of ideas") less than Boomers when they were the same age in the 1960s-1970s. Extrinsic reasons for going to college were higher in years with more income inequality, college enrollment, and extrinsic values. These results mirror previous research finding generational increases in extrinsic values begun by GenX and continued by Millennials, suggesting that more recent generations are more likely to favor extrinsic values in their decision-making.

  3. Identifying critical success factors (CSFs) of Facilities Management (FM) in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, F. M.; Zainuddin, A.

    2018-02-01

    Critical success factors (CSFs) are important key areas of activity that must be performed well in any Facilities Management (FM) organisation to achieve its missions, objectives or goals. Before implementing CSFs, an FM organisation must identify the key areas where things must be done properly to enable the business to flourish. Although many performance measurements in FM organisation have been discussed in previous research, not much research has been done on CSFs from the perspective of FM business in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology in developing the CSFs group and CSFs for FM organisation in non-low cost residential buildings. This research will involve three (3) phases of research strategy to achieve the objective of this research.

  4. Construction cost prediction model for conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Subhi Alshamrani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature lacks in initial cost prediction models for college buildings, especially comparing costs of sustainable and conventional buildings. A multi-regression model was developed for conceptual initial cost estimation of conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America. RS Means was used to estimate the national average of construction costs for 2014, which was subsequently utilized to develop the model. The model could predict the initial cost per square feet with two structure types made of steel and concrete. The other predictor variables were building area, number of floors and floor height. The model was developed in three major stages, such as preliminary diagnostics on data quality, model development and validation. The developed model was successfully tested and validated with real-time data.

  5. Costs on the Mind: the Influence of the Financial Burden of College on Academic Performance and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destin, Mesmin; Svoboda, Ryan C.

    2018-01-01

    The current studies test the hypothesis that the financial burden of college can initiate a psychological process that has a negative influence on academic performance for students at selective colleges and universities. Prior studies linking high college costs and student loans to academic outcomes have not been grounded within relevant social…

  6. Towards a tipping point in responding to change: rising costs, fewer options for Arctic and global societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Henry P; Goodstein, Eban; Euskirchen, Eugénie

    2012-02-01

    Climate change incurs costs, but government adaptation budgets are limited. Beyond a certain point, individuals must bear the costs or adapt to new circumstances, creating political-economic tipping points that we explore in three examples. First, many Alaska Native villages are threatened by erosion, but relocation is expensive. To date, critically threatened villages have not yet been relocated, suggesting that we may already have reached a political-economic tipping point. Second, forest fires shape landscape and ecological characteristics in interior Alaska. Climate-driven changes in fire regime require increased fire-fighting resources to maintain current patterns of vegetation and land use, but these resources appear to be less and less available, indicating an approaching tipping point. Third, rapid sea level rise, for example from accelerated melting of the Greenland ice sheet, will create a choice between protection and abandonment for coastal regions throughout the world, a potential global tipping point comparable to those now faced by Arctic communities. The examples illustrate the basic idea that if costs of response increase more quickly than available resources, then society has fewer and fewer options as time passes.

  7. Marketing Policy and Its Cost in a College of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Eric

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the development of advertising and publicity strategies and policy for student recruitment purposes at a college of education in the United Kingdom between 1972 and 1982. Covers changes in staff attitudes, selection of media, organization of administration, and cost factors. (PGD)

  8. College Students' Views of the Specific Costs and Benefits Associated with Maternal Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronheiser, April; DiBlasi, Francis Paul; Brogan, Maureen; Kosakowski, Jill; Hess, Auden; Alleger, Lindsay; Sosnowski, Jane; Sternberg, Tamar; Chambliss, Catherine

    This study investigated college students' perceptions of the specific costs and benefits to children associated with maternal employment outside the home. Respondents were grouped on the basis of their own mothers' maternal employment status. Attitudes about psychological, academic, behavioral, and environmental risks associated with maternal…

  9. Marketing Professors' Perspectives on the Cost of College Textbooks: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lawrence S.; Stevens, Robert E.; Clow, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    Textbooks are an integral component of the higher education process. However, a great deal of concern about the high costs of college textbooks has been expressed by those inside and outside of higher education. The authors focus on the results of a pilot study of a survey of marketing professors' criteria and use of textbooks and their reactions…

  10. Multi-Product Total Cost of Function for Higher Education: A Case of Bible Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshal, Rajindar K.; Koshal, Manjulika; Gupta, Ashok

    2001-01-01

    This study empirically estimates a multiproduct total cost function and output relationship for comprehensive U.S. universities. Statistical results for 184 Bible colleges suggest that there are both economies of scale and of scope in higher education. Additionally, product-specific economies of scope exist for all output levels and activities.…

  11. 1979-80 Financial Statistics for Current Cost of Education... Showing San Joaquin Delta College Position...

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRicco, Lawrence A.

    The costs of education per unit of Average Daily Attendance (ADA) are detailed in this two-part report for 70 California community college districts for the academic year 1979-80. Both Part I, which presents data excluding non-resident ADA, and Part II, which presents figures including non-resident ADA, begin with tables which rank order the…

  12. The Cost-Effectiveness of Undergraduate Education at Private Nondoctoral Colleges and Universities: Implications for Students and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumeta, William; Huntington-Klein, Nick

    2015-01-01

    This study examines key aspects of the cost-effectiveness of private nondoctoral (PND) colleges as providers of baccalaureate degrees and explores how states might feasibly make better use of these colleges to produce more degrees efficiently. The study looks at degree production and cost in the PND sector relative to other higher education…

  13. Opportunities for Efficiency and Innovation: A Primer on How to Cut College Costs. Working Paper 2011-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Vance H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author explores how colleges whose primary mission is undergraduate education can strategically allocate resources in a way that reduces costs and prioritizes teaching and learning. He starts from a provocative thought-experiment--what would it cost to educate undergraduates at a hypothetical college built from scratch?--and uses…

  14. [The reasons and background for the rise of college education of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-jie; Huang, Ying; Li, Jie

    2009-09-01

    With western learning spreading throughout the orient, the survival and development of TCM was restrained to a large degree due to the medical administrative policy, educational system and diffusion of western medicine at different social levels. Facing this adversity, the TCM sector complied with the changing times and survived through persistent efforts as well as wide and solid popular foundations, striving actively for the legitimacy status of TCM education and establishing several TCM colleges. During the course of running the colleges, the TCM sector was brave in changing ideas and giving and accepting new knowledge, it explored a comprehensive educational syllabus, which not only promoted the development of TCM education in the Republican period of China, but also laid a foundation for TCM education in the new period.

  15. Quantity Surveying Undergraduates’ Awareness on Cost Significant of High-Rise Condominium Projects in Malaysia: The Case of a Private University in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Lee Wah; Seng Ng See; Choon Toh Tien; Sim Lim Cheng; Khian Yong Ching; Chen Goh Kai

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments in quantity surveying (QS) emphasised the importance of identifying cost significant elements (CSE). The knowledge on CSE of high-rise condominium projects (HRCP) is essential as high-rise residential multi-unit projects are the next option in building construction due to limited land areas in urban areas. This study aims to determine the levels of awareness among QS undergraduates of a private university in Malaysia on CSE of HRCP in Malaysia. The respondents’ knowledge o...

  16. Credit supply and the rise in college tuition: evidence from the expansion in federal student aid programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lucca, David O.; Nadauld, Taylor D.; Shen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    When students fund their education through loans, changes in student borrowing and tuition are interlinked. Higher tuition costs raise loan demand, but loan supply also affects equilibrium tuition costs - for example, by relaxing students' funding constraints. To resolve this simultaneity problem, we exploit detailed student-level financial data and changes in federal student aid programs to identify the impact of increased student loan funding on tuition. We find that institutions more expos...

  17. Stemming the Escalating Cost of Prescription Drugs: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Hilary

    2016-03-29

    This American College of Physicians position paper, initiated and written by its Health and Public Policy Committee and approved by the Board of Regents on 16 February 2016, reports policy recommendations from the American College of Physicians to address the escalating costs of prescription drugs in the United States. Prescription drugs play an important part in treating and preventing disease. However, the United States often pays more for some prescription drugs than other developed countries, and the high price and increasing costs associated with prescription medication is a major concern for patients, physicians, and payers. Pharmaceutical companies have considerable flexibility in how they price drugs, and the costs that payers and patients see are dependent on how payers are able to negotiate discounts or rebates. Beyond setting list prices are issues of regulatory approval, patents and intellectual property, assessment of value and cost-effectiveness, and health plan drug benefits. These issues are linked, and comprehensive efforts will be needed to affect how drugs are priced in the United States.

  18. A College Financial Management Center: What Do Students Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienne, Kristy; Slate, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing cost of a college education on the rise, college administrators need to address the long term financial, psychological, and academic risks associated with the increased responsibility of personal debt. In this qualitative study, college students' perspectives regarding the need for a personal financial management center at a…

  19. Quantity Surveying Undergraduates’ Awareness on Cost Significant of High-Rise Condominium Projects in Malaysia: The Case of a Private University in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lee Wah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in quantity surveying (QS emphasised the importance of identifying cost significant elements (CSE. The knowledge on CSE of high-rise condominium projects (HRCP is essential as high-rise residential multi-unit projects are the next option in building construction due to limited land areas in urban areas. This study aims to determine the levels of awareness among QS undergraduates of a private university in Malaysia on CSE of HRCP in Malaysia. The respondents’ knowledge on CSE has not achieved a satisfactory level. Both male and female respondents have the same levels of awareness on CSE. Remedial strategies to improve this situation are recommended.

  20. The Effects of Inflation and Pricing Policies on College Enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostar, Allan W.

    Some of the effects of inflation and pricing policies on college costs are discussed, and it is shown that rising college costs have a negative effect upon student opportunity and access. Continual escalation of tuition and fees can lead to a shrinking of the higher education enterprise. Federal efforts (and state efforts to the extent that they…

  1. Comparative Cost Study by Southeastern Regional Association of Physical Plant Administrators of Universities and Colleges Standards Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the southeastern region of the U.S. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and grounds maintenance, and…

  2. The Reduction of Faculty Reassigned Time as a Community College Cost Containment Initiative: A Case Study of the Maricopa County Community College District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrowsky, Michael C.

    This paper argues that community colleges can contain costs by reducing faculty reassigned time, defined as a conscious or deliberate management action, either discretionary or mandated, that releases full-time faculty from teaching duties in order to perform other tasks. According to the paper, standard financial accounting systems have a…

  3. State trends in premiums and deductibles, 2003-2009: how building on the Affordable Care Act will help stem the tide of rising costs and eroding benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Cathy; Stremikis, Kristof; How, Sabrina K H; Collins, Sara R

    2010-12-01

    Rapidly rising health insurance costs have strained U.S. families and employers in recent years. This issue brief examines data for all states on changes in private employer premiums and deductibles for 2003 and 2009. The analysis finds that premiums for businesses and their employees increased 41 percent across states from 2003 to 2009, while per-person deductibles jumped 77 percent in large as well as small firms. If these trends continue at the rate prior to enactment of the Affordable Care Act, the average premium for family coverage will rise 79 percent by 2020, to more than $23,000. The authors describe how health reform offers the potential to reduce insurance cost growth while improving value and protection. If reforms succeed in slowing premium growth by 1 percentage point annually in all states, by 2020 employers and families together will save $2,323 annually for family coverage, compared with projected trends.

  4. Construction cost impact analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy mandatory performance standards for new federal commercial and multi-family, high-rise residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Massa, F.V.; Hadley, D.L.; Halverson, M.A.

    1993-12-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted a project to demonstrate use of its Energy Conservation Voluntary Performance Standards for Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings; Mandatory for New Federal Buildings; Interim Rule (referred to in this report as DOE-1993). A key requisite of the legislation requires DOE to develop commercial building energy standards that are cost effective. During the demonstration project, DOE specifically addressed this issue by assessing the impacts of the standards on (1) construction costs, (2) builders (and especially small builders) of multi-family, high-rise buildings, and (3) the ability of low-to moderate-income persons to purchase or rent units in such buildings. This document reports on this project

  5. Student Loan Programs. As Federal Costs of Loan Consolidation Rise, Other Options Should be Examined. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In this report GAO recommends that the Secretary of Education assess the advantages of consolidation loans for borrowers and the government in light of program costs and identify options for reducing federal costs. Options could include targeting the program to borrowers at risk of default and extending existing consolidation alternatives to more…

  6. Does public insurance provide better financial protection against rising health care costs for families of children with special health care needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Dick, Andrew W; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2008-10-01

    Health care costs grew rapidly since 2001, generating substantial economic pressures on families, especially those with children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To examine how the growth of health care costs affected financial burden for families of CSHCN between 2001 and 2004 and to determine the extent to which health insurance coverage protected families of CSHCN against financial burden. In 2001-2004, 5196 families of CSHCN were surveyed by the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The main outcome was financial burden, defined as the proportion of family income spent on out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditures for all family members, including OOP costs and premiums. Family insurance coverage was classified as: (1) all members publicly insured, (2) all members privately insured, (3) all members uninsured, (4) partial coverage, and (5) a mix of public and private with no uninsured periods. An upward trend in financial burden for families of CSHCN occurred and was associated with growth of economy-wide health care costs. A multivariate analysis indicated that, given the economy-wide increase in medical costs between 2001 and 2004, a family with CSHCN was at increased risk in 2004 for having financial burden exceeding 10% of family income [odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P financial burden exceeding 20% of family income. Over 15% of families with public insurance had financial burden exceeding 10% of family income compared with 20% of families with private insurance (P financial burden of >10% or 20% of family income than privately-insured families. Rising health care costs increased financial burden on families of CSHCN in 2001-2004. Public insurance coverage provided better financial protection than private insurance against the rapidly rising health care costs for families of CSHCN.

  7. Telepressure and College Student Employment: The Costs of Staying Connected Across Social Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2017-02-01

    Telepressure is a psychological state consisting of the preoccupation and urge to respond quickly to message-based communications from others. Telepressure has been linked with negative stress and health outcomes, but the existing measure focuses on experiences specific to the workplace. The current study explores whether an adapted version of the workplace telepressure measure is relevant to general social interactions that rely on information and communication technologies. We validated a general telepressure measure in a sample of college students and found psychometric properties similar to the original workplace measure. Also, general telepressure was related to, but distinct from, the fear of missing out, self-control and technology use. Using a predictive validity design, we also found that telepressure at the beginning of the semester was related to student reports of burnout, perceived stress and poor sleep hygiene 1 month later (but not work-life balance or general life satisfaction). Moreover, telepressure was more strongly related to more negative outcomes (burnout, stress and poor sleep hygiene) and less positive outcomes (work-life balance and life satisfaction) among employed compared with non-employed students. Thus, the costs of staying connected to one's social network may be more detrimental to college students with additional employment obligations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. An Investigation of the Perceptions of Low-Income Students of Color Concerning College Costs and Financial Aid Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    As college enrollments continue to increase, the disparity between middle-income white students and low-income students of color enrolling in private higher educational institutions continues to widen. Previous research has identified barriers such as access and equity in education, the high cost of education, and limited knowledge regarding…

  9. Workforce Investments: State Strategies to Preserve Higher-Cost Career Education Programs in Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulock, Nancy; Lewis, Jodi; Tan, Connie

    2013-01-01

    In today's highly-skilled economy, rewarding career pathways are available to those who acquire technical skills by enrolling in certificate and associate degree programs in a community or technical college. Such programs are often more costly to offer than liberal arts and sciences programs that prepare students to transfer to four-year…

  10. Are Plush Dorms and Fancy Food Plans Important Drivers of College Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Robert B.; Feldman, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Like most schools, College of William and Mary is not shy about touting its amenities. The Webpage that advertises the college's housing and dining options begins with, "Wireless and Starbucks? Thomas Jefferson never had it this good." Advertising of this sort is a double-edged public-relations sword. Colleges and universities clearly want to…

  11. U.S. Dental School Deans’ Perceptions of the Rising Cost of Dental Education and Borrowing Pressures on Dental Students: Report of Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.

  12. When renewable energy met sustainable growth. Regulation, cost reduction, and the rise of renewable energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Historically and famously fossil-fuel dependent, the U.S. energy and electricity mixes are evolving quickly as costs fall for renewables, regulations mandate their implementation, and fiscal policy incentivizes their installation. The investment and production tax credits (ITC and PTC) as well as power purchase agreements (PPAs) are well-known for their contributions to the development of solar and wind capacity, and the recent extensions of these credits has led to a positive outlook for continued growth in installations and generation. In addition, the green power market is experiencing record participation, as tracking the positive environmental externalities of renewable power has become important to meet renewable portfolio standards, which mandate implementation of renewable energy by state. Cost reduction is further taking place globally due to technological advances and economies of scale, which serves as another key driver for development. Of course, challenges are still present, particularly due to a plentiful and inexpensive domestic fossil fuel supply, uneven application of regulation and incentives state-by-state, and the uncertainty of continued political support. Even so, a progressive lowering of traditional barriers is leading to the potential for widespread deployment of renewables across the American landscape. (author)

  13. The Future Economic Challenges for the Liberal Arts College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Michael S.; Schapiro, Morton Owen

    1999-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges face a public skeptical about rising college costs, and pricing policies that seem unfairly "redistributive;" an education economy in which new information technologies are transforming how and why people need schooling; and a competitive environment that favors resource-wasting maneuvers to gain tactical advantage, rather…

  14. College Savings Plans, Financial Aid, and Tax Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Richard; Mentz, George S.

    2004-01-01

    A college degree is one of the most expensive purchases an American family can make. While today's costs are higher than ever before, parents have many more options whose sheer number and complexity have given rise to a whole new field-financial planning for college. This article, which is based on materials created for the enrollment management…

  15. A Case Study of Preliminary Cost-Benefit Analysis of Building Levees to Mitigate the Joint Effects of Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Peng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sea-level rise (SLR will magnify the impacts of storm surge; the resulting severe flooding and inundation can cause huge damage to coastal communities. Community leaders are considering implementing adaptation strategies, typically hard engineering projects, to protect coastal assets and resources. It is important to understand the costs and benefits of the proposed project before any decision is made. To mitigate the flooding impact of joint effects of storm surge and SLR, building levee segments is chosen to be a corresponding adaptation strategy to protect the real estate assets in the study area—the City of Miami, FL, USA. This paper uses the classic Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA to assess the cost efficiency and proposes corresponding improvements in the benefit estimation, by estimating the avoided damages of implementing levee projects. Results show that the city will benefit from implementing levee projects along the Miami River in both a one-time 10 year storm event with SLR and cumulative long-term damage scenarios. This study also suggests that conducting CBA is a critical process before making coastal adaptation planning investment. A more meaningful result of cost effectiveness is estimated by accounting for the appreciation and time value. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to verify how the choice of discount rate influences the result. Uncertain factors including the rate of SLR, storm intensification, land use changes, and real estate appreciation are further analyzed.

  16. Making College Worth It: A Review of the Returns to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Philip; Petronijevic, Uros

    2013-01-01

    Despite a general rise in the return to college, likely due to technological change, the cost-benefit calculus facing prospective students can make the decision to invest in and attend college dauntingly complex. Philip Oreopoulos and Uros Petronijevic review research on the varying costs and benefits of higher education and explore in full the…

  17. Are College Costs Worth It? How Individual Ability, Major Choice, and Debt Affect Optimal Schooling Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the financial value over the course of a lifetime of pursuing a college degree under a variety of different settings (e.g. major, student loan debt, individual ability). Using a lifecycle simulation approach, I account for ability/selection bias and the substantial probability that entering college freshmen will not eventually graduate, two critically important factors when evaluating the value of pursuing a college degree. I find that financial proposition of attending co...

  18. Rising Use Of Observation Care Among The Commercially Insured May Lead to Total And Out-Of-Pocket Cost Savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrion, Emily R; Kocher, Keith E; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-12-01

    Proponents of hospital-based observation care argue that it has the potential to reduce health care spending and lengths-of-stay, compared to short-stay inpatient hospitalizations. However, critics have raised concerns about the out-of-pocket spending associated with observation care. Recent reports of high out-of-pocket spending among Medicare beneficiaries have received considerable media attention and have prompted direct policy changes. Despite the potential for changed policies to indirectly affect non-Medicare patients, little is known about the use of, and spending associated with, observation care among commercially insured populations. Using multipayer commercial claims for the period 2009-13, we evaluated utilization and spending among patients admitted for six conditions that are commonly managed with either observation care or short-stay hospitalizations. In our study period, the use of observation care increased relative to that of short-stay hospitalizations. Total and out-of-pocket spending were substantially lower for observation care, though both grew rapidly-and at rates much higher than spending in the inpatient setting-over the study period. Despite this growth, spending on observation care is unlikely to exceed spending for short-stay hospitalizations. As observation care attracts greater attention, policy makers should be aware that Medicare policies that disincentivize observation may have unintended financial impacts on non-Medicare populations, where observation care may be cost saving.

  19. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Federal Job Training Investments in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyster, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Community colleges, which are public, two-year institutions of higher education, have become a major provider of education and training that directly leads to a job in a particular occupation. To help community colleges build capacity to provide job training, the federal government has funded several grant programs over the past 15 years. Recent…

  20. Expanding the Role of Maryland Community Colleges in K-12 Teacher Preparation: Benefits and Costs of Implementing the Associate of Arts in Teaching (AAT) Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jennifer Vest

    2012-01-01

    This study uses benefit-cost analysis to compare three alternative scenarios for implementing the Associate of Arts in Teaching (AAT) degree in Maryland community colleges. The first policy scenario is that community colleges retain their traditional role in K-12 teacher preparation by providing lower-division transfer courses and programs for…

  1. Cost and Price Increases in Higher Education: Evidence of a Cost Disease on Higher Education Costs and Tuition Prices and the Implications for Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombella, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    As concern over rapidly rising college costs and tuition sticker prices have increased, a variety of research has been conducted to determine potential causes. Most of this research has focused on factors unique to higher education. In contrast, cost disease theory attempts to create a comparative context to explain cost increases in higher…

  2. Officials Warn of a Crisis in Student Health Insurance as Medical Costs Soar and Companies Revise Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K

    1989-01-01

    As costs rise and companies discontinue coverage of college students under parents' policies, students are choosing to forego insurance rather than pay for it themselves, so suggest speakers at the American College Health Association's annual meeting. Colleges offering group-insurance policies to students are also having problems renewing them.…

  3. 75 FR 74623 - Cost of Living Adjustment for Performance of Musical Compositions by Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Royalty Board 37 CFR Part 381 [Docket No. 2010-9 CRB] Cost of Living... Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Copyright Royalty Judges announce a cost of... before December 1 of each year the Judges shall publish a notice of the change in the cost of living as...

  4. College Bound: Americans' Attitudes about Paying for College. A Survey of Families with College-Bound High School Students on the Value of a College Education and Its Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup & Robinson, Inc. Princeton, NJ.

    This study examined several aspects of family viewpoints regarding the financing of higher education. Data were collected via a telephone survey of 800 parents of college bound high school students and 300 college bound high school juniors and seniors. The survey examined attitudes in such areas as: the relative importance of financing college…

  5. College and University Employee Retirement and Insurance Benefits Cost Survey, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, New York, NY. College Retirement Equities Fund.

    This report, the eighth in a regular biennial survey series, provides standardized comparative information on expenditures by colleges and universities for employee retirement and insurance benefits in 26 tables and 5 charts. The data, collected in 1992 from 577 institutions, reflect information supplied for either fiscal or calendar year 1981.…

  6. College and University Employee Retirement and Insurance Benefits Cost Survey, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, New York, NY. College Retirement Equities Fund.

