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Sample records for ripple reduction filters

  1. A Simple Ripple Filter for FLUKA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Herrmann, Rochus

    In heavy ion radiotherapy, pristine C-12 beams are usually widened a few mm (FWHM) along the beam axis, before the actual spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) is build. The pristine beam widening is commonly performed with a ripple filter, known from the facility at GSI (Darmstadt) and at HIT (Heidelberg......). The ripple filter at GSI and HIT consists of several wedge like structures, which widens the Bragg-peak up to e.g. 3 mm. For Monte Carlo simulations of C-12 therapy, the exact setup, including the ripple filter needs to be simulated. In the Monte Carlo particle transport program FLUKA, the ripple filter can....... Since the ripple filter is a periodic geometry, one could use the LATTIC card with advantage, but here we shall take a Monte Carlo based approach istead. The advantage of this method is that our input file merely contains one body as the ripple filter, which can be a flat slab (or any other arbitrary...

  2. Ripple reduction activities in the MG room at the Bevatron, August 1991 to August 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasbalg, M.; Bennett, M.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: magnet - voltage dividers temperature ampersand voltage influence error calculation; magnet filters summarized data table; magnet transfer function measurement setup and connection diagrams; response of existing magnet system including ripple reduction filters - Dec 1991; magnet filters - mutual inductance problem; and damping the magnet filters

  3. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevillot, L; Stock, M; Vatnitsky, S

    2015-10-21

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular. A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design. A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients.

  4. CBA main magnet power supply ripple reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, G.; Edwards, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The preliminary results of a development program to minimize beam perturbation resulting from ripple current generated by the CBA Main Magnet Power Supply are presented. The assessment of the magnitude and causes of the ripple generated led to a modification of the SCR Gate Driver and the addition of a bandpass amplifier correction loop which gave significant improvement. A description of the changes made and the results obtained are included. A second design approach was developed in which the timing of the SCR gate pulses is directly determined by a VCO. The results reported with this VCO Loop indicate superior performance particularly at frequencies below 60 Hz. A shunt transistor regulator design is proposed to minimize higher SCR switching frequency harmonics

  5. Reduction of ripple voltage in a dynamitron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langsdorf, A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    We determined that a precise neutralization of the RF ripple voltage on the high-voltage terminal of a Dynamitron has previously been prevented by a nonegligible phase shift of RF currents in the two halves of the approx. 100-kHz class C oscillator tank circuit, which is actually constituted of two slightly unequal high-Q coupled circuits because it has two ground points: the inescapable center-tap-ground in the capacitive legs and a center-tap-ground lead to the induction coil. The latter is needed to prevent damage by flashover transients; equivalent to its removal was the adjusting of RF ground return current to a null by aid of a current transformer on this lead and the suitable adjusting of trimmer capacitance. While the phase shift was thus held to a null, the actual ripple amplitude on the hv terminal was minimized by adjusting additional trimmer capacitances installed in the terminal of the machine. Then p/p 100-kHz ripple at 2-MV dc output was reduced to about 50V and RMS resolution by (p,#betta#) resonance threshold data near 1 MV was about 250 V. The limit to resolution has various causes including mechanical vibrations and unbalanced harmonics of the RF

  6. Output Current Ripple Reduction Algorithms for Home Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyuk Park

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an output current ripple reduction algorithm using a proportional-integral (PI controller for an energy storage system (ESS. In single-phase systems, the DC/AC inverter has a second-order harmonic at twice the grid frequency of a DC-link voltage caused by pulsation of the DC-link voltage. The output current of a DC/DC converter has a ripple component because of the ripple of the DC-link voltage. The second-order harmonic adversely affects the battery lifetime. The proposed algorithm has an advantage of reducing the second-order harmonic of the output current in the variable frequency system. The proposed algorithm is verified from the PSIM simulation and experiment with the 3 kW ESS model.

  7. Reducing Ripple In A Switching Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, John; Rodriguez, G. Ernest

    1994-01-01

    Ripple voltage in output of switching voltage regulator reduced substantially by simple additional circuitry adding little to overall weight and size of regulator. Heretofore, additional filtering circuitry needed to obtain comparable reductions in ripple typically as large and heavy as original regulator. Current opposing ripple current injected into filter capacitor.

  8. Restrictions on TWT Helix Voltage Ripple for Acceptable Notch Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyslop, B.

    1984-12-01

    An ac ripple on the helix voltage of the 1-2 GHz TWT's creates FM sidebands that cause amplitude and phase modulation of the microwave TWT output signal. A limit of 16 volts peak-to-peak is required for acceptable superconducting notch filter performance.

  9. Comparing auditory filter bandwidths, spectral ripple modulation detection, spectral ripple discrimination, and speech recognition: Normal and impaired hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Nelson, Peggy; Souza, Pamela

    2015-07-01

    Some listeners with hearing loss show poor speech recognition scores in spite of using amplification that optimizes audibility. Beyond audibility, studies have suggested that suprathreshold abilities such as spectral and temporal processing may explain differences in amplified speech recognition scores. A variety of different methods has been used to measure spectral processing. However, the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition is still inconclusive. This study evaluated the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and with hearing loss. Narrowband spectral resolution was assessed using auditory filter bandwidths estimated from simultaneous notched-noise masking. Broadband spectral processing was measured using the spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) task and the spectral ripple depth detection (SMD) task. Three different measures were used to assess unamplified and amplified speech recognition in quiet and noise. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that SMD at 2.0 cycles per octave (cpo) significantly predicted speech scores for amplified and unamplified speech in quiet and noise. Commonality analyses revealed that SMD at 2.0 cpo combined with SRD and equivalent rectangular bandwidth measures to explain most of the variance captured by the regression model. Results suggest that SMD and SRD may be promising clinical tools for diagnostic evaluation and predicting amplification outcomes.

  10. Comparing auditory filter bandwidths, spectral ripple modulation detection, spectral ripple discrimination, and speech recognition: Normal and impaired hearinga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Venn, Evelyn; Nelson, Peggy; Souza, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Some listeners with hearing loss show poor speech recognition scores in spite of using amplification that optimizes audibility. Beyond audibility, studies have suggested that suprathreshold abilities such as spectral and temporal processing may explain differences in amplified speech recognition scores. A variety of different methods has been used to measure spectral processing. However, the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition is still inconclusive. This study evaluated the relationship between spectral processing and speech recognition in listeners with normal hearing and with hearing loss. Narrowband spectral resolution was assessed using auditory filter bandwidths estimated from simultaneous notched-noise masking. Broadband spectral processing was measured using the spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) task and the spectral ripple depth detection (SMD) task. Three different measures were used to assess unamplified and amplified speech recognition in quiet and noise. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that SMD at 2.0 cycles per octave (cpo) significantly predicted speech scores for amplified and unamplified speech in quiet and noise. Commonality analyses revealed that SMD at 2.0 cpo combined with SRD and equivalent rectangular bandwidth measures to explain most of the variance captured by the regression model. Results suggest that SMD and SRD may be promising clinical tools for diagnostic evaluation and predicting amplification outcomes. PMID:26233047

  11. The active filter voltage ripple correction system of the Brookhaven AGS main magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marneris, I.; Bonati, R.; Geller, J.; Sandberg, J.N.; Soukas, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper, and a companion paper, describe the improvements to the Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) so that it enables a more flexible operation of the AGS, enhances its reliability, and also improves the MMPS's ultimate performance specifications. One of the major areas for the latter is the fixed target program operating off the AGS slow extracted beam lines. The active filter, by improving the MMPS output ripple, is instrumental in the improvement of the ultimate duty factor of the extraction beam spill

  12. Buck supplies output voltage ripple reduction using fuzzy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu BIZON

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the PWM control for switching power supplies the peaks EMI noise appear at the switching frequency and its harmonics. Using randomize or chaotic PWM control techniques in these systems the power spectrum is spread out in all frequencies band spectral emissions, but with a bigger ripple in the output voltage. The proposed nonlinear feedback control method, which induces chaos, is based by fuzzy rules that minimize the output voltage ripple. The feasibility and effectiveness of this relative simple method is shown by simulation. A comparison with the previous control method is included, too.

  13. Ripple filter for the 10,000A superconducting magnet test stand at the magnet test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, E.

    1991-11-01

    The new 10,000A dumpswitch (1) and dumpresistor (2) system at MTF required a 720Hz filter to eliminate power supply ripple from the load. The new filter, shown in Figure 1, had two requirements: (1) Less then 1/2 Ap-p ripple current with a load current of 10,000A; (2) No or minimal overshoot when the current reaches flattop after it is ramped to 10,000A. MFT magnets are ramped to their final current values at different ramp rates depending on the inductance and type of the magnet under test. The filter design was done with the help of PSPICE simulations. Most of the simulations that will be shown in this write-up were done using a 50mH magnet and a ramprate of 200A/s. In order to study this filter with SPICE, two different simulations had to be done. Due to the relatively high frequency of the ripple when compared with the ramping times, if the ripple current was studied together with the overshoot, the simulations would have taken a very long time to run. Therefore the voltage ripple and the current overshoot were studied separately.

  14. Reduction of torque ripple in DTC induction motor drive with discrete voltage vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents а practical implementation of direct torque control (DTC of an induction machine on MSK2812 DSP platform, and the analysis of possibilities for reduction of torque ripple. Basic theoretical background relating the DTC was primarily set and the obtained experimental results have been given. It is shown that the torque ripple can be reduced by adjusting the intensity of voltage vectors and by modification of hysteresis comparator, while the simplicity of the basic DTC algorithm has been maintained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33016

  15. Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor based on adaptive input-output feedback linearization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani Boroujeni, M; Markadeh, G R Arab; Soltani, J

    2017-09-01

    Torque ripple reduction of Brushless DC Motors (BLDCs) is an interesting subject in variable speed AC drives. In this paper at first, a mathematical expression for torque ripple harmonics is obtained. Then for a non-ideal BLDC motor with known harmonic contents of back-EMF, calculation of desired reference current amplitudes, which are required to eliminate some selected harmonics of torque ripple, are reviewed. In order to inject the reference harmonic currents to the motor windings, an Adaptive Input-Output Feedback Linearization (AIOFBL) control is proposed, which generates the reference voltages for three phases voltage source inverter in stationary reference frame. Experimental results are presented to show the capability and validity of the proposed control method and are compared with the vector control in Multi-Reference Frame (MRF) and Pseudo-Vector Control (P-VC) method results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fluence inhomogeneities due to a ripple filter induced Moiré effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringbæk, Toke Printz; Brons, Stephan; Naumann, Jakob; Ackermann, Benjamin; Horn, Julian; Latzel, Harald; Scheloske, Stefan; Galonska, Michael; Bassler, Niels; Zink, Klemens; Weber, Uli

    2015-02-07

    At particle therapy facilities with pencil beam scanning, the implementation of a ripple filter (RiFi) broadens the Bragg peak, so fewer energy steps from the accelerator are required for a homogeneous dose coverage of the planning target volume (PTV). However, sharply focusing the scanned pencil beams at the RiFi plane by ion optical settings can lead to a Moiré effect, causing fluence inhomogeneities at the isocenter. This has been experimentally proven at the Heidelberg Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum (HIT), Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Germany. 150 MeV u(-1) carbon-12 ions are used for irradiation with a 3 mm thick RiFi. The beam is focused in front of and as close to the RiFi plane as possible. The pencil beam width is estimated to be 0.78 mm at a 93 mm distance from the RiFi. Radiographic films are used to obtain the fluence profile 30 mm in front of the isocenter, 930 mm from the RiFi. The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT12A is used to determine the RiFi-induced inhomogeneities in the fluence distribution at the isocenter for a similar setup, pencil beam widths at the RiFi plane ranging from σχ(RiFi to 1.2 mm and for scanning step sizes ranging from 1.5 to 3.7 mm. The beam application and monitoring system (BAMS) used at HIT is modelled and simulated. When the width of the pencil beams at the RiFi plane is much smaller than the scanning step size, the resulting inhomogeneous fluence distribution at the RiFi plane interfers with the inhomogeneous RiFi mass distribution and fluence inhomogeneity can be observed at the isocenter as large as an 8% deviation from the mean fluence. The inverse of the fluence ripple period at the isocenter is found to be the difference between the inverse of the RiFi period and the inverse of the scanning step size. We have been able to use MC simulations to reproduce the spacing of the ripple stripes seen in films irradiated at HIT. Our findings clearly indicate that pencil beams sharply focused near the RiFi plane result in

  17. Reduction of toroidal magnetic field ripple in the advanced material tokamak experiment on JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.; Miura, Y.; Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Koike, T.; Nakayama, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Urata, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce fast ion losses due to the toroidal field ripple, the reduction of ripple amplitude (δ) by inserting ferritic steel is studied, taking its toroidal mode number into account. The guideline of the design for reduction is wider and thicker ferritic board (FB) is located at further position from VV. The δ depends on the toroidal magnetic field. The value of B r21 /B t in the case of displacement of few cm is about 1 x 10 -5 which is one order smaller than the critical value. The offsetting of FB is not a problem for locked mode. Preliminary experiments with insertion of one or two FB's indicate no adverse effect on global plasma parameters. (author)

  18. Reduction of toroidal magnetic field ripple in the advanced material tokamak experiment on JFT-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Miura, Y.; Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Koike, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan); Nakayama, T. [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan); Hasegawa, M. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan); Urata, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    In order to reduce fast ion losses due to the toroidal field ripple, the reduction of ripple amplitude ({delta}) by inserting ferritic steel is studied, taking its toroidal mode number into account. The guideline of the design for reduction is wider and thicker ferritic board (FB) is located at further position from VV. The {delta} depends on the toroidal magnetic field. The value of B{sub r21} /B{sub t} in the case of displacement of few cm is about 1 x 10{sup -5} which is one order smaller than the critical value. The offsetting of FB is not a problem for locked mode. Preliminary experiments with insertion of one or two FB's indicate no adverse effect on global plasma parameters. (author)

  19. A Controlled Design of Ripple-Like Polyamide-6 Nanofiber/Nets Membrane for High-Efficiency Air Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shichao; Liu, Hui; Zuo, Fenglei; Yin, Xia; Yu, Jianyong; Ding, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The filtration capacity of fibrous media for airborne particles is restricted by their thick diameter, low porosity, and limited frontal area. The ability to solve this problem would have broad technological implications for various air filtration applications; despite many past efforts, it remains a great challenge to achieve. Herein, a facile and scalable strategy to fabricate the ripple-like polyamide-6 nanofiber/nets (PA-6 NF/N) air filter via combining electrospinning/netting technique with receiving substrate design is demonstrated. This proposed approach allows the scaffold filaments to orderly embed into 2D PA-6 nanonets layer with Steiner-tree structures and nanoscale diameter of ≈20 nm, resulting in the ripple-like membrane with extremely small pore size, highly porous structure, and hugely extended frontal surface, by facilely adjusting its pleat span and pleat pitch. These unique structural advantages enable the ripple-like PA-6 NF/N filter to filtrate the ultrafine particles with high removal efficiency of 99.996%, low air resistance of 95 Pa, and robust quality factor of >0.11 Pa -1 ; using its superlight weight of 0.9 g m -2 and physical sieving manner. This approach has the potentialities to give rise to a novel generation of filter media displaying enhanced filtration capacity for various applications thanks to their nanoscale features and designed macrostructures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Capacitor voltage ripple reduction and arm energy balancing in MMC-HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parikh, Harsh; Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánches; Tsolaridis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Modular Multilevel Converters are emerging and widely used in HVDC applications. However, the submodule capacitors are still large and the energy balancing under unbalanced conditions is a challenge. In this paper, an analytical model focusing on the energy stored in the capacitors and voltage...... variations is utilized in order to achieve better performance. By injecting a second order harmonic component into the circulating current, the energy variation and consequently the capacitor voltage ripple is reduced allowing for a capacitor size reduction. At the same time, an arm energy balancing...

  1. Noise reduction with complex bilateral filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuharu

    2017-12-01

    This study introduces a noise reduction technique that uses a complex bilateral filter. A bilateral filter is a nonlinear filter originally developed for images that can reduce noise while preserving edge information. It is an attractive filter and has been used in many applications in image processing. When it is applied to an acoustical signal, small-amplitude noise is reduced while the speech signal is preserved. However, a bilateral filter cannot handle noise with relatively large amplitudes owing to its innate characteristics. In this study, the noisy signal is transformed into the time-frequency domain and the filter is improved to handle complex spectra. The high-amplitude noise is reduced in the time-frequency domain via the proposed filter. The features and the potential of the proposed filter are also confirmed through experiments.

  2. Grey Wolf based control for speed ripple reduction at low speed operation of PMSM drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerioui, Ali; Houari, Azeddine; Ait-Ahmed, Mourad; Benkhoris, Mohamed-Fouad; Chouder, Aissa; Machmoum, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Speed ripple at low speed-high torque operation of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drives is considered as one of the major issues to be treated. The presented work proposes an efficient PMSM speed controller based on Grey Wolf (GW) algorithm to ensure a high-performance control for speed ripple reduction at low speed operation. The main idea of the proposed control algorithm is to propose a specific objective function in order to incorporate the advantage of fast optimization process of the GW optimizer. The role of GW optimizer is to find the optimal input controls that satisfy the speed tracking requirements. The synthesis methodology of the proposed control algorithm is detailed and the feasibility and performances of the proposed speed controller is confirmed by simulation and experimental results. The GW algorithm is a model-free controller and the parameters of its objective function are easy to be tuned. The GW controller is compared to PI one on real test bench. Then, the superiority of the first algorithm is highlighted. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motor with harmonic current injection based on integral terminal sliding mode control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boroujeni, Mojtaba Shirvani; Markadeh, Gholamreza Arab; Soltani, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Brushless Harmonic current injection to the stator windings is one of the most effective methods for torque ripple reduction of brushless DC motors. Because of multi harmonic contents of the stator currents, the conventional methods based on rotational reference frame cannot be used to calculate...

  4. Ripple FPN reduced algorithm based on temporal high-pass filter and hardware implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Zhipeng; Jin, Weiqi; Wu, Lei; Jin, Minglei

    2016-11-01

    Cooled infrared detector arrays always suffer from undesired Ripple Fixed-Pattern Noise (FPN) when observe the scene of sky. The Ripple Fixed-Pattern Noise seriously affect the imaging quality of thermal imager, especially for small target detection and tracking. It is hard to eliminate the FPN by the Calibration based techniques and the current scene-based nonuniformity algorithms. In this paper, we present a modified space low-pass and temporal high-pass nonuniformity correction algorithm using adaptive time domain threshold (THP&GM). The threshold is designed to significantly reduce ghosting artifacts. We test the algorithm on real infrared in comparison to several previously published methods. This algorithm not only can effectively correct common FPN such as Stripe, but also has obviously advantage compared with the current methods in terms of detail protection and convergence speed, especially for Ripple FPN correction. Furthermore, we display our architecture with a prototype built on a Xilinx Virtex-5 XC5VLX50T field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The hardware implementation of the algorithm based on FPGA has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption, and (2) small hardware delay (less than 20 lines). The hardware has been successfully applied in actual system.

  5. Advanced RF-KO slow-extraction method for the reduction of spill ripple

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, K; Shibuya, S; Uesugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Kanazawa, M; Takada, E; Yamada, S

    2002-01-01

    Two advanced RF-knockout (RF-KO) slow-extraction methods have been developed at HIMAC in order to reduce the spill ripple for accurate heavy-ion cancer therapy: the dual frequency modulation (FM) method and the separated function method. As a result of simulations and experiments, it was verified that the spill ripple could be considerably reduced using these advanced methods, compared with the ordinary RF-KO method. The dual FM method and the separated function method bring about a low spill ripple within standard deviations of around 25% and of 15% during beam extraction within around 2 s, respectively, which are in good agreement with the simulation results.

  6. Volume reduction of contaminated filter wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttedahl, O.I.; Terada, K.

    1976-01-01

    Reported are details of a pilot project to design and construct a compactor to reduce the handling of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in air filtration systems at facilities where radioactive materials are processed. In such systems at Rocky Flats Plant, filters require frequent change and removal. Large quantities are used and will be increased for future operations. With the completion of the pilot model, it has been demonstrated that volume reductions of more than 80% can be achieved and cost savings will be realized also

  7. Ripple artifact reduction using slice overlap in slice encoding for metal artifact correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Harder, J Chiel; van Yperen, Gert H; Blume, Ulrike A; Bos, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral imaging (MSI) significantly reduces metal artifacts. Yet, especially in techniques that use gradient selection, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), a residual ripple artifact may be prominent. Here, an analysis is presented of the ripple artifact and of slice overlap as an approach to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact was analyzed theoretically to clarify its cause. Slice overlap, conceptually similar to spectral bin overlap in multi-acquisition with variable resonances image combination (MAVRIC), was achieved by reducing the selection gradient and, thus, increasing the slice profile width. Time domain simulations and phantom experiments were performed to validate the analyses and proposed solution. Discontinuities between slices are aggravated by signal displacement in the frequency encoding direction in areas with deviating B0. Specifically, it was demonstrated that ripple artifacts appear only where B0 varies both in-plane and through-plane. Simulations and phantom studies of metal implants confirmed the efficacy of slice overlap to reduce the artifact. The ripple artifact is an important limitation of gradient selection based MSI techniques, and can be understood using the presented simulations. At a scan-time penalty, slice overlap effectively addressed the artifact, thereby improving image quality near metal implants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. High Ripples Reduction in DTC of Induction Motor by Using a New Reduced Switching Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Bachir; Benkhoris, Mohamed F.

    2016-05-01

    The direct torque and flux control (DTC) of electrical motors is characterized by ripples of torque and flux. Among the many solutions proposed to reduce them is to use modified switching tables which is very advantageous; because its implementation is easy and requires no additional cost compared to other solutions. This paper proposes a new reduced switching table (RST) to improve the DTC by reducing harmful ripples of torque and flux. This new switching table is smaller than the conventional one (CST) and depends principally at the flux error. This solution is studied by simulation under Matlab/Simulink and experimentally validated on a testbed with DSPACE1103. The results obtained of a DTC with RST applied to a three-phase induction motor (IM) show a good improvement and an effectiveness of proposed solution, the torque ripple decreases about 47% and 3% for the stator flux compared with a basic DTC.

  9. A dual mode operated boost inverter and its control strategy for ripple current reduction in single-phase uninterruptible power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Y.; Yao, W.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In single-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS) applications, it is well known that the AC side instantaneous power is not constant by nature. The resulting input current from the DC source side will inevitably contain low frequency ripple components that may largely deteriorate the system...... as active power conversion, while its CM operation is controlled in such a way that the low frequency ripple current on the DC side can be maintained in a minimum level. The proposed ripple current reduction method may not only work with linear loads, but also nonlinear loads, where more sophisticated...

