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Sample records for risc reduced instruction

  1. A study on the effectiveness of lockup-free caches for a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processor

    OpenAIRE

    Tharpe, Leonard.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis presents a simulation and analysis of the Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture and the effects on RISC performance of a lockup-free cache interface. RISC architectures achieve high performance by having a small, but sufficient, instruction set with most instructions executing in one clock cycle. Current RISC performance range from 1.5 to 2.0 CPI. The goal of RISC is to attain a CPI of 1.0. The major hind...

  2. An automated Y-maze based on a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller for the assessment of continuous spontaneous alternation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-López, Francisco J; Álvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Collí-Alfaro, José G; Bata-García, José L; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Góngora-Alfaro, José L

    2016-12-01

    Continuous spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) in a Y-maze is used for evaluating working memory in rodents. Here, the design of an automated Y-maze equipped with three infrared optocouplers per arm, and commanded by a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller is described. The software was devised for recording only true entries and exits to the arms. Experimental settings are programmed via a keyboard with three buttons and a display. The sequence of arm entries and the time spent in each arm and the neutral zone (NZ) are saved as a text file in a non-volatile memory for later transfer to a USB flash memory. Data files are analyzed with a program developed under LabVIEW® environment, and the results are exported to an Excel® spreadsheet file. Variables measured are: latency to exit the starting arm, sequence and number of arm entries, number of alternations, alternation percentage, and cumulative times spent in each arm and NZ. The automated Y-maze accurately detected the SAB decrease produced in rats by the muscarinic antagonist trihexyphenidyl, and its reversal by caffeine, having 100 % concordance with the alternation percentages calculated by two trained observers who independently watched videos of the same experiments. Although the values of time spent in the arms and NZ measured by the automated system had small discrepancies with those calculated by the observers, Bland-Altman analysis showed 95 % concordance in three pairs of comparisons, while in one it was 90 %, indicating that this system is a reliable and inexpensive alternative for the study of continuous SAB in rodents.

  3. Design of the RISC-V Instruction Set Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Andrew Shell

    2016-01-01

    The hardware-software interface, embodied in the instruction set architecture (ISA), is arguably the most important interface in a computer system. Yet, in contrast to nearly all other interfaces in a modern computer system, all commercially popular ISAs are proprietary. A free and open ISA standard has the potential to increase innovation in microprocessor design, reduce computer system cost, and, as Moore’s law wanes, ease the transition to more specialized computational devices.In this d...

  4. A Fault-tolerant RISC Microprocessor for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoc, Constantin; Benz, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on a fault-tolerant RISC microprocessor for spacecraft applications are presented. Topics covered include: reduced instruction set computer; fault tolerant registers; fault tolerant ALU; and double rail CMOS logic.

  5. RISC & DSP System Application Design using VHDL

    OpenAIRE

    Rachana Solanki; Vinay Gupta

    2014-01-01

    The Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processor use fewer instructions with simple constructs, therefore they can be executed much faster within the CPU without having to use memory as often. It reduce execution time by simplifying the instruction set of the computer. The DSP processors are perform the operation such as Discrete Cosine transform (DCT), Inverse DCT, Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) are performed by DSP system. This paper represent the des...

  6. Making RISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-01

    It is well established that 20- to 30-nt small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs, microRNAs and Piwi-interacting RNAs, play crucial roles in regulating gene expression and control a surprisingly diverse array of biological processes. These small RNAs cannot work alone: they must form effector ribonucleoprotein complexes - RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) - to exert their function. Thus, RISC assembly is a key process in small RNA-mediated silencing. Recent biochemical analyses of RISC assembly, together with new structural studies of Argonaute, the core protein component of RISC, suggest a revised view of how mature RISC, which contains single-stranded guide RNA, is built from small RNAs that are born double-stranded. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Combinatorial delivery of small interfering RNAs reduces RNAi efficacy by selective incorporation into RISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanotto, Daniela; Sakurai, Kumi; Lingeman, Robert; Li, Haitang; Shively, Louise; Aagaard, Lars; Soifer, Harris; Gatignol, Anne; Riggs, Arthur; Rossi, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the great potential of RNAi, ectopic expression of shRNA or siRNAs holds the inherent risk of competition for critical RNAi components, thus altering the regulatory functions of some cellular microRNAs. In addition, specific siRNA sequences can potentially hinder incorporation of other siRNAs when used in a combinatorial approach. We show that both synthetic siRNAs and expressed shRNAs compete against each other and with the endogenous microRNAs for transport and for incorporation into the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). The same siRNA sequences do not display competition when expressed from a microRNA backbone. We also show that TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) is one of the sensors for selection and incorporation of the guide sequence of interfering RNAs. These findings reveal that combinatorial siRNA approaches can be problematic and have important implications for the methodology of expression and use of therapeutic interfering RNAs. PMID:17660190

  8. AVR RISC microcontroller handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhnel, Claus

    1998-01-01

    The AVR RISC Microcontroller Handbook is a comprehensive guide to designing with Atmel's new controller family, which is designed to offer high speed and low power consumption at a lower cost. The main text is divided into three sections: hardware, which covers all internal peripherals; software, which covers programming and the instruction set; and tools, which explains using Atmel's Assembler and Simulator (available on the Web) as well as IAR's C compiler.Practical guide for advanced hobbyists or design professionalsDevelopment tools and code available on the Web

  9. A RISC/UNIX workstation second stage trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, W.M.; Amann, J.F.; Fu, S.; Kozlowski, T.; Naivar, F.J.; Oothoudt, M.A.; Shelley, F.

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations have greatly altered the economics of processing power available for experiments. In addition VME interfaces available for many of these workstations make it possible to use them in experiment frontends for filtering and compressing data. Such a second stage trigger has been implemented at LAMPF using a commercially available workstation and VME interface. The implementation is described and measurements of data transfer speeds are presented in this paper

  10. The RISC-V Instruction Set Manual. Volume 1: User-Level ISA, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    RV128I Base Integer Instruction Set 81 18 Calling Convention 83 18.1 C Datatypes and Alignment...FCVT.D.S, are encoded in the OP-FP major opcode space and both the source and destination are floating-point registers. The rs2 field encodes the datatype ...of the source, and the fmt field encodes the datatype of the destination. FCVT.S.D rounds according to the RM field; FCVT.D.S will never round. 31 27

  11. Functional Verification of Enhanced RISC Processor

    OpenAIRE

    SHANKER NILANGI; SOWMYA L

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents design and verification of a 32-bit enhanced RISC processor core having floating point computations integrated within the core, has been designed to reduce the cost and complexity. The designed 3 stage pipelined 32-bit RISC processor is based on the ARM7 processor architecture with single precision floating point multiplier, floating point adder/subtractor for floating point operations and 32 x 32 booths multiplier added to the integer core of ARM7. The binary representati...

  12. Native gel analysis for RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Tomari, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    Small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression of their target mRNAs via the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). A core component of RISC is the Argonaute (Ago) protein, which dictates the RISC function. In Drosophila, miRNAs and siRNAs are generally loaded into Ago1-containing RISC (Ago1-RISC) and Ago2-containing RISC (Ago2-RISC), respectively. We developed a native agarose gel system to directly detect Ago1-RISC, Ago2-RISC, and their precursor complexes. Methods presented here will provide powerful tools to biochemically dissect the RISC assembly pathways.

  13. A RISC multiprocessor event trigger for the data acquisition system of the H1 experiment at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.J.

    1991-09-01

    In late 1991 HERA will for the first time collide stored beams of electrons and protons. This paper describes the multiple (RISC) modern reduced instruction set processor system for online event filtering and reconstruction installed within the data acquisition system of the H1 experiment. Data is processed at a continuous average rate of ∼ 6 Mbytes/s in parallel by ∼ 20 R3000 VMEbus based monoboard computers providing some 400 mips computing power. (author)

  14. Context Switching with Multiple Register Windows: A RISC Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsek, Marion B.; Reed, Daniel A.; Watcharawittayakul, Wittaya

    1987-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that a large file of overlapping register windows can greatly reduce procedure call/return overhead, the effects of register windows in a multiprogramming environment are poorly understood. This paper investigates the performance of multiprogrammed, reduced instruction set computers (RISCs) as a function of window management strategy. Using an analytic model that reflects context switch and procedure call overheads, we analyze the performance of simple, linearly self-recursive programs. For more complex programs, we present the results of a simulation study. These studies show that a simple strategy that saves all windows prior to a context switch, but restores only a single window following a context switch, performs near optimally.

  15. A novel rotometer based on a RISC microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-López, F J; Bata-García, J L; Alvarez-Cervera, F J; Góngora-Alfaro, J L

    2002-08-01

    A new, low-cost rotometer, based on a reduced instruction set computer (RISC) microcontroller, is presented. Like earlier devices, it counts the number and direction of full turns for predetermined time periods during the evaluation of turning behavior induced by drug administration in rats. The present stand-alone system includes a nonvolatile memory for long-term data storage and a serial port for data transmission. It also contains a display for monitoring the experiments and has battery backup to avoid interruptions owing to power failures. A high correlation was found (r > .988, p < 2 x 10(-14)) between the counts of the rotometer and those of two trained observers. The system reflects quantitative differences in turning behavior owing to pharmacological manipulations. It provides the most common counting parameters and is inexpensive, flexible, highly reliable, and completely portable (weight including batteries, 159 g).

  16. RISC-type microprocessors may revolutionize aerospace simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Albert S.

    The author explores the application of RISC (reduced instruction set computer) processors in massively parallel computer (MPC) designs for aerospace simulation. The MPC approach is shown to be well adapted to the needs of aerospace simulation. It is shown that any of the three common types of interconnection schemes used with MPCs are effective for general-purpose simulation, although the bus-or switch-oriented machines are somewhat easier to use. For partial differential equation models, the hypercube approach at first glance appears more efficient because the nearest-neighbor connections required for three-dimensional models are hardwired in a hypercube machine. However, the data broadcast ability of a bus system, combined with the fact that data can be transmitted over a bus as soon as it has been updated, makes the bus approach very competitive with the hypercube approach even for these types of models.

  17. RISC processing in Fastbus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiya, M.; Haggerty, J.; Ng, C.; Sambamurti, A.; Strzelinski, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the designed, construction and testing microprocessor based controller for data acquisition and analysis conforming to the IEEE-960 Fastbus standard. The controller uses the RISC AM29000 processor and the Am29027 floating point co-processor. The module functions as a Fastbus slave and is used for analysis and filtering of digitially sampled waveforms acquired in a large system of high performance transient digitizers (over 200 channels, each sampling at 500 MHz. with 8 bits of dynamic range). With modifications the module can operate as a Fastbus master

  18. Optical RISC computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Hessenbruch, John M.; Zeise, Frederick F.

    1993-07-01

    A second generation digital optical computer (DOC II) has been developed which utilizes a RISC based operating system as its host. This 32 bit, high performance (12.8 GByte/sec), computing platform demonstrates a number of basic principals that are inherent to parallel free space optical interconnects such as speed (up to 1012 bit operations per second) and low power 1.2 fJ per bit). Although DOC II is a general purpose machine, special purpose applications have been developed and are currently being evaluated on the optical platform.

  19. RISC vs. Non-RISC Schools: A Comparison of Student Proficiencies for Reading, Writing, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the findings for an analysis of data provided by the Re-Inventing Schools Coalition (RISC). A comparison was made between schools at seven districts that employ the RISC model and eight non-RISC districts (hereinafter referred to as RISC and non-RISC schools) on the percentages of students who scored proficient or above on…

  20. Simty: generalized SIMT execution on RISC-V

    OpenAIRE

    Collange , Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We present Simty, a massively multi-threaded RISC-V processor core that acts as a proof of concept for dynamic inter-thread vector-ization at the micro-architecture level. Simty runs groups of scalar threads executing SPMD code in lockstep, and assembles SIMD instructions dynamically across threads. Unlike existing SIMD or SIMT processors like GPUs or vector processors, Simty vector-izes scalar general-purpose binaries. It does not involve any instruction set extension...

  1. RNA helicase A is not required for RISC activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T

    2013-10-01

    It has been shown that siRNAs can compete with each other or with endogenous miRNAs for RISC components. This competition may complicate the interpretations of phenotypes observed through siRNA-mediated knockdown of genes, especially those genes implicated in the RISC pathway. In this study, we re-examined the function of RNA helicase A (RHA), which has been previously proposed to function in RISC loading based on siRNA-mediated knockdown studies. Here we show that reduced RISC activity or loading of siRNAs was observed only in cells depleted of RHA using siRNA, but not using RNaseH-dependent antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), suggesting that the impaired RISC function stems from the competition between pre-existing and newly transfected siRNAs, but not from reduction of the RHA protein. This view is further supported by the findings that cells depleted of a control protein, NCL1, using siRNA, but not ASO, exhibited similar defects on the loading and activity of a subsequently transfected siRNA. Transfection of RHA or NCL1 siRNAs, but not ASOs, reduced the levels of endogenous miRNAs, suggesting a competition mechanism. As a positive control, we showed that reduction of MOV10 by either siRNA or ASO decreased siRNA activity, confirming its role in RISC function. Together, our results indicate that RHA is not required for RISC activity or loading, and suggest that proper controls are required when using siRNAs to functionalize genes to avoid competition effects. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Real-Time Image Acquisition And Processing System For A RISC-Based Microcomputer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckman, Adrian J.; Allinson, Nigel M.

    1989-03-01

    A low cost image acquisition and processing system has been developed for the Acorn Archimedes microcomputer. Using a Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture, the ARM (Acorn Risc Machine) processor provides instruction speeds suitable for image processing applications. The associated improvement in data transfer rate has allowed real-time video image acquisition without the need for frame-store memory external to the microcomputer. The system is comprised of real-time video digitising hardware which interfaces directly to the Archimedes memory, and software to provide an integrated image acquisition and processing environment. The hardware can digitise a video signal at up to 640 samples per video line with programmable parameters such as sampling rate and gain. Software support includes a work environment for image capture and processing with pixel, neighbourhood and global operators. A friendly user interface is provided with the help of the Archimedes Operating System WIMP (Windows, Icons, Mouse and Pointer) Manager. Windows provide a convenient way of handling images on the screen and program control is directed mostly by pop-up menus.

  3. ATP-dependent human RISC assembly pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Mayuko; Kawamata, Tomoko; Paroo, Zain; Ye, Xuecheng; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Liu, Qinghua; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-01-01

    The assembly of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a key process in small RNA-mediated gene silencing. In humans, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are incorporated into RISCs containing the Argonaute (AGO) subfamily proteins Ago1-4. Previous studies have proposed that, unlike Drosophila melanogaster RISC assembly pathways, human RISC assembly is coupled with dicing and is independent of ATP. Here we show by careful reexamination that, in humans, RISC assembly and dicing are uncoupled, and ATP greatly facilitates RISC loading of small-RNA duplexes. Moreover, all four human AGO proteins show remarkably similar structural preferences for small-RNA duplexes: central mismatches promote RISC loading, and seed or 3'-mid (guide position 12-15) mismatches facilitate unwinding. All these features of human AGO proteins are highly reminiscent of fly Ago1 but not fly Ago2.

  4. Efficient Ada multitasking on a RISC register window architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, J. P.; Quammen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of reducing context switch overhead on a processor which supports a large register file - a register file much like that which is part of the Berkeley RISC processors and several other emerging architectures (which are not necessarily reduced instruction set machines in the purest sense). Such a reduction in overhead is particularly desirable in a real-time embedded application, in which task-to-task context switch overhead may result in failure to meet crucial deadlines. A storage management technique by which a context switch may be implemented as cheaply as a procedure call is presented. The essence of this technique is the avoidance of the save/restore of registers on the context switch. This is achieved through analysis of the static source text of an Ada tasking program. Information gained during that analysis directs the optimized storage management strategy for that program at run time. A formal verification of the technique in terms of an operational control model and an evaluation of the technique's performance via simulations driven by synthetic Ada program traces are presented.

  5. The RISC-spectrometer experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, Gy.

    1981-01-01

    The RISC (Relativistic Ionising Streamer Chamber) spectrometer (situated at Protvino, joining the accelerator) is discussed, and the experiment carried out in international cooperation is presented. The beam monitor, the trigger system and the control and data recording system as well as the streamer spark chamber are detailed (the latter is the largest of our time). Examples of the main experiments as well as the work carried out in Budapest are discussed briefly. (Sz.J.)

  6. Low cost RISC implementation of intelligent ultra fast charger for Ni-Cd battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petchjatuporn, Panom; Sirisuk, Phaophak; Khaehintung, Noppadol; Sunat, Khamron; Wicheanchote, Phinyo; Kiranon, Wiwat

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost reduced instruction set computer (RISC) implementation of an intelligent ultra fast charger for a nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. The charger employs a genetic algorithm (GA) trained generalized regression neural network (GRNN) as a key to ultra fast charging while avoiding battery damage. The tradeoff between mean square error (MSE) and the computational burden of the GRNN is addressed. Besides, an efficient technique is proposed for estimation of a radial basis function (RBF) in the GRNN. Hardware realization based upon the techniques is discussed. Experimental results with commercial Ni-Cd batteries reveal that while the proposed charger significantly reduces the charging time, it scarcely deteriorates the battery energy storage capability when compared with the conventional charger

  7. Low cost RISC implementation of intelligent ultra fast charger for Ni-Cd battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petchjatuporn, Panom; Khaehintung, Noppadol [Department of Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Sirisuk, Phaophak; Sunat, Khamron [Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahanakorn University of Technology, Bangkok 10530 (Thailand); Wicheanchote, Phinyo [Test Engineering Department, Sanmina-SCI Systems Co. Ltd. (Thailand); Kiranon, Wiwat [Department of Telecommunication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institue of Technology, Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2008-02-15

    This paper presents a low cost reduced instruction set computer (RISC) implementation of an intelligent ultra fast charger for a nickel-cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. The charger employs a genetic algorithm (GA) trained generalized regression neural network (GRNN) as a key to ultra fast charging while avoiding battery damage. The tradeoff between mean square error (MSE) and the computational burden of the GRNN is addressed. Besides, an efficient technique is proposed for estimation of a radial basis function (RBF) in the GRNN. Hardware realization based upon the techniques is discussed. Experimental results with commercial Ni-Cd batteries reveal that while the proposed charger significantly reduces the charging time, it scarcely deteriorates the battery energy storage capability when compared with the conventional charger. (author)

  8. RISC-interacting clearing 3'- 5' exoribonucleases (RICEs) degrade uridylated cleavage fragments to maintain functional RISC in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-05-02

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5' products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC.

  9. Using a Cray Y-MP as an array processor for a RISC Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamaster, Hugh; Rogallo, Sarah J.

    1992-01-01

    As microprocessors increase in power, the economics of centralized computing has changed dramatically. At the beginning of the 1980's, mainframes and super computers were often considered to be cost-effective machines for scalar computing. Today, microprocessor-based RISC (reduced-instruction-set computer) systems have displaced many uses of mainframes and supercomputers. Supercomputers are still cost competitive when processing jobs that require both large memory size and high memory bandwidth. One such application is array processing. Certain numerical operations are appropriate to use in a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)-based environment. Matrix multiplication is an example of an operation that can have a sufficient number of arithmetic operations to amortize the cost of an RPC call. An experiment which demonstrates that matrix multiplication can be executed remotely on a large system to speed the execution over that experienced on a workstation is described.

  10. A general model of concurrency and its implementation as many-core dynamic RISC processors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, T.; Bousias, K.; Guang, L.; Jesshope, C.R.; Lankamp, M.; van Tol, M.W.; Zhang, L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a concurrent execution model and its micro-architecture based on in-order RISC processors, which schedules instructions from large pools of contextualised threads. The model admits a strategy for programming chip multiprocessors using parallelising compilers based on existing

  11. A fastbus master based on a risc microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrito, L.; Chorowicz, V.; Lebbolo, H.; Vallereau, A.

    1990-01-01

    SISIFUS is a general purpose Fastbus Master and Slave able to perform any operation on both Fastbus segments. Master operations are directed either by the processor or by two fast sequencers. A Block Mover function is implemented allowing direct data block transfers between two Slaves. SISIFUS uses the AM 29000 RISC microprocessor which can execute every assembler instruction in 40ns. The on-board monitor/debugger allows programs to be written in assembler from a terminal connected to the module or written in C and cross compiled on a host computer (PC)

  12. Design of RISC Processor Using VHDL and Cadence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehpour, Saeid; Puliroju, Chandrasekhar; Abu-Aisheh, Akram

    The project deals about development of a basic RISC processor. The processor is designed with basic architecture consisting of internal modules like clock generator, memory, program counter, instruction register, accumulator, arithmetic and logic unit and decoder. This processor is mainly used for simple general purpose like arithmetic operations and which can be further developed for general purpose processor by increasing the size of the instruction register. The processor is designed in VHDL by using Xilinx 8.1i version. The present project also serves as an application of the knowledge gained from past studies of the PSPICE program. The study will show how PSPICE can be used to simplify massive complex circuits designed in VHDL Synthesis. The purpose of the project is to explore the designed RISC model piece by piece, examine and understand the Input/ Output pins, and to show how the VHDL synthesis code can be converted to a simplified PSPICE model. The project will also serve as a collection of various research materials about the pieces of the circuit.

  13. Focusing on RISC assembly in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Junmei; Wei, Na; Chalk, Alistair; Wang, Jue; Song, Yutong; Yi, Fan; Qiao, Ren-Ping; Sonnhammer, Erik L L; Wahlestedt, Claes; Liang, Zicai; Du, Quan

    2008-04-11

    RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) is a central protein complex in RNAi, into which a siRNA strand is assembled to become effective in gene silencing. By using an in vitro RNAi reaction based on Drosophila embryo extract, an asymmetric model was recently proposed for RISC assembly of siRNA strands, suggesting that the strand that is more loosely paired at its 5' end is selectively assembled into RISC and results in target gene silencing. However, in the present study, we were unable to establish such a correlation in cell-based RNAi assays, as well as in large-scale RNAi data analyses. This suggests that the thermodynamic stability of siRNA is not a major determinant of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Further studies on fork siRNAs showed that mismatch at the 5' end of the siRNA sense strand decreased RISC assembly of the antisense strand, but surprisingly did not increase RISC assembly of the sense strand. More interestingly, measurements of melting temperature showed that the terminal stability of fork siRNAs correlated with the positions of the mismatches, but not gene silencing efficacy. In summary, our data demonstrate that there is no definite correlation between siRNA stability and gene silencing in mammalian cells, which suggests that instead of thermodynamic stability, other features of the siRNA duplex contribute to RISC assembly in RNAi.

  14. Focusing on RISC assembly in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Junmei; Wei Na; Chalk, Alistair; Wang Jue; Song, Yutong; Yi Fan; Qiao Renping; Sonnhammer, Erik L.L.; Wahlestedt, Claes; Liang Zicai; Du, Quan

    2008-01-01

    RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) is a central protein complex in RNAi, into which a siRNA strand is assembled to become effective in gene silencing. By using an in vitro RNAi reaction based on Drosophila embryo extract, an asymmetric model was recently proposed for RISC assembly of siRNA strands, suggesting that the strand that is more loosely paired at its 5' end is selectively assembled into RISC and results in target gene silencing. However, in the present study, we were unable to establish such a correlation in cell-based RNAi assays, as well as in large-scale RNAi data analyses. This suggests that the thermodynamic stability of siRNA is not a major determinant of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Further studies on fork siRNAs showed that mismatch at the 5' end of the siRNA sense strand decreased RISC assembly of the antisense strand, but surprisingly did not increase RISC assembly of the sense strand. More interestingly, measurements of melting temperature showed that the terminal stability of fork siRNAs correlated with the positions of the mismatches, but not gene silencing efficacy. In summary, our data demonstrate that there is no definite correlation between siRNA stability and gene silencing in mammalian cells, which suggests that instead of thermodynamic stability, other features of the siRNA duplex contribute to RISC assembly in RNAi

  15. Clarifying mammalian RISC assembly in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metzler David

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Argonaute, the core component of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC, binds to mature miRNAs and regulates gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. We recently reported that Argonaute 2 (Ago2 also assembles into complexes with miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs. These Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes are catalytically active in vitro and constitute non-canonical RISCs. Results The use of pre-miRNAs as guides by Ago2 bypasses Dicer activity and complicates in vitro RISC reconstitution. In this work, we characterized Ago2:pre-miRNA complexes and identified RNAs that are targeted by miRNAs but not their corresponding pre-miRNAs. Using these target RNAs we were able to recapitulate in vitro pre-miRNA processing and canonical RISC loading, and define the minimal factors required for these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that Ago2 and Dicer are sufficient for processing and loading of miRNAs into RISC. Furthermore, our studies suggest that Ago2 binds primarily to the 5'- and alternatively, to the 3'-end of select pre-miRNAs.

  16. Dicer is dispensable for asymmetric RISC loading in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, Juan G; Tomari, Yukihide

    2012-01-01

    In flies, asymmetric loading of small RNA duplexes into Argonaute2-containing RNA-induced silencing complex (Ago2-RISC) requires Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer, which acts as a protein sensor for the thermodynamic stabilities of the ends of small RNA duplexes. However, the mechanism of small RNA asymmetry sensing in mammalian RISC assembly remains obscure. Here, we quantitatively examined RISC assembly and target silencing activity in the presence or absence of Dicer in mammals. Our data show that, unlike the well-characterized fly Ago2-RISC assembly pathway, mammalian Dicer is dispensable for asymmetric RISC loading in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Reducing Resistance to Diversity through Cognitive Dissonance Instruction: Implications for Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFalls, Elisabeth L.; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre

    2001-01-01

    Applied the principals of cognitive dissonance theory to an instructional strategy used to reduce resistance to the idea of white privilege, comparing groups of college students in diversity education courses that did and did not receive supplemental instruction on cognitive dissonance. Incorporating cognitive dissonance theory created an…

  18. RISC-interacting clearing 3’- 5’ exoribonucleases (RICEs) degrade uridylated cleavage fragments to maintain functional RISC in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghui; Hu, Fuqu; Sung, Min Woo; Shu, Chang; Castillo-González, Claudia; Koiwa, Hisashi; Tang, Guiliang; Dickman, Martin; Li, Pingwei; Zhang, Xiuren

    2017-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is composed of miRNAs and AGO proteins. AGOs use miRNAs as guides to slice target mRNAs to produce truncated 5' and 3' RNA fragments. The 5' cleaved RNA fragments are marked with uridylation for degradation. Here, we identified novel cofactors of Arabidopsis AGOs, named RICE1 and RICE2. RICE proteins specifically degraded single-strand (ss) RNAs in vitro; but neither miRNAs nor miRNA*s in vivo. RICE1 exhibited a DnaQ-like exonuclease fold and formed a homohexamer with the active sites located at the interfaces between RICE1 subunits. Notably, ectopic expression of catalytically-inactive RICE1 not only significantly reduced miRNA levels; but also increased 5' cleavage RISC fragments with extended uridine tails. We conclude that RICEs act to degrade uridylated 5’ products of AGO cleavage to maintain functional RISC. Our study also suggests a possible link between decay of cleaved target mRNAs and miRNA stability in RISC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24466.001 PMID:28463111

  19. Conversion of pre-RISC to holo-RISC by Ago2 during assembly of RNAi complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kevin; Lee, Young Sik; Carthew, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    In the Drosophila RNA interference (RNAi) pathway, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct Argonaute2 (Ago2), an endonuclease, within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to cleave complementary mRNA targets. In vitro studies have shown that, for each siRNA duplex, RISC retains only one strand, the guide, and releases the other, the passenger, to form a holo-RISC complex. Here, we have isolated a new Ago2 mutant allele and provide, for the first time, in vivo evidence that endogenous Ago2 slicer activity is important to mount an RNAi response in Drosophila. We demonstrate in vivo that efficient removal of the passenger strand from RISC requires the cleavage activity of Ago2. We have also identified a new intermediate complex in the RISC assembly pathway, pre-RISC, in which Ago2 is stably bound to double-stranded siRNA. PMID:17123955

  20. De predictieve validiteit van de Recidive Inschattingsschalen (RISc)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, L.M. van der; Alberda, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    Om inzichten te krijgen in criminogene factoren van delinquenten is het screeningsinstrument 'Recidive Inschattingsschalen' (RISc) ontwikkeld. De betrouwbaarheid en validiteit van dit instrument zijn al onderzocht en positief bevonden. Dit onderzoek gaat na of de RISc geschikt is als

  1. In vitro reconstitution of chaperone-mediated human RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Ken; Matsuura-Suzuki, Eriko; Watanabe, Mariko; Iwasaki, Shintaro; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-01-01

    To silence target mRNAs, small RNAs and Argonaute (Ago) proteins need to be assembled into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). Although the assembly of Drosophila melanogaster RISC was recently reconstituted by Ago2, the Dicer-2/R2D2 heterodimer, and five chaperone proteins, the absence of a reconstitution system for mammalian RISC assembly has posed analytical challenges. Here we describe reconstitution of human RISC assembly using Ago2 and five recombinant chaperone proteins: Hsp90β, Hsc70, Hop, Dnaja2, and p23. Our data show that ATP hydrolysis by both Hsp90β and Hsc70 is required for RISC assembly of small RNA duplexes but not for that of single-stranded RNAs. The reconstitution system lays the groundwork for further studies of small RNA-mediated gene silencing in mammals. © 2018 Naruse et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Single-Molecule Analysis for RISC Assembly and Target Cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroshi M; Tadakuma, Hisashi; Tomari, Yukihide

    2018-01-01

    RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is a small RNA-protein complex that mediates silencing of complementary target RNAs. Biochemistry has been successfully used to characterize the molecular mechanism of RISC assembly and function for nearly two decades. However, further dissection of intermediate states during the reactions has been warranted to fill in the gaps in our understanding of RNA silencing mechanisms. Single-molecule analysis with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful imaging-based approach to interrogate complex formation and dynamics at the individual molecule level with high sensitivity. Combining this technique with our recently established in vitro reconstitution system of fly Ago2-RISC, we have developed a single-molecule observation system for RISC assembly. In this chapter, we summarize the detailed protocol for single-molecule analysis of chaperone-assisted assembly of fly Ago2-RISC as well as its target cleavage reaction.

  3. Instructional Support for Novice Law Students: Reducing Search Processes and Explaining Concepts in Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nievelstein, Fleurie; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Dijck, Gijs; Boshuizen, Els

    2010-01-01

    Nievelstein, F., Van Gog, T., Van Dijck, C., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011). Instructional support for novice law students: Reducing search processes and explaining concepts in cases. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(3), 408-413. doi:10.1002/acp.1707

  4. Slicing-independent RISC activation requires the argonaute PAZ domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuo; Jin, Lan; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Feijie; Kay, Mark A

    2012-08-21

    Small RNAs regulate genetic networks through a ribonucleoprotein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which, in mammals, contains at its center one of four Argonaute proteins (Ago1-Ago4). A key regulatory event in the RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways is Ago loading, wherein double-stranded small-RNA duplexes are incorporated into RISC (pre-RISC) and then become single-stranded (mature RISC), a process that is not well understood. The Agos contain an evolutionarily conserved PAZ (Piwi/Argonaute/Zwille) domain whose primary function is to bind the 3' end of small RNAs. We created multiple PAZ-domain-disrupted mutant Ago proteins and studied their biochemical properties and biological functionality in cells. We found that the PAZ domain is dispensable for Ago loading of slicing-competent RISC. In contrast, in the absence of slicer activity or slicer-substrate duplex RNAs, PAZ-disrupted Agos bound duplex small interfering RNAs, but were unable to unwind or eject the passenger strand and form functional RISC complexes. We have discovered that the highly conserved PAZ domain plays an important role in RISC activation, providing new mechanistic insights into how miRNAs regulate genes, as well as new insights for future design of miRNA- and RNAi-based therapeutics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Spann, James F.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this project is to serve the needs of space system designers and operators by developing an interplanetary radiation environment model within 10 AU:Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) toolset: (1) The RISCS toolset will provide specific reference environments for space system designers and nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for space system operators; (2) We envision the RISCS toolset providing the spatial and temporal radiation environment external to the Earth's (and other planets') magnetosphere, as well as possessing the modularity to integrate separate applications (apps) that can map to specific magnetosphere locations and/or perform the subsequent radiation transport and dosimetry for a specific target.

  6. RISC Processors and High Performance Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Saini, Subhash; Craw, James M. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This tutorial will discuss the top five RISC microprocessors and the parallel systems in which they are used. It will provide a unique cross-machine comparison not available elsewhere. The effective performance of these processors will be compared by citing standard benchmarks in the context of real applications. The latest NAS Parallel Benchmarks, both absolute performance and performance per dollar, will be listed. The next generation of the NPB will be described. The tutorial will conclude with a discussion of future directions in the field. Technology Transfer Considerations: All of these computer systems are commercially available internationally. Information about these processors is available in the public domain, mostly from the vendors themselves. The NAS Parallel Benchmarks and their results have been previously approved numerous times for public release, beginning back in 1991.

  7. Review article Homebound instruction for students with chronic illness: reducing risk outside of the box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Shaw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Students with chronic illness are at risk for a host of academic and social problems. The risk is exacerbated when students are unable to attend school short term or long term due to medical problems. Educators may be able to reduce academic and social risk for students with chronic illness through effective homebound instruction. However, there remain many barriers to effective homebowund instruction. Effective interdisciplinary and community coordination, development of policies, teacher support, inclusion of families, and use of technology can be combined to overcome these barriers and create effective homebound programs and policies. The result is reduced risk for the large and vulnerable population of students with chronic illness.