    This report, the seventh in a regular biennial survey series, provides standardized comparative information on expenditures by colleges and universities for employee retirement and insurance benefits in 25 tables and 5 charts. The data, collected in 1990 from 634 institutions, reflect information supplied for either fiscal or calendar year 1989.…

  7. College Distance Education Courses: Evaluating Benefits and Costs from Institutional, Faculty and Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Simon A.; Gupta, Rajeev K.

    2010-01-01

    The strategic plan for providing college education outside of the traditional classroom environment has rapidly evolved over the past decade via electronic mediums. Advances in technology, along with increasing student enrollment size, have led many higher education institutions to begin offering distance education (web-based) courses. Current…

  8. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  9. High Costs, Uncertain Benefits: What Do Americans without a College Degree Think about Postsecondary Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The path to economic mobility increasingly runs through postsecondary education. Although the combination of rising tuition prices and a difficult labor market have raised questions about the value of education after high school, degree and certificate holders are still better off than those with just a high school diploma. As a group, young…

  10. More Useful, or Not so Bad? Evaluating the Effects of Interventions to Reduce Perceived Cost and Increase Utility Value with College Physics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Emily Quinn

    2017-01-01

    In the present study I developed and evaluated the effects of two interventions designed to target students' motivation to learn in an introductory college physics course. One intervention was designed to improve students' perceptions of utility value and the other was designed to reduce students' perceptions of cost. Utility value and cost both…

  11. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  12. Fast-food Consumption among College Students Based on Cost and Thermal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mu Rui-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The starting point of this study was to assess college students to spend money and calories in fast food consumption within the university campus. Undergraduate Students (18 years old-24) to facilitate sample (N = 152), participated in the university in the use of researchers developed a way of life and collecting food frequency questionnaire, dietary intake measurements from seven Behavior Survey health practices survey data on the local fast-food chain. A strong positive correlation between...

  13. Foundations for the Future: The Fundraising Role of Foundation Boards at Public Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the face of rising costs and a prolonged economic downturn, public colleges and universities are being challenged to increase their sources of private support and philanthropy. Drawing on the findings of a recent AGB survey of public college- and university-affiliated foundation board chairs and chief executive officers, Foundations for the…

  14. "You Pay Your Share, We'll Pay Our Share": The College Cost Burden and the Role of Race, Income, and College Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, William; Friedline, Terri

    2013-01-01

    Changes in financial aid policies raise questions about students being asked to pay too much for college and whether parents' college savings for their children helps reduce the burden on students to pay for college. Using trivariate probit analysis with predicted probabilities, in this exploratory study we find recent changes in the financial aid…

  15. High School Students' Accuracy in Estimating the Cost of College: A Proposed Methodological Approach and Differences among Racial/Ethnic Groups and College Financial-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhusser, H. Kenny; Oshio, Toko

    2017-01-01

    High school students' accuracy in estimating the cost of college (AECC) was examined by utilizing a new methodological approach, the absolute-deviation-continuous construct. This study used the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09) data and examined 10,530 11th grade students in order to measure their AECC for 4-year public and private…

  16. Value Added: The Costs and Benefits of College Preparatory Programs. American Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swail, Watson Scott

    2004-01-01

    Rarely do stakeholders ask about the effectiveness of outreach programs or whether they are an efficient use of tax dollars and philanthropic funds. As government budgets continue to be constrained and philanthropic investment gets more competitive, there is a growing acknowledgment of the need to look at the cost/benefit of these programs and…

  17. Cost-Effective Control Systems for Colleges and Universities: A New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Loren Loomis; Dougherty, Jennifer Dowling

    This report addresses the issue of maintaining adequate controls within a streamlined or restructured financial affairs environment at an institution of higher education. It presents a new paradigm for control structures designed to more effectively meet administrators' needs--both in terms of cost and risk management. The first section: (1)…

  18. Academic Effects and Cost Benefit of a Four-Day Week at College of DuPage, an Illinois Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carol C.

    The implementation of a four-day week (Monday-Thursday) for on-campus classes at the College of DuPage, an Illinois community college, was assessed in terms of student registration; class enrollment; student success rates; instructional quality; and savings resulting from driving differences, energy use, and building maintenance. Withdrawal and…

  19. A Generic Service-Oriented Cost Model for Student Admissions Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Philip Edward

    2017-01-01

    State support of community colleges has been reduced in recent years and is not expected to recover to previous levels, even though costs continue to rise. While many colleges have increased tuition in response to this situation, students cannot afford endless increases in tuition. While predicting the future is difficult, it is likely that…

  20. On the history of New York Medical College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S J

    1986-01-01

    The history of New York Medical College reflects three distinct trends in the development of medical education: the rise and fall of homeopathy, the input of civic leaders (in this case, William Cullen Bryant) and the uneasy relationship between medical schools and hospitals caused by the dramatic increase in the complexity and cost of hospital care.

  1. Costly energy : why oil and gas prices are rising and what we can do about it : a collection of progressive analysis and policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.

    2001-02-01

    A collection of essays were presented to address the issue of rising oil and gas prices. This issue has significant social and environmental implications and the public wants to know what is driving prices up and who is profiting. The myth that gas taxes are driving price increases was dispelled. It was argued that price hikes are mainly due to crude oil price increases and to refining and marketing price increases. The link between rising prices and free trade was also emphasized. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) tied Canada into a North American energy market in which U.S. demand sets prices in Canada. It was suggested that trade rules regarding energy should be changed. Other short and longer-term progressive policy alternatives were also presented in the second part of this report. One possible short-term policy response would be to tax windfall oil and gas profits and direct the resulting revenues to rebates for low-income households and for energy conservation initiatives. It was noted that the environmental benefit of rising prices is that it encourages conservation and improved fuel efficiency. The final part of this report discussed the issue of protecting electricity from deregulation and sited lessons learned from the deregulation of natural gas. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  2. The Rise of the Low Cost Model in the Airline Industry : A Study of the Strategies of Southwest, RyanAir and Air Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Harsh, Saraogi

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has seen a major overhaul in the Airline Industry, with the emergence of a new breed of Airlines, the Low Cost Airlines. The trend that started from the United States, with Southwest being the pioneer, slowly and gradually replicated its way through Europe, Asia and the Rest of the World. Today, more than 1 flight in every five worldwide is now operated by a low cost carrier (LCC). The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons for the growth of the Low Cost Carrier Mo...

  3. Assessing the cost of implementing the 2011 Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada and Canadian College of Medical Genetics practice guidelines on the detection of fetal aneuploidies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Margaret; Hume, Stacey; Karpoff, Nina; Maire, Georges; Taylor, Sherry; Tomaszewski, Robert; Yoshimoto, Maisa; Christian, Susan

    2017-09-01

    The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada and the Canadian College of Medical Genetics published guidelines, in 2011, recommending replacement of karyotype with quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction when prenatal testing is performed because of an increased risk of a common aneuploidy. This study's objective is to perform a cost analysis following the implementation of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction as a stand-alone test. A total of 658 samples were received between 1 April 2014 and 31 August 2015: 576 amniocentesis samples and 82 chorionic villi sampling. A chromosome abnormality was identified in 14% (93/658) of the prenatal samples tested. The implementation of the 2011 Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada and the Canadian College of Medical Genetics guidelines in Edmonton and Northern Alberta resulted in a cost savings of $46 295.80. The replacement of karyotype with chromosomal microarray for some indications would be associated with additional costs. The implementation of new test methods may provide cost savings or added costs. Cost analysis is important to consider during the implementation of new guidelines or technologies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Pulp and paper markets peaking amid slow economy, rising input costs, and erosion of profits : markets for paper, paperboard and woodpulp, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Eduard L. Akim; Bernard Lombard; Tomas Parik

    2008-01-01

    In mid-2008, pulp and paper prices were at or near historic peak levels, but global demand conditions were weakening. Industry profits were eroded in 2007 and 2008 as sharply higher energy costs led to higher prices for fuel, freight, pulpwood, recovered paper, chemicals, and other inputs. Expanding pulp and paper capacity in China is having a huge impact on paper and...

  5. Aging Baby Boomers and the Rising Cost of Chronic Back Pain: Secular Trend Analysis of Longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey Data for Years 2000 to 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Monica; Davis, Matthew A.; Stano, Miron; Whedon, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purposes of this study were to analyze data from the longitudinal Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) to evaluate the impact of an aging population on secular trends in back pain and chronicity and to provide estimates of treatment costs for patients who used only ambulatory services. Methods Using the MEPS 2-year longitudinal data for years 2000 to 2007, we analyzed data from all adult respondents. Of the total number of MEPS respondent records analyzed (N = 71 838), we identified 12 104 respondents with back pain and further categorized 3842 as chronic cases and 8262 as nonchronic cases. Results Secular trends from the MEPS data indicate that the prevalence of back pain has increased by 29%, whereas chronic back pain increased by 64%. The average age among all adults with back pain increased from 45.9 to 48.2 years; the average age among adults with chronic back pain increased from 48.5 to 52.2 years. Inflation-adjusted (to 2010 dollars) biennial expenditures on ambulatory services for chronic back pain increased by 129% over the same period, from $15.6 billion in 2000 to 2001 to $35.7 billion in 2006 to 2007. Conclusion The prevalence of back pain, especially chronic back pain, is increasing. To the extent that the growth in chronic back pain is caused, in part, by an aging population, the growth will likely continue or accelerate. With relatively high cost per adult with chronic back pain, total expenditures associated with back pain will correspondingly accelerate under existing treatment patterns. This carries implications for prioritizing health policy, clinical practice, and research efforts to improve care outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness and for health workforce planning. PMID:23380209

  6. Ionizing Radiation Measurements Using Low Cost Instruments for Teaching in College or High-School in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Vilela, D. C.; Migoto, V. G.; Gomes, M. P.; Martin, I. M.; Germano, J. S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiation one of modern physics experimental teaching in colleges and high school can be easily implemented today due to low coasts of detectors and also electronic circuits and data acquisition interfaces. First it is interesting to show to young's students what is ionizing radiation and from where they appears near ground level? How it…

  7. First-Generation College Students and Their Pursuit of the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks-Santilli, Linda

    2014-01-01

    First-generation college students, students whose parents have not earned a four-year degree, are not new to higher education, but their increasing presence at private, four-year institutions requires careful attention from administration and faculty. The rising costs of higher education combined with the nation's recent economic decline have made…

  8. Cash for College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains answers to questions that students may ask about financial aid for college. The booklet describes the usual costs of college, and suggests ways students can pay for a college education. The types of financial aid available are described, and the application process is outlined. The booklet offers tips for comparing different…

  9. CLEP college mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Mel

    2012-01-01

    Earn College Credit with REA's Test Prep for CLEP* College Mathematics Everything you need to pass the exam and get the college credit you deserve.CLEP* is the most popular credit-by-examination program in the country, accepted by more than 2,900 colleges and universities. For over 15 years, REA has helped students pass the CLEP* exam and earn college credit while reducing their tuition costs. Our test prep for CLEP* College Mathematics and the free online tools that come with it, allow you to create a personalized CLEP* study plan that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your lea

  10. On Account--table Combined Method for Education Cost Calculation of Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校教育成本帐表结合法的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩征

    2012-01-01

    随着高职院校各项教育费用支出的增加,教育成本逐渐受到人们的关注.为了科学核算高职院校教育成本,分析了高职院校现行核算方法不能客观反映教育成本的原因,明确了教育成本核算的基本会计假设和原则.以高职院校经费预算项目核算为基础,结合高职院校财务现状和办学特点,提出了帐表结合法核算高职院校教育成本.该方法采用项目帐和费用分配表相结合的模式,可科学核算高职院校教育成本.%With the increase of various education expenses of higher vocational colleges, educa-tion cost is gradually getting noticed by people. In order to calculate education cost of higher vo-cational colleges scientifically, this paper puts forward that current calculation method can not re-flect the education cost of higher vocational colleges objectively and clarifies basic accounting pos-tulate as well as principles of education cost calculation. Based on calculation of fund budget i-tems of higher vocational colleges, this paper puts forward account table combined method to calculate education cost of higher vocational colleges according to their financial situation and school-running characteristics. This method adopts the model combining item account with cost allocation table, which can calculate education cost of higher vocational colleges scientifically.

  11. The rise and rise of alternative medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cauchi, Maurice N.

    2011-01-01

    Before scientific medicine appeared on the scene less than 200 years ago, alternative medicine existed side by side with what was considered to be college-certified medical practice. Surgery took a bit longer to become an academic discipline, looked down on by medical doctors and was, for a long time restricted to unqualified barbers. Since then, with the application of the scientific method, medicine has made, and is still making enormous strides. We do no...

  12. Ionizing radiation measurements using low cost instruments for teaching in college or high-school in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M. C.; Vilela, D. C.; Migoto, V. G.; Gomes, M. P.; Martin, I. M.; Germano, J. S. E.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation one of modern physics experimental teaching in colleges and high school can be easily implemented today due to low coasts of detectors and also electronic circuits and data acquisition interfaces. First it is interesting to show to young’s students what is ionizing radiation and from where they appears near ground level? How it is possible to measure these radiations and how to check intensities variation during day, night, dry and wet periods in the same school? For increasing interest and stimulation in others students how to proceed in making the graphics of the ionizing radiation and presenting him in real time using Web internet facilities? Many others facilities like calibration of the detector using low intensities radioactive ionizing radiation sources, make comparison of the measurements and discussions of the results should be possible between many groups of students from several schools in the region of Brazil. This paper presents the experimental procedures including detectors and associated electronic including data acquisition, graphics elaboration and Web internet procedures to discuss and exchanging data measurements from several schools.

  13. Cost Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kira

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate determinants and consequences of asymmetric cost behavior. Asymmetric cost behavior arises if the change in costs is different for increases in activity compared to equivalent decreases in activity. In this case, costs are termed “sticky......” if the change is less when activity falls than when activity rises, whereas costs are termed “anti-sticky” if the change is more when activity falls than when activity rises. Understanding such cost behavior is especially relevant for decision-makers and financial analysts that rely on accurate cost information...... to facilitate resource planning and earnings forecasting. As such, this dissertation relates to the topic of firm profitability and the interpretation of cost variability. The dissertation consists of three parts that are written in the form of separate academic papers. The following section briefly summarizes...

  14. Power struggles for control of the University and its financing seen rising from the students of Quito’s Royal College and Seminary Maximum of Saint Louis at 1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano GIL BLANCO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we establish the origin, the economy, the confrontations and the corruption in the Quito’s Royal Maximum College and Seminary of Saint Luis. We are going to do this through the study of an incident in 1725 between different ecclesiastical and civil authorities for the control of the seminary and its finances. It is only a part of the confrontation between creoles and «peninsulares» by the control of the porters and of the important incomes that provided Real Estate to finance.

  15. Making college worth it: a review of the returns to higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreopoulos, Philip; Petronijevic, Uros

    2013-01-01

    Despite a general rise in the return to college, likely due to technological change, the cost-benefit calculus facing prospective students can make the decision to invest in and attend college dauntingly complex. Philip Oreopoulos and Uros Petronijevic review research on the varying costs and benefits of higher education and explore in full the complexity of the decision to invest in and attend college. Optimal college attainment decisions are different for all prospective students, who diverge in terms of what they are likely to get out of higher education and what specific options might be best for them. Earnings of college graduates depend in important measure on the program of study and eventual occupation they choose. Students uninterested in or unable to complete a four-year college degree appear to benefit from completing a two-year degree. Prospective students may also face both financial constraints, which prohibit them from taking advantage of more education, and information problems and behavioral idiosyncrasies, such as reluctance to take on debt, which keep them from making optimal decisions about attending college. In their discussion of how student debt figures in the college investment, the authors note that some students borrow too little and, as a result, underinvest in their education. Carefully calculating the return on the college investment can help determine the "appropriate" amount of debt. Students are more likely to benefit from postsecondary education the more informed they are about the expenses associated with college and the potential options for financial aid, which can be extremely complex. To make the best college investment, Oreopoulos and Petronijevic stress, prospective students must give careful consideration to selecting the institution itself, the major to follow, and the eventual occupation to pursue. For any particular program at a particular school, anticipated future labor market earnings, the likelihood of completion, the

  16. Cost considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Ras; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evelien Eggink

    2013-01-01

    Original title: Lasten onder de loep The Dutch government spends almost 7 billion euros  each year on care for people with intellectual disabilities, and these costs are rising steadily. This report analyses what underlies the increase in costs that occurred between 2007 and 2011. Was

  17. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  18. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  19. Saving Pell Grants in an Era of Cost-Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Karen

    2011-01-01

    In the context of the recent efforts to arrive at a federal budget, articles abound in the popular media and trade publications debating both the value of Pell Grants and their rising cost to the U.S. government. Both pros and cons of the debate hold value. Pell Grants are what enable many low-income families to send their children to college and,…

  20. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  1. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  2. Can Low-Cost Online Summer Math Programs Improve Student Preparation for College-Level Math? Evidence from Randomized Experiments at Three Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chingos, Matthew M.; Griffiths, Rebecca J.; Mulhern, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Every year many students enter college without the math preparation needed to succeed in their desired programs of study. Many of these students struggle to catch up, especially those who are required to take remedial math courses before entering college-level math. Increasing the number of students who begin at the appropriate level of math has…

  3. Setting Up the Next Generation Biofeedback Program for Stress and Anxiety Management for College Students: A Simple and Cost-Effective Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Hayashino, Diane; Prince, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of stress and anxiety on college campuses along with limited resources and budget reductions for many campuses has prompted the need for innovative approaches to help students effectively manage their stress and anxiety. With college students becoming more and more technology-savvy, the authors present an innovative…

  4. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  5. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  6. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  7. Rising energy prices and the economics of water in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, D.; Sproul, T.; Rajagopal, D.; Sexton, S.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rising energy prices will alter water allocation and distribution. Water extraction and conveyance will become more costly and demand for hydroelectric power will grow. The higher cost of energy will substantially increase the cost of groundwater, whereas increasing demand for hydroelectric power

  8. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  9. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  10. Superphenix set to rise again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Superphenix, France's seemingly jinxed fast breeder reactor, which has not produced a single kilowatt of energy in more than 3 years, looks set to rise up next year like the mythical bird it is named after. The $5 billion reactor, the largest fast breeder in the world, has just been given the seal of approval by a public commission ordered by the government to look at the pros and cons of restarting. It still has hoops to jump through: a safety check and approval from the ministries of industries and environment. But the consortium of French, Italian, and German power utilities that run the plant are confident they can get it running by next summer. The Superphenix that rises out of the ashes will, however, be a different species of bird from the one planned 20 years ago. The consortium plans to turn the reactor into a debreeder, one that will incinerate more plutonium than it produces and so eat into Europe's plutonium stockpile. Calculations by Superphenix staff and the Atomic Energy Commission indicate that a plutonivorous fast breeder could incinerate 15 to 25 kilograms of plutonium while producing 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity-scarcely enough to make a dent in the tonnes of plutonium produced by Electricite de France's reactors each year. The Superphenix consortium is anxious to get the reactor back on line. The annual cost of upkeep and repair of the idle plant and salaries for its 700 staff may reach $140 million this year, 20% more than if the plant was running normally. If restarted, the existing core and a second one ready on the shelf will generate electricity worth $1.3 billion

  11. Salaries of Head Coaches Are Rising, Survey Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Salaries of head coaches in college sports are rising, but a large salary gap remains between coaches of men's and women's teams. In a national ranking of institutions by salary averages, men's coaches at the median institution made 43% more than women's coaches. Some institutions provide more salary equity than others. The Justice Department is…

  12. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  13. Information heterogeneity and intended college enrollment

    OpenAIRE

    Bleemer, Zachary; Zafar, Basit

    2014-01-01

    Despite a robust college premium, college attendance rates in the United States have remained stagnant and exhibit a substantial socioeconomic gradient. We focus on information gaps - specifically, incomplete information about college benefits and costs - as a potential explanation for these patterns. In a nationally representative survey of U.S. household heads, we show that perceptions of college costs and benefits are severely and systematically biased: 74 percent of our respondents undere...

  14. Rise in Tornadoes, Floods Poses Risk to Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In June the U.S Climate Change Science Program, which is sponsored by 13 government agencies, released a report saying that extreme weather like heat waves, heavy downpours, and superpowered hurricanes would be more common in the future. The timing of the report--coming just as officials in Iowa were surveying the damage from the swollen Iowa…

  15. College Explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1985-01-01

    The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)

  16. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  17. NASFAA's Cash for College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, Washington, DC.

    This guide advises students about college costs and how to pay them. The booklet explains financial aid and how it can help a student reach his or her educational goals. Merit-based and need-based aid programs are described, and the family's expected financial contribution is explained. The process of obtaining and completing the Free Application…

  18. Book Industry Trends: College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Stephanie; Sanislo, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    With the cost of college said to be escalating at double the rate of inflation, parents and students have voiced frustration, some think unreasonably, about textbook prices. In 2007, higher-education publishers continued to grapple with price resistance to textbooks and competition from the used-book market. This article reports that…

  19. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  20. Welcoming a New Generation to College: The Millennial Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Carol; Stratton, Terry; Gibson, Denise D.

    2007-01-01

    High on any required reading list for college-level student affairs officers and high school counselors is "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation" by Neil Howe and William Strauss (2000). Experts on generational change in the United States, the authors contend that the current generation of college-age and pre-college-age…

  1. Biofeedback and Counseling for Stress and Anxiety among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Sverduk, Kevin; Prince, Judy; Hayashino, Diane

    2012-01-01

    With the rise in stress and anxiety among college students, there is a need for more comprehensive and effective counseling options for counselors in college counseling centers. This study investigated the impact of using biofeedback and brief counseling in treating stress and anxiety in an ethnically diverse college student population. Results…

  2. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  3. 高校公用房配置与成本核算体系探讨%Discussion on deployment of housing resources and housing cost accounting model in colleges and universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲大成; 赵平

    2012-01-01

    分析了高校公用房办学资源配置现状,总结了公用房紧张的原因以及办学资源成本核算的重要意义.从高等学校办学指标条件、定额分配机制、财务核算三方面阐述了成本核算的理论依据和基本原则.设计了一套新的学院办公、教学、科研公用房成本核算模型,解决了成本核算中教学、科研公用房难以分割和量化的难题,采集北京理工大学公用房数据开展了核算工作.%This paper discusses the deployment of the housing resources in colleges and universities, and analyses the critical issues of housing shortage and the necessity of the cost accounting. The main principle of the cost accounting was given based on educating index standard, quota allocation, and financial accounting. A new housing cost accounting model oriented to schools was designed to solve the difficulty of dividing teaching and research. The cost accounting effect was summed according to the data acquisition.

  4. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  5. U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2008-01-01

    .... The fall in the cost of energy imports combined with the drop in import volumes as a result of the slowdown in economic activity has reversed the trend of rising energy imports costs and will sharply...

  6. APPLICATION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) SYSTEMS AND PROGRAMS (DEMING/JURAN/SIX SIGMA) TO LOWER INSTRUCTIONAL COST& INCREASE QUALITY OF SERVICE IN COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Nefstead, Ward E.; Gillard, Steve A.

    2004-01-01

    I. History of the TQM movement II. Nature of the Problem: Escalating Costs of Instruction and Reduced Revenue III. Use of Cause-Effect Analysis (Isikawa Diagrams) IV. DMAIC Analysis and Six Sigma V. Use of Computer Software in DMAIC and Six Sigma VI. Summary and Conclusions

  7. The Rise of Blog Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the growth of blogs in popular culture, and the fact that they are becoming more widely accepted in the media industry. The rise and popularity of blogs--short for "Web logs"--are causing journalism educators to overhaul their teachings. In fact, blogging's influence varies from one university program to the next, just like…

  8. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  9. Poland - seaborne bulk trade hampered by rising transport costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechener, J

    1991-12-01

    The article considers trade development in major dry bulk commodities, coal, cement, iron ore and grains. Aspects covered for coal are production and exports. All coal mines in Poland are state owned. Coal production has fallen from an annual output in excess of 190 mta in the late 1980s, to under 150 mt in 1990. Output for 1991 is forecast at around 142 mt. Exports have also declined from 36 mtce in the late 1980s to an estimated 20 mt in 1991. Various factors are cited for the changing fortunes of Poland's coal industry but the most significant is the introduction of market forces to a previously centrally planned economy. Topics discussed for coal include: restructuring the coal industry for privatisation; eliminating subsidies; and export destinations. 5 tabs., 6 photos.