  10. A Method of Sky Ripple Residual Nonuniformity Reduction for a Cooled Infrared Imager and Hardware Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiyang; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Jin

    2017-05-08

    Cooled infrared detector arrays always suffer from undesired ripple residual nonuniformity (RNU) in sky scene observations. The ripple residual nonuniformity seriously affects the imaging quality, especially for small target detection. It is difficult to eliminate it using the calibration-based techniques and the current scene-based nonuniformity algorithms. In this paper, we present a modified temporal high-pass nonuniformity correction algorithm using fuzzy scene classification. The fuzzy scene classification is designed to control the correction threshold so that the algorithm can remove ripple RNU without degrading the scene details. We test the algorithm on a real infrared sequence by comparing it to several well-established methods. The result shows that the algorithm has obvious advantages compared with the tested methods in terms of detail conservation and convergence speed for ripple RNU correction. Furthermore, we display our architecture with a prototype built on a Xilinx Virtex-5 XC5VLX50T field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption; and (2) small hardware delay (less than 10 image rows). It has been successfully applied in an actual system.

  11. Pre-compression volume on flow ripple reduction of a piston pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Song, Yuechao; Yang, Huayong

    2013-11-01

    Axial piston pump with pre-compression volume(PCV) has lower flow ripple in large scale of operating condition than the traditional one. However, there is lack of precise simulation model of the axial piston pump with PCV, so the parameters of PCV are difficult to be determined. A finite element simulation model for piston pump with PCV is built by considering the piston movement, the fluid characteristic(including fluid compressibility and viscosity) and the leakage flow rate. Then a test of the pump flow ripple called the secondary source method is implemented to validate the simulation model. Thirdly, by comparing results among the simulation results, test results and results from other publications at the same operating condition, the simulation model is validated and used in optimizing the axial piston pump with PCV. According to the pump flow ripples obtained by the simulation model with different PCV parameters, the flow ripple is the smallest when the PCV angle is 13°, the PCV volume is 1.3×10-4 m3 at such operating condition that the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure 15 MPa, the pump speed 1 000 r/min, the swash plate angle 13°. At the same time, the flow ripple can be reduced when the pump suction pressure is 2 MPa, the pump delivery pressure is 5 MPa,15 MPa, 22 MPa, pump speed is 400 r/min, 1 000 r/min, 1 500 r/min, the swash plate angle is 11°, 13°, 15° and 17°, respectively. The finite element simulation model proposed provides a method for optimizing the PCV structure and guiding for designing a quieter axial piston pump.

  12. Flow ripple reduction of an axial piston pump by a combination of cross-angle and pressure relief grooves: Analysis and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Bing; Ye, Shaogan; Zhang, Junhui; Zhang, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of flow ripple reduction of an axial piston pump by a combination of cross-angle and pressure relief grooves. A dynamic model is developed to analyze the pumping dynamics of the pump and validated by experimental results. The effects of cross-angle on the flow ripples in the outlet and inlet ports, and the piston chamber pressure are investigated. The effects of pressure relief grooves on the optimal solutions obtained by a multi-objective optimization method are identified. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the sensitivity of cross-angle to different working conditions. The results reveal that the flow ripples from the optimal solutions are smaller using the cross-angle and pressure relief grooves than those using the cross-angle and ordinary precompression and decompression angles and the cross-angle can be smaller. In addition, when the optimal design is used, the outlet flow ripples sensitivity can be reduced significantly.

  13. Ripple Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. Stimson

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how surface-dwelling animals use the water surface as a mode of communication by making ripple signals while they swim about. Provides information about surfaces and surface waves, ripple communication in water striders, ripple signal characteristics, sensing and orienting, other modes of communication, and evolution of ripple…

  14. Noise Reduction of Measurement Data using Linear Digital Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitzmann B.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Butterworth, Chebyshev (Type I and II and Elliptic digital filters are designed for signal noise reduction. On-line data measurements of substrate concentration from E. coli fed-batch cultivation process are used. Application of the designed filters leads to a successful noise reduction of on-line glucose measurements. The digital filters presented here are simple, easy to implement and effective - the used filters allow for a smart compromise between signal information and noise corruption.

  15. Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavana, Nariman Roshandel, E-mail: nroshandel@ee.iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shoulaie, Abbas, E-mail: shoulaie@iust.ac.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.

  16. Pole-shape optimization of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor for reduction of thrust ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavana, Nariman Roshandel; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have used magnet arc shaping technique in order to improve the performance of permanent-magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM). At first, a detailed analytical modeling based on Maxwell equations is presented for the analysis and design of PMLSM with the arc-shaped magnetic poles (ASMPs). Then the accuracy of presented method is verified by finite-element method. Very close agreement between the analytical and finite-element results shows the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, a magnet shape design is carried out based on the analytical method to enhance the motor developed thrust. Pertinent evaluations on the optimal design performance demonstrate that shape optimization leads to a design with extra low thrust ripple.

  17. Second Ripple Current Suppression by Two Bandpass Filters and Current Sharing Method for Energy Storage Converters in DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ling; Chen, Yandong; Luo, An

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method by introdu......With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method...

  18. Ferritic insertion for reduction of toroidal magnetic field ripple on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Sakurai, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Tsuzuki, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Masaki, K.; Naito, O.; Kurihara, K.; Suzuki, T.; Koide, Y.; Fujita, T.; Miura, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Ferritic steel tiles (FSTs) have been installed to improve the energetic ion confinement by reducing a toroidal magnetic field ripple. Aiming at cost-effective installation, orbit-following calculations of energetic ions were carried out for a design of the installation of ferritic steel on the JT-60U by using the fully three dimensional magnetic field orbit-following Monte-Carlo (F3D OFMC) code, which had been developed for ferritic insert experiments on the JFT-2M and can treat the complex magnetic field structure produced by ferritic inserts. The installed FSTs add a non-linear magnetic field on magnetic sensors for plasma control and an equilibrium calculation. The code for real-time control has been modified to take into account the magnetic field by the FSTs. The plasma operation was successfully resumed after usual conditioning processes and real-time plasma control was successfully carried out. The heat load measurement indicates the improved confinement of energetic ions. These results are important for practical application of the ferritic steel, which is a leading candidate of a structural material on a DEMO reactor

  19. Noise Reduction with Optimal Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of noise reduction is addressed as a linear filtering problem in a novel way by using concepts from subspace-based enhancement methods, resulting in variable span linear filters. This is done by forming the filter coefficients as linear combinations of a number...... included in forming the filter. Using these concepts, a number of different filter designs are considered, like minimum distortion, Wiener, maximum SNR, and tradeoff filters. Interestingly, all these can be expressed as special cases of variable span filters. We also derive expressions for the speech...... demonstrate the advantages and properties of the variable span filter designs, and their potential performance gain compared to widely used speech enhancement methods....

  20. Rolling Ripple

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity continues to cut southward across a plain marked by large sand ripples and a pavement of outcrop rock. The ripple in the center of the image shows a distinct pattern of banding, which the science team hopes to investigate more closely during the trek through this terrain. The banding and other features have inspired a hypothesis that Meridiani ripples are old features that are currently being eroded, and not transported, by wind. This navigation camera image was taken on Opportunity's sol 795, April 19, 2006.

  1. Musical noise reduction using an adaptive filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Takeshi; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa; Hoya, Tetsuya

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a method for reducing a particular noise (musical noise). The musical noise is artificially produced by Spectral Subtraction (SS), which is one of the most conventional methods for speech enhancement. The musical noise is the tin-like sound and annoying in human auditory. We know that the duration of the musical noise is considerably short in comparison with that of speech, and that the frequency components of the musical noise are random and isolated. In the ordinary SS-based methods, the musical noise is removed by the post-processing. However, the output of the ordinary post-processing is delayed since the post-processing uses the succeeding frames. In order to improve this problem, we propose a novel method using an adaptive filter. In the proposed system, the observed noisy signal is used as the input signal to the adaptive filter and the output of SS is used as the reference signal. In this paper we exploit the normalized LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm for the adaptive filter. Simulation results show that the proposed method has improved the intelligibility of the enhanced speech in comparison with the conventional method.

  2. Ash reduction system using electrically heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; He, Yongsheng [Sterling Heights, MI

    2011-08-16

    A control system for reducing ash comprises a temperature estimator module that estimates a temperature of an electrically heated particulate matter (PM) filter. A temperature and position estimator module estimates a position and temperature of an oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter. An ash reduction control module adjusts at least one of exhaust flow, fuel and oxygen levels in the electrically heated PM filter to adjust a position of the oxidation wave within the electrically heated PM filter based on the oxidation wave temperature and position.

  3. Torque Ripple Reduction of a Novel Modular Arc-Linear Flux-Switching Permanent-Magnet Motor with Rotor Step Skewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel modular arc-linear flux-switching permanent-magnet motor (MAL-FSPM used for scanning system instead of reduction gearboxes and kinematic mechanisms is proposed and researched in this paper by the finite element method (FEM. The MAL-FSPM combines characteristics of flux-switching permanent-magnet motor and linear motor and can realize the direct driving and limited angular movement. Structure and operation principle of the MAL-FSPM are analyzed. Cogging torque model of the MAL-FSPM is established. The characteristics of cogging torque and torque ripple are investigated for: (1 distance (dend between left end of rotor and left end of stator is more than two rotor tooth pitch (τp; and (2 dend is less than two rotor tooth pitch. Cogging torque is an important component of torque ripple and the period ratio of the cogging torque to the back electromotive force (EMF equals one for the MAL-FSPM before optimization. In order to reduce the torque ripple as much as possible and affect the back EMF as little as possible, influence of period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF on rotor step skewing is investigated. Rotor tooth width and stator slot open width are optimized to increase the period ratio of cogging torque to back EMF. After the optimization, torque ripple is decreased by 79.8% for dend > τp and torque ripple is decreased by 49.7% for dend < τp. Finally, 3D FEM model is established to verify the 2D results.

  4. Holistic Entropy Reduction for Collaborative Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwabe Andrzej

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a collaborative filtering (CF method that uses behavioral data provided as propositions having the RDF-compliant form of (user X, likes, item Y triples. The method involves the application of a novel self-configuration technique for the generation of vector-space representations optimized from the information-theoretic perspective. The method, referred to as Holistic Probabilistic Modus Ponendo Ponens (HPMPP, enables reasoning about the likelihood of unknown facts. The proposed vector-space graph representation model is based on the probabilistic apparatus of quantum Information Retrieval and on the compatibility of all operators representing subjects, predicates, objects and facts. The dual graph-vector representation of the available propositional data enables the entropy-reducing transformation and supports the compositionality of mutually compatible representations. As shown in the experiments presented in the paper, the compositionality of the vector-space representations allows an HPMPP-based recommendation system to identify which of the unknown facts having the triple form (user X, likes, item Y are the most likely to be true in a way that is both effective and, in contrast to methods proposed so far, fully automatic.

  5. Emittance growth due to dipole ripple and sextupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, H.J.; Ellison, J.A.; Syphers, M.J.; Newberger, B.S.

    1993-05-01

    Ripple in the power supplies for storage ring magnets can have adverse effects on the circulating beams: orbit distortion and emittance growth from dipole ripple, tune modulation and dynamic aperture reduction from quadrupole ripple, etc. In this paper, we study the effects of ripple in the horizontal bending field of the SSC in the presence of nonlinearity, in particular, the growth in beam emittance

  6. An adaptive Kalman filter for speckle reductions in ultrasound images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellini, G.; Labate, D.; Masotti, L.; Mannini, E.; Rocchi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Speckle is the term used to describe the granular appearance found in ultrasound images. The presence of speckle reduces the diagnostic potential of the echographic technique because it tends to mask small inhomogeneities of the investigated tissue. We developed a new method of speckle reductions that utilizes an adaptive one-dimensional Kalman filter based on the assumption that the observed image can be considered as a superimposition of speckle on a ''true images''. The filter adaptivity, necessary to avoid loss of resolution, has been obtained by statistical considerations on the local signal variations. The results of the applications of this particular Kalman filter, both on A-Mode and B-MODE images, show a significant speckle reduction

  7. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruxi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Wang, Fei [ORNL; Boroyevich, Dushan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Burgos, Rolando [ABB; Lai, Rixin [General Electric; Ning, Puqi [ORNL; Rajashekara, Kaushik [Rolls Royce

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  8. Ripple Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    16 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows windblown materials that have collected and been shaped into large ripples in a valley in the Auqakuh Vallis system in northeastern Arabia Terra, Mars. Location near: 29.1oN, 299.6oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  9. Analisis Ripple Masukan Dan Keluaran PWM AC Chopper 3-Fasa Pada Beban Motor Induksi 3-Fasa

    OpenAIRE

    Luthfi, Muhamad; Dachlan, Harry Soekotjo; Wijono, Wijono

    2013-01-01

    Penggunaan chopper dalam sistem kelistrikan akan menimbulkan ripple pada tegangan keluarannya. Kebanyakan ripple difahami terbangkit pada sisi output. Pada penelitian ini ripple pada sisi input juga dianalisis. Disamping ripple, penggunaan chopper akan membangkitkan harmonisa yang akan menimbulkan rugirugi. Untuk memperkecil rugi-rugi tersebut, pada sisi input maupun output perlu dipasang filter LC. Penentuan nilai komponen filter ini dipengaruhi oleh ripple yang timbul. Dengan mengetahui m...

  10. Speed control with torque ripple reduction of switched reluctance motor by Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Saha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a control scheme for simultaneous control of the speed of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM and minimizing the torque ripple employing Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search Algorithm (Hybrid MOLGSA technique. The control mechanism includes two controlling loops, the outer loop is governed for speed control and a current controller for the inner loop, intelligent selection of turn on and turn off angle for a 60 KW, 3-phase 6/8 SRM. It is noticed that the torque ripple coefficient, ISE of speed & current are reduced by 12.81%, 38.60%, 16.74% respectively by Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA algorithm. It is also observed that the settling times for the controller using the parameter values for obtaining best values of torque ripple, Integral square error of speed and current are reduced by 51.25%, 58.04% and 59.375% by proposed Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to the GSA algorithm.

  11. Ripple Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    3 April 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the margin of a lava flow on a cratered plain in the Athabasca Vallis region of Mars. Remarkably, the cratered plain in this scene is essentially free of bright, windblown ripples. Conversely, the lava flow apparently acted as a trap for windblown materials, illustrated by the presence of the light-toned, wave-like texture over much of the flow. That the lava flow surface trapped windblown sand and granules better than the cratered plain indicates that the flow surface has a rougher texture at a scale too small to resolve in this image. Location near: 10.7oN, 204.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  12. Current-ripple effect on superconductive dc critical current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, L.F.; Bray, S.L.; Clark, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of sample-current power-supply ripple on dc critical current measurement in multifilamentary NbTi superconductors was evaluated. In general the ripple in a current supply became more significant above 500 A because effective filtering was hard to achieve. Ripple also caused noise at the input of the voltmeter used for the measurements. The quantitative effect of current ripple was studied using a battery current supply modified to allow the creation of ripple current with variable frequency and amplitude. Problems common to all large-conductor critical current measurements are discussed

  13. Reduction of hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Y C; Paik, N W

    2000-01-01

    Chromium exists at various valences, including elemental, trivalent, and hexavalent chromium, and undergoes reduction-oxidation reactions in the environment. Since hexavalent chromium is known as a human carcinogen, it is most important to evaluate the oxidation-reduction characteristics of the hexavalent chromium species. Although hexavalent chromium can be reduced to trivalent state, the detailed information on this in workplace environments is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate hexavalent chromium reduction in time in various conditions. A pilot chrome plating operation was prepared and operated in a laboratory for this study. There was evidence that the hexavalent chromium was reduced by time after mist generation. The percentage ratio (with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses) of hexavalent chromium to total chromium was almost 100% (99.1 approximately 102.3) immediately after mist generation, and was reduced to 87.4% (84.8 approximately 89.9) at 1 hour and 81.0% (78.3 approximately 83.5) at 2 hours, respectively. Another test indicated that hexavalent chromium collected on PVC filters was also reduced by time after sampling. Hexavalent chromium was reduced to 90.8% (88.2 approximately 93.3) at 2 hours after sampling. It also was found that hexavalent chromium was reduced during storage in air. It is recommended that air samples of hexavalent chromium be protected against reduction during storage.

  14. Leukocyte-reduction filters and radiation do not cause significant changes in platelet function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Yutaka; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Shibata, Yoichi; Takahashi, Koki

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of radiation and leukocyte-reduction filters on platelet function. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and ADP were measured prior to and after irradiation and filtration, as were the platelet recovery rate and complement factor C3. Four types of leukocyte-reduction filter were used, namely positively-, negatively-, and non-charged filters (all of polyester composition), as well as a polyurethane filter. Radiation itself did not significantly affect either the platelet recovery rate, platelet function, or C3 value. On the other hand, filtration through polyester leukocyte-reduction filters resulted in a significant reduction in the platelet recovery rate, an effect not observed with the polyurethane filter. However, none of the filters caused significant changes in platelet function or in C3 value. We concluded that radiation and filtration do not cause significant changes in platelet function, but polyurethane filters are superior to polyester filters in relation to platelet recovery. (author)

  15. Space Vector Modulation for DC-Link Current Ripple Reduction in Back-To-Back Current Source Converters for Microgrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Xu, David; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Back-to-back converters have been typically used to interconnect the microgrids. For a back-to-back current source converter, the dc-link current ripple is one of the important parameters. A large ripple will cause the electromagnetic interference, undesirable high-frequency losses, and system...... instability. Conventionally, with a given switching frequency and rated voltage, the current ripple can be reduced by increasing the dc-link inductor, but it leads to bulky size, high cost and slow dynamic response. In order to solve this problem, this paper reveals that the current ripple can...

  16. Active filter for INDUS-2 Q4 and Q5 power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Y.P.; Thakurta, A.C.; Kotaiah, S.

    2003-01-01

    Q4 and Q5 power supplies are SCR based power supplies wherein the rectified voltage is fed to a passive filter to reduce the ripple voltage. The output of the passive filter still contains some ripple particularly on the low frequency side. Attenuation of this ripple with passive filter necessitates increase in size of L and C and leads to sluggishness of the system. The design and the test results of an active filter module have been discussed wherein the low frequency attenuation can be very effectively taken care of by, allowing this to be absorbed in a coupling transformer put after the passive filter. Considerable size reduction has been achieved by using switching techniques. Low frequency attenuation has been made quite a simple task. This filter also helps in handling transients from input. (author)

  17. Ripple transport in a modular Helias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Neoclassical transport rates are determined for Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias). Special emphasis is given to Wendelstein VII-X candidates, for which the magnetic field is produced by a large number of discrete non-planar coils. The investigation is concentrated on the long-mean-free-path regime where particles trapped in local ripple wells of the magnetic field make the dominant contribution to transport. For Wendelstein VII-X, such particles fall into two classes; those localized in the helical ripple common to all stellarator-type devices and those very-localized particles which are trapped in the modular ripples existing between the individual coils. Using analytical techniques it is shown that helical-ripple transport rates are substantially reduced for all Wendelstein VII-X candidates relative to classical stellarator/torsatron configurations. This reduction is most pronounced in the 1/ν regime - equivalent helical ripples of less than 1% lead to reduction factors of more than an order of magnitude - but is significant throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime. Modular ripple transport in Wendelstein VII-X is calculated by analytically solving the appropriate bounce-averaged kinetic equation. This solution assumes a general magnetic field model and fully accounts for the deformation of modular ripples due to the presence of the other magnetic-field harmonics. Results indicate that 12 coils per field period are necessary if modular-ripple losses are to remain smaller than helical-ripple losses over the entire plasma cross section. (orig.)

  18. Effect of exposure dose reduction using a compensating filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuda, Toshizo; Nakajima, Tadashi; Kuwano, Tadao; Ueda, Kouki; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Jiro

    1993-01-01

    It is empirically said that the application of the compensating filter leads to a decrease in the exposure dose of the filter-inserted area and an increase in that of the otherwise area. Using the area-dosimeter, comparison was made of exposure doses by the application of the above filter and the otherwise filter in head simple X-P, abdominal angiography and lower extremity X-P. Using the filter for head simple X-P and Mix-Dp phantom, measurement was made of the absorbed dose at the 5 cm-depth to compare the rate of decrease in absorbed dose between the above both areas. Head simple X-P gained a decrease in area dose of 29%. The absorbed dose at the 5 cm-depth in the phantom experiment showed a decrease of over 26% at the filter-inserted area, but little increase at the otherwise area. The above results indicated the interposition of the filter between the X-ray tube and the object to lead to decreases not only in the area dose but also in the patient's exposure dose. (author)

  19. Adaptive Subband Filtering Method for MEMS Accelerometer Noise Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr PIETRZAK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon microaccelerometers can be considered as an alternative to high-priced piezoelectric sensors. Unfortunately, relatively high noise floor of commercially available MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems sensors limits the possibility of their usage in condition monitoring systems of rotating machines. The solution of this problem is the method of signal filtering described in the paper. It is based on adaptive subband filtering employing Adaptive Line Enhancer. For filter weights adaptation, two novel algorithms have been developed. They are based on the NLMS algorithm. Both of them significantly simplify its software and hardware implementation and accelerate the adaptation process. The paper also presents the software (Matlab and hardware (FPGA implementation of the proposed noise filter. In addition, the results of the performed tests are reported. They confirm high efficiency of the solution.

  20. A kinetic study of biological Cr(VI) reduction in trickling filters with different filter media types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermou, E.; Vayenas, D.V.