  8. 16-Bit RISC Processor Design for Convolution Application

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Nandakumar Shardul

    2013-01-01

    In this project, we propose a 16-bit non-pipelined RISC processor, which is used for signal processing applications. The processor consists of the blocks, namely, program counter, clock control unit, ALU, IDU and registers. Advantageous architectural modifications have been made in the incremented circuit used in program counter and carry select adder unit of the ALU in the RISC CPU core. Furthermore, a high speed and low power modified modifies multiplier has been designed and introduced in ...

  9. RISC assembly: Coordination between small RNAs and Argonaute proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Tomari, Yukihide

    2016-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs generally form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes with their partner proteins to exert their functions. Small RNAs, including microRNAs, small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs, assemble with Argonaute (Ago) family proteins into the effector complex called RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which mediates sequence-specific target gene silencing. RISC assembly is not a simple binding between a small RNA and Ago; rather, it follows an ordered multi-step pathway that requires specific accessory factors. Some steps of RISC assembly and RISC-mediated gene silencing are dependent on or facilitated by particular intracellular platforms, suggesting their spatial regulation. In this review, we summarize the currently known mechanisms for RISC assembly of each small RNA class and propose a revised model for the role of the chaperone machinery in the duplex-initiated RISC assembly pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Clues to long noncoding RNA taxonomy1, edited by Dr. Tetsuro Hirose and Dr. Shinichi Nakagawa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cyclophilin 40 facilitates HSP90-mediated RISC assembly in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iki, Taichiro; Yoshikawa, Manabu; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2012-01-18

    Posttranscriptional gene silencing is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that contain AGO proteins and single-stranded small RNAs. The assembly of plant AGO1-containing RISCs depends on the molecular chaperone HSP90. Here, we demonstrate that cyclophilin 40 (CYP40), protein phosphatase 5 (PP5), and several other proteins with the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain associates with AGO1 in an HSP90-dependent manner in extracts of evacuolated tobacco protoplasts (BYL). Intriguingly, CYP40, but not the other TPR proteins, could form a complex with small RNA duplex-bound AGO1. Moreover, CYP40 that was synthesized by in-vitro translation using BYL uniquely facilitated binding of small RNA duplexes to AGO1, and as a result, increased the amount of mature RISCs that could cleave target RNAs. CYP40 was not contained in mature RISCs, indicating that the association is transient. Addition of PP5 or cyclophilin-binding drug cyclosporine A prevented the association of endogenous CYP40 with HSP90-AGO1 complex and inhibited RISC assembly. These results suggest that a complex of AGO1, HSP90, CYP40, and a small RNA duplex is a key intermediate of RISC assembly in plants.

  11. RNAi and retroviruses: are they in RISC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselon, Thierry; Bouttier, Manuella; Saumet, Anne; Lecellier, Charles-Henri

    2013-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent cellular system against viruses in various organisms. Although common traits are observed in plants, insects, and nematodes, the situation observed in mammals appears more complex. In mammalian somatic cells, RNAi is implicated in endonucleolytic cleavage mediated by artificially delivered small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) as well as in translation repression mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs). Because siRNAs and miRNAs recognize viral mRNAs, RNAi inherently limits virus production and participates in antiviral defense. However, several observations made in the cases of hepatitis C virus and retroviruses (including the human immunodeficiency virus and the primate foamy virus) bring evidence that this relationship is much more complex and that certain components of the RNAi effector complex [called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)], such as AGO2, are also required for viral replication. Here, we summarize recent discoveries that have revealed this dual implication in virus biology. We further discuss their potential implications for the functions of RNAi-related proteins, with special emphasis on retrotransposition and genome stability.

  12. RISC-KIT: Resilience-increasing Strategies for Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dongeren Ap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, and to evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called “hotspots” can be identified.

  13. Multilayer checkpoints for microRNA authenticity during RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Yoda, Mayuko; Tomari, Yukihide

    2011-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function through the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which contains an Argonaute (Ago) protein at the core. RISC assembly follows a two-step pathway: miRNA/miRNA* duplex loading into Ago, and separation of the two strands within Ago. Here we show that the 5' phosphate of the miRNA strand is essential for duplex loading into Ago, whereas the preferred 5' nucleotide of the miRNA strand and the base-pairing status in the seed region and the middle of the 3' region function as additive anchors to Ago. Consequently, the miRNA authenticity is inspected at multiple steps during RISC assembly.

  14. Development of Novel Antisense Oligonucleotides for the Functional Regulation of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) by Promoting the Release of microRNA from RISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Jumpei; Momokawa, Daiki; Eimori, Nao; Kobori, Akio; Murakami, Akira; Yamayoshi, Asako

    2015-12-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to be important post-transcription regulators of gene expression. Aberrant miRNA expression is associated with pathological disease processes, including carcinogenesis. Therefore, miRNAs are considered significant therapeutic targets for cancer therapy. MiRNAs do not act alone, but exhibit their functions by forming RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Thus, the regulation of RISC activity is a promising approach for cancer therapy. MiRNA is a core component of RISC and is an essential to RISC for recognizing target mRNA. Thereby, it is expected that development of the method to promote the release of miRNA from RISC would be an effective approach for inhibition of RISC activity. In this study, we synthesized novel peptide-conjugated oligonucleotides (RINDA-as) to promote the release of miRNA from RISC. RINDA-as showed a high rate of miRNA release from RISC and high level of inhibitory effect on RISC activity.

  15. Schizotypal Estimators in Adolescence: The Concurrent Validity of the RISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, John; Chiu, Herbert

    1988-01-01

    Administered Minnesota Counseling Inventory and Rust Inventory of Schizotypal Cognition (RISC) to 174 adolescents in Hong Kong. Results showed that negative schizophrenic symptoms of social dysfunction and emotional instability as measured by Minnesota Counseling Inventory were positively and significantly correlated with positive schizotypal…

  16. Optimization of Particle-in-Cell Codes on RISC Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decyk, Viktor K.; Karmesin, Steve Roy; Boer, Aeint de; Liewer, Paulette C.

    1996-01-01

    General strategies are developed to optimize particle-cell-codes written in Fortran for RISC processors which are commonly used on massively parallel computers. These strategies include data reorganization to improve cache utilization and code reorganization to improve efficiency of arithmetic pipelines.

  17. Development and Transition of the Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James F.; Zank, G.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a plan to develop and transition a physics based predictive toolset called The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) to describe the interplanetary energetic particle and radiation environment throughout the inner heliosphere, including at the Earth. To forecast and "nowcast" the radiation environment requires the fusing of three components: 1) the ability to provide probabilities for incipient solar activity; 2) the use of these probabilities and daily coronal and solar wind observations to model the 3D spatial and temporal heliosphere, including magnetic field structure and transients, within 10 Astronomical Units; and 3) the ability to model the acceleration and transport of energetic particles based on current and anticipated coronal and heliospheric conditions. We describe how to address 1) - 3) based on our existing, well developed, and validated codes and models. The goal of RISCS toolset is to provide an operational forecast and "nowcast" capability that will a) predict solar energetic particle (SEP) intensities; b) spectra for protons and heavy ions; c) predict maximum energies and their duration; d) SEP composition; e) cosmic ray intensities, and f) plasma parameters, including shock arrival times, strength and obliquity at any given heliospheric location and time. The toolset would have a 72 hour predicative capability, with associated probabilistic bounds, that would be updated hourly thereafter to improve the predicted event(s) and reduce the associated probability bounds. The RISCS toolset would be highly adaptable and portable, capable of running on a variety of platforms to accommodate various operational needs and requirements. The described transition plan is based on a well established approach developed in the Earth Science discipline that ensures that the customer has a tool that meets their needs

  18. Self-Instructional Cognitive Training to Reduce Impulsive Cognitive Style in Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Flores, Gladys Wilma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Children with attention deficit with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an impulsive, rigid and field-dependent cognitive style. This study examines whether self-instructional cognitive training reduces impulsive cognitive style in children diagnosed with this disorder. Method: The subjects were 10 children between the ages of 6 and…

  19. RISC-Target Interaction: Cleavage and Translational Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Arjen; Mols, Johann; Han, Jiahuai

    2008-01-01

    Summary Small RNA molecules have been known and utilized to suppress gene expression for more than a decade. The discovery that these small RNA molecules are endogenously expressed in many organisms and have a critical role in controlling gene expression have led to the arising of a whole new field of research. Termed small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA) these ~22 nt RNA molecules have the capability to suppress gene expression through various mechanisms once they are incorporated in the multi-protein RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) and interact with their target mRNA. This review introduces siRNAs and microRNAs in a historical perspective and focuses on the key molecules in RISC, structural properties and mechanisms underlying the process of small RNA regulated post-transcriptional suppression of gene expression. PMID:18692607

  20. TAF11 assembles RISC loading complex to enhance RNAi efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C.; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains Dicer-2(Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here, we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11−/− ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of Drosophila RLC and elucidate a novel cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. PMID:26257286

  1. AGO/RISC-mediated antiviral RNA silencing in a plant in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Jana; Gursinsky, Torsten; Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Burgyán, Jozsef; Behrens, Sven-Erik

    2013-05-01

    AGO/RISC-mediated antiviral RNA silencing, an important component of the plant's immune response against RNA virus infections, was recapitulated in vitro. Cytoplasmic extracts of tobacco protoplasts were applied that supported Tombusvirus RNA replication, as well as the formation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) that could be functionally reconstituted with various plant ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins. For example, when RISC containing AGO1, 2, 3 or 5 were programmed with exogenous siRNAs that specifically targeted the viral RNA, endonucleolytic cleavages occurred and viral replication was inhibited. Antiviral RNA silencing was disabled by the viral silencing suppressor p19 when this was present early during RISC formation. Notably, with replicating viral RNA, only (+)RNA molecules were accessible to RISC, whereas (-)RNA replication intermediates were not. The vulnerability of viral RNAs to RISC activity also depended on the RNA structure of the target sequence. This was most evident when we characterized viral siRNAs (vsiRNAs) that were particularly effective in silencing with AGO1- or AGO2/RISC. These vsiRNAs targeted similar sites, suggesting that accessible parts of the viral (+)RNA may be collectively attacked by different AGO/RISC. The in vitro system was, hence, established as a valuable tool to define and characterize individual molecular determinants of antiviral RNA silencing.

  2. Psychometrische kwaliteiten van de Recidive Inschattingsschalen (RISc) : Interbeoordelaarsbetrouwbaarheid, interne consistentie en congruente validiteit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, L.M. van der; Leenarts, L.E.W.; Nijssen, L.T.J.

    2007-01-01

    Het instrument Recidive Inschattings Schalen (RISc) is gebaseerd op een Engelstalig instrument (OASys). Tijdens de ontwikkeling van de RISc is aandacht besteed aan de vertaling van het instrument, aan de kwaliteit van de items en aan de interne consistentie van de schalen van het instrument. Verder

  3. Psychometric Evaluation of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) Using Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshouei, Mahdieh Sadat

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The CD-RISC was completed by a sample of 323 Isfahan university students (168 females, 155 males) aged 19-34 years. A maximum likelihood method with an oblique solution resulted in four factors…

  4. RISC. A new style in the design of architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortadella, J.; Gonzalez, A.; Llaberia, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the 80's a new architecture design and implementation style has appeared: the RISC style. It proposes an overall view of the system were the processor is included. For each function, an extensive analysis has to be performed in order to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages that hardware and software introduce in the design. An optimum design involved an agreement between both levels and has to take into account cost, performance, and technological factors. In this paper, the main features of this new architecture design style are presented. (Author)

  5. 3' fragment of miR173-programmed RISC-cleaved RNA is protected from degradation in a complex with RISC and SGS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2013-03-05

    trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1-RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3' cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3' cleavage fragment. When the 3' nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3' cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1-RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3'-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1-RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3' cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3' fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production.

  6. The efficacy of preopoerative instruction in reducing anxiety following gyneoncological surgery: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gungor Tayfun

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a quasi-experimental case control research focusing on the impact of systematic preoperative instruction on the level of postoperative anxiety in gyneoncologic patients. The population studied consists of the gyneoncologic surgery patients admitted to the Gynecologic Oncology Service at Zekai Tahir Burak Gynecology Training and Research Hospital from May to September 2010. Patients and methods Through a random sampling, 60 patients were recruited in each group. The study group was given a systematic preoperative instruction while the control group was given routine nursing care. Patients were interviewed in the postoperative period and anxiety was measured. The data-collecting tool consisted of the Individual Information Form and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The collected data were analyzed by using the SPSS Program to find the frequency, the percentage, the mean and the standard variables, and the hypothesis was tested with Chi-square, variance, and t-independent test. Results It was found that the incidence rates from the post-operative anxiety score of the study group were lower than those of the control group (p Conclusions Results of this study suggest that preoperative instruction programs aiming at informing gyneoncologic surgery patients at the preoperative stage should be organized in hospitals and have an essential role.

  7. Steric restrictions of RISC in RNA interference identified with size-expanded RNA nucleobases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armando R; Peterson, Larryn W; Kool, Eric T

    2012-08-17

    Understanding the interactions between small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), the key protein complex of RNA interference (RNAi), is of great importance to the development of siRNAs with improved biological and potentially therapeutic function. Although various chemically modified siRNAs have been reported, relatively few studies with modified nucleobases exist. Here we describe the synthesis and hybridization properties of siRNAs bearing size-expanded RNA (xRNA) nucleobases and their use as a novel and systematic set of steric probes in RNAi. xRNA nucleobases are expanded by 2.4 Å using benzo-homologation and retain canonical Watson-Crick base-pairing groups. Our data show that the modified siRNA duplexes display small changes in melting temperature (+1.4 to -5.0 °C); substitutions near the center are somewhat destabilizing to the RNA duplex, while substitutions near the ends are stabilizing. RNAi studies in a dual-reporter luciferase assay in HeLa cells revealed that xRNA nucleobases in the antisense strand reduce activity at some central positions near the seed region but are generally well tolerated near the ends. Most importantly, we observed that xRNA substitutions near the 3'-end increased activity over that of wild-type siRNAs. The data are analyzed in terms of site-dependent steric effects in RISC. Circular dichroism experiments show that single xRNA substitutions do not significantly distort the native A-form helical structure of the siRNA duplex, and serum stability studies demonstrated that xRNA substitutions protect siRNAs against nuclease degradation.

  8. Structural determinants of miRNAs for RISC loading and slicer-independent unwinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamata, Tomoko; Seitz, Hervé; Tomari, Yukihide

    2009-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate expression of their target mRNAs through the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which contains an Argonaute (Ago) family protein as a core component. In Drosophila melanogaster, miRNAs are generally sorted into Ago1-containing RISC (Ago1-RISC). We established a native gel system that can biochemically dissect the Ago1-RISC assembly pathway. We found that miRNA-miRNA* duplexes are loaded into Ago1 as double-stranded RNAs in an ATP-dependent fashion. In contrast, unexpectedly, unwinding of miRNA-miRNA* duplexes is a passive process that does not require ATP or slicer activity of Ago1. Central mismatches direct miRNA-miRNA* duplexes into pre-Ago1-RISC, whereas mismatches in the seed or guide strand positions 12-15 promote conversion of pre-Ago1-RISC into mature Ago1-RISC. Our findings show that unwinding of miRNAs is a precise mirror-image process of target recognition, and both processes reflect the unique geometry of RNAs in Ago proteins.

  9. Proposta e simulação de uma arquitetura RISC

    OpenAIRE

    Fredy Joao Valente

    1991-01-01

    RISC - Uma nova tendência em arquitetura de computadores. Este trabalho apresenta um estudo de como surgiu esta nova arquitetura, e suas características básicas, que a diferencia das arquiteturas convencionais. Uma proposta de microprocessador RISC é apresentada, com sua rota de dados completamente detalhada. Um simulador para arquitetura RISC foi então construído, para se testar este microprocessador. Para validar o simulador, que é a idéia principal deste trabalho, e para se avaliar a arqui...

  10. Introducing RISC: A New Video Inventory for Testing Social Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rothermich

    Full Text Available Indirect forms of speech, such as sarcasm, jocularity (joking, and 'white lies' told to spare another's feelings, occur frequently in daily life and are a problem for many clinical populations. During social interactions, information about the literal or nonliteral meaning of a speaker unfolds simultaneously in several communication channels (e.g., linguistic, facial, vocal, and body cues; however, to date many studies have employed uni-modal stimuli, for example focusing only on the visual modality, limiting the generalizability of these results to everyday communication. Much of this research also neglects key factors for interpreting speaker intentions, such as verbal context and the relationship of social partners. Relational Inference in Social Communication (RISC is a newly developed (English-language database composed of short video vignettes depicting sincere, jocular, sarcastic, and white lie social exchanges between two people. Stimuli carefully manipulated the social relationship between communication partners (e.g., boss/employee, couple and the availability of contextual cues (e.g. preceding conversations, physical objects while controlling for major differences in the linguistic content of matched items. Here, we present initial perceptual validation data (N = 31 on a corpus of 920 items. Overall accuracy for identifying speaker intentions was above 80% correct and our results show that both relationship type and verbal context influence the categorization of literal and nonliteral interactions, underscoring the importance of these factors in research on speaker intentions. We believe that RISC will prove highly constructive as a tool in future research on social cognition, inter-personal communication, and the interpretation of speaker intentions in both healthy adults and clinical populations.

  11. Introducing RISC: A New Video Inventory for Testing Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermich, Kathrin; Pell, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    Indirect forms of speech, such as sarcasm, jocularity (joking), and 'white lies' told to spare another's feelings, occur frequently in daily life and are a problem for many clinical populations. During social interactions, information about the literal or nonliteral meaning of a speaker unfolds simultaneously in several communication channels (e.g., linguistic, facial, vocal, and body cues); however, to date many studies have employed uni-modal stimuli, for example focusing only on the visual modality, limiting the generalizability of these results to everyday communication. Much of this research also neglects key factors for interpreting speaker intentions, such as verbal context and the relationship of social partners. Relational Inference in Social Communication (RISC) is a newly developed (English-language) database composed of short video vignettes depicting sincere, jocular, sarcastic, and white lie social exchanges between two people. Stimuli carefully manipulated the social relationship between communication partners (e.g., boss/employee, couple) and the availability of contextual cues (e.g. preceding conversations, physical objects) while controlling for major differences in the linguistic content of matched items. Here, we present initial perceptual validation data (N = 31) on a corpus of 920 items. Overall accuracy for identifying speaker intentions was above 80% correct and our results show that both relationship type and verbal context influence the categorization of literal and nonliteral interactions, underscoring the importance of these factors in research on speaker intentions. We believe that RISC will prove highly constructive as a tool in future research on social cognition, inter-personal communication, and the interpretation of speaker intentions in both healthy adults and clinical populations.

  12. C3PO, an endoribonuclease that promotes RNAi by facilitating RISC activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ye, Xuecheng; Jiang, Feng; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, Dongmei; Peng, Junmin; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Liu, Qinghua

    2009-08-07

    The catalytic engine of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), wherein the endoribonuclease Argonaute and single-stranded small interfering RNA (siRNA) direct target mRNA cleavage. We reconstituted long double-stranded RNA- and duplex siRNA-initiated RISC activities with the use of recombinant Drosophila Dicer-2, R2D2, and Ago2 proteins. We used this core reconstitution system to purify an RNAi regulator that we term C3PO (component 3 promoter of RISC), a complex of Translin and Trax. C3PO is a Mg2+-dependent endoribonuclease that promotes RISC activation by removing siRNA passenger strand cleavage products. These studies establish an in vitro RNAi reconstitution system and identify C3PO as a key activator of the core RNAi machinery.

  13. RISC RNA sequencing for context-specific identification of in vivo microRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matkovich, Scot J; Van Booven, Derek J; Eschenbacher, William H; Dorn, Gerald W

    2011-01-07

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are expanding our understanding of cardiac disease and have the potential to transform cardiovascular therapeutics. One miR can target hundreds of individual mRNAs, but existing methodologies are not sufficient to accurately and comprehensively identify these mRNA targets in vivo. To develop methods permitting identification of in vivo miR targets in an unbiased manner, using massively parallel sequencing of mouse cardiac transcriptomes in combination with sequencing of mRNA associated with mouse cardiac RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). We optimized techniques for expression profiling small amounts of RNA without introducing amplification bias and applied this to anti-Argonaute 2 immunoprecipitated RISCs (RISC-Seq) from mouse hearts. By comparing RNA-sequencing results of cardiac RISC and transcriptome from the same individual hearts, we defined 1645 mRNAs consistently targeted to mouse cardiac RISCs. We used this approach in hearts overexpressing miRs from Myh6 promoter-driven precursors (programmed RISC-Seq) to identify 209 in vivo targets of miR-133a and 81 in vivo targets of miR-499. Consistent with the fact that miR-133a and miR-499 have widely differing "seed" sequences and belong to different miR families, only 6 targets were common to miR-133a- and miR-499-programmed hearts. RISC-sequencing is a highly sensitive method for general RISC profiling and individual miR target identification in biological context and is applicable to any tissue and any disease state.

  14. Design Approach and Implementation of Application Specific Instruction Set Processor for SHA-3 BLAKE Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuli; Han, Jun; Weng, Xinqian; He, Zhongzhu; Zeng, Xiaoyang

    This paper presents an Application Specific Instruction-set Processor (ASIP) for the SHA-3 BLAKE algorithm family by instruction set extensions (ISE) from an RISC (reduced instruction set computer) processor. With a design space exploration for this ASIP to increase the performance and reduce the area cost, we accomplish an efficient hardware and software implementation of BLAKE algorithm. The special instructions and their well-matched hardware function unit improve the calculation of the key section of the algorithm, namely G-functions. Also, relaxing the time constraint of the special function unit can decrease its hardware cost, while keeping the high data throughput of the processor. Evaluation results reveal the ASIP achieves 335Mbps and 176Mbps for BLAKE-256 and BLAKE-512. The extra area cost is only 8.06k equivalent gates. The proposed ASIP outperforms several software approaches on various platforms in cycle per byte. In fact, both high throughput and low hardware cost achieved by this programmable processor are comparable to that of ASIC implementations.

  15. A scoring system for ascertainment of incident stroke; the Risk Index Score (RISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass-Hout, T A; Moyé, L A; Smith, M A; Morgenstern, L B

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a computer-based statistical algorithm that could be translated into a simple scoring system in order to ascertain incident stroke cases using hospital admission medical records data. The Risk Index Score (RISc) algorithm was developed using data collected prospectively by the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) project, 2000. The validity of RISc was evaluated by estimating the concordance of scoring system stroke ascertainment to stroke ascertainment by physician and/or abstractor review of hospital admission records. RISc was developed on 1718 randomly selected patients (training set) and then statistically validated on an independent sample of 858 patients (validation set). A multivariable logistic model was used to develop RISc and subsequently evaluated by goodness-of-fit and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. The higher the value of RISc, the higher the patient's risk of potential stroke. The study showed RISc was well calibrated and discriminated those who had potential stroke from those that did not on initial screening. In this study we developed and validated a rapid, easy, efficient, and accurate method to ascertain incident stroke cases from routine hospital admission records for epidemiologic investigations. Validation of this scoring system was achieved statistically; however, clinical validation in a community hospital setting is warranted.

  16. 3′ fragment of miR173-programmed RISC-cleaved RNA is protected from degradation in a complex with RISC and SGS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Tsutsui, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Kyoko; Poethig, R. Scott; Habu, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) are plant-specific endogenous siRNAs produced via a unique pathway whose first step is the microRNA (miRNA)-programmed RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)–mediated cleavage of tasiRNA gene (TAS) transcripts. One of the products is subsequently transformed into tasiRNAs by a pathway that requires several factors including SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6. Here, using in vitro assembled ARGONAUTE (AGO)1–RISCs, we show that SGS3 is recruited onto RISCs only when they bind target RNA. Following cleavage by miRNA173 (miR173)-programmed RISC, SGS3 was found in complexes containing cleaved TAS2 RNA and RISC. The 3′ cleavage fragment (the source of tasiRNAs) was protected from degradation in this complex. Depletion of SGS3 did not affect TAS2 RNA cleavage by miR173-programmed RISC, but did affect the stability of the 3′ cleavage fragment. When the 3′ nucleotide of 22-nt miR173 was deleted or the corresponding nucleotide in TAS2 RNA was mutated, the complex was not observed and the 3′ cleavage fragment was degraded. Importantly, these changes in miR173 or TAS2 RNA are known to lead to a loss of tasiRNA production in vivo. These results suggest that (i) SGS3 associates with AGO1–RISC via the double-stranded RNA formed by the 3′-terminal nucleotides of 22-nt miR173 and corresponding target RNA, which probably protrudes from the AGO1–RISC molecular surface, (ii) SGS3 protects the 3′ cleavage fragment of TAS2 RNA from degradation, and (iii) the observed SGS3-dependent stabilization of the 3′ fragment of TAS2 RNA is key to tasiRNA production. PMID:23417299

  17. Keyboarding Instruction at NABTE Institutions: Are We Teaching Techniques to Reduce CTD Incidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Carol; Joyce, Marguerite Shane

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 157 of 193 business teachers who teach keyboarding indicated that 78.7% were aware of cumulative trauma disorder and 22% had experienced it. Only 13% of classrooms were equipped with wrist rests. About 53% teach techniques to reduce incidence, but 20% did not know whether they taught preventive measures. (SK)

  18. Captions and Reduced Forms Instruction: The Impact on EFL Students' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie Chi; Chang, Peichin

    2014-01-01

    For many EFL learners, listening poses a grave challenge. The difficulty in segmenting a stream of speech and limited capacity in short-term memory are common weaknesses for language learners. Specifically, reduced forms, which frequently appear in authentic informal conversations, compound the challenges in listening comprehension. Numerous…

  19. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  20. IGF2BP3 Modulates the Interaction of Invasion-Associated Transcripts with RISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane Ennajdaoui

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3 expression correlates with malignancy, but its role(s in pathogenesis remains enigmatic. We interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches, we have identified 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and microRNA (miRNA binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions.

  1. IGF2BP3 Modulates the Interaction of Invasion-Associated Transcripts with RISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennajdaoui, Hanane; Howard, Jonathan M; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Coyne, Doyle J; Uren, Philip J; Dargyte, Marija; Katzman, Sol; Draper, Jolene M; Wallace, Andrew; Cazarez, Oscar; Burns, Suzanne C; Qiao, Mei; Hinck, Lindsay; Smith, Andrew D; Toloue, Masoud M; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Penalva, Luiz O F; Sanford, Jeremy R

    2016-05-31

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) expression correlates with malignancy, but its role(s) in pathogenesis remains enigmatic. We interrogated the IGF2BP3-RNA interaction network in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. Using a combination of genome-wide approaches, we have identified 164 direct mRNA targets of IGF2BP3. These transcripts encode proteins enriched for functions such as cell migration, proliferation, and adhesion. Loss of IGF2BP3 reduced PDAC cell invasiveness and remodeled focal adhesion junctions. Individual nucleotide resolution crosslinking immunoprecipitation (iCLIP) revealed significant overlap of IGF2BP3 and microRNA (miRNA) binding sites. IGF2BP3 promotes association of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) with specific transcripts. Our results show that IGF2BP3 influences a malignancy-associated RNA regulon by modulating miRNA-mRNA interactions. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential RISC association of endogenous human microRNAs predicts their inhibitory potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Omar; Kennedy, Edward M; Skalsky, Rebecca L; Cullen, Bryan R

    2014-04-01

    It has previously been assumed that the generally high stability of microRNAs (miRNAs) reflects their tight association with Argonaute (Ago) proteins, essential components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). However, recent data have suggested that the majority of mature miRNAs are not, in fact, Ago associated. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous human miRNAs vary widely, by >100-fold, in their level of RISC association and show that the level of Ago binding is a better indicator of inhibitory potential than is the total level of miRNA expression. While miRNAs of closely similar sequence showed comparable levels of RISC association in the same cell line, these varied between different cell types. Moreover, the level of RISC association could be modulated by overexpression of complementary target mRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the level of RISC association of a given endogenous miRNA is regulated by the available RNA targetome and predicts miRNA function.

  3. An antiviral RISC isolated from Tobacco rattle virus-infected plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciomperlik, Jessica J; Omarov, Rustem T; Scholthof, Herman B

    2011-03-30

    The RNAi model predicts that during antiviral defense a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is programmed with viral short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to target the cognate viral RNA for degradation. We show that infection of Nicotiana benthamiana with Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) activates an antiviral nuclease that specifically cleaves TRV RNA in vitro. In agreement with known RISC properties, the nuclease activity was inhibited by NaCl and EDTA and stimulated by divalent metal cations; a novel property was its preferential targeting of elongated RNA molecules. Intriguingly, the specificity of the TRV RISC could be reprogrammed by exogenous addition of RNA (containing siRNAs) from plants infected with an unrelated virus, resulting in a newly acquired ability of RISC to target this heterologous genome in vitro. Evidently the virus-specific nuclease complex from N. benthamiana represents a genuine RISC that functions as a readily employable and reprogrammable antiviral defense unit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The co-chaperones Fkbp4/5 control Argonaute2 expression and facilitate RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Natalia J; Chang, Hao-Ming; Borrajo, Jacob de Riba; Gregory, Richard I

    2013-11-01

    Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and associated microRNAs (miRNAs) or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) for target messenger RNA cleavage and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Although Ago2 is essential for RISC activity, the mechanism of RISC assembly is not well understood, and factors controlling Ago2 protein expression are largely unknown. A role for the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone complex in loading small RNA duplexes into the RISC has been demonstrated in cell extracts, and unloaded Ago2 is unstable and degraded by the lysosome in mammalian cells. Here we identify the co-chaperones Fkbp4 and Fkbp5 as Ago2-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells. Pharmacological inhibition of this interaction using FK506 or siRNA-mediated Fkbp4/5 depletion leads to decreased Ago2 protein levels. We find FK506 treatment inhibits, whereas Fkbp4/5 overexpression promotes, miRNA-mediated stabilization of Ago2 expression. Simultaneous treatment with a lysosome inhibitor revealed the accumulation of unloaded Ago2 complexes in FK506-treated cells. We find that, consistent with unloaded miRNAs being unstable, FK506 treatment also affects miRNA abundance, particularly nascent miRNAs. Our results support a role for Fkbp4/5 in RISC assembly.

  5. Argonaute pull-down and RISC analysis using 2'-O-methylated oligonucleotides affinity matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Guillaume; Vasquez-Rifo, Alejandro; Simard, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, several novel small non-coding RNA pathways have been unveiled, which reach out to many biological processes. Common to all these pathways is the binding of a small RNA molecule to a protein member of the Argonaute family, which forms a minimal core complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex or RISC. The RISC targets mRNAs in a sequence-specific manner, either to induce mRNA cleavage through the intrinsic activity of the Argonaute protein or to abrogate protein synthesis by a mechanism that is still under investigation. We describe here, in details, a method for the affinity chromatography of the let-7 RISC starting from extracts of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our method exploits the sequence specificity of the RISC and makes use of biotinylated and 2'-O-methylated oligonucleotides to trap and pull-down small RNAs and their associated proteins. Importantly, this technique may easily be adapted to target other small RNAs expressed in different cell types or model organisms. This method provides a useful strategy to identify the proteins associated with the RISC, and hence gain insight in the functions of small RNAs.