  10. Interventions to curb rising pharmaceutical costs in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grímsson, Almar; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2003-01-01

    . The cancellation of reimbursement for antibiotics in 1991 resulted in a slight decrease in sales. The change in the list of "hospital only" medicines caused massive protests from pharmacists and physicians. The pharmaceutical policy in Iceland has been problematic in its formulations and implementations....... Recommendations in the light of the problems of Icelandic pharmaceutical policies have been provided in the article....

  11. Is it still worth going to college?

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Mary C.; Bengali, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Earning a four-year college degree remains a worthwhile investment for the average student. Data from U.S. workers show that the benefits of college in terms of higher earnings far outweigh the costs of a degree, measured as tuition plus wages lost while attending school. The average college graduate paying annual tuition of about $20,000 can recoup the costs of schooling by age 40. After that, the difference between earnings continues such that the average college graduate earns over $800,00...

  12. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  13. Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Lickley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure located along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts is exposed to rising risk of flooding from sea level rise, increasing storm surge, and subsidence. In these circumstances coastal management commonly based on 100-year flood maps assuming current climatology is no longer adequate. A dynamic programming cost–benefit analysis is applied to the adaptation decision, illustrated by application to an energy facility in Galveston Bay. Projections of several global climate models provide inputs to estimates of the change in hurricane and storm surge activity as well as the increase in sea level. The projected rise in physical flood risk is combined with estimates of flood damage and protection costs in an analysis of the multi-period nature of adaptation choice. The result is a planning method, using dynamic programming, which is appropriate for investment and abandonment decisions under rising coastal risk.

  14. Point-of-purchase messages framed in terms of cost, convenience, taste, and energy improve healthful snack selection in a college foodservice setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, L A; Martin, K A; Crocker, S

    2001-08-01

    To examine the effects of a point-of-purchase (POP) intervention emphasizing various properties of healthful food items on college students' snack purchases. In Study 1, vegetable baskets (containing cut pieces of vegetables), fruit baskets (containing cut pieces of fruit), pretzels, and yogurt were promoted in separate POP interventions. Food sales were monitored over 2-week baseline, 4-week intervention, and 2-week follow-up periods. In Study 2, yogurt was promoted across a 2-week baseline, 12-week intervention, and 2-week follow-up periods and an intercept survey was conducted. Approximately 2,280 university students were potentially exposed to the intervention, and 72 students responded to the intercept survey. POP messages were placed on an 11 x 17-in poster located at the cafeteria entrance, and two 4 x 2.5-in signs placed next to the targeted food item. Messages emphasized the Budget-friendly, Energizing, Sensory/taste, Time efficient/convenient (BEST) stimulus properties of food. Daily sales of the targeted food items. Analyses of variance with Tukey post hoc tests were used to compare food sales during the baseline, intervention, and follow-up periods. In Study 1, yogurt and pretzel sales increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods (P.05), but whole fruit sales increased during the fruit basket intervention and follow-up (P<.05). In Study 2, yogurt sales were significantly greater during the intervention and follow-up periods than at baseline (P<.01). Using the BEST properties in POP interventions may be beneficial in promoting the consumption of healthful foods among university students, particularly when the targeted foods are priced comparably to less healthful foods.

  15. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling’s (1929) spatial duopoly. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises toward

  16. Costly location in Hotelling duopoly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinloopen, J.; Martin, S.

    We introduce a cost of location into Hotelling's (1929) spatial duopoly model. We derive the general conditions on the cost-of-location function under which a pure strategy price-location Nash equilibrium exists. With linear transportation cost and a suitably specified cost of location that rises

  17. Unmarried parents in college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Sorensen, Kia

    2010-01-01

    Noting that access to higher education has expanded dramatically in the past several decades, Sara Goldrick-Rab and Kia Sorensen focus on how unmarried parents fare once they enter college. Contrary to the expectation that access to college consistently promotes family stability and economic security, the authors argue that deficiencies in current policy lead college attendance to have adverse consequences for some families headed by unmarried parents. Although rates of college attendance have increased substantially among unmarried parents, their college completion rates are low. One explanation is inadequate academic preparation. Another is financial constraints, which can force unmarried students to interrupt their studies or increase their work hours, both of which compromise the quality of their educational experiences and the outcomes for their children. The authors point out that although many public programs offer support to unmarried parents attending college, the support is neither well coordinated nor easily accessed. Over the past three decades, loans have increasingly replaced grants as the most common form of federal and state financial aid. Confusion about what is available leads many low-income students to the two most "straightforward" sources of income--loans and work, both of which involve significant costs and can operate at cross-purposes with public forms of support. Too much work can lead to reductions in public benefits, and earnings do not always replace the lost income. A growing body of experimental evidence shows that providing social, financial, and academic supports to vulnerable community college students can improve achievement and attainment. Contextualized learning programs, for example, have enabled participants not only to move on from basic skills to credit-bearing coursework, but also to complete credits, earn certificates, and make gains on basic skills tests. Another successful initiative provided low-performing students with

  18. Costing Practices in Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    2014-01-01

    .e., Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) systems, and costing practices. DRG-based payment systems strongly influence costing practices in multiple ways. In particular, setting DRG tariffs requires highly standardized costing practices linked with specific skill sets from management accountants and brings other...... jurisdictions (e.g., clinical coding) to bear on costing practice. These factors contribute to the fragmentation of the jurisdiction of management accounting.......The rising cost of healthcare is a globally pressing concern. This makes detailed attention to the way in which costing is carried out of central importance. This article offers a framework for considering the interdependencies between a dominant element of the contemporary healthcare context, i...

  19. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  20. College education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, David R.

    1990-01-01

    Space Grant Colleges and Universities must build the space curriculum of the future on the firm basis of deep knowledge of an involvement with the present operating programs of the nation and an on-going and extensive program of leading edge research in the aerospace sciences and engineering, management, law, finance, and the other arts that are integral to our planetary society. The Space Grant College and Fellowship Program must create new academic fields of enquiry, which is a long and difficult process that will require deeper and broader interaction between NASA and academia than has previously existed.

  1. College algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kolman, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    College Algebra, Second Edition is a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental concepts and techniques of algebra. The book incorporates some improvements from the previous edition to provide a better learning experience. It provides sufficient materials for use in the study of college algebra. It contains chapters that are devoted to various mathematical concepts, such as the real number system, the theory of polynomial equations, exponential and logarithmic functions, and the geometric definition of each conic section. Progress checks, warnings, and features are inserted. Every chapter c

  2. Activity-Based Costing: A Cost Management Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Frederick J.

    1993-01-01

    In college and university administration, overhead costs are often charged to programs indiscriminately, whereas the support activities that underlie those costs remain unanalyzed. It is time for institutions to decrease ineffective use of resources. Activity-based management attributes costs more accurately and can improve efficiency. (MSE)

  3. Academic Capitalism and the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Ilene

    2010-01-01

    Profit-generating entrepreneurial initiatives have become increasingly important as community colleges look for alternative revenue to support escalating costs in an environment characterized by funding constraints. Academic capitalism was used as the conceptual framework to determine whether community colleges have become increasingly market…

  4. Marketing Your College Music Program to Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven N.

    1988-01-01

    Suggests the use of time-proven marketing methods to attract high school students to college music programs and keep them interested in the music program. Explores facets of the college and the program that draw students, including reputation, location, costs, and program content. (LS)

  5. The New Paradox of the College Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, James

    1992-01-01

    As college textbooks have become more attractive, sophisticated, and useful, the textbook industry is suffering from high costs, increased popularity of used books, effects of rapidly advancing information and instructional technology, the atypical business structure of the college textbook market, and changing textbook development processes. (MSE)

  6. In Good Standing: "Helping Colleges Manage Student Default Rates"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education estimates that 20 percent of community college students default on their student loan obligations (compared with 14.7 percent of all student loan borrowers), and that number is rising. What can community college financial officers do to keep their default numbers low? In this article, Heather Boerner describes the…

  7. College Students' Openness toward Autism Spectrum Disorders: Improving Peer Acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Rose E. A.; White, Susan W.

    2011-01-01

    One probable consequence of rising rates of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in individuals without co-occurring intellectual disability is that more young adults with diagnoses or traits of ASD will attend college and require appropriate supports. This study sought to explore college students' openness to peers who demonstrate…

  8. Trends in College Pricing, 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Ma, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about rising tuition and how students can afford to finance their major investments in postsecondary education are widespread. Solid insights into these questions require accurate and up-to-date information about prices. "Trends in College Pricing, 2013" reports on the prices charged by colleges and universities in 2013-14, how…

  9. In the Cafeteria and beyond, Colleges Take On Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2012-01-01

    College students are a generally healthy lot. But as they grow heavier each year, reflecting the national rise in obesity rates, campus officials are trying to promote healthier habits--and, they hope, mitigate the impact of a sobering trend. More than one-third of college students have a body-mass index, the main measurement for obesity, that…

  10. More Colleges Lock in Energy Rates to Avoid Volatile Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Scott

    2009-01-01

    In July, when energy prices were sky-high and some pundits were predicting a continued rise, Charles Riordan, facilities director at Loyola College of Maryland, and his colleagues locked in a chunk of their electricity prices--about a quarter of the college's consumption--to cover the next two years. Now that energy prices have fallen, the…

  11. Influence of rising commodity prices on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppo, I.J.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few years we have first witnessed a rapid increase in the prices of commodities and then later, as a consequence of the economic downturn, an even more drastic drop. Simultaneously with the commodity price increase, an increase in the investment costs of power plants was experienced. The rise in material costs was often stated as one of the reasons for this increase. In this study the relationship between commodity costs and energy prices is studied. A bottom-up approach is used for estimating what kind of an impact increased commodity prices alone could be expected to have on the investment costs on the one hand, and how increased energy prices may affect commodity production costs on the other. The results indicate that although the commodity production costs usually have a fairly large energy component, even high increases in commodity prices, and therefore raw material costs of power plant investments, can not explain the recently experienced hikes in power plant investment costs; a doubling of the costs of the main raw material flows could explain an investment cost increase of some 5-10%, depending on the power plant type. This would seem to indicate that other contributing factors, such as bottlenecks in the production of power plant components, may play an important role in the recent investment cost increase

  12. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  13. Program Costs and Student Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  14. Freshman College Students’ Reasons for Enrolling in and Anticipated Benefits from a Basic College Physical Education Activity Course

    OpenAIRE

    Lackman, Jeremy; Smith, Matthew Lee; McNeill, Elisa Beth

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the rise in US obesity rates in adulthood, efforts are needed to assess physical activity engagement during the college years as a strategy to promote a lifetime of being physically active. This study identifies the reasons incoming college freshman enrolled in basic physical education activity courses (BPEAC) and the perceived benefits they anticipated receiving as a result of course participation. Methods Data collected from 302 college freshmen in September 2013...

  15. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  16. Credit Card Usage and Debt among College and University Students. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Tamara

    Since the late 1990s, lawmakers, college officials, consumer advocacy groups, and higher education practitioners have become increasingly concerned about the rising use of credit cards among college students. Some recent studies have provided information about credit card use among college students. These studies include: (1) a study conducted by…

  17. Springboards to Mortarboards: Women's College Foundings in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer-Ellis, Erich M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of foundings of four-year women's colleges in three states, 1855-1968, reveals that institutional forces (presence of elite women's colleges, development of Catholic women's colleges, and enactment of the suffrage amendment) increased the founding rate, but rising organizational density later decreased the rate. Argues that…

  18. White House Unveils America's College Promise Proposal: Tuition-Free Community College for Responsible Students. Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White House, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In January, 2015, the President unveiled the America's College Promise proposal, which would make two years of community college free for responsible students, letting students earn the first half of a bachelor's degree and earn skills needed in the workforce at no cost. This proposal will require everyone to do their part: community colleges must…

  19. Technology and the Broken Higher Education Cost Model: Insights from the Delta Cost Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshstein, Rita; Wellman, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Although U.S. higher education has faced numerous crises and dilemmas in its history, the situation in which colleges and universities find themselves at the moment is indeed different. Shrinking public subsidies coupled with historic rises in tuitions come at the same time that colleges and universities have been tasked to dramatically increase…

  20. Greenhouse effect, sea level rise, and coastal drainage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titus, J G; Kuo, C Y; Gibbs, M J; LaRoche, T B; Webb, M K; Waddell, J O

    1987-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of carbon dioxide and other gases are expected to warm the earth several degrees in the next century, which would raise sea level a few feet and alter precipitation patterns. Both of these changes would have major impacts on the operation of coastal drainage systems. However, because sea level rise and climate change resulting from the greenhouse effect are still uncertain, most planners and engineers are ignoring the potential implications. Case studies of the potential impact on watersheds in Charleston, South Carolina, and Fort Walton Beach, Florida, suggest that the cost of designing a new system to accommodate a rise in sea level will sometimes be small compared with the retrofit cost that may ultimately be necessary if new systems are not designed for a rise. Rather than ignore the greenhouse effect until its consequences are firmly established, engineers and planners should evaluate whether it would be worthwhile to insure that new systems are not vulnerable to the risks of climate change and sea level rise.

  1. Assessment of Knowledge of Critical Cardiovascular Risk Indicators among College Students: Does Stage of Education Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpong, Daniel F.; Curry, India Y.; Williams, Melinda

    2017-01-01

    The health risk of college students in the United States (US) is on the rise, with a significant increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US, costing approximately $475.3 billion yearly. The goals of this “Know Your Numbers” study were to: (1) estimate the awareness of college students of their critical health numbers (CHN); and (2) compare a college of pharmacy entry class (IP1) with second semester non-commuter freshman college students (FCS) in knowing their numbers. A cross-sectional 15-item pre-test survey was conducted among a convenience sample of IP1 and FCS. All statistical tests were performed at α = 0.05. Awareness of their: cholesterol (7%), blood pressure (BP) (35%), glucose (8%), and body mass index (BMI) (42%) were low. The IP1, compared to FCS, were more knowledgeable of: (1) their BP (46% vs. 28%, p = 0.01); (2) BP normal range (74% vs. 63%, p = 0.02); and (3) BMI normal range (39% vs. 23%, p = 0.04). The IP1s maintained a healthier diet than the FCS (64% vs. 36%, p Knowledge of one’s CHN was significantly associated with knowledge of normal reference values for BP, glucose, and BMI. PMID:28257080

  2. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  3. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  4. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  5. For-profit colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, David; Goldin, Claudia; Katz, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    For-profit, or proprietary, colleges are the fastest-growing postsecondary schools in the nation, enrolling a disproportionately high share of disadvantaged and minority students and those ill-prepared for college. Because these schools, many of them big national chains, derive most of their revenue from taxpayer-funded student financial aid, they are of interest to policy makers not only for the role they play in the higher education spectrum but also for the value they provide their students. In this article, David Deming, Claudia Goldin, and Lawrence Katz look at the students who attend for-profits, the reasons they choose these schools, and student outcomes on a number of broad measures and draw several conclusions. First, the authors write, the evidence shows that public community colleges may provide an equal or better education at lower cost than for-profits. But budget pressures mean that community colleges and other nonselective public institutions may not be able to meet the demand for higher education. Some students unable to get into desired courses and programs at public institutions may face only two alternatives: attendance at a for-profit or no postsecondary education at all. Second, for-profits appear to be at their best with well-defined programs of short duration that prepare students for a specific occupation. But for-profit completion rates, default rates, and labor market outcomes for students seeking associate's or higher degrees compare unfavorably with those of public postsecondary institutions. In principle, taxpayer investment in student aid should be accompanied by scrutiny concerning whether students complete their course of study and subsequently earn enough to justify the investment and pay back their student loans. Designing appropriate regulations to help students navigate the market for higher education has proven to be a challenge because of the great variation in student goals and types of programs. Ensuring that potential

  6. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  7. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  8. The Community College Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Ahearn, Caitlin; Rosenbaum, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to promote college for all for all has opened college doors to a broad range of students. But college--and career success after college--doesn't have to mean a bachelor's degree. Community college credentials, such as associate's degrees and one-year certificates, can lead to further degrees or jobs that offer more benefits than students…

  9. (Value Stream Costing As A New Costing System)

    OpenAIRE

    Karcıoğlu, Reşar; Nuray, Meral

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the number of lean company which use lean manufacturing system is rising. This companies use the standard costing while appropriate for traditional bathch manufacturing. But standard costing system fails to support the goals of lean manufacturing system. A different method of costing based upon the characteristics of the value stream is needed to fulfill the needs of the lean company. This systemis Value Stream Costing. When a lean company moves to value stream management, th...

  10. 20 CFR 404.270 - Cost-of-living increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Cost-Of-Living Increases § 404.270 Cost-of-living... rises in the cost of living. These automatic increases also apply to other benefit amounts, as described...

  11. International Approaches to Clinical Costing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chapman, Christopher; Kern, Anja; Laguecir, Aziza

    This report has been commissioned by both HFMA and Monitor and the work has been led by Imperial College Business School’s Health Management Group. The report compares current approaches to costing, primarily across Europe. The findings reveal wide-ranging practices and uses for costing data, and...

  12. College mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Şengül, Caner

    2016-01-01

    College Mechanics QueBank has been designed to be different, enthusiastic, interesting and helpful to you. Therefore, it is not just a test bank about mechanics but also it is like a compass in order to find your way in mechanics Each chapter in this book is put in an order to follow a hierarchy of the mechanics topics; from vectors to simple harmonic motion. Throughout the book there are many multiple choice and long answer questions for you to solve. They have been created for YGS, LYS, SAT, IB or other standardized exams in the world because mechanics has no boundaries and so Physics has no country. Learn the main principle of each chapter and explore the daily life applications. Then you can start to solve the questions by planning a problem solving method carefully. Finally, enjoy solving the questions and discover the meachanics of the universe once more.

  13. Regional approaches in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconopisceva, O. G.; Proskurin, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    The evolutionary process of high-rise construction is in the article focus. The aim of the study was to create a retrospective matrix reflecting the tasks of the study such as: structuring the most iconic high-rise objects within historic boundaries. The study is based on contemporary experience of high-rise construction in different countries. The main directions and regional specifics in the field of high-rise construction as well as factors influencing the further evolution process are analyzed. The main changes in architectural stylistics, form-building, constructive solutions that focus on the principles of energy efficiency and bio positivity of "sustainable buildings", as well as the search for a new typology are noted. The most universal constructive methods and solutions that turned out to be particularly popular are generalized. The new typology of high-rises and individual approach to urban context are noted. The results of the study as a graphical scheme made it possible to represent the whole high-rise evolution. The new spatial forms of high-rises lead them to new role within the urban environments. Futuristic hyperscalable concepts take the autonomous urban space functions itself and demonstrate us how high-rises can replace multifunctional urban fabric, developing it inside their shells.

  14. Adaptation to the Impacts of Sea Level Rise in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Raey, M.; Dewidar, K.R.; El-Hattab, M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability and expected socioeconomic losses over the Nile delta coast due to the impact of sea level rise is carried out in details. Impacts of sea level rise over the Governorates of Alexandria and Port Said in particular, are evaluated quantitatively. Analysis of the results at Alexandria Governorate indicate that, if no action is taken, an area of about 30% of the city will be lost due to inundation. Almost 2 million people will have to abandon their homeland; 195,000 jobs will be lost and an economic loss of over $3.5 Billion is expected over the next century. At Port Said Governorate results indicate that beach areas are most severely affected (hence tourism), followed by urban areas. The agriculture sector is the least affected sector. It is estimated that the economic loss is over $ 2.0 Billion for 0.50 m SLR and may exceed $ 4.4 Billion for 1.25 m SLR. Options and costs of adaptation are analyzed and presented. Multi-criteria and decision matrix approaches, based on questionnaire surveys are carried out to identify priorities for the two cases. Analysis of these techniques of two options; the current policy (hard protection measures on some vulnerable areas) and no action (stopping these activities) have the lowest scores. Beach nourishment and integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) have the highest scores, however ICZM has high cost measures. The most cost effective option is the land-use change, however with relatively very high cost measure. It is recommended that an ICZM approach be adopted since it provides a reasonable trade off between costs and cost effectiveness. 14 refs

  15. You Know You Love Me, XOXO: A Feminist Analysis of "Gossip Girl" Readers' Interpretation of the College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Shara L.

    2009-01-01

    Women in higher education and the consumer pressures they feel have implications for the quality of an education a woman receives. With college tuition rising, more and more college students are going into deeper financial debt than ever before (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2008). Popular culture influences on the college-going…

  16. Estimates of the Economic Effects of Sea Level Rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, R.F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2001-01-01

    Regional estimates of direct cost (DC) are commonly used to measure the economic damages of sea level rise. Such estimates suffer from three limitations: (1) values of threatened endowments are not well known, (2) loss of endowments does not affect consumer prices, and (3) international trade is disregarded. Results in this paper indicate that these limitations can significantly affect economic assessments of sea level rise. Current uncertainty regarding endowment values (as reflected in two alternative data sets), for example, leads to a 17 percent difference in coastal protection, a 36 percent difference in the amount of land protected, and a 36 percent difference in DC globally. Also, global losses in equivalent variation (EV), a welfare measure that accounts for price changes, are 13 percent higher than DC estimates. Regional EV losses may be up to 10 percent lower than regional DC, however, because international trade tends to redistribute losses from regions with relatively high damages to regions with relatively low damages. 43 refs

  17. Reprocessing costs more stable soon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    The period of steep rises in costs of the fuel circuit seems to be ending. The prospects for a stabilization of the market in the next few years are favourable. This favourable expectation is supported by the analysis of the nuclear fuel circuit costs. (orig.) [de

  18. The costs of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestenhaug, O.; Sauar, T.O.; Nielsen, P.O.

    1979-01-01

    A study has been made by Scandpower A/S of the costs of nuclear power in Sweden. It is based on the known costs of existing Swedish nuclear power plants and forecasts of the expected costs of the Swedish nuclear power programme. special emphasis has been put on the fuel cycle costs and future costs of spent fuel processing, waste disposal and decommissioning. Costs are calculated in 1978 Swedish crowns, using the retail price index. An actual interest rate of 4% is used, with depreciation period of 25 years and a plant lifetime of 30 years. Power production costs are estimated to be about 7.7 oere/kWh in 1978, rising to 10.5 oere/kWh in 2000. The cost is distributed with one third each to capital costs, operating costs and fuel costs, the last rising to 40% of the total at the end of the century. The main single factor in future costs is the price of uranium. If desired, Sweden can probably be self-sufficient in uranium in 2000 at a lower cost than assumed here. National research costs which, in Scandpower's opinion, can be debited to the commercial nuclear power programme are about 0.3 oere/kWh. (JIW)

  19. College Student Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; And Others

    This study examines the background characteristics of two large national samples of first-time enrolled freshmen who (a) attended college within their state of residence but away from their home community, (b) migrated to a college in an adjacent state, (c) migrated to a college in a distant state, and (d) attended college in their home community.…

  20. College Student Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Deborah J.; Thompson, Jalonda

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among college students, and it is estimated that 1,088 college students die by suicide each year (National Mental Health Association and the Jed Foundation, 2002). This chapter presents the context of college student mental health within which the problem of college student suicide is situated. Because…

  1. Surviving Math, Surviving College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    According to a 2000 community college study by Miami Dade College (FL) President Emeritus Robert McCabe, 41 percent of students entering community colleges are underprepared in at least one basic skill area. A three-year study of community college students, published in 2009 by the National Center for Education Statistics, reported that 41 percent…

  2. Rising tides, rising gates: The complex ecogeomorphic response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise and human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven G.; Rodríguez, José F.; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia M.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to submergence due to sea-level rise, as shown by predictions of up to 80% of global wetland loss by the end of the century. Coastal wetlands with mixed mangrove-saltmarsh vegetation are particularly vulnerable because sea-level rise can promote mangrove encroachment on saltmarsh, reducing overall wetland biodiversity. Here we use an ecogeomorphic framework that incorporates hydrodynamic effects, mangrove-saltmarsh dynamics, and soil accretion processes to assess the effects of control structures on wetland evolution. Migration and accretion patterns of mangrove and saltmarsh are heavily dependent on topography and control structures. We find that current management practices that incorporate a fixed gate for the control of mangrove encroachment are useful initially, but soon become ineffective due to sea-level rise. Raising the gate, to counteract the effects of sea level rise and promote suitable hydrodynamic conditions, excludes mangrove and maintains saltmarsh over the entire simulation period of 100 years

  3. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  4. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  5. Personal Qualities and College Admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Warren W.; Breland, Hunter M.