    2007-01-01

    Two pilot-scale trickling filters were used in order to estimate Cr(VI) reduction through biological mechanisms in biofilm reactors operated in SBR mode with recirculation using different filter media types, i.e. plastic media and calcitic gravel. The feed concentrations of Cr(VI) examined were about 5, 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 mg/l, while the concentration of the organic carbon was constant at 400 mg/l, in order to avoid carbon limitations in the bulk liquid. Maximum reduction rates of 4.8 and 4.7 g Cr(VI)/d were observed for feed Cr(VI) concentration of about 5 mg Cr(VI)/l, for the filters with the plastic support material and the gravel media, respectively. The reduction rates were significantly affected by the feed Cr(VI) concentration in both bioreactors. A dual-enzyme kinetic model was used in order to describe Cr(VI) reduction by aerobically grown mixed cultures. Model predictions were found to correspond very closely to experimental quantitative observations of Cr(VI) reduction at both pilot-scale trickling filters used

  1. Adaptive mean filtering for noise reduction in CT polymer gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilts, Michelle; Jirasek, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) as a method of extracting 3D dose information from irradiated polymer gel dosimeters is showing potential as a practical means to implement gel dosimetry in a radiation therapy clinic. However, the response of CT contrast to dose is weak and noise reduction is critical in order to achieve adequate dose resolutions with this method. Phantom design and CT imaging technique have both been shown to decrease image noise. In addition, image postprocessing using noise reduction filtering techniques have been proposed. This work evaluates in detail the use of the adaptive mean filter for reducing noise in CT gel dosimetry. Filter performance is systematically tested using both synthetic patterns mimicking a range of clinical dose distribution features as well as actual clinical dose distributions. Both low and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations are examined. For all cases, the effects of filter kernel size and the number of iterations are investigated. Results indicate that adaptive mean filtering is a highly effective tool for noise reduction CT gel dosimetry. The optimum filtering strategy depends on characteristics of the dose distributions and image noise level. For low noise images (SNR ∼20), the filtered results are excellent and use of adaptive mean filtering is recommended as a standard processing tool. For high noise images (SNR ∼5) adaptive mean filtering can also produce excellent results, but filtering must be approached with more caution as spatial and dose distortions of the original dose distribution can occur

  2. Magnet pole shape design for reduction of thrust ripple of slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous motor with arc-shaped magnets considering end-effect based on analytical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hun Shin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The shape of the magnet is essential to the performance of a slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (PMLSM because it is directly related to desirable machine performance. This paper presents a reduction in the thrust ripple of a PMLSM through the use of arc-shaped magnets based on electromagnetic field theory. The magnetic field solutions were obtained by considering end effect using a magnetic vector potential and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. The analytical solution of each subdomain (PM, air-gap, coil, and end region is derived, and the field solution is obtained by applying the boundary and interface conditions between the subdomains. In particular, an analytical method was derived for the instantaneous thrust and thrust ripple reduction of a PMLSM with arc-shaped magnets. In order to demonstrate the validity of the analytical results, the back electromotive force results of a finite element analysis and experiment on the manufactured prototype model were compared. The optimal point for thrust ripple minimization is suggested.

  3. Electronic properties of rippled graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Gui; Ma Zhenqiang; Zhong Jianxin

    2012-01-01

    Short range periodic ripples in graphene have been modeled. The electronic properties of the rippled graphene have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Compared with flat graphene, there is a band gap opening in rippled graphene. Generally, the value of energy gaps increases as the height of ripples increase, but it decreases as the range of ripples enlarges. The maximum value of energy gaps in rippled graphene can reach several hundred meV, which turns rippled graphene into a good semiconductor. As a result, the magnitude of energy gaps can be tuned effectively by controlling the range and height of ripples in graphene.

  4. Effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojima, Hiromi; Sawada, Umihiko; Horie, Takashi; Itoh, Takeyoshi

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 30-Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter on platelet and transfusion efficiency, we studied platelet recovery, leukocyte reduction rate, content of platelet factor 4 and β-thromboglobulin in platelet products, platelet functions, and positive rates of platelet surface membranes CD42 and CD62, prior to and after treatment. We also evaluated the efficiency of platelet transfusion by estimating post- transfusion (1 and 24 hour) corrected count increment (CCI), and transfusion side effects. Recovery of platelets was 91.8±6.5% and depletion rate of leukocytes was 1.7±1.1 log. There was no significant difference in platelet activation markers or function tests prior to and after the procedure. The mean post-transfusion CCI and 1 and 24 hours were 16,550 (n=114) and 13,310 (n=93), respectively, with 30-Gy irradiation and leukocyte reduction filter. Those treated solely with leukocyte reduction filter were 14,970 (n=114) and 10,880 (n=118), respectively. There was no increase in transfusion side effects after the treatment of platelet concentrate with 30-Gy irradiation combined with leukocyte reduction filter compared with treatment by leukocyte reduction filter alone. These results indicate that treatment with 30 Gy irradiation in conjunction with leukocyte reduction filter is safe and effective in platelet transfusion. (author)

  5. Permeation through graphene ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; He, Guangyu; Wu, Xu; Ren, Jindong; Guo, Hongxuan; Kong, Yuhan; Iwai, Hideo; Fujita, Daisuke; Gao, Hongjun; Guo, Haiming; Liu, Yingchun; Xu, Mingsheng

    2017-06-01

    Real graphene sheets show limited anti-permeation performance deviating from the ideally flat honeycomb carbon lattice that is impermeable to gases. Ripples in graphene are prevalent and they could significantly influence carrier transport. However, little attention has been paid to the role of ripples in the permeation properties of graphene. Here, we report that gases can permeate through graphene ripples at room temperature. The feasibility of gas permeation through graphene ripples is determined by detecting the initial oxidation sites of Cu surface covered with isolated graphene domain. Nudged elastic band (NEB) calculations demonstrate that the oxygen atom permeation occurs via the formation of C-O-C bond, in which process the energy barrier through the rippled graphene lattice is much smaller than that through a flat graphene lattice, rendering permeation through ripples more favorable. Combining with the recent advances in atoms intercalation between graphene and metal substrate for transfer-free and electrically insulated graphene, this discovery provides new perspectives regarding graphene’s limited anti-permeation performance and evokes for rational design of graphene-based encapsulation for barrier and selective gas separation applications through ripple engineering.

  6. [Examination of patient dose reduction in cardiovasucular X-ray systems with a metal filter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Mitsuyoshi; Kato, Kyouichi; Tanabe, Nobuaki; Sakiyama, Koushi; Uchiyama, Yushi; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    In interventional X-ray for cardiology of flat panel digital detector (FPD), the phenomenon that exposure dose was suddenly increased when a subject thickness was thickened was recognized. At that time, variable metal built-in filters in FPD were all off. Therefore, we examined whether dose reduction was possible without affecting a clinical image using metal filter (filter) which we have been conventionally using for dose reduction. About 45% dose reduction was achieved when we measured an exposure dose at 30 cm of acrylic thickness in the presence of a filter. In addition, we measured signal to noise ratio/contrast to noise ratio/a resolution limit by the visual evaluation, and there was no influence by filter usage. In the clinical examination, visual evaluation of image quality of coronary angiography (40 cases) using a 5-point evaluation scale by a physician was performed. As a result, filter usage did not influence the image quality (p=NS). Therefore, reduction of sudden increase of exposure dose was achieved without influencing an image quality by adding filter to FPD.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of an arm artifact reduction filter in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Fumie; Ohno, Hajime; Hirako, Tetsuya

    2002-01-01

    While performing CT during arterial portography (CTAP) or CT arteriography (CTA), we have instructed patients to in order to reduce streak artifacts. However the repetitive raising and lowering their arms has made it difficult to keep a clean zone and as well as to maintain the position of a target organ. An arm artifact reduction (AAR) filter developed by GE Yokokawa Medical System has been reported to be useful for reducing streak artifacts in CTAP and CTA. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effectiveness of the AAR filter in terms of artifact reduction ratio, CT value, standard deviation and spatial resolution. The use of an AAR filter reduced streak artifacts on images by 15-22% compared with those on images obtained by without the use of the filter and limited deterioration of spatial resolution to within 1%. Moreover, CT value in examination using AAR filter showed no significant change compared with that in non-filter's examination. It is concluded that the use of an AAR filter reduces the burden for the patient and increase the accuracy and flexibility of CT examination while minimizing the reduction in the image quality in CTAP and CTA. (author)

  8. REDUCTION OF SOIL INFILTRATION AREA THANKS TO THE WASTEWATER SECONDARY TREATMENT FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Spychała

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to determine the feasibility and advisability of the use of secondary filters applied before discharge of wastewater into the ground in the context of the fulfillment of the conditions of the current Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 18 November 2014 on the conditions to be met during the discharge of wastewater into the water or the ground and on substances particularly harmful to the aquatic environment. Due to expected in practice, an application and popularity, as compared variants, reactors having a very simple construction were used. The average values of removal of BOD5, COD and total suspended solids for three secondary filters technologies: biological trickling filter with natural ventilation, sand filter and nonwoven filter were compared. Additionally, as a fourth option a simple mathematical model has been presented. This model allows to estimate of BOD5 at the outflow from biological trickling filter and to verify the empirical data. Despite a large usefulness, it is rarely used in our country. It has been found the possibility of reduction of the infiltration area (surface area after reduction is 38–63% of the initial value due to the application of secondary filters. In the case of a high initial demand of the terrain area for drainage localization the benefit in costs resulting from the reduction (several thousand of PLN or may even significantly exceed the cost of buying and installing a cheap secondary filter. In addition, reduction the occupied area of the lot (in extreme cases up to 100 m2 by using the secondary filter allows to use the unoccupied space for other purposes, and thus gives additional economic advantage.

  9. Automatic detection and visualisation of MEG ripple oscillations in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole van Klink

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80–500 Hz in invasive EEG are a biomarker for the epileptic focus. Ripples (80–250 Hz have also been identified in non-invasive MEG, yet detection is impeded by noise, their low occurrence rates, and the workload of visual analysis. We propose a method that identifies ripples in MEG through noise reduction, beamforming and automatic detection with minimal user effort. We analysed 15 min of presurgical resting-state interictal MEG data of 25 patients with epilepsy. The MEG signal-to-noise was improved by using a cross-validation signal space separation method, and by calculating ~2400 beamformer-based virtual sensors in the grey matter. Ripples in these sensors were automatically detected by an algorithm optimized for MEG. A small subset of the identified ripples was visually checked. Ripple locations were compared with MEG spike dipole locations and the resection area if available. Running the automatic detection algorithm resulted in on average 905 ripples per patient, of which on average 148 ripples were visually reviewed. Reviewing took approximately 5 min per patient, and identified ripples in 16 out of 25 patients. In 14 patients the ripple locations showed good or moderate concordance with the MEG spikes. For six out of eight patients who had surgery, the ripple locations showed concordance with the resection area: 4/5 with good outcome and 2/3 with poor outcome. Automatic ripple detection in beamformer-based virtual sensors is a feasible non-invasive tool for the identification of ripples in MEG. Our method requires minimal user effort and is easily applicable in a clinical setting.

  10. Filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, J.A.; Buttedahl, O.I.; Skaats, C.D.; Terada, K.; Woodard, R.W.

    1977-02-01

    The life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters used in transuranic service is influenced greatly by the gaseous and particulate matter to which the filters are exposed. The most severe conditions encountered at Rocky Flats are at the ventilation systems serving the plutonium recovery operations in Bldg. 771. A project of filter testing and development for prolonged transuranic service and waste reduction was formally initiated at Rocky Flats on July 1, 1975. The project is directed toward improving filtration methods which will prolong the life of HEPA filter systems without sacrificing effectiveness. Another important aspect of the project is to reduce the volume of HEPA filter waste shipped from the plant for long-term storage. Progress to September 30, 1976, is reported

  11. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  12. Median Filter Noise Reduction of Image and Backpropagation Neural Network Model for Cervical Cancer Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutsqa, D. U.; Marwah, M.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we consider spatial operation median filter to reduce the noise in the cervical images yielded by colposcopy tool. The backpropagation neural network (BPNN) model is applied to the colposcopy images to classify cervical cancer. The classification process requires an image extraction by using a gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method to obtain image features that are used as inputs of BPNN model. The advantage of noise reduction is evaluated by comparing the performances of BPNN models with and without spatial operation median filter. The experimental result shows that the spatial operation median filter can improve the accuracy of the BPNN model for cervical cancer classification.

  13. Artifact reduction of compressed images and video combining adaptive fuzzy filtering and directional anisotropic diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2011-01-01

    and ringing artifacts, we have applied directional anisotropic diffusion. Besides that, the selection of the adaptive threshold parameter for the diffusion coefficient has also improved the performance of the algorithm. Experimental results on JPEG compressed images as well as MJPEG and H.264 compressed......Fuzzy filtering is one of the recently developed methods for reducing distortion in compressed images and video. In this paper, we combine the powerful anisotropic diffusion equations with fuzzy filtering in order to reduce the impact of artifacts. Based on the directional nature of the blocking...... videos show improvement in artifact reduction of the proposed algorithm over other directional and spatial fuzzy filters....

  14. Improved Kalman Filter Method for Measurement Noise Reduction in Multi Sensor RFID Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Chul Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the range of available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Performance of Kalman filter is determined by a measurement and system noise covariance which are usually called the R and Q variables in the Kalman filter algorithm. Choosing a correct R and Q variable is one of the most important design factors for better performance of the Kalman filter. For this reason, we proposed an improved Kalman filter to advance an ability of noise reduction of the Kalman filter. The measurement noise covariance was only considered because the system architecture is simple and can be adjusted by the neural network. With this method, more accurate data can be obtained with smart RFID tags. In a simulation the proposed improved Kalman filter has 40.1%, 60.4% and 87.5% less Mean Squared Error (MSE than the conventional Kalman filter method for a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and oxygen sensor, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was also verified with some experiments.

  15. Improved Kalman filter method for measurement noise reduction in multi sensor RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Kyung, Yeo Sun; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Min Chul; Jung, Kyung Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the range of available radio frequency identification (RFID) tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Performance of Kalman filter is determined by a measurement and system noise covariance which are usually called the R and Q variables in the Kalman filter algorithm. Choosing a correct R and Q variable is one of the most important design factors for better performance of the Kalman filter. For this reason, we proposed an improved Kalman filter to advance an ability of noise reduction of the Kalman filter. The measurement noise covariance was only considered because the system architecture is simple and can be adjusted by the neural network. With this method, more accurate data can be obtained with smart RFID tags. In a simulation the proposed improved Kalman filter has 40.1%, 60.4% and 87.5% less mean squared error (MSE) than the conventional Kalman filter method for a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and oxygen sensor, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was also verified with some experiments.

  16. Noise Reduction in Breath Sound Files Using Wavelet Transform Based Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Situmeang, S. I. G.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2017-04-01

    The development of science and technology in the field of healthcare increasingly provides convenience in diagnosing respiratory system problem. Recording the breath sounds is one example of these developments. Breath sounds are recorded using a digital stethoscope, and then stored in a file with sound format. This breath sounds will be analyzed by health practitioners to diagnose the symptoms of disease or illness. However, the breath sounds is not free from interference signals. Therefore, noise filter or signal interference reduction system is required so that breath sounds component which contains information signal can be clarified. In this study, we designed a filter called a wavelet transform based filter. The filter that is designed in this study is using Daubechies wavelet with four wavelet transform coefficients. Based on the testing of the ten types of breath sounds data, the data is obtained in the largest SNRdB bronchial for 74.3685 decibels.

  17. Optimal filter design for shielded and unshielded ambient noise reduction in fetal magnetocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comani, S; Mantini, D; Alleva, G; Luzio, S Di; Romani, G L

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediment to extracting high-quality fetal signals from fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is environmental magnetic noise, which may have peak-to-peak intensity comparable to fetal QRS amplitude. Being an unstructured Gaussian signal with large disturbances at specific frequencies, ambient field noise can be reduced with hardware-based approaches and/or with software algorithms that digitally filter magnetocardiographic recordings. At present, no systematic evaluation of filters' performances on shielded and unshielded fMCG is available. We designed high-pass and low-pass Chebychev II-type filters with zero-phase and stable impulse response; the most commonly used band-pass filters were implemented combining high-pass and low-pass filters. The achieved ambient noise reduction in shielded and unshielded recordings was quantified, and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) of the retrieved fetal signals was evaluated. The study regarded 66 fMCG datasets at different gestational ages (22-37 weeks). Since the spectral structures of shielded and unshielded magnetic noise were very similar, we concluded that the same filter setting might be applied to both conditions. Band-pass filters (1.0-100 Hz) and (2.0-100 Hz) provided the best combinations of fetal signal detection rates, SNR and SDR; however, the former should be preferred in the case of arrhythmic fetuses, which might present spectral components below 2 Hz

  18. Electronic ripple indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, J. K.; Houck, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    Electronic circuit for monitoring excessive ripple voltage on dc power lines senses voltage variations from few millivolts to maximum of 10 volts rms. Instrument is used wherever power supply fluctuations might endanger system operations or damage equipment. Device is inexpensive and easily packaged in small chassis.

  19. Ammonia-nitrogen and Phosphate Reduction by Bio-Filter using Factorial Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmuri, Norhafezah; Ashikin Mat Damin, Nur; Omar, Megawati

    2018-02-01

    Untreated landfill leachate is known to have endangered the environment. As such new treatment must be sought to ensure its cost-effective and sustainable treatment. Thus this paper reports the effectiveness of bio-filter to remove pollutants. In this research, the reduction of nutrients concentration was evaluated in two conditions: using bio-filter and without bio-filter. Synthetic wastewater was used in the batch culture. It was conducted within 21 days in the initial mediums of 100 mg/L ammonia-nitrogen. The nitrification medium consisted of 100 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen while the nitrite assay had none. The petri dish experiment was also conducted to observe the existence of any colony. The results showed 22% of ammonia- nitrogen reduction and 33% phosphate in the nitrification medium with the bio-filter. The outcome showed that the bio-filter was capable to reduce the concentration of pollutants by retaining the slow growing bacteria (AOB and NOB) on the plastic carrier surface. The factorial design was applied to study the effect of the initial ammonia-nitrogen concentration and duration on nitrite-nitrogen removal. Finally, a regression equation was produced to predict the rate of nitrite-nitrogen removal without conducting extended experiments and to reduce the number of trials experiment.

  20. Image pre-filtering for measurement error reduction in digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yihao; Sun, Chen; Song, Yuntao; Chen, Jubing

    2015-02-01

    In digital image correlation, the sub-pixel intensity interpolation causes a systematic error in the measured displacements. The error increases toward high-frequency component of the speckle pattern. In practice, a captured image is usually corrupted by additive white noise. The noise introduces additional energy in the high frequencies and therefore raises the systematic error. Meanwhile, the noise also elevates the random error which increases with the noise power. In order to reduce the systematic error and the random error of the measurements, we apply a pre-filtering to the images prior to the correlation so that the high-frequency contents are suppressed. Two spatial-domain filters (binomial and Gaussian) and two frequency-domain filters (Butterworth and Wiener) are tested on speckle images undergoing both simulated and real-world translations. By evaluating the errors of the various combinations of speckle patterns, interpolators, noise levels, and filter configurations, we come to the following conclusions. All the four filters are able to reduce the systematic error. Meanwhile, the random error can also be reduced if the signal power is mainly distributed around DC. For high-frequency speckle patterns, the low-pass filters (binomial, Gaussian and Butterworth) slightly increase the random error and Butterworth filter produces the lowest random error among them. By using Wiener filter with over-estimated noise power, the random error can be reduced but the resultant systematic error is higher than that of low-pass filters. In general, Butterworth filter is recommended for error reduction due to its flexibility of passband selection and maximal preservation of the allowed frequencies. Binomial filter enables efficient implementation and thus becomes a good option if computational cost is a critical issue. While used together with pre-filtering, B-spline interpolator produces lower systematic error than bicubic interpolator and similar level of the random

  1. Metal artefact reduction for a dental cone beam CT image using image segmentation and backprojection filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, Mahdi; Khotanlou, Hassan; Mohammadi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Due to low dose delivery and fast scanning, the dental Cone Beam CT (CBCT) is the latest technology being implanted for a range of dental imaging. The presence of metallic objects including amalgam or gold fillings in the mouth produces an intuitive image for human jaws. The feasibility of a fast and accurate approach for metal artefact reduction for dental CBCT is investigated. The current study investigates the metal artefact reduction using image segmentation and modification of several sinigrams. In order to reduce metal effects such as beam hardening, streak artefact and intense noises, the application of several algorithms is evaluated. The proposed method includes three stages: preprocessing, reconstruction and post-processing. In the pre-processing stage, in order to reduce the noise level, several phase and frequency filters were applied. At the second stage, based on the specific sinogram achieved for each segment, spline interpolation and weighting backprojection filters were applied to reconstruct the original image. A three-dimensional filter was then applied on reconstructed images, to improve the image quality. Results showed that compared to other available filters, standard frequency filters have a significant influence in the preprocessing stage (ΔHU = 48 ± 6). In addition, with the streak artefact, the probability of beam hardening artefact increases. t e post-processing stage, the application of three-dimensional filters improves the quality of reconstructed images (See Fig. I). Conclusion The proposed method reduces metal artefacts especially where there are more than one metal implanted in the region of interest.

  2. Containerless Ripple Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles

    2002-11-01

    One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k5/3 which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear

  3. Containerless Ripple Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterman, Seth; Wright, William; Duval, Walter; Panzarella, Charles

    2002-01-01

    One of the longest standing unsolved problems in physics relates to the behavior of fluids that are driven far from equilibrium such as occurs when they become turbulent due to fast flow through a grid or tidal motions. In turbulent flows the distribution of vortex energy as a function of the inverse length scale [or wavenumber 'k'] of motion is proportional to 1/k(sup 5/3) which is the celebrated law of Kolmogorov. Although this law gives a good description of the average motion, fluctuations around the average are huge. This stands in contrast with thermally activated motion where large fluctuations around thermal equilibrium are highly unfavorable. The problem of turbulence is the problem of understanding why large fluctuations are so prevalent which is also called the problem of 'intermittency'. Turbulence is a remarkable problem in that its solution sits simultaneously at the forefront of physics, mathematics, engineering and computer science. A recent conference [March 2002] on 'Statistical Hydrodynamics' organized by the Los Alamos Laboratory Center for Nonlinear Studies brought together researchers in all of these fields. Although turbulence is generally thought to be described by the Navier-Stokes Equations of fluid mechanics the solution as well as its existence has eluded researchers for over 100 years. In fact proof of the existence of such a solution qualifies for a 1 M$ millennium prize. As part of our NASA funded research we have proposed building a bridge between vortex turbulence and wave turbulence. The latter occurs when high amplitude waves of various wavelengths are allowed to mutually interact in a fluid. In particular we have proposed measuring the interaction of ripples [capillary waves] that run around on the surface of a fluid sphere suspended in a microgravity environment. The problem of ripple turbulence poses similar mathematical challenges to the problem of vortex turbulence. The waves can have a high amplitude and a strong nonlinear

  4. Study of LCL filter performance for inverter fed grid connected system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamizh Thentral, T. M.; Geetha, A.; Subramani, C.