  6. An in vitro reprogrammable antiviral RISC with size-preferential ribonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarov, Rustem T; Ciomperlik, Jessica; Scholthof, Herman B

    2016-03-01

    Infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) mutants compromised for silencing suppression induces formation of an antiviral RISC (vRISC) that can be isolated using chromatography procedures. The isolated vRISC sequence-specifically degrades TBSV RNA in vitro, its activity can be down-regulated by removing siRNAs, and re-stimulated by exogenous supply of siRNAs. vRISC is most effective at hydrolyzing the ~4.8kb genomic RNA, but less so for a ~2.2kb TBSV subgenomic mRNA (sgRNA1), while the 3' co-terminal sgRNA2 of ~0.9kb appears insensitive to vRISC cleavage. Moreover, experiments with in vitro generated 5' co-terminal viral transcripts show that RNAs of ~2.7kb are efficiently cleaved while those of ~1.1kb or shorter are unaffected. The isolated antiviral ribonuclease complex fails to degrade ~0.4kb defective interfering RNAs (DIs) in vitro, agreeing with findings that in plants DIs are not targeted by silencing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Slicer-independent mechanism drives small-RNA strand separation during human RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June Hyun; Shin, Chanseok

    2015-10-30

    Small RNA silencing is mediated by the effector RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that consists of an Argonaute protein (AGOs 1-4 in humans). A fundamental step during RISC assembly involves the separation of two strands of a small RNA duplex, whereby only the guide strand is retained to form the mature RISC, a process not well understood. Despite the widely accepted view that 'slicer-dependent unwinding' via passenger-strand cleavage is a prerequisite for the assembly of a highly complementary siRNA into the AGO2-RISC, here we show by careful re-examination that 'slicer-independent unwinding' plays a more significant role in human RISC maturation than previously appreciated, not only for a miRNA duplex, but, unexpectedly, for a highly complementary siRNA as well. We discovered that 'slicer-dependency' for the unwinding was affected primarily by certain parameters such as temperature and Mg(2+). We further validate these observations in non-slicer AGOs (1, 3 and 4) that can be programmed with siRNAs at the physiological temperature of humans, suggesting that slicer-independent mechanism is likely a common feature of human AGOs. Our results now clearly explain why both miRNA and siRNA are found in all four human AGOs, which is in striking contrast to the strict small-RNA sorting system in Drosophila. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  8. Reducing the Grade Disparities between American Indians and Euro-American Students in Introduction to Psychology through Small-Group, Peer-Mentored, Supplemental Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris Alan; Berlin, Anna; Hanrahan, Jeanne; Lewis, James; Johnson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI) is a small-group, peer-mentored programme which is compatible with the learning preferences of American Indian students. We tested the hypothesis that SI is a compensatory strategy that reduces the differences in the grades earned in introduction to psychology by Euro-American and American Indian students. The sample…

  9. Autoantigen La promotes efficient RNAi, antiviral response, and transposon silencing by facilitating multiple-turnover RISC catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Tan, Huiling; Tian, Hui; Liang, Chunyang; Chen, She; Liu, Qinghua

    2011-11-04

    The effector of RNA interference (RNAi) is the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). C3PO promotes the activation of RISC by degrading the Argonaute2 (Ago2)-nicked passenger strand of duplex siRNA. Active RISC is a multiple-turnover enzyme that uses the guide strand of siRNA to direct the Ago2-mediated sequence-specific cleavage of complementary mRNA. How this effector step of RNAi is regulated is currently unknown. Here, we used the human Ago2 minimal RISC system to purify Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (SSB)/autoantigen La as an activator of the RISC-mediated mRNA cleavage activity. Our reconstitution studies showed that La could promote multiple-turnover RISC catalysis by facilitating the release of cleaved mRNA from RISC. Moreover, we demonstrated that La was required for efficient RNAi, antiviral defense, and transposon silencing in vivo. Taken together, the findings of C3PO and La reveal a general concept that regulatory factors are required to remove Ago2-cleaved products to assemble or restore active RISC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery mediates ATP-dependent RISC loading of small RNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Yoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Katsuma, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-30

    Small silencing RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs)--direct posttranscriptional gene silencing of their mRNA targets as guides for the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Both siRNAs and miRNAs are born double stranded. Surprisingly, loading these small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, the core components of RISC, requires ATP, whereas separating the two small RNA strands within Argonaute does not. Here we show that the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery is required to load small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, but not for subsequent strand separation or target cleavage. We envision that the chaperone machinery uses ATP and mediates a conformational opening of Ago proteins so that they can receive bulky small RNA duplexes. Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The RISC-V Instruction Set Manual Volume 2: Privileged Architecture Version 1.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-09

    DIG07-10227). Additional support came from Par Lab affiliates Nokia, NVIDIA , Oracle, and Samsung. • Project Isis: DoE Award DE-SC0003624. • ASPIRE...STARnet center funded by the Semiconductor Research Corporation . Additional sup- port from ASPIRE industrial sponsor, Intel, and ASPIRE affiliates...Google, Huawei, Nokia, NVIDIA , Oracle, and Samsung. The content of this paper does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the US

  12. Increased RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) activity contributes to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Santhekadur, Prasanna K; Gredler, Rachel; Chen, Dong; Emdad, Luni; Bhutia, Sujit; Pannell, Lewis; Fisher, Paul B; Sarkar, Devanand

    2011-05-01

    There is virtually no effective treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and novel targets need to be identified to develop effective treatment. We recently documented that the oncogene Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) plays a seminal role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Employing yeast two-hybrid assay and coimmunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry, we identified staphylococcal nuclease domain containing 1 (SND1), a nuclease in the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) facilitating RNAi-mediated gene silencing, as an AEG-1 interacting protein. Coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization studies confirmed that AEG-1 is also a component of RISC and both AEG-1 and SND1 are required for optimum RISC activity facilitating small interfering RNA (siRNA) and micro RNA (miRNA)-mediated silencing of luciferase reporter gene. In 109 human HCC samples SND1 was overexpressed in ≈74% cases compared to normal liver. Correspondingly, significantly higher RISC activity was observed in human HCC cells compared to immortal normal hepatocytes. Increased RISC activity, conferred by AEG-1 or SND1, resulted in increased degradation of tumor suppressor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) that are target of oncomiRs. Inhibition of enzymatic activity of SND1 significantly inhibited proliferation of human HCC cells. As a corollary, stable overexpression of SND1 augmented and siRNA-mediated inhibition of SND1 abrogated growth of human HCC cells in vitro and in vivo, thus revealing a potential role of SND1 in hepatocarcinogenesis. We unravel a novel mechanism that overexpression of AEG-1 and SND1 leading to increased RISC activity might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis. Targeted inhibition of SND1 enzymatic activity might be developed as an effective therapy for HCC. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Desain Mikroprosessor Menggunakan Perangkat Lunak MAX+PLUS II

    OpenAIRE

    Niswar, Muhammad; Ilham, Amil Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Mikroprosessor umumnya dibedakan berdasarkan tingkat kerumitan arsitekturnya (instruction set). Berdasarkan kriteria ini maka mikroprosessor dapat dibagi menjadi dua jenis yaitu CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) dan RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer). Salah satu kelebihan utama mikroprosessor RISC dibandingkan dengan CISC adalah kemampuannya untuk mengeksekusi program yang relatif lebih cepat. Hal ini disebabkan karena kecepatan clock pada mikroprosessor RISC lebih tinggi dari p...

  14. Anatomy of RISC: how do small RNAs and chaperones activate Argonaute proteins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kotaro

    2016-09-01

    RNA silencing is a eukaryote-specific phenomenon in which microRNAs and small interfering RNAs degrade messenger RNAs containing a complementary sequence. To this end, these small RNAs need to be loaded onto an Argonaute protein (AGO protein) to form the effector complex referred to as RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). RISC assembly undergoes multiple and sequential steps with the aid of Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery. The molecular mechanisms for this assembly process remain unclear, despite their significance for the development of gene silencing techniques and RNA interference-based therapeutics. This review dissects the currently available structures of AGO proteins and proposes models and hypotheses for RISC assembly, covering the conformation of unloaded AGO proteins, the chaperone-assisted duplex loading, and the slicer-dependent and slicer-independent duplex separation. The differences in the properties of RISC between prokaryotes and eukaryotes will also be clarified. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:637-660. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1356 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 The Authors. WIREs RNA published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The microelectronic and photonic test bed RISC processor and DRAM memory stack experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, K.A.; Meehan, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the on-orbit data obtained from the MPTB RISC Processor Experiment, containing three Integrated Device Technologies R3081 processors. During operations, nine SEUs were observed in the processors, and four SEUs were observed in the memory and/or support circuitry. (authors)

  16. Competition between alliance blocks : the case of the RISC microprocessor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.; Noorderhaven, N.G.

    2001-01-01

    Competition between alliance blocks is a new form of rivalry: groups of firms link together for a common purpose by means of strategic alliances, and competition between alliance blocks is superimposed on competition between individual firms. This paper focuses on alliance blocks in the RISC

  17. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC): Linking Climate Literacy, Resilience Thinking and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, B. F.; Fano, E.; Adams, J.; Shon, L.; Zimmermann, A.; Sioux, H.; Gillis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Public schools and youth voices are largely absent from climate resilience planning and projects in New York City. Additionally, research shows that U.S. science teachers' understanding of climate science is lacking, hence there is not only an urgent need to train and support teachers on both the science and pedagogy of climate change, but to link climate literacy, resilience thinking and service learning in K-12 education. However, research on participation of students and teachers in authentic, civic-oriented experiences points to increased engagement and learning outcomes in science. The Resilient Schools Consortium (RiSC) Project will address all these needs through an afterschool program in six coastal Brooklyn schools that engages teachers and urban youth (grades 6-12), in school and community climate resilience assessment and project design. The RiSC climate curriculum, co-designed by New York City school teachers with Brooklyn College, the National Wildlife Federation, New York Sea Grant and the Science and Resilience Institute at Jamaica Bay, will begin by helping students to understand the difference between climate and weather. The curriculum makes extensive use of existing resources such as NOAA's Digital Coast and the Coastal Resilience Mapping Portal. Through a series of four modules over two school years, the six RiSC teams will; 1. explore and understand the human-induced drivers of climate change and, particularly, the significant climate and extreme weather related risks to their schools and surrounding communities; 2. complete a climate vulnerability assessment within the school and the community that is aligned to OneNYC - the city's resilience planning document; 3. design and execute a school-based resilience project; and 4. propose resilience guidelines for NYC Department of Education schools. At the end of each school year, the six RiSC teams will convene a RiSC summit with city officials and resilience practitioners to share ideas and

  18. RISC mezzanines for controlling data acquisition in the NA48 experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Guzik, Z; Bal, F; Formenti, F; Lacourt, A

    2000-01-01

    A part of the LKr calorimeter data acquisition system of the NA48 experiment (a precision measurements of epsilon / epsilon ' in CP- violating K/sup 0/ to 2 pi decays) is described. The experiment runs on the SPS north area in CERN. This paper presents some aspects of controlling the NA48 readout process based on commercial RIO 8260 RISC processors, which were used as a core for maintaining control algorithms. Several RISC processors were equipped with custom-made VME mezzanine boards providing interfacing, pre-processing and data formatting. These mezzanines are the subjects of this paper. They are: RIO-TIC/DAT (a time-stamp distributor and buffered DT-bus interface), FOL-RIO (an optical data formatter and event merger) and "TAXI receiver" (for handling trigger data of the NA48 Level-2 trigger supervisor). Also, the interface between the DT-bus and S- link/PCI is described. (8 refs).

  19. RISC mezzanines for controlling data acquisition in the NA48 experiment at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, Z.; Chlopik, A.; Bal, Fr.; Formenti, F.; Lacourt, A.

    2000-01-01

    A part of the LKr calorimeter data acquisition system of the NA48 experiment (a precision measurements of ε/ε' in CP violating; K 0 →2π decays) is described. The experiment runs on the SPS north area in CERN. This paper presents some aspects of controlling the NA48 readout process based on commercial RIO 8260 RISC processors, which were used as a core for maintaining control algorithms. Several RISC processors were equipped with custom-made VME mezzanine boards providing interfacing, pre-processing and data formatting. These mezzanines are subjects of this paper. They are: RIO-TIC/DAT - time stamp distributor and buffered DT-bus interface, FOL-RIO - optical data formatter and event merger and 'TAXI receiver' - handling trigger data of the NA48 Level 2 trigger supervisor. Also the interface between DT-bus and S-link/PCI is described

  20. Arabidopsis ARGONAUTE7 selects miR390 through multiple checkpoints during RISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yayoi; Iwakawa, Hiro-oki; Tomari, Yukihide

    2013-07-01

    Plant ARGONAUTE7 (AGO7) assembles RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) specifically with miR390 and regulates the auxin-signalling pathway via production of TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs). However, how AGO7 discerns miR390 among other miRNAs remains unclear. Here, we show that the 5' adenosine of miR390 and the central region of miR390/miR390* duplex are critical for the specific interaction with AGO7. Furthermore, despite the existence of mismatches in the seed and central regions of the duplex, cleavage of the miR390* strand is required for maturation of AGO7-RISC. These findings suggest that AGO7 uses multiple checkpoints to select miR390, thereby circumventing promiscuous tasiRNA production.

  1. Development of a data acquisition system using a RISC/UNIXTM workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Y.; Tanimori, T.; Yasu, Y.

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a compact data acquisition system on RISC/UNIX workstations. A SUN TM SPARCstation TM IPC was used, in which an extension bus 'SBus TM ' was linked to a VMEbus. The transfer rate achieved was better than 7 Mbyte/s between the VMEbus and the SUN. A device driver for CAMAC was developed in order to realize an interruptive feature in UNIX. In addition, list processing has been incorporated in order to keep the high priority of the data handling process in UNIX. The successful developments of both device driver and list processing have made it possible to realize the good real-time feature on the RISC/UNIX system. Based on this architecture, a portable and versatile data taking system has been developed, which consists of a graphical user interface, I/O handler, user analysis process, process manager and a CAMAC device driver. (orig.)

  2. An Efficient Power Estimation Methodology for Complex RISC Processor-based Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Rethinagiri , Santhosh Kumar; Ben Atitallah , Rabie; Dekeyser , Jean-Luc; Niar , Smail; Senn , Eric

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this contribution, we propose an efficient power estima- tion methodology for complex RISC processor-based plat- forms. In this methodology, the Functional Level Power Analysis (FLPA) is used to set up generic power models for the different parts of the system. Then, a simulation framework based on virtual platform is developed to evalu- ate accurately the activities used in the related power mod- els. The combination of the two parts above leads to a het- erogeneou...

  3. Performance awareness execution performance of HEP codes on RISC platforms,issues and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Yaari, R; Yaari, Refael; Jarp, Sverre

    1995-01-01

    The work described in this paper was started during the migration of Aleph's production jobs from the IBM mainframe/CRAY supercomputer to several RISC/Unix workstation platforms. The aim was to understand why Aleph did not obtain the performance on the RISC platforms that was "promised" after a CERN Unit comparison between these RISC platforms and the IBM mainframe. Remedies were also sought. Since the work with the Aleph jobs in turn led to the related task of understanding compilers and their options, the conditions under which the CERN benchmarks (and other benchmarks) were run, kernel routines and frequently used CERNLIB routines, the whole undertaking expanded to try to look at all the factors that influence the performance of High Energy Physics (HEP) jobs in general. Finally, key performance issues were reviewed against the programs of one of the LHC collaborations (Atlas) with the hope that the conclusions would be of long- term interest during the establishment of their simulation, reconstruction and...

  4. TAF11 Assembles the RISC Loading Complex to Enhance RNAi Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-09-03

    Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains the Dicer-2 (Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein-associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although it is an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11(-/-) ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using the recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of the Drosophila RLC and elucidate a cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identifying hotspots of coastal risk and evaluating DRR measures: results from the RISC-KIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongeren, A.; Ciavola, P.; Viavattene, C.; Dekleermaeker, S.; Martinez, G.; Ferreira, O.; Costa, C.

    2016-02-01

    High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called "hotspots") can be identified. The identification is done using the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, or CRAF, which computes the intensity from multi-hazards, the exposure and the vulnerability, all components of risk, including network and cascading effects. Based on this analysis hot spots of risk which warrant coastal protection investments are selected. For these hotspot areas, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support Tools are developed with which it is possible to compute in detail the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in storm event scenarios, which helps decide which measures to implement in the planning phase. The same systems, but now driven with real time data, can also be used for early warning systems. All tools are tested on eleven case study areas, at least one on each EU Regional Sea

  6. Dysregulated RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) Assembly within CNS Corresponds with Abnormal miRNA Expression during Autoimmune Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Mycko, Marcin P; Cichalewska, Maria; Domowicz, Małgorzata; Lewkowicz, Natalia; Jurewicz, Anna; Selmaj, Krzysztof W

    2015-05-13

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) associate with Argonaute (Ago), GW182, and FXR1 proteins to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs). RISCs represent a critical checkpoint in the regulation and bioavailability of miRNAs. Recent studies have revealed dysregulation of miRNAs in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE); however, the function of RISCs in EAE and MS is largely unknown. Here, we examined the expression of Ago, GW182, and FXR1 in CNS tissue, oligodendrocytes (OLs), brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, and CD3(+)splenocytes (SCs) of EAE mic, and found that global RISC protein levels were significantly dysregulated. Specifically, Ago2 and FXR1 levels were decreased in OLs and brain-infiltrating T cells in EAE mice. Accordingly, assembly of Ago2/GW182/FXR1 complexes in EAE brain tissues was disrupted, as confirmed by immunoprecipitation experiments. In parallel with alterations in RISC complex content in OLs, we found downregulation of miRNAs essential for differentiation and survival of OLs and myelin synthesis. In brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes, aberrant RISC formation contributed to miRNA-dependent proinflammatory helper T-cell polarization. In CD3(+) SCs, we found increased expression of both Ago2 and FXR1 in EAE compared with nonimmunized mice. Therefore, our results demonstrate a gradient in expression of miRNA between primary activated T cells in the periphery and polarized CNS-infiltrating T cells. These results suggest that, in polarized autoreactive effector T cells, miRNA synthesis is inhibited in response to dysregulated RISC assembly, allowing these cells to maintain a highly specific proinflammatory program. Therefore, our findings may provide a mechanism that leads to miRNA dysregulation in EAE/MS. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357521-17$15.00/0.

  7. Single instruction computer architecture and its application in image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplante, Phillip A.

    1992-03-01

    A single processing computer system using only half-adder circuits is described. In addition, it is shown that only a single hard-wired instruction is needed in the control unit to obtain a complete instruction set for this general purpose computer. Such a system has several advantages. First it is intrinsically a RISC machine--in fact the 'ultimate RISC' machine. Second, because only a single type of logic element is employed the entire computer system can be easily realized on a single, highly integrated chip. Finally, due to the homogeneous nature of the computer's logic elements, the computer has possible implementations as an optical or chemical machine. This in turn suggests possible paradigms for neural computing and artificial intelligence. After showing how we can implement a full-adder, min, max and other operations using the half-adder, we use an array of such full-adders to implement the dilation operation for two black and white images. Next we implement the erosion operation of two black and white images using a relative complement function and the properties of erosion and dilation. This approach was inspired by papers by van der Poel in which a single instruction is used to furnish a complete set of general purpose instructions and by Bohm- Jacopini where it is shown that any problem can be solved using a Turing machine with one entry and one exit.

  8. Spanish validation of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10) with non-professional caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Guisande, María Adelina; Sánchez, María Teresa; Otero, Patricia; Vázquez, Fernando L

    2017-11-08

    Despite the importance of resilience in populations under stress, and the fact that the 10-item version Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC 10) is the shortest instrument for reliable and valid evaluation of resilience, there are no data on their psychometric properties in non-professional caregivers. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the spanish version of the CD-RISC 10 in non-professional caregivers. Independently trained assessors evaluated resilience, self-esteem, social support, emotional distress and depression in a sample of 294 caregivers (89.8% women, mean age 55.3 years). The internal consistency of CD-RISC 10 was α = .86. A single factor was found that accounted for 44.7% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated this unifactorial model. The CD-RISC 10 was significantly correlated with the self-esteem (r = .416, p caregivers with depression (sensitivity = 70.0%, specificity = 68.2%). The CD-RISC 10 is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate resilience in the caregiver population.

  9. Structural insights into RISC assembly facilitated by dsRNA-binding domains of human RNA helicase A (DHX9).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qinqin; Yuan, Y Adam

    2013-03-01

    Intensive research interest has focused on small RNA-processing machinery and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), key cellular machines in RNAi pathways. However, the structural mechanism regarding RISC assembly, the primary step linking small RNA processing and RNA-mediated gene silencing, is largely unknown. Human RNA helicase A (DHX9) was reported to function as an RISC-loading factor, and such function is mediated mainly by its dsRNA-binding domains (dsRBDs). Here, we report the crystal structures of human RNA helicase A (RHA) dsRBD1 and dsRBD2 domains in complex with dsRNAs, respectively. Structural analysis not only reveals higher siRNA duplex-binding affinity displayed by dsRBD1, but also identifies a crystallographic dsRBD1 pair of physiological significance in cooperatively recognizing dsRNAs. Structural observations are further validated by isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) assay. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay coupled with mutagenesis demonstrated that both dsRBDs are required for RISC association, and such association is mediated by dsRNA. Hence, our structural and functional efforts have revealed a potential working model for siRNA recognition by RHA tandem dsRBDs, and together they provide direct structural insights into RISC assembly facilitated by RHA.

  10. Viral RNAi suppressor reversibly binds siRNA to outcompete Dicer and RISC via multiple turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Renata A; Krishnan, Vishalakshi; Walter, Nils G

    2011-04-29

    RNA interference is a conserved gene regulatory mechanism employed by most eukaryotes as a key component of their innate immune response to viruses and retrotransposons. During viral infection, the RNase-III-type endonuclease Dicer cleaves viral double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) 21-24 nucleotides in length and helps load them into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to guide the cleavage of complementary viral RNA. As a countermeasure, many viruses have evolved viral RNA silencing suppressors (RSS) that tightly, and presumably quantitatively, bind siRNAs to thwart RNA-interference-mediated degradation. Viral RSS proteins also act across kingdoms as potential immunosuppressors in gene therapeutic applications. Here we report fluorescence quenching and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that probe siRNA binding by the dimeric RSS p19 from Carnation Italian Ringspot Virus, as well as by human Dicer and RISC assembly complexes. We find that the siRNA:p19 interaction is readily reversible, characterized by rapid binding [(1.69 ± 0.07) × 10(8) M(-)(1) s(-1)] and marked dissociation (k(off)=0.062 ± 0.002 s(-1)). We also observe that p19 efficiently competes with recombinant Dicer and inhibits the formation of RISC-related assembly complexes found in human cell extract. Computational modeling based on these results provides evidence for the transient formation of a ternary complex between siRNA, human Dicer, and p19. An expanded model of RNA silencing indicates that multiple turnover by reversible binding of siRNAs potentiates the efficiency of the suppressor protein. Our predictive model is expected to be applicable to the dosing of p19 as a silencing suppressor in viral gene therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. siRNAs targeted to certain polyadenylation sites promote specific, RISC-independent degradation of messenger RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Timothy A; Crooke, Stanley T

    2012-07-01

    While most siRNAs induce sequence-specific target mRNA cleavage and degradation in a process mediated by Ago2/RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), certain siRNAs have also been demonstrated to direct target RNA reduction through deadenylation and subsequent degradation of target transcripts in a process which involves Ago1/RISC and P-bodies. In the current study, we present data suggesting that a third class of siRNA exist, which are capable of promoting target RNA reduction that is independent of both Ago and RISC. These siRNAs bind the target messenger RNA at the polyA signal and are capable of redirecting a small amount of polyadenylation to downstream polyA sites when present, however, the majority of the activity appears to be due to inhibition of polyadenylation or deadenylation of the transcript, followed by exosomal degradation of the immature mRNA.

  12. Benchmark Tests on the New IBM RISC System/6000 590 Workstation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey J. Wasserman

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of benchmark tests on the superscalar IBM RISC System/6000 Model 590 are presented. A set of well-characterized Fortran benchmarks spanning a range of computational characteristics was used for the study. The data from the 590 system are compared with those from a single-processor CRAY C90 system as well as with other microprocessor-based systems, such as the Digital Equipment Corporation AXP 3000/500X and the Hewlett-Packard HP/735.

  13. Cadherin complexes recruit mRNAs and RISC to regulate epithelial cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtidis, Antonis; Necela, Brian; Lin, Wan-Hsin; Lu, Ruifeng; Feathers, Ryan W; Asmann, Yan W; Thompson, E Aubrey; Anastasiadis, Panos Z

    2017-10-02

    Cumulative evidence demonstrates that most RNAs exhibit specific subcellular distribution. However, the mechanisms regulating this phenomenon and its functional consequences are still under investigation. Here, we reveal that cadherin complexes at the apical zonula adherens (ZA) of epithelial adherens junctions recruit the core components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) Ago2, GW182, and PABPC1, as well as a set of 522 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and 28 mature microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), via PLEKHA7. Top canonical pathways represented by these mRNAs include Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, and stem cell signaling. We specifically demonstrate the presence and silencing of MYC, JUN, and SOX2 mRNAs by miR-24 and miR-200c at the ZA. PLEKHA7 knockdown dissociates RISC from the ZA, decreases loading of the ZA-associated mRNAs and miRNAs to Ago2, and results in a corresponding increase of MYC, JUN, and SOX2 protein expression. The present work reveals a mechanism that directly links junction integrity to the silencing of a set of mRNAs that critically affect epithelial homeostasis. © 2017 Kourtidis et al.

  14. Depletion of key protein components of the RISC pathway impairs pre-ribosomal RNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about whether components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) mediate the biogenesis of RNAs other than miRNA. Here, we show that depletion of key proteins of the RISC pathway by antisense oligonucleotides significantly impairs pre-rRNA processing in human cells. In cells depleted of Drosha or Dicer, different precursors to 5.8S rRNA strongly accumulated, without affecting normal endonucleolytic cleavages. Moderate yet distinct processing defects were also observed in Ago2-depleted cells. Physical links between pre-rRNA and these proteins were identified by co-immunoprecipitation analyses. Interestingly, simultaneous depletion of Dicer and Drosha led to a different processing defect, causing slower production of 28S rRNA and its precursor. Both Dicer and Ago2 were detected in the nuclear fraction, and reduction of Dicer altered the structure of the nucleolus, where pre-rRNA processing occurs. Together, these results suggest that Drosha and Dicer are implicated in rRNA biogenesis.

  15. Structural insights into RNA processing by the human RISC-loading complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Noland, Cameron; Siridechadilok, Bunpote; Taylor, David W; Ma, Enbo; Felderer, Karin; Doudna, Jennifer A; Nogales, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Targeted gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) requires loading of a short guide RNA (small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA)) onto an Argonaute protein to form the functional center of an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In humans, Argonaute2 (AGO2) assembles with the guide RNA-generating enzyme Dicer and the RNA-binding protein TRBP to form a RISC-loading complex (RLC), which is necessary for efficient transfer of nascent siRNAs and miRNAs from Dicer to AGO2. Here, using single-particle EM analysis, we show that human Dicer has an L-shaped structure. The RLC Dicer's N-terminal DExH/D domain, located in a short 'base branch', interacts with TRBP, whereas its C-terminal catalytic domains in the main body are proximal to AGO2. A model generated by docking the available atomic structures of Dicer and Argonaute homologs into the RLC reconstruction suggests a mechanism for siRNA transfer from Dicer to AGO2.

  16. Statistical Use of Argonaute Expression and RISC Assembly in microRNA Target Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Stephen A.; Sengupta, Srikumar; den Boon, Johan; Ahlquist, Paul; Newton, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) posttranscriptionally regulate targeted messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by inducing cleavage or otherwise repressing their translation. We address the problem of detecting m/miRNA targeting relationships in homo sapiens from microarray data by developing statistical models that are motivated by the biological mechanisms used by miRNAs. The focus of our modeling is the construction, activity, and mediation of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) competent for targeted mRNA cleavage. We demonstrate that regression models accommodating RISC abundance and controlling for other mediating factors fit the expression profiles of known target pairs substantially better than models based on m/miRNA expressions alone, and lead to verifications of computational target pair predictions that are more sensitive than those based on marginal expression levels. Because our models are fully independent of exogenous results from sequence-based computational methods, they are appropriate for use as either a primary or secondary source of information regarding m/miRNA target pair relationships, especially in conjunction with high-throughput expression studies. PMID:19779550

  17. Burden to importance ratio as a quantitative measure to validate the RISC-3 SSC in OPTION-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, J. S.; Sung, P. H.

    2004-01-01

    A Risk-Informed Safety Significance Categorization (RISSC) is to categorize structures, systems, or components (SSCs) of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) into two or more groups, according to their safety significance using both probabilistic and deterministic insights. Recently, OPTION-2 (which is an emerging risk-informed paradigm) recommends that SSCs should be categorized into four groups according to whether they are safety-related or not as well as their safety significance. With the change of 10 CFR 50, safety-related components which categorized into low safety significant SSC (RISC-3 SSC) can be exempted from the existing conservative requirements. Consequently, as OPTION-2 paradigm is applied, a validation process focused on the RISC-3 SSC is needed to assure the categorization results, because most of existing RISSC methods focused on the categorization of the whole SSCs of NPPs based on importance measures obtained from probabilistic and deterministic insights. In this work, Burden to Importance Ratio (BIR) is utilized as a measure for the validation of RISC-3 SSC in OPTION-2. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach, the approach is applied to 22 components selected from 512 In-Service Test (IST) components of Ulchin unit 3. The results of the application show that the proposed approach is useful for the validation of RISC-3 SSC in OPTION-2

  18. RISC-RAD. A European integrated approach to the problem of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meunier, A.; Sabatier, L.; Atkinson, M.; Paretzke, H.; Bouffler, S.; Mullenders, L.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Funded by the European Commission in the framework of a dedicated programme supporting research in the Nuclear sector (FP6 Euratom), the project RISC-RAD undertakes experimental and modelling studies ultimately to improve low dose radiation cancer risk assessment by exploring and providing evidence for the most appropriate radiation cancer risk projection and interpolation models. It started on 1st January 2004 and is running until 31 st October 2008. It mobilizes a consortium of 31 partners and is coordinated by Dr. Laure Sabatier from the French atomic energy commission. Indeed the project represents an unprecedented attempt to integrate horizontally the research on the effects of low doses of IR at the European level. A multipartner project supporting objective-driven research, RISC-RAD aims at contributing to bridge the remaining gap of scientific knowledge about effects of lows doses of ionizing radiation. It spans a large part of the research spectrum, including many topics addressed during the LOWRAD2007 conference. This presentation intends to give an account of the integrative aspects of the project, insights on the innovative solutions found to approach a complex and controversial scientific topic like the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation, and links with some areas of social studies on science.The concept of 'integration' implies the development of a new kind of activity in the research field, which crosses its traditional boundaries : controversies of several kinds must temporarily be overcome within the project management board in order to define and follow a common strategy. Among them, how to reconcile the creative part of fundamental research with the compliance to strict project planning rules has come up as a debate which questions the best way a significant collective and coordinated action can address the issue of the low dose cancer risk assessment on the long term. The knowledge and

  19. Depressive symptoms, insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in the RISC cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bot, M; Pouwer, F; De Jonge, P

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk (RISC) study. Presence of significant depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score ≥ 16. Standard oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the oral glucose insulin......AIM: This study explored the association of depressive symptoms with indices of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in a cohort of non-diabetic men and women aged 30 to 64 years. METHODS: The study population was derived from the 3-year follow-up of the Relationship between Insulin...... sensitivity (OGIS) index. Insulin secretion was estimated using three model-based parameters of insulin secretion (beta-cell glucose sensitivity, the potentiation factor ratio, and beta-cell rate sensitivity). RESULTS: A total of 162 out of 1027 participants (16%) had significant depressive symptoms. Having...

  20. Intelligent Instructional Systems in Military Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, J.D.; Zdybel, Frank

    Intelligent instructional systems can be distinguished from more conventional approaches by the automation of instructional interaction and choice of strategy. This approach promises to reduce the costs of instructional materials preparation and to increase the adaptability and individualization of the instruction delivered. Tutorial simulation…

  1. Single-molecule fluorescence measurements reveal the reaction mechanisms of the core RISC, composed of human Argonaute 2 and a guide RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Myung Hyun; Song, Ji-Joon; Hohng, Sungchul

    2015-12-01

    In eukaryotes, small RNAs play important roles in both gene regulation and resistance to viral infection. Argonaute proteins have been identified as a key component of the effector complexes of various RNA-silencing pathways, but the mechanistic roles of Argonaute proteins in these pathways are not clearly understood. To address this question, we performed single-molecule fluorescence experiments using an RNA-induced silencing complex (core-RISC) composed of a small RNA and human Argonaute 2. We found that target binding of core-RISC starts at the seed region of the guide RNA. After target binding, four distinct reactions followed: target cleavage, transient binding, stable binding, and Argonaute unloading. Target cleavage required extensive sequence complementarity and accelerated core-RISC dissociation for recycling. In contrast, the stable binding of core-RISC to target RNAs required seed-match only, suggesting a potential explanation for the seed-match rule of microRNA (miRNA) target selection.

  2. PDSparc: A Drop-In Replacement for LEON3 Written Using Synopsys Processor Designer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    Instruction Set Computers (CISC), in which complex operations are rolled up into single instructions, and Reduced Instruction Set Computers ( RISC ), in...of RISC over CISC architectures are many, including the ability to easily pipeline operations (because all or most operations take the same amount of...time to execute), and speed, as critical paths can be much shorter. The RISC model is good for generalized computing, in which a wide variety of

  3. Sensing miRNA: Signal Amplification by Cognate RISC for Intracellular Detection of miRNA in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavishwar, Amol; Medarova, Zdravka

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect miRNA expression in live cells would leave these cells available for further manipulation or culture. Here, we describe the design of a miRNA sensor oligonucleotide whose sequence mimics the target mRNA. The sensor has a fluorescent label on one end of the oligo and a quencher on the other. When inside the cell, the sensor is recognized by its cognate miRNA-RISC and gets cleaved, setting the fluorophore free from its quencher. This results in fluorescence "turn on." Since cleavage by the RISC complex is an enzymatic process, the described approach has a very high level of sensitivity (nM). The rate of nonspecific cleavage of the sensor is very slow permitting the collection of meaningful signal over a long period of time.

  4. Development of the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC score among young children with respiratory infections in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Reed

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pneumonia is a leading cause of death in children worldwide. A simple clinical score predicting the probability of death in a young child with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI could aid clinicians in case management and provide a standardized severity measure during epidemiologic studies. METHODS: We analyzed 4,148 LRTI hospitalizations in children <24 months enrolled in a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trial in South Africa from 1998-2001, to develop the Respiratory Index of Severity in Children (RISC. Using clinical data at admission, a multivariable logistic regression model for mortality was developed and statistically evaluated using bootstrap resampling techniques. Points were assigned to risk factors based on their coefficients in the multivariable model. A child's RISC score is the sum of points for each risk factor present. Separate models were developed for HIV-infected and non-infected children. RESULTS: Significant risk factors for HIV-infected and non-infected children included low oxygen saturation, chest indrawing, wheezing, and refusal to feed. The models also included age and HIV clinical classification (for HIV-infected children or weight-for-age (for non-infected children. RISC scores ranged up to 7 points for HIV-infected or 6 points for non-infected children and correlated with probability of death (0-47%, HIV-infected; 0-14%, non-infected. Final models showed good discrimination (area under the ROC curve and calibration (goodness-of-fit. CONCLUSION: The RISC score incorporates a simple set of risk factors that accurately discriminate between young children based on their risk of death from LRTI, and may provide an objective means to quantify severity based on the risk of mortality.