    The extent to which personal and academic factors are important in college admission decisions was studied in 1978, based on data on 25,000 applicants to 9 colleges (Colgate University, Williams College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Kenyon College, Kalamazoo College, Occidental College, Hartwick College, University of Richmond, and Bucknell…

  6. Economics of high-rise construction: the feasibility of skyscrapers building in the Russian cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Artur; Petrova, Daria

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the economic aspects of constructing high-rise buildings in the world and in Russia. Data on the number of high-rise buildings in Russian cities with a million population are presented. It is proved that interest in high-rise construction in Russia has been formed only in Moscow and partly in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg. The analysis showed that the reason for this is the expensiveness of high-rise construction. According to the enlarged macro-calculation, the cost of building 1 m2 of the area of the Federation Towers complex (Moscow City) is about 2710 /m2. Practically a possibility of return on investments in the foreseeable time interval exists only in Moscow. For the regions of Russia this task is rather complicated. Population density in regional Russian cities is quite low, business entities do not have the necessary financial resources for investing in high-rise construction, and investments from abroad absent.

  7. A framework to investigate the economic growth impact of sea level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallegatte, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the channels through which sea level rise can affect economic growth, namely the loss of land, the loss of infrastructure and physical capital, the loss of social capital, the additional cost from extreme events and coastal floods, and the increased expenditure for coastal protection. It discusses how existing studies on the direct impact of sea level rise could be used to investigate the resulting consequences on economic growth, emphasizes research needs on this question, and discusses consequences on migration. (letter)

  8. Testing the Limits of the Price Elasticity of Potential Students at Colleges and Universities: Has the Increased Direct Cost to the Student Begun to Drive down Higher Education Enrolment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Mark; Katsinas, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Higher education enrolment has long been known to rise and fall counter to the current economic situation. This counter-cyclical enrolment response represents an economic principle where a price-elastic consumer is more likely make a consumption choice when another valuable use of resources is not available. Higher unemployment has historically…

  9. Nuclear energy: the real cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, K.; Marshall, R.; Sweet, C.; Prior, M.; Welsh, I.; Bunyard, P.; Goldsmith, E.; Hildyard, N.; Jeffery, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report on the discussions within a small group of academics falls under the headings: chairman's foreword; summary and recommendations; the government's nuclear power programme and its implications; the CEGB's planning record; the past performance of Britain's nuclear power stations - a guide for the future (query); nuclear power -early uncertainties; historic costs - 'the fraud inherent in all inflationary finance'; current cost accounting; fuel costs - coal stays steady, nuclear rises; net effective cost and the rationale for nuclear power; reinterpreting net effective costs; other considerations; conclusions and recommendations; references. (U.K.)

  10. HiRISE: The People's Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/). Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/) and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish/), opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  11. A Costing Model for Non Traditional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodle, L. L.

    To facilitate college and university officials in financing the eduational needs of the nontraditional students, a method for collecting and determining the cost of providing units of instruction through various delivery mechanisms available to colleges and universities is presented. Twelve ways of delivering instructional units, eight types of…

  12. Federal Student Loans: Impact of Loan Limit Increases on College Prices Is Difficult to Discern. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, college prices have been rising consistently and have continued to rise at a gradual pace after the Stafford loan limit increases were enacted in 2008 and 2009. However, it is difficult to determine if a direct relationship exists between increases in college prices and the Stafford loan limit increases because of the…

  13. Integrating wildfire plume rises within atmospheric transport models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, D. V.; Kochanski, A.; Wu, D.; Urbanski, S. P.; Krueger, S. K.; Lin, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires can generate significant pyro-convection that is responsible for releasing pollutants, greenhouse gases, and trace species into the free troposphere, which are then transported a significant distance downwind from the fire. Oftentimes, atmospheric transport and chemistry models have a difficult time resolving the transport of smoke from these wildfires, primarily due to deficiencies in estimating the plume injection height, which has been highlighted in previous work as the most important aspect of simulating wildfire plume transport. As a result of the uncertainties associated with modeled wildfire plume rise, researchers face difficulties modeling the impacts of wildfire smoke on air quality and constraining fire emissions using inverse modeling techniques. Currently, several plume rise parameterizations exist that are able to determine the injection height of fire emissions; however, the success of these parameterizations has been mixed. With the advent of WRF-SFIRE, the wildfire plume rise and injection height can now be explicitly calculated using a fire spread model (SFIRE) that is dynamically linked with the atmosphere simulated by WRF. However, this model has only been tested on a limited basis due to computational costs. Here, we will test the performance of WRF-SFIRE in addition to several commonly adopted plume parameterizations (Freitas, Sofiev, and Briggs) for the 2013 Patch Springs (Utah) and 2012 Baker Canyon (Washington) fires, for both of which observations of plume rise heights are available. These plume rise techniques will then be incorporated within a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model (STILT) in order to simulate CO and CO2 concentrations during NASA's CARVE Earth Science Airborne Program over Alaska during the summer of 2012. Initial model results showed that STILT model simulations were unable to reproduce enhanced CO concentrations produced by Alaskan fires observed during 2012. Near-surface concentrations were drastically

  14. 76 FR 49279 - Energy Efficiency Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... construction and substantially rehabilitated multifamily high rise buildings in July 2011. The benchmarking... residential buildings is based on an interpolation of a cost study conducted on several building types that...

  15. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Michael; Ivanova, Zinaida

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author's sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  16. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don’t provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers’ behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  17. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Michael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author’s sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  18. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  19. SunRISE Mission Concept Step 2 Study Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibay, F.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Neilsen, T. L.

    2017-12-01

    We present an update on the Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) mission concept, which was selected for a Step 2 study as part of the Small Explorer (SMEX) Mission of Opportunity (MoO) call. SunRISE is space-based sparse array, composed of six 6U CubeSats, designed to localize the radio emission associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun. Radio emission from CMEs is a direct tracer of the particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Furthermore, CME radio emission is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required, and a small mission would make a fundamental advancement. Indeed, the state-of-the-art for tracking CME radio emission is defined by single antennas (Wind/WAVES, Stereo/SWAVES) in which the tracking is accomplished by assuming a frequency-to-density mapping. This type of Heliophysics mission would be inherently cost prohibitive in a traditional spacecraft paradigm. However, the use of CubeSats, accompanied by the miniaturization of subsystem components, enables the development of this concept at lower cost than ever before. We present the most recent updates on this mission concept, starting from the concept's performance as compared to the required science and driving technical requirements. We then focus on the SunRISE mission concept of operations, which consists of six 6U CubeSats placed in a GEO graveyard orbit for 6 months to achieve the aforementioned science goals. The spacecraft fly in a passive formation, which allows them to form an interferometer while minimizing the impact on operations complexity. We also present details of the engineering design and the key trades being performed as part of the Step 2 concept study.

  20. A Role for Community Colleges in Navy Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfin, Peggy A.; White, John D.; Curtin, Lisa A.

    This document from the Center for Naval Analysis (CNA) discusses the role of community colleges in Navy training. CNA conducted a study to discover whether outsourcing courses such as air conditioning and refrigeration and information systems administration to community colleges was feasible and cost effective. Analyses focused on two community…

  1. Work and Family Balance: How Community College Faculty Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    Although work-family balance policies are slowly becoming the norm at four-year institutions, they are not equally common at community colleges. In part, this discrepancy is due to the cost of providing assistance to faculty. Unlike community colleges, research institutions tend to have sufficient resources to offer accommodations for faculty,…

  2. MRO's HiRISE Education and Public Outreach during the Primary Science Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulick, V. C.; Davatzes, A. K.; Deardorff, G.; Kanefsky, B.; Conrad, L. B.; HiRISE Team

    2008-12-01

    primarily of teachers, parents of homeschoolers and student clubs, college students, and life-long learners. HiRISE Clickworkers (http://clickworkers.arc.nasa.gov/hirise), a citizen science effort is also part of our EPO where volunteers identify geologic features (e.g., dunes, craters, wind streaks, gullies, etc.) in the HiRISE images and help generate searchable image databases. We've also developed the HiRISE online image viewer (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/hirise_images/) where users can browse, pan and zoom through the very large HiRISE images from within their web browser. Educational materials include an assortment of K through college level, standards-based activity books, a K through 3 coloring/story book, a middle school level comic book, and several interactive educational games, including Mars jigsaw puzzles, crosswords, word searches and flash cards (http://hirise.seti.org/epo). HiRISE team members have given numerous classroom presentations and participated in many other informal educational and public events (e.g., Sally Ride Science Festivals, CA Science teachers conference workshops, NASA's Yuri's Night, Xprize events, University of Arizona's Mars Mania and Phoenix public events). The HiRISE operations team maintains a blog (HiBlog) (http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/HiBlog/) providing insights to the pulse of daily activities within the operations center as well as useful information about HiRISE.

  3. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  4. Critical Components of Suicide Prevention Programs for Colleges and Universities: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colleen A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite debate over whether or not college student suicide rates are greater or less than similar age groups not enrolled in higher education, the rates of college students experiencing suicide ideation, attempting suicide, and successfully committing suicide are indeed rising. A steady increase in these rates over the last 15 years is evidence…

  5. The Role of Parental Involvement in the Autonomy Development of Traditional-Age College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullaty, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Increased parental involvement in higher education has led to a rise in the number of parent interactions with university faculty and staff. The purpose of this study was to explore how parental involvement influences the process of college student autonomy development and to examine the implications of this process for college administrators.…

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions, and Beliefs regarding Physical Activity on a College Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many proven benefits of exercise, obesity rates on college campuses continue to rise. At the same time, physical activity (PA) courses are being reduced or cut at various educational institutions. The loss of PA courses creates a problem because college students do not receive the necessary education they need in relation to the…

  7. Community College Healthcare Students' Conceptions of Empathy: A Program-Wide Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Kellee M.

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges play a vital role in the education of our Nations healthcare professions. In order to respond to the rising economic and social needs of the healthcare sector, community colleges are meeting the challenge by providing health professions skills and training programs to meet these shortages. These crucial programs are charged with…

  8. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a robust series of courses leading to a brand new certification – the College Health and Wellness Professional ( ... future college health and wellness professionals, and strengthen awareness of the profession and association. Each month we' ...

  9. Depression and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  10. College Information Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, Margaret A.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of a sampling of college-bound high school seniors in Arizona was undertaken to determine students' information needs for college choice. Items, including institutional, student, and program characteristics, are ranked in order of perceived importance. (MSE)

  11. College Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health - Learn the facts about HPV, HIV, and birth control. College Women's Social Media Toolkit - Share health tips with your campus community. College Women's Campaign - Find out how your school can join. Sign up for email alerts. Order ...

  12. Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S Y; Bai, Mei; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Gullotta, Justin; He, Ping; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Peggs, Steve; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smart, Loralie; Snydstrup, Louis; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

  13. Paying for College: A New Look at Family Income Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Frank

    1989-01-01

    Income growth and stagnation is discussed, several trends in income inequality among American families are examined, and the notion of a vanishing middle class that may be losing the college cost race is addressed. (MSE)

  14. College Access Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    College Access Marketing (CAM) is a relatively new phenomenon that seeks to positively influence the college-going rate. This report defines CAM, describes CAM examples, and discusses how CAM seeks to counter barriers to college. It explores four main elements of CAM: information, marketing, advocacy, and social mobilization. Further, it…

  15. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  16. Early College High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    For at-risk students who stand little chance of going to college, or even finishing high school, a growing number of districts have found a solution: Give them an early start in college while they still are in high school. The early college high school (ECHS) movement that began with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation 10 years ago…

  17. Planning for College Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEPNet, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Planning for College Success" (PCS) is a curriculum model designed by Sharon Downs, M.S., for a course intended to assist deaf and hard of hearing students during their initial introduction to college life. This program allows students to work one-on-one with a counselor to plan for their college success. The program includes short-term goals and…

  18. Cyberbullying in College

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos P. Zalaquett; SeriaShia J. Chatters

    2014-01-01

    Cyberbullying is commonly presented as affecting K-12 populations. Current research suggests cyberbullying continues in college. A diverse sample of 613 university students was surveyed to study their cyberbullying experiences in high school and college. Nineteen percent of the sample reported being a victim of cyberbullying in college and 35% of this subsample reported being cyberbullied in high school. Additional fin...

  19. Cost effectiveness analysis in radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, N.; Verbeke, S.; Ducloux, T.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the cost effectiveness of radiopharmaceuticals and their quality control. Materials and methods: this retrospective study was made in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the University Hospital of Limoges. Radiopharmaceutical costs were obtained with adding the price of the radiotracer, the materials, the equipments, the labour, the running expenses and the radioisotope. The costs of quality control were obtained with adding the price of labour, materials, equipments, running expenses and the cost of the quality control of 99m Tc eluate. Results: during 1998, 2106 radiopharmaceuticals were prepared in the Nuclear Medicine Department. The mean cost effectiveness of radiopharmaceutical was 1430 francs (846 to 4260). The mean cost effectiveness of quality control was 163 francs (84 to 343). The rise of the radiopharmaceutical cost induced by quality control was 11%. Conclusion: the technical methodology of quality control must be mastered to optimize the cost of this operation. (author)

  20. Administrators' Pay Rises Less than Inflation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Debra E.

    1990-01-01

    For the second time in three years, raises for administrators have fallen behind the inflation rate, says a survey conducted by the College and University Personnel Association. At public institutions increases have remained stable. At private institutions, which rely on tuition to finance their payroll, raises tended to vary more. (MLW)

  1. Restoring a More Productive College Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Chuck

    2013-01-01

    More and more Americans are recognizing just how inadequate their system of higher education is, in large part because the ever-increasing costs of attending a college or university are accompanied by an ever-decreasing value in the education they purport to give the student. At the venture capital firm, PEI, founded by Chuck Stetson, the author…

  2. Psychological Aspects of Female College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoxon, Barbara R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the psychological aspects (femininity, masculinity, and androgyny), attitudes, self-esteem, and social competence exhibited by female college athletes participating in elected individual and team sports. For the purpose of this research the following hypotheses were tested: The social costs of…

  3. Restaurant Training Recipe At Triton College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliano, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    The successful restaurant training program at Triton College (Illinois) involves a broadly based, two-year curriculum offering practical training in nearly all the areas associated with a comprehensive food operation--management, food preparation, menu planning, nutrition, personnel vending, dining room service, and cost control. (Author/EA)

  4. Creative ways to manage paratransit costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    As communities continue to move toward providing a wide range of public transportation : services often referred to as the family of services one common concern is the rising : costs of providing services, specifically those falling und...

  5. Antipsychotic prescription patterns and treatment costs of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peshawar, Pakistan and to analyze the treatment costs associated with these drugs. Methods: One hundred ..... Kendall T. The rise and fall of the atypical antipsychotics. ... size determination in health studies: a practical manual. 1991. 18.

  6. Beliefs and attitudes of paramedical college staff towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beliefs and attitudes of paramedical college staff towards complementary and alternate medicine. ... As the use of healing practices outside of CM rise among patients, ignorance of CAM by future medical practitioners can cause a communication gap between people and the profession that serves them. It is encouraging ...

  7. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  8. On rising medical student debt: in for a penny, in for a pound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, D G; Szenas, P L; Schuchert, M K

    1996-10-01

    Using national databases of the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors have examined reasons for the rising indebtedness of U.S. medical students, looking across the past decade at the influence of tuition and fees (tuition-fees) alone and the total costs of attending school, the effects of the changing demographics of medical school enrollments and lengthened graduation times, the relationship between the availability of school-funded scholarships and the amount of student loan disbursements, the pattern of student financial aid, and the reliance on borrowing to cover the costs of medical education. In constant dollars, the average indebtedness of students graduating from public schools increased 59.2% between 1985 and 1995, and that for graduates of private schools increased 64.2%. The fraction of graduates bringing debt with them when they entered medical school declined from 42.1% in 1985 to 33.6% in 1995. Premedical debt as a fraction of total debt declined at public schools from 9% in 1985 to 7% in 1995, and at private schools from 7.8% in 1985 to 5.9% in 1995. For public schools, tuition-fees increased 60.1% between 1985 and 1995, and average medical school debt increased 60.9%; for private schools, tuition-fees increased 30.1% over that period, while average medical school debt increased 66.2%. On average, public school graduates accrued debt greater than their four-year tuition-fee payments, while the average debt accrued by private school graduates was less than tuition-fee amounts. In 1995, graduates of public schools had debt accumulations representing 62% of the average total cost of attendance (tuition, fees, books, supplies, equipment, and living expenses), and the indebtedness of private school graduates was 55% of the average total cost, findings suggesting that total costs were the stronger driver of the amounts borrowed. On a national scale, the influences on medical school debt of longer graduation times, the growing number of

  9. The Rise of the Digital Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shift to digital offerings among public libraries. Libraries increasingly are fulfilling roles as technology hubs for their communities, with high demand for technology and career development training resources. Ebooks and other digital materials are on the rise, while print is being scaled back. More libraries are turning to…

  10. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  11. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  12. Rising Political Consciousness: Transformational Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Mazalan; Muhamad, Mazanah

    As part of a larger study (not discussed) ten educated Malaysian citizens were interviewed to find whether their rising political consciousness, over a ten year period (1988-1999), indicated that their transformation was influenced by their culture. The subjects were between 35-45 years old, married, with an average of four children. All were…

  13. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  14. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  15. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  16. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  17. The economic consequences of oil price rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The author discusses the possible consequences of oil barrel price rise. First, he discusses the main results of analysis's which have been performed for thirty years regarding the impact of oil price on economical activity. He proposes interpretations of these studies and of their conclusions, and tries to draw lessons regarding effects which can be expected from the recent evolutions of energy markets

  18. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  19. Developing MOOCs to Narrow the College Readiness Gap: Challenges and Recommendations for a Writing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandi-Rao, Shoba; Devers, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have demonstrated the potential to deliver quality and cost effective course materials to large numbers of students. Approximately 60% of first-year students at community colleges are underprepared for college-level coursework. One reason for low graduation rates is the lack of the overall college readiness.…

  20. S. U. N. Y. Profiles of the Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office of Access Services.

    Profiles of each of the six agricultural and technical colleges, 29 community colleges, and three other colleges offering two-year programs within the State University of New York (SUNY) system are presented. Tuition and other costs as well as availability of financial assistance are outlined. A description of the Educational Opportunity Program…

  1. Technological features of installation of transformable low-rise buildings from sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshivtsev Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research: organizational and technological solutions are considered in the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings using sandwich panels. Aims: rational choice of organizational and technological solutions for the rhythmic construction of the underground and above-ground part of the transformable low-rise buildings in order to reduce labor costs and construction time. Materials and methods: methods of computer modeling of the technological processes are used to determine the duration of the construction of the low-rise buildings. Results: rational methods for erecting a complex of transformable low-rise buildings are defined, parameters of technological processes are established, an analysis of technological operations is provided for the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings using sandwich panels. Conclusions: now organizational and technological solutions for the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings with the use of sandwich panels reduce labour costs, increase the construction pace and as well as the using of improved technological processes in the construction of such buildings leads to a reduction in construction time.

  2. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  3. The Capital Costs Conundrum: Why Are Capital Costs Ignored and What Are the Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Gordon C.

    1993-01-01

    Colleges and universities historically have ignored the capital costs associated with institutional administration in their estimates of overall and per-student costs. This neglect leads to distortion of data, misunderstandings, and uninformed decision making. The real costs should be recognized in institutional accounting. (MSE)

  4. Purchase of Journal Portfolios by Research Libraries is not Cost-Effective and May Lead to Normalization of Collections. A Review of: Murphy, Sarah Ann. “The Effects of Portfolio Purchasing on Scientific Subject Collections.” College & Research Libraries July 2008: 332-40.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Walker

    2009-03-01

    OSU Libraries purchase the bulk of the journal portfolios to which they subscribe,2 through the independent purchase of an electronic subscription, or 3 through the independent purchase of a print subscription. The cost for each title was calculated by taking the amount paid for OHIOLink subscriptions and removing the cost of non-scientific journals from the total amount. Pricing for the non-scientific journals was obtained using EBSCO’s Librarian’s Handbook 2006-2007 and Ulrich’s Periodical Directory. To account for inflation, any 2007 prices were adjusted by 6. The above activities were designed to calculate both the cost of each title as purchased through OHIOLink, and what the OSU Libraries would have paid for each individual title if it had been purchased separately.Main Results – Of all journals cited by OSU faculty in the life, medical, physical, and applied sciences during the years studied, only 7% were available in print format only. The percentage of cited journal titles that were included in portfolio purchases varied considerably across the colleges. The college for which the greatest percentage of cited journals were obtained via OHIOLink was the College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences; 85.7% of journals cited by this College were purchased via OHIOLink. Overall figures for the cited journals analyzed were as follows: 52.0% were purchased via OHIOLink portfolio purchases, and 26.3% were purchased individually in electronic format by the OSU Libraries. Of all journals listed in Zone 1 (those designated as “core journals” for the fields in question,100% had electronic versions, though OSU Libraries continued to subscribe to the print version in addition to the electronic version for five titles, due to embargoes of 4-12 months in the electronic subscriptions. In terms of how the Zone 1 journals were acquired, 35.5% were purchased via OHIOLink as part of a portfolio purchase, and 62.2% were individually purchased. For the College of

  5. PERSPECTIVE: The tripping points of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Alan D.

    2009-12-01

    When President Nixon created the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 he said the environment must be perceived as a single, interrelated system. We are nowhere close to achieving this vision. Jim Titus and his colleagues [1] highlight one example of where one set of regulations or permits may be in conflict with another and where regulations were crafted in the absence of understanding the cumulative impact of global warming. The issue here is how to deal with the impacts of climate change on sea level and the latter's impact on wetland polices, clean water regulations, and ecosystem services. The Titus paper could also be called `The tripping points of sea level rise'. Titus and his colleagues have looked at the impact of such sea level rise on the east coast of the United States. Adaptive responses include costly large- scale investment in shore protection (e.g. dikes, sand replenishment) and/or ecosystem migration (retreat), where coastal ecosystems move inland. Shore protection is limited by available funds, while ecosystem migrations are limited by available land use. The driving factor is the high probability of sea level rise due to climate change. Estimating sea level rise is difficult because of local land and coastal dynamics including rising or falling land areas. It is estimated that sea level could rise between 8 inches and 2 feet by the end of this century [2]. The extensive data analysis done by Titus et al of current land use is important because, as they observe, `property owners and land use agencies have generally not decided how they will respond to sea level rise, nor have they prepared maps delineating where shore protection and retreat are likely'. This is the first of two `tripping points', namely the need for adaptive planning for a pending environmental challenge that will create economic and environment conflict among land owners, federal and state agencies, and businesses. One way to address this gap in adaptive management

  6. College for some to college for all: social background, occupational expectations, and educational expectations over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyette, Kimberly A

    2008-06-01

    The educational expectations of 10th-graders have dramatically increased from 1980 to 2002. Their rise is attributable in part to the changing educational composition of students' parents and related to the educational profiles of their expected occupations. Students whose parents have gone to college are more likely to attend college themselves, and students expect occupations that are more prestigious in 2002 than in 1980. The educational requirements of particular occupation categories have risen only slightly. These analyses also reveal that educational expectations in recent cohorts are more loosely linked to social background and occupational plans than they were in 1980. The declining importance of parents' background and the decoupling of educational and occupational plans, in addition to a strong and significant effect of cohort on educational expectations, suggest that the expectation of four-year college attainment is indeed becoming the norm.