    2018-04-01

    The abandoned use of power electronic converters in the application of grid connected system paves a way for critical injected harmonics. Hence the use of filter becomes a significant play among the present scenario. Higher order passive filter is mostly preferred in this application because of its reduced cost and size. This paper focuses on the design of LCL filter for the reduction of injected harmonics. The reason behind choosing LCL filter is inductor sizing and good ripple component attenuation over the other conventional filters. This work is simulated in MATLAB platform and the results are prominent to the objectives mentioned above. Also, the simulation results are verified with the implemented hardware model.

  5. D.C. side active filter for high stability accelerator magnet power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Yash Pal; Thakurta, A.C.; Kotaiah, S.

    2006-01-01

    Accelerator d.c, magnets have to produce a highly stable magnetic field which in turn needs highly stable d.c. current sources to energise them. Indus-II Q4 and Q5 power supplies are SCR based power supplies wherein the rectified voltage is fed to a passive filter to reduce the ripple voltage. The output of the passive filter still contains some ripple particularly on the low frequency side. The design and the test results of an active filter module have been discussed wherein the low frequency attenuation can be very effectively taken care of by allowing this to be absorbed in a coupling transformer put after the passive filter. Considerable size reduction has been achieved by using switching techniques. Low frequency attenuation has been made quite a simple task. This filter also helps in handling transients from input. (author)

  6. SU-C-207B-02: Maximal Noise Reduction Filter with Anatomical Structures Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitree, R; Guzman, G; Chundury, A; Roach, M; Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: All medical images contain noise, which can result in an undesirable appearance and can reduce the visibility of anatomical details. There are varieties of techniques utilized to reduce noise such as increasing the image acquisition time and using post-processing noise reduction algorithms. However, these techniques are increasing the imaging time and cost or reducing tissue contrast and effective spatial resolution which are useful diagnosis information. The three main focuses in this study are: 1) to develop a novel approach that can adaptively and maximally reduce noise while preserving valuable details of anatomical structures, 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of available noise reduction algorithms in comparison to the proposed algorithm, and 3) to demonstrate that the proposed noise reduction approach can be used clinically. Methods: To achieve a maximal noise reduction without destroying the anatomical details, the proposed approach automatically estimated the local image noise strength levels and detected the anatomical structures, i.e. tissue boundaries. Such information was used to adaptively adjust strength of the noise reduction filter. The proposed algorithm was tested on 34 repeating swine head datasets and 54 patients MRI and CT images. The performance was quantitatively evaluated by image quality metrics and manually validated for clinical usages by two radiation oncologists and one radiologist. Results: Qualitative measurements on repeated swine head images demonstrated that the proposed algorithm efficiently removed noise while preserving the structures and tissues boundaries. In comparisons, the proposed algorithm obtained competitive noise reduction performance and outperformed other filters in preserving anatomical structures. Assessments from the manual validation indicate that the proposed noise reduction algorithm is quite adequate for some clinical usages. Conclusion: According to both clinical evaluation (human expert ranking) and

  7. SU-C-207B-02: Maximal Noise Reduction Filter with Anatomical Structures Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitree, R; Guzman, G; Chundury, A; Roach, M; Yang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: All medical images contain noise, which can result in an undesirable appearance and can reduce the visibility of anatomical details. There are varieties of techniques utilized to reduce noise such as increasing the image acquisition time and using post-processing noise reduction algorithms. However, these techniques are increasing the imaging time and cost or reducing tissue contrast and effective spatial resolution which are useful diagnosis information. The three main focuses in this study are: 1) to develop a novel approach that can adaptively and maximally reduce noise while preserving valuable details of anatomical structures, 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of available noise reduction algorithms in comparison to the proposed algorithm, and 3) to demonstrate that the proposed noise reduction approach can be used clinically. Methods: To achieve a maximal noise reduction without destroying the anatomical details, the proposed approach automatically estimated the local image noise strength levels and detected the anatomical structures, i.e. tissue boundaries. Such information was used to adaptively adjust strength of the noise reduction filter. The proposed algorithm was tested on 34 repeating swine head datasets and 54 patients MRI and CT images. The performance was quantitatively evaluated by image quality metrics and manually validated for clinical usages by two radiation oncologists and one radiologist. Results: Qualitative measurements on repeated swine head images demonstrated that the proposed algorithm efficiently removed noise while preserving the structures and tissues boundaries. In comparisons, the proposed algorithm obtained competitive noise reduction performance and outperformed other filters in preserving anatomical structures. Assessments from the manual validation indicate that the proposed noise reduction algorithm is quite adequate for some clinical usages. Conclusion: According to both clinical evaluation (human expert ranking) and

  8. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8

  9. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold

  10. Volume reduction of filter media at Susquehanna steam and electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boris, G.F.; Hettinger, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the joint efforts between Pennsylvania Power ampersand Light (PPQL) and Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) to reduce the volume of waste shipped to the burial site by the Susquehanna Steam and Electric Station (SSES) and the resulting savings realized as a result. The filter media used at SSES for its radwaste filters is composed of a mix of anion and cation powered resins, powered carbon, diatomaceous earth and a fibrous overlay. Due to the nature of this waste stream, dewatering was difficult using systems previously available in the industry. Thus, processing was accomplished by decanting (to concentrate the waste) and solidification. In the continuing effort to dewater wastes of this nature, SEG developed a new fabric filter dewatering system (RDU). To investigate its potential use in large containers, this dewatering system was installed in drum-size high integrity containers and used to test its dewatering capabilities on actual SSES waste. Promising results from these tests warranted a full-scale test. This proved successful and implementation of this processing scheme was immediate. Cost savings were substantial in transportation, burial and processing costs as well as personnel exposure. Also, additional waste volume reduction was found due to the volume reduction capability of the dewatering system (equivalent volume of new filter media approximately 1.2 times that of dewatered product volume). Additional savings resulted from SSES's continuing effort to minimize radwaste generation. Combined, these have reduced the number of shipments of filter media in 1989 to sixty percent of the number made in 1988 and have reduced costs by approximately fifty percent. 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Shape and Dimensions of Ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels Gjøl

    and the general conclusion is that sharp crested ripples is thought unlikely to become stable under oscillatory flow due to the large increase in bed shear stresses because of the rapid contraction of the flow around the crest. Further, a dynamically moving ripple crest is investigated. The key focus...... are the recirculation zone and its penetration into the main flow. This will be compared to the period averaged bed shear stress. An analysis of the bed load transport, both as a transport capacity in the phase resolved space and an analysis of possible stable ripples is conducted. This leads to some stable ripples...

  12. Effects of spectral smearing on performance of the spectral ripple and spectro-temporal ripple tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narne, Vijaya Kumar; Sharma, Mridula; Van Dun, Bram; Bansal, Shalini; Prabhu, Latika; Moore, Brian C J

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to use spectral smearing to evaluate the efficacy of a spectral ripple test (SRt) using stationary sounds and a recent variant with gliding ripples called the spectro-temporal ripple test (STRt) in measuring reduced spectral resolution. In experiment 1 the highest detectable ripple density was measured using four amounts of spectral smearing (unsmeared, mild, moderate, and severe). The thresholds worsened with increasing smearing and were similar for the SRt and the STRt across the three conditions with smearing. For unsmeared stimuli, thresholds were significantly higher (better) for the STRt than for the SRt. An amplitude fluctuation at the outputs of simulated (gammatone) auditory filters centered above 6400 Hz was identified as providing a potential detection cue for the STRt stimuli. Experiment 2 used notched noise with energy below and above the passband of the SRt and STRt stimuli to reduce confounding cues in the STRt. Thresholds were almost identical for the STRt and SRt for both unsmeared and smeared stimuli, indicating that the confounding cue for the STRt was eliminated by the notched noise. Thresholds obtained with notched noise present could be predicted reasonably accurately using an excitation-pattern model.

  13. The 2D Hotelling filter - a quantitative noise-reducing principal-component filter for dynamic PET data, with applications in patient dose reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Jan; Sörensen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we apply the principal-component analysis filter (Hotelling filter) to reduce noise from dynamic positron-emission tomography (PET) patient data, for a number of different radio-tracer molecules. We furthermore show how preprocessing images with this filter improves parametric images created from such dynamic sequence. We use zero-mean unit variance normalization, prior to performing a Hotelling filter on the slices of a dynamic time-series. The Scree-plot technique was used to determine which principal components to be rejected in the filter process. This filter was applied to [ 11 C]-acetate on heart and head-neck tumors, [ 18 F]-FDG on liver tumors and brain, and [ 11 C]-Raclopride on brain. Simulations of blood and tissue regions with noise properties matched to real PET data, was used to analyze how quantitation and resolution is affected by the Hotelling filter. Summing varying parts of a 90-frame [ 18 F]-FDG brain scan, we created 9-frame dynamic scans with image statistics comparable to 20 MBq, 60 MBq and 200 MBq injected activity. Hotelling filter performed on slices (2D) and on volumes (3D) were compared. The 2D Hotelling filter reduces noise in the tissue uptake drastically, so that it becomes simple to manually pick out regions-of-interest from noisy data. 2D Hotelling filter introduces less bias than 3D Hotelling filter in focal Raclopride uptake. Simulations show that the Hotelling filter is sensitive to typical blood peak in PET prior to tissue uptake have commenced, introducing a negative bias in early tissue uptake. Quantitation on real dynamic data is reliable. Two examples clearly show that pre-filtering the dynamic sequence with the Hotelling filter prior to Patlak-slope calculations gives clearly improved parametric image quality. We also show that a dramatic dose reduction can be achieved for Patlak slope images without changing image quality or quantitation. The 2D Hotelling-filtering of dynamic PET data is a computer

  14. Optimal spatio-temporal filter for the reduction of crosstalk in surface electromyogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Crosstalk can pose limitations to the applications of surface electromyogram (EMG). Its reduction can help in the identification of the activity of specific muscles. The selectivity of different spatial filters was tested in the literature both in simulations and experiments: their performances are affected by many factors (e.g. anatomy, conduction properties of the tissues and dimension/location of the electrodes); moreover, they reduce crosstalk by decreasing the detection volume, recording data that represent only the activity of a small portion of the muscle of interest. In this study, an alternative idea is proposed, based on a spatio-temporal filter. Approach. An adaptive method is applied, which filters both in time and among different channels, providing a signal that maximally preserves the energy of the EMG of interest and discards that of nearby muscles (increasing the signal to crosstalk ratio, SCR). Main results. Tests with simulations and experimental data show an average increase of the SCR of about 2 dB with respect to the single or double differential data processed by the filter. This allows to reduce the bias induced by crosstalk in conduction velocity and force estimation. Significance. The method can be applied to few channels, so that it is useful in applicative studies (e.g. clinics, gate analysis, rehabilitation protocols with EMG biofeedback and prosthesis control) where limited and not selective information is usually available.

  15. Parameter importance and uncertainty in predicting runoff pesticide reduction with filter strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Fox, Garey A; Sabbagh, George J

    2010-01-01

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) are an environmental management tool used to reduce sediment and pesticide transport from surface runoff. Numerical models of VFS such as the Vegetative Filter Strip Modeling System (VFSMOD-W) are capable of predicting runoff, sediment, and pesticide reduction and can be useful tools to understand the effectiveness of VFS and environmental conditions under which they may be ineffective. However, as part of the modeling process, it is critical to identify input factor importance and quantify uncertainty in predicted runoff, sediment, and pesticide reductions. This research used state-of-the-art global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools, a screening method (Morris) and a variance-based method (extended Fourier Analysis Sensitivity Test), to evaluate VFSMOD-W under a range of field scenarios. The three VFS studies analyzed were conducted on silty clay loam and silt loam soils under uniform, sheet flow conditions and included atrazine, chlorpyrifos, cyanazine, metolachlor, pendimethalin, and terbuthylazine data. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was the most important input factor for predicting infiltration and runoff, explaining >75% of the total output variance for studies with smaller hydraulic loading rates ( approximately 100-150 mm equivalent depths) and approximately 50% for the higher loading rate ( approximately 280-mm equivalent depth). Important input factors for predicting sedimentation included hydraulic conductivity, average particle size, and the filter's Manning's roughness coefficient. Input factor importance for pesticide trapping was controlled by infiltration and, therefore, hydraulic conductivity. Global uncertainty analyses suggested a wide range of reductions for runoff (95% confidence intervals of 7-93%), sediment (84-100%), and pesticide (43-100%) . Pesticide trapping probability distributions fell between runoff and sediment reduction distributions as a function of the pesticides' sorption. Seemingly

  16. Optimal noise reduction in 3D reconstructions of single particles using a volume-normalized filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Charles V.; Grigorieff, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The high noise level found in single-particle electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) image data presents a special challenge for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the imaged molecules. The spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SSNR) and related Fourier shell correlation (FSC) functions are commonly used to assess and mitigate the noise-generated error in the reconstruction. Calculation of the SSNR and FSC usually includes the noise in the solvent region surrounding the particle and therefore does not accurately reflect the signal in the particle density itself. Here we show that the SSNR in a reconstructed 3D particle map is linearly proportional to the fractional volume occupied by the particle. Using this relationship, we devise a novel filter (the “single-particle Wiener filter”) to minimize the error in a reconstructed particle map, if the particle volume is known. Moreover, we show how to approximate this filter even when the volume of the particle is not known, by optimizing the signal within a representative interior region of the particle. We show that the new filter improves on previously proposed error-reduction schemes, including the conventional Wiener filter as well as figure-of-merit weighting, and quantify the relationship between all of these methods by theoretical analysis as well as numeric evaluation of both simulated and experimentally collected data. The single-particle Wiener filter is applicable across a broad range of existing 3D reconstruction techniques, but is particularly well suited to the Fourier inversion method, leading to an efficient and accurate implementation. PMID:22613568

  17. Risk reduction by filtered venting in PWR large dry-containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzillo, F.; Kastenberg, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The potential risk reduction associated with a Filtered-Vented Containment System is evaluated. A low-volume venting strategy has been considered and data referring to the Zion power plant, along with the results of the Zion Probabilistic Safety Study, have been used. An estimate of the reduction factor is first made for a single core melt accident sequence whose containment failure mode is late overpressure. The result, interpreted as a reduction factor applicable to the release category associated with containment late overpressure is then used for the estimation of the overall risk reduction factor. In particular, the case of internal and external risk for the Zion power plant are considered. Because the contribution from seismic events dominates the overall risk, the importance of different assumptions for seismic fragility is also assessed. Finally an uncertainty analysis of the risk reduction factor for a single accident sequence is performed. An estimate is also obtained on the level of confidence with which certain required values of risk reduction can be achieved. (orig.)

  18. Mechanics of wind ripple stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, S B; Haff, P K

    1992-03-06

    Stratigraphic patterns preserved under translating surface undulations or ripples in a depositional eolian environment are computed on a grain by grain basis using physically based cellular automata models. The spontaneous appearance, growth, and motion of the simulated ripples correspond in many respects to the behavior of natural ripples. The simulations show that climbing strata can be produced by impact alone; direct action of fluid shear is unnecessary. The model provides a means for evaluating the connection between mechanical processes occurring in the paleoenvironment during deposition and the resulting stratigraphy preserved in the geologic column: vertical compression of small laminae above a planar surface indicates nascent ripple growth; supercritical laminae are associated with unusually intense deposition episodes; and a plane erosion surface separating sets of well-developed laminae is consistent with continued migration of mature ripples during a hiatus in deposition.

  19. Anisotropic Ripple Deformation in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liangzhi; Ma, Yandong; Smith, Sean C; Chen, Changfeng

    2015-05-07

    Two-dimensional materials tend to become crumpled according to the Mermin-Wagner theorem, and the resulting ripple deformation may significantly influence electronic properties as observed in graphene and MoS2. Here, we unveil by first-principles calculations a new, highly anisotropic ripple pattern in phosphorene, a monolayer black phosphorus, where compression-induced ripple deformation occurs only along the zigzag direction in the strain range up to 10%, but not the armchair direction. This direction-selective ripple deformation mode in phosphorene stems from its puckered structure with coupled hinge-like bonding configurations and the resulting anisotropic Poisson ratio. We also construct an analytical model using classical elasticity theory for ripple deformation in phosphorene under arbitrary strain. The present results offer new insights into the mechanisms governing the structural and electronic properties of phosphorene crucial to its device applications.

  20. Single-Channel Noise Reduction using Unified Joint Diagonalization and Optimal Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2014-01-01

    consider two cases, where, respectively, no distortion and distortion are incurred on the desired signal. The former can be achieved when the covariance matrix of the desired signal is rank deficient, which is the case, for example, for voiced speech. In the latter case, the covariance matrix......In this paper, the important problem of single-channel noise reduction is treated from a new perspective. The problem is posed as a filtering problem based on joint diagonalization of the covariance matrices of the desired and noise signals. More specifically, the eigenvectors from the joint...

  1. Experimental study on using a high-temperature superconducting inductor for power loss reduction in an active power filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C; To, H P; Grantham, C; Rahman, M F

    2006-01-01

    An active power filter improves the electric power quality through the compensation of harmonics in the power network. A current-source active power filter using a conventional copper inductor for its energy storage has a significant power loss. The loss in the copper inductor can be substantially reduced by using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) inductor instead. Experiments have been conducted on a prototype current-source active power filter for studying the power loss reduction effect and harmonics compensation performance of the active power filter using a HTS inductor. Experimental results are analysed and discussed in this paper

  2. A study of glasses-type color CGH using a color filter considering reduction of blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Saki; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a glasses-type color computer generated hologram (CGH) by using a color filter. The proposed glasses consist of two "lenses" made of overlapping holograms and color filters. The holograms, which are calculated to reconstruct images in each primary color, are divided to small areas, which we called cells, and superimposed on one hologram. In the same way, colors of the filter correspond to the hologram cells. We can configure it very simply without a complex optical system, and the configuration yields a small and light weight system suitable for glasses. When the cell is small enough, the colors are mixed and reconstructed color images are observed. In addition, color expression of reconstruction images improves, too. However, using small cells blurrs reconstructed images because of the following reasons: (1) interference between cells because of the correlation with the cells, and (2) reduction of resolution caused by the size of the cell hologram. We are investigating in order to make a hologram that has high resolution reconstructed color images without ghost images. In this paper, we discuss (1) the details of the proposed glasses-type color CGH, (2) appropriate cell size for an eye system, (3) effects of cell shape on the reconstructed images, and (4) a new method to reduce the blurring of the images.

  3. Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to thiosulfate reduction in a biotrickling filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassarini, Chiara; Rene, Eldon R; Bhattarai, Susma; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-09-01

    Microorganisms from an anaerobic methane oxidizing sediment were enriched with methane gas as the substrate in a biotrickling filter (BTF) using thiosulfate as electron acceptor for 213days. Thiosulfate disproportionation to sulfate and sulfide were the dominating sulfur conversion process in the BTF and the sulfide production rate was 0.5mmoll -1 day -1 . A specific group of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), belonging to the Desulforsarcina/Desulfococcus group, was enriched in the BTF. The BTF biomass showed maximum sulfate reduction rate (0.38mmoll -1 day -1 ) with methane as sole electron donor, measured in the absence of thiosulfate in the BTF. Therefore, a BTF fed with thiosulfate as electron acceptor can be used to enrich SRB of the DSS group and activate the inoculum for anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Stellar Ripple

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This false-color composite image shows the Cartwheel galaxy as seen by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's far ultraviolet detector (blue); the Hubble Space Telescope's wide field and planetary camera 2 in B-band visible light (green); the Spitzer Space Telescope's infrared array camera at 8 microns (red); and the Chandra X-ray Observatory's advanced CCD imaging spectrometer-S array instrument (purple). Approximately 100 million years ago, a smaller galaxy plunged through the heart of Cartwheel galaxy, creating ripples of brief star formation. In this image, the first ripple appears as an ultraviolet-bright blue outer ring. The blue outer ring is so powerful in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer observations that it indicates the Cartwheel is one of the most powerful UV-emitting galaxies in the nearby universe. The blue color reveals to astronomers that associations of stars 5 to 20 times as massive as our sun are forming in this region. The clumps of pink along the outer blue ring are regions where both X-rays and ultraviolet radiation are superimposed in the image. These X-ray point sources are very likely collections of binary star systems containing a blackhole (called massive X-ray binary systems). The X-ray sources seem to cluster around optical/ultraviolet-bright supermassive star clusters. The yellow-orange inner ring and nucleus at the center of the galaxy result from the combination of visible and infrared light, which is stronger towards the center. This region of the galaxy represents the second ripple, or ring wave, created in the collision, but has much less star formation activity than the first (outer) ring wave. The wisps of red spread throughout the interior of the galaxy are organic molecules that have been illuminated by nearby low-level star formation. Meanwhile, the tints of green are less massive, older visible-light stars. Although astronomers have not identified exactly which galaxy collided with the Cartwheel, two of three candidate galaxies can be

  5. Dose reduction using non lineal diffusion and smoothing filters in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, M.G.; Juste, B.; Vidal, V.; Verdú, G.; Mayo, P.; Rodenas, F.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Computed Radiography (CR) into clinical practice has been followed by a high increase in the number of examinations performed and overdose cases in patients, especially children in pediatric applications. Computed radiographic images are corrupted by noise because either data acquisition or data transmission. The level of this inherent noise is related with the X-ray dose exposure: lower radiation exposure involves higher noise level. The main aim of this work is to reduce the noise present in a low radiation dose CR image in order to the get a CR image of the same quality as a higher radiation exposure image. In this work, we use a non lineal diffusion filtering method to reduce the noise level in a CR, this means that we are able to reduce the exposure, milliampere-second (mAs), and the dose absorbed by the patients. In order to get an optimal result, the diffusive filter is complemented with a smoothing filter with edge detection in order to preserve edges. Therefore, the proposed method consists in obtaining a good quality CR image for diagnostic purposes by selection of lower X-ray exposure jointly with a reduction of the noise. We conclude that a good solution to minimize the dose to patients, especially children in pediatric applications, in X-ray computed radiography consists in decreasing the mAs of the X-ray exposure and then processing the image with the proposed method. - Highlights: • We have investigated the techniques to obtain the image quality to make a confident diagnosis. • We have used diffusion and smoothing filter in order to reduce the exposure. • Reducing CR doses, especially in pediatric applications. • The new CR images allow medical researchers to analyze how low dose affects the patient diagnosis

  6. Minimization of torque ripple in ferrite-assisted synchronous reluctance motors by using asymmetric stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meimei; Liu, Guohai; Zhao, Wenxiang; Aamir, Nazir

    2018-05-01

    Torque ripple is one of the important issues for ferrite assisted synchronous reluctance motors (FASRMs). In this paper, an asymmetrical stator is proposed for the FASRM to reduce its torque ripple. In the proposed FASRM, an asymmetrical stator is designed by appropriately choosing the angle of the slot-opening shift. Meanwhile, its analytical torque expressions are derived. The results show that the proposed FASRM has an effective reduction in the cogging torque, reluctance torque ripple and total torque ripple. Moreover, it is easy to implement while the average torque is not sacrificed.