  5. A RISC multiprocessor event trigger for the data acquisition system of the H1 experiment at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In late 1991 HERA will collide for the first time stored beams of electrons and protons. This paper describes the multiple RISC processor system for online event filtering and reconstruction installed within the data acquisition system of the H1 experiment. Data is processed at a continuous average rate of ∼6 Mbytes/s in parallel by ∼20 R3000 VMEbus based monoboard computers providing some 400 MIPS computing power

  6. Application of specialized RISC processor for realization of algorithms for track signal filtration on data read from CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Ya.; Kotov, V.M.; Kharcharufkova, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algorithms for track signal filtration from bubble and streamer spark chambers read by CCD matrix with elements of 256x288 dimensions are described. The microprogrammed RISC processor is used for preliminary processing and filtration of data obtained. It makes possible to recognize and filter track elements in the zone of 0.25 mm 2 square during 0.17-0.20 s, that maintains it in real time operation

  7. ARC2D - EFFICIENT SOLUTION METHODS FOR THE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS (DEC RISC ULTRIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyabani, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    computers to emulate Cray system time calls, which should be easy to modify for other machines as well. The standard distribution media for this version is a 9-track 1600 BPI ASCII Card Image format magnetic tape. The Cray version was developed in 1987. The IBM ES/3090 version is an IBM port of the Cray version. It is written in IBM VS FORTRAN and has the capability of executing in both vector and parallel modes on the MVS/XA operating system and in vector mode on the VM/XA operating system. Various options of the IBM VS FORTRAN compiler provide new features for the ES/3090 version, including 64-bit arithmetic and up to 2 GB of virtual addressability. The IBM ES/3090 version is available only as a 9-track, 1600 BPI IBM IEBCOPY format magnetic tape. The IBM ES/3090 version was developed in 1989. The DEC RISC ULTRIX version is a DEC port of the Cray version. It is written in FORTRAN 77 for RISC-based Digital Equipment platforms. The memory requirement is approximately 7Mb of main memory. It is available in UNIX tar format on TK50 tape cartridge. The port to DEC RISC ULTRIX was done in 1990. COS and UNICOS are trademarks and Cray is a registered trademark of Cray Research, Inc. IBM, ES/3090, VS FORTRAN, MVS/XA, and VM/XA are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. DEC and ULTRIX are registered trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  8. Low dose radiation effects: an integrative european approach (Risc-Rad Project) coordinated by the Cea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatier, L.

    2006-01-01

    RISC-RAD (Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by ionizing Radiations) is an Integrated Project funded by the European Commission under 6. Framework Programme / EURATOM. RISC-RAD started on 1. January 2004 for a duration of four years. Coordinated by Cea (Dr Laure Sabatier), it involves 11 European countries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom) and 29 research institutions. Objectives: Exposures to low and protracted doses of ionizing radiation are very frequent in normal living environment, at work places, in industry and in medicine. Effects of these exposures on human health cannot be reliably assessed by epidemiological methods, nor is thoroughly understood by biologists. RISC-RAD project proposes to help bridging the gap of scientific knowledge about these effects. To achieve this goal, a necessary key step is to understand the basic mechanisms by which radiation induces cancer. Studying this multistage process in an integrated way, the project offers a new biological approach characterised by and clear-cut and objective-driven scientific policy: the project is focused on the effects of low doses (less than 100 mSv) and protracted doses of radiation. It aims at identifying new parameters that take into account the differences in radiation responses between individuals. A group of modelers works closely with the experimental teams in order to better quantify the risks associated with low and protracted doses. Research work is divided into five work packages interacting closely with each other. WP1 is dedicated to DNA damage. Ionizing Radiation (IR) produce a broad spectrum of base modifications and DNA strand breaks of different kinds, among which double-strand breaks and 'clustered damage' which is thought to be a major feature in biological effectiveness of IR. The aim of Work Package 1 is to improve understanding of the initial DNA damage induced by

  9. RISC-mediated control of selected chromatin regulators stabilizes ground state pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfini, Luca; Luzi, Ettore; Bressan, Dario; Ucciferri, Nadia; Bertacchi, Michele; Brandi, Rossella; Rocchiccioli, Silvia; D'Onofrio, Mara; Cremisi, Federico

    2016-05-06

    Embryonic stem cells are intrinsically unstable and differentiate spontaneously if they are not shielded from external stimuli. Although the nature of such instability is still controversial, growing evidence suggests that protein translation control may play a crucial role. We performed an integrated analysis of RNA and proteins at the transition between naïve embryonic stem cells and cells primed to differentiate. During this transition, mRNAs coding for chromatin regulators are specifically released from translational inhibition mediated by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). This suggests that, prior to differentiation, the propensity of embryonic stem cells to change their epigenetic status is hampered by RNA interference. The expression of these chromatin regulators is reinstated following acute inactivation of RISC and it correlates with loss of stemness markers and activation of early cell differentiation markers in treated embryonic stem cells. We propose that RISC-mediated inhibition of specific sets of chromatin regulators is a primary mechanism for preserving embryonic stem cell pluripotency while inhibiting the onset of embryonic developmental programs.

  10. RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) Proteins PACT, TRBP, and Dicer are SRA binding nuclear receptor coregulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Andrew D; Colley, Shane M; Beveridge, Dianne J; Ikeda, Naoya; Epis, Michael R; Li, Xia; Foulds, Charles E; Stuart, Lisa M; Barker, Andrew; Russell, Victoria J; Ramsay, Kerry; Kobelke, Simon J; Li, Xiaotao; Hatchell, Esme C; Payne, Christine; Giles, Keith M; Messineo, Adriana; Gatignol, Anne; Lanz, Rainer B; O'Malley, Bert W; Leedman, Peter J

    2013-04-16

    The cytoplasmic RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) contains dsRNA binding proteins, including protein kinase RNA activator (PACT), transactivation response RNA binding protein (TRBP), and Dicer, that process pre-microRNAs into mature microRNAs (miRNAs) that target specific mRNA species for regulation. There is increasing evidence for important functional interactions between the miRNA and nuclear receptor (NR) signaling networks, with recent data showing that estrogen, acting through the estrogen receptor, can modulate initial aspects of nuclear miRNA processing. Here, we show that the cytoplasmic RISC proteins PACT, TRBP, and Dicer are steroid receptor RNA activator (SRA) binding NR coregulators that target steroid-responsive promoters and regulate NR activity and downstream gene expression. Furthermore, each of the RISC proteins, together with Argonaute 2, associates with SRA and specific pre-microRNAs in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, providing evidence for links between NR-mediated transcription and some of the factors involved in miRNA processing.

  11. Increasing High School Students' Chemistry Performance and Reducing Cognitive Load through an Instructional Strategy Based on the Interaction of Multiple Levels of Knowledge Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic´, Dus?ica D.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Hrin, Tamara N.

    2014-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to examine the extent to which a teaching approach focused on the interaction between macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic levels of chemistry representations could affect high school students' performance in the field of inorganic reactions, as well as to examine how the applied instruction influences…

  12. MICROPROCESADOR DIDÁCTICO DE ARQUITECTURA RISC IMPLEMENTADO EN UN FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor H. García Ortega

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el diseño e implementación de un microprocesador de 16 bits de arquitectura RISC tipo MIPS. Las características principales que presenta el microprocesador son: una arquitectura Harvard con una memoria de programa de 64K x 25 bits y una memoria de datos de 64k x 16 bits, una pila de ocho niveles implementada en hardware y la Unidad Lógica-Aritmética (ALU con esquema de acarreo anticipado por propagación y generación para el aumento de velocidad en la ejecución de las operaciones aritméticas. La unidad de control decodifica y maneja las señales de control del microprocesador para ejecutar las instrucciones en un solo ciclo de reloj. La implementación se realizó en un dispositivo lógico programable del tipo FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array de la familia Spartan-3A de Xilinx. El diseño de cada elemento del microprocesador se desarrolló con el lenguaje de descripción de hardware VHDL.

  13. Multi-bits error detection and fast recovery in RISC cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jing; Yang Xing; Zhang Weigong; Shen Jiao; Qiu Keni; Zhao Yuanfu

    2015-01-01

    The particles-induced soft errors are a major threat to the reliability of microprocessors. Even worse, multi-bits upsets (MBUs) are ever-increased due to the rapidly shrinking feature size of the IC on a chip. Several architecture-level mechanisms have been proposed to protect microprocessors from soft errors, such as dual and triple modular redundancies (DMR and TMR). However, most of them are inefficient to combat the growing multi-bits errors or cannot well balance the critical paths delay, area and power penalty. This paper proposes a novel architecture, self-recovery dual-pipeline (SRDP), to effectively provide soft error detection and recovery with low cost for general RISC structures. We focus on the following three aspects. First, an advanced DMR pipeline is devised to detect soft error, especially MBU. Second, SEU/MBU errors can be located by enhancing self-checking logic into pipelines stage registers. Third, a recovery scheme is proposed with a recovery cost of 1 or 5 clock cycles. Our evaluation of a prototype implementation exhibits that the SRDP can successfully detect particle-induced soft errors up to 100% and recovery is nearly 95%, the other 5% will inter a specific trap. (paper)

  14. Multi-bits error detection and fast recovery in RISC cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wang; Xing, Yang; Yuanfu, Zhao; Weigong, Zhang; Jiao, Shen; Keni, Qiu

    2015-11-01

    The particles-induced soft errors are a major threat to the reliability of microprocessors. Even worse, multi-bits upsets (MBUs) are ever-increased due to the rapidly shrinking feature size of the IC on a chip. Several architecture-level mechanisms have been proposed to protect microprocessors from soft errors, such as dual and triple modular redundancies (DMR and TMR). However, most of them are inefficient to combat the growing multi-bits errors or cannot well balance the critical paths delay, area and power penalty. This paper proposes a novel architecture, self-recovery dual-pipeline (SRDP), to effectively provide soft error detection and recovery with low cost for general RISC structures. We focus on the following three aspects. First, an advanced DMR pipeline is devised to detect soft error, especially MBU. Second, SEU/MBU errors can be located by enhancing self-checking logic into pipelines stage registers. Third, a recovery scheme is proposed with a recovery cost of 1 or 5 clock cycles. Our evaluation of a prototype implementation exhibits that the SRDP can successfully detect particle-induced soft errors up to 100% and recovery is nearly 95%, the other 5% will inter a specific trap.

  15. Capturing microRNA targets using an RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-trap approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronne, Xiaolu A; Shen, Rongkun; Auer, Paul L; Goodman, Richard H

    2012-12-11

    Identifying targets is critical for understanding the biological effects of microRNA (miRNA) expression. The challenge lies in characterizing the cohort of targets for a specific miRNA, especially when targets are being actively down-regulated in miRNA- RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-messengerRNA (mRNA) complexes. We have developed a robust and versatile strategy called RISCtrap to stabilize and purify targets from this transient interaction. Its utility was demonstrated by determining specific high-confidence target datasets for miR-124, miR-132, and miR-181 that contained known and previously unknown transcripts. Two previously unknown miR-132 targets identified with RISCtrap, adaptor protein CT10 regulator of kinase 1 (CRK1) and tight junction-associated protein 1 (TJAP1), were shown to be endogenously regulated by miR-132 in adult mouse forebrain. The datasets, moreover, differed in the number of targets and in the types and frequency of microRNA recognition element (MRE) motifs, thus revealing a previously underappreciated level of specificity in the target sets regulated by individual miRNAs.

  16. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy reveal the cytoplasmic origination of loaded nuclear RISC in vivo in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt, Thomas; Mütze, Jörg; Staroske, Wolfgang; Weinmann, Lasse; Höck, Julia; Crell, Karin; Meister, Gunter; Schwille, Petra

    2008-11-01

    Studies of RNA interference (RNAi) provide evidence that in addition to the well-characterized cytoplasmic mechanisms, nuclear mechanisms also exist. The mechanism by which the nuclear RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) is formed in mammalian cells, as well as the relationship between the RNA silencing pathways in nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments is still unknown. Here we show by applying fluorescence correlation and cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCS/FCCS) in vivo that two distinct RISC exist: a large approximately 3 MDa complex in the cytoplasm and a 20-fold smaller complex of approximately 158 kDa in the nucleus. We further show that nuclear RISC, consisting only of Ago2 and a short RNA, is loaded in the cytoplasm and imported into the nucleus. The loaded RISC accumulates in the nucleus depending on the presence of a target, based on an miRNA-like interaction with impaired cleavage of the cognate RNA. Together, these results suggest a new RISC shuttling mechanism between nucleus and cytoplasm ensuring concomitant gene regulation by small RNAs in both compartments.

  17. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation. Proceedings of the RISC-RAD specialised training course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakov, O.V.

    2008-12-01

    The training course 'Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation' took place at the STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland 14-16 February 2005. Proceeding of this course is collected in this volume. The idea of the course was to convene a number of scientists leading in the area of non-targeted effects of ionising radiation with the aim to outline their visions for the role of these effects and outline the future directions of radiation research on the basis of their expertise. The course was supported by the RISC-RAD IP FI6R-CT-2003-508842, Euratom specific programme for research and training on nuclear energy, 6th FP of the EC. The main objectives of the training course were: (1) to clarify the mechanisms of non-targeted effects, in particular, bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response; (2) to look if and how non-targeted effects modulate the cancer risk in the low dose region, and whether they relate to protective or harmful functions; (3) to clarify if ionising radiation can cause non-cancer diseases or beneficial effects at low and intermediate doses; (4) address the issue of individual susceptibility and other factors modifying non-targeted responses; (5) attempt to assess the relevance of non-targeted effects for radiation protection and to set the scientific basis for a modern, more realistic, radiation safety system; (6) and finally to contribute to the conceptualisation of a new paradigm in radiation biology that would cover both the classical direct (DNA-targeted) and non-targeted (indirect) effects

  18. Viral RNAi suppressor reversibly binds siRNA to outcompete Dicer and RISC via multiple-turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Renata A.; Krishnan, Vishalakshi; Walter, Nils G.

    2011-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved gene regulatory mechanism employed by most eukaryotes as a key component of their innate immune response against viruses and retrotransposons. During viral infection, the RNase III-type endonuclease Dicer cleaves viral double-stranded RNA into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 21–24 nucleotides in length, and helps load them into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to guide cleavage of complementary viral RNA. As a countermeasure, many viruses have evolved viral RNA silencing suppressor (RSS) proteins that tightly, and presumably quantitatively, bind siRNAs to thwart RNAi-mediated degradation. Viral RSS proteins also act across kingdoms as potential immunosuppressors in gene therapeutic applications. Here we report fluorescence quenching and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that probe siRNA binding by the dimeric RSS p19 from Carnation Italian Ringspot Virus (CIRV), as well as by human Dicer and RISC assembly complexes. We find that the siRNA:p19 interaction is readily reversible, characterized by rapid binding ((1.69 ± 0.07)×108 M−1s−1) and marked dissociation (koff = 0.062 ± 0.002 s−1). We also observe that p19 efficiently competes with recombinant Dicer and inhibits formation of RISC-related assembly complexes found in human cell extract. Computational modeling based on these results provides evidence for the transient formation of a ternary complex between siRNA, human Dicer, and p19. An expanded model of RNA silencing indicates that multiple-turnover by reversible binding of siRNAs potentiates the efficiency of the suppressor protein. Our predictive model is expected to be applicable to the dosing of p19 as a silencing suppressor in viral gene therapy. PMID:21354178

  19. Editorial - Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastberg, Peter; Grinsted, Annelise

    2007-01-01

    Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions.......Why you may wonder - have we chosen a topic which at first glance may seem trivial, and even a bit dull? Well, looks can be deceiving, and in this case they are! There are many good reasons for taking a closer look at instructions....

  20. Study of risc factors affecting the number of mental disorders and nervous system diseases for people who participated in liquidation of consequences of ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.; Chekin, S.Yu.; Mikhal'skij, A.I.; Petrovskij, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Interrelation of disease incidence for liquidators and factors affecting it has been studied. The diseases (mental disorders and nervous system diseases) have been taken into account provided more than 10% of people have suffered of the above diseases. Date of getting into the accident zone; duration of work within the zone; the radiation dose accumulated were considered to be risc factors. Getting into the accident zone and duration of work within the zone of accident have been though to be the main risc factors. 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. A viral suppressor of RNA silencing inhibits ARGONAUTE 1 function by precluding target RNA binding to pre-assembled RISC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenesi, Erzsébet; Carbonell, Alberto; Lózsa, Rita; Vértessy, Beáta; Lakatos, Lóránt

    2017-07-27

    In most eukaryotes, RNA silencing is an adaptive immune system regulating key biological processes including antiviral defense. To evade this response, viruses of plants, worms and insects have evolved viral suppressors of RNA silencing proteins (VSRs). Various VSRs, such as P1 from Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV), inhibit the activity of RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) including an ARGONAUTE (AGO) protein loaded with a small RNA. However, the specific mechanisms explaining this class of inhibition are unknown. Here, we show that SPMMV P1 interacts with AGO1 and AGO2 from Arabidopsis thaliana, but solely interferes with AGO1 function. Moreover, a mutational analysis of a newly identified zinc finger domain in P1 revealed that this domain could represent an effector domain as it is required for P1 suppressor activity but not for AGO1 binding. Finally, a comparative analysis of the target RNA binding capacity of AGO1 in the presence of wild-type or suppressor-defective P1 forms revealed that P1 blocks target RNA binding to AGO1. Our results describe the negative regulation of RISC, the small RNA containing molecular machine. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. Wig1 prevents cellular senescence by regulating p21 mRNA decay through control of RISC recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong Cho; Lee, Hyung Chul; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Dong-Kwan; Lee, Jae Cheol; Ko, Young-Gyu; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2012-11-14

    Premature senescence, a key strategy used to suppress carcinogenesis, can be driven by p53/p21 proteins in response to various stresses. Here, we demonstrate that Wig1 plays a critical role in this process through regulation of p21 mRNA stability. Wig1 controls the association of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a central component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), with target p21 mRNA via binding of the stem-loop structure near the microRNA (miRNA) target site. Depletion of Wig1 prohibited miRNA-mediated p21 mRNA decay and resulted in premature senescence. Wig1 plays an essential role in cell proliferation, as demonstrated in tumour xenografts in mice, and Wig1 and p21 mRNA levels are inversely correlated in human normal and cancer tissues. Together, our data indicate a novel role of Wig1 in RISC target accessibility, which is a key step in RNA-mediated gene silencing. In addition, these findings indicate that fine-tuning of p21 levels by Wig1 is essential for the prevention of cellular senescence.

  3. Validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background No resilience scale has been validated in Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the 10-item CD-RISC in a sample of Spanish patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Design: Observational prospective multicenter study. Sample: Patients with diagnoses of fibromyalgia recruited from primary care settings (N = 208). Instruments: In addition to sociodemographic data, the following questionnaires were administered: Pain Visual Analogue Scale (PVAS), the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (10-item CD-RISC), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ), and the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Results Regarding construct validity, the factor solution in the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was considered adequate, so the KMO test had a value of 0.91, and the Barlett’s test of sphericity was significant (χ2 = 852.8; gl = 45; p fibromyalgia, acceptable psychometric properties, with a high level of reliability and validity. PMID:24484847

  4. Screening for markers of frailty and perceived risk of adverse outcomes using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Caoimh, Rónán

    2014-09-19

    Functional decline and frailty are common in community dwelling older adults, increasing the risk of adverse outcomes. Given this, we investigated the prevalence of frailty-associated risk factors and their distribution according to the severity of perceived risk in a cohort of community dwelling older adults, using the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC).

  5. Polerovirus protein P0 prevents the assembly of small RNA-containing RISC complexes and leads to degradation of ARGONAUTE1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csorba, Tibor; Lózsa, Rita; Hutvágner, György; Burgyán, József

    2010-05-01

    RNA silencing plays an important role in plants in defence against viruses. To overcome this defence, plant viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing. The most common mode of silencing suppression is sequestration of double-stranded RNAs involved in the antiviral silencing pathways. Viral suppressors can also overcome silencing responses through protein-protein interaction. The poleroviral P0 silencing suppressor protein targets ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins for degradation. AGO proteins are the core component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). We found that P0 does not interfere with the slicer activity of pre-programmed siRNA/miRNA containing AGO1, but prevents de novo formation of siRNA/miRNA containing AGO1. We show that the AGO1 protein is part of a high-molecular-weight complex, suggesting the existence of a multi-protein RISC in plants. We propose that P0 prevents RISC assembly by interacting with one of its protein components, thus inhibiting formation of siRNA/miRNA-RISC, and ultimately leading to AGO1 degradation. Our findings also suggest that siRNAs enhance the stability of co-expressed AGO1 in both the presence and absence of P0.

  6. Instructional Partners, Principals, Teachers, and Instructional Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Dept. of Public Instruction, Indianapolis.

    This handbook examines various topics of interest and concern to teachers as they work with instructional assistants forming a classroom instructional partnership and functioning as a team. These topics include: (1) instructional assistant qualifications; (2) duties--instructional, classroom clerical, auxillary; (3) factors to be considered when…

  7. A Survey of Research in Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    RISC ) platforms running some version of UNIX.4 Around the turn of the millennium work began on applying Web technologies to SCADA systems.5–8 Lately...the 2 trend has been to move from the UNIX/ RISC system to commodity hardware and Microsoft solutions although there is some Linux,1 to move from...Control Center MTU Master Terminal Unit OS operating system PKI Public Key Infrastructure PLC Programmable Logic Controller RISC Reduced Instruction

  8. TAE+ 5.2 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.2 (DEC RISC ULTRIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The HP 9000 Series 700/800 version of TAE 5.2 requires Version 11 Release 5 of the X Window System. All other machine versions of TAE 5.2 require Version 11, Release 4 of the X Window System. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is available on media suitable for five different machine platforms: (1) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), (2) DEC RISC

  9. Microbial Disruption of Autophagy Alters Expression of the RISC Component AGO2, a Critical Regulator of the miRNA Silencing Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibony, Michal; Abdullah, Majd; Greenfield, Laura; Raju, Deepa; Wu, Ted; Rodrigues, David M; Galindo-Mata, Esther; Mascarenhas, Heidi; Philpott, Dana J; Silverberg, Mark S; Jones, Nicola L

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy is implicated in Crohn's disease (CD) pathogenesis. Recent evidence suggests autophagy regulates the microRNA (miRNA)-induced silencing complex (miRISC). Therefore, autophagy may play a novel role in CD by regulating expression of miRISC, thereby altering miRNA silencing. As microbes associated with CD can alter autophagy, we hypothesized that microbial disruption of autophagy affects the critical miRISC component AGO2. AGO2 expression was assessed in epithelial and immune cells, and intestinal organoids with disrupted autophagy. Microarray technology was used to determine the expression of downstream miRNAs in cells with defective autophagy. Increased AGO2 was detected in autophagy-deficient ATG5-/- and ATG16-/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (MEFs) in comparison with wild-type MEFs. Chemical agents and VacA toxin, which disrupt autophagy, increased AGO2 expression in MEFs, epithelial cells lines, and human monocytes, respectively. Increased AGO2 was also detected in ATG7-/- intestinal organoids, in comparison with wild-type organoids. Five miRNAs were differentially expressed in autophagy-deficient MEFs. Pathway enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs implicated signaling pathways previously associated with CD. Taken together, our results suggest that autophagy is involved in the regulation of the critical miRISC component AGO2 in epithelial and immune cells and primary intestinal epithelial cells. We propose a mechanism by which autophagy alters miRNA expression, which likely impacts the regulation of CD-associated pathways. Furthermore, as enteric microbial products can manipulate autophagy and AGO2, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which enteric microbes could influence miRNA to promote disease.

  10. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Campayo Javier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (10-item CD-RISC is an instrument for measuring resilience that has shown good psychometric properties in its original version in English. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC in young adults and to verify whether it is structured in a single dimension as in the original English version. Findings Cross-sectional observational study including 681 university students ranging in age from 18 to 30 years. The number of latent factors in the 10 items of the scale was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify whether a single factor underlies the 10 items of the scale as in the original version in English. The convergent validity was analyzed by testing whether the mean of the scores of the mental component of SF-12 (MCS and the quality of sleep as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Index (PSQI were higher in subjects with better levels of resilience. The internal consistency of the 10-item CD-RISC was estimated using the Cronbach α test and test-retest reliability was estimated with the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.85 and the test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.71. The mean MCS score and the level of quality of sleep in both men and women were significantly worse in subjects with lower resilience scores. Conclusions The Spanish version of the 10-item CD-RISC showed good psychometric properties in young adults and thus can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for measuring resilience. Our study confirmed that a single factor underlies the resilience construct, as was the case of the original scale in English.

  11. Strategy Instruction in Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Susan R.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments in strategy instruction for mathematics have been conducted using three models (direct instruction, self-instruction, and guided learning) applied to the tasks of computation and word problem solving. Results have implications for effective strategy instruction for learning disabled students. It is recommended that strategy instruction…

  12. Synaptotagmin 11 interacts with components of the RNA-induced silencing complex RISC in clonal pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milochau, Alexandra; Lagrée, Valérie; Benassy, Marie-Noëlle; Chaignepain, Stéphane; Papin, Julien; Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Lajoix, Anne; Monterrat, Carole; Coudert, Laetitia; Schmitter, Jean-Marie; Ochoa, Begoña; Lang, Jochen

    2014-06-27

    Synaptotagmins are two C2 domain-containing transmembrane proteins. The function of calcium-sensitive members in the regulation of post-Golgi traffic has been well established whereas little is known about the calcium-insensitive isoforms constituting half of the protein family. Novel binding partners of synaptotagmin 11 were identified in β-cells. A number of them had been assigned previously to ER/Golgi derived-vesicles or linked to RNA synthesis, translation and processing. Whereas the C2A domain interacted with the Q-SNARE Vti1a, the C2B domain of syt11 interacted with the SND1, Ago2 and FMRP, components of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Binding to SND was direct via its N-terminal tandem repeats. Our data indicate that syt11 may provide a link between gene regulation by microRNAs and membrane traffic. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reducing Repetitive Speech: Effects of Strategy Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipipi, Caroline M.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Miller, Judith A.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes an intervention with an 18-year-old young woman with mild mental retardation and a seizure disorder, which focused on her repetitive echolalic verbalizations. The intervention included time delay, differential reinforcement of other behaviors, and self-monitoring. Overall, the intervention was successful in facilitating…

  14. BIBLIOGRAPHY ON INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Graduate School of Education.

    THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY LISTS MATERIAL ON VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTION. APPROXIMATELY 85 UNANNOTATED REFERENCES ARE PROVIDED TO DOCUMENTS DATING FROM 1958 TO 1966. JOURNALS, BOOKS, AND REPORT MATERIALS ARE LISTED. SUBJECT AREAS INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, TEACHING MACHINES, RESPONSE MODE, SELF-INSTRUCTION, AND COMPUTER-ASSISTED…

  15. The Instructional Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Many administrators are so overwhelmed by the basic responsibilities of their daily work that there seems to be little or no time left for providing quality leadership in instruction. Instead, schools employ department chairs, instructional specialists, and coordinators to provide instructional leadership. How can administrators find time in the…

  16. The nuclear receptor ERβ engages AGO2 in regulation of gene transcription, RNA splicing and RISC loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarallo, Roberta; Giurato, Giorgio; Bruno, Giuseppina; Ravo, Maria; Rizzo, Francesca; Salvati, Annamaria; Ricciardi, Luca; Marchese, Giovanna; Cordella, Angela; Rocco, Teresa; Gigantino, Valerio; Pierri, Biancamaria; Cimmino, Giovanni; Milanesi, Luciano; Ambrosino, Concetta; Nyman, Tuula A; Nassa, Giovanni; Weisz, Alessandro

    2017-10-06

    The RNA-binding protein Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is a key effector of RNA-silencing pathways It exerts a pivotal role in microRNA maturation and activity and can modulate chromatin remodeling, transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is endowed with oncosuppressive activities, antagonizing hormone-induced carcinogenesis and inhibiting growth and oncogenic functions in luminal-like breast cancers (BCs), where its expression correlates with a better prognosis of the disease. Applying interaction proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry to characterize nuclear factors cooperating with ERβ in gene regulation, we identify AGO2 as a novel partner of ERβ in human BC cells. ERβ-AGO2 association was confirmed in vitro and in vivo in both the nucleus and cytoplasm and is shown to be RNA-mediated. ChIP-Seq demonstrates AGO2 association with a large number of ERβ binding sites, and total and nascent RNA-Seq in ERβ + vs ERβ - cells, and before and after AGO2 knock-down in ERβ + cells, reveals a widespread involvement of this factor in ERβ-mediated regulation of gene transcription rate and RNA splicing. Moreover, isolation and sequencing by RIP-Seq of ERβ-associated long and small RNAs in the cytoplasm suggests involvement of the nuclear receptor in RISC loading, indicating that it may also be able to directly control mRNA translation efficiency and stability. These results demonstrate that AGO2 can act as a pleiotropic functional partner of ERβ, indicating that both factors are endowed with multiple roles in the control of key cellular functions.

  17. How do environmental and behavioral factors impact ultraviolet radiation effects on health: the RISC-UV Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M. P.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Haeffelin, M.; Saiag, P.; Mahe, E.; Brogniez, C.; Dupont, J. C.; Pazmiño, A.; Auriol, F.; Bonnel, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: RISC-UV is a research project on "Impact of climate change on ultraviolet radiation and risks for health", a research project in which physicists, meteorologists and physicians work together to assess the relative role played by environmental and behavioral factors in the UV-related diseases as skin cancer and vitamin D deficiency. Environmental factors are related to the role played by the alteration in intensity of UV radiation at the Earth's surface resulting from variation in several factors affected by climate change and human activities: stratospheric ozone, cloud cover, aerosols and the reflectivity of the surface. On the other hand, behavioral factors are related to the sun over/underexposure and the correct use of sun-protection (hats, caps, sunglasses, sunscreen lotion, etc.). RISC-UV is organized around three main areas: 1) Organization of a workshop, scheduled for January 2009, which aims to describe the state of the art in the subject within each community and define the requirements of pathologists for epidemiological studies; 2) A pilot study intended to evaluate the consistency between UV measurements delivered simultaneously by satellite-based instruments, ground instruments, radiometers and individual dosimeters. This study is based on measurements campaigns and an analysis of the long-term consistency of data series relating to UV radiation and associated parameters; and 3) Analysis of the weights of medical, behavioral and environmental parameters involved in skin carcinogenesis. A detailed description of these areas can be found in http://www.gisclimat.fr/Doc/GB/D_projects/RISC-UV_GB.html. This presentation focuses on the first results of the UV experimental measurements performed between September 8th and October 8th 2008 in Palaiseau, France (48.7˚ N; 2.2˚ E; 170m - Haeffelin et al., 2005). A second campaign is foreseen for the spring of 2009. The purpose of these campaigns is to obtain, analyze and quantitatively link the

  18. Reliability and validity of the Khmer version of the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Kh-CD-RISC10) in Cambodian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Chanmettachampavieng; Hurst, Cameron P

    2016-06-08

    Resilience has been characterized as a defensive factor against the refinement of mental health problems. This study adapted the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Kh-CD-RISC10) for use in Khmer adolescents and subsequently investigates its psychometric properties. Using stratified random sampling, this cross-sectional study sampled Cambodian adolescents from high schools selected randomly within three provinces (Phnom Penh, Battambang and Mondulkiri)-location (rural, urban) combinations. Parallel analysis was used to identify the number of component(s), and the structure of the single factor was subsequently explored using principal axis factoring. A confirmatory factor analysis was then performed to establish the fit of the Kh-CD-RISC10 to another sample. To assess convergent validity, the factor scores of the Khmer version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale were categorized into three levels, and then the general negative affectivity (GNA) and physiological hyperarousal (PH) scales (derived from the DASS 21) were compared among the three resilience groups. Of the 798 participants who responded (responded rate = 82.26 %), 440 (41.23 %) were female and the age ranged from 14 to 24 years old (mean = 17.36, SD = 1.325). The internal consistency of the Khmer 10-item CD-RISC was also shown to be high in Cambodian adolescents (Cronbach's alpha = 0. 82). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the single factor model fit data adequately (χ(2) = 100.103, df = 35, p scale of this population, and can be used to assess the resilience comparing to the level of PTSD symptoms in general Khmer adolescent.