  7. The future cost of cancer in South Africa: An interdisciplinary cost management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, K; Sartorius, B; Govender, P S; Sharma, V; Sherriff, A

    2016-09-06

    The exponential rise in cancer costs in South Africa (SA) was illustrated in a recent Sunday Times article entitled 'The cost of cancer can be a debt sentence'. Our Minister of Health talks of a 'war' against the high costs of cancer drugs, and epidemiologists project a sharply rising incidence. Eminent international medical journals, such as The Lancet, underline the fact that cancer cost is a growing international problem that confronts even the richest countries. If richer countries in the world are battling to cover the costs of cancer, what is the prognosis for SA?

  8. Rural demographic change, rising wages and the restructuring of Chinese agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tianxiang; Yu, Wusheng; Baležentis, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of recent demographic transition and rising labor costs on agricultural production structure and pattern in China during 1998-2012. Design/methodology/approach The authors, first, theoretically discuss the effects of changing relative...

  9. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  10. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  11. Asset Prices and Trading Volume under Fixed Transactions Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Andrew W.; Mamaysky, Harry; Wang, Jiang

    2004-01-01

    We propose a dynamic equilibrium model of asset prices and trading volume when agents face fixed transactions costs. We show that even small fixed costs can give rise to large "no-trade" regions for each agent's optimal trading policy. The inability to trade more frequently reduces the agents' asset demand and in equilibrium gives rise to a…

  12. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  13. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  14. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  15. The Impact of Rising Temperatures on Aircraft Takeoff Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; Thompson, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10-30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high tempera- tures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.

  16. Crisis in the Resurgent City? The Rise of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Thor; Winther, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge-based eco......Copenhagen today appears to be a resurgent city and city region. It came back to life in the mid-1990s and, until recently, has shown marked growth in key variables such as jobs, income and inhabitants, primarily as a result of the rise and spatial dynamics of its service- and knowledge......-based economy. Its resurgence is also evident in the central municipalities that 20 years ago struggled with the repercussions of a long-term urban crisis. Financially, the central city was almost doomed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and the city of Copenhagen was close to bankruptcy. Central......-city development was characterized by a set of eroding processes that included de-industrialization, suburbanization, high unemployment rates, high welfare costs, an outdated housing market, strong segregation and various other factors. Copenhagen city and its city region have now been revitalized and today...

  17. Public versus Private Colleges: Political Participation of College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Joe L., II.; Hernandez, Jose; King, Joe P.; Brown, Tiffany; Fajardo, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:93/03) of College Graduates, we use structural equation modeling to model the relationships between college major, values held in college, collegiate community service participation, and the post-college political participation of college graduates by public versus private…

  18. Primary Care Practice Transformation and the Rise of Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William H

    2017-04-01

    Americans are increasingly demanding the same level of service in healthcare that they receive in other services and products that they buy. This rise in consumerism poses challenges for primary care physicians as they attempt to transform their practices to succeed in a value-based reimbursement landscape, where they are rewarded for managing costs and improving the health of populations. In this paper, three examples of consumer-riven trends are described: retail healthcare, direct and concierge care, and home-based diagnostics and care. For each, the intersection of consumer-driven care and the goals of value-based primary care are explored. If the correct payment and connectivity enablers are in place, some examples of consumer-driven care are well-positioned to support primary care physicians in their mission to deliver high-quality, efficient care for the populations they serve. However, concerns about access and equity make other trends less consistent with that mission.

  19. Design of solar systems in high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Alexander; Chudinov, Dmitry; Yaremenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the renovation program is being implemented in the megapolises of Russia. Innovative high-rise buildings are built instead of morally and physically obsolete houses, where non-traditional renewable energy sources are used to the fullest extent, under the effect of which they are located. The possibility to use solar systems with variation of their design parameters is considered. It is established that solar systems have high technical potential. The share of heat load, that is provided by using solar energy, varies from 4 to 84% depending on the time of the year. Economic indicators restrain the use of such panels. The payback period is about 8 years at the current cost for thermal energy.

  20. Cyberbullying in College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos P. Zalaquett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is commonly presented as affecting K-12 populations. Current research suggests cyberbullying continues in college. A diverse sample of 613 university students was surveyed to study their cyberbullying experiences in high school and college. Nineteen percent of the sample reported being a victim of cyberbullying in college and 35% of this subsample reported being cyberbullied in high school. Additional findings and practical implications are presented.

  1. Estimation of optimal educational cost per medical student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B; Lee, Seunghee

    2009-09-01

    This study aims to estimate the optimal educational cost per medical student. A private medical college in Seoul was targeted by the study, and its 2006 learning environment and data from the 2003~2006 budget and settlement were carefully analyzed. Through interviews with 3 medical professors and 2 experts in the economics of education, the study attempted to establish the educational cost estimation model, which yields an empirically computed estimate of the optimal cost per student in medical college. The estimation model was based primarily upon the educational cost which consisted of direct educational costs (47.25%), support costs (36.44%), fixed asset purchases (11.18%) and costs for student affairs (5.14%). These results indicate that the optimal cost per student is approximately 20,367,000 won each semester; thus, training a doctor costs 162,936,000 won over 4 years. Consequently, we inferred that the tuition levels of a local medical college or professional medical graduate school cover one quarter or one-half of the per- student cost. The findings of this study do not necessarily imply an increase in medical college tuition; the estimation of the per-student cost for training to be a doctor is one matter, and the issue of who should bear this burden is another. For further study, we should consider the college type and its location for general application of the estimation method, in addition to living expenses and opportunity costs.

  2. The Fall and Rise of Resilience: Prevention and Holistic Treatment of Depression among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Henry C.

    2007-01-01

    Stress-related mental health problems are among the most common and disabling medical conditions in the United States, and they have increased in frequency over the past 100 years. Lifestyle changes such as diet, sleep, activity level and the nature of modern stresses may all play a role in the increasing frequency of depression, and these changes…

  3. Feasibility study tool for semi-rigid joints design of high-rise buildings steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagautdinov, Ruslan; Monastireva, Daria; Bodak, Irina; Potapova, Irina

    2018-03-01

    There are many ways to consider the final cost of the high-rise building structures and to define, which of their different variations are the most effective from different points of view. The research of Jaakko Haapio is conducted in Tampere University of Technology, which aims to develop a method that allows determining the manufacturing and installation costs of steel structures already at the tender phase while taking into account their details. This paper is aimed to make the analysis of the Feature-Based Costing Method for skeletal steel structures proposed by Jaakko Haapio. The most appropriate ways to improve the tool and to implement it in the Russian circumstances for high-rise building design are derived. Presented tool can be useful not only for the designers but, also, for the steel structures manufacturing organizations, which can help to utilize BIM technologies in the organization process and controlling on the factory.

  4. Feasibility study tool for semi-rigid joints design of high-rise buildings steel structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagautdinov Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to consider the final cost of the high-rise building structures and to define, which of their different variations are the most effective from different points of view. The research of Jaakko Haapio is conducted in Tampere University of Technology, which aims to develop a method that allows determining the manufacturing and installation costs of steel structures already at the tender phase while taking into account their details. This paper is aimed to make the analysis of the Feature-Based Costing Method for skeletal steel structures proposed by Jaakko Haapio. The most appropriate ways to improve the tool and to implement it in the Russian circumstances for high-rise building design are derived. Presented tool can be useful not only for the designers but, also, for the steel structures manufacturing organizations, which can help to utilize BIM technologies in the organization process and controlling on the factory.

  5. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  6. Educational Linguistics and College English Syllabus Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-xin

    2016-01-01

    The direct application of linguistic theories to syllabus design gives rise to frequent change of syllabus type in the histo-ry of syllabus development, which makes language teachers feel difficult to adapt to, to adopt and to implement. The recognition and popularization of the new-born discipline educational linguistics servers as a method to ease the situation, especially in the college English syllabus design in China. The development and application of the fruitful achievements in educational linguis-tics is bound to provide us with a more scientific approach to syllabus design in the future.

  7. Beyond College Eligibility: A New Framework for Promoting College Readiness. College Readiness Indicator Systems Resource Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Institute for School Reform at Brown University, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The College Readiness Indicator Systems (CRIS) initiative was developed in response to a troubling pattern: More students than ever are enrolling in college after high school, but many of them are not college ready, as evidenced by persistently low rates of college completion. The sense of urgency to close the gap between college eligibility and…

  8. The economic consequences of rising oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, F.

    2006-05-01

    In the context of rising crude oil prices observed in the last five years, this paper attempts to shed light on the possible consequences of a costlier barrel. We shall begin with a brief presentation of the main results of the analyses conducted in the last 30 years, concerning the impact of energy prices on economic activity. We shall then interpret these analyses and their conclusions, and try to draw a number of lessons about the anticipated effects of the recent trend in energy prices. (author)

  9. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  10. The rise and fall of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Recent data from heavy ion collisions at RHIC show unexpectedly large near-angle correlations that broaden longitudinally with centrality. The amplitude of this ridge-like correlation rises rapidly with centrality, reaches a maximum, and then falls in the most central collisions. In this talk we explain how this behavior can be easily understood in a picture where final momentum-space correlations are driven by initial coordinate space density fluctuations. We propose {nu}{sub n}{sup 2}/{epsilon}{sub n,part}{sup 2} as a useful way to study these effects and explain what it tells us about the collision dynamics.

  11. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  12. Hydrodynamics in a swarm of rising bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboux, G.

    2007-04-01

    In many applications, bubbles are used to agitate a liquid in order to enhance mixing and transfer. This work is devoted to the study of the hydrodynamics in a stable bubble column. Experimentally, we have determined the properties of the velocity fluctuations inside and behind a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles for different bubble sizes and gas volume fractions α: self-similarity in α 0,4 , spectrum in k -3 and integral length scale controlled by buoyancy. Numerically, we have reproduced these properties by means of large-scale simulations, the bubbles being modeled by volume-forces. This confirms that the dynamics is controlled by wake interactions. (author)

  13. The rising home birth trend in America

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlan Aliyev; Chastidy Roldan; Bulent Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US). Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of h...

  14. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  15. College Drinking - Changing the Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about college alcohol policies College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ... More about special features College Drinking - Changing the Culture This is your one-stop resource for comprehensive ...

  16. What Is College for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Phyllis M.; Martin, Carolyn A.; Kinbrough, Walter M.; Hitt, John C.; Urgo, Joseph R.; Lief, Charles G.; Drake, Michael V.; Hellyer, Brenda; Pepicello, William

    2013-01-01

    Lately there has been a great deal of discussion about the importance of measuring a college's "return on investment." Is the point of a college education quantifiable results or personal and intellectual growth? In pursuit of answers, "The Chronicle" asked a selection of higher-education leaders. Phyllis M. Wise, Chancellor of…

  17. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Faculty Handbook. Regis College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis Coll., Weston, MA.

    Regis College policies and procedures are described in this 1976 faculty handbook. Chapter 1 covers college organization and governance, including roles of academic officers and committees. Specific faculty data are presented in Chapter 2, such as definition of academic ranks and titles, recruitment and appointment, promotion, tenure, review,…

  19. Who Takes College Algebra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriott, Scott R.; Dunbar, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The common understanding within the mathematics community is that the role of the college algebra course is to prepare students for calculus. Though exceptions are emerging, the curriculum of most college algebra courses and the content of most textbooks on the market both reflect that assumption. This article calls that assumption into question…

  20. Community Colleges Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Corinne; Jervis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Jill Biden, Vice President Joe Biden's wife, has been teaching in community colleges for the past 18 years. Dr. Biden believes that community colleges are "…uniquely American institutions where anyone who walks through the door is one step closer to realizing the American dream." This is an inspiring sentiment. However, of all the…

  1. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  2. Examining Latina College Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Amanda R.

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…

  3. College Rankings. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Tamara

    The popularity of college ranking surveys published by "U.S. News and World Report" and other magazines is indisputable, but the methodologies used to measure the quality of higher education institutions have come under fire by scholars and college officials. Criticisms have focused on methodological flaws, such as failure to consider…

  4. Model and Algorithm for Substantiating Solutions for Organization of High-Rise Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisimov Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the models and the algorithm for the optimal plan formation for the organization of the material and logistical processes of the high-rise construction project and their financial support are developed. The model is based on the representation of the optimization procedure in the form of a non-linear problem of discrete programming, which consists in minimizing the execution time of a set of interrelated works by a limited number of partially interchangeable performers while limiting the total cost of performing the work. The proposed model and algorithm are the basis for creating specific organization management methodologies for the high-rise construction project.

  5. Elaboration of technology organizational models of constructing high-rise buildings in plans of construction organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipenkova, Irina; Simankina, Tatyana; Syrygina, Taisiia; Lukinov, Vitaliy

    2018-03-01

    This article represents features of the elaboration of technology organizational models of high-rise building construction in technology organizational documentation on the example of the plan of construction organization. Some examples of enhancing the effectiveness of high-rise building construction based on developments of several options of the organizational and technological plan are examined. Qualitative technology organizational documentation allows to increase the competitiveness of construction companies and provides prime cost of construction and assembly works reductions. Emphasis is placed on the necessity to comply with the principle of comprehensiveness of engineering, scientific and research works, development activities and scientific and technical support.

  6. Methodical approaches to value assessment and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitaly; Dashkov, Leonid; Gorshkov, Roman; Burova, Olga; Romanova, Alina

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the analysis of the methodological approaches to cost estimation and determination of the capitalization level of high-rise construction objects. Factors determining the value of real estate were considered, three main approaches for estimating the value of real estate objects are given. The main methods of capitalization estimation were analyzed, the most reasonable method for determining the level of capitalization of high-rise buildings was proposed. In order to increase the value of real estate objects, the author proposes measures that enable to increase significantly the capitalization of the enterprise through more efficient use of intangible assets and goodwill.

  7. Model and Algorithm for Substantiating Solutions for Organization of High-Rise Construction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir; Anisimov, Evgeniy; Chernysh, Anatoliy

    2018-03-01

    In the paper the models and the algorithm for the optimal plan formation for the organization of the material and logistical processes of the high-rise construction project and their financial support are developed. The model is based on the representation of the optimization procedure in the form of a non-linear problem of discrete programming, which consists in minimizing the execution time of a set of interrelated works by a limited number of partially interchangeable performers while limiting the total cost of performing the work. The proposed model and algorithm are the basis for creating specific organization management methodologies for the high-rise construction project.

  8. 874 CONSTRUCTION COST MODELS FOR HIGHRISE OFFICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... cost-significant items, 15 priced bills of quantities of high rise office building pro ects executed or awarded in Nigeria between 2002 and 2011 were analysed. The study found that11 (29. %) out of 3 bill items were cost-significant accounting for 2.2% of total value of the work. The implication of the finding is ...

  9. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  10. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A.; van der Sleen, Peter; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Griffin, Daniel; Sydeman, William J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Safeeq, Mohammad; Arismendi, Ivan; Bograd, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

  11. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  12. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  13. What's in Your Financial Package? Student Credit Card Use and Economic Insecurity in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin D.

    2017-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, going to college has become increasingly financially difficult in the United States. Tuition prices continued to rise, state funding for higher education declined, and the mean family income declined or stagnated for all but the top 20 percent of families (Goldrick-Rab 2016). In a period where college has risen…

  14. Development of damage functions for high-rise building components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustu, O.; Miller, D.D.; Brokken, S.T.

    1982-10-01

    The component approach for predicting the effects that ground motion from underground nuclear explosions will have on structures involves predicting the damage to each structural and nonstructural component of a building on the basis of the expected local deformation that most affects the damage to the component. This study was conducted to provide the basic data necessary to evaluate the component approach. Available published laboratory test data for various high-rise building components were collected. These data were analyzed statistically to determine damage threshold values and their variabilities, which in turn were used to derive component damage functions. The portion of construction costs attributable to various building components was determined statistically. This information was needed because component damage functions define damage as a percentage of the replacement values of the component, and, in order to calculate the overall building damage factor, the relative cost of each component must be estimated. The feasibility of the component approach to damage prediction is demonstrated. It is recommended that further experimental research directed towards developing an adequate data base of component damage thresholds for all significant building components should be encouraged. Parallel to this effort, detailed damage data from specific buildings damaged in earthquakes should be collected to verify the theoretical procedure

  15. Family Medicine in a Consumer Age — Part 4: Preventive Medicine, Professional Satisfaction, and the Rise of Consumerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Morton M.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to find out if the physician perceives the same strengths and weaknesses in today's practice of family medicine as does the consumer, the Lay Advisory Committee of the College's B.C. Chapter initiated a survey of physicians' and consumers' attitudes. This article, the fourth and last in a series, presents some of the results of the survey as they relate to preventive-medicine, professional satisfaction and the rise of consumerism.

  16. Soil Structure Interaction Effect on High Rise and Low Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Pathak; PAresh H. SHAH

    2000-01-01

    Effect of supporting soil on the response of structure has been analyzed in the present study. A low rise (G+ 5 storey) and a high rise (G+12 storey) building has been taken for the analysis. For both type of buildings, the response of building with and without consideration of soil structure interaction effect has been compared.Without interaction case is the case in which ends of the structure are assumed to be fixed while in interaction case, structure is assumed to be...

  17. Construction waste rises up the agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, David

    2010-10-01

    Building maintenance and the construction of new healthcare facilities are central to maintaining the NHS's infrastructure, but such work is costly, and subject to intense financial scrutiny. Dr David Moon, programme manager, Clients and Policy, at Government-backed WRAP (the Waste & Resources Action Programme), which works in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, to help businesses and individuals reduce waste, develop sustainable products, and use resources efficiently, outlines the crucial role that NHS Trusts play in securing cost savings through minimising construction waste, as set out in a new WRAP guide.

  18. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  19. A Model for Understanding the Relationship Between Transaction Costs and Acquisition Cost Breaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    an assistant professor and received a BA in anthropology and a BA and MA in economics (2004) and a PhD in political economy and public policy (2008...between transaction costs and cost overruns. Biggs (2013) showed that as the EAC SE/PM cost ratio rises there is a statistically significant corresponding...Estimate at Completion ( EAC ) is the sum of the ACWP and the estimate to completion (ETC) for the remaining work. The ETC can be calculated using the cost

  20. Exploring the unprecedented rise in Danish burglary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David W.M.

    2012-01-01

    burglary increased so dramatically. This paper explores four sets of possible explanations for the increase, namely: Changes in public reporting, police recording and insurance practices; changes in population age, drug use and economic recession; increasing crime tourism; and impediments policing caused...... by the National Police Reform of 2007. While some or all of these factors may have contributed to the overall rise, none of them come close to explaining it on their own. This absence of evidence is especially interesting in light of widespread assumptions in the media and among some police about foreign burglary......-year period 2005-2010, plus data on long term crime trends (1990-2010) and other social indicators....

  1. Is the Kingdom of Bicycles Rising Again?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Christensen, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on new types of cycling in postsocialist China, especially mountain and sports biking, and on the particular entanglements of gender and class brought with them. The shift in mobility and biking from the Mao era to the postsocialist China is analyzed in the contexts of cultural......-analytical notions of global assemblages and gendered interpellations. Based on Chinese newspaper materials and fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, the article examines the social and gendered implications of the new biking cultures. These new biking practices mainly interpellate new middle-class men...... and masculinities as part of an exclusive leisure culture. If the “Kingdom of the Bicycles” is going to rise again, there is a need for a broader scope that addresses access for all, including women and families, as smart bikers, as well as biking as a daily mode of transportation....

  2. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  3. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...... in the literature, the authors suggest an analytical framework for understanding African business performance, underlining the interplay between contextual specificities, firm capabilities, and firm strategy....

  4. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  5. Dating Violence among College Students: Key Issues for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christine E.; Kardatzke, Kerrie N.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a review of literature examining dating violence among college students. They describe 6 key issues related to dating violence among college students that affect college counselors' work. These key issues relate to the incidence and prevalence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence in college students' dating…

  6. Rising food prices and household food security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    produce),4 which is the case for the majority of South Africans. In South Africa ... Expressed as a proportion of average monthly income, the increase in the cost of .... innovation in food, nutrition and broader agricultural policies. Mieke Faber ...

  7. Rising workload or rising work pressure in general practice in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Hutten, J.B.F.; Steultjens, M.; Schellevis, F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: General practice in the Netherlands seems to be in a crisis. Worries about shortages of GP's, the first strike of general practitioners in 2001 and the rapid increase of triage systems in out of hours care are signs that work pressure and/or workload are rising. But systematic evidence

  8. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.

  9. Modeling work of the dispatching service of high-rise building as queuing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina; Dement'eva, Anastasiya

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of calculating the performance indicators of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building as a queuing system with an unlimited queue. The calculation was carried out for three models: with a single control room and brigade of service, with a single control room and a specialized service, with several dispatch centers and specialized services. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of the structural scheme of the organization of the dispatcher service of a high-rise building on the amount of operating costs and the time of processing and fulfilling applications. The problems of high-rise construction and their impact on the complication of exploitation are analyzed. The composition of exploitation activities of high-rise buildings is analyzed. The relevance of the study is justified by the need to review the role of dispatch services in the structure of management of the quality of buildings. Dispatching service from the lower level of management of individual engineering systems becomes the main link in the centralized automated management of the exploitation of high-rise buildings. With the transition to market relations, the criterion of profitability at the organization of the dispatching service becomes one of the main parameters of the effectiveness of its work. A mathematical model for assessing the efficiency of the dispatching service on a set of quality of service indicators is proposed. The structure of operating costs is presented. The algorithm of decision-making is given when choosing the optimal structural scheme of the dispatching service of a high-rise building.

  10. Problem Gambling on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, Jennifer L.; Hanson, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of college students gamble, with some doing so problematically. This article discusses gambling and problem gambling among college students, framing it as an emerging health issue on college campuses nationwide. Given that 4 out of 5 college students admit to gambling, and that approximately 8% gamble problematically, it is…

  11. Proprietary hospitals in cost containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A

    1985-08-23

    Any effort to control the rise in health care costs must start with analyzing the causes, which are really quite simple. Most cost control efforts fail because they do not address the causes. The causes are large subsidies in several forms that send a false message that health care is free and should be used abundantly, and expansive reimbursement programs that reward inefficient providers with higher payments. This combination of demand stimulation and cost-plus reimbursement produced the world's most expensive health care delivery system and strident calls for reform. A long overdue change in public policy took effect October 1, 1983, when Medicare payments moved from cost-plus reimbursement to fixed, prospectively determined prices. Because it addressed one of the causes of medical inflation, this change has been effective in slowing the rise in Medicare expenditures. Sponsorship of a hospital is not a determinant of its cost-effectiveness. There are examples of efficient and inefficient hospitals in both the voluntary and the investor-owned or taxpaying hospitals. The determining factor is the will of management to keep costs under control.