  7. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  8. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  9. Speckle reduction process based on digital filtering and wavelet compounding in optical coherence tomography for dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valverde, Juan J.; Ortuño, Juan E.; Guerra, Pedro; Hermann, Boris; Zabihian, Behrooz; Rubio-Guivernau, José L.; Santos, Andrés.; Drexler, Wolfgang; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.

    2015-07-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has shown a great potential as a complementary imaging tool in the diagnosis of skin diseases. Speckle noise is the most prominent artifact present in OCT images and could limit the interpretation and detection capabilities. In this work we propose a new speckle reduction process and compare it with various denoising filters with high edge-preserving potential, using several sets of dermatological OCT B-scans. To validate the performance we used a custom-designed spectral domain OCT and two different data set groups. The first group consisted in five datasets of a single B-scan captured N times (with N<20), the second were five 3D volumes of 25 Bscans. As quality metrics we used signal to noise (SNR), contrast to noise (CNR) and equivalent number of looks (ENL) ratios. Our results show that a process based on a combination of a 2D enhanced sigma digital filter and a wavelet compounding method achieves the best results in terms of the improvement of the quality metrics. In the first group of individual B-scans we achieved improvements in SNR, CNR and ENL of 16.87 dB, 2.19 and 328 respectively; for the 3D volume datasets the improvements were 15.65 dB, 3.44 and 1148. Our results suggest that the proposed enhancement process may significantly reduce speckle, increasing SNR, CNR and ENL and reducing the number of extra acquisitions of the same frame.

  10. Use of the Kalman Filter for Aortic Pressure Waveform Noise Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Frank; Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Wu, Chung-Che; Aliyazicioglu, Zekeriya; Kang, James S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical applications that require extraction and interpretation of physiological signals or waveforms are susceptible to corruption by noise or artifacts. Real-time hemodynamic monitoring systems are important for clinicians to assess the hemodynamic stability of surgical or intensive care patients by interpreting hemodynamic parameters generated by an analysis of aortic blood pressure (ABP) waveform measurements. Since hemodynamic parameter estimation algorithms often detect events and features from measured ABP waveforms to generate hemodynamic parameters, noise and artifacts integrated into ABP waveforms can severely distort the interpretation of hemodynamic parameters by hemodynamic algorithms. In this article, we propose the use of the Kalman filter and the 4-element Windkessel model with static parameters, arterial compliance C , peripheral resistance R , aortic impedance r , and the inertia of blood L , to represent aortic circulation for generating accurate estimations of ABP waveforms through noise and artifact reduction. Results show the Kalman filter could very effectively eliminate noise and generate a good estimation from the noisy ABP waveform based on the past state history. The power spectrum of the measured ABP waveform and the synthesized ABP waveform shows two similar harmonic frequencies.

  11. Novel noise reduction filter for improving visibility of early computed tomography signs of hyperacute stroke. Evaluation of the filter's performance. Preliminary clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Lee, Y.; Tsai, D.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel noise reduction filter for improving the visibility of early computed tomography (CT) signs of hyperacute stroke on nonenhanced CT images. Fourteen patients with a middle cerebral artery occlusion within 4.5 h after onset were evaluated. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the processed images with the noise reduction filter and that of original images were measured. Two neuroradiologists visually rated all the processed and original images on the visibility of normal and abnormal gray-white matter interfaces. The SNR value of the processed images was approximately eight times as high as that of the original images, and a 87% reduction of noise was achieved using this technique. For the visual assessment, the results showed that the visibility of normal gray-white matter interface and that of the loss of the gray-white matter interface were significantly improved using the proposed method (P<0.05). The noise reduction filter proposed in the present study has the potential to improve the visibility of early CT signs of hyperacute stroke on nonenhanced CT images. (author)

  12. Using one filter stage of unsaturated/saturated vertical flow filters for nitrogen removal and footprint reduction of constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morvannou, Ania; Troesch, Stéphane; Esser, Dirk; Forquet, Nicolas; Petitjean, Alain; Molle, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    French vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCW) treating raw wastewater have been developed successfully over the last 30 years. Nevertheless, the two-stage VFCWs require a total filtration area of 2-2.5 m 2 /P.E. Therefore, implementing a one-stage system in which treatment performances reach standard requirements is of interest. Biho-Filter ® is one of the solutions developed in France by Epur Nature. Biho-Filter ® is a vertical flow system with an unsaturated layer at the top and a saturated layer at the bottom. The aim of this study was to assess this new configuration and to optimize its design and operating conditions. The hydraulic functioning and pollutant removal efficiency of three different Biho-Filter ® plants commissioned between 2011 and 2012 were studied. Outlet concentrations of the most efficient Biho-Filter ® configuration are 70 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 15 mg/L and 25 mg/L for chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), respectively. Up to 60% of total nitrogen is removed. Nitrification efficiency is mainly influenced by the height of the unsaturated zone and the recirculation rate. The optimum recirculation rate was found to be 100%. Denitrification in the saturated zone works at best with an influent COD/NO 3 -N ratio at the inflet of this zone larger than 2 and a hydraulic retention time longer than 0.75 days.

  13. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris; Kaufman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et el 1992; Bergman et al 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was USD 55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), USD 50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal - although the life cycle costs are themselves based on estimates dating from 1987-1990. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be USD 29.5 million using the same parameters that suggested the previously stated USD 55 million for the larger quantity. Within that cost estimate, USD 300 was the value given to the filter and USD 4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the USD 4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable) direct replacement of the traditional filter train, but this paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al work suggested that 1000 ft 3 /min stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for USD 5000 each after development (although the USD 70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors have estimated that development units able to be retro-fitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps USD 30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced

  14. Cost and waste volume reduction in HEPA filter trains by effective pre-filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Data published elsewhere (Moore, et al., 1992; Bergman et al., 1997) suggests that the then costs of disposable type Glass Fibre HEPA filtration trains to the DOE was $55 million per year (based on an average usage of HEPA panels of 11,748 pieces per year between 1987 and 1990), $50 million of which was attributable to installation, testing, removal and disposal. The same authors suggest that by 1995 the number of HEPA panels being used had dropped to an estimated 4000 pieces per year due to the ending of the Cold War. The yearly cost to the DOE of 4000 units per year was estimated to be $29.5 million using the same parameters that previously suggested the $55 million figure. Within that cost estimate, $300 each was the value given to the filter and $4,450 was given to peripheral activity per filter. Clearly, if the $4,450 component could be reduced, tremendous saving could result, in addition to a significant reduction in the legacy burden of waste volumes. This same cost is applied to both the 11,748 and 4000 usage figures. The work up to now has focussed on the development of a low cost, long life (cleanable), direct replacement of the traditional filter train. This paper will review an alternative strategy, that of preventing the contaminating dust from reaching and blinding the HEPA filters, and thereby removing the need to replace them. What has become clear is that 'low cost' and 'Metallic HEPA' are not compatible terms. The original Bergman et al., 1997 work suggested that 1000 cfm (cubic feet per minute) (1690 m 3 /hr) stainless HEPAs could be commercially available for $5000 each after development (although the $70,000 development unit may be somewhat exaggerated - the authors own company have estimated development units able to be retrofitted into strengthened standard housings would be available for perhaps $30,000). The likely true cost of such an item produced industrially in significant numbers may be closer to $15,000 each. That being the case, the

  15. Reduction of bacteria and somatic coliphages in constructed wetlands for the treatment of combined sewer overflow (retention soil filters).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppelt, Jan P; Tondera, Katharina; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas; Pinnekamp, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) introduce numerous pathogens from fecal contamination, such as bacteria and viruses, into surface waters, thus endangering human health. In Germany, retention soil filters (RSFs) treat CSOs at sensitive discharge points and can contribute to reducing these hygienically relevant microorganisms. In this study, we evaluated the extent of how dry period, series connection and filter layer thickness influence the reduction efficiency of RSFs for Escherichia coli (E. coli), intestinal enterococci (I. E.) and somatic coliphages. To accomplish this, we had four pilot scale RSFs built on a test field at the wastewater treatment plant Aachen-Soers. While two filters were replicates, the other two filters were installed in a series connection. Moreover, one filter had a thinner filtration layer than the other three. Between April 2015 and December 2016, the RSFs were loaded in 37 trials with pre-conditioned CSO after dry periods ranging from 4 to 40 days. During 17 trials, samples for microbial analysis were taken and analyzed. The series connection of two filters showed that the removal increases when two systems with a filter layer of the same height are operated in series. Since the microorganisms are exposed twice to the environmental conditions on the filter surface and in the upper filter layers, there is a greater chance for abiotic adsorption increase. The same effect could be shown when filters with different depths were compared: the removal efficiency increases as filter thickness increases. This study provides new evidence that regardless of seasonal effects and dry period, RSFs can improve hygienic situation significantly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. A low-ripple chargepump circuit for high voltage applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; van Steenwijk, G.; van Steenwijk, Gijs; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria

    1995-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a fully integrated chargepump circuit with a very low output voltage ripple. At a supply voltage of 30V the chargepump can source 1mA at an output voltage of 40V. Two simple modifications to the classical chargepump circuit give a substantial reduction of the output

  17. Axial sidelobe reduction in single-photon 4Pi microscopy by Toraldo filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinex-Corral, M.; Pons, A.; Caballero, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The 4Pi-confocal fluorescence microscope is a recently developed 3D imaging technique in which two opposing high-NA objectives are used for coherently illuminating and/or detecting the same point of the fluorescent sample. The interference process yields an intensity point spread function (PSF) with an extremely narrow axial core, but with very large axial sidelobes, which compromise the actual improvement in axial resolution. To overcome this problem we propose the use, in the illumination arm of the 4Pi-confocal microscope, of multiple-zones phase filters whose design is based on the Toraldo-design principle. Note that the Toraldo procedure allows to select at will the positions of the zeros of the PSF of an optical system. Then, what we propose here if to design a phase pupil filter such that the position of the first zero of the illumination axial PSF is close to the position of the maximum of the first axial sidelobe of the detection PSF. In the design procedure it is taken into account that: 1. The value of the parameter ε = λ exc /λ det which, in a single-photon fluorescent process, is the responsible for the different scales of the illumination and detection PSFs. 2. The Toraldo procedure was originally designed to control the position of zeros of the transverse PSF. In this case the procedure is adapted to the aim of controlling the position of zeros of the axial PSF. 3. Since 4Pi-confocal microscopes are only useful when built with high-NA objectives, the Toraldo principle is reformulated in terms of the nonparaxial diffraction theory. We show that by using Toraldo filters in the illumination part of a 4Pi-confocal microscope it is possible to obtain up to a 60% reduction of height of the axial sidelobe of the whole-system axial PSF. This fact permits to fully benefit the axial resolution from the strong narrowness of the central peak of the axial PSF, inherent to the 4Pi principle. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy

  18. Non-Causal Time-Domain Filters for Single-Channel Noise Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    suppression and signal distortion by allowing the filters to be non-causal. Non-causal time-domain filters require knowledge of the future, and are therefore not directly implementable. If the observed signal is processed in blocks, however, the non-causal filters are implementable. In this paper, we propose...

  19. Retention of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in biological activated carbon filters for drinking water and the impact on ammonia reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Yu, Shuili; Park, Heedeung; Liu, Guicai; Yuan, Qingbin

    2016-06-01

    Given the increasing discoveries related to the eco-toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) in different ecosystems and with respect to public health, it is important to understand their potential effects in drinking water treatment (DWT). The effects of TiO2 NPs on ammonia reduction, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in biological activated carbon (BAC) filters for drinking water were investigated in static and dynamic states. In the static state, both the nitrification potential and AOB were significantly inhibited by 100 μg L(-1) TiO2 NPs after 12 h (p  0.05). In the dynamic state, different amounts of TiO2 NP pulses were injected into three pilot-scale BAC filters. The decay of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters was very slow. Both titanium quantification and scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed the retention of TiO2 NPs in the BAC filters after 134 days of operation. Furthermore, the TiO2 NP pulses considerably reduced the performance of ammonia reduction. This study identified the retention of TiO2 NPs in BAC filters and the negative effect on the ammonia reduction, suggesting a potential threat to DWT by TiO2 NPs.

  20. Dose reduction in chest CT: Comparison of the adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D, adaptive iterative dose reduction, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yoshitake, E-mail: yamada@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Jinzaki, Masahiro, E-mail: jinzaki@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hosokawa, Takahiro, E-mail: hosokawa@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Tanami, Yutaka, E-mail: tanami@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Sugiura, Hiroaki, E-mail: hsugiura@rad.med.keio.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Abe, Takayuki, E-mail: tabe@z5.keio.jp [Center for Clinical Research, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio, E-mail: skuribay@a5.keio.jp [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) and AIDR 3D in improving the image quality in low-dose chest CT (LDCT). Materials and methods: Fifty patients underwent standard-dose chest CT (SDCT) and LDCT simultaneously, performed under automatic exposure control with noise index of 19 and 38 (for a 2-mm slice thickness), respectively. The SDCT images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (SDCT-FBP images), and the LDCT images with FBP, AIDR and AIDR 3D (LDCT-FBP, LDCT-AIDR and LDCT-AIDR 3D images, respectively). On all the 200 lung and 200 mediastinal image series, objective image noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in several regions, and two blinded radiologists independently assessed the subjective image quality. Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test with Bonferroni's correction was used for the statistical analyses. Results: The mean dose reduction in LDCT was 64.2% as compared with the dose in SDCT. LDCT-AIDR 3D images showed significantly reduced objective noise and significantly increased SNR in all regions as compared to the SDCT-FBP, LDCT-FBP and LDCT-AIDR images (all, P ≤ 0.003). In all assessments of the image quality, LDCT-AIDR 3D images were superior to LDCT-AIDR and LDCT-FBP images. The overall diagnostic acceptability of both the lung and mediastinal LDCT-AIDR 3D images was comparable to that of the lung and mediastinal SDCT-FBP images. Conclusions: AIDR 3D is superior to AIDR. Intra-individual comparisons between SDCT and LDCT suggest that AIDR 3D allows a 64.2% reduction of the radiation dose as compared to SDCT, by substantially reducing the objective image noise and increasing the SNR, while maintaining the overall diagnostic acceptability.

  1. Measurements of local chemistry and structure in Ni(O)-YSZ composites during reduction using energy-filtered environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Quentin; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images are acquired during the reduction of a NiO-YSZ composite in H-2 up to 600 degrees C. Temperature-resolved quantitative information about both chemistry and structure is extracted with nm spatial resolution from the data, paving the way...

  2. Evaluation of efficacy of prion reduction filters using blood from an endogenously infected 263K scrapie hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Neil P; Nugent, Philip; Dixon, Douglas; Dennis, Mike; Cornwall, Mark; Mallinson, Gary; Watkins, Nicholas; Thomas, Stephen; Sutton, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    The P-Capt prion reduction filter (MacoPharma) removes prion infectivity in model systems. This independent evaluation assesses prion removal from endogenously infected animal blood, using CE-marked P-Capt filters, and replicates the proposed use of the filter within the UK Blood Services. Two units of blood, generated from 263K scrapie-infected hamsters, were processed using leukoreduction filters (LXT-quadruple, MacoPharma). Approximately 100 mL of the removed plasma was added back to the red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood was filtered through a P-Capt filter. Samples of unfiltered whole blood, the prion filter input (RBCs plus plasma and SAGM [RBCPS]), and prion-filtered leukoreduced blood (PFB) were injected intracranially into hamsters. Clinical symptoms were monitored for 500 ± 1 day, and brains were assessed for spongiosis and prion protein deposit. In Filtration Run 1, none of the 50 challenged animals were diagnosed with scrapie after inoculation with the RBCPS fraction, while two of 190 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. In Filtration Run 2, one of 49 animals injected with RBCPS and two of 193 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. Run 1 reduced the infectious dose (ID) by 1.467 log (>1.187 log and <0.280 log for leukoreduction and prion filtration, respectively). Run 2 reduced prion infectivity by 1.424 log (1.127 and 0.297 log, respectively). Residual infectivity was estimated at 0.212 ± 0.149 IDs/mL (Run 1) and 0.208 ± 0.147 IDs/mL (Run 2). Leukoreduction removed the majority of infectivity from 263K scrapie hamster blood. The P-Capt filter removed a proportion of the remaining infectivity, but residual infectivity was observed in two independent processes. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. Thus the appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand (preprogrammed or triggered by the experiment). With this system a reduction of the raw data by a factor of up to 2000 (typically 200) is possible without severe loss of information

  4. Torque ripple reduction in electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Patel Bhageerath; Huh, Kum-Kang; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Galioto, Steven Joseph

    2017-08-22

    An electric machine, such as an Internal Permanent magnet or Synchronous Reluctance machine, having X phases, that includes a stator assembly, having M slots, with a stator core and stator teeth, that is further configured with stator windings to generate a stator magnetic field when excited with alternating currents and extends along a longitudinal axis with an inner surface that defines a cavity; and a rotor assembly, having N poles, disposed within the cavity which is configured to rotate about the longitudinal axis, wherein the rotor assembly includes a shaft, a rotor core located circumferentially around the shaft. The machine is configured such that a value k=M/(X*N) wherein k is a non-integer greater than about 1.3. The electric machine may alternatively, or additionally, include a non-uniformed gap between the exterior surface of the rotor spokes and the interior stator surface of the stator.

  5. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  6. Reduction of delayed-neutron contribution to variance-to-mean ratio by application of difference filter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kengo; Mouri, Tomoaki; Ohtani, Nobuo

    1999-01-01

    The difference-filtering correlation analysis was applied to time-sequence neutron count data measured in a slightly subcritical assembly, where the Feynman-α analysis suffered from large contribution of delayed neutron to the variance-to-mean ratio of counts. The prompt-neutron decay constant inferred from the present filtering analysis agreed very closely with that by pulsed neutron experiment, and no dependence on the gate-time range specified could be observed. The 1st-order filtering was sufficient for the reduction of the delayed-neutron contribution. While the conventional method requires a choice of analysis formula appropriate to a gate-time range, the present method is applicable to a wide variety of gate-time ranges. (author)

  7. Simulation model of harmonics reduction technique using shunt active filter by cascade multilevel inverter method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreh, Angga Muhamad; Subiyanto, Sunardiyo, Said

    2017-01-01

    Development of non-linear loading in the application of industry and distribution system and also harmonic compensation becomes important. Harmonic pollution is an urgent problem in increasing power quality. The main contribution of the study is the modeling approach used to design a shunt active filter and the application of the cascade multilevel inverter topology to improve the power quality of electrical energy. In this study, shunt active filter was aimed to eliminate dominant harmonic component by injecting opposite currents with the harmonic component system. The active filter was designed by shunt configuration with cascaded multilevel inverter method controlled by PID controller and SPWM. With this shunt active filter, the harmonic current can be reduced so that the current wave pattern of the source is approximately sinusoidal. Design and simulation were conducted by using Power Simulator (PSIM) software. Shunt active filter performance experiment was conducted on the IEEE four bus test system. The result of shunt active filter installation on the system (IEEE four bus) could reduce THD current from 28.68% to 3.09%. With this result, the active filter can be applied as an effective method to reduce harmonics.

  8. On the influence of high-pass filtering on ICA-based artifact reduction in EEG-ERP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Irene; Debener, Stefan; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Tangermann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Standard artifact removal methods for electroencephalographic (EEG) signals are either based on Independent Component Analysis (ICA) or they regress out ocular activity measured at electrooculogram (EOG) channels. Successful ICA-based artifact reduction relies on suitable pre-processing. Here we systematically evaluate the effects of high-pass filtering at different frequencies. Offline analyses were based on event-related potential data from 21 participants performing a standard auditory oddball task and an automatic artifactual component classifier method (MARA). As a pre-processing step for ICA, high-pass filtering between 1-2 Hz consistently produced good results in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), single-trial classification accuracy and the percentage of `near-dipolar' ICA components. Relative to no artifact reduction, ICA-based artifact removal significantly improved SNR and classification accuracy. This was not the case for a regression-based approach to remove EOG artifacts.

  9. Filtering Methods for Error Reduction in Spacecraft Attitude Estimation Using Quaternion Star Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Precision attitude determination for recent and planned space missions typically includes quaternion star trackers (ST) and a three-axis inertial reference unit (IRU). Sensor selection is based on estimates of knowledge accuracy attainable from a Kalman filter (KF), which provides the optimal solution for the case of linear dynamics with measurement and process errors characterized by random Gaussian noise with white spectrum. Non-Gaussian systematic errors in quaternion STs are often quite large and have an unpredictable time-varying nature, particularly when used in non-inertial pointing applications. Two filtering methods are proposed to reduce the attitude estimation error resulting from ST systematic errors, 1) extended Kalman filter (EKF) augmented with Markov states, 2) Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) with a periodic measurement model. Realistic assessments of the attitude estimation performance gains are demonstrated with both simulation and flight telemetry data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  10. Filter-fluorescer x-ray spectrometer using solid state detectors for γ-ray background reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, Takashi; Kitagawa, Yoneyoshi; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Matsunaga, Hirohide; Kato, Yoshiaki; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1986-01-01

    Filter-fluorescer x-ray spectrometer using solid state photo-detectors instead of the photomultiplier tubes in order to reduce the γ-ray background noise is reported. A significant reduction of the γ-ray background noise is expected, because solid state photo-detectors are very small in size compared with the photomultiplier tubes. It has been confirmed that the γ-ray background is reduced in the target irradiation experiments with the Gekko MII glass laser. (author)

  11. An LCMV Filter for Single-Channel Noise Cancellation and Reduction in the Time Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a recent class of optimal rectangular fil- tering matrices for single-channel speech enhancement. This class of filters exploits the fact that the dimension of the signal subspace is lower than that of the full space. Then, extra degrees of freedom in the filters...... signal-to-interference ratio. This is showed for both synthetic and real speech signals....