  19. Functional analysis of neuronal microRNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans dauer formation by combinational genetics and Neuronal miRISC immunoprecipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh T Than

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the physiological functions of microRNAs (miRNAs is often challenging because miRNAs commonly impact gene expression under specific physiological conditions through complex miRNA::mRNA interaction networks and in coordination with other means of gene regulation, such as transcriptional regulation and protein degradation. Such complexity creates difficulties in dissecting miRNA functions through traditional genetic methods using individual miRNA mutations. To investigate the physiological functions of miRNAs in neurons, we combined a genetic "enhancer" approach complemented by biochemical analysis of neuronal miRNA-induced silencing complexes (miRISCs in C. elegans. Total miRNA function can be compromised by mutating one of the two GW182 proteins (AIN-1, an important component of miRISC. We found that combining an ain-1 mutation with a mutation in unc-3, a neuronal transcription factor, resulted in an inappropriate entrance into the stress-induced, alternative larval stage known as dauer, indicating a role of miRNAs in preventing aberrant dauer formation. Analysis of this genetic interaction suggests that neuronal miRNAs perform such a role partly by regulating endogenous cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP signaling, potentially influencing two other dauer-regulating pathways. Through tissue-specific immunoprecipitations of miRISC, we identified miRNAs and their likely target mRNAs within neuronal tissue. We verified the biological relevance of several of these miRNAs and found that many miRNAs likely regulate dauer formation through multiple dauer-related targets. Further analysis of target mRNAs suggests potential miRNA involvement in various neuronal processes, but the importance of these miRNA::mRNA interactions remains unclear. Finally, we found that neuronal genes may be more highly regulated by miRNAs than intestinal genes. Overall, our study identifies miRNAs and their targets, and a physiological function of these miRNAs in

  20. Balanç benefici/risc del contingut en polifenols i alcohol del vi: bases científiques dels efectes del consum moderat de vi sobre el sistema cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Chiva Blanch, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    [cat] L'objectiu d'aquesta tesi doctoral és avaluar els efectes de les fraccions del vi (alcohòlica i no alcohòlica -principalment polifenols-) sobre els principals factors de risc cardiovascular en 67 homes amb un elevat risc de patir malalties cardiovasculars. Es va realitzar un assaig clínic, aleatoritzat i creuat en el qual tots els participants van rebre en un ordre aleatori les tres intervencions: 30 gr d'alcohol / dia en forma de vi negre, la mateixa quantitat de polifenols en forma de...

  1. An Automatic Instruction-Level Parallelization of Machine Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINKOVIC, V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing multicores and novel manycores have made a great challenge of modern day - parallelization of embedded software that is still written as sequential. In this paper, automatic code parallelization is considered, focusing on developing a parallelization tool at the binary level as well as on the validation of this approach. The novel instruction-level parallelization algorithm for assembly code which uses the register names after SSA to find independent blocks of code and then to schedule independent blocks using METIS to achieve good load balance is developed. The sequential consistency is verified and the validation is done by measuring the program execution time on the target architecture. Great speedup, taken as the performance measure in the validation process, and optimal load balancing are achieved for multicore RISC processors with 2 to 16 cores (e.g. MIPS, MicroBlaze, etc.. In particular, for 16 cores, the average speedup is 7.92x, while in some cases it reaches 14x. An approach to automatic parallelization provided by this paper is useful to researchers and developers in the area of parallelization as the basis for further optimizations, as the back-end of a compiler, or as the code parallelization tool for an embedded system.

  2. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5′-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20–24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5′, but not 3′-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5′ to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3′-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5′-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5′-cleavage fragments. PMID:26464441

  3. SKI2 mediates degradation of RISC 5'-cleavage fragments and prevents secondary siRNA production from miRNA targets in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscheid, Anja; Marchais, Antonin; Schott, Gregory; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Voinnet, Olivier; Brodersen, Peter

    2015-12-15

    Small regulatory RNAs are fundamental in eukaryotic and prokaryotic gene regulation. In plants, an important element of post-transcriptional control is effected by 20-24 nt microRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) protein in an RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). AGO1 may cleave target mRNAs with small RNA complementarity, but the fate of the resulting cleavage fragments remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that SKI2, SKI3 and SKI8, subunits of a cytoplasmic cofactor of the RNA exosome, are required for degradation of RISC 5', but not 3'-cleavage fragments in Arabidopsis. In the absence of SKI2 activity, many miRNA targets produce siRNAs via the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) pathway. These siRNAs are low-abundant, and map close to the cleavage site. In most cases, siRNAs were produced 5' to the cleavage site, but several examples of 3'-spreading were also identified. These observations suggest that siRNAs do not simply derive from RDR6 action on stable 5'-cleavage fragments and hence that SKI2 has a direct role in limiting secondary siRNA production in addition to its function in mediating degradation of 5'-cleavage fragments. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Instruction Set Architectures for Quantum Processing Units

    OpenAIRE

    Britt, Keith A.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-01-01

    Progress in quantum computing hardware raises questions about how these devices can be controlled, programmed, and integrated with existing computational workflows. We briefly describe several prominent quantum computational models, their associated quantum processing units (QPUs), and the adoption of these devices as accelerators within high-performance computing systems. Emphasizing the interface to the QPU, we analyze instruction set architectures based on reduced and complex instruction s...

  5. Long multiplication by instruction sequences with backward jump instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    For each function on bit strings, its restriction to bit strings of any given length can be computed by a finite instruction sequence that contains only instructions to set and get the content of Boolean registers, forward jump instructions, and a termination instruction. Backward jump instructions

  6. Programmed Instruction Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, B. F.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of teaching machines, invented to restore the important features of personalized instruction as public school class size increased. Examines teaching and learning problems over the past 50 years, including motivation, attention, appreciation, discovery, and creativity in relation to programmed instruction.…

  7. Fashions in Instructional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapper, Christopher K.

    This paper on instructional development notes the trend toward teaching improvement efforts, classifies instructional development centers in terms of their differing philosophies of operation, and identifies some general problems that have been encountered in institutional efforts to improve teaching and learning. Centers in North America, Europe,…

  8. Using Principles of Programmed Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Harry

    1971-01-01

    Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)

  9. Detection of the argonaute protein Ago2 and microRNAs in the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC) using a monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keigo; Satoh, Minoru; Pauley, Kaleb M; Fritzler, Marvin J; Reeves, Westley H; Chan, Edward K L

    2006-12-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNA molecules responsible for post-transcriptional gene silencing by the degradation or translational inhibition of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). This process of gene silencing, known as RNA interference (RNAi), is mediated by highly conserved Argonaute (Ago) proteins which are the key components of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC). In humans, Ago2 is responsible for the endonuclease cleavage of targeted mRNA and it interacts with the mRNA-binding protein GW182, which is a marker for cytoplasmic foci referred to as GW bodies (GWBs). We demonstrated that the anti-Ago2 monoclonal antibody 4F9 recognized GWBs in a cell cycle dependent manner and was capable of capturing miRNAs associated with Ago2. Since Ago2 protein is the effector protein of RNAi, anti-Ago2 monoclonal antibody may be useful in capturing functional miRNAs.

  10. INS3D - NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF THE INCOMPRESSIBLE NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL GENERALIZED CURVILINEAR COORDINATES (DEC RISC ULTRIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyabani, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    -field boundaries. Three machine versions of INS3D are available. INS3D for the CRAY is written in CRAY FORTRAN for execution on a CRAY X-MP under COS, INS3D for the IBM is written in FORTRAN 77 for execution on an IBM 3090 under the VM or MVS operating system, and INS3D for DEC RISC-based systems is written in RISC FORTRAN for execution on a DEC workstation running RISC ULTRIX 3.1 or later. The CRAY version has a central memory requirement of 730279 words. The central memory requirement for the IBM is 150Mb. The memory requirement for the DEC RISC ULTRIX version is 3Mb of main memory. INS3D was developed in 1987. The port to the IBM was done in 1990. The port to the DECstation 3100 was done in 1991. CRAY is a registered trademark of Cray Research Inc. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. DEC, DECstation, and ULTRIX are trademarks of the Digital Equipment Corporation.

  11. Using Interactive Video Instruction To Enhance Public Speaking Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Michael W.; Kennan, William R.

    Noting that interactive video instruction (IVI) should not and cannot replace classroom instruction, this paper offers an introduction to interactive video instruction as an innovative technology that can be used to expand pedagogical opportunities in public speaking instruction. The paper: (1) defines the distinctive features of IVI; (2) assesses…

  12. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  13. Bibliographic Instruction : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography about the Bibliographic Instruction, it collects a variety of internet resources divided to main categories; directories, articles, bibliographies, organization, mailing lists, and interest groups.

  14. Instructional Technology and Objectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir S. Gur

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectification refers to the way in which everything (including human beings is treated as an object, raw material, or resource to be manipulated and used. In this article, objectification refers to the way that education is often reduced to the packaging and delivery of information. A critique of objectification in instructional technology is presented. In the context of Heidegger’s critique of technology, the authors claim that objectification in education is metaphysical in the sense that the intelligibility (being of education is equated with ready-to-use packages, and thus is reduced to delivery and transmission of objects. The embodiment dimension of teaching and learning can help us in resisting this reduction. The authors argue that objectification increases bureaucratic control over the teaching process and deskills teachers; and by which teachers are proletarianized. The authors conclude that instructional designers should create structures in which a care relation and dialogue between students and teachers can take place. Résumé: L’objectification réfère à la façon dont tout (incluant les être humains est traité comme un objet, une matière première ou une ressource qui peut être manipulée et utilisée. Dans cet article, l’objectification réfère à la façon dont l’éducation est souvent réduite à la mise en boîte et à la livraison de l’information. Une critique de l’objectification en technologie éducative est présentée. Dans le contexte de la critique de la technologie par Heidegger, les auteurs prétendent que l’objectification en éducation est métaphysique dans le sens que l’intelligibilité (être de l’éducation équivaut à la mise en boîte prêt-à –utiliser, et se résume donc à la livraison et à la transmission d’objets. L’incarnation de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage peuvent nous aider à résister à cette réduction. Les auteurs arguent que l

  15. Inclusive differentiated instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Ljiljana S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive differentiated instruction is a new model of didactic instruction, theoretically described and established in this paper for the first time, after being experimentally verified through teaching of the mother tongue (instruction in reading and literature. Inclusive individually planned instruction is based on a phenomenological and constructivist didactic instructional paradigm. This type of teaching is essentially developmental and person-oriented. The key stages of inclusive differentiated instruction of literature are: 1 recognition of individual students' potential and educational needs regarding reading and work on literary texts; 2 planning and preparation of inclusive individually planned instruction in reading and literature; 3 actual class teaching of lessons thus prepared; and 4 evaluation of the student achievement following inclusive differentiated instruction in reading and literature. A highly important element of the planning and preparation of inclusive differentiated instruction is the creation of student profiles and inclusive individualized syllabi. Individualized syllabi specify the following: 1. a brief student profile; 2. the student position on the continuum of the learning outcomes of instruction in the Serbian language; 3. reverse-engineered macro-plan stages of instruction in the Serbian language (3.1. identifying expected outcomes and fundamental qualities of learners' work, 3.2. defining acceptable proofs of their realisation, 3.3. planning learning and teaching experiences, and 3.4. providing material and technical requisites for teaching; 4 the contents and procedure of individualized lessons targeting the student; 5 a plan of syllabus implementation monitoring and evaluation. The continuum of the learning outcomes of inclusive differentiated instruction in literature exists at three main levels, A, B and C. The three levels are: A reading techniques and learning about the main literary theory concepts; B

  16. Transmissió vertical del virus de l'hepatitis C. Factors de risc, història natural dels nens infectats i evolució a llarg termini

    OpenAIRE

    Viñolas Tolosa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introducció: La TV del VHC succeeix en el 5-15% dels casos i depèn de factors de risc materns, obstètrics i neonatals. Fins el moment existeix poca informació sobre l’evolució dels nens infectats més enllà dels 2 o 3 primers anys de vida. L’objectiu del present estudi es determinar la taxa de TV, els factors de risc i l’evolució a llarg termini dels nens infectats. Pacients i mètodes: Estudi prospectiu de cohorts de 120 gestants infectades per VHC i els seus fills nascuts a l’Hospital del ...

  17. Reduction in ground reaction force variables with instructed barefoot running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia D. Samaan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: As impact loading has been associated with certain running-related injuries, instruction and feedback on the proper forefoot strike pattern may help reduce the injury risk associated with transitioning to BF running.

  18. Principals Performance of Supervision of Instructions in Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were collected from a sample of 604 out of 1640 teachers using stratified ... supervision of instructions in the school since effective supervision improves ... and reduces incidence of students' involvement in examination malpractices.

  19. Using Cognitive Load Theory to Tailor Instruction to Levels of Accounting Students' Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2015-01-01

    Tailoring of instructional methods to learner levels of expertise may reduce extraneous cognitive load and improve learning. Contemporary technology-based learning environments have the potential to substantially enable learner-adapted instruction. This paper investigates the effects of adaptive instruction based on using the isolated-interactive…

  20. Apparel. Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Patti

    This instructional guide for a one-half credit technological laboratory course for grades 10-12 focuses on apparel from the perspectives of personal decision making related to apparel, the apparel industry, and career preparation. Introductory materials are a course description; overview of course design; facilities, equipment, and resources; and…

  1. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  2. Windows into Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher-Reed, Christina; Rotella, Sam A.

    2017-01-01

    Administrators are often removed from the daily instructional realities in classrooms, while teachers aren't given enough opportunities to lead in their schools, write Christina Steinbacher-Reed and Sam A. Rotella Jr. The result is a wall that prevents the two parties from collaborating in a way that improves school culture, teaching practices,…

  3. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CATALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Vocational Agriculture Instructional Materials Service, Columbus.

    THE TITLE, IDENTIFICATION NUMBER, DATE OF PUBLICATION, PAGINATION, A BRIEF DESCRIPTION, AND PRICE ARE GIVEN FOR EACH OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDED IN THIS CATALOG. TOPICS COVERED ARE FIELD CORPS, HORTICULTURE, ANIMAL SCIENCE, SOILS, AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING, AND FARMING PROGRAMS. AN ORDER FORM IS INCLUDED. (JM)

  4. Computers in writing instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Helen J.; van der Geest, Thea; Smit-Kreuzen, Marlies

    1992-01-01

    For computers to be useful in writing instruction, innovations should be valuable for students and feasible for teachers to implement. Research findings yield contradictory results in measuring the effects of different uses of computers in writing, in part because of the methodological complexity of

  5. Gaze Interactive Building Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Paulin; Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbeigi, Diako

    We combine eye tracking technology and mobile tablets to support hands-free interaction with digital building instructions. As a proof-of-concept we have developed a small interactive 3D environment where one can interact with digital blocks by gaze, keystroke and head gestures. Blocks may be moved...

  6. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  7. Nuclear Energy. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy (see note) developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas. The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  8. Wind Power. Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of a descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  9. Instructional Psychology 1976 - 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    business it is to carry out applied work in the design of instructional content and delivery. These organizations include specialized divisions of...34learning disabilities" label: An experimental analysis. Comtemporary Educational Psychology, 1977, 2, 292-297. Allington, R. L. Sensitivity to

  10. Reviews in instructional video

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video tutorial for software training whose construction was based on a combination of insights from multimedia learning and Demonstration-Based Training. In the videos, a model of task performance was enhanced with instructional features that were

  11. Computer-assisted instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, J.; Fisser, P.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Since the early days of computer technology in education in the 1960s, it was claimed that computers can assist instructional practice and hence improve student learning. Since then computer technology has developed, and its potential for education has increased. In this article, we first discuss

  12. Scaffolding in Assisted Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On-The-Job Training, developed as direct instruction, is one of the earliest forms of training. This method is still widely in use today because it requires only a person who knows how to do the task, and the tools the person uses to do the task. This paper is intended to be a study of the methods used in education in Knowledge Society, with more specific aspects in training the trainers; as a result of this approach, it promotes scaffolding in assisted instruction as a reflection of the digital age for the learning process. Training the trainers in old environment with default techniques and designing the learning process in assisted instruction, as an application of the Vygotskian concept of the zone of proximal development (ZPD to the area of computer literacy for the younger users, generate diversity in educational communities and requires standards for technology infrastructure, standards for the content, developed as a concepts map, and applications for personalized in-struction, based on ZPD theory.

  13. Characteristics of Instructional Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mobina; Taspolat, Ata; Kaya, Omer Sami; Sapanca, Hamza Fatih

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, video plays a significant role in education in terms of its integration into traditional classes, the principal delivery system of information in classes particularly in online courses as well as serving as a foundation of many blended classes. Hence, education is adopting a modern approach of instruction with the target of moving away…

  14. Facility transition instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Bechtel Hanford, Inc. facility transition instruction was initiated in response to the need for a common, streamlined process for facility transitions and to capture the knowledge and experience that has accumulated over the last few years. The instruction serves as an educational resource and defines the process for transitioning facilities to long-term surveillance and maintenance (S and M). Generally, these facilities do not have identified operations missions and must be transitioned from operational status to a safe and stable configuration for long-term S and M. The instruction can be applied to a wide range of facilities--from process canyon complexes like the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility or B Plant, to stand-alone, lower hazard facilities like the 242B/BL facility. The facility transition process is implemented (under the direction of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office [RL] Assistant Manager-Environmental) by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. management, with input and interaction with the appropriate RL division and Hanford site contractors as noted in the instruction. The application of the steps identified herein and the early participation of all organizations involved are expected to provide a cost-effective, safe, and smooth transition from operational status to deactivation and S and M for a wide range of Hanford Site facilities

  15. Paratransit: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalici, Anthony

    A concept-based introduction to paratransit is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of paratransit generally refers to modes of transportation other than mass transit and solo-driven automobiles. The…

  16. Listening strategies instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueroles López, Marta

    2017-01-01

    , who presented similar level of Spanish, needs, educational and cultural background, but did not receive such a training. The listening strategies instruction consisted in integrating the development of listening strategies into a regular course of Spanish as a foreign language. Data referring...

  17. Inquiry-Oriented Instruction: A Conceptualization of the Instructional Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, George; Johnson, Estrella; Keene, Karen; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Research has highlighted that inquiry-based learning (IBL) instruction leads to many positive student outcomes in undergraduate mathematics. Although this research points to the value of IBL instruction, the practices of IBL instructors are not well-understood. Here, we offer a characterization of a particular form of IBL instruction:…

  18. Instructional Leadership Practices in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Foo Seong David; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Wong, Koon Siak Benjamin; Choy, Kim Weng William

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the literature on principal instructional leadership in Singapore. The authors investigated the dimensions of instructional leadership in the practices of Singapore principals and highlighted the strategies these leaders adopt to enact their instructional roles. Singapore principals were found to play an active role…

  19. Putting instruction sequences into effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to define the concept of execution of an instruction sequence. It is found to be a special case of directly putting into effect of an instruction sequence. Directly putting into effect of an instruction sequences comprises interpretation as well as execution. Directly putting into

  20. The Measurement of Instructional Accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Lawrence E.; Vargas, Ernest A.

    Instructional System Technology in recent years has been characterized by an increase in individualized instruction and the modularization of the curriculum. In traditional systems the learners are forced to take blocks of instruction the size of entire courses and these are much too large. The courses can now be broken down into conceptual…

  1. Intelligent Frameworks for Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, J. Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a taxonomy describing various uses of artificial intelligence techniques in automated instructional development systems. Instructional systems development is discussed in relation to the design of computer-based instructional courseware; two systems being developed at the Air Force Armstrong Laboratory are reviewed; and further research…

  2. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is an instruction processing paradigm that has been in the spot- light due to its adoption by the next generation of Intel. Processors starting with the IA-64. The EPIC processing paradigm is an evolution of the Very Long Instruction. Word (VLIW) paradigm. This article gives an ...

  3. Motivational elements in user instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loorbach, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Concerning the design of user instructions, two view can be distinguished. The traditional view considers instructions as purely instrumental documents. The more and more emerging affective view still assumes that above all, instructions should enable readers to perform tasks. But in order to

  4. Impact of objectively measured sedentary behaviour on changes in insulin resistance and secretion over 3 years in the RISC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahjibi, E; Heude, B; Dekker, J M

    2013-01-01

    The importance of reducing sedentary time is increasingly being recognized in the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Despite this, the prospective association between sedentary time and physical activity with insulin sensitivity and cardiometabolic risk factors has been little stu...

  5. Instructional immediacy in elearning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkem, Kerrie

    2014-01-01

    Instructor immediacy has been positively associated with many desirable academic outcomes including increased student learning. This study extends existing understanding of instructional immediacy behaviours in elearning by describing postgraduate nursing students' reflections on their own experience. An exploratory, descriptive survey design was used to collect qualitative data. Participants were asked what behaviours or activities help to create rapport or a positive interpersonal connection (immediacy) between students and their online teacher(s). Thematic analysis of the data revealed three main themes: acknowledging and affirming student's personal and professional responsibilities; providing clear and timely information; and utilising rich media. These findings give lecturers insight into instructional strategies they may adopt to increase immediacy in elearning and hence improve student learning outcomes.

  6. A Critique of Instructional

    OpenAIRE

    McKernan, James

    2010-01-01

    The ‘objectives model’ of curriculum planning, predicated upon behavioural performances, has become the dominant form of curriculum planning in Europe and elsewhere in the world. This paper argues that the objectives model is satisfactory for training or instruction, but falls down when applied to a true sense of ‘education’. The paper outlines 13 limitations on the use of educational objectives. It is argued that those interested in using objectives are guided by evaluation as assessment rat...

  7. Effective Multicultural Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin T. Thompson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The reason why the Trayvon Martin murder trial and similar court cases create a philosophical rift in our nation is due in part to flaws in the delivery of multicultural education. Traditional multicultural instruction does not prepare citizens for the subtleties and complexities of race relations. This study investigates critical strategies and practices that address multicultural missing gaps. I also seek to fill a void in the literature created by a lack of student input regarding teaching strategies that encourage lifelong learning. Students (N = 337 enrolled at a Midwestern university were asked to rate the efficacy of selected instructional strategies. Utilizing a 9-point Likert-type scale, students gave themselves a personal growth rating of 7.15 (SD = 1.47. Variables important to predicting that growth (R2 = .56, p < .0005 were a six-factor variable known as a non-color-blind instructional approach (t = 10.509, p ≤ .0005, allowing students an opportunity to form their own opinions apart from the instructor (t = 4.797, p ≤ .0005, and a state law that mandated multicultural training (t = 3.234, p = .001. Results demonstrated that utilizing a 35% traditional and 65% critical pedagogy mixture when teaching multicultural education helped promote win/win scenarios for education candidates hoping to become difference makers.

  8. Only reappraisers profit from reappraisal instructions: Effects of instructed and habitual reappraisal on stress responses during interpersonal conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauersberger, Heidi; Hoppe, Annekatrin; Brockmann, Gudrun; Hess, Ursula

    2018-04-22

    Conflicts are an undesirable yet common aspect of daily interactions with wide-ranging negative consequences. The present research aimed to examine the buffering effect of experimentally instructed reappraisal on self-reported, physiological and behavioral stress indices during interpersonal conflicts, taking into account habitual emotion regulation strategies. For this, 145 participants experienced a standardized laboratory conflict with the instruction to either reappraise (n = 48), to suppress (n = 50), or with no instruction (n = 47) while cardiovascular and neuroendocrine measures were taken. Participants were allowed to eat sweet and salty snacks during the conflict situation. Prior to as well as after the conflict, participants reported on their subjective stress level. Reappraisal instructions were only effective for high habitual reappraisers who exhibited lower cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and demonstrated fewer snack-eating behaviors under reappraisal instructions than under suppression or no instructions. The opposite pattern emerged for low habitual reappraisers. Neither experimentally instructed nor habitual reappraisal by itself reduced the negative effects of conflicts. Our findings complement the literature on the diverging effects of instructed reappraisal in tense social interactions. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. USING GOOGLE+ FOR INSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YEE

    Full Text Available Introduced in July, 2011 in a beta test of invited users only, the new social media service Google+ (or G+ quickly spread by word of mouth, and Google leader Larry Page (2011 blogged that within sixteen days it had 10 million users. By August, it had 25 million users (Cashmore, 2011. Even with slower growth ahead (still with no marketing budget, the service looks likely to crest 100 million users perhaps as early as ten months, a feat that took Facebook three years. Other social networks, most notably Facebook and Twitter, have been used increasingly as instructional tools, since they are platforms with which students are already familiar (Maloney, 2007; McLoughlin & Lee, 2007. Selwyn (2009 found that students often eschew official channels for communication in favor of less formal community-based formats such as Facebook, implying a growing need for instructional communication tools that will be used willingly by students. The question is whether Google+ can be used like Twitter or Facebook to augment instruction, or even, perhaps, to improve upon those predecessors for academic purposes. Google+ is like Twitter in that anyone can follow a given user’s posts. There is no direct “friend” relationship required to read the posts written by others. However, it also approximates some features of Facebook. Rather than friends sorted into “lists” like in Facebook, Google+ allows users to place feeds into one or more “circles,” the better to monitor (or control the flow of information to and from different audiences. Circles are more intuitive, and more central to the experience, than the Facebook lists. They provide an explicit organizational structure, compared to the less-obvious listing functionality, which feels like an afterthought, found in Facebook.

  10. EST Vocabulary Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia D.S. Bell

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at contributing to the investigation on the instruction of EST (English for Science and Technology vocabulary, in terms of receptive use of the language. It evaluates the effectiveness of two teaching approaches to the acquisition of vocabulary. The first approach consisted of teaching vocabulary through the use of dictionaries, where the words were merely translated into the learners’ L1 or defined in the target language thus promoting superficial level of word processing. The second approach employed activities promoting deep level of word processing. Data were analysed quantitatively. Results indicated that the two approaches seem to have some equipotentiality, as far as EST vocabulary is concerned.

  11. The Mere Exposure Instruction Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dessel, Pieter; Mertens, Gaëtan; Smith, Colin Tucker; De Houwer, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The mere exposure effect refers to the well-established finding that people evaluate a stimulus more positively after repeated exposure to that stimulus. We investigated whether a change in stimulus evaluation can occur also when participants are not repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, but are merely instructed that one stimulus will occur frequently and another stimulus will occur infrequently. We report seven experiments showing that (1) mere exposure instructions influence implicit stimulus evaluations as measured with an Implicit Association Test (IAT), personalized Implicit Association Test (pIAT), or Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP), but not with an Evaluative Priming Task (EPT), (2) mere exposure instructions influence explicit evaluations, and (3) the instruction effect depends on participants' memory of which stimulus will be presented more frequently. We discuss how these findings inform us about the boundary conditions of mere exposure instruction effects, as well as the mental processes that underlie mere exposure and mere exposure instruction effects.

  12. Expression levels of the microRNA maturing microprocessor complex component DGCR8 and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) components argonaute-1, argonaute-2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Michael; Skrygan, Marina; Georgas, Dimitrios; Arenz, Christoph; Gambichler, Thilo; Sand, Daniel; Altmeyer, Peter; Bechara, Falk G

    2012-11-01

    The microprocessor complex mediates intranuclear biogenesis of precursor microRNAs from the primary microRNA transcript. Extranuclear, mature microRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) before interaction with complementary target mRNA leads to transcriptional repression or cleavage. In this study, we investigated the expression profiles of the microprocessor complex subunit DiGeorge syndrome critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) and the RISC components argonaute-1 (AGO1), argonaute-2 (AGO2), as well as double-stranded RNA-binding proteins PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 in epithelial skin cancer and its premalignant stage. Patients with premalignant actinic keratoses (AK, n = 6), basal cell carcinomas (BCC, n = 15), and squamous cell carcinomas (SCC, n = 7) were included in the study. Punch biopsies were harvested from the center of the tumors (lesional), from healthy skin sites (intraindividual controls), and from healthy skin sites in a healthy control group (n = 16; interindividual control). The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, TARBP1, and TARBP2 mRNA expression levels were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The DGCR8, AGO1, AGO2, PACT, and TARBP1 expression levels were significantly higher in the AK, BCC, and SCC groups than the healthy controls (P  0.05). This study indicates that major components of the miRNA pathway, such as the microprocessor complex and RISC, are dysregulated in epithelial skin cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, Bob J H; Ferket, Bart S; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Colkesen, Ersen B; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hunink, M G Myriam

    2012-12-06

    We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC) model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1) internal and 2) predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3) External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets) of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%), 3.60% (3.23%), 4.70% (4.80%), and 7.50% (7.96%), respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%), 9.90% (9.13%), 14.20% (15.12%), and 24.30% (23.42%). After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated) incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95%) and 6.50% (6.29%). All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.

  14. The Instructional Network: Using Facebook to Enhance Undergraduate Mathematics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Peter; Gregory, Karen; Eddy, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is a website with over one billion users worldwide that is synonymous with social-networking. However, in this study, Facebook is used as an "instructional network". Two sections of an undergraduate calculus course were used to study the effects of participating in a Facebook group devoted solely to instruction. One section was…

  15. Improving Reading Instruction through Research-Based Instructional Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Vickie Lynn

    2010-01-01

    The diverse population of students in grades 1- 3 at a suburban elementary school has created a challenge for teachers when differentiating instruction in reading. The purpose of this doctoral project study was to explore the lived experiences of these teachers as they have acquired research-based instructional strategies in reading that support…

  16. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  17. Designing Instructional Materials: Some Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Lucille; Pett, Dennis

    Guidelines for the design of instructional materials are outlined in this paper. The principles of design are presented in five major categories: (1) general design (structural appeal and personal appeal); (2) instructional design (attention, memory, concept learning, and attitude change); (3) visual design (media considerations, pictures, graphs…

  18. Cognitive Approaches to Automated Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regian, J. Wesley, Ed.; Shute, Valerie J., Ed.

    This book contains a snapshot of state-of-the-art research on the design of automated instructional systems. Selected cognitive psychologists were asked to describe their approach to instruction and cognitive diagnosis, the theoretical basis of the approach, its utility and applicability, and the knowledge engineering or task analysis methods…

  19. Physics Instruction for Radiologic Technologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Edward L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the Denver collaborative training program in radiologic technology with emphasis upon identification of core topics, preparation of quality instructional materials, and use of innovative teaching techniques, such as computer-assisted instruction and video tape presentations. Included is a 10-week course outline. (CC)

  20. Active Learning through Online Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahar, Yasemin; Kalelioglu, Filiz

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of proper instructional techniques in online discussions that lead to meaningful learning. The research study looks at the effective use of two instructional techniques within online environments, based on qualitative measures. "Brainstorming" and "Six Thinking Hats" were selected and implemented…

  1. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  2. Instructional Theory for Teaching Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Jan R.; Dinham, Sarah M.

    Metatheoretical analysis of Ausubel's Theory of Meaningful Verbal Learning and Gagne's Theory of Instruction using the Dickoff and James paradigm produced two instructional systems for basic statistics. The systems were tested with a pretest-posttest control group design utilizing students enrolled in an introductory-level graduate statistics…

  3. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O' Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2017-10-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  4. Unaligned instruction relocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolli, Carlo; O'Brien, John K.; Sallenave, Olivier H.; Sura, Zehra N.

    2018-01-23

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method includes receiving source code to be compiled into an executable file for an unaligned instruction set architecture (ISA). Aligned assembled code is generated, by a computer processor. The aligned assembled code complies with an aligned ISA and includes aligned processor code for a processor and aligned accelerator code for an accelerator. A first linking pass is performed on the aligned assembled code, including relocating a first relocation target in the aligned accelerator code that refers to a first object outside the aligned accelerator code. Unaligned assembled code is generated in accordance with the unaligned ISA and includes unaligned accelerator code for the accelerator and unaligned processor code for the processor. A second linking pass is performed on the unaligned assembled code, including relocating a second relocation target outside the unaligned accelerator code that refers to an object in the unaligned accelerator code.

  5. Interactive Instruction in Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam; Breslav, Simon; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2018-01-01

    An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction. These pri......An instructional approach is presented to improve human performance in solving Bayesian inference problems. Starting from the original text of the classic Mammography Problem, the textual expression is modified and visualizations are added according to Mayer’s principles of instruction....... These principles concern coherence, personalization, signaling, segmenting, multimedia, spatial contiguity, and pretraining. Principles of self-explanation and interactivity are also applied. Four experiments on the Mammography Problem showed that these principles help participants answer the questions...... that an instructional approach to improving human performance in Bayesian inference is a promising direction....

  6. ARS-Media for excel instruction manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is the instruction manual that explains how to use the Excel spreadsheet ARS-Media for Excel application. ARS-Media for Excel Instruction Manual is provided as a pdf file....

  7. LISP on a Reduced-Instruction-Set-Processor,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Digital * Press, 1984. 19. Steele, G. L. Jr., and Sussman, G.J. LAMBDA : The Ultimate Imperative. Al Memo 353, MIT, Artificial ,, Inteligence Laboratory...procedure B is No 444, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, August, recursive, if procedure A can be reexecuted before the call 1977. returns. This...the programs Artificial Intelligence Programming. Lawrence Erlbaum use apply and eval, and of these three only frl uses eval Associates, Hillsdale, New

  8. Instructed officers Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This law contains instructions on the prevention of radiological and contains 4 articles Article I: describe the responsibilities of the institutions that operate within the scope of radiological protection in terms of the number of radiation protection officers and personal Supervisors who available in the practices radiation field. Article II: talking about the conditions of radiation protection officers that must be available in the main officers and working field in larg institutions and thecondition of specific requirements for large enterprises of work permits in the field of radiological work that issued by the Council. Article III: the functions and duties of officers in the prevention of radiological oversee the development of radiation protection programmes in the planning stages, construction and preparing the rules of local labour and what it lead of such tasks.Article IV: radiation protection officers powers: to modify and approve the programme of prevention and radiation safety at the company, stop any unsafe steps, amend the steps of the usage, operation of materials, devices and so on

  9. Adaptation of a Fault-Tolerant Fpga-Based Launch Sequencer as a Cubesat Payload Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    32–bit, reduced instruction set computing ( RISC ) processor that interfaces with a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) for a field...test a fault–tolerant reduced instruction set computer processor running a subset of the multiprocessor without interlocked pipelined stages instruction...James H. Newman Thesis Co-Advisor Clark Robertson Chair, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering iv THIS PAGE

  10. Motivational Measure of the Instruction Compared: Instruction Based on the ARCS Motivation Theory vs Traditional Instruction in Blended Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colakoglu, Ozgur M.; Akdemir, Omur

    2012-01-01

    The ARCS Motivation Theory was proposed to guide instructional designers and teachers who develop their own instruction to integrate motivational design strategies into the instruction. There is a lack of literature supporting the idea that instruction for blended courses if designed based on the ARCS Motivation Theory provides different…

  11. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  12. A Fallibilistic Model for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses models in inquiry and of instruction based on critical Fallibilistic philosophy, developed by Karl R. Popper, which holds that all knowledge grows by conjecture and refutation. Classroom applications of strategies which result from the model are presented. (JP)

  13. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  14. Intelligent Tools and Instructional Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, William R; Sams, Michelle; Belleville, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This intelligent tools and instructional simulations project was an investigation into the utility of a knowledge-based performance support system to support learning and on-task performance for using...