  12. Going to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chocolate cake. Many college campuses have lots of fast-food restaurants within easy reach of dorms or classes. ... re stressed, means you are overriding your body's natural signals. This tends to lead to more chaotic ...

  13. American College of Gastroenterology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... journal published to provide an opportunity to share interesting case reports. Edited by GI fellows, it is ... AmCollegeGastro Events November 9 Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases – AIBD 2017 November 9 - 11, 2017 Walt Disney ...

  14. Getting Exercise in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in college? What Does My Body Need? The importance of exercise is nothing new. Thomas Jefferson once ... commitment to regular activity. According to the 2008 Physical activity guidelines, kids and teens should do 60 minutes ...

  15. Teacher Costs

    OpenAIRE

    DINIS MOTA DA COSTA PATRICIA; DE SOUSA LOBO BORGES DE ARAUJO LUISA

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this technical brief is to assess current methodologies for the collection and calculation of teacher costs in European Union (EU) Member States in view of improving data series and indicators related to teacher salaries and teacher costs. To this end, CRELL compares the Eurydice collection on teacher salaries with the similar Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data collection and calculates teacher costs based on the methodology established by Statis...

  16. Can salt marshes survive sea level rise ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambroni, N.; Seminara, G.

    2008-12-01

    Stability of salt marshes is a very delicate issue depending on the subtle interplay among hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and ecology. In fact, the elevation of the marsh platform depends essentially on three effects: i) the production of soil associated with sediments resuspended by tidal currents and wind waves in the adjacent tidal flats, advected to the marsh and settling therein; ii) production of organic sediments by the salt marsh vegetation; iii) soil 'loss' driven by sea level rise and subsidence. In order to gain insight into the mechanics of the process, we consider a schematic configuration consisting of a salt marsh located at the landward end of a tidal channel connected at the upstream end with a tidal sea, under different scenarios of sea level rise. We extend the simple 1D model for the morphodynamic evolution of a tidal channel formulated by Lanzoni and Seminara (2002, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 107, C1) allowing for sediment resuspension in the channel and vegetation growth in the marsh using the depth dependent model of biomass productivity of Spartina proposed by Morris et al. (2002, Ecology, 83, pp. 2869 - 2877). We first focus on the case of a tide dominated salt marsh neglecting wind driven sediment resuspension in the shoal. Results show that the production of biomass plays a crucial role on salt marsh stability and, provided productivity is high enough, it may turn out to be sufficient to counteract the effects of sea level rise even in the absence of significant supply of mineral sediments. The additional effect of wind resuspension is then introduced. Note that the wind action is twofold: on one hand, it generates wind waves the amplitude of which is strongly dependent on shoal depth and wind fetch; on the other hand, it generates currents driven by the surface setup induced by the shear stress acting on the free surface. Here, each contribution is analysed separately. Results show that the values of bottom stress induced by

  17. Methods and problems in assessing the impacts of accelerated sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Dennis, Karen C.; Volonte, Claudio R.; Leatherman, Stephen P.

    1992-06-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise is one of the more certain responses to global warming and presents a major challenge to mankind. However, it is important to note that sea-level rise is only manifest over long timescales (decades to centuries). Coastal scientists are increasingly being called upon to assess the physical, economic and societal impacts of sea-level rise and hence investigate appropriate response strategies. Such assessments are difficult in many developing countries due to a lack of physical, demographic and economic data. In particular, there is a lack of appropriate topographic information for the first (physical) phase of the analysis. To overcome these difficulties we have developed a new rapid and low-cost reconnaissance technique: ``aerial videotape-assisted vulnerability analysis'' (AVA). It involves: 1) videotaping the coastline from a small airplane; 2) limited ground-truth measurements; and 3) archive research. Combining the video record with the ground-truth information characterizes the coastal topography and, with an appropriate land loss model, estimates of the physical impact for different sea-level rise scenarios can be made. However, such land loss estimates raise other important questions such as the appropriate seaward limit of the beach profile. Response options also raise questions such as the long-term costs of seawalls. Therefore, realistic low and high estiimates were developed. To illustrate the method selected results from Senegal, Uruguay and Venezuela are presented.

  18. Does climate policy make the EU economy more resilient to oil price rises? A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnave, Hélène; Pycroft, Jonathan; Saveyn, Bert; Ciscar, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The European Union has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% in 2020 compared with 1990 levels. This paper investigates whether this policy has an additional benefit in terms of economic resilience by protecting the EU from the macroeconomic consequences due to an oil price rise. We use the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model to analyse the results of three scenarios. The first one refers to the impact of an increase in the oil price. The second scenario analyses the European climate policy and the third scenario analyses the oil price rise when the European climate policy is implemented. Unilateral EU climate policy implies a cost on the EU of around 1.0% of GDP. An oil price rise in the presence of EU climate policy does imply an additional cost on the EU of 1.5% of GDP (making a total loss of 2.5% of GDP), but this is less than the 2.2% of GDP that the EU would lose from the oil price rise in the absence of climate policy. This is evidence that even unilateral climate policy does offer some economic protection for the EU.

  19. Nuclear utilities must cut costs: ANS meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This article looks at cost factors in the nuclear industry, and concludes that the nuclear industry must be very careful with its operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) costs in particular to stay competitive in the energy marketplace. These costs have been rising at 5% per year lately, and are becoming a major cost for the nuclear industry. Analysts feel that a major reason for these increases is the responsibility of management. The article highlights the need to tighten the cost factors or face the loss of market share

  20. The economic impact of sea-level rise on nonmarket lands in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei-Shiuen; Mendelsohn, Robert

    2006-09-01

    Sea-level rise, as a result of climate change, will likely inflict considerable economic consequences on coastal regions, particularly low-lying island states like Singapore. Although the literature has addressed the vulnerability of developed coastal lands, this is the first economic study to address nonmarket lands, such as beaches, marshes and mangrove estuaries. This travel cost and contingent valuation study reveals that consumers in Singapore attach considerable value to beaches. The contingent valuation study also attached high values to marshes and mangroves but this result was not supported by the travel cost study. Although protecting nonmarket land uses from sea-level rise is expensive, the study shows that at least highly valued resources, such as Singapore's popular beaches, should be protected.

  1. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongzhi; Sadovski, Alexey; Jeffress, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical...

  2. Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselingh, Frank; Flecker, Rachel; Wilke, Thomas; Leroy, Suzanne; Krijgsman, Wout; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    In the past two million years, the region of the Black Sea Basin, Caspian Basin and adjacent Anatolia and the Balkans were the stage of the evolution of a unique brackish water fauna, the so-called Pontocaspian fauna. The fauna is the result of assembly of genera with a Paratethyan origin and Anatolian origins during the Early Pleistocene. The rapid diversification of the Pontocaspian fauna is the result of the very dynamic nature of the lakes (the Caspian Sea is technically a lake) and seas in the region in the past two million years. In most times the various lake basins were isolated (like today), but in other episodes connections existed. Regional and global climate as well as the regional tectonic regimes were main drivers of lake basin evolution. Over the past 80 years a major biodiversity crisis is hitting the Pontocaspian faunas due to environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species. In the new EU-ETN PRIDE (Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise)we will be documenting the geological context of past diversifications and turnover events. We present examples of rapid turnover (biodiversity crises) in the Quaternary, assess driving forces and draw implications for the nature of the current human-mediated biodiversity crisis in the region.

  3. Gas demand to rise in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Could US consumption of natural gas rise by as much as 13 quadrillion Btu (quads) over the next 20 years? A new study conducted for the American Gas Foundation by Washington Policy and Analysis says it's certainly a possibility if appropriate policies are implemented. 'Fueling the Future: Natural Gas and New Technologies for a Cleaner 21. Century', confirms what natural gas industry professionals have long suspected: changes in US energy policy that favor increased use of natural gas could improve air quality, conserve energy and reduce reliance on imported oil from politically unstable countries. Consequently, the study forecasts that the environmental, economic and efficiency advantages of natural gas-combined with advances in gas-related technologies and the introduction of new end-use technologies - could help push. US gas consumption into the 35-quad range over the next two decades. Currently, American gas demand is close to 22 quads a year. The study tracks two scenarios: a 'current projection', which shows gas demand reaching nearly 30 quads by 2020, and an 'accelerated projection', which foresees demand topping 35 quads by then based on the adoption of national policies encouraging greater use of natural gas. (authors)

  4. The Rise of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya al-Mughni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the emergence of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait, based on the writings and personal accounts of leading Islamist women activists.  It begins with an analysis of the socio-political factors that led to the creation of Islamic groups in the 1980s. It then outlines the role of women in the growth of the Islamic movement and shows how the contradictions between women’s contributions to the Islamic cause and the secondary role they play within the Islamic organizations controlled by men were conducive to the rise of Islamic feminism in the 1990s. The paper also demonstrates how the involvement of islamist women in the struggle for suffrage forging a coalition with liberal women activists had played a decisive role in changing the position of islamist groups towards the enfranchisement of women. The last two sections of the paper look at the participation of islamist women activists in the re-definition of the dichotomy between the public and private spheres and at their involvement in the process of interpretation of Islamic sources, known as Ijtihâd. The paper concludes that the engagement of islamist women activists in the discourse of women’s rights can be powerful agent of change towards a more egalitarian society.

  5. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  6. Educating Foreign Students in the U.S.A.: A Cost Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Shah M.

    The economic costs and benefits of educating foreign students in U.S. public and private colleges are estimated. U.S. costs of educating foreign students consist primarily of: (1) direct educational costs, (2) cost of the foreign students who receive their maintenance allowance from U.S. sources, (3) travel costs of those foreign students whose…

  7. Study of the Effectiveness of Outrigger System for High-Rise Composite Buildings for Cyclonic Region

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fawzia; A. Nasir; T. Fatima

    2011-01-01

    The demands of taller structures are becoming imperative almost everywhere in the world in addition to the challenges of material and labor cost, project time line etc. This paper conducted a study keeping in view the challenging nature of high-rise construction with no generic rules for deflection minimizations and frequency control. The effects of cyclonic wind and provision of outriggers on 28-storey, 42-storey and 57-storey are examined in this paper and certain conclusions are made which...

  8. Rise of the machines: the effects of labor-saving innovations on jobs and wages

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Feng; Georg Graetz

    2015-01-01

    Job polarization the rise in employment shares of high and low skill jobs at the expense of middle skill jobs occurred in the US not just recently, but also in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. We argue that in each case polarization resulted from increased automation, and provide a theoretical explanation. In our model, firms deciding whether to employ machines or workers in a given task weigh the cost of using machines, which is increasing in the complexity (in an engineeri...

  9. Shapes and rising velocities of single bubbles rising through an inner subchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Akio; Nakahara, Yusuke; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Shapes and velocities of single air bubbles rising through stagnant and flowing waters in an inner subchannel are measured by making use of fluorocarbon tubes. It is confirmed that (1) bubble shapes and motions in the subchannel are by far different from those in simple geometry, and they depend on the ratio λ of the bubble diameter to the subchannel hydraulic diameter, (2) when λ > 0.9, a part of a bubble intrudes into neighboring subchannels, and thereby a kind of void drift takes place even with a single bubble, (3) the terminal velocity V T of a small bubble (λ T for cell-Taylor bubbles (λ > 0.9) is presented, and (5) the rising velocity V B in laminar an turbulent flow conditions are well evaluated by substituting the proposed V T models and the ratio of the maximum liquid velocity to the mean liquid velocity into the Nicklin correlation. (author)

  10. Rehabilitation costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Arthur S [BDM Corp., VA (United States); [Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates.

  11. Rehabilitation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Arthur S.

    1986-01-01

    The costs of radioactivity contamination control and other matters relating to the resettlement of Bikin atoll were reviewed for Bikini Atoll Rehabilitation Committee by a panel of engineers which met in Berkeley, California on January 22-24, 1986. This Appendix presents the cost estimates

  12. Rising CO2 widens the transpiration-photosynthesis optimality space

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.; Dekker, Stefan C.

    2016-04-01

    ). Measurements of gs and V cmax were obtained with a portable photosynthesis system. Our empirical results support the prediction that the V cmax:gs-ratio increases with higher CO2 in both Solanum genotypes. The 'dry' genotype revealed a significantly higher Huber value and lower V cmax than the 'wet' genotype at each CO2 growth level. Moreover, we found that the down-regulation of V cmax under higher CO2 was stronger in the 'dry' genotype than in the 'wet' genotype, whereas no change in the Huber value was observed between CO2 levels. Consistent with the theoretical trade-off between the resulting costs of transpiration and photosynthesis, we found that the CO2-induced increase in the V cmax:gs-ratio was stronger in the 'wet' genotype than in the 'dry' genotype. Given the divergence of V cmax:gs relationships observed, we conclude that rising atmospheric CO2 may widen the V cmax - gs optimality space available for plants to achieve an optimal trade-off between photosynthesis and transpiration. References Prentice, I. C., Dong, N., Gleason, S. M., Maire, V. and Wright, I. J.: Balancing the costs of carbon gain and water transport: testing a new theoretical framework for plant functional ecology, Ecol. Lett., 17(1), 82-91, 2014.

  13. Troubleshooting Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  14. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  15. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Sergey; Kukina, Olga; Abramenko, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state), and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced), made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  16. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985 endash 2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades

  17. Phosphate rock costs, prices and resources interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mew, M C

    2016-01-15

    This article gives the author's views and opinions as someone who has spent his working life analyzing the international phosphate sector as an independent consultant. His career spanned two price hike events in the mid-1970's and in 2008, both of which sparked considerable popular and academic interest concerning adequacy of phosphate rock resources, the impact of rising mining costs and the ability of mankind to feed future populations. An analysis of phosphate rock production costs derived from two major industry studies performed in 1983 and 2013 shows that in nominal terms, global average cash production costs increased by 27% to $38 per tonne fob mine in the 30 year period. In real terms, the global average cost of production has fallen. Despite the lack of upward pressure from increasing costs, phosphate rock market prices have shown two major spikes in the 30 years to 2013, with periods of less volatility in between. These price spike events can be seen to be related to the escalating investment cost required by new mine capacity, and as such can be expected to be repeated in future. As such, phosphate rock price volatility is likely to have more impact on food prices than rising phosphate rock production costs. However, as mining costs rise, recycling of P will also become increasingly driven by economics rather than legislation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rising utilization of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sunitha V; Rodean, Jonathan; Bekmezian, Arpi; Hall, Matt; Shah, Samir S; Mahant, Sanjay; Parikh, Kavita; Morse, Rustin; Puls, Henry; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Clinical pathways are detailed care plans that operationalize evidence-based guidelines into an accessible format for health providers. Their goal is to link evidence to practice to optimize patient outcomes and delivery efficiency. It is unknown to what extent inpatient pediatric asthma pathways are being utilized nationally. (1) Describe inpatient pediatric asthma pathway design and implementation across a large hospital network. (2) Compare characteristics of hospitals with and without pathways. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, survey study of hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network (75% children's hospitals, 25% community hospitals). Our survey determined if each hospital used a pathway and pathway characteristics (e.g. pathway elements, implementation methods). Hospitals with and without pathways were compared using Chi-square tests (categorical variables) and Student's t-tests (continuous variables). Surveys were distributed to 3-5 potential participants from each hospital and 302 (74%) participants responded, representing 86% (106/123) of surveyed hospitals. From 2005-2015, the proportion of hospitals utilizing inpatient asthma pathways increased from 27% to 86%. We found variation in pathway elements, implementation strategies, electronic medical record integration, and compliance monitoring across hospitals. Hospitals with pathways had larger inpatient pediatric programs [mean 12.1 versus 6.1 full-time equivalents, p = 0.04] and were more commonly free-standing children's hospitals (52% versus 23%, p = 0.05). From 2005-2015, there was a dramatic rise in implementation of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways. We found variation in many aspects of pathway design and implementation. Future studies should determine optimal implementation strategies to better support hospital-level efforts in improving pediatric asthma care and outcomes.

  19. The rise and fall of gluten!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Branchi, Federica; Sanders, David S

    2015-08-01

    Mankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the last 10,000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Wheat was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent (South Western Asia) with a farming expansion that lasted from about 9000BC to 4000BC. Thus it could be considered that wheat (and gluten) is a novel introduction to man's diet! Prior to 1939 the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat. This goal was achieved and by the end of the 20th century, global wheat output had expanded 5-fold. Perhaps as a result the epidemiology of coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy has changed. CD is a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD now affects 1 % or more of all adults, for which the treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show that a far greater proportion of individuals without coeliac disease are taking a gluten-free diet of their own volition. This clinical entity has been termed non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the condition is fraught with complexities due to overlap with other gluten-based constituents that can also trigger similar clinical symptoms. This review will explore the relationship between gluten, the rising prevalence of modern coeliac disease, and the new entity of NCGS along with its associated uncertainties.

  20. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  1. Rising hopes for vacuum tube collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godolphin, D.

    1982-06-01

    The performance, feasibility and use of vacuum tube solar collectors for domestic hot water (DHW) systems are discussed. An introduction to the design of vacuum tube collectors is presented and comparisons are made with flat plate collectors in terms of effectiveness in DHW applications and cost. The use of vacuum tube collectors is well established for high temperature use such as process heat and absorption cooling applications; there is considerable debate concerning their use in DHW and these arguments are presented. It is pointed out that the accepted standardized comparison test (ASHRAE 93-77) is apparently biased towards the flat plate collectors in direct comparisons of collector efficiencies. Recent developments among manufacturers with regard to vacuum tube collectors and their thinking (pro and con) are discussed in some detail. Breakage and other problems are pointed out although advocates look ahead to lower costs, higher efficiencies, and broader markets (particularly in DHW). It is concluded by some that flat plate collector technology has reached its peak and that vacuum tube collectors will be very prominent in the future. (MJJ)

  2. A history of the American College of Medical Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterolf, Donald; Brodie, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    The American College of Medical Quality is a national organization of health care professionals who are interested in the advancement of medical quality as a field. Composed primarily of doctorate-level individuals in medicine, dentistry, and podiatry, it also includes affiliate members in preprofessional training as well as nursing. Origins of the organization date to 1973, when it was first called the American College of Utilization Review Physicians. It is formally recognized by the American Medical Association and holds a seat in its House of Delegates. The College views the advancement of medical quality as a field of study within itself and offers multiple venues for self-education, testing, and professional networking for its members. Recently, rising national awareness of quality in health care as a field of endeavor has elevated enrollment levels and increased interest in the organization.

  3. Mentorship through advisory colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, Andrew H; Miller, Carol; Papadakis, Maxine

    2002-11-01

    Medical students face pressures ranging from the need to create a social network to learning vast amounts of scientific material. Students often feel isolated in this system and lack mentorship. In order to counteract feelings of bureaucratic anonymity and isolation, the University of California San Francisco has created an advisory college to foster the professional and personal growth and well being of students. UCSF has developed a formal structure to advise medical students. A selection committee, chaired by the associate dean of student affairs, appointed five faculty mentors to head advisory colleges. These five colleges serve as the advising and well-being infrastructure for the students. Mentors were chosen from a balanced range of clinical disciplines, both primary and specialty. The disciplines are obstetrics-gynecology, otolaryngology/head and neck surgery, medicine, pediatrics, and psychiatry. The mentors have demonstrated excellence in advising and counseling of students. Mentors meet individually at the beginning of the academic year with incoming first-year and second-year students. They then have bimonthly meetings with eight to ten students within each college throughout the academic year. Curricula for these group sessions include well-being discussions and coping techniques, sessions on the hidden and informal curriculum of professionalism, and discussions on career choices and strategies. For third-year students, advisory college meetings are scheduled during intersessions, which are weeklong courses that occur between the eight-week clerkship blocks. Mentors are available throughout the year to meet with students on an as-needed basis, and advisory colleges may hold group social activities. The dean's office supports each mentor with 20% salary and provides administrative support for the group college activities. Historically, UCSF students feel they receive an excellent education and appropriate job opportunities, but they do not feel they

  4. Healthcare costs for new technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyen, Mathias; Debatin, Joerg F.

    2009-01-01

    Continuous ageing of the population coupled with growing health consciousness and continuous technological advances have fueled the rapid rise in healthcare costs in the United States and Europe for the past several decades. The exact impact of new medical technology on long-term spending growth remains the subject of controversy. By all measures it is apparent that new medical technology is the dominant driver of increases in health-care costs and hence insurance premiums. This paper addresses the impact of medical technology on healthcare delivery systems with regard to medical practice and costs. We first explore factors affecting the growth of medical technology and then attempt to provide a means for assessing the effectiveness of medical technology. Avoidable healthcare cost drivers are identified and related policy issues are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Healthcare costs for new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyen, Mathias; Debatin, Joerg F. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    Continuous ageing of the population coupled with growing health consciousness and continuous technological advances have fueled the rapid rise in healthcare costs in the United States and Europe for the past several decades. The exact impact of new medical technology on long-term spending growth remains the subject of controversy. By all measures it is apparent that new medical technology is the dominant driver of increases in health-care costs and hence insurance premiums. This paper addresses the impact of medical technology on healthcare delivery systems with regard to medical practice and costs. We first explore factors affecting the growth of medical technology and then attempt to provide a means for assessing the effectiveness of medical technology. Avoidable healthcare cost drivers are identified and related policy issues are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Pre-college education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sylvia

    1990-01-01

    Pre-college education efforts are many and varied, involving the teachers, students, parents, museums, and youth groups. However, it is necessary to reach out to school administration at all levels if teachers are to be innovative in their approaches. This introductory meeting clearly indicated that more interaction between the participants would be profitable. It is clear that the science pipeline leading from kindergarten to college entry needs to be filled with students. What is not clear is how we can do it. The plethora of projects being pursued by the NASA Space Grant College Fellowship (NSGC) programs to accomplish that goal are heartening and exciting. However, this large gamut of programs may also indicate how new we are in this game and how little anyone knows about creating a pre-college interest in science and engineering. In a way, it resembles the situation of the common cold--there is no known cure yet, so there are many so-called remedies. Unfortunately, the time we had together was entirely too short to address the evaluation situation, so that we can in the future zero in on the most effective approaches. This report is a summary of the many ways the different NSGC' s are approaching pre-college education and a list of suggestions.

  7. Sex work on the rise. International news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has brought to the fore many social injustices; for instance, inappropriate laws. The groups of people most at risk of HIV/AIDS are women, young people, and sex workers. More appropriate laws are needed to protect their rights. In many instances sex workers are prosecuted for selling their services, but their clients are not prosecuted for seeking these services. Most people become sex workers so they can feed, clothe, and supply the basic needs for themselves and their families. Many sex workers are abandoned wives, mothers with no means of support, and poverty stricken people. A Health Ministry commission in Sweden proposed that prostitutes, clients, and pimps be prosecuted and be liable to imprisonment. Authorities in Scotland, where prostitution is illegal, have granted licenses to more than 20 clubs in Edinburgh in which sex is for sale. In the UK, the Royal College of Nursing called for a measure to decriminalize prostitution and to introduce licensed, regulated brothels. The legalization of sex clubs and brothels will occur soon in the Netherlands. In Poland, 30,000-50,000 youth, 33% of whom are underage, sell sex during holidays. Organizations are beginning to work only with male prostitutes in Belgium. In the countries of the former Soviet Union and China, prostitution is becoming more and more common. Some young girls in these countries practice currency prostitution. In almost all Asian countries except Thailand condom use is low; yet prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases are very common. Some people participate in the corrupt trade in women from Nepal to supply the sex market in Bombay, India. Sex tourism is still common in cities of Eastern Europe and the former USSR and in areas where tourism is increasing. There are more than 1 million prostitutes aged under 16 in eight Asian countries, with 400,000 in India. Sweden and the UK have taken steps to prosecute natives who have sex with children abroad. Philippine authorities

  8. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  10. To Build or Not to Build: Addressing Facilities Needs While Controlling Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadamus, James A.