  12. Black carbon emissions in gasoline exhaust and a reduction alternative with a gasoline particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tak W; Meloche, Eric; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2014-05-20

    Black carbon (BC) mass and solid particle number emissions were obtained from two pairs of gasoline direct injection (GDI) vehicles and port fuel injection (PFI) vehicles over the U.S. Federal Test Procedure 75 (FTP-75) and US06 Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) drive cycles on gasoline and 10% by volume blended ethanol (E10). BC solid particles were emitted mostly during cold-start from all GDI and PFI vehicles. The reduction in ambient temperature had significant impacts on BC mass and solid particle number emissions, but larger impacts were observed on the PFI vehicles than the GDI vehicles. Over the FTP-75 phase 1 (cold-start) drive cycle, the BC mass emissions from the two GDI vehicles at 0 °F (-18 °C) varied from 57 to 143 mg/mi, which was higher than the emissions at 72 °F (22 °C; 12-29 mg/mi) by a factor of 5. For the two PFI vehicles, the BC mass emissions over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle at 0 °F varied from 111 to 162 mg/mi, higher by a factor of 44-72 when compared to the BC emissions of 2-4 mg/mi at 72 °F. The use of a gasoline particulate filter (GPF) reduced BC emissions from the selected GDI vehicle by 73-88% at various ambient temperatures over the FTP-75 phase 1 drive cycle. The ambient temperature had less of an impact on particle emissions for a warmed-up engine. Over the US06 drive cycle, the GPF reduced BC mass emissions from the GDI vehicle by 59-80% at various temperatures. E10 had limited impact on BC emissions from the selected GDI and PFI vehicles during hot-starts. E10 was found to reduce BC emissions from the GDI vehicle by 15% at standard temperature and by 75% at 19 °F (-7 °C).

  13. Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Liqiang; Guo Liejin

    2004-01-01

    With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process

  14. Online Reduction of Artifacts in EEG of Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Using Reference Layer Adaptive Filtering (RLAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyrl, David; Krausz, Gunther; Koschutnig, Karl; Edlinger, Günter; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2018-01-01

    Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow us to study the active human brain from two perspectives concurrently. Signal processing based artifact reduction techniques are mandatory for this, however, to obtain reasonable EEG quality in simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Current artifact reduction techniques like average artifact subtraction (AAS), typically become less effective when artifact reduction has to be performed on-the-fly. We thus present and evaluate a new technique to improve EEG quality online. This technique adds up with online AAS and combines a prototype EEG-cap for reference recordings of artifacts, with online adaptive filtering and is named reference layer adaptive filtering (RLAF). We found online AAS + RLAF to be highly effective in improving EEG quality. Online AAS + RLAF outperformed online AAS and did so in particular online in terms of the chosen performance metrics, these being specifically alpha rhythm amplitude ratio between closed and opened eyes (3-45% improvement), signal-to-noise-ratio of visual evoked potentials (VEP) (25-63% improvement), and VEPs variability (16-44% improvement). Further, we found that EEG quality after online AAS + RLAF is occasionally even comparable with the offline variant of AAS at a 3T MRI scanner. In conclusion RLAF is a very effective add-on tool to enable high quality EEG in simultaneous EEG-fMRI experiments, even when online artifact reduction is necessary.

  15. Radioactivity decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter in an incineration volume reduction system of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Yoshiki, Sinya; Sema, Toru; Koyama, Hiroaki; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Takaoku, Yoshinobu; Hozumi, Masahiro.

    1987-01-01

    The small pilot facility of a cyclone type suspension incineration system of radioactive waste was set up in order to evaluate the decontamination efficiency of a high efficiency ceramic filter. The evaluation was made by use of 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 60 Co, 65 Zn and 137 Cs. 1. The decontamination factor by one line of ceramic filter for every species were over 10 5 . 2. The decontamination factor increased by one oder when water vapor exists in off-gas. The same tendency was also observed when iron dioxide existed at the incineration of cation exchange resin. (author)

  16. Speckle Reduction for Ultrasonic Imaging Using Frequency Compounding and Despeckling Filters along with Coded Excitation and Pulse Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Ullom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for improving the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR while maintaining the −6 dB axial resolution of ultrasonic B-mode images is proposed. The technique proposed is known as eREC-FC, which enhances a recently developed REC-FC technique. REC-FC is a combination of the coded excitation technique known as resolution enhancement compression (REC and the speckle-reduction technique frequency compounding (FC. In REC-FC, image CNR is improved but at the expense of a reduction in axial resolution. However, by compounding various REC-FC images made from various subband widths, the tradeoff between axial resolution and CNR enhancement can be extended. Further improvements in CNR can be obtained by applying postprocessing despeckling filters to the eREC-FC B-mode images. The despeckling filters evaluated were the following: median, Lee, homogeneous mask area, geometric, and speckle-reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD. Simulations and experimental measurements were conducted with a single-element transducer (f/2.66 having a center frequency of 2.25 MHz and a −3 dB bandwidth of 50%. In simulations and experiments, the eREC-FC technique resulted in the same axial resolution that would be typically observed with conventional excitation with a pulse. Moreover, increases in CNR of 348% were obtained in experiments when comparing eREC-FC with a Lee filter to conventional pulsing methods.

  17. Binaural noise reduction via cue-preserving MMSE filter and adaptive-blocking-based noise PSD estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarpour, Masoumeh; Enzner, Gerald

    2017-12-01

    Binaural noise reduction, with applications for instance in hearing aids, has been a very significant challenge. This task relates to the optimal utilization of the available microphone signals for the estimation of the ambient noise characteristics and for the optimal filtering algorithm to separate the desired speech from the noise. The additional requirements of low computational complexity and low latency further complicate the design. A particular challenge results from the desired reconstruction of binaural speech input with spatial cue preservation. The latter essentially diminishes the utility of multiple-input/single-output filter-and-sum techniques such as beamforming. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive and effective signal processing configuration with which most of the aforementioned criteria can be met suitably. This relates especially to the requirement of efficient online adaptive processing for noise estimation and optimal filtering while preserving the binaural cues. Regarding noise estimation, we consider three different architectures: interaural (ITF), cross-relation (CR), and principal-component (PCA) target blocking. An objective comparison with two other noise PSD estimation algorithms demonstrates the superiority of the blocking-based noise estimators, especially the CR-based and ITF-based blocking architectures. Moreover, we present a new noise reduction filter based on minimum mean-square error (MMSE), which belongs to the class of common gain filters, hence being rigorous in terms of spatial cue preservation but also efficient and competitive for the acoustic noise reduction task. A formal real-time subjective listening test procedure is also developed in this paper. The proposed listening test enables a real-time assessment of the proposed computationally efficient noise reduction algorithms in a realistic acoustic environment, e.g., considering time-varying room impulse responses and the Lombard effect. The listening test outcome

  18. Tubular biotricking filter for reduction of odour and ammonia from live stock facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Peter; Andersen, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    between 80 and 100 %. Hardly water soluble components like methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide and methane was reduced by 7-9 %. In relation to the greenhouse effect the degradation of methane fully compensate the nitrous oxide emission from the filters. These results were achieved with a pressure drop...

  19. Half Size Reduction of DC Output Filter Inductors With the Saturation-Gap Magnetic Bias Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Filter inductors are probably one of the heaviest and more voluminous components found in power supplies of most electronic devices. A known technique to reduce the inductor size in dc applications is the use of permanent magnet inductors (PMIs). One of the latest developed biasing topologies...

  20. Reduction of Switching Losses in Active Power Filters With a New Generalized Discontinuous-PWM Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Malinowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    The classical discontinuous pulsewidth modulations (DPWMs) cannot be efficiently applied in active power filters (APFs) because it is difficult to predict the peak values of the inverter current. Consequently, it is difficult to calculate the optimal position of the clamped interval to minimize t...

  1. A multiscale filter for noise reduction of low-dose cone beam projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Weiguang; Farr, Jonathan B

    2015-08-21

    The Poisson or compound Poisson process governs the randomness of photon fluence in cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging systems. The probability density function depends on the mean (noiseless) of the fluence at a certain detector. This dependence indicates the natural requirement of multiscale filters to smooth noise while preserving structures of the imaged object on the low-dose cone beam projection. In this work, we used a Gaussian filter, exp(-x2/2σ(2)(f)) as the multiscale filter to de-noise the low-dose cone beam projections. We analytically obtained the expression of σ(f), which represents the scale of the filter, by minimizing local noise-to-signal ratio. We analytically derived the variance of residual noise from the Poisson or compound Poisson processes after Gaussian filtering. From the derived analytical form of the variance of residual noise, optimal σ(2)(f)) is proved to be proportional to the noiseless fluence and modulated by local structure strength expressed as the linear fitting error of the structure. A strategy was used to obtain the reliable linear fitting error: smoothing the projection along the longitudinal direction to calculate the linear fitting error along the lateral direction and vice versa. The performance of our multiscale filter was examined on low-dose cone beam projections of a Catphan phantom and a head-and-neck patient. After performing the filter on the Catphan phantom projections scanned with pulse time 4 ms, the number of visible line pairs was similar to that scanned with 16 ms, and the contrast-to-noise ratio of the inserts was higher than that scanned with 16 ms about 64% in average. For the simulated head-and-neck patient projections with pulse time 4 ms, the visibility of soft tissue structures in the patient was comparable to that scanned with 20 ms. The image processing took less than 0.5 s per projection with 1024   ×   768 pixels.

  2. Ripple characteristic of the main ring magnet power supply for the KEK 12 GeV PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hikaru; Sueno, Tuyosi; Mikawa, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    First of all, general description of the main ring magnet power supply for the KEK 12 GeV PS will be described. The main power supply consists of thyristor rectifiers, DC filters, reactive power compensators, AC harmonic filters and control systems. Devices and control systems for suppressing ripple component of magnet field will be described. (author)

  3. Active Damping Techniques for LCL-Filtered Inverters-Based Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    LCL-type filters are widely used in gridconnected voltage source inverters, since it provides switching ripples reduction with lower cost and weight than the L-type counterpart. However, the inclusion of LCL-filters in voltage source inverters complicates the current control design regarding system...... the different active damping approaches for grid-connected inverters with LCL filters, which are based on high-order filters and additional feedbacks methods. These techniques are analyzed and discussed in detail....... stability issues; because an inherent resonance peak appears due to zero impedance at that resonance frequency. Moreover, in grid-interactive low-voltage microgrids, the interactions among the LCL-filtered-based parallel inverters may result in a more complex multiresonance issue which may compromise...

  4. Harmonic reduction by using single-tuned passive filter in plastic processing industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, M. I.; Baafai, U.; Hazmi, A.; Nasution, T. H.

    2018-02-01

    The using of non-linear loads generated by industrial machines may result inconsistent harmonics that do not reach the IEEE 519 - 1992 standards. This study discusses the use of single-tuned passive filters in reducing harmonics in the plastics processing industry. The system modeling using matlab / simulink simulation resulted in total harmonic distortion (THD) of 15.55%, can be reduced to 4.77% harmonics in accordance with IEEE 519 - 1992 standards. From the simulation results also seen that single-tuned passive filter can reduce the harmonics of the current 82.23% harmonic that wants to be reduced and also can reduce other orders harmonics between 7% to 8%.

  5. Speckle reduction in echocardiography by temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Guzmán, Jader; Porto-Solano, Oscar; Cadena-Bonfanti, Alberto; Contreras-Ortiz, Sonia H.

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is a medical imaging technique based on ultrasound signals that is used to evaluate heart anatomy and physiology. Echocardiographic images are affected by speckle, a type of multiplicative noise that obscures details of the structures, and reduces the overall image quality. This paper shows an approach to enhance echocardiography using two processing techniques: temporal compounding and anisotropic diffusion filtering. We used twenty echocardiographic videos that include one or three cardiac cycles to test the algorithms. Two images from each cycle were aligned in space and averaged to obtain the compound images. These images were then processed using anisotropic diffusion filters to further improve their quality. Resultant images were evaluated using quality metrics and visual assessment by two medical doctors. The average total improvement on signal-to-noise ratio was up to 100.29% for videos with three cycles, and up to 32.57% for videos with one cycle.

  6. Improved Kalman Filter Method for Measurement Noise Reduction in Multi Sensor RFID Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Eom, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Kyung, Yeo Sun; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Min Chul; Jung, Kyung Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the range of available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Perf...

  7. Utilization of independent component analysis for accurate pathological ripple detection in intracranial EEG recordings recorded extra- and intra-operatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamoto, Shoichi; Waldman, Zachary J; Orosz, Iren; Song, Inkyung; Bragin, Anatol; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard; Sharan, Ashwini; Wu, Chengyuan; Sperling, Michael R; Weiss, Shennan A

    2018-01-01

    To develop and validate a detector that identifies ripple (80-200 Hz) events in intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings in a referential montage and utilizes independent component analysis (ICA) to eliminate or reduce high-frequency artifact contamination. Also, investigate the correspondence of detected ripples and the seizure onset zone (SOZ). iEEG recordings from 16 patients were first band-pass filtered (80-600 Hz) and Infomax ICA was next applied to derive the first independent component (IC1). IC1 was subsequently pruned, and an artifact index was derived to reduce the identification of high-frequency events introduced by the reference electrode signal. A Hilbert detector identified ripple events in the processed iEEG recordings using amplitude and duration criteria. The identified ripple events were further classified and characterized as true or false ripple on spikes, or ripples on oscillations by utilizing a topographical analysis to their time-frequency plot, and confirmed by visual inspection. The signal to noise ratio was improved by pruning IC1. The precision of the detector for ripple events was 91.27 ± 4.3%, and the sensitivity of the detector was 79.4 ± 3.0% (N = 16 patients, 5842 ripple events). The sensitivity and precision of the detector was equivalent in iEEG recordings obtained during sleep or intra-operatively. Across all the patients, true ripple on spike rates and also the rates of false ripple on spikes, that were generated due to filter ringing, classified the seizure onset zone (SOZ) with an area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) of >76%. The magnitude and spectral content of true ripple on spikes generated in the SOZ was distinct as compared with the ripples generated in the NSOZ (p ripple rates and properties defined using this approach may accurately delineate the seizure onset zone. Strategies to improve the spatial resolution of intracranial EEG and reduce artifact can help improve the clinical utility of

  8. On the formation of current ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Jesper; Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Flemming, Burg W.

    2015-01-01

    such an explanation based on a virtual boundary layer concept, and present a model predicting ripple height on the basis of grain size, current velocity and water depth. The model contradicts the conventional view of current ripples as bedforms not scaling with flow depth. Furthermore, it confirms the dependence...

  9. Molecular structure of the lecithin ripple phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, AH; Yefimov, S; Mark, AE; Marrink, SJ

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of lecithin lipid bilayers in water as they are cooled from the liquid crystalline phase show the spontaneous formation of rippled bilayers. The ripple consists of two domains of different length and orientation, connected by a kink. The organization of the lipids in

  10. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  11. Ripple induced trapped particle loss in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    The threshold for stochastic transport of high energy trapped particles in a tokamak due to toroidal field ripple is calculated by explicit construction of primary resonances, and a numerical examination of the route to chaos. Critical field ripple amplitude is determined for loss. The expression is given in magnetic coordinates and makes no assumptions regarding shape or up-down symmetry. An algorithm is developed including the effects of prompt axisymmetric orbit loss, ripple trapping, convective banana flow, and stochastic ripple loss, which gives accurate ripple loss predictions for representative Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor equilibria. The algorithm is extended to include the effects of collisions and drag, allowing rapid estimation of alpha particle loss in tokamaks

  12. Model of ripples in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, L. L.; Carpio, A.

    2012-11-01

    We propose a model of ripples in suspended graphene sheets based on plate equations that are made discrete with the periodicity of the honeycomb lattice and then periodized. In addition, the equation for the displacements with respect to the planar configuration contains a double-well site potential, a nonlinear friction, and a multiplicative white-noise term satisfying the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The nonlinear friction terms agree with those proposed by Eichler [Nature Nanotech.1748-338710.1038/nnano.2011.71 6, 339 (2011)] to explain their experiments with a graphene resonator. The site double-well potential indicates that the carbon atoms at each lattice point have equal probability to move upward or downward off plane. For the considered parameter values, the relaxation time due to friction is much larger than the periods of membrane vibrations and the noise is quite small. Then ripples with no preferred orientation appear as long-lived metastable states for any temperature. Numerical solutions confirm this picture.

  13. Real-time noise reduction for Mössbauer spectroscopy through online implementation of a modified Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrecht, David G., E-mail: david.abrecht@pnnl.gov [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schwantes, Jon M. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kukkadapu, Ravi K. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Sweet, Lucas E. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd., Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Spectrum-processing software that incorporates a Gaussian smoothing kernel within the statistics of first-order Kalman filtration has been developed to provide cross-channel spectral noise reduction for increased real-time signal-to-noise ratios for Mössbauer spectroscopy. The filter was optimized for the breadth of the Gaussian using the Mössbauer spectrum of natural iron foil, and comparisons among the peak broadening, signal-to-noise ratios, and shifts in the calculated hyperfine parameters are presented. The results of optimization give a maximum improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of 51.1% over the unfiltered spectrum at a Gaussian breadth of 27 channels, or 2.5% of the total spectrum width. The full-width half-maximum of the spectrum peaks showed an increase of 19.6% at this optimum point, indicating a relatively weak increase in the peak broadening relative to the signal enhancement, leading to an overall increase in the observable signal. Calculations of the hyperfine parameters showed that no statistically significant deviations were introduced from the application of the filter, confirming the utility of this filter for spectroscopy applications.

  14. Out-of-band and adjacent-channel interference reduction by analog nonlinear filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Alexei V.; Davidchack, Ruslan L.; Smith, Jeffrey E.

    2015-12-01

    In a perfect world, we would have `brick wall' filters, no-distortion amplifiers and mixers, and well-coordinated spectrum operations. The real world, however, is prone to various types of unintentional and intentional interference of technogenic (man-made) origin that can disrupt critical communication systems. In this paper, we introduce a methodology for mitigating technogenic interference in communication channels by analog nonlinear filters, with an emphasis on the mitigation of out-of-band and adjacent-channel interference. Interference induced in a communications receiver by external transmitters can be viewed as wide-band non-Gaussian noise affecting a narrower-band signal of interest. This noise may contain a strong component within the receiver passband, which may dominate over the thermal noise. While the total wide-band interference seen by the receiver may or may not be impulsive, we demonstrate that the interfering component due to power emitted by the transmitter into the receiver channel is likely to appear impulsive under a wide range of conditions. We give an example of mechanisms of impulsive interference in digital communication systems resulting from the nonsmooth nature of any physically realizable modulation scheme for transmission of a digital (discontinuous) message. We show that impulsive interference can be effectively mitigated by nonlinear differential limiters (NDLs). An NDL can be configured to behave linearly when the input signal does not contain outliers. When outliers are encountered, the nonlinear response of the NDL limits the magnitude of the respective outliers in the output signal. The signal quality is improved in excess of that achievable by the respective linear filter, increasing the capacity of a communications channel. The behavior of an NDL, and its degree of nonlinearity, is controlled by a single parameter in a manner that enables significantly better overall suppression of the noise-containing impulsive components

  15. Efficacy of patient skin dose reduction by a compensating filter through of irradiation field overlaps on the area during percutaneous coronary intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Sadao; Yamamoto, Naomi; Miyagawa, Takashi; Hirose, Etsuko; Takenaka, Tatsuaki; Nakahara, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Our study was involved with entrance surface dose reduction and irradiation field by the filter use of PCI, and insertion in place of an effective compensating filter to maximize entrance surface dose reduction, which we verified. The radiation dosimetry put a 6 cc ion chamber on the back side of the thorax phantom, and changed the filter of the four corners (a: upper left, b: upper right, c: lower right, d: lower left) of the monitor confirmed with fluoroscopy [(0) no filter, (1) one filter, (2) two filters]. The angle of C arm was assumed to be eight directions and 0 degrees adopted by this hospital. It was compared with a corrective rate of which one was no filter. Next, the presence of filter and irradiation field overlaps on the area in monitor in the angle of C arm was verified by this hospital's classic example. As for corrective rate, (1) becomes 0.41 and (2) become 0.25 at fluoroscopy, (1) becomes 0.26 and (2) become 0.16 at exposure. Irradiation field overlaps on the area (+) compensating filter (-) was many with d of right anterior oblique (RAO)/cranial (CAU), a of RAO and c of CAU at left coronary angiography (CAG), c of left anterior oblique (LAO) at right CAG, b of LAO/cranial (CRA) (left CAG), b of CRA (right CAG) and a and d of RAO (right CAG) at both CAG. Irradiation field overlaps on the area (+) compensating filter (+) was many with b of CRA at left CAG, a of LAO/CRA at right CAG, b of CRA (left CAG) and b of RAO (right CAG) at both CAG. When the compensating filter is used the entrance surface dose reduction effect was great. If automatic exposure control protects the part of irradiation field overlaps on the area in the range without operating excessively, the radiological risk can be reduced, and it is conceivable as useful clinical setting. (author)

  16. Highly-stabilized power supply for synchrotron accelerators. High speed, low ripple power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Kumada, Masayuki; Fukami, Kenji; Koseki, Shoichiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Toru

    1997-02-01

    In synchrotron accelerators, in order to utilize high energy beam effectively, those are operated by repeating acceleration and taking-out at short period. In order to accelerate by maintaining beam track stable, the tracking performance with the error less than 10{sup -3} in the follow-up of current is required for the power supply. Further, in order to maintain the intensity and uniformity of beam when it is taken out, very low ripple is required for output current. The power supply having such characteristics has been developed, and applied to the HIMAC and the SPring-8. As the examples of the application of synchrotrons, the accelerators for medical treatment and the generation of synchrotron radiation are described. As to the power supply for the deflection magnets and quadrupole magnets of synchrotron accelerators, the specifications of the main power supply, the method of reducing ripple, the method of improving tracking, and active filter control are reported. As to the test results, the measurement of current ripple and tracking error is shown. The lowering of ripple was enabled by common mode filter and the symmetrical connection of electromagnets, and high speed response was realized by the compensation for delay with active filter. (K.I.)

  17. LC Filter Design for Wide Band Gap Device Based Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadstrup, Casper; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    the LC filter with a higher cut off frequency and without damping resistors. The selection of inductance and capacitance is chosen based on capacitor voltage ripple and current ripple. The filter adds a base load to the inverter, which increases the inverter losses. It is shown how the modulation index...