  15. Measurement control workshop instructional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, Philip [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Crawford, Cary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGinnis, Brent [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Insolves LLC, Piketon, OH (United States)

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  16. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-01-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  17. Adaptive Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Talla, Surendranath

    2000-01-01

    .... With in this context, we ask ourselves the following questions. 1. Can application performance be improved if the compiler had the freedom to pick the instruction set on a per application basis? 2...

  18. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  19. PLE-based instruction concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorcik, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of a PLE (Personal Learning Environment)-based teaching model suitable for implementation in the instruction of upper primary school students. The paper describes the individual stages of the model and its use of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) tools. The Personal Learning Environment is a form of instruction which allows for the meaningful use of information and communication technologies (including mobile technologies) in their entirety.

  20. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.; Cruz, S.L.

    1985-08-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND83-8036. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy 5630 series Orders, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  1. Tritium control and accountability instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, W.R.

    1981-03-01

    This instruction describes the tritium accountability procedures practiced by the Tritium Research Laboratory, Building 968 at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore. The accountability procedures are based upon the Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, Nuclear Materials Operations Manual, SAND78-8018. The Nuclear Materials Operations Manual describes accountability techniques which are in compliance with the Department of Energy Manual, Code of Federal Regulations, and Sandia National Laboratories Instructions

  2. Biased lineup instructions and face identification from video images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W Burt; Johnson, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Previous eyewitness memory research has shown that biased lineup instructions reduce identification accuracy, primarily by increasing false-positive identifications in target-absent lineups. Because some attempts at identification do not rely on a witness's memory of the perpetrator but instead involve matching photos to images on surveillance video, the authors investigated the effects of biased instructions on identification accuracy in a matching task. In Experiment 1, biased instructions did not affect the overall accuracy of participants who used video images as an identification aid, but nearly all correct decisions occurred with target-present photo spreads. Both biased and unbiased instructions resulted in high false-positive rates. In Experiment 2, which focused on video-photo matching accuracy with target-absent photo spreads, unbiased instructions led to more correct responses (i.e., fewer false positives). These findings suggest that investigators should not relax precautions against biased instructions when people attempt to match photos to an unfamiliar person recorded on video.

  3. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  4. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  5. Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false…

  6. Validation of a model to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors on the burden of CVD: the rotterdam ischemic heart disease and stroke computer simulation (RISC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Kempen Bob JH

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We developed a Monte Carlo Markov model designed to investigate the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors on the burden of CVD. Internal, predictive, and external validity of the model have not yet been established. Methods The Rotterdam Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke Computer Simulation (RISC model was developed using data covering 5 years of follow-up from the Rotterdam Study. To prove 1 internal and 2 predictive validity, the incidences of coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke, CVD death, and non-CVD death simulated by the model over a 13-year period were compared with those recorded for 3,478 participants in the Rotterdam Study with at least 13 years of follow-up. 3 External validity was verified using 10 years of follow-up data from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk study of 25,492 participants, for whom CVD and non-CVD mortality was compared. Results At year 5, the observed incidences (with simulated incidences in brackets of CHD, stroke, and CVD and non-CVD mortality for the 3,478 Rotterdam Study participants were 5.30% (4.68%, 3.60% (3.23%, 4.70% (4.80%, and 7.50% (7.96%, respectively. At year 13, these percentages were 10.60% (10.91%, 9.90% (9.13%, 14.20% (15.12%, and 24.30% (23.42%. After recalibrating the model for the EPIC-Norfolk population, the 10-year observed (simulated incidences of CVD and non-CVD mortality were 3.70% (4.95% and 6.50% (6.29%. All observed incidences fell well within the 95% credibility intervals of the simulated incidences. Conclusions We have confirmed the internal, predictive, and external validity of the RISC model. These findings provide a basis for analyzing the effects of modifying cardiovascular disease risk factors on the burden of CVD with the RISC model.

  7. Can "Withitness Skills" Improve Instruction and Safety for Those Who Coach or Train?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Larry W.

    2009-01-01

    "Withitness skills" developed by Kounin in the 1970's have been emphasized as an important classroom tool for student management and instruction. (Kounin, 1970) "Withit" instructors develop the ability to know what is going on in the classroom. Improving awareness in the classroom may reduce misbehavior and improve instruction.…

  8. Optimising assembly learning in older adults through the manipulation of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verneau, M.M.N.; van der Kamp, J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; de Looze, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation assessed the putative benefits of reducing instructions for older adults' learning of an assembly task. Young and older adults had to build a product by assembling six components. Two groups practiced following instruction methods that differed in the degree of explicit

  9. Virtual Foreign Correspondence: Experimental Instructions in Digital Foreign News Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Oliver; Stalph, Florian; Steller, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Within a series of six qualitative studies over seven years, this research in instructing journalism students investigates whether or not covering foreign news from home via Internet technology can substitute foreign correspondents on-site to reduce costs. Co-orientation and decontextualization can be described as characteristic for virtual…

  10. Instructional Utility and Learning Efficacy of Common Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConell, David A.; Chapman, LeeAnna; Czaijka, C. Douglas; Jones, Jason P.; Ryker, Katherine D.; Wiggen, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of active learning instructional practices in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses has been shown to result in improvements in student learning, contribute to increased retention rates, and reduce the achievement gap among different student populations. Descriptions of active learning strategies…

  11. Best practices in writing instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzgerald, Jill; MacArthur, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    An indispensable teacher resource and course text, this book presents evidence-based practices for helping all K-12 students develop their skills as writers. Every chapter draws clear connections to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). Leading authorities describe how to teach the skills and strategies that students need to plan, draft, evaluate, and revise multiple types of texts. Also addressed are ways for teachers to integrate technology into the writing program, use assessment to inform instruction, teach writing in the content areas, and tailor instruction for English language learner

  12. Library Instruction. SPEC Kit 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    At the request of the Pennsylvania State University Library, the Office of Management Studies surveyed Association of Research Libraries (ARL) members requesting information and documentation illustrating the organization, nature, and level of the library instruction function at their institutions. A review of the responses from 64 of the 94 ARL…

  13. Assistant for instructional development (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.P. van; Veldhuis, G.J.; Emmerik, M.L. van; Theunissen, N.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Due to periodical job rotation within the military, instructional developers are not always experts in their field and are consequently unaware of the types of educational concepts that are available to teach with (Jans & Frazer-Jans, 2004). These observations have led to the

  14. Using Observation to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, William; Napoliello, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The International School of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia, which serves international students in preschool through middle school, focused a great deal of professional attention on differentiation. The administrators in Malaysian school, by making rounds of classrooms, raised teachers' awareness of differentiated instruction.

  15. Learning Strategy Instruction Innovation Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Jean B.

    2011-01-01

    One way of helping students with learning disabilities and other struggling students to be independent life-long learners is to teach them how to use learning strategies in efficient ways. Learning strategy instruction can provide students the opportunity to succeed in today's schools and meet rigorous standards, transforming ineffective learners…

  16. Unpacking Corrections in Mobile Instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Cromdal, Jakob; Broth, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    that the practice of unpacking the local particulars of corrections (i) provides for the instructional character of the interaction, and (ii) is highly sensitive to the relevant physical and mobile contingencies. These findings contribute to the existing literature on the interactional organisation of correction...

  17. Three Logics of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines conceptions of instructional leadership in the institutional environment. We know that principals' practices affect student learning and that principals are influenced by ideas in the broader environment. This article examines and defines the multiple conceptions of what it means for principals to be instructional…

  18. Conversation Walks: Improving Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Lanoue, Philip D.

    2017-01-01

    Principals are tasked with being the instructional leaders in their schools--developing teacher's abilities through formal and informal classroom observations and feedback. But how can school districts ensure that principals have the skills they need to fulfill this crucial role? In Clarke County School District in Georgia, central-office leaders…

  19. Understanding the Supplemental Instruction Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Adrian; Moore, Lori

    2018-01-01

    This article explored the learning styles and leadership styles of Supplemental Instruction (SI) leaders at Texas A&M University, and the impact of those preferences on recurring attendance to their sessions. The Learning Style Inventory, the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, and a demographic instrument were administered to SI leaders…

  20. Preparing Instructional Leaders: A Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article proposes a model that provides one means of making instructional leadership the central focus of leadership preparation. It draws from conceptualizations of teaching and learning as well as organizational and leadership theory to advocate for greater coherence in education leadership programs. Conceptual Argument: We begin…

  1. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  2. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  3. Interior Design: Teacher's Instructional Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Tricia

    This teacher's instructional guide, which is part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, is intended to assist teachers responsible for teaching one- and two-year interior design programs for Texas high school students. The following are among the items included: (1) introductory…

  4. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  5. Adaptive Instruction: Building on Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Margaret C.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alternative instructional strategies and resources to meet the learning needs of individual students incorporates the diagnosis of student learning progress, the teaching of self-management skills, organizational supports, and family involvement into an effective educational program. (JN)

  6. Gestalt Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Patrick; Fitz, Chad

    1993-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of Gestalt theory. Shows how six Gestalt principles (proximity, closure, symmetry, figure-ground segregation, good continuation, and similarity) can be applied to improve a reader's comprehension of a badly designed instruction module that uses several graphics. (SR)

  7. The Basics of Blended Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Catlin R.

    2013-01-01

    Even though many of teachers do not have technology-rich classrooms, the rapidly evolving education landscape increasingly requires them to incorporate technology to customize student learning. Blended learning, with its mix of technology and traditional face-to-face instruction, is a great approach. Blended learning combines classroom learning…

  8. An Experiment in Museum Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Marguerite

    Various lesson plans for museum instruction were tested on fifth grade children of fair and high intelligence in an attempt to improve upon the "accepted method" of teaching, which was thought to be better suited to the child of low intelligence than to his abler classmates. The lesson plans tested were: (1) the accepted method…

  9. Market Segmentation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Peter H.

    A concept-based introduction to market segmentation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses. The material can be used in many disciplines including engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of market segmentation is primarily a transportation planning technique by…

  10. Instructing the Online Catalog User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William

    1986-01-01

    This essay offers suggestions to make online public access catalogs (OPACs) less idiosyncratic and more usable. Discussion covers qualitative difference between online catalog and predecessors, challenge of debunking assumptions, skills for success, maintaining an instructional perspective, catalog development for the people by the people, and the…

  11. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  12. Attrition Cost Model Instruction Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagiura, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This instruction manual explains in detail how to use the Attrition Cost Model program, which estimates the cost of student attrition for a state's higher education system. Programmed with SAS, this model allows users to instantly calculate the cost of attrition and the cumulative attrition rate that is based on the most recent retention and…

  13. Women Administrators as Instructional Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    Women are under-represented in educational research and are much less likely to hold administrative positions than are men. This study, using the Liberal Feminist Theory and Structural Barrier Theory, proffers possible explanations for this phenomenon. Four women leaders were interviewed to gain insight into their instructional leadership…

  14. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  15. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  16. Computer Assisted Instruction in Basic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-28

    LIBRARY........................16 Program Purpose.........................16 Flowcharts ..........................17 Lessons...17IFlowchart For Main Menu...............19 Flowchart for Lessons One Through Six......................20 CHAPTER Page Tests I1-6 .* 21 Flowchart For...Software support was limited to off-the-shelf packages. All of the computers were purchased with Beginners All Purpose Instruction Code (BASIC), a word

  17. Effective instruction for English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Margarita; Slavin, Robert; Sánchez, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The fastest-growing student population in U.S. schools today is children of immigrants, half of whom do not speak English fluently and are thus labeled English learners. Although the federal government requires school districts to provide services to English learners, it offers states no policies to follow in identifying, assessing, placing, or instructing them. Margarita Calderón, Robert Slavin, and Marta Sánchez identify the elements of effective instruction and review a variety of successful program models. During 2007-08, more than 5.3 million English learners made up 10.6 percent of the nation's K-12 public school enrollment. Wide and persistent achievement disparities between these English learners and English-proficient students show clearly, say the authors, that schools must address the language, literacy, and academic needs of English learners more effectively. Researchers have fiercely debated the merits of bilingual and English-only reading instruction. In elementary schools, English learners commonly receive thirty minutes of English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction but attend general education classes for the rest of the day, usually with teachers who are unprepared to teach them. Though English learners have strikingly diverse levels of skills, in high school they are typically lumped together, with one teacher to address their widely varying needs. These in-school factors contribute to the achievement disparities. Based on the studies presented here, Calderón, Slavin, and Sánchez assert that the quality of instruction is what matters most in educating English learners. They highlight comprehensive reform models, as well as individual components of these models: school structures and leadership; language and literacy instruction; integration of language, literacy, and content instruction in secondary schools; cooperative learning; professional development; parent and family support teams; tutoring; and monitoring implementation and outcomes

  18. Bibliographic Instruction in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Gayle

    2000-01-01

    Discusses bibliographic instruction in libraries. Topics include a history of bibliographic instruction; the Internet and electronic searching; librarians' use of technology; defining information needs; locating and accessing information, including classification systems and Boolean searching; evaluating information; using and communication…

  19. Removing Administrative Impediments to Instructional Improvement Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Pigford, Aretha B.

    1987-01-01

    Principals can and should develop strategies that will enable them to provide instructional leadership despite increased demands from other tasks. Recommended actions include: delegation; peer observation; commitment to instructional leadership; and effective communication with teachers. (CB)

  20. Piano instruction for nursery school trainees

    OpenAIRE

    新海, 節; Makoto, SHINKAI; 藤女子大学人間生活学部保育学科

    2012-01-01

    It is important piano instruction in childcare training schools be viewed primarily as "music for childcare". To this end,it is also important that the view of piano instruction for nursery school trainees be switched from one mainly focused on the technical aspects of performance using many etudes to a form of instruction based on developing the musicality of the trainees and their ability to display emotion through music. Further, through this instruction, the trainees need to develop the a...

  1. Technology Use in Higher Education Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzarka, Sammy

    2012-01-01

    The significance of integrating technology use in higher education instruction is undeniable. The benefits include those related to access to instruction by underserved populations, adequately preparing students for future careers, capitalizing on best instructional practices, developing higher order thinking activities, and engaging students…

  2. On the Practice Architectures of Instructional Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Petri; Nylund, Jan; Stjernstrøm, Else

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of instructional leadership and principals' perceptions of the practices of instructional leadership. Despite the emphasis on the effects of school leadership regarding teaching practices and learning outcomes, research on direct instructional leadership is scarce. It is focused either on identifying overall…

  3. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…

  4. Explicit Instruction Elements in Core Reading Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Angela R.

    2012-01-01

    Classroom teachers are provided instructional recommendations for teaching reading from their adopted core reading programs (CRPs). Explicit instruction elements or what is also called instructional moves, including direct explanation, modeling, guided practice, independent practice, discussion, feedback, and monitoring, were examined within CRP…

  5. A Performance-Based Instructional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tom E.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for a performanced- based instructional theory has arisen from significant advances during the past several years in instructional psychology. Four major areas of concern are: analysis of subject-matter content in terms of performance competencies, diagnosis of pre-instructional behavior, formulation of an instructional…

  6. Effective Instruction: A Mathematics Coach's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebesniak, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    Effective instruction is multifaceted, dependent largely on the context and, consequently, on numerous variables. Although "effective instruction" is difficult to define, in the author's experience--and as the work of mathematics education specialists and researchers indicates--three key features of quality instruction stand out: (1) Teaching…

  7. Changing Student Teachers' Views of Comprehension Instruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the same time research shows that little, if any, explicit and continuous strategy instruction takes place in classrooms. Reasons seem ... This article reports on the effect of a reading comprehension instruction course on university student teachers' lesson planning, strategy use and views about comprehension instruction.

  8. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  9. Rapid Prototyping: An Alternative Instructional Design Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Steven D.; Bichelmeyer, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the nature of instructional design and describes rapid prototyping as a feasible model for instructional system design (ISD). The use of prototyping in software engineering is described, similarities between software design and instructional design are discussed, and an example is given which uses rapid prototyping in designing a…

  10. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  11. How can we make user instructions motivational?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouder, M.F.; Loorbach, N.R.

    2004-01-01

    Good technical instructions are often viewed as 'cool, concise and professional', but there are good arguments to pay attention to their persuasive and motivational aspects as well. Until now, only analyses of existing instructions have been published, while guidelines for making instructions

  12. Direct Reading Instruction and the NYS ELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Carey, Margaret H.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of classroom based reading instruction ("direct instruction") on the standardized test scores of 6th grade students as measured by the New York State English Language Arts assessment (NYS ELA). It was hypothesized that the implementation of direct instruction in reading in grade 6 would improve NYS ELA…

  13. Direct Vocabulary Instruction in Preschool: A Comparison of Extended Instruction, Embedded Instruction, and Incidental Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus-Rattan, Susan M.; Mitchell, Alison M.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Based on its coincidence with a significant period in language development for children, preschool provides a favorable setting to foster vocabulary growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two instructional conditions and an incidental exposure condition for teaching targeted vocabulary words to preschool students…

  14. Demonstrating Empathy: A Phenomenological Study of Instructional Designers Making Instructional Strategy Decisions for Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Linda S.

    2017-01-01

    Instructional designers are tasked with making instructional strategy decisions to facilitate achievement of learning outcomes as part of their professional responsibilities. While the instructional design process includes learner analysis, that analysis alone does not embody opportunities to assist instructional designers with demonstrations of…

  15. 30 CFR 48.25 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction. (a) Each new miner shall receive no less than 24...: Provided, That no less than 8 hours of training shall in all cases be given to new miners before they are... instruction; hours of instruction. 48.25 Section 48.25 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...

  16. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  17. FEU Technology Digest No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This publication contains a glossary of acronyms; an editorial (Ingram); "Integrative Assignments and Design" (Biles, Palmer); "Computer-Based Education: A Student's Response" (Landau); "Taking the RISC [Reduced Instruction Set Computer] in FHE [Further and Higher Education]" (Meeke); "Engineering Education in…

  18. The Effect of Interactive, Three Dimensional, High Speed Simulations on High School Science Students' Conceptions of the Molecular Structure of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakerem, Gita; And Others

    The Water and Molecular Networks (WAMNet) Project uses graduate student written Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC) computer simulations of the molecular structure of water to assist high school students learn about the nature of water. This study examined: (1) preconceptions concerning the molecular structure of water common among high…

  19. Instructive of chemical residues waste administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Vargas, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the waste management system of chemical residues generated at the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, separation, transportation, reuse, recycling and final disposal. The laboratory waste management system is conditioned to the volume and type of waste generated. The respective procedures are listed in data sheets according to the corresponding model: avoid, reduce, recycle, treat, delete. The materials are identified as: expired products, materials or damaged products, substances that have lost some of the required characteristics, waste from the regular activities of the lab, unused products that now no longer used because they are considered inadequate. The chemicals reagents or hazardous are transformed into small amounts of derivatives safe products, or less hazardous, to allow for removal or to pick up a spill of these without problem [es

  20. Instructional Leadership and Schools Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Daisy Kee Mui; Ponnusamy, Premavathy

    With the influx of information technology through the Internet and the use of ICT in our daily lives, our future generation has traversed from a mere change of era to a dynamic era of change. Thus, the role of school leaders is becoming more challenging than ever. They need to make greater strides to ensure that they are able to make adjustments and readjustments in instructional practices to cater for the changing elements in their organization. In brief, the school leaders have to be creative, innovative with entrepreneurial drive in order to steer their subordinates (teachers) towards school excellence. Leadership of principal is therefore considered as a main criterion to create successful schools in country's educational advancement. Besides, the school effectiveness plays a crucial role in country's academic advancement. This paper focuses on a comprehensive review of literature on the relationship between instructional leadership and school effectiveness.

  1. Collaboration systems for classroom instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how classroom instruction can benefit from state-of-the-art technologies in networks, worldwide web access through Internet, multimedia, databases, and computing. Functional requirements for establishing such a high-tech classroom are identified, followed by descriptions of our current experimental implementations. The focus of the paper is on the capabilities of distributed collaboration, which supports both synchronous multimedia information sharing as well as a shared work environment for distributed teamwork and group decision making. Our ultimate goal is to achieve the concept of 'living world in a classroom' such that live and dynamic up-to-date information and material from all over the world can be integrated into classroom instruction on a real-time basis. We describe how we incorporate application developments in a geography study tool, worldwide web information retrievals, databases, and programming environments into the collaborative system.

  2. The Effect of Performance-Contingent Incentives when Task Complexity is Manipulated through Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monte Wynder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When, and how, performance-contingent incentives improve performance is an important question fororganisations. Empirical results have been mixed – performance-contingent incentives sometimes increaseperformance, sometimes decrease performance, and sometimes have no effect. Theorists have called forfurther research to identify the effect of various moderating variables, including knowledge and taskcomplexity. This study responds by considering the role of instruction in providing the necessary knowledgeto reduce task complexity. The results suggest that a performance-contingent penalty can be a particularlyeffective means of directing effort for a simple task. For a complex task, performance can be improvedthrough instruction. The type of instruction is important – with rule-based instruction effectively directingeffort – however principle-based instruction is necessary to facilitate problem investigation and problemsolving.

  3. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  4. Instructional skills evaluation in nuclear industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.; Ball, F.M.

    1985-11-01

    This report provides information to nuclear power plant training managers and their staffs concerning the job performance requirements of instructional personnel to implement prformance-based training programs (also referred to as the Systems Approach Training). The information presented in this report is a compilation of information and lessons learned in the nuclear power industry and in other industries using performance-based training programs. The job performance requirements in this report are presented as instructional skills objectives. The process used to develop the instructional skills objectives is described. Each objective includes an Instructional Skills Statement describing the behavior that is expected and an Instructional Skills Standard describing the skills/knowledge that the individual should possess in order to have achieved mastery. The instructional skills objectives are organized according to the essential elements of the Systems Approach to Training and are cross-referenced to three categories of instructional personnel: developers of instruction, instructors, and instructional managers/supervisors. Use of the instructional skills objectives is demonstrated for reviewing instructional staff training and qualification programs, developing criterion-tests, and reviewing the performance and work products of individual staff members. 22 refs

  5. Effective Instruction of Public Speaking

    OpenAIRE

    竹野, 茂; Shigeru, TAKENO

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the instruction of public speaking in a large-size class. The author has been in charge of the speech classes,SPEECH III and SPEECH IV mainly for the second year students at Miyazaki Municipal University for several years. At the preparation stage of SPEECH III, and IV, he intended that the class size was about 30 students as one group in the lecture style. But, in reality, more than 50 students took the course. Then he had to rethink the way of teaching. To solve the prob...

  6. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.

  7. Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency medicine: affecting their self-confidence in emergency departments. Mohamed Daffalla Awadalla, Ahmed Abd Elrahman Abdalla, Sami Mahjoub Taha ...

  8. The Multimodal Possibilities of Online Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi-modal analy......The WWW simplifies the process of delivering online instructions through multimodal channels because of the ease of use for voice, video, pictures, and text modes of communication built into it.  Given that instructions are being produced in multimodal format for the WWW, how do multi...

  9. Review of Instructional Approaches in Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhearn, Tyler J; Steele, Logan M; Watts, Logan L; Medeiros, Kelsey E; Mumford, Michael D; Connelly, Shane

    2017-06-01

    Increased investment in ethics education has prompted a variety of instructional objectives and frameworks. Yet, no systematic procedure to classify these varying instructional approaches has been attempted. In the present study, a quantitative clustering procedure was conducted to derive a typology of instruction in ethics education. In total, 330 ethics training programs were included in the cluster analysis. The training programs were appraised with respect to four instructional categories including instructional content, processes, delivery methods, and activities. Eight instructional approaches were identified through this clustering procedure, and these instructional approaches showed different levels of effectiveness. Instructional effectiveness was assessed based on one of nine commonly used ethics criteria. With respect to specific training types, Professional Decision Processes Training (d = 0.50) and Field-Specific Compliance Training (d = 0.46) appear to be viable approaches to ethics training based on Cohen's d effect size estimates. By contrast, two commonly used approaches, General Discussion Training (d = 0.31) and Norm Adherence Training (d = 0.37), were found to be considerably less effective. The implications for instruction in ethics training are discussed.

  10. Cardiac examination and the effect of dual-processing instruction in a cardiopulmonary simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Matt; McKinney, James; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Yu, Eric; Wood, David A; Nair, Parvathy; Eva, Kevin W; Hatala, Rose

    2013-08-01

    Use of dual-processing has been widely touted as a strategy to reduce diagnostic error in clinical medicine. However, this strategy has not been tested among medical trainees with complex diagnostic problems. We sought to determine whether dual-processing instruction could reduce diagnostic error across a spectrum of experience with trainees undertaking cardiac physical exam. Three experiments were conducted using a similar design to teach cardiac physical exam using a cardiopulmonary simulator. One experiment was conducted in each of three groups: experienced, intermediate and novice trainees. In all three experiments, participants were randomized to receive undirected or dual-processing verbal instruction during teaching, practice and testing phases. When tested, dual-processing instruction did not change the probability assigned to the correct diagnosis in any of the three experiments. Among intermediates, there was an apparent interaction between the diagnosis tested and the effect of dual-processing instruction. Among relative novices, dual processing instruction may have dampened the harmful effect of a bias away from the correct diagnosis. Further work is needed to define the role of dual-processing instruction to reduce cognitive error. This study suggests that it cannot be blindly applied to complex diagnostic problems such as cardiac physical exam.

  11. Tutorial Instruction in Science Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Miles

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the tutorial practices of in-service teachers to address the underachievement in the science education of K-12 students. Method: In-service teachers in Virginia and North Carolina were given a survey questionnaire to examine how they tutored students who were in need of additional instruction. Results: When these teachers were asked, “How do you describe a typical one-on-one science tutorial session?” the majority of their responses were categorized as teacher-directed. Many of the teachers would provide a science tutorial session for a student after school for 16-30 minutes, one to three times a week. Respondents also indicated they would rely on technology, peer tutoring, scientific inquiry, or themselves for one-on-one science instruction. Over half of the in-service teachers that responded to the questionnaire stated that they would never rely on outside assistance, such as a family member or an after school program to provide tutorial services in science. Additionally, very few reported that they incorporated the ethnicity, culture, or the native language of ELL students into their science tutoring sessions.

  12. Learning from Narrated Instruction Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon

    2017-09-05

    Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.

  13. A model for architectural comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sam; Snyder, Larry

    1988-04-01

    Recently, architectures for sequential computers became a topic of much discussion and controversy. At the center of this storm is the Reduced Instruction Set Computer, or RISC, first described at Berkeley in 1980. While the merits of the RISC architecture cannot be ignored, its opponents have tried to do just that, while its proponents have expanded and frequently exaggerated them. This state of affairs has persisted to this day. No attempt is made to settle this controversy, since indeed there is likely no one answer. A qualitative framework is provided for a rational discussion of the issues.

  14. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  15. Instructed Pragmatics at a Glance: Where Instructional Studies Were, Are, and Should Be Going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings together the research and developments of instructed pragmatics over the past three decades by reporting the synthesis findings of instructional intervention studies in interlanguage pragmatics. Two questions have guided this investigation: (1) is instruction effective in learning pragmatics?; and (2) what methods are most…

  16. Instructable autonomous agents. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Scott Bradley

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to current intelligent systems, which must be laboriously programmed for each task they are meant to perform, instructable agents can be taught new tasks and associated knowledge. This thesis presents a general theory of learning from tutorial instruction and its use to produce an instructable agent. Tutorial instruction is a particularly powerful form of instruction, because it allows the instructor to communicate whatever kind of knowledge a student needs at whatever point it is needed. To exploit this broad flexibility, however, a tutorable agent must support a full range of interaction with its instructor to learn a full range of knowledge. Thus, unlike most machine learning tasks, which target deep learning of a single kind of knowledge from a single kind of input, tutorability requires a breadth of learning from a broad range of instructional interactions. The theory of learning from tutorial instruction presented here has two parts. First, a computational model of an intelligent agent, the problem space computational model, indicates the types of knowledge that determine an agent's performance, and thus, that should be acquirable via instruction. Second, a learning technique, called situated explanation specifies how the agent learns general knowledge from instruction. The theory is embodied by an implemented agent, Instructo-Soar, built within the Soar architecture. Instructo-Soar is able to learn hierarchies of completely new tasks, to extend task knowledge to apply in new situations, and in fact to acquire every type of knowledge it uses during task performance - control knowledge, knowledge of operators' effects, state inferences, etc. - from interactive natural language instructions. This variety of learning occurs by applying the situated explanation technique to a variety of instructional interactions involving a variety of types of instructions (commands, statements, conditionals, etc.). By taking seriously the requirements of flexible

  17. Reducing operational costs through MIPS management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwiatkowski, L.M.; Verhoef, C.

    2015-01-01

    We focus on an approach to reducing the costs of running applications. MIPS, which is a traditional acronym for millions of instructions per second, have evolved to become a measurement of processing power and CPU resource consumption. The need for controlling MIPS attributed costs is indispensable

  18. Effects of Instruction and Stage-Fright on Intelligence Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Joost; Oostdam, Ron

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, it was tried to unravel the influence of various types of instruction on test anxiety levels and, in turn, its influence on intelligence test performance. Three types of instruction were compared: a stressful, achievement-orientated instruction; a reassuring, task-orientated instruction; and an ambiguous instruction.…

  19. Using Informal Classroom Observations to Improve Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the variability of principals' classroom observations across schools and to relate classroom observations to the schools' instructional climate. This helps identify the conditions under which classroom observations effectively improve instruction in some schools and not in other schools.…

  20. Instructional Technology in Brazil: A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saettler, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A status report on the evolving conceptions of instructional technology and current applications in Brazil. A complementary purpose is to summarize those conditions which vitally influence the general characteristics of the Brazilian educational system and the nature of instructional technology in this major developing country of the world.…

  1. A Taxonomy of Asynchronous Instructional Video Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorianopoulos, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Many educational organizations are employing instructional videos in their pedagogy, but there is a limited understanding of the possible video formats. In practice, the presentation format of instructional videos ranges from direct recording of classroom teaching with a stationary camera, or screencasts with voiceover, to highly elaborate video…

  2. Self-Paced Instruction: Hello, Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuba, Richard J.; Flammer, Gordon H.

    1975-01-01

    Answers criticisms of self-paced instruction (SPI) by citing advantages of SPI over lecture methods. Concludes that criticisms of SPI are useful since they indicate in which areas further research should be conducted to improve this method of instruction. (MLH)

  3. Using Blogs to Improve Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michaela W.; Colombo, Paul D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors discuss how the instructional impact of science teachers can be extended by using blogs, a technology popular among students that allows teachers to differentiate their instruction for students with diverse needs. Software now makes it easy for teachers to establish class blogs, Web sites that contain text, audio, and video postings on…

  4. Making the Most of Instructional Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Britnie Delinger; Rosenquist, Brooks

    2018-01-01

    Although coaching holds great promise for professional development, instructional coaches are often asked to take on responsibilities that are not focused on improving instruction. The authors discuss a quantitative study of four school districts and a qualitative analysis of a single district that, together, reveal how hiring practices and school…

  5. Classroom Instruction: The Influences of Marie Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Marie Clay's body of work has influenced classroom instruction in direct and indirect ways, through large overarching themes in our pedagogical content knowledge as well as specific smart practices. This paper focuses on her the contributions to our thinking about instruction which come from two broad theoretical concepts; emergent literacy…

  6. Thread extraction for polyadic instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.; Middelburg, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the phenomenon that instruction sequences are split into fragments which somehow produce a joint behaviour. In order to bring this phenomenon better into the picture, we formalize a simple mechanism by which several instruction sequence fragments can produce a joint

  7. Understanding instructions for oral rehydration therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemon, T O; Patel, V L

    1989-01-01

    Oral rehydration mixtures are readily available in rural Kenya, but the instructions that accompany them are not always clear. Mothers will understand such instructions more readily if they explain the principles of oral rehydration and describe in a logical way the sequence of procedures to be followed.

  8. Implicit and Explicit Instruction of Spelling Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, M. J.; Verhoeven, L.; Bosman, A. M. T.

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to compare the differential effectiveness of explicit and implicit instruction of two Dutch spelling rules. Students with and without spelling disabilities were instructed a spelling rule either implicitly or explicitly in two experiments. Effects were tested in a pretest-intervention-posttest control group design. Experiment 1…

  9. 25 CFR 67.15 - Special instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Area Director, the Assistant Secretary may issue special instructions not inconsistent with the... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions. 67.15 Section 67.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF A ROLL OF INDEPENDENT...

  10. 25 CFR 61.15 - Special instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary may issue special instructions not inconsistent with the regulations in this part 61. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special instructions. 61.15 Section 61.15 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PREPARATION OF ROLLS OF INDIANS § 61...