    2015-01-01

    When trustees, presidents, and senior college administrators meet, one topic dominates the conversation: how to keep education quality high and costs down. To keep quality high, college leaders need to have strong faculties and state-of-the-art facilities for teaching and research. Quality counts but it also costs, and that is where the pressures…

  11. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  12. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  13. Principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beliakov Sergei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment projects of high-rise construction have a number of features that determine specific risks and additional opportunities that require analysis and accounting in the formation of an effective project concept. The most significant features of high-rise construction include long construction time, complexity of technical and technological solutions, complexity of decisions on the organization of construction and operation, high cost of construction and operation, complexity in determining the ratio of areas designed to accommodate different functional areas, when organizing and coordinating the operation of the facility, with internal zoning. Taking into account the specificity of high-rise construction, among the factors determining the effectiveness of projects, it is advisable to consider as key factors: organizational, technological and investment factors. Within the framework of the article, the author singled out key particular functions for each group of factors under consideration, and also developed a system of principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects, including the principle of logistic efficiency, the principle of optimal functional zoning, the principle of efficiency of equipment use, the principle of optimizing technological processes, the principle maximization of income, the principle of fund management, the principle of risk management . The model of formation of an effective concept of investment projects of multifunctional high-rise construction developed by the author can contribute to the development of methodological tools in the field of managing the implementation of high-rise construction projects, taking into account their specificity in the current economic conditions.

  14. Principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beliakov, Sergei

    2018-03-01

    Investment projects of high-rise construction have a number of features that determine specific risks and additional opportunities that require analysis and accounting in the formation of an effective project concept. The most significant features of high-rise construction include long construction time, complexity of technical and technological solutions, complexity of decisions on the organization of construction and operation, high cost of construction and operation, complexity in determining the ratio of areas designed to accommodate different functional areas, when organizing and coordinating the operation of the facility, with internal zoning. Taking into account the specificity of high-rise construction, among the factors determining the effectiveness of projects, it is advisable to consider as key factors: organizational, technological and investment factors. Within the framework of the article, the author singled out key particular functions for each group of factors under consideration, and also developed a system of principles for the formation of an effective concept of multifunctional high-rise construction investment projects, including the principle of logistic efficiency, the principle of optimal functional zoning, the principle of efficiency of equipment use, the principle of optimizing technological processes, the principle maximization of income, the principle of fund management, the principle of risk management . The model of formation of an effective concept of investment projects of multifunctional high-rise construction developed by the author can contribute to the development of methodological tools in the field of managing the implementation of high-rise construction projects, taking into account their specificity in the current economic conditions.

  15. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  16. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  17. Tracking costs of alternatively fueled buses in Florida : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to address rising fuel costs and environmental concerns, many transit agencies across Florida have introduced alternative fuel technologies to their traditional diesel-powered fleets. Fuel types include biodiesel, compressed natural gas,...

  18. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies

  19. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  20. Protecting Colleges and Students: Community College Strategies to Prevent Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…

  1. College and Community in Partnership: The Furniture College at Letterfrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.

    2001-01-01

    A community economic development organization in rural Ireland partnered with a technical college to build a college to teach furniture design and manufacturing, with an emphasis on entrepreneurship and new production technologies. The college has been successful in attracting good students and helping them find employment. A research and…

  2. The 1996 IDA Cost Research Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-01

    5160 Christopher Deegan (703)602-6575 Performer: Naval Surface Warfare Center (211) Carderock Division, NSWC/CD Bethesda, Maryland 20084-5000...Moore (703) 602-0330, ext 208 Cost Engineering Research, Inc. 2011 Crystal Drive Arlington, VA 22202-3717 Bill Hugo Bob Craig Classification...Director, Force and Infrastructure Cost Analysis Division OD (PA&E) Room 2D278, The Pentagon Washington, DC 20301 Dr. Craig College LMI John Wallace

  3. Rising Above the Storm: DIG TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K. K.; Miller, K. C.; Bednarz, S. W.; Mosher, S.

    2011-12-01

    For a decade Texas educators, scientists and citizens have shown a commitment to earth science education through planning at the national and state levels, involvement in earth science curriculum and teacher professional development projects, and the creation of a model senior level capstone Earth and Space Science course first offered in 2010 - 2011. The Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science demonstrate a shift to rigorous content, career relevant skills and use of 21st century technology. Earth and Space Science standards also align with the Earth Science, Climate and Ocean Literacy framework documents. In spite of a decade of progress K-12 earth science education in Texas is in crisis. Many school districts do not offer Earth and Space Science, or are using the course as a contingency for students who fail core science subjects. The State Board for Educator Certification eliminated Texas' secondary earth science teacher certification in 2009, following the adoption of the new Earth and Space Science standards. This makes teachers with a composite teacher certification (biology, physics and chemistry) eligible to teach Earth and Space Science, as well other earth science courses (e.g., Aquatic Science, Environmental Systems/Science) even if they lack earth science content knowledge. Teaching materials recently adopted by the State Board of Education do not include Earth and Space Science resources. In July 2011 following significant budget cuts at the 20 Education Service Centers across Texas, the Texas Education Agency eliminated key staff positions in its curriculum division, including science. This "perfect storm" has created a unique opportunity for a university-based approach to confront the crisis in earth science education in Texas which the Diversity and Innovation in the Geosciences (DIG) TEXAS alliance aims to fulfill. Led by the Texas A&M University College of Geosciences and The University of Texas Jackson School of Geosciences, with

  4. A Brief Look at What Economists Are Saying about the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    This essay canvasses selected studies undertaken by economists on the community college. Key authors and journals are noted, followed by an examination of what economists contribute to our understanding of the community college in terms of costs, price and financial aid, economic and social benefits, and the institution's role in furthering…

  5. The Survey of College Marketing Programs. Volume 2: Print Advertising and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary Research Group, Inc., New York, NY.

    This report presents 213 tables detailing findings regarding types and costs of advertising within marketing programs at 68 colleges and universities. Highlights of this report include the following: these colleges print a mean number of 19,270 viewbooks and 16,380 catalogs; and advertise in newspapers (86.6 percent), in magazines (45.4 percent),…

  6. The Relationship of Student Loan and Credit Card Debt on Financial Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Oscar; Ferguson, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    The cost of higher education at both public and private institutions is increasing and adversely affecting college students (College Board, 2009; Idemudia & Ferguson, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b). Utilizing an institutional dataset called Financial Survey of Students 2006 compiled at one of the largest public universities in the southwestern…

  7. Retrieval of Non-Print Information with Recommendations for Gallaudet College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Fern

    With the purpose of designing a learning center to fit the instructional programs of Gallaudet College, a review of the literature and visits to 20 schools and colleges were made and options considered for the provision of nonprint materials. The costs, advantages, and utility of various nonprint retrieval systems are analyzed, specifically…

  8. Review of a Proposal for a New Community College Center in Vallejo. Report 10-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stacy; Fuller, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a staff review of a proposal by the Solano Community College District to convert its existing facility in Vallejo to a state-approved off-campus educational center of Solano Community College. Educational centers can be a cost-effective means for meeting educational needs of a region through agreements with local high schools,…

  9. Future Leaders Institute: Rising Leaders and the AACC Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Desna L.

    2012-01-01

    The overall mission of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) is "Building a Nation of Learners by Advancing America's Community Colleges." A significant component of this mission statement involves the development of leadership. The AACC believes that leadership can be learned and is committed to supporting and growing leaders. In…

  10. Operations and maintenance costs - Selected observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    The operations and maintenance (O and M) costs associated with nuclear power plants have been rising continuously over the past decade. The Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) has undertaken an examination of this issue to determine what components of O and M costs are driven by regulatory activity. Observers from various perspectives within the nuclear industry have cited staffing, outages, training, and management structure among others as large contributors to O and M costs. NUMARC is currently analyzing utility cost data to isolate the regulatory components for further action

  11. The Rise of IPv6: Benefits and Costs of Transforming Military Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    people, the structure of the Internet is changing for the first time in its history with the ex- haustion of the IP version four ( IPv4 ) protocol and the...have.4 The need to transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is not hy- pothetical since the global supply of IP addresses in IPv4 is quickly be- ing exhausted...Registry (RIR) IPv4 Address Run-Down Model Year RI R Ad dr es s Po ol (/ 8s ) 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5

  12. Managing Food Service Costs and Satisfying Customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Anne; Otto, Ione

    1987-01-01

    Milwaukee Area Technical College, Wisconsin, has four campuses, each with its own food service operation that, combined, serve nearly 3,000 people daily. Several food service-related programs are part of the curriculum. Cost containment and customer satisfaction are the two overriding goals of the food service programs. (MLF)

  13. Collaborating to Cut Costs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Tuition prices at colleges and universities are high. It is also true that salaries and benefits are the single biggest chunk of every higher education institution's (HEI) budget. And one of the largest and most difficult costs to contain is group employee health insurance. The situation is particularly difficult for smaller New England HEIs…

  14. Community colleges and economic mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia A. Kolesnikova

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of community colleges in the U.S. higher education system and their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, it discusses the population of community college students and economic returns to community college education for various demographic groups. It offers new evidence on the returns to an associate's degree. Furthermore, the paper uses data from the National Survey of College Graduates to compare educational objectives, progress, and labor market outcomes ...

  15. An evaluation of service use outcomes in a Recovery College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Philippa; Meddings, Sara; Whittington, Adrian

    2017-12-23

    Recovery Colleges offer educational courses about recovery and mental health which are co-produced by mental health professionals and experts by lived experience. Previous evaluations have found positive effects of Recovery Colleges on a range of outcomes including wellbeing, recovery and quality of life. To evaluate service use outcomes for Sussex Recovery College students who use mental health services. The study used a controlled-before-and-after design. It used archival data to analyse service use before and after participants registered with the Recovery College (n = 463). Participants acted as their own control. Students used mental health services less after attending the Recovery College than before. Students who attended the Recovery College showed significant reductions in occupied hospital bed days, admissions, admissions under section and community contacts in the 18 months post compared with the 18 months before registering. Reductions in service use were greater for those who completed a course than those who registered but did not complete a course. These findings suggest that attending Recovery College courses is associated with reduced service use. The reductions equate to non-cashable cost-savings of £1200 per registered student and £1760 for students who completed a course. Further research is needed to investigate causality.

  16. Largest College Endowments, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Of all endowments valued at more than $250-million, the UCLA Foundation had the highest rate of growth over the previous year, at 49 percent. This article presents a table of the largest college endowments in 2011. The table covers the "rank," "institution," "market value as of June 30, 2011," and "1-year change" of institutions participating in…

  17. College Algebra I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Carl; And Others

    Presented are student performance objectives, a student progress chart, and assignment sheets with objective and diagnostic measures for the stated performance objectives in College Algebra I. Topics covered include: sets; vocabulary; linear equations; inequalities; real numbers; operations; factoring; fractions; formulas; ratio, proportion, and…

  18. Colleges and Cable Franchising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Neal D.

    After noting issues of audience appeal and financial and philosophical support for educational broadcasting, this paper urges community colleges to play an active role in the process of cable franchising. The paper first describes a cable franchise as a contract between a government unit and the cable television (CATV) company which specifies what…

  19. Inside the College Presidency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Record, 1996

    1996-01-01

    In interview, president of the American Council on Education, Robert H. Atwell, offers his perspectives on the current state of the college presidency; its pressures, rewards, and frustrations; and what he'd like to see administrators do differently. Qualities of an effective president include high energy, tolerance for ambiguity, good listening…

  20. Perspectives on Multiunit Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeier, Joseph G.

    1976-01-01

    Research shows that neither centralization nor decentralization of decision-making authority in multiunit community colleges is a primary determinant of organizational effectiveness; rather it is the degree of participation in decision-making by staff members at all hierarchical levels. (BB)

  1. Gamers Go to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Craig; Bouman, Penny

    2006-01-01

    This book was written both to examine and reveal the Gamer generation as a popular culture trend that has been two plus decades in the making and shaping. And, it is a generation that is now entering college--Gen G. This book explores how the Gamer generation is less a subset of the Millennial generation, but rather a unique generation unto…

  2. Sea Level Rise Impacts on Wastewater Treatment Systems Along the U.S. Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle A.; Berry, Matthew S.; Stacey, Mark T.

    2018-04-01

    As sea levels rise, coastal communities will experience more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding, and some low-lying areas may be permanently inundated. Critical components of lifeline infrastructure networks in these areas are also at risk of flooding, which could cause significant service disruptions that extend beyond the flooded zone. Thus, identifying critical infrastructure components that are exposed to sea level rise is an important first step in developing targeted investment in protective actions and enhancing the overall resilience of coastal communities. Wastewater treatment plants are typically located at low elevations near the coastline to minimize the cost of collecting consumed water and discharging treated effluent, which makes them particularly susceptible to coastal flooding. For this analysis, we used geographic information systems to assess the exposure of wastewater infrastructure to various sea level rise projections at the national level. We then estimated the number of people who would lose wastewater services, which could be more than five times as high as previous predictions of the number of people at risk of direct flooding due to sea level rise. We also performed a regional comparison of wastewater exposure to marine and groundwater flooding in the San Francisco Bay Area. Overall, this analysis highlights the widespread exposure of wastewater infrastructure in the United States and demonstrates that local disruptions to infrastructure networks may have far-ranging impacts on areas that do not experience direct flooding.

  3. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolobova Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  4. Sea level rise impacts on wastewater treatment systems along the U.S. coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, M.; Berry, M.; Stacey, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    As sea levels rise, coastal communities will experience more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding, and some low-lying areas may be permanently inundated. Critical components of lifeline infrastructure networks in these areas are also at risk of flooding, which could cause significant service disruptions that extend beyond the flooded zone. Thus, identifying critical infrastructure components that are vulnerable to sea level rise is an important first step in developing targeted investment in protective actions and enhancing the overall resilience of coastal communities. Wastewater treatment plants are typically located at low elevations near the coastline to minimize the cost of collecting consumed water and discharging treated effluent, which makes them particularly susceptible to coastal flooding. For this analysis, we used geographic information systems to assess the vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure to various sea level rise projections at the national level. We then estimated the number of people who would lose wastewater services, which could be more than three times as high as previous predictions of the number of people at risk of direct flooding due to sea level rise. We also considered several case studies of wastewater infrastructure in mid-sized cities to determine how topography and system configuration (centralized versus distributed) impact vulnerability. Overall, this analysis highlights the widespread vulnerability of wastewater infrastructure in the U.S. and demonstrates that local disruptions to infrastructure networks may have far-ranging impacts on areas that do not experience direct flooding.

  5. SPS Injection and Beam Quality for LHC Heavy Ions With 150 ns Kicker Rise Time

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Brennan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kotzian, Gerd; Uythoven, Jan; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHC heavy ions, the SPS injection kicker system rise time needs reduction below its present 225 ns. One technically challenging option under consideration is the addition of fast Pulse Forming Lines in parallel to the existing Pulse Forming Networks for the 12 kicker magnets MKP-S, targeting a system field rise time of 100 ns. An alternative option is to optimise the system to approach the existing individual magnet field rise time (2-98%) of 150 ns. This would still significantly increase the number of colliding bunches in LHC while minimising the cost and effort of the system upgrade. The observed characteristics of the present system are described, compared to the expected system rise time, together with results of simulations and measurements with 175 and 150 ns injection batch spacing. The expected beam quality at injection into LHC is quantified, with the emittance growth and simulated tail population taking into account expected jitter and synchronisatio...

  6. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  7. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  8. Symposium: What Is College English?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Lynn Z.; White, Edward M.; Enoch, Jessica; Hawk, Byron

    2013-01-01

    This symposium explores the role(s) College English has (or has not) had in the scholarly work of four scholars. Lynn Bloom explores the many ways College English influenced her work and the work of others throughout their scholarly lives. Edward M. White examines four articles he has published in College English and draws connections between…

  9. Community College Employee Wellness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…

  10. Social Media Go to College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alemán, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    Technology's march into the college classroom continues. Generations of college and university faculty have both embraced and resisted instructional technologies such as the book, the mimeograph, the overhead projector, and hand-held calculators. Now college and university faculty are greeting the 21st century's signature…

  11. What Is a College For?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Bette

    1978-01-01

    Argues that open enrollment policies have debased the community college and led to an abandonment of merit, standards, and competency. Suggests their new mission be to serve only those adults who qualify and can benefit from college-level work, abandoning those vocational, remedial, and recreational responsibilities which community colleges have…

  12. Tenure and America's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria, Frank

    2012-01-01

    America's colleges and universities have been moving slowly but steadily away from tenure over the past decade. The American Federation of Teachers reports that community colleges have seen a 22% increase in the number of instructional staff between 1997 and 2007. During that time, the percentage of community college faculty that were full-time…

  13. Fitness cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karen L.; Pedersen, Thomas M.; Udekwu, Klas I.

    2012-01-01

    phage types, predominantly only penicillin resistant. We investigated whether isolates of this epidemic were associated with a fitness cost, and we employed a mathematical model to ask whether these fitness costs could have led to the observed reduction in frequency. Bacteraemia isolates of S. aureus...... from Denmark have been stored since 1957. We chose 40 S. aureus isolates belonging to phage complex 83A, clonal complex 8 based on spa type, ranging in time of isolation from 1957 to 1980 and with varyous antibiograms, including both methicillin-resistant and -susceptible isolates. The relative fitness...... of each isolate was determined in a growth competition assay with a reference isolate. Significant fitness costs of 215 were determined for the MRSA isolates studied. There was a significant negative correlation between number of antibiotic resistances and relative fitness. Multiple regression analysis...

  14. (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing)

    OpenAIRE

    Çakıcı, Cemal

    2006-01-01

    (Super Variable Costing-Throughput Costing) The aim of this study is to explain the super-variable costing method which is a new subject in cost and management accounting and to show it’s working practicly.Shortly, super-variable costing can be defined as a costing method which is use only direct material costs in calculate of product costs and treats all costs except these (direct labor and overhead) as periad costs or operating costs.By using super-variable costing method, product costs ar...

  15. The Fiscal Impacts of College Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostel, Philip A.

    2010-01-01

    This study quantifies one part of the return to U.S. public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates pay much more taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also much less for college graduates than for those without a college education.…

  16. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  17. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  18. The rise and fall of V4334 Sagittarii (Sakurai's object)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerbeck, HW; Liller, W; Sterken, C; Benetti, S; van Genderen, AM; Arts, J; Kurk, JD; Janson, M; Voskes, T; Brogt, E; Arentoft, T; Dijkstra, R

    CCD UBVRi photometry of the final helium flash object V4334 Sgr (Sakurai's object) carried out during 1997-1999 is presented, and the light curve from its prediscovery rise to the dust obscuration phase is constructed. The optical light curve can be divided into four sections, the rise to maximum,

  19. Mechanism of rising cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtejn, S.S.; Logunov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of sea constituents with each other and valence quarks, occurring in high-energy hadron collisions, is shown to explain the experimentally observed law for the rise of total cross sections, as well as the energy value at which this rise starts and the difference in these energy values for πN, KN and NN(N-barN) reactions

  20. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  1. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  2. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotukhin Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state, and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced, made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  3. Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oikonomou

    Full Text Available Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering.This 'quantitative model' makes predictions for the effect of locking cyclin at fixed levels for a protracted period: at low cyclin levels, early events should occur rapidly, while late events should be slow, defective, or highly variable (depending on threshold mechanism. We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. These events require increasingly more Clb2 according to their normal order of occurrence. Events occur efficiently and with low variability at fixed Clb2 levels similar to those observed when the events normally occur. A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. Moderate (<2-fold overexpression of Clb2 accelerates all events of mitosis, resulting in consistently rapid sequential cell cycles. However, this moderate overexpression also causes a significant frequency of premature mitoses leading to inviability, suggesting that Clb2 expression level is optimized to balance the fitness costs of variability and catastrophe.We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological processes a graded input must be translated into discrete outputs. In such systems, expression of the central regulator is likely to be tuned to an optimum level, as we

  4. Rising prevalence of back pain in Austria: considering regional disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal conditions and leads to high health care costs. Information about geographic variations in highly prevalent diseases/disorders represents important implications for public health planning to face structural challenges. The present study aims to investigate regional trends in the prevalence of back pain and the role of obesity and social inequalities among Austrian adults. A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1973-2007) was carried out (N = 178,818). Back pain was measured as self-reported presence. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) was adjusted for self-report bias. For the regional analyses, Austria was divided into Western, Central and Eastern Austria. A relative index of inequality (RII) was computed to quantify the extent of social inequality. A continuous rise in back pain prevalence was observed in the three regions and among all investigated subgroups. In 2007 the age-standardised prevalence was similar in Central (36.9 %), Western (35.2 %) and Eastern Austria (34.3 %). The absolute change in back pain prevalence was highest among obese subjects in Central Austria (women: + 29.8 %, men: + 32.5 %). RIIs were unstable during the study period and in 2007 highest in Eastern Austria. Variation and trends in back pain are not attributable to geographic variation in Austria: an assumed East-West gradient in Austria has not been confirmed. Nevertheless our study confirms that back pain dramatically increased in all Austrian regions and investigated subgroups. This worrying trend should be further monitored and public health interventions should be implemented increasingly, especially among obese women and men.

  5. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  6. The advisability of high-rise construction in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergievskaya, Natalia; Pokrovskaya, Tatyana; Vorontsova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    In this article there discusses the question of advisability high-rise construction, the reasons for its use, both positive and negative sides of it. On the one hand, a number of authors believe that it is difficult to avoid high-rise construction due to the limited areas in very large cities. On the other hand, a number of other authors draw attention to the problems associated with high-rise construction. The author of the article analyses examples of high-rise construction in several countries (UAE, Dubai "Burj Khalifa"; Japan "Tokyo Sky Tree"; United States of America, "Willis Tower"; Russia "Federation Tower") and proves the advisability of high-rise construction in the city.

  7. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  8. The rise of sea level. To understand and to anticipate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    By proposing and briefly commenting graphs and drawings, this publication propose brief presentations of the main issues related to sea level rise: global warming and climate disturbance, description of the phenomenon of sea level rise (difference between sea ice and ground ice, melting of glaciers), increase of sea level rise during the twentieth century, territories at risk (examples of Greenland, Tuvalu, Shanghai), acceleration of ice melting during the twenty first century with many coastal areas at risk, already noticed and possible future impacts in France (glaciers runoff, threatened coasts, example of the Xynthia tempest), how to be united and to anticipate (a threat for millions of people, adaptation to sea level rise, limitation of global warming to limit sea level rise)

  9. In-House vs. Franchise College Food Services and Bookstores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumph, W. J.

    In determining whether colleges or universities should operate their own food services or bookstores or lease them to contract operators, school business officers should consider a number of factors. These include whether sales volume is sufficiently large to cover direct operating costs and overhead; inventory investment; appearance, service, and…

  10. Zero Base Budgeting: A New Planning Tool for New Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Willie D.

    Zero-base budgeting is presented as the functional alternative to the community college funding crisis which may be precipitated by passage in June 1978 of the Jarvis Amendment (Proposition 13) in California. Defined as the management of scarce resources on a cost/benefit basis to achieve pre-determined goals, zero-base budgeting emphasizes…

  11. PROCEDURE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF COMMUNITY JUNIOR COLLEGES IN ARKANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Commission on Coordination of Higher Educational Finance, Little Rock.