  18. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. The appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand. (author)

  19. AIRFIL: a FORTRAN program for reduction of data obtained from alpha spectrometry of perimeter air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.R. Jr.; Howell, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    Isotopic alpha spectrometry of 238 U, 235 U, and 234 U, along with gross alpha/beta counting of perimeter air filters, is performed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Laboratory in support of the Envrirnomental Monitoring Section of the Radiation Safety Department. Weekly samples are gross alpha/beta counted and the isotopic analysis performed on quarterly composites. Calculations and data management represents a major portion of the anlaysis time when performed manually, even with a desktop calculator. In order to reduce calculation time, perform orderly data manipulation and management, reduce errors due to redundant calculations, and eliminate report typing turnaround time, a computer program (AIRFIL) has been developed that performs these functions. The program accepts data through user prompts, then calculates and prints intermediate and final data, including detection limits

  20. Radwaste reduction through use of condensate non-precoat filters at Perry Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of non-precoat filtration to remove iron oxide without generating traditional resin and fiber precoat material, which is expensive to dispose of as radwaste, is rapidly becoming a trend of the 90's. In 1991, in response to escalating radwaste disposal costs, Perry Nuclear Power Plant was the first BWR to install non-precoat filters (septa) on a full scale basis in a Condensate System. To date, non-precoat septa from three vendors; including Memtec Power Generation have been installed and operated at Perry. It is important that other utilities considering this technology be given as much open-quotes real lifeclose quotes operational data as possible. This paper presents the data from three different companies and provides recommendations for consideration

  1. Toroidal ripple transport of beam ions in the mega-ampère spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClements, K. G.; Hole, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of injected beam ions due to toroidal magnetic field ripple in the mega-ampère spherical tokamak (MAST) is quantified using a full orbit particle tracking code, with collisional slowing-down and pitch-angle scattering by electrons and bulk ions taken into account. It is shown that the level of ripple losses is generally rather low, although it depends sensitively on the major radius of the outer midplane plasma edge; for typical values of this parameter in MAST plasmas, the reduction in beam heating power due specifically to ripple transport is less than 1%, and the ripple contribution to beam ion diffusivity is of the order of 0.1 m 2 s –1 or less. It is concluded that ripple effects make only a small contribution to anomalous transport rates that have been invoked to account for measured neutron rates and plasma stored energies in some MAST discharges. Delayed (non-prompt) losses are shown to occur close to the outer midplane, suggesting that banana-drift diffusion is the most likely cause of the ripple-induced losses.

  2. Parallelization of Reversible Ripple-carry Adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Axelsen, Holger Bock

    2009-01-01

    The design of fast arithmetic logic circuits is an important research topic for reversible and quantum computing. A special challenge in this setting is the computation of standard arithmetical functions without the generation of \\emph{garbage}. Here, we present a novel parallelization scheme...... wherein $m$ parallel $k$-bit reversible ripple-carry adders are combined to form a reversible $mk$-bit \\emph{ripple-block carry adder} with logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(m+k)$ for a \\emph{minimal} logic depth $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{mk})$, thus improving on the $mk$-bit ripple-carry adder logic depth $\\mathcal...

  3. Toroidal field ripple effects in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tsang, K.T.; Callen, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    In an experimental power reactor, the ripple produced by the finite number of toroidal field coils destroys the ideal axisymmetry of the configuration and is responsible for additional particle trapping, loss regions and plasma transport. The effects of toroidal field ripple on the plasma transport coefficient, the loss of alpha particles and energetic injection ions, and the relaxation of toroidal flows are investigated in a new and systematic way. The relevant results are applied to the ORNL-EPR reference design; the maximum ripple there of about 2.2 percent at the outer edge of the plasma column is found to be tolerable from plasma physics considerations

  4. Genetic Algorithm-Based Design of the Active Damping for an LCL-Filter Three-Phase Active Rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Aquila, Antonio Dell; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    Active rectifiers/inverters are becoming used more and more often in regenerative systems and distributed power systems. Typically, the interface between the grid and rectifier is either an inductor or an LCL-filter. The use of an LCL-filter mitigates the switching ripple injected in the grid...... by a three-phase active rectifier. However, stability problems can arise in the current control loop. In order to overcome them, a damping resistor can be inserted, at the price of a reduction of efficiency. The use of active damping by means of control may seem attractive, but it is often limited by the use...

  5. Re-establishing filtering capabilities of machined porous beryllium via chemical reduction and cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, W.L.

    1975-01-01

    Porous beryllium is furnished in sheets of varying sizes and thickness; it is therefore necessary that it be machined into specified sizes. A chemical reduction and cleaning procedure was devised to remove the disrupted surface, open the sealed pores of the material, and clean entrapped contaminates from the internal structure. Dimensional stability can be closely controlled and material size is of no consequence. (U.S.)

  6. Listening to Whispers of Ripple: Linking Wallets and Deanonymizing Transactions in the Ripple Network

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Sanchez Pedro; Zafar Muhammad Bilal; Kate Aniket

    2016-01-01

    The decentralized I owe you (IOU) transaction network Ripple is gaining prominence as a fast, low-cost and efficient method for performing same and cross-currency payments. Ripple keeps track of IOU credit its users have granted to their business partners or friends, and settles transactions between two connected Ripple wallets by appropriately changing credit values on the connecting paths. Similar to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, while the ownership of the wallets is implicitly pseudony...

  7. RLS adaptive filtering for physiological interference reduction in NIRS brain activity measurement: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y; Sun, J W; Rolfe, P

    2012-01-01

    The non-invasive measurement of cerebral functional haemodynamics using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) instruments is often affected by physiological interference. The suppression of this interference is crucial for reliable recovery of brain activity measurements because it can significantly affect the signal quality. In this study, we present a recursive least-squares (RLS) algorithm for adaptive filtering to reduce the magnitude of the physiological interference component. To evaluate it, we implemented Monte Carlo simulations based on a five-layer slab model of a human adult head with a multidistance source–detector arrangement, of a short pair and a long pair, for NIRS measurement. We derived measurements by adopting different interoptode distances, which is relevant to the process of optimizing the NIRS probe configuration. Both RLS and least mean squares (LMS) algorithms were used to attempt the removal of physiological interference. The results suggest that the RLS algorithm is more capable of minimizing the effect of physiological interference due to its advantages of faster convergence and smaller mean squared error (MSE). The influence of superficial layer thickness on the performance of the RLS algorithm was also investigated. We found that the near-detector position is an important variable in minimizing the MSE and a short source–detector separation less than 9 mm is robust to superficial layer thickness variation. (paper)

  8. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scott Wilson,1,2 Andrea Bowyer,3 Stephen B Harrap4 1Department of Renal Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI, Melbourne, 3Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Melbourne Hospital, 4University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information. Keywords: continuous monitoring, blood pressure

  9. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information.

  10. Comparison of conventional filtering and independent component analysis for artifact reduction in simultaneous gastric EMG and magnetogastrography from porcines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Andrei; Richards, William O; Bradshaw, L Alan

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we perform a comparative study of independent component analysis (ICA) and conventional filtering (CF) for the purpose of artifact reduction from simultaneous gastric EMG and magnetogastrography (MGG). EMG/MGG data were acquired from ten anesthetized pigs by obtaining simultaneous recordings using serosal electrodes (EMG) as well as with a superconducting quantum interference device biomagnetometer (MGG). The analysis of MGG waveforms using ICA and CF indicates that ICA is superior to the CF method in its ability to extract respiration and cardiac artifacts from MGG recordings. A signal frequency analysis of ICA- and CF-processed data was also undertaken using waterfall plots, and it was determined that the two methods produce qualitatively comparable results. Through the use of simultaneous EMG/MGG, we were able to demonstrate the accuracy and trustworthiness of our results by comparison and cross-validation within the framework of a porcine model.

  11. Impact of Attitude: The Ripple Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Describes the potential ripple effect of a principal's mercurial personality and poor interpersonal skills on teachers, students, families, and the community. Suggests effective personnel selection methods to enhance the chances of employing desirable principals. (SB)

  12. Ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, K.; Takizuka, T.; Azumi, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ripple enhanced transport of suprathermal alpha particles has been studied by the newly developed Monte-Carlo code in which the motion of banana orbit in a toroidal field ripple is described by a mapping method. The existence of ripple-resonance diffusion has been confirmed numerically. We have developed another new code in which the radial displacement of banana orbit is given by the diffusion coefficients from the mapping code or the orbit following Monte-Carlo code. The ripple loss of α particles during slowing down has been estimated by the mapping model code as well as the diffusion model code. From the comparison of the results with those from the orbit-following Monte-Carlo code, it has been found that all of them agree very well. (author)

  13. Constrained ripple optimization of Tokamak bundle divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rome, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Fowler, R.H.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Dory, R.A.

    1983-02-01

    Magnetic field ripple from a tokamak bundle divertor is localized to a small toroidal sector and must be treated differently from the usual (distributed) toroidal field (TF) coil ripple. Generally, in a tokamak with an unoptimized divertor design, all of the banana-trapped fast ions are quickly lost due to banana drift diffusion or to trapping between the 1/R variation in absolute value vector B ω B and local field maxima due to the divertor. A computer code has been written to optimize automatically on-axis ripple subject to these constraints, while varying up to nine design parameters. Optimum configurations have low on-axis ripple ( 0 ) are lost. However, because finite-sized TF coils have not been used in this study, the flux bundle is not expanded

  14. An effective coded excitation scheme based on a predistorted FM signal and an optimized digital filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misaridis, Thanasis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a coded excitation imaging system based on a predistorted FM excitation and a digital compression filter designed for medical ultrasonic applications, in order to preserve both axial resolution and contrast. In radars, optimal Chebyshev windows efficiently weight a nearly...... as with pulse excitation (about 1.5 lambda), depending on the filter design criteria. The axial sidelobes are below -40 dB, which is the noise level of the measuring imaging system. The proposed excitation/compression scheme shows good overall performance and stability to the frequency shift due to attenuation...... be removed by weighting. We show that by using a predistorted chirp with amplitude or phase shaping for amplitude ripple reduction and a correlation filter that accounts for the transducer's natural frequency weighting, output sidelobe levels of -35 to -40 dB are directly obtained. When an optimized filter...

  15. Cryptocurrency market making in the Ripple network

    OpenAIRE

    Brezigar, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Market maker provides counterparty for buyers and sellers of financial instruments in transaction settlement. Market makers quote the bid price and the ask price at the same time. This price setting process is called market making. This thesis covers theoretical and practical basis for implementation of autonomous market making algorithm for a promising cryptocurrency market called Ripple. We summarize market making theory, how Ripple cryptocurrency protocol works and how price formation proc...

  16. Reduction of radiation dose during the complex explorations using additional filter in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguez, C.; Espana, M. L.; Castro, P.; Sevillano, D.; Lopez Franco, P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence on image contrast, tube load and effective dose in paediatric fluoroscopy using added filtration. A Philips Omnidiagnosti is used in Nino Jesus Hospital and was therefore chosen for radiation dose measurements. The phantom consisted of varying methacrylate thickness to represent different patients sizes. All measurements were performed in automatic mode. For each exposure and additional filtration added the following data was recorded: tube voltage, tube current, air kerma rate on phantom surface and brightness on the image monitor. An 2026 electrometer (Radical Corporation) in conjunction with a model 2025-60 ion chamber were used for entrance dose measurements and the luxometer IL-400A (International Light) was used for brightness measurements on the image monitor: Evaluation of image quality was performed using a Leeds TOR TVF test object. Finally, the program PCXMC 1.5 based on the Monte Carlo method was used for calculating organ doses and the effective dose in fluoroscopy examinations. By increasing the filtration of the x-ray tube 1st Entrance radiation exposure can be decreased 58%, organ dose up to 40%, and effective dose up to 44%. 2nd The tube load increased up to 33%. 3rd Significant dose reduction is achievable without compromising image quality. The use of additional filtration in paediatric fluoroscopy should be evaluated taking into account dose reduction, additional tube loading and the possibility of some deterioration in image quality. (Author)

  17. Physiological Ripples (± 100 Hz) in Spike-Free Scalp EEGs of Children With and Without Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Anne H; Raijmann, Renee C M A; Jansen, Floor E; Braun, Kees P J; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2017-11-01

    Pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) are considered new biomarkers for epilepsy. They have mostly been recorded invasively, but pathological ripples (80-250 Hz) can also be found in scalp EEGs with frequent epileptiform spikes. Physiological HFOs also exist. They have been recorded invasively in hippocampus and neocortex. There are no reports of spontaneously occurring physiological HFOs recorded with scalp EEG. We aimed to study ripples in spike-free scalp EEGs. We included 23 children (6 with, 17 without epilepsy) who had an EEG without interictal epileptiform spikes recorded during sleep. We differentiated true ripples from spurious ripples such as filtering effects of sharp artifacts and high frequency components of muscle artifacts by viewing ripples simultaneously in bipolar and average montage and double-checking the unfiltered signal. We calculated mean frequency, duration and root mean square amplitude of the ripples, and studied their shape and distribution. We found ripples in EEGs of 20 out of 23 children (4 with, 16 without epilepsy). Ripples had a regular shape and occurred mostly on central and midline channels. Mean frequency was 102 Hz, mean duration 70 ms, mean root mean square amplitude 0.95 µV. Ripples occurring in normal EEGs of children without epilepsy were considered physiological; the similarity in appearance suggested that the ripples occurring in normal EEGs of children with epilepsy were also physiological. The finding that it is possible to study physiological neocortical ripples in scalp EEG paves the way for investigating their occurrence during brain development and their relation with cognitive functioning.

  18. Noise reduction and functional maps image quality improvement in dynamic CT perfusion using a new k-means clustering guided bilateral filter (KMGB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisana, Francesco; Henzler, Thomas; Schönberg, Stefan; Klotz, Ernst; Schmidt, Bernhard; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2017-07-01

    Dynamic CT perfusion (CTP) consists in repeated acquisitions of the same volume in different time steps, slightly before, during and slightly afterwards the injection of contrast media. Important functional information can be derived for each voxel, which reflect the local hemodynamic properties and hence the metabolism of the tissue. Different approaches are being investigated to exploit data redundancy and prior knowledge for noise reduction of such datasets, ranging from iterative reconstruction schemes to high dimensional filters. We propose a new spatial bilateral filter which makes use of the k-means clustering algorithm and of an optimal calculated guiding image. We named the proposed filter as k-means clustering guided bilateral filter (KMGB). In this study, the KMGB filter is compared with the partial temporal non-local means filter (PATEN), with the time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) filter, and with a new version derived from it, by introducing the guiding image (GB-TIPS). All the filters were tested on a digital in-house developed brain CTP phantom, were noise was added to simulate 80 kV and 200 mAs (default scanning parameters), 100 mAs and 30 mAs. Moreover, the filters performances were tested on 7 noisy clinical datasets with different pathologies in different body regions. The original contribution of our work is two-fold: first we propose an efficient algorithm to calculate a guiding image to improve the results of the TIPS filter, secondly we propose the introduction of the k-means clustering step and demonstrate how this can potentially replace the TIPS part of the filter obtaining better results at lower computational efforts. As expected, in the GB-TIPS, the introduction of the guiding image limits the over-smoothing of the TIPS filter, improving spatial resolution by more than 50%. Furthermore, replacing the time-intensity profile similarity calculation with a fuzzy k-means clustering strategy (KMGB) allows to control the edge preserving

  19. Listening to Whispers of Ripple: Linking Wallets and Deanonymizing Transactions in the Ripple Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Sanchez Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The decentralized I owe you (IOU transaction network Ripple is gaining prominence as a fast, low-cost and efficient method for performing same and cross-currency payments. Ripple keeps track of IOU credit its users have granted to their business partners or friends, and settles transactions between two connected Ripple wallets by appropriately changing credit values on the connecting paths. Similar to cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, while the ownership of the wallets is implicitly pseudonymous in Ripple, IOU credit links and transaction flows between wallets are publicly available in an online ledger. In this paper, we present the first thorough study that analyzes this globally visible log and characterizes the privacy issues with the current Ripple network. In particular, we define two novel heuristics and perform heuristic clustering to group wallets based on observations on the Ripple network graph. We then propose reidentification mechanisms to deanonymize the operators of those clusters and show how to reconstruct the financial activities of deanonymized Ripple wallets. Our analysis motivates the need for better privacy-preserving payment mechanisms for Ripple and characterizes the privacy challenges faced by the emerging credit networks.

  20. A particle model of rolling grain ripples under waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste

    2001-01-01

    A simple model for the formation of rolling grain ripples on a flat sand bed by the oscillatory flow generated by a surface wave is presented. An equation of motion is derived for the individual ripples, seen as "particles," on the otherwise flat bed. The model accounts for the initial appearance...... of the ripples, the subsequent coarsening of the ripples, and the final equilibrium state. The model is related to the physical parameters of the problem, and an analytical approximation for the equilibrium spacing of the ripples is developed. It is found that the spacing between the ripples scales...

  1. A Novel SFG Structure for C-T Highpass Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ivan Riis

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a sixth order elliptic highpass filter having a passband frequency of 3.0KHz, a passband ripple of 1.0dB and a stopband attenuation of 50dB. The filter is based on a novel integrator based SFG describing a passive prototype filter; this SFG is simulated using...

  2. Torque ripple minimization in a doubly salient permanent magnet motors by skewing the rotor teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, N.K.; Sekharbabu, A.R.C.; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of skewing the rotor teeth on the performance of an 8/6 doubly salient permanent magnet motor using a simple method, which utilizes the results obtained from the 2-D FE analysis. The optimum skewing angle is obtained as 12-15 o for the least ripple torque without much reduction in the back-emf

  3. Cochlear implant users' spectral ripple resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Kyung; Turner, Christopher W; Karsten, Sue A; Henry, Belinda A; Gantz, Bruce J

    2015-10-01

    This study revisits the issue of the spectral ripple resolution abilities of cochlear implant (CI) users. The spectral ripple resolution of recently implanted CI recipients (implanted during the last 10 years) were compared to those of CI recipients implanted 15 to 20 years ago, as well as those of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners from previously published data from Henry, Turner, and Behrens [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1111-1121 (2005)]. More recently, implanted CI recipients showed significantly better spectral ripple resolution. There is no significant difference in spectral ripple resolution for these recently implanted subjects compared to hearing-impaired (acoustic) listeners. The more recently implanted CI users had significantly better pre-operative speech perception than previously reported CI users. These better pre-operative speech perception scores in CI users from the current study may be related to better performance on the spectral ripple discrimination task; however, other possible factors such as improvements in internal and external devices cannot be excluded.

  4. Beamforming applied to surface EEG improves ripple visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Klink, Nicole; Mol, Arjen; Ferrier, Cyrille; Hillebrand, Arjan; Huiskamp, Geertjan; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2018-01-01

    Surface EEG can show epileptiform ripples in people with focal epilepsy, but identification is impeded by the low signal-to-noise ratio of the electrode recordings. We used beamformer-based virtual electrodes to improve ripple identification. We analyzed ten minutes of interictal EEG of nine patients with refractory focal epilepsy. EEGs with more than 60 channels and 20 spikes were included. We computed ∼79 virtual electrodes using a scalar beamformer and marked ripples (80-250 Hz) co-occurring with spikes in physical and virtual electrodes. Ripple numbers in physical and virtual electrodes were compared, and sensitivity and specificity of ripples for the region of interest (ROI; based on clinical information) were determined. Five patients had ripples in the physical electrodes and eight in the virtual electrodes, with more ripples in virtual than in physical electrodes (101 vs. 57, p = .007). Ripples in virtual electrodes predicted the ROI better than physical electrodes (AUC 0.65 vs. 0.56, p = .03). Beamforming increased ripple visibility in surface EEG. Virtual ripples predicted the ROI better than physical ripples, although sensitivity was still poor. Beamforming can facilitate ripple identification in EEG. Ripple localization needs to be improved to enable its use for presurgical evaluation in people with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduction of Carbon Dioxide in Filtering Facepiece Respirators with an Active-Venting System: A Computational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Birgersson

    Full Text Available During expiration, the carbon dioxide (CO2 levels inside the dead space of a filtering facepiece respirator (FFR increase significantly above the ambient concentration. To reduce the CO2 concentration inside the dead space, we attach an active lightweight venting system (AVS comprising a one-way valve, a blower and a battery in a housing to a FFR. The achieved reduction is quantified with a computational-fluid-dynamics model that considers conservation of mass, momentum and the dilute species, CO2, inside the FFR with and without the AVS. The results suggest that the AVS can reduce the CO2 levels inside the dead space at the end of expiration to around 0.4% as compared to a standard FFR, for which the CO2 levels during expiration reach the same concentration as that of the expired alveolar air at around 5%. In particular, during inspiration, the average CO2 volume fraction drops to near-to ambient levels of around 0.08% with the AVS. Overall, the time-averaged CO2 volume fractions inside the dead space for the standard FFR and the one with AVS are around 3% and 0.3% respectively. Further, the ability of the AVS to vent the dead-space air in the form of a jet into the ambient - similar to the jets arising from natural expiration without a FFR - ensures that the expired air is removed and diluted more efficiently than a standard FFR.

  6. Molecular structure of the lecithin ripple phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Alex H.; Yefimov, Serge; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2005-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of lecithin lipid bilayers in water as they are cooled from the liquid crystalline phase show the spontaneous formation of rippled bilayers. The ripple consists of two domains of different length and orientation, connected by a kink. The organization of the lipids in one domain of the ripple is found to be that of a splayed gel; in the other domain the lipids are gel-like and fully interdigitated. In the concave part of the kink region between the domains the lipids are disordered. The results are consistent with the experimental information available and provide an atomic-level model that may be tested by further experiments. molecular dynamics simulation | structural model

  7. Comparison of Output Current Ripple in Single and Dual Three-Phase Inverters for Electric Vehicle Motor Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Loncarski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The standard solution for the traction system in battery powered electric vehicles (EVs is a two-level (2L inverter feeding a three-phase motor. A simple and effective way to achieve a three-level (3L inverter in battery-supplied electric vehicles consists of using two standard three-phase 2L inverters with the open-end winding connection of standard three-phase ac motors. The 3L inverter solution can be usefully adopted in EVs since it combines several benefits such as current ripple reduction, increment of phase motor voltage with limited voltage ratings of the two battery banks, improvement in system reliability, etc. The reduction in current ripple amplitude is particularly relevant since it is a source of electromagnetic interference and audio noise from the inverter-motor power connection cables and from the motor itself. By increasing the inverter switching frequency the ripple amplitude is reduced, but the drive efficiency decreases due to the proportionally increased switching losses. In this paper the peak-to-peak ripple amplitude of the dual-2L inverter is evaluated and compared with the corresponding ripple of the single-2L inverter, considering the same voltage and power motor ratings. The ripple analysis is carried out as a function of the modulation index to cover the whole modulation range of the inverter, and the theoretical results are verified with experimental tests carried out by an inverter-motor drive prototype.

  8. Rotation and neoclassical ripple transport in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, E. J.; Landreman, M.; Poli, F. M.; Spong, D. A.; Smith, H. M.; Dorland, W.