  11. How Instructional Systems Will Manage Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, John C.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses trends toward the systems approach in education including the development of effective instructional systems in government and industry; the introduction of teaching machines, programed learning, and computer- assisted instruction; and the increase in both the amount and sophistication of educational research and development. (JF)

  12. Modelling Web-Based Instructional Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retalis, Symeon; Avgeriou, Paris

    2002-01-01

    The size and complexity of modern instructional systems, which are based on the World Wide Web, bring about great intricacy in their crafting, as there is not enough knowledge or experience in this field. This imposes the use of new instructional design models in order to achieve risk-mitigation,

  13. Instructional Leadership in Elementary School Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ann; MacDonald, Leo

    2008-01-01

    Instructional leadership is internationally recognized as being a key role for school administrators to advance in their relationships with teachers. But what happens when a principal lacks content knowledge or specific pedagogical knowledge about certain curriculum areas? How do administrators support instructional practices of teachers who teach…

  14. Categories for Observing Language Arts Instruction (COLAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benterud, Julianna G.

    Designed to study individual use of time spent in reading during regularly scheduled language arts instruction in a natural classroom setting, this coding sheet consists of nine categories: (1) engagement, (2) area of language arts, (3) instructional setting, (4) partner (teacher or pupil(s)), (5) source of content, (6) type of unit, (7) assigned…

  15. Preparing Instructional Objectives: Agony or Ecstasy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Wesley K.

    This paper 1) discusses the problems encountered in preparing objectives for instructional programs; 2) describes an informal research project in which seven instructional designers working on the same project attempted to determine agreement on an objective; and 3) suggests how to prepare objectives so that difficulties can be minimized. One…

  16. Misunderstanding during instructional communication as related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Misunderstanding during instructional communication as related to oral proficiency. ... Data were collected through video recorded observations of authentic lessons presented by 26 pre-service teachers using English second language as the medium of instruction in the classroom. Misunderstandings were identified and ...

  17. Orientation: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The first six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in the basic theory and practice of a beginning course at the secondary and post-secondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction…

  18. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  19. Delivering Instruction to Adult Learners. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Jeffrey A.

    This one-stop guide for trainers and educators of adults in industry, business, or the professions details a results-oriented instructional strategy that is based on the following principles for instructing adults effectively: (1) act as a leader, helper, guide, change agent, coordinator, and facilitator of learning; (2) promote active…

  20. Softball: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven instructional units on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents suggestions for coaching softball for mentally retarded persons. An overview section provides information on teaching suggestions, followed by a list of program goals, objectives, and benefits. Sports skill assessments measure athletes'…

  1. Grouping and Organizing for Instruction in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Flexibility is a key term to emphasize when grouping students for instruction, since a student might be in a different group for one academic area as compared to another academic area. This paper describes grouping for different methods of reading instruction and other disciplines. The paper discusses the following: using basal readers, using…

  2. Energizing Learning: The Instructional Power of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger T.

    2009-01-01

    Although intellectual conflict may be an important instructional tool (because of its potential constructive outcomes), conflict is rarely structured in instructional situations (because of its potential destructive outcomes). Many educators may be apprehensive about instigating intellectual conflict among students because of the lack of…

  3. The Pedagogy of Flipped Instruction in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Kelso, Mary

    2015-01-01

    "Flipping the classroom", or reverse instruction has been hailed the new pedagogical approach for preparing students for the 21st century. The idea behind this method is relatively simple. Instead of structuring class work to deliver direct instruction from the teacher in class and giving homework to students to practice outside of…

  4. Handwriting Instruction in Elementary Schools: Revisited!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Asha; Estes, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Handwriting is an essential literacy and communication skill developed through a variety of instructional methods in elementary school. This study explored the consistency in handwriting instruction across grade levels in a Midwest public school district 15 years after the school initially implemented a uniform handwriting program. Additionally,…

  5. Changing Throwing Pattern: Instruction and Control Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of instruction and scaling up a control parameter (velocity of throw) on changes in throwing pattern. Sixty adult female throwers (ages 20-26 years) were randomly placed into one of four practice conditions: (a) scale up on velocity with no instruction, (b) maintain constant velocity with no…

  6. Putting the Fun Back into Fluency Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Mary Ann; Gregory, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Based on recent research in fluency instruction, the authors present a scenario in which a teacher focuses her fluency instruction on authentic fluency tasks based in performance. Beginning with establishing a student-friendly definition of fluency and culminating with student engagement in fun fluency activities, this article explores the…

  7. Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

  8. Motivational Design in Information Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Amanda Nichols

    2015-01-01

    Motivational design theory complements instructional design theory and, when used together, both principles can affect learning, knowledge acquisition, and knowledge retention. In information literacy instruction, motivational design exists throughout the appropriate standards documents. However, there is limited current research on the best…

  9. Instructional Technology in the Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, Howard B., Jr.

    Broad areas of communications media used in technical training in specific occupational skills within the armed forces are examined in the first part of this report. These areas include: traditional audiovisual media, television, the techniques of programed instruction and instructional systems development, and the use of computers. In the second…

  10. The Future of Instructional Teacher Leader Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, Melinda M.; Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2010-01-01

    In response to increased performance expectations, schools and districts are turning to nonsupervisory, school-based, instructional teacher leader roles to help improve teachers' instruction and enhance student learning. Increased opportunities to learn about teacher leadership may facilitate the implementation and institutionalization of…

  11. Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreillon, Judi, Ed.; Ballard, Susan, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    In this Best of "Knowledge Quest" monograph, the editors have collected seminal articles to support pre-service and in-service school librarians in developing and strengthening the instructional partner role. "Instructional Partnerships: A Pathway to Leadership" provides readers with background knowledge, research-based…

  12. Instructional Strategy: Administration of Injury Scripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Context: Learning how to form accurate and efficient clinical examinations is a critical factor in becoming a competent athletic training practitioner, and instructional strategies differ for this complex task. Objective: To introduce an instructional strategy consistent with complex learning to encourage improved efficiency by minimizing…

  13. Instructional Podcasting with Undergraduate Digital Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; Willis, Dottie

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the use of instructional podcasts with students in introductory computer application classes at a small, independent, private university. Participants were all undergraduates in the school of education. In an effort to model effective use of instructional technology for preservice teachers and to "meet digital native…

  14. Web-Based Instruction (WBI): An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Badrul H.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in information technology, coupled with changes in society, are creating new paradigms for education. The Web, as a medium of learning and instruction, has the potential to support the creation of well-designed resources. A table of features and components associated with Web-based instruction learning environments is provided.…

  15. Instructional Technology, Temper, Technique, and Teacher Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J. Mark; Garrison, James W.

    1991-01-01

    Scientific management and hierarchical accountability tend to destroy dialogue and issue ideas as orders to be obeyed. Instructional technology packages can actually enslave teachers. The emendation or feedback loop built into all instructional systems should allow educators to alter design in the context of practice and help technologists design…

  16. Multimedia Instruction Initiative: Building Faculty Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Penelope J.

    Hofstra University began a university-wide initiative to enhance classroom instruction with multimedia technology and foster collaborative approaches to learning. The Multimedia Instruction Initiative emphasized teamwork among faculty, students, and computer center support staff to develop a technology-enriched learning environment supported by…

  17. Processing Instruction: A Review of Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasuki, Muhlisin

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help…

  18. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  19. Instructive for disposal of fluorescent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Vargas, Gerlin

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of waste fluorescent lamps, ensuring the storage, collection, transportation, and final disposal. The lamp is changed by an official of the Seccion de Matenimiento Construccion of the Oficina de Servicios Generales or is produced with the support of an official of the unit. The fluorescent should be deposited in stock of materials of the building maintenance section or unit specified with the help of a staff and in appropriate conditions. The fluorescent lamp is transported according to the guidelines in the manual. A responsible company is contracted by la Vicerrectoria de Administracion of the Universidad de Costa Rica dedicated to the transport and proper handling of fluorescent lamps [es

  20. Computer-aided instruction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teneze, Jean Claude

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the use of teleprocessing and time sharing by the RAX IBM system and the possibility to introduce a dialog with the machine to develop an application in which the computer plays the role of a teacher for different pupils at the same time. Two operating modes are thus exploited: a teacher-mode and a pupil-mode. The developed CAI (computer-aided instruction) system comprises a checker to check the course syntax in teacher-mode, a translator to trans-code the course written in teacher-mode into a form which can be processes by the execution programme, and the execution programme which presents the course in pupil-mode

  1. Instruction timing for the CDC 7600 computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipps, H.

    1975-01-01

    This report provides timing information for all instructions of the Control Data 7600 computer, except for instructions of type 01X, to enable the optimization of 7600 programs. The timing rules serve as background information for timing charts which are produced by a program (TIME76) of the CERN Program Library. The rules that co-ordinate the different sections of the CPU are stated in as much detail as is necessary to time the flow of instructions for a given sequence of code. Instruction fetch, instruction issue, and access to small core memory are treated at length, since details are not available from the computer manuals. Annotated timing charts are given for 24 examples, chosen to display the full range of timing considerations. (Author)

  2. Prendre Au Serieux Les Jeux pedagogiques (Taking Instructional Games Seriously).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudin, Herve

    1989-01-01

    Three types of instructional games (learning, practice, and creative) are distinguished and discussed, and their place in the second language classroom is considered. It is emphasized that instructional games should complement, not repeat, classroom instruction. (MSE)

  3. Axioms for behavioural congruence of single-pass instruction sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    In program algebra, an algebraic theory of single-pass instruction sequences, three congruences on instruction sequences are paid attention to: instruction sequence congruence, structural congruence, and behavioural congruence. Sound and complete axiom systems for the first two congruences were

  4. Effects of Cooperative and Individualistic Instructional Strategies On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    instructional strategies on students' problem solving abilities in secondary school chemistry ... individualistic instructional strategy and conventional teaching method. ..... solving abilities are best enhanced by cooperative learning environment.

  5. Using assessment to individualize early mathematics instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Kurz, Terri; Crowe, Elizabeth C; Tighe, Elizabeth L; Wood, Taffeta S; Morrison, Frederick J

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that assessment-informed personalized instruction, tailored to students' individual skills and abilities, is more effective than more one-size-fits-all approaches. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of Individualizing Student Instruction in Mathematics (ISI-Math) compared to Reading (ISI-Reading) where classrooms were randomly assigned to ISI-Math or ISI-Reading. The literature on child characteristics X instruction or skill X treatment interaction effects point to the complexities of tailoring instruction for individual students who present with constellations of skills. Second graders received mathematics instruction in small flexible learning groups based on their assessed learning needs. Results of the study (n=32 teachers, 370 students) revealed significant treatment effects on standardized mathematics assessments. With effect sizes (d) of 0.41-0.60, we show that we can significantly improve 2nd graders' mathematics achievement, including for children living in poverty, by using assessment data to individualize the mathematics instruction they receive. The instructional regime, ISI-Math, was implemented by regular classroom teachers and it led to about a 4-month achievement advantage on standardized mathematics tests when compared to students in control classrooms. These results were realized within one school year. Moreover, treatment effects were the same regardless of school-level poverty and students' gender, initial mathematics or vocabulary scores. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  7. Future thinking instructions improve prospective memory performance in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altgassen, Mareike; Kretschmer, Anett; Schnitzspahn, Katharina Marlene

    2017-07-01

    Studies on prospective memory (PM) development in adolescents point to age-related increases through to adulthood. The goal of the present study was to examine whether instructing adolescents to engage in an episodic prospection of themselves executing future actions (i.e., future thinking) when forming an intention would improve their PM performance and reduce age-related differences. Further, we set out to explore whether future thinking instructions result in stronger memory traces and/or stronger cue-context associations by evaluating retrospective memory for the PM cues after task completion and monitoring costs during PM task processing. Adolescents and young adults were allocated to either the future thinking, repeated-encoding or standard condition. As expected, adolescents had fewer correct PM responses than young adults. Across age groups, PM performance in the standard condition was lower than in the other encoding conditions. Importantly, the results indicate a significant interaction of age by encoding condition. While adolescents benefited most from future thinking instructions, young adults performed best in the repeated-encoding condition. The results also indicate that the beneficial effects of future thinking may result from deeper intention-encoding through the simulation of future task performance.

  8. Poster session in instructional technology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina; Wulan Febriana, Beta; Arlianty, Widinda Normalia

    2017-12-01

    Instructional technology course must be studied by students in order to 1) understand the role of technology in learning, 2) capable of analyzing advantages and disadvantages of using technology in teaching, 3) capable of performing technology in teaching. A poster session in instructional technology course was performed to 1) enhance students' interest in this course and develop students' creativity. The step of this research includes: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The result showed that students' responses towards poster session in instructional technology course were good.

  9. Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.; Lugaski, T.; Pankratius, B.

    1991-01-01

    Curriculum and instruction in nuclear waste disposal is part of the larger problem of curriculum and instruction in science. At a time when science and technological literacy is crucial to the nation's economic future fewer students are electing to take needed courses in science that might promote such literacy. The problem is directly related to what science teachers teach and how they teach it. Science content that is more relevant and interesting to students must be a part of the curriculum. Science instruction must allow students to be actively involved in investigating or playing the game of science

  10. The Instructional Text like a Textual Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Fogali Marinello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.

  11. Response switching and self-efficacy in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric

    2015-06-01

    to reduce stressful experiences (i.e., high-stakes testing) early in the semester, in the hope that this will improve student learning in Peer Instruction classrooms.

  12. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  13. The impact of inquiry-based instructional professional development upon instructional practice: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Frances A.

    This mixed method case study employs action research, conducted over a three month period with 11 elementary math and science practitioners. Inquiry as an instructional practice is a vital component of math and science instruction and STEM teaching. Teachers examined their beliefs and teaching practices with regard to those instructional factors that influence inquiry instruction. Video-taped lessons were compared to a rubric and pre and post questionnaires along with two interviews which informed the study. The results showed that while most beliefs were maintained, teachers implemented inquiry at a more advanced level after examining their teaching and reflecting on ways to increase inquiry practices. Because instructional practices provide only one component of inquiry-based instruction, other components need to be examined in a future study.

  14. Generating and executing programs for a floating point single instruction multiple data instruction set architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-04-16

    Mechanisms for generating and executing programs for a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA) are provided. A computer program product comprising a computer recordable medium having a computer readable program recorded thereon is provided. The computer readable program, when executed on a computing device, causes the computing device to receive one or more instructions and execute the one or more instructions using logic in an execution unit of the computing device. The logic implements a floating point (FP) only single instruction multiple data (SIMD) instruction set architecture (ISA), based on data stored in a vector register file of the computing device. The vector register file is configured to store both scalar and floating point values as vectors having a plurality of vector elements.

  15. Attentional Focusing Instructions and Force Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Marchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research progress assessing the role of attentional focusing instructions on skill acquisition and performance has lead researchers to apply this approach to force production tasks. Initial converging evidence indicates that force production tasks are sensitive to verbal instruction; externally focused instructions (onto movement outcomes, or onto the object force is being exerted against are shown to be more beneficial than internally focused instructions (focusing attention onto the movements being executed. These benefits are observed for maximal and accurate force production, as well as the maintenance of force production in prolonged tasks. A range of mechanisms are identified supporting the proposal that an external focus promotes movement efficiency in line with energy and effort conservation. Future research is required to assess how this developing body of work interacts with the broader understanding of psychological and physiological factors implicated in the effective production, maintenance and limitation of maximal or sub-maximal forces.

  16. Completion processing for data communications instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J

    2014-05-20

    Completion processing of data communications instructions in a distributed computing environment, including receiving, in an active messaging interface (`AMI`) data communications instructions, at least one instruction specifying a callback function; injecting into an injection FIFO buffer of a data communication adapter, an injection descriptor, each slot in the injection FIFO buffer having a corresponding slot in a pending callback list; listing in the pending callback list any callback function specified by an instruction, incrementing a pending callback counter for each listed callback function; transferring payload data as per each injection descriptor, incrementing a transfer counter upon completion of each transfer; determining from counter values whether the pending callback list presently includes callback functions whose data transfers have been completed; calling by the AMI any such callback functions from the pending callback list, decrementing the pending callback counter for each callback function called.

  17. Managing Innovation and Change for Instructional Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holznagel, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    Introduces the term "orgware" and reviews the literature on managing technological innovation in instructional settings. Six areas of management concern are described, and advice on managing innovation and change is provided. (11 references) (GLR)

  18. When innovative instructional designs are too innovative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas; Wahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    and it was developed to include, motivate and encourage the students to engage in more situated learning processes. The course is infamous for low attendance and for demotivating the students. The new instructional design utilized teacher-produced video-clips to qualify the students learning in the preparation...... for the lessons and new pedagogical activities during lessons to make the learning process more situated. The video-clips should also include more students through scaffolding the academic reading with video-clips. However, the outcome was not as planned. The students didn’t recognize the video......This paper presents a study of what happens when innovation of an instructional design is too innovative. The study investigates an implementation process of a new instructional design in nursing education. The new instructional design should be a step away for a functionalist approach to learning...

  19. Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    McKenney, S., & Visscher-Voerman, I. (2013). Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers. Educational Designer, 2(6). Available online: http://www.educationaldesigner.org/ed/volume2/issue6/article20/index.htm

  20. Competency-Based Instruction for Marketing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Betty; Williams, Terry M.

    1982-01-01

    Which method of instruction is more effective for postsecondary students: competency-based or traditional? This study reveals that the effectiveness of one method over the other depends on work experience of the student. (Author)

  1. Differentiating Instruction in Early Childhood Care Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri,. E-mail: ... Key words: childhood education, Differentiated instruction, teachers/ caregivers' practice ... differences in their readiness level, interests and learning profiles/styles (p. 940). Today's ...

  2. Improving Instruction through a Videotape Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batesky, James

    1979-01-01

    Videotape and a videotape library can be used to expand the quality of instruction of a physical education program by allowing greater diversity of material taught and increased use of professionals and experts in various sports. (JMF)

  3. Biotechnology Education: A Multiple Instructional Strategies Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Trey; Wells, John; White, Karissa

    2002-01-01

    Provides a rationale for inclusion of biotechnology in technology education. Describes an instructional strategy that uses behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories in two activities involving photobioreactors and bovine somatotropin (growth hormone). (Contains 39 references.) (SK)

  4. Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction

    CERN Document Server

    Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.

  5. CCP-NAP operator instructions at ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantillo, V.V.

    1986-03-01

    CCP-NAP Operator Instructions at ANL (ANL/TM 435) supplements the CCPGUIDE (Category 26) prepared by the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instructions in CCP-NAP Operator Instructions at ANL serve as a reference guide for Computing Services operators when operator intervention is necessary for ANL's MFEnet Nodes located in Building 221, Room A-134. Use this document in conjunction with the CCPGUIDE. The CCPGUIDE, a guide for network operators, outlines the procedures for loading the Communications Control Processor (CCP) and monitoring its activity. The CCPGUIDE contains detailed information on Software Loading, System Status, System Monitoring, Command Summary, etc. The material in this document is the result of additional information provided by Jim Morton and Jim Gigliaridi (NMFECC) when our Argonne National Laboratory/Computing Services MFEnet Nodes were installed. This document provides two formats: QUICK instructions and procedures, and detailed general text

  6. Discourse Analysis in Stylistics and Literature Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mick

    1990-01-01

    A review of research regarding discourse analysis in stylistics and literature instruction covers studies of text, systematic analysis, meaning, style, literature pedagogy, and applied linguistics. A 10-citation annotated bibliography and a larger unannotated bibliography are included. (CB)

  7. 7 CFR 1212.103 - Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Referendum Procedures § 1212.103 Instructions... information sources, without incurring advertising expense, to publicize the dates, places, method of voting...

  8. Content-Based Instruction Approach In Instructional Multimedia For English Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Farani, Rizki

    2016-01-01

    Content-based Instruction (CBI) is an approach in English learning that integrates certain topic and English learning objectives. This approach focuses on using English competencies as a “bridge” to comprehend certain topic or theme in English. Nowadays, this approach can be used in instructional multimedia to support English learning by using computer. Instructional multimedia with computer system refers to the sequential or simultaneous use of variety of media formats in a given presentatio...

  9. Regulations and instructions; Propisi i uputstva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-01

    Regulations and instructions for operating the RA reactor consist of the following chapters: general regulations with the fundamental RA reactor characteristics, operating regulations and instructions for the personnel on duty, regulations for accidental conditions, training program for the staff of the Laboratory for reactor operation. Propisi i uputstva za rad reaktora RA sadrze sledeca poglavlja: opsti deo sa kratkim opisom karakteristika reaktora RA, propisi za rad dezurnog osoblja, propisi za slucaj udesa, program obuke osoblja Laboratorije za eksploataciju reaktora RA.

  10. Mathematical theory of peer-instruction dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Nitta

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical theory of peer instruction describing the increase of the normalized number of correct answers due to peer discussion is presented. A simple analytic expression is derived which agrees with class data. It is shown that our theory is connected to the mathematical learning models proposed by Pritchard et al. It is also shown that obtained theoretical lines are useful for analyzing peer-instruction efficiencies.

  11. Effective instructional strategies in physics classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosa, Sachiko

    2011-04-01

    Instructional strategies such as Think-Pair-Share and Socratic questioning are powerful ways to get students engaged in thinking processes. In this talk, tips and techniques that help students make sense of physics concepts in lecture-based classes are presented with specific examples. The participants will see the effectiveness of the instructional strategies by actually experiencing the process as learners with the use of clickers.

  12. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI). This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2) learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining...

  13. Following instructions from working memory: Why does action at encoding and recall help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroslawska, Agnieszka J; Gathercole, Susan E; Allen, Richard J; Holmes, Joni

    2016-11-01

    Two experiments investigated the consequences of action at encoding and recall on the ability to follow sequences of instructions. Children ages 7-9 years recalled sequences of spoken action commands under presentation and recall conditions that either did or did not involve their physical performance. In both experiments, recall was enhanced by carrying out the instructions as they were being initially presented and also by performing them at recall. In contrast, the accuracy of instruction-following did not improve above spoken presentation alone, either when the instructions were silently read or heard by the child (Experiment 1), or when the child repeated the spoken instructions as they were presented (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that the enactment advantage at presentation does not simply reflect a general benefit of a dual exposure to instructions, and that it is not a result of their self-production at presentation. The benefits of action-based recall were reduced following enactment during presentation, suggesting that the positive effects of action at encoding and recall may have a common origin. It is proposed that the benefits of physical movement arise from the existence of a short-term motor store that maintains the temporal, spatial, and motoric features of either planned or already executed actions.

  14. Multimodal versus Unimodal Instruction in a Complex Learning Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellevij, Mark; van der Meij, Hans; de Jong, Ton; Pieters, Jules

    2002-01-01

    Compared multimodal instruction with text and pictures with unimodal text-only instruction as 44 college students used a visual or textual manual to learn a complex software application. Results initially support dual coding theory and indicate that multimodal instruction led to better performance than unimodal instruction. (SLD)

  15. Modifying ADDIE: Incorporating New Technologies in Library Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Paul Clayton

    2014-01-01

    There are many instructional design theories to assist librarians in creating effective instructional modules for student learning. ADDIE is a generic instructional design model that has been in existence for more than 30 years and is known for its flexibility in application (Molenda, 2003). Using instructional design theories such as ADDIE helps…

  16. Investigating Comprehension in Real World Tasks: Understanding Jury Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Charrow, Robert

    This paper discusses the results of part of an ongoing project studying an aspect of real world language usage, the comprehension of standard jury instructions. Problems in the comprehension of these instructions include the memory load that they impose, the fact that most instructions are read only once, and the fact that instructions are written…

  17. Instructional Regulation and Control: Cybernetics, Algorithmization and Heuristics in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, L. N.; And Others

    This book on the aspects of instructional processes focuses on control of student cognitive activity during instruction. Chapter 1 introduces the cybernetic approach to the theory of instruction. It is followed by a chapter on instructional effectiveness and efficiency. The third chapter discusses cognitive processes and thinking. Chapter 4…

  18. Computer-Supported Instruction in Enhancing the Performance of Dyscalculics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Praveen; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2010-01-01

    The use of instructional media is an essential component of teaching-learning process which contributes to the efficiency as well as effectiveness of the teaching-learning process. Computer-supported instruction has a very important role to play as an advanced technological instruction as it employs different instructional techniques like…

  19. An Analysis of Instructional Facilitators' Relationships with Teachers and Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Bret G.; Pijanowski, John C.; Duncan, Heather; Scherz, Susan; Hvidston, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perspectives of Wyoming instructional facilitators, concerning three coaching constructs--namely, their instructional leadership roles, teachers' instructional practices, and the support that they receive from principals and teachers. Findings suggest that instructional facilitators were positive about their instructional…

  20. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  1. Comprehensive, Mixed-Methods Assessment of a Blended Learning Model for Geospatial Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, J. J.; Maclachlan, J. C.; Bagg, J.; Chiappetta-Swanson, C.; Vine, M. M.; Vajoczki, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial literacy -- the ability to conceptualize, capture, analyze and communicate spatial phenomena -- represents an important competency for 21st Century learners in a period of 'Geospatial Revolution'. Though relevant to in-course learning, these skills are often taught externally, placing time and resource pressures on the service providers - commonly libraries - that are relied upon to provide instruction. The emergence of online and blended modes of instruction has presented a potential means of increasing the cost-effectiveness of such activities, by simultaneously reducing instructional costs, expanding the audience for these resources, and addressing student preferences for asynchronous learning and '24-7' access. During 2011 and 2012, McMaster University Library coordinated the development, implementation and assessment of blended learning modules for geospatial literacy instruction in first-year undergraduate Social Science courses. In this paper, we present the results of a comprehensive mixed-methods approach to assess the efficacy of implementing blended learning modules to replace traditional (face-to-face), library-led, first-year undergraduate geospatial literacy instruction. Focus groups, personal interviews and an online survey were used to assess modules across dimensions of: student use, satisfaction and accessibility requirements (via Universal Instructional Design [UID] principles); instructor and teaching staff perception of pedagogical efficacy and instructional effectiveness; and, administrator cost-benefit assessment of development and implementation. Results showed that both instructors and students identified significant value in using the online modules in a blended-learning setting. Reaffirming assumptions of students' '24/7' learning preferences, over 80% of students reported using the modules on a repeat basis. Students were more likely to use the modules to better understand course content than simply to increase their grade in

  2. Biased lineups: sequential presentation reduces the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R C; Lea, J A; Nosworthy, G J; Fulford, J A; Hector, J; LeVan, V; Seabrook, C

    1991-12-01

    Biased lineups have been shown to increase significantly false, but not correct, identification rates (Lindsay, Wallbridge, & Drennan, 1987; Lindsay & Wells, 1980; Malpass & Devine, 1981). Lindsay and Wells (1985) found that sequential lineup presentation reduced false identification rates, presumably by reducing reliance on relative judgment processes. Five staged-crime experiments were conducted to examine the effect of lineup biases and sequential presentation on eyewitness recognition accuracy. Sequential lineup presentation significantly reduced false identification rates from fair lineups as well as from lineups biased with regard to foil similarity, instructions, or witness attire, and from lineups biased in all of these ways. The results support recommendations that police present lineups sequentially.

  3. Patient understanding of oral contraceptive pill instructions related to missed pills: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B; Steenland, Maria W; Brahmi, Dalia; Marchbanks, Polly A; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2013-05-01

    Instructions on what to do after pills are missed are critical to reducing unintended pregnancies resulting from patient non-adherence to oral contraceptive (OC) regimens. Missed pill instructions have previously been criticized for being too complex, lacking a definition of what is meant by "missed pills," and for being confusing to women who may not know the estrogen content of their formulation. To help inform the development of missed pill guidance to be included in the forthcoming US Selected Practice Recommendations, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on patient understanding of missed pill instructions. We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles that examined patient understanding of OC pill instructions that were published in any language from inception of the database through March 2012. We included studies that examined women's knowledge and understanding of missed pill instructions after exposure to some written material (e.g., patient package insert, brochure), as well as studies that compared different types of missed pill instructions on women's comprehension. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. From 1620 articles, nine studies met our inclusion criteria. Evidence from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 1 pill than after missing 2 or 3 pills (Level I, good, to Level II-3, poor), and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 2 pills than after missing 3 pills (Level II-3, fair). Data from two descriptive studies documented the difficulty women have understanding missed pill instructions contained in patient package inserts (Level II-3, poor), and evidence from two RCTs found that providing written brochures with information on missed pill instructions in addition to contraceptive counseling significantly improved

  4. Technology for Early Braille Literacy: Comparison of Traditional Braille Instruction and Instruction with an Electronic Notetaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, James O.; Falco, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study reported here evaluated whether there was a difference in students' outcomes for braille fluency when instruction was provided with traditional braille media or refreshable braille. Students' and teachers' perceptions of the efficacy of the use of the different instructional media were analyzed. Methods: Nine students from…

  5. Multiple Representation Instruction First versus Traditional Algorithmic Instruction First: Impact in Middle School Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Raymond; Koontz, Esther; Inan, Fethi A.; Alagic, Mara

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the order of two teaching approaches on students' abilities and on-task behaviors while learning how to solve percentage problems. Two treatment groups were compared. MR first received multiple representation instruction followed by traditional algorithmic instruction and TA first received these teaching…

  6. 30 CFR 48.5 - Training of new miners; minimum courses of instruction; hours of instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... avoidance of electrical hazards. (11) First aid. The course shall include instruction in first aid methods... use, care, and maintenance of self-rescue and respiratory devices used at the mine; (ii) Hands-on...; escapeways; emergency evacuation; barricading. The program of instruction for mine emergency evacuation and...

  7. Teachers' Beliefs, Instructional Behaviors, and Students' Engagement in Learning from Texts with Instructional Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Sascha; Richter, Tobias; McElvany, Nele; Hachfeld, Axinja; Baumert, Jurgen; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Horz, Holger; Ullrich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between teachers' pedagogical beliefs and students' self-reported engagement in learning from texts with instructional pictures. Participants were the biology, geography, and German teachers of 46 classes (Grades 5-8) and their students. Teachers' instructional behaviors and students' engagement in learning…

  8. Evaluating the Instructional Architecture of Web-Based Learning Tools (WBLTs): Direct Instruction vs. Constructivism Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Web-based learning tools (WBLTs), also known as learning objects, have been evaluated with a wide range of metrics, but rarely with respect to pedagogical design. The current study evaluated the impact of instructional architecture (direct instruction vs. constructive-based) on middle (n = 333)

  9. Instructional Design as Knowledge Management: A Knowledge-in-Practice Approach to Choosing Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Derrick; Fitzsimmons, Stacey; Flanagan, David

    2016-01-01

    Decisions about instructional methods are becoming more complex, with options ranging from problem sets to experiential service-learning projects. However, instructors not trained in instructional design may make these important decisions based on convenience, comfort, or trends. Instead, this article draws on the knowledge management literature…

  10. Computer Assisted Instructional Design for Computer-Based Instruction. Final Report. Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel M.; Pirolli, Peter

    Recent advances in artificial intelligence and the cognitive sciences have made it possible to develop successful intelligent computer-aided instructional systems for technical and scientific training. In addition, computer-aided design (CAD) environments that support the rapid development of such computer-based instruction have also been recently…

  11. Designing Preclinical Instruction of Psychomotor Skills (IV)--Instructional Engineering: Evaluation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The fourth article in a four-part series on instructional design discusses evaluation of a psychomotor skills unit taught in preclinical dental education. Issues examined include piloting of instructional materials, analysis and revision of materials based on student performance, syllabus design and content, influence of faculty characteristics,…

  12. Universal Design for Instruction: The Paradigm, Its Principles, and Products for Enhancing Instructional Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), a construct that serves as the foundation for the work of a federally funded project at the University of Connecticut, offers an approach to inclusive instruction that is responsive to the diverse learning needs of a changing postsecondary population. In this article elements relating to the implementation…

  13. Universal Design for Instruction: Extending the Universal Design Paradigm to College Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.

    2006-01-01

    Universal design for instruction (UDI) represents the systematic application of universal design, the construct from architecture and product development, to instructional practices in higher education. In addition to a description of the deliberative process by which UDI was developed, this article provides confirmatory evidence of the validity…

  14. The Instructional Use of CAI in the Education of the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John J., Jr.; And Others

    Computer assisted instruction (CAI) studies with the mentally retarded in the United States and Canada reveal that the retarded benefit from CAI in academic and social skills. Their learning is enhanced to the same extent as that of the nonretarded. CAI can be cost-effective, especially with the reduced costs of mini and micro-computers; however,…

  15. Impact of supplemental instruction leader on the success of supplemental instruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabaduge, Hasitha; Haslam, Jeanne

    Supplemental instruction utilizes peer-assisted study sessions to provide review sessions on course material and an opportunity to discuss and work out problems. The impact of supplemental instruction on student performance is well researched and used in a large number of universities around the world due to its proven success. However, the impact of the student leader who plays a significant role in this model is rarely discussed in the literature. We present a case study on the impact of student leader on the success of supplemental instruction model. This case study was done for an Introductory Physics course correlating student performance and the supplemental instruction sessions they attended. Further analysis revealed that the academic performance and work ethics of the student leader has a significant impact on the success of the supplemental instruction model. Important factors to consider when selecting a student leader, the challenges and possible remedies will also be discussed.

  16. Written instructions for the transport of hazardous materials: Accident management instruction sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Teaching about teaching and instruction on instruction: a challenge for health sciences library education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlefsen, Ellen Gay

    2012-10-01

    This is a review of the master's-level curricula of the fifty-eight America Library Association-accredited library and information science programs and iSchools for evidence of coursework and content related to library instruction. Special emphasis is placed on the schools and programs that also offer coursework in medical or health sciences librarianship. Fifty-eight school and program websites were reviewed. Course titles and course descriptions for seventy-three separate classes were analyzed. Twenty-three syllabi were examined. All North American library education programs offer at least one course in the general area of library instruction; some programs offer multiple courses. No courses on instruction, however, are focused directly on the specialized area of health sciences librarianship. Master's degree students can take appropriate classes on library instruction, but the medical library profession needs to offer continuing education opportunities for practitioners who want to have specific instruction for the specialized world of the health sciences.