    CRITERIA FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS IN ARKANSAS INCLUDE (1) A PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF AT LEAST 300 FULL TIME EQUIVALENT STUDENTS IN THE THIRD YEAR OF OPERATION, (2) ASSESSED VALUATION ADEQUATE TO PROVIDE FROM LOCAL PROPERTY TAXES ONE-THIRD OF THE ANNUAL OPERATING COST AND THE TOTAL DEBT SERVICE REQUIREMENTS FOR CAPITAL OUTLAY,…

  12. Desktop Publishing: Its Impact on Community College Journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz-Gray, John; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates the kinds of copy that can be created on Apple Macintosh computers and laser printers. Shows font and type specification options. Discusses desktop publishing costs, potential problems, and computer compatibility. Considers the use of computers in college journalism in production, graphics, accounting, advertising, and promotion. (AYC)

  13. Hopes & Hurdles: California Foster Youth and College Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Deborah Frankle; Szabo-Kubitz, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This report examines why former foster youth in California are not receiving the aid they are likely eligible for, from inadequate or poorly targeted information about college costs and financial aid to structural obstacles within the aid process and programs. While many of this report's findings and recommendations are specific to foster youth,…

  14. Male College Student Perceptions of Intercultural and Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirolf, Kathryn Q.

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to understand why men participate in study abroad at much lower rates than women, this study examines how male college students at a large research university perceive a university-run global education program, especially in terms of the expected costs and benefits of participating in such programs, and the extent to which gender…

  15. Playoffs & Payoffs: The College Football-Coaching Carousel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer Lee

    2015-01-01

    The circulation of head football coaches is a well-established practice, and with it, salary costs are significantly outpacing other spending as institutions compete in the pursuit of prestige. This movement of college football coaches is known in the popular press as the "coaching carousel." The carousel is a fitting metaphor for a…

  16. Evaluation of a Community College Technical Program by Local Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinser, Richard W.

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 11 of 17 plastics employers showed a low level of satisfaction with community college plastics courses. Focus groups of 10 plastics students indicated satisfaction with course costs and locations. Courses focused on associate degree requirements and articulation, whereas employers were interested in focused training for jobs and…

  17. Three Colleges' Different Approaches Shape Learning in Econ 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrett, Dan

    2013-01-01

    No matter the college, a class in the principles of microeconomics is likely to cover the discipline's greatest hits. Opportunity cost? Check. Supply and demand? Ditto. The same goes for such topics as comparative advantage, elasticity, and market structures. But these touchstones of the curriculum may only modestly influence what a student…

  18. Ubiquitous Computing: The Universal Use of Computers on College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David G., Ed.

    This book is a collection of vignettes from 13 universities where everyone on campus has his or her own computer. These 13 institutions have instituted "ubiquitous computing" in very different ways at very different costs. The chapters are: (1) "Introduction: The Ubiquitous Computing Movement" (David G. Brown); (2) "Dartmouth College" (Malcolm…

  19. The Case for Implementing the Levels of Prevention Model: Opiate Abuse on American College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels-Witt, Quri; Thompson, Amy; Glassman, Tavis; Federman, Sara; Bott, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Opiate abuse in the United States is on the rise among the college student population. This public health crisis requires immediate action from professionals and stakeholders who are committed to addressing the needs of prospective, current, and recovering opiate users using comprehensive prevention methods. Such approaches have been used to…

  20. Exploring a Customer Orientation: Free-Market Logic and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a synthesis of literature on the conceptualization of students as customers and connects the rise of this understanding of students to the expansion of free-market logic into higher education. It details the ways in which the customer orientation appears to be incongruent with the educational lives of college students, and…

  1. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  2. Electronic Cigarette Use among College Students: Links to Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Smoking, and Heavy Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Andrew K.; Gottlieb, Joshua C.; Cohen, Lee M.; Trotter, David R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use continues to rise, and current data regarding use of e-cigarettes among college students are needed. The purpose of this study was to examine e-cigarette use and the relation of such use with gender, race/ethnicity, traditional tobacco use, and heavy drinking. Participants and Methods: A sample of…

  3. "Betwixt Brewings": A History of College Students and Alcohol, 1820-1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevel, Michael Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a history of white college students' relationship with alcohol between 1820 and 1933. The years that frame this study represent a long crisis regarding alcohol in the United States. A dramatic rise in alcohol consumption began around 1800, the negative consequences of which led growing numbers of Americans, for the first…

  4. Advanced Placement Math and Science Courses: Influential Factors and Predictors for Success in College STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Cynthia Colon

    2010-01-01

    President Obama has recently raised awareness on the need for our nation to grow a larger pool of students with knowledge in science mathematics, engineering, and technology (STEM). Currently, while the number of women pursuing college degrees continues to rise, there remains an under-representation of women in STEM majors across the country.…

  5. Competition, Anxiety, and Depression in the College Classroom: Variations by Student Identity and Field of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, Julie R.; Lipson, Sarah Ketchen

    2016-01-01

    In light of rising academic stress and an increase in diagnosed mental illnesses among adolescents and young adults, this article offers the first comprehensive analysis of relationships between perceived competition and depression/anxiety among college students. Analyses were conducted by using clinically validated instruments for depression and…

  6. Messengers of Bad News or Bad Apples? Student Debt and College Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Student loan debt and defaults have been steadily rising, igniting public worry about the associated public and private risks. This has led to controversial regulatory attempts to curb defaults by holding colleges, particularly those in the for-profit sector, increasingly accountable for the student loan repayment behavior of their students. Such…

  7. The Construction of Teaching Model on College English Writing from the Perspective of Cognitive Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjuan, Hao; Rui, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is a spiral rising process. A complete teaching should be composed of five parts: theoretical basis, goal orientation, operating procedures, implementation conditions and assessment. On the basis of the genre knowledge, content-based approach and process approach, this text constructs the Teaching Model of College Writing Instruction, in…

  8. How risky is college investment?

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Lutz; Leukhina, Oksana

    2015-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the fact that nearly half of U.S. college students drop out without earning a bachelor’s degree. Its objective is to quantify how much uncertainty college entrants face about their graduation outcomes. To do so, we develop a quantitative model of college choice. The innovation is to model in detail how students progress towards a college degree. The model is calibrated using transcript and financial data. We find that more than half of college entrants can predict...

  9. Navigating a Path to the Entrepreneurial Community College: Strategies for Transformational Change in Organizational Culture, Presidential Competencies, and New Business Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Susanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges increasingly face the need to engage in entrepreneurial activities to fill funding gaps created by reduced state funding and increased operational costs. The research attention given to four-year universities and colleges has not been paid to find solutions for the external challenges that community colleges face with funding…

  10. Linking Costs and Postsecondary Degrees: Key Issues for Policymakers. Working Paper 2011-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nate

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author offers practical advice for decision-makers who are struggling to rein in college costs while improving productivity. He provides a step-by-step guide to different approaches for calculating costs, highlights the tremendous variability in cost across programs within institutions, and documents some of the "hidden costs" of…

  11. Lowering Business Education Cost with a Custom Professor-Written Online Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Eveleth, Lori Jo; Miller, Jon Robert; Tucker, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Inflation-adjusted tuition and fees in education have risen for decades. College textbook costs have risen as well. The authors discuss reasons for higher textbook costs. The development and use of encyclopedic introductory textbooks creates higher monetary cost for students and higher nonmonetary cost for students and teachers, from increased…

  12. Tidal extension and sea-level rise: recommendations for a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensign, Scott H.; Noe, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Sea-level rise is pushing freshwater tides upstream into formerly non-tidal rivers. This tidal extension may increase the area of tidal freshwater ecosystems and offset loss of ecosystem functions due to salinization downstream. Without considering how gains in ecosystem functions could offset losses, landscape-scale assessments of ecosystem functions may be biased toward worst-case scenarios of loss. To stimulate research on this concept, we address three fundamental questions about tidal extension: Where will tidal extension be most evident, and can we measure it? What ecosystem functions are influenced by tidal extension, and how can we measure them? How do watershed processes, climate change, and tidal extension interact to affect ecosystem functions? Our preliminary answers lead to recommendations that will advance tidal extension research, enable better predictions of the impacts of sea-level rise, and help balance the landscape-scale benefits of ecosystem function with costs of response.

  13. A global standard for monitoring coastal wetland vulnerability to accelerated sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Edward L.; Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Phelps, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Sea-level rise threatens coastal salt-marshes and mangrove forests around the world, and a key determinant of coastal wetland vulnerability is whether its surface elevation can keep pace with rising sea level. Globally, a large data gap exists because wetland surface and shallow subsurface processes remain unaccounted for by traditional vulnerability assessments using tide gauges. Moreover, those processes vary substantially across wetlands, so modelling platforms require relevant local data. The low-cost, simple, high-precision rod surface-elevation table–marker horizon (RSET-MH) method fills this critical data gap, can be paired with spatial data sets and modelling and is financially and technically accessible to every country with coastal wetlands. Yet, RSET deployment has been limited to a few regions and purposes. A coordinated expansion of monitoring efforts, including development of regional networks that could support data sharing and collaboration, is crucial to adequately inform coastal climate change adaptation policy at several scales.

  14. The Climate Science Special Report: Rising Seas and Changing Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    GMSL has risen by about 16-21 cm since 1900. Ocean heat content has increased at all depths since the 1960s, and global mean sea-surface temperature increased 0.7°C/century between 1900 to 2016. Human activity contributed substantially to generating a rate of GMSL rise since 1900 faster than during any preceding century in at least 2800 years. A new set of six sea-level rise scenarios, spanning a range from 30 cm to 250 cm of 21st century GMSL rise, were developed for the CSSR. The lower scenario is based on linearly extrapolating the past two decades' rate of rise. The upper scenario is informed by literature estimates of maximum physically plausible values, observations indicating the onset of marine ice sheet instability in parts of West Antarctica, and modeling of ice-cliff and ice-shelf instability mechanisms. The new scenarios include localized projections along US coastlines. There is significant variability around the US, with rates of rise likely greater than GMSL rise in the US Northeast and the western Gulf of Mexico. Under scenarios involving extreme Antarctic contributions, regional rise would be greater than GMSL rise along almost all US coastlines. Historical sea-level rise has already driven a 5- to 10-fold increase in minor tidal flooding in several US coastal cities since the 1960s. Under the CSSR's Intermediate sea-level rise scenario (1.0 m of GMSL rise in 2100) , a majority of NOAA tide gauge locations will by 2040 experience the historical 5-year coastal flood about 5 times per year. Ocean changes are not limited to rising sea levels. Ocean pH is decreasing at a rate that may be unparalleled in the last 66 million years. Along coastlines, ocean acidification can be enhanced by changes in the upwelling (particularly along the US Pacific Coast); by episodic, climate change-enhanced increases in freshwater input (particularly along the US Atlantic Coast); and by the enhancement of biological respiration by nutrient runoff. Climate models project

  15. Automation of Acquisitions at Parkland College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth C. Carter

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of the automation of acquisitions functions at Parkland College. This system, utilizing batch processing, demonstrates that small libraries can develop and support large-scale automated systems at a reasonable cost. In operation since September 1971, it provides machine-generated purchase orders, multiple order cards, budget statements, overdue notices to vendors, and many cataloging by-products. The entire collection, print and nonprint, of the Learning Resource Center is being accumulated gradually into a machine-readable data base.

  16. Sea Level Rise in the 21st Century: Will projections ever become reliable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, J. K.

    2014-12-01

    Global sea level rise has the potential to become one of the most costly and least well predicted impacts of human caused climate change. Unlike global surface temperature, the spread of possible scenarios (as little as 1 foot and as much as 6 feet by 2100) is not due to uncertainty about future rates of greenhouse gas emissions, but rather by a fundamental lack of knowledge about how the major ice sheets will behave in a warming climate. Clearly improved projections of sea level rise should become a major research priority in the next decade. At present, controversial techniques based on comparison with historical analogs and rates of recent warming and sea level rise are often used to create projections for the 21st Century. However, many in the scientific community feel that reliable projections must be based on a sound knowledge of the physics governing sea level rise, and particularly ice sheet behavior. In particular, large portions of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and parts of the Greenland Ice Sheet rest on solid earth that sits below sea level. These regions may be threatened, not by atmospheric warming or changes in precipitation, but rather by direct forcing from the ocean. Fledgling efforts to understand these ocean ice interactions are already underway, as are efforts to make improved models of ice sheet behavior. However a great deal of work is still needed before widely accepted projections of sea level rise become a reality. This paper will highlight the hurdles to making such projections today and suggest ways forward in this critical area of research.

  17. A policy hackathon for analysing impacts and solutions up to 20 metres sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Bouwer, Laurens; Kwadijk, Jaap

    2017-04-01

    We organised a policy hackathon in order to quantify the impacts accelerated and high-end sea-level rise up to 20 metres on the coast of the Netherlands, and develop possible solutions. This was done during one day, with 20 experts that had a wide variety of disciplines, including hydrology, geology, coastal engineering, economics, and public policy. During the process the problem was divided up into several sub-sets of issues that were analysed and solved within small teams of between 4 to 8 people. Both a top-down impact analysis and bottom-up vulnerability analysis was done by answering the questions: What is the impact of sea level rise of x meter?; and How much sea level rise can be accommodated with before transformative actions are needed? Next, adaptation tipping points were identified that describe conditions under which the coastal system starts to perform unacceptably. Reasons for an adaptation tipping point can be technical (technically not possible), economic (cost-benefits are negative), or resources (available space, sand, energy production, financial). The results are presented in a summary document, and through an infographic displaying different adaptation tipping points and milestones that occur when the sea level rises up to 20 m. No technical limitations were found for adaptation, but many important decisions need to be taken. Although accelerated sea level rise seems far away it can have important consequences for short-term decisions that are required for transformative actions. Such extensive actions require more time for implementation. Also, other action may become ineffective before their design life. This hackathon exercise shows that it is possible to map within a short time frame the issues at hand, as well as potentially effective solutions. This can be replicated for other problems, and can be useful for several decision-makers that require quick but in-depth analysis of their long-term planning problems.

  18. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  19. Interracial Friendships in College

    OpenAIRE

    Braz Camargo; Ralph Stinebrickner; Todd Stinebrickner

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the reality that the benefits of diversity on a college campus will be mitigated if interracial interactions are scarce or superficial, previous work has strived to document the amount of interracial friendship interaction and to examine whether policy can influence this amount. In this paper we take advantage of unique longitudinal data from the Berea Panel Study to build on this previous literature by providing direct evidence about the amount of interracial friendships at diff...

  20. The Healthy College Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Adams O’Connell PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the impact of health behaviors on morbidity often focus on the limited impact of a single behavior or a limited group of behaviors. In this study, we examine college student behaviors and investigate the link of these behaviors with a 2-week illness profile. Through self-reported surveys, we measure acute illness and a general illness burden, a cumulative measure of major and minor ailments. We explore how daily routines correlate with these illness measures. Eighty-four students from a random sample of 90 students attending a small liberal arts school completed the survey for a response rate of 93%. Living arrangements, exercise, sleep patterns, eating preferences and habits, and “social” behaviors were all significantly associated with illness burden. Students living in “singles” and those who got regular exercise and an average of 7 hr of sleep per night reported less illness. Most interesting is the effect of social behaviors. Students who greet others with a handshake reported higher illness rates, as did students who share food and/or drinks. While we can conceptualize why these behaviors would lead to a greater illness burden, students who engaged more frequently in these behaviors also reported being “happier.” In trying to reduce illness among college students, we might suggest less handshaking and food and beverage sharing, but these actions are ways in which college students express and maintain friendships. College administrators are challenged to discover ways to reduce illness while maintaining the positive aspects of local student culture. This study begins to explore some ways to balance health and camaraderie.

  1. Cost restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the cost restructuring of the petroleum industry. This current decade is likely to be one of the most challenging for the petroleum industry. Though petroleum remains among the world's biggest businesses, news of consolidations, restructuring, and layoffs permeates the oil patch from the Gulf of Mexico to the Arctic Isles. The recessionary economy has accelerated these changes, particularly in the upstream sector. Today, even the best-managed companies are transforming their cost structures, and companies that fail to do likewise probably won't survive as independent companies. Indeed, significant consolidation took place during the 1980s. More consolidations can be expected in this decade for companies that do not adapt to the economic realities of the mature business

  2. Classification of High-Rise Residential Building Facilities: A Descriptive Survey on 170 Housing Scheme in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Wahab Siti Rashidah Hanum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. There are several common facilities provided in high-rise residential building. For example playground, swimming pool, gymnasium, 24 hours security system such as CCTV, access card and so on. Thus, maintenance works of the common facilities must be well organised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the classification of facilities provided at high rise residential building. The survey was done on 170 high-rise residential schemes by using stratified random sampling technique. The scope of this research is within Klang Valley area. This area is rapidly developed with high-rise residential building. The objective of this survey is to list down all the facilities provided in each sample of the schemes. The result, there are nine classification of facilities provided for high-rise residential building.

  3. Basic surgical skills course - Why is it so costly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waduud, Mohammed Abdul; Ahmed, Nadeem

    2015-06-01

    •Courses can be expensive and are often criticised for the transparency of associated costs.•It is important to appreciate the organisational costs of running high quality courses.•The three Royal Colleges in the UK do not use courses as profit making vehicles.

  4. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  5. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  6. Leasing instruments of high-rise construction financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga; Ivleva, Elena; Sukhacheva, Viktoria; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The leasing sector of the business economics is expanding. Leasing instruments for high-rise construction financing allow to determine the best business behaviour in the leasing economy sector, not only in the sphere of transactions with equipment and vehicles. Investments in high-rise construction have a multiplicative effect. It initiates an active search and leasing instruments use in the economic behaviour of construction organizations. The study of the high-rise construction sector in the structure of the leasing market participants significantly expands the leasing system framework. The scheme of internal and external leasing process factors influence on the result formation in the leasing sector of economy is offered.

  7. Classification of High-Rise Residential Building Facilities: A Descriptive Survey on 170 Housing Scheme in Klang Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Wahab Siti Rashidah Hanum; Che Ani Adi Irfan; Sairi Ahmad; Mohd Tawil Norngainy; Abd Razak Mohd Zulhanif

    2016-01-01

    High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. There are several common facilities provided in high-rise residential building. For example playground, swimming pool, gymnasium, 24 hours security system such as CCTV, access card and so on. Thus, maintenance works of the common facilities must be well organised. The purpose of this paper ...

  8. Measuring Direct Teaching Costs: Does an Undergraduate Business Degree Cost More to Produce than a Nonbusiness Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis

    2016-01-01

    Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…

  9. Conceptions of a Good College Student, Parent-Student Communication About College, First-Year Grades, and College Retention Among First- and Non-First-Generation College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Palbusa, Julienne Marie Alipio

    2016-01-01

    This study examined conceptions of a good college student, parent-student communication about college, academic achievement, college student retention, and college generation status among first-year college students. 344 undergraduates described the characteristics and skills of a good college student. In addition, they reported the frequency, perceived helpfulness, and quality (instrumental and emotional support) of parent-student communication about college. Student GPA and second year rete...

  10. The fiscal impacts of college attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Philip A. Trostel

    2007-01-01

    This study quantifies one important part of the economic return to public investment in college education, namely, the fiscal benefits associated with greater college attainment. College graduates generally pay much more in taxes than those not going to college. Government expenditures are also generally much less for college graduates than for those without a college education. Indeed, over an average lifetime, total government spending per college degree is negative. That is, direct savings...

  11. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  12. Economic efficiency of application of innovative materials and structures in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golov, Roman; Dikareva, Varvara; Gorshkov, Roman; Agarkov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technical and economic efficiency of application of tube confined concrete structures in high-rise construction. The study of comparative costs of materials with the use of different supporting columns was carried out. The main design, operational, technological and economic advantages of the tube confined concrete technology were evaluated, conclusions were drawn about the high strength and deformation properties of axial compression of steel tubes filled with high-strength concrete. The efficiency of the tube confined concrete use is substantiated, which depends mainly on the scale factor and percentage of reinforcement affecting its load-bearing capacity.

  13. Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershner SD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelley D Hershner, Ronald D ChervinDepartment of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation, and irregular sleep schedules are highly prevalent among college students, as 50% report daytime sleepiness and 70% attain insufficient sleep. The consequences of sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness are especially problematic to college students and can result in lower grade point averages, increased risk of academic failure, compromised learning, impaired mood, and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. This article reviews the current prevalence of sleepiness and sleep deprivation among college students, contributing factors for sleep deprivation, and the role of sleep in learning and memory. The impact of sleep and sleep disorders on academics, grade point average, driving, and mood will be examined. Most importantly, effective and viable interventions to decrease sleepiness and sleep deprivation through sleep education classes, online programs, encouragement of naps, and adjustment of class time will be reviewed. This paper highlights that addressing sleep issues, which are not often considered as a risk factor for depression and academic failure, should be encouraged. Promotion of university and college policies and class schedules that encourage healthy and adequate sleep could have a significant impact on the sleep, learning, and health of college students. Future research to investigate effective and feasible interventions, which disseminate both sleep knowledge and encouragement of healthy sleep habits to college students in a time and cost effective manner, is a priority.Keywords: grade point average, GPA, sleep deprivation, academic performance, adolescence, sleep education programs

  14. Causes and consequences of sleepiness among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershner, Shelley D; Chervin, Ronald D

    2014-01-01

    Daytime sleepiness, sleep deprivation, and irregular sleep schedules are highly prevalent among college students, as 50% report daytime sleepiness and 70% attain insufficient sleep. The consequences of sleep deprivation and daytime sleepiness are especially problematic to college students and can result in lower grade point averages, increased risk of academic failure, compromised learning, impaired mood, and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. This article reviews the current prevalence of sleepiness and sleep deprivation among college students, contributing factors for sleep deprivation, and the role of sleep in learning and memory. The impact of sleep and sleep disorders on academics, grade point average, driving, and mood will be examined. Most importantly, effective and viable interventions to decrease sleepiness and sleep deprivation through sleep education classes, online programs, encouragement of naps, and adjustment of class time will be reviewed. This paper highlights that addressing sleep issues, which are not often considered as a risk factor for depression and academic failure, should be encouraged. Promotion of university and college policies and class schedules that encourage healthy and adequate sleep could have a significant impact on the sleep, learning, and health of college students. Future research to investigate effective and feasible interventions, which disseminate both sleep knowledge and encouragement of healthy sleep habits to college students in a time and cost effective manner, is a priority.

  15. Application of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyshev, Vyacheslav; Mylnik, Alexey; Pushkareva, Maria; Agakhanov, Murad; Burova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the use of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction for significant acceleration and amplitude of vibrations of the upper floors under dynamic wind influences. The susceptibility of people to accelerations in high-rise buildings and possible means of reducing wind-induced fluctuations in buildings are analyzed. The statistics of application of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction all over the world is presented. The goal of the study is to identify an economically attractive solution that allows the fullest use of the potential of building structures in high-rise construction, abandoning the need to build massive frames leading to over-consumption of materials.

  16. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability? (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  17. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  18. African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  19. Special considerations for testing rising rotating stem MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffa, A.

    1992-01-01

    Rising stem gate and globe valves have one plane of motion: linear. The stem is either pushed or pulled into position. For rising and rotating stems however, there are two planes of motion: linear and rotational. The stem is twisted in addition to being pushed or pulled into position. Typical motor operated valve (MOV) sizing equations account only for the linear requirements of the valve to open or close. Theoretical calculations performed for a two-dimensional system predict that in the running load region, rotational torque requirements far exceed the linear requirements. To validate the theoretical model, torque testing of rising rotating stem valves was preformed, using Liberty Technologies Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES). Theoretical and empirical data have produced a new perspective for operational requirements and a guideline for testing rising rotating stem valves

  20. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...