  18. [Chronic gastritis: Instructions for use of medications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanenkov, V I; Vyalov, S S

    The paper highlights the features of drug use in the legal aspect. It analyzes instructions for medical use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and gastric protective agents. Taking into account the characteristics of indications registered in the instruction, the authors discuss the possibility of using various PPIs. The instruction for medical application is an official document approved by the Ministry of Health, the basis of which is the data of trials carried out by a manufacturer, and it should be a key or fundamental source for a physician in choosing a medication. The use of a drug with no indications given in the manual (the so-called 'off-label' use in foreign practice), is a clinical trial of a sort conducted by a physician individually, by taking upon himself/herself a legal liability. If arguments break out over the correct choice of this or that drug in treating the specific patient, the instruction containing the indications for use of specific medications to treat a specific disease is one of the proofs that the physician has correctly chosen the drug or a criterion for skilled medical care. The inclusion of chronic gastritis as a primary and only diagnosis into the primary documentation substantially limits the possibilities of using PPIs. When a PPI is indicated for therapy of erosive gastritis, a formal rationale is contained only in the instruction for use of Controloc. There are no registered indications for PPI use to treat chronic non-erosive gastritis; the gastric protective agent Rebagit is indicated.

  19. Processing Instruction: A review of issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin Rasuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a critical review of Processing Instruction (PI. This type of instructional option was specifically designed to help second/foreign language (L2 learners grasp meaning manifested in the use of particular grammatical forms in a target language effectively through the provision of input. In this way, PI attempts to help learners develop grammatical competence in a target language in ways that foster their comprehension and production skills. The paper starts with outlining main characteristics of PI which distinguish it from other types of L2 grammar instruction. Then, a large body of research attempting to investigate the relative efficacy of PI is scrutinized. The paper concludes with a number of important issues that future studies on PI need to address.

  20. Ethics instruction in the dental hygiene curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerik, Mark G; Prajer, Renee G; Conrad, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Dental hygiene ethics is an essential component of the dental hygiene curriculum. The accreditation standards for dental hygiene education state that graduates must be competent in applying ethical concepts to the provision and/or support of oral health care services. Although the standards for entry into the profession of dental hygiene emphasize the importance of ethical reasoning, there is little published research specific to ethics instruction in dental hygiene programs. The purpose of this study was to assess how ethics is taught in the dental hygiene curriculum. A 17-item survey was designed and distributed to 261 accredited dental hygiene programs in the United States for a response rate of 56% (N=147). The survey requested that participants provide information on teaching and evaluation methodologies, didactic and clinical hours of instruction, individuals responsible for providing instruction, and the degree of emphasis placed on ethics and integration of ethical reasoning within the dental hygiene curriculum. Results of the survey reflect that dental hygiene programs devote a mean of 20. hours to teaching dental hygiene ethics in the didactic component of the curriculum. With regard to the clinical component of the curriculum, 63% of respondents indicated that 10 or less hours are devoted to ethics instruction. These results show an increase in didactic hours of instruction from previous studies where the mean hours of instruction ranged from 7 to 11.7 hours. Results showed 64% of respondents offered a separate course in ethics; however, 82% of programs surveyed indicated that ethics was incorporated into one or more dental hygiene courses with 98% utilizing dental hygiene faculty to provide instruction. Most programs utilized a variety of instructional methods to teach ethics with the majority employing class discussion and lecture (99% and 97% respectively). The type of institution-technical college, community college, four-year university with a

  1. Instructional Strategies Alternative for Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajaira del Valle Cadenas Terán

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to expose significantly instruccionales strategic alternatives that help improve the process of reading in college students to be trained holistically, able to make critical decisions, thoughtful and successful in the academic field. The strategies implemented educational event isolated to produce no change is necessary, that are planned and executed in the proper context of the need to ensure a certain extent the instructional success. It is also essential that teachers be the first to appropriate it. This study was conducted with a literature review serves as instructional foundation - strategic. In conclusion the importance of instructional strategies in reading comprehension was determined, since they increase communication skills, provide specific or complex experiences and promote meaningful learning.

  2. Instructional games in allied health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M A

    1980-08-01

    A theoretical framework and practical suggestions for incorporating games and simulation into allied health instruction are presented. Research findings that support the use of educational simulation/games as a tool for higher cognitive learning are discussed. Examples and step-by-step instructions are given to help allied health educatiors and students write their own simulation games, try them out, evaluate them, and incorporate them into classroom use to stimulate interaction. Advantages of using educational simulation/games in allied health education as well as possible disadvantages of this teaching strategy are discussed. Use of instructional games to enhance teaching effectiveness as measured by student achievement in the allied health fields is emphasized.

  3. Single-instruction multiple-data execution

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Having hit power limitations to even more aggressive out-of-order execution in processor cores, many architects in the past decade have turned to single-instruction-multiple-data (SIMD) execution to increase single-threaded performance. SIMD execution, or having a single instruction drive execution of an identical operation on multiple data items, was already well established as a technique to efficiently exploit data parallelism. Furthermore, support for it was already included in many commodity processors. However, in the past decade, SIMD execution has seen a dramatic increase in the set of

  4. Shaping instructional communication competence of preservice teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandyonomanu, D.; Mutiah; Setianingrum, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand the process of shaping communication competence. Participants were pre-service teachers in the primary school education teacher who conducted teaching program internship program. Observations and interviews found that culture, experience, and education were the components that developed the communication competence within the instructional context. The former two components dominantly shape communication instructional competencies, whereas the latter contributes insignificantly. Education emphasizes on teacher’s pedagogy and professional competences. In the future, educational institutions for pre-service teachers could use this research results to Determine the process of developing communication competence.

  5. Instructional leaders for all? High school science department heads and instructional leadership across all science disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanborn, Stephen

    Many high school science departments are responding to changes in state standards with respect to both curricular content and instructional practices. In the typical American high school organization, the academic department head is ideally positioned to influence change in the instructional practices of teachers within the department. Even though science department heads are well situated to provide leadership during this period of transition, the literature has not addressed the question of how well science department heads believe they can provide instructional leadership for all of the teachers in their department, whether they are teaching within and outside of the head's own sub-discipline. Nor is it known how science department heads view the role of pedagogical content knowledge in teaching different science disciplines. Using an online survey comprised of 26 objective questions and one open response question, a 54-respondent sample of science department heads provided no strong consensus regarding their beliefs about the role of pedagogical content knowledge in science instruction. However, science department heads expressed a significant difference in their views about their capacity to provide instructional leadership for teachers sharing their science content area compared to teachers instructing other science content areas. Given wide-spread science education reform efforts introduced in response to the Next Generation Science Standards, these findings may serve to provide some direction for determining how to best support the work of science department heads as they strive to provide instructional leadership for the teachers in their departments.

  6. Comparing Two Modes of Instruction in English Passive Structures (Processing and Meaning-Based Output Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Dabiri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the effects of two types of instruction: Processing Instruction (PI and Meaning-based Output Instruction (MOI on the interpretation and production of English passive structures.  Ninety EFL intermediate tertiary level female students (PI group= 30, MOI group= 30 and control group = 30 participated in this study. The instruments were a proficiency test, a test to assess English passive structures and two instructional materials (PI and MOI. The data were analyzed by running one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and mixed between-within ANOVA. The study indicated the effectiveness of PI and MOI on English passive structures. PI had considerable enhancement on interpretation tasks all the time. It supported the use of PI rather than the use of traditional instructions in which mechanical components were emphasized. Also, the PI and MOI had long term effects on the interpretation and production of English passive sentences.  This study supported the use of PI and MOI rather than the use of traditional instruction (TI in EFL settings. The implication for particularly classroom teaching is that successful grammar instruction has to related to ultimate learning outcomes. Also, creating communicative tasks to offer opportunities for teaching grammar can lead to long-lasting learning effects.

  7. Microprocessor architectures RISC, CISC and DSP

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Steve

    1995-01-01

    'Why are there all these different processor architectures and what do they all mean? Which processor will I use? How should I choose it?' Given the task of selecting an architecture or design approach, both engineers and managers require a knowledge of the whole system and an explanation of the design tradeoffs and their effects. This is information that rarely appears in data sheets or user manuals. This book fills that knowledge gap.Section 1 provides a primer and history of the three basic microprocessor architectures. Section 2 describes the ways in which the architectures react with the

  8. ERGONOMICS AND RISC IN NURSING CARE PATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanir Pereira Passos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Este estudo tem como foco a relação saúde-doença-trabalho. Apresenta como objeto de investigação o caminho da enfermagem para o descarte da urina no cuidado ao cliente.  Os objetivos foram identificar quantos metros a enfermagem caminha para fazer este único procedimento – despejar a urina – e, discutir as implicações para saúde do corpo que cuida. Método: Estudo exploratório. O local da investigação foi um hospital público / filantrópico no Rio de Janeiro para pessoas com deficiência física. A produção dos dados ocorreu mediante mensuração do caminho andado e de quantas vezes este percurso aconteceu durante trinta dias. Resultados: Verificou-se que dois técnicos de enfermagem andam 132 km e 720 m para despejar a urina, contribuindo para agravos, como problemas mecânicos e corporais, associado à inadequação da planta física do ambiente de trabalho. Discussão: A aplicação da ergonomia permite reorganizar o processo de trabalho de enfermagem propondo modos de execução mais adequados. Considerações Finais: Faz-se importante reconhecer a relação saúde – ambiente – trabalho, nas dimensões individuais e coletivas. Descritores: Cuidados de Enfermagem; Saúde do trabalhador; Ambiente de trabalho.

  9. Is the psychological refractory period effect for ideomotor compatible tasks eliminated by speed-stress instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun Kyoung; Cho, Yang Seok; Lien, Mei-Ching; Proctor, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    It has been argued that the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect is eliminated with two ideomotor compatible tasks when instructions stress fast and simultaneous responding. Three experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. In all experiments, Task 1 required spatially compatible manual responses (left or right) to the direction of an arrow, and Task 2 required saying the name of the auditory letter A or B. In Experiments 1 and 3, the manual responses were keypresses made with the left and right hands, whereas in Experiment 2 they were left-right toggle-switch movements made with the dominant hand. Instructions that stressed response speed reduced reaction time and increased error rate compared to standard instructions to respond fast and accurately, but did not eliminate the PRP effect on Task 2 reaction time. These results imply that, even when response speed is emphasized, ideomotor compatible tasks do not bypass response selection.

  10. Children's identification of faces from lineups: the effects of lineup presentation and instructions on accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, Jayne; Blades, Mark

    2006-09-01

    The authors investigated whether the type of lineup and instructions given to children 6-7 or 9-10 years of age affected their identification accuracy. Children witnessed a man stealing property and were later asked to identify him in either photo or video lineups. Some lineups contained the target and some did not. Two lineup procedures were used (standard or elimination), and 2 types of instruction were used (standard or cautioning about false identification). Standard lineups with cautioning instructions decreased target-absent errors with no associated reduction in correct identifications, but elimination lineups did not. Lineup media had an interaction effect whereby correct identifications were reduced in video but not photo elimination lineups. The results are discussed in a forensic context. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Importance of Content and Format of Oral Health Instruction to Low-income Mexican Immigrant Parents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Corissa P; Barker, Judith C; Hoeft, Kristin S; Guerra, Claudia; Chung, Lisa H; Burke, Nancy J

    2018-01-01

    This study's purpose was to explore how content and format of children's oral health instruction in the dental clinic is perceived by parents and might affect parents' knowledge and behaviors. Thirty low-income Mexican immigrant parents of children age five years and under were recruited from dental clinics in 2015 to 2016. In-person qualitative interviews in Spanish about their children's and their own experiences of dental care and home oral hygiene practices were conducted, digitally recorded, translated, and transcribed. Data analysis involved iteratively reading text data and developing and refining codes to find common themes. Twenty-five of 30 parents recalled receiving oral hygiene instruction, and 18 recalled receiving nutrition instruction and were included in analyses. The format and effectiveness of instruction varied. More engaging educational approaches were recalled and described in more detail than less engaging educational approaches. As a result of oral hygiene and nutritional instruction, most parents reported changing their oral hygiene home behaviors for their children; half aimed to reduce purchasing sugary foods and drinks. Most parents recalled receiving oral hygiene and nutrition instruction as part of their child's dental visit and reported incorporating the instruction and recommendations they received into their children's home routine.

  12. A comparison of video modeling, text-based instruction, and no instruction for creating multiple baseline graphs in Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, Bryan C; Fienup, Daniel M

    2015-09-01

    Graphing is socially significant for behavior analysts; however, graphing can be difficult to learn. Video modeling (VM) may be a useful instructional method but lacks evidence for effective teaching of computer skills. A between-groups design compared the effects of VM, text-based instruction, and no instruction on graphing performance. Participants who used VM constructed graphs significantly faster and with fewer errors than those who used text-based instruction or no instruction. Implications for instruction are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, David M.; Hayes, Timothy A.; Pope, Howard L.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Carson, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Generator Instructions (WGIs) have been used occasionally in the past at large sites for treatment and packaging of TRU waste. The WGIs have resulted in highly efficient waste treatment, packaging and certification for disposal of TRU waste at WIPP. For example, a single WGI at LANL, combined with an increase in gram loading, resulted in a mind boggling 6,400% increase in waste loading for 238 Pu heat source waste. In fact, the WGI combined with a new Contact Handled (CH) TRU Waste Content (TRUCON) Code provided a massive increase in shippable wattage per Transuranic Package Transporter-II (TRUPACT-II) over the previously used and more restrictive TRUCON Code that have been used previously for the heat source waste. In fact, the use of the WGI process at LANL's TA-55 facility reduced non-compliant drums for WIPP certification and disposal from a 13% failure rate down to a 0.5% failure rate and is expected to further reduce the failure rate to zero drums per year. The inherent value of the WGI is that it can be implemented in a site's current procedure issuance process and it provides documented proof of what actions were taken for each waste stream packaged. The WGI protocol provides a key floor-level operational component to achieve goal alignment between actual site operations, the WIPP TRU waste packaging instructions, and DOE O 435.1. (authors)

  14. Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    IGI Global, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The integration of technology into modern classrooms has enhanced learning opportunities for students. With increased access to educational content, students gain a better understanding of the concepts being taught. "Flipped Instruction: Breakthroughs in Research and Practice" is a comprehensive reference source for the latest scholarly…

  15. Data Driven Program Planning for GIS Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarletto, Edith

    2013-01-01

    This study used both focus groups (qualitative) and survey data (quantitative) to develop and expand an instruction program for GIS services. It examined the needs and preferences faculty and graduate students have for learning about GIS applications for teaching and research. While faculty preferred in person workshops and graduate students…

  16. Rural Public Transportation: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to rural public transportation is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, sociology, and technology. Rural public transportation involves systems in rural and small urban areas with populations under 50,000…

  17. Public Transportation Pricing: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWha, Charley

    A concept-based introduction to public transportation pricing is presented in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business administration, and technology. After an introductory section on transportation pricing planning and the history of transportation system…

  18. Instructional Television Programmes and Academic Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated instructional Television (ITV) programmes and Academic performance of Senior Secondary School students in Anambra state-Nigeria. The need for the study arose from the problem of the declining nature of West African school certificate examination results of senior secondary school students in ...

  19. Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differentiated instruction: perceptions, practices and challenges of primary school teachers. ... Different factors like knowledge and experience, commitment and motivation, availability of materials/resources, availability of time, class size, range of diversity in classroom, leadership and parental support and staff collaboration ...

  20. School Leadership Actions to Support Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Jennifer Pallon

    2011-01-01

    Schools are required to meet a range of students' learning needs and effective school leadership is needed for the implementation of pedagogical practices responsive to the challenges of increasing student diversity and academic accountability. Literature on differentiated instruction and its constituent elements suggests differentiation results…

  1. Flexible learning and the design of instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Nikolova, Iliana

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with the problem of designing flexible learning and instruction. Flexibility is considered both from the learner's and the designer's perspective. The potential of telematics in the design, development and implementation of flexible and distance learning is discussed. A Method for

  2. Improving the Instruction of Infinite Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaman, Brian; Gay, A. Susan

    2012-01-01

    Calculus instructors struggle to teach infinite series, and students have difficulty understanding series and related concepts. Four instructional strategies, prominently used during the calculus reform movement, were implemented during a 3-week unit on infinite series in one class of second-semester calculus students. A description of each…

  3. A Virtual Library for Instructional Systems Designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James J.

    During the past three years, the role of the instructional systems designer has taken on greater significance for instructors. This is because many faculty members have been asked to put their entire courses online over the World Wide Web. Instructors are now creating a substantial percentage of the online courses with little or no background in…

  4. Developing Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Claire Johnson; McKnight, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative learning teams have emerged as an effective tool for teachers to steadily and continuously improve their instruction. Evidence also suggests that a learning teams model can affect school leadership as well. We explored the impact of learning teams on leadership roles of principals and teachers in secondary schools and found that…

  5. Making Time for Instructional Leadership. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason A.; Neumerski, Christine M.; Murphy, Joseph; Blissett, Richard; Porter, Andy

    2015-01-01

    This three-volume report describes the "SAM (School Administration Manager) process," an approach that about 700 schools around the nation are using to direct more of principals' time and effort to improve teaching and learning in classrooms. Research has shown that a principal's instructional leadership is second only to teaching among…

  6. Developing Principal Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, Mariah Bahar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines what occurs when principals of urban schools meet together to learn and improve their instructional leadership in collaborative principal networks designed to support, sustain, and provide ongoing principal capacity building. Principal leadership is considered second only to teaching in its ability to improve schools, yet few…

  7. Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deltomme, Berre; Mertens, G.; Tibboel, Helen; Braem, Senne

    We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli.

  8. Instructional Uses of the Lexile Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, A. Jackson

    The Lexile Framework provides teachers with tools to help them link the results of reading assessment with subsequent instruction, focuses on appropriate-level curriculum for readers at all educational levels, and is designed to be flexible enough to use alongside any type of reading program. Suggested areas for application of this system include:…

  9. Cognitive Psychology and Instruction. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Roger H.; Schraw, Gregory J.; Ronning, Royce R.

    Like the earlier editions, the current text is directed at educators who are interested in understanding the principles of cognitive psychology and applying them to instruction and curriculum design. The following chapters are included: (1) "Introduction to Cognitive Psychology"; (2) "Sensory, Short-Term, and Working Memory"; (3) "Long-Term…

  10. Instructional Screencast: A Research Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Razak, Muhammad Razuan; Mohamad Ali, Ahmad Zamzuri

    2016-01-01

    The literature review indicates that the benefit of screencast as an instructional media has not clearly proved effective for all categories of students. This is due to the individual differences in processing the information. Inadequate screencast design will cause strain to students' cognitive process which might impede learning. This…

  11. Metacognitive instruction in middle school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Dianna

    The purpose of this action research project was to determine the extent to which metacognitive instruction affected students' performance in the middle-grade science classroom. Conducted with four seventh grade science classes over a three-month time period, 105 students were engaged in 21 metacognitively enhanced lessons. Both quantitative and qualitative data sources were collected for this study and analyzed according to grounded theory methodology. Quantitative data came from the Jr. Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, administered as a pre-post test. Qualitative teacher-generated data was collected in a metacognitive observation protocol containing observations and reflections while student-generated data was gathered from reflective journal entries, modified rubrics, and checklists. Analysis of the data led to the assertions that metacognitive development occurred over time through systematic and varied implementation of explicit instruction. In addition, students perceived they learned best both when working collaboratively and when making multiple connections with content material. Implications for middle-grade teachers include the need for explicit instruction of metacognitive strategies, providing for instructional variation and student collaboration, and guiding students in making connections to prior learning.

  12. Instructional Leadership: A Learning-Centered Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Anita Woolfolk; Hoy, Wayne Kolter

    This book was written with the assumption that teachers and administrators must work as colleagues to improve instruction and learning in schools. It was written to be consistent with the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards for school administrators, especially Standards 1 and 2, which emphasize a learning-centered…

  13. Use of school gardens in academic instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  14. Orchestrating Semiotic Resources in Explicit Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lynn E.; Flury-Kashmanian, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Research and pedagogical information provided to teachers on implementing explicit strategy instruction has primarily focused on teachers' speech, with limited attention to other modes of communication, such as gesture and artefacts. This interpretive case study investigates two teachers' use of different semiotic resources when introducing…

  15. 18 CFR 356.2 - General instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... another with no loss of data. (3) Each oil pipeline company is required to implement internal control... COMPANIES § 356.2 General instructions. (a) Scope of this part. (1) The regulations in this part apply to all books of account and other records prepared by or on behalf of the oil pipeline companies. (2) The...

  16. Regulations and instructions for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This regulatory guide consists of following 4 chapters: Description of the RA reactor, organization scheme, regulations for performing experiments; Regulations for staff on duty; Instructions for operating the vacuum systems, heavy water and helium systems; and evacuation in case of accident [sr

  17. Instructional Media: Comunication Skills. Advisory List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Media and Technology Services.

    This annotated bibliography of instructional media in communication skills presents annotations of 112 books and videotapes for students in grades from pre-kindergarten through grade 12, and of 38 books and videos for teachers. The material in the bibliography for students consists mostly of poetry collections published in 1990 and 1991. The…

  18. Perceptions of Crop Science Instructional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    A number of crop science instructors have indicated that there is a shortage of quality, current crop/plant science teaching materials, particularly textbooks. A survey instrument was developed to solicit information from teachers about the use and adequacy of textbooks, laboratory manuals, and videotapes in crop/plant science instruction. (LZ)

  19. Care of the Laryngectomee. An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretton-Martinez, Maureen; Moseley, James L.

    This self-instructional model, written for registered nurses, is divided into three sections: (1) anatomy and physiology of the patient before and after laryngectomy; (2) eating and nourishment following the total laryngectomy; and (3) two options for speech following a total laryngectomy--the electrolarynx and esophageal speech. The manual…

  20. Preservice Teacher Application of Differentiated Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Amy Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Successfully implementing the practice of inclusion by differentiating instruction depends on both the skills and attitudes of general education teachers. New general education teachers who are entering the field are particularly vulnerable to the demands and stress of the profession, and teacher education programs must prepare preservice teachers…

  1. Librarians and Instructional Designers: Collaboration and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshleman, Joe; Moniz, Richard; Mann, Karen; Eshleman, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    With online education options more ubiquitous and sophisticated than ever, the need for academic librarians to be conversant with digital resources and design thinking has become increasingly important. The way forward is through collaboration with instructional designers, which allows librarians to gain a better understanding of digital resource…

  2. Instructional Aids, Materials, and Supplies--Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This resource guide produced for the Follow Through Program, primarily lists instructional aids and supplies; it also suggests practical implications for provisioning the classroom environment, gives specific suggestions for Project Follow Through directors, and lists addresses of suppliers. The materials are divided into nine categories, which…

  3. Broadcast Copywriting and Computer Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, William L.

    The teaching of broadcast copywriting can be enhanced by computer assisted instruction, especially in screening students' writing for adherence to classic "formulas" or "rules" for broadcast writing. Such rules might include avoiding cliches or not beginning a sentence with a subordinate clause. Other rules the computer can…

  4. Formal education of curriculum and instructional designers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenney, Susan; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    In practice, few researchers and designers have strong conceptual understanding of the marriage between the design discipline and scientific research traditions. Rather, most have strong exposure to either research methodologies or instructional design methods, theories and/or practices. Within the

  5. Teaching Machines and Programmed Instruction; an Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Edward B.

    Teaching machines and programed instruction represent new methods in education, but they are based on teaching principles established before the development of media technology. Today programed learning materials based on the new technology enjoy increasing popularity for several reasons: they apply sound psychological theories; the materials can…

  6. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 2: Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  7. Exploring Flipped Classroom Instruction in Calculus III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Quint, Christa; Norris, Scott A.; Carr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In an undergraduate Calculus III class, we explore the effect of "flipping" the instructional delivery of content on both student performance and student perceptions. Two instructors collaborated to determine daily lecture notes, assigned the same homework problems, and gave identical exams; however, compared to a more traditional…

  8. Grouping Pupils for Language Arts Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    A major task involved in teaching pupils is to group them wisely for instruction. Most elementary schools group learners in terms of a self-contained classroom. While it may seem extreme, all curriculum areas on each grade in the elementary school may be departmentalized. In some ways, departmentalization harmonizes more with a separate subjects…

  9. Writing Poetry: A Self-Instructional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Bureau of Educational Research.

    The general design of this book is that of a step-by-step self-instructional program leading toward the writing of poetry. It consists of 156 exercises which lead the student from writing about a picture and poems to kinds of poetry and techniques for writing poetry (alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, metaphor, simile, rhyme, meter…

  10. Generate an Argument: An Instructional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Victor; Grooms, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    The Generate an Argument instructional model was designed to engage students in scientific argumentation. By using this model, students develop complex reasoning and critical-thinking skills, understand the nature and development of scientific knowledge, and improve their communication skills (Duschl and Osborne 2002). This article describes the…

  11. 7 CFR 900.310 - Supplementary instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Conduct of Referenda To Determine Producer Approval of Milk Marketing Orders To Be Made Effective Pursuant to Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as Amended § 900.310 Supplementary instructions. The... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing...

  12. Interaction and Instructed Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Shawn; Sato, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    Interaction is an indispensable component in second language acquisition (SLA). This review surveys the instructed SLA research, both classroom and laboratory-based, that has been conducted primarily within the interactionist approach, beginning with the core constructs of interaction, namely input, negotiation for meaning, and output. The review…

  13. Promising Instructional Practices for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory case study was to understand how teachers, working with English Language Learners (ELLs), expanded their knowledge and instructional practices as they implemented a one-to-one iPad® program. Background: English Language Learners experience linguistic, cultural, and cognitive shifts that can be…

  14. Learning to Write with Interactive Writing Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cheri

    2018-01-01

    Interactive writing is a process-oriented instructional approach designed to make the composing and encoding processes of writing overt and explicit for young students who are learning to write. It is particularly suitable for students who struggle with literacy learning. This article describes one first-grade teacher's use of interactive writing…

  15. Instructional Simulation of a Commercial Banking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Donald D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an instructional simulation of a commercial banking system. Identifies the teaching of portfolio theory, market robustness, and the subtleties of institutional constraints and decision making under uncertainty as the project's goals. Discusses the results of applying the simulation in an environment of local and national markets and a…

  16. Instructive for radioactive solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    An instructive is established for the management system of radioactive solid residues waste of the Universidad de Costa Rica, ensuring the collection, segregation, storage and disposal of waste. The radioactive solid waste have been segregated and transferred according to features and provisions of the Universidad de Costa Rica and CICANUM [es

  17. Health Instruction Packages: Consumer--Behavior/Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Vincent; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of three learning modules to instruct the general public in methods of exploring human psychology and personal interrelationships. The first module, "The Basic Idea behind Rational-Emotive Therapy" by Vincent Larkin, distinguishes between rational and irrational fears and…

  18. Organic Chemistry Self Instructional Package 12: Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovich, V.

    This booklet, one of a series of 17 developed at Prince George's Community College, Largo, Maryland, provides an individualized, self-paced undergraduate organic chemistry instruction module designed to augment any course in organic chemistry but particularly those taught using the text "Organic Chemistry" by Morrison and Boyd. The…

  19. General Systems Theory and Instructional Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    The use of general systems theory in the field of instructional systems design (ISD) is explored in this paper. Drawing on work by Young, the writings of 12 representative ISD writers and researchers were surveyed to determine the use of 60 general systems theory concepts by the individual authors. The average number of concepts used by these…

  20. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  1. RelaisILL instructions in English

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Julie Cassone

    OOID. Access from research databases (IDRC Discovery Service). OR. Access via Google Scholar*. ➢ Once you have clicked on the link, the Patron Login screen appears. * See instructions on how to add « IDRC Full Text » in Google Scholar at ...

  2. Identifying Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration in Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yonjoo

    2017-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is defined as communication and collaboration across academic disciplines. The instructional technology (IT) field has claimed to have an interdisciplinary nature influenced by neighboring fields such as psychology, communication, and management. However, it has been difficult to find outstanding evidence of the field's…

  3. Computer-Assisted Instruction and Continuing Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Mary Lou; And Others

    Effects of two feedback conditions--comment and no comment--on the motivation of sixth grade students to continue with computer assisted instruction (CAI) were investigated, and results for boys and for girls were compared. Subjects were 62 students--29 boys and 33 girls--from a suburban elementary school who were randomly assigned to the comment…

  4. Impact of Instructional Design on Virtual Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Melody

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this participatory action research study was to answer the following research question: How does online instructional design impact students' virtual teamwork performance? Through the lens of social constructivism, a qualitative, in-depth multi-case study design was utilized to conduct document analyses, observations, and student…

  5. Instructional Strategies for the Inclusive Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann; Adamek, Mary

    2018-01-01

    While inclusive education is an admirable ideal, it is often difficult to implement. Successful educators have found that employing certain instructional strategies can help meet the needs of students with varying abilities. Inclusive teaching strategies refer to any number of teaching approaches that address the needs of students with a variety…

  6. Bottling Fog? The Quest for Instructional Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Neumerski, Christine M.; Goldring, Ellen; Grissom, Jason; Porter, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Elsewhere, the authors have unpacked instructional leadership and have documented that such leadership is associated with more effective schools. Indeed, there has been for a considerable time nearly universal acceptance that learning-centered leadership should provide the central platform on which leadership is enacted. In this paper, a less…

  7. Examining First Grade Teachers' Handwriting Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the first grade teachers' practices of handwriting instructions in terms of teaching, evaluation and handwriting difficulties. From qualitative research patterns, phenomenology was used. The study was applied to the 54 First grade teachers who work at central Burdur and Burdur county centre primary education…

  8. Oceanic Circulation. A Programmed Unit of Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Maritime Academy, Castine.

    This booklet contains a programmed lesson on oceanic circulation. It is designed to allow students to progress through the subject at their own speed. Since it is written in linear format, it is suggested that students proceed through the program from "frame" to succeeding "frame." Instructions for students on how to use the booklet are included.…

  9. Integrating Computer-Mediated Communication Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Communication strategies (CSs) play important roles in resolving problematic second language interaction and facilitating language learning. While studies in face-to-face contexts demonstrate the benefits of communication strategy instruction (CSI), there have been few attempts to integrate computer-mediated communication and CSI. The study…

  10. LIBRARY SKILL INSTRUCTION IN NIGERIAN ACADEMIC LIBRARIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Info@globaljournalseries.com. LIBRARY SKILL INSTRUCTION IN NIGERIAN ACADEMIC. LIBRARIES. P. C. AZIAGBA AND E. H. UZOEZI. (Received 10, September 2009; Revision Accepted 8, February 2010). ABSTRACT. This survey was undertaken to portray the level of library involvement ...

  11. App Development Paradigms for Instructional Developers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.; Hubbell, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    To create instructional apps for desktop, laptop and mobile devices, developers must select a development tool. Tool selection is critical and complicated by the large number and variety of app development tools. One important criterion to consider is the type of development environment, which may primarily be visual or symbolic. Those distinct…

  12. Reading Comprehension Instruction Practices in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hersbach, S.; Denessen, E.J.P.G.; Droop, W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: In this study an attempt was made to give insight in the way reading comprehension is taught in Sierra Leone. Attention was paid to the didactical strategies and the materials used during reading comprehension instruction. Methodology: Primary school teachers in Sierra Leone (N=43) were

  13. Making Listening Instruction Meaningful: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…

  14. 32 CFR 632.6 - Administrative instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... defense techniques. (ii) MP club. (iii) Individual chemical aerosol irritant projectors. (iv) Their assigned firearms. (b) Commanders will also— (1) Provide periodic refresher training to ensure continued... guards to receive instructions regarding use of force. (Give periodic refresher training to ensure...

  15. An Instructional Module on Mokken Scale Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A.

    2017-01-01

    Mokken scale analysis (MSA) is a probabilistic-nonparametric approach to item response theory (IRT) that can be used to evaluate fundamental measurement properties with less strict assumptions than parametric IRT models. This instructional module provides an introduction to MSA as a probabilistic-nonparametric framework in which to explore…

  16. Project Physics Programmed Instruction, Waves 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This is the second of two programmed instruction booklets on the topic of waves, developed by Harvard Project Physics. It covers the relationships among the frequency, period, wavelength, and speed of a periodic wave. For the first booklet in this series, see SE 015 552. (DT)

  17. Institutional Renewal: Instructional Development in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBloois, Michael L.

    Traditionally, instructional developers have confronted the following dilemmas: (1) motivation through coercion versus motivation through reward; (2) systems approaches versus intuition; and (3) incremental change versus fundamental change. A more pragmatic approach to institutional change should attempt to: (1) be user centered; (2) provide…

  18. Designing Genetics Instruction for a Socratic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idros, Sharifah Norhaidah Syed

    2004-01-01

    Science is at heart a rational activity. Reasoning, being an important component of critical thinking has been successfully taught using Socratic methods. As an approach, the instructor or designer of instruction models an inquiring and probing mind focusing on providing questions and not answers. The main aim has been to allow learners to…

  19. Instructional Design: Its Relevance for CALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Elaine

    1989-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary (language and educational technology departments) instructional design program that is intended to develop back-up computer programs for students taking supplementary English as a second language classes. The program encompasses training programs, the psychology of screen reading, task analysis, and color cueing.…

  20. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…