    2017-11-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields causes a toroidal torque known as neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV). The toroidal symmetry of ITER will be broken by the finite number of toroidal field coils and by test blanket modules (TBMs). The addition of ferritic inserts (FIs) will decrease the magnitude of the toroidal field ripple. 3D magnetic equilibria in the presence of toroidal field ripple and ferromagnetic structures are calculated for an ITER steady-state scenario using the variational moments equilibrium code (VMEC). Neoclassical transport quantities in the presence of these error fields are calculated using the stellarator Fokker-Planck iterative neoclassical conservative solver (SFINCS). These calculations fully account for E r , flux surface shaping, multiple species, magnitude of ripple, and collisionality rather than applying approximate analytic NTV formulae. As NTV is a complicated nonlinear function of E r , we study its behavior over a plausible range of E r . We estimate the toroidal flow, and hence E r , using a semi-analytic turbulent intrinsic rotation model and NUBEAM calculations of neutral beam torque. The NTV from the \\vert{n}\\vert = 18 ripple dominates that from lower n perturbations of the TBMs. With the inclusion of FIs, the magnitude of NTV torque is reduced by about 75% near the edge. We present comparisons of several models of tangential magnetic drifts, finding appreciable differences only for superbanana-plateau transport at small E r . We find the scaling of calculated NTV torque with ripple magnitude to indicate that ripple-trapping may be a significant mechanism for NTV in ITER. The computed NTV torque without ferritic components is comparable in magnitude to the NBI and intrinsic turbulent torques and will likely damp rotation, but the NTV torque is significantly reduced by the planned ferritic inserts.

  9. Origin of the two scales of wind ripples on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M.; Day, M. D.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S.; Bridges, N.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A., III; Ming, D. W.; Mischna, M.; Rice, M. S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Vasavada, A. R.; Yingst, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's sandy deserts host two main types of bedforms - decimeter-scale ripples and larger dunes. Years of orbital observations on Mars also confirmed the existence of two modes of active eolian bedforms - meter-scale ripples, and dunes. By analogy to terrestrial ripples, which are thought to form from a grain mechanism, it was hypothesized that large martian ripples also formed from grain impacts, but spaced further apart due to elongated saltation trajectories from the lower martian gravity and different atmospheric properties. However, the Curiosity rover recently documented the coexistence of three scales of bedforms in Gale crater. Because a grain impact mechanism cannot readily explain two distinct and coeval ripple modes in similar sand sizes, a new mechanism seems to be required to explain one of the scales of ripples. Small ripples are most similar to Earth's impact ripples, with straight crests and subdued profiles. In contrast, large martian ripples are sinuous and asymmetric, with lee slopes dominated by grain flows and grainfall deposits. Thus, large martian ripples resemble current ripples formed underwater on Earth, suggesting that they may form from a fluid-drag mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we develop a scaling relation to predict the spacing of fluid-drag ripples from an extensive flume data compilation. The size of large martian ripples is predicted by our scaling relation when adjusted for martian atmospheric properties. Specifically, we propose that the wavelength of martian wind-drag ripples arises from the high kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. Because fluid density controls drag-ripple size, our scaling relation can help constrain paleoatmospheric density from wind-drag ripple stratification.

  10. Beam-ripple monitor with secondary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Noda, Koji; Takada, Eiichi; Komiyama, Akihito; Ichinohe, Ken-ichi; Sano, Yoshinobu

    1997-01-01

    To replace the scintillation-ripple monitor, we have developed a new monitor with a smaller destructive effect on the beam. In this monitor, we use secondary electrons emitted from an aluminum foil with a thickness of 2 μm. The signals of secondary electrons are amplified by an electron multiplier having a maximum gain of 10 6 . By using the new monitor, we could clearly observe the beam ripple with a beam intensity of 3.6x10 8 pps (particle per second). This monitor can also be used as an intensity monitor in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 pps. (author)

  11. Ripple Ring Basins on Ganymede and Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The unusual morphology of the Valhalla multiple or ripple-ring basin in Callisto was totally unexpected in light of the morphologies of large impact structures on the terrestrial planets. Two other ripple-ring basins (RRB's), Asgard and a smaller structure near the crater Adlinda are also described. Several additional RRB's were found on Callisto, an example of which is shown. A previously unrecognized RRB on Ganymede was also found. An image and geologic sketch map of this RRB are shown. Morphometric and positional data for all known RRB's are given.

  12. Improvement of active filter for HIMAC power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumada, Masayuki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kubo, Hiroshi; Furuzeki, Shoichiro; Kanazawa, Toru

    1996-03-01

    For the power sources of the synchrotron electromagnets for the heavy particle beam cancer therapy apparatus HIMAC in National Institute of Radiological Science, in order to stabilize the taken-out beam, the ripple property as low as below 1 x 10{sup -6} is required. As for this electromagnet power sources, various devices were applied to lower ripples, and the required specifications have been satisfied. Also the beam spill is stable, but slight variation has been observed, therefore, by improving the performance of the active filter, the ripples were improved. The specifications of the electromagnet power sources and the whole constitution of the power source system are shown. In the HIMAC power sources, the means for having realized the low ripple performance so far are explained. Those are the absorption of the ineffective power generated from the power sources, the control of the ripples of common made due to the transducer thyristor, and the sure compensation of ripples by the control circuit for the power sources. By adding the band pass filters to the active filter, its characteristics were improved. As the result, 1200 Hz ripple component was reduced by 41 db, thus the sufficient effect was obtained. Hereafter, by the high sensitivity measurement of the current of electromagnets and the evaluation of magnetic fields, the validity will be evaluated. (K.I.)

  13. Optimum geometry for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, F.; Ertan, H.B.; Leblebicioglu, K.

    2000-01-01

    For switched reluctance motors, one of the major problems is torque ripple which causes increased undesirable acoustic noise and possibly speed ripple. This paper describes an approach to determine optimum magnetic circuit parameters to minimize low speed torque ripple for such motors. The

  14. Dynamical models for sand ripples beneath surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Chabanol, M.-L.; v. Hecke, M.

    2001-01-01

    We introduce order parameter models for describing the dynamics of sand ripple patterns under oscillatory flow. A crucial ingredient of these models is the mass transport between adjacent ripples, which we obtain from detailed numerical simulations for a range of ripple sizes. Using this mass tra...

  15. Miniaturized dielectric waveguide filters

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhu, MY; Hunter, IC

    2016-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high-permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled transverse electromagnetic filters with the same unloaded Q-factor. Designs for Chebyshev and asymmetric generalised Chebyshev filter and a diplexer are presented with experimental results for an 1800 MHz Chebyshev filter and a 1700 MHz generalised Chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  16. Reduction of ripening time of full-scale manganese removal filters with manganese oxide-coated media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, J.H.; Petrusevski, B.; Slokar, Y.M.; Huysman, K.; Joris, K.; Kruithof, J.C.; Kennedy, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Effective manganese removal by conventional aeration-filtration with virgin filter media requires a long ripening time. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of manganese oxide-coated media to shorten the ripening time of filters with virgin media, under practical conditions. A full

  17. Effects of Particle Filters and Selective Catalytic Reduction on In-Use Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, C.; Cados, T.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT) are a major source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and black carbon (BC) in urban environments, contributing to persistent ozone and particulate matter air quality problems. Diesel particle filters (DPFs) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems that target PM and NOx emissions, respectively, have recently become standard equipment on new HDDT. DPFs can also be installed on older engines as a retrofit device. Previous work has shown that DPF and SCR systems can reduce NOx and BC emissions by up to 70% and 90%, respectively, compared to modern trucks without these after-treatment controls (Preble et al., ES&T 2015). DPFs can have the undesirable side-effect of increasing ultrafine particle (UFP) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions. While SCR systems can partially mitigate DPF-related NO2 increases, these systems can emit nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. We report new results from a study of HDDT emissions conducted in fall 2015 at the Port of Oakland and Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. We report pollutant emission factors (g kg-1) for emitted NOx, NO2, BC, PM2.5, UFP, and N2O on a truck-by-truck basis. Using a roadside license plate recognition system, we categorize each truck by its engine model year and installed after-treatment controls. From this, we develop emissions profiles for trucks with and without DPF and SCR. We evaluate the effectiveness of these devices as a function of their age to determine whether degradation is an issue. We also compare the emission profiles of trucks traveling at low speeds along a level, arterial road en route to the port and at high speeds up a 4% grade highway approaching the tunnel. Given the climate impacts of BC and N2O, we also examine the global warming potential of emissions from trucks with and without DPF and SCR.

  18. A Biatrial Myxoma with Triple Ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Ramachandra

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac myxoma is a benign tumor, but it is known for its space-occupying effect at the site of origin and frequent systemic embolization. This case report highlights a biatrial myxoma of interatrial septum who presented with significant tricuspid valve regurgitation, atrial fibrillation, and cardioembolic stroke of the left parietal lobe, i.e., a biatrial myxoma with triple ripples.

  19. The Ripple Tank: Management and Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2017-01-01

    This overview is intended to help colleagues achieve successful and satisfying observations using a ripple tank. There are many observations to consider that can effectively illustrate reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction, but the most important consideration is to make every effort to enable students to see the effects we want…

  20. Recording Images Observed Using Ripple Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    Diagrams and photographs (or computer simulations) should not replace effective observations of the wave properties that can be illustrated using a ripple tank, but they can provide support when discussing and revising what has been observed. This article explains and illustrates a route towards successful photography, which is much easier with…

  1. Measuring Social Capital Change Using Ripple Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Barbara; Johannes, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a detailed description of how to implement a ripple mapping activity to assess youth program effects on community capital and concludes with examples from Maine and Kansas. The maps lead to group reflection on project outcomes and further research and evaluation questions for group members. The results from five Maine…

  2. Generalized ripple-banana transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushmanov, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    The paper considers the transport of banana particles in a rippled magnetic field over the entire energy range. It is shown that all familiar regimes of ripple transport - ripple-plateau, banana-drift and stochastic - can be described in a unified manner. The general expression obtained for the rippled fluxes of banana particles describes, apart from the already familiar regimes, also the as yet unstudied energy region between the drift and stochastic regimes. A generalized ripple-banana thermal conductivity coefficient, chisub(i)sup(RB), is calculated. (author)

  3. Mesopontine median raphe regulates hippocampal ripple oscillation and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong V; Yau, Hau-Jie; Broker, Carl J; Tsou, Jen-Hui; Bonci, Antonello; Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    Sharp wave-associated field oscillations (∼200 Hz) of the hippocampus, referred to as ripples, are believed to be important for consolidation of explicit memory. Little is known about how ripples are regulated by other brain regions. We found that the median raphe region (MnR) is important for regulating hippocampal ripple activity and memory consolidation. We performed in vivo simultaneous recording in the MnR and hippocampus of mice and found that, when a group of MnR neurons was active, ripples were absent. Consistently, optogenetic stimulation of MnR neurons suppressed ripple activity and inhibition of these neurons increased ripple activity. Notably, using a fear conditioning procedure, we found that photostimulation of MnR neurons interfered with memory consolidation. Our results demonstrate a critical role of the MnR in regulating ripples and memory consolidation.

  4. Exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging system for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Mori, Toshimichi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiko; Kuroyanagi, Kinya; Ota, Yoshiko

    1997-01-01

    To measure exposure reduction in general dental practice using digital x-ray imaging systems for intraoral radiography with additional x-ray beam filter. Two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital (Pana-Heraus Dental) and CDR (Schick Technologies), were applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. Due to the high sensitivity to x-rays, additional x-ray beam filters for output reduction were used for examination. An Orex W II (Osada Electric Industry) x-ray generator was operated at 60 kVp, 7 mA. X-ray output (air-kerma; Gy) necessary for obtaining clinically acceptable images was measured at 0 to 20 cm in 5 cm steps from the cone tip using an ionizing chamber type 660 (Nuclear Associates) and compared with those for Ektaspeed Plus film (Eastman Kodak). The Pana Digital system was used with the optional filter supplied by Pana-Heraus Dental which reduced the output to 38%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 40% of that for the film. The CDR system was used with the Dental X-ray Beam Filter Kit (Eastman Kodak) which reduced the x-ray output to 30%. The exposure necessary to obtain clinically acceptable images was only 20% of that for the film. The two digital x-ray imaging systems, Pana Digital and CDR, provided large dose savings (60-80%) compared with Ektaspeed Plus film when applied for intraoral radiography in general dental practice. (author)

  5. A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Herrera-Ruíz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component’s harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.

  6. A new adaptive self-tuning Fourier coefficients algorithm for periodic torque ripple minimization in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Espinosa, Alfonso; Hernández-Guzmán, Víctor M; Bandala-Sánchez, Manuel; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Rodríguez-Reséndiz, Juvenal; Herrera-Ruíz, Gilberto

    2013-03-19

    A New Adaptive Self-Tuning Fourier Coefficients Algorithm for Periodic Torque Ripple Minimization in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSM) Torque ripple occurs in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) due to the non-sinusoidal flux density distribution around the air-gap and variable magnetic reluctance of the air-gap due to the stator slots distribution. These torque ripples change periodically with rotor position and are apparent as speed variations, which degrade the PMSM drive performance, particularly at low speeds, because of low inertial filtering. In this paper, a new self-tuning algorithm is developed for determining the Fourier Series Controller coefficients with the aim of reducing the torque ripple in a PMSM, thus allowing for a smoother operation. This algorithm adjusts the controller parameters based on the component's harmonic distortion in time domain of the compensation signal. Experimental evaluation is performed on a DSP-controlled PMSM evaluation platform. Test results obtained validate the effectiveness of the proposed self-tuning algorithm, with the Fourier series expansion scheme, in reducing the torque ripple.

  7. Automated electronic filter design

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Amal

    2017-01-01

    This book describes a novel, efficient and powerful scheme for designing and evaluating the performance characteristics of any electronic filter designed with predefined specifications. The author explains techniques that enable readers to eliminate complicated manual, and thus error-prone and time-consuming, steps of traditional design techniques. The presentation includes demonstration of efficient automation, using an ANSI C language program, which accepts any filter design specification (e.g. Chebyschev low-pass filter, cut-off frequency, pass-band ripple etc.) as input and generates as output a SPICE(Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) format netlist. Readers then can use this netlist to run simulations with any version of the popular SPICE simulator, increasing accuracy of the final results, without violating any of the key principles of the traditional design scheme.

  8. Rippled beam free electron laser amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Bruce E.

    1999-01-01

    A free electron laser amplifier provides a scalloping annular electron beam that interacts with the axial electric field of a TM.sub.0n mode. A waveguide defines an axial centerline and, a solenoid arranged about the waveguide produces an axial constant magnetic field within the waveguide. An electron beam source outputs a annular electron beam that interacts with the axial magnetic field to have an equilibrium radius and a ripple radius component having a variable radius with a ripple period along the axial centerline. An rf source outputs an axial electric field that propagates within the waveguide coaxial with the electron beam and has a radial mode that interacts at the electron beam at the equilibrium radius component of the electron beam.

  9. Runaway-ripple interaction in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    Two approaches of the interaction between runaway electrons and the ripple field, in tokamaks, are discussed. The first approach considers the resonance effect as an intense cyclotron heating of the electrons, by the ripple field, in the guiding center frame of the fast particles. In the second approach, an Hamiltonian formalism is used. A criterion for the onset of chaotic behavior and the results are given. A new universal instability of the runaway population in tokamak configuration is found. When combined with cyclotron losses one of its major consequence is to act as an effective slowing down mechanism preventing the free fall acceleration toward the synchrotron limit. This configuration allows the explanation of some experimental results of Tore Supra and Textor

  10. Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal Hearing Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L.; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T.; Werner, Lynne A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in post-lingually deaf adults as well as pre-lingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). In order to apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in NH children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners’ sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. Design SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90 degree shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2X3 between subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough “depth” (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal hearing listeners (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In Experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). Results In Experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The Infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in Experiment 2 infant performance was

  11. Comparing the force ripple during asynchronous and conventional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Ryan J; Tate, Mark; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Dixon, Warren E

    2014-10-01

    Asynchronous stimulation has been shown to reduce fatigue during electrical stimulation; however, it may also exhibit a force ripple. We quantified the ripple during asynchronous and conventional single-channel transcutaneous stimulation across a range of stimulation frequencies. The ripple was measured during 5 asynchronous stimulation protocols, 2 conventional stimulation protocols, and 3 volitional contractions in 12 healthy individuals. Conventional 40 Hz and asynchronous 16 Hz stimulation were found to induce contractions that were as smooth as volitional contractions. Asynchronous 8, 10, and 12 Hz stimulation induced contractions with significant ripple. Lower stimulation frequencies can reduce fatigue; however, they may also lead to increased ripple. Future efforts should study the relationship between force ripple and the smoothness of the evoked movements in addition to the relationship between stimulation frequency and NMES-induced fatigue to elucidate an optimal stimulation frequency for asynchronous stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Radium desorption, manganese and iron dissolution from sand filters of a conventional ground water treatment plant under reductive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hobaib, A.S.; Al-Sulaiman, K.M.; Al-Dhayan, D.M.; Al-Suhybani, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Sand filters are used as a filter bed in many ground water treatment plants to remove the physical contaminants and oxidation products. A build-up of radioactivity may take place on the granules, where iron and manganese oxides are deposited and form thin films on the surface of sand filter. The oxides of iron and manganese play an important role in adsorbing radium from ground water. The disposal of those granules makes a significant problem. A batch technique is used for solubilization of radium from sand filters in the presence of some organic acids, which act as reducing agents. These acids are formic acid, acetic acid, benzoic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, phthalic acid, and adipic acid. The data were obtained as a function of acidity, temperature, contact time and liquid/solid ratio particle size and shaking speed. It was found that oxalic acid was the best for radium removal. The effectiveness of these acids on radium removal was as follows: oxalic acid > phthalic acid > adipic acid > succinic acid > formic acid > acetic acid. The maximum removal obtained was 69.9% at 1M oxalic acid at 8 ml/g ratio. Reaction kinetics and mechanism parameters of the dissolution process were studied and compared with other published data. (author)

  13. PathShuffle: Credit Mixing and Anonymous Payments for Ripple

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Sanchez Pedro; Ruffing Tim; Kate Aniket

    2017-01-01

    The I owe you (IOU) credit network Ripple is one of the most prominent alternatives in the burgeoning field of decentralized payment systems. Ripple’s path-based transactions set it apart from cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Its pseudonymous nature, while still maintaining some regulatory capabilities, has motivated several financial institutions across the world to use Ripple for processing their daily transactions. Nevertheless, with its public ledger, a credit network such as Ripple is n...

  14. Ross filter pairs for metal artefact reduction in x-ray tomography: a case study based on imaging and segmentation of metallic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhatari, Benedicta D.; Abbey, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Ross filter pairs have recently been demonstrated as a highly effective means of producing quasi-monoenergetic beams from polychromatic X-ray sources. They have found applications in both X-ray spectroscopy and for elemental separation in X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Here we explore whether they could be applied to the problem of metal artefact reduction (MAR) for applications in medical imaging. Metal artefacts are a common problem in X-ray imaging of metal implants embedded in bone and soft tissue. A number of data post-processing approaches to MAR have been proposed in the literature, however these can be time-consuming and sometimes have limited efficacy. Here we describe and demonstrate an alternative approach based on beam conditioning using Ross filter pairs. This approach obviates the need for any complex post-processing of the data and enables MAR and segmentation from the surrounding tissue by exploiting the absorption edge contrast of the implant.

  15. Ripple losses during ICRF heating in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Eriksson, L.-G.; Bergeaud, V.; Chantant, M.; Martin, G.; Nguyen, F.; Reichle, R.; Vallet, J.C.; Delpeche, L.; Surle, F.

    2004-01-01

    The toroidal field coils in Tore Supra are supra-conducting, and their number is restricted to 18. As a result, the ripple is fairly large, about 7% at the plasma boundary. Tore Supra has consequently been equipped with dedicated ripple loss diagnostics, which has allowed ripple loss studies. This paper reports on the measurements made with these diagnostics and provides an analysis of the experimental results, comparing them with theoretical expectations whenever possible. Furthermore, the main heating source accelerating ions in Tore Supra is ion cyclotron resonance range of frequency (ICRF) heating, and the paper provides new information on the ripple losses of ICRF accelerated ions. (author)

  16. The development of a modified spectral ripple test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronoff, Justin M; Landsberger, David M

    2013-08-01

    Poor spectral resolution can be a limiting factor for hearing impaired listeners, particularly for complex listening tasks such as speech understanding in noise. Spectral ripple tests are commonly used to measure spectral resolution, but these tests contain a number of potential confounds that can make interpretation of the results difficult. To measure spectral resolution while avoiding those confounds, a modified spectral ripple test with dynamically changing ripples was created, referred to as the spectral-temporally modulated ripple test (SMRT). This paper describes the SMRT and provides evidence that it is sensitive to changes in spectral resolution.

  17. Monolithic Integrated Ceramic Waveguide Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, IC; Sandhu, MY

    2014-01-01

    Design techniques for a new class of integrated monolithic high permittivity ceramic waveguide filters are presented. These filters enable a size reduction of 50% compared to air-filled TEM filters with the same unloaded Q-Factor. Designs for both chebyshev and asymmetric generalized chebyshev filter are presented, with experimental results for an 1800 MHz chebyshev filter showing excellent agreement with theory.

  18. Ripple-Triggered Stimulation of the Locus Coeruleus during Post-Learning Sleep Disrupts Ripple/Spindle Coupling and Impairs Memory Consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitskaya, Yulia; Sara, Susan J.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana

    2016-01-01

    Experience-induced replay of neuronal ensembles occurs during hippocampal high-frequency oscillations, or ripples. Post-learning increase in ripple rate is predictive of memory recall, while ripple disruption impairs learning. Ripples may thus present a fundamental component of a neurophysiological mechanism of memory consolidation. In addition to…

  19. An active trap filter for high-power voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a power electronic based device to actively trap the switching current ripples for highpower converters. Control principle and system design of the active trap filter are discussed first. Comparisons of the active trap filter with LCL and LLCL filters are then carried out...

  20. Ripple scalings in geothermal facilities, a key to understand the scaling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Grundy, James; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants. The majority of the scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Basin are carbonates. They are formed due to a disruption of the lime-carbonic-acid equilibrium during production caused by degassing of CO2. These scalings are found in the production pipes, at the pumps and at filters and can nicely be described using existing hydrogeochemical models. This study proposes a second mechanism for the formation of scalings in ground-level facilities. We investigated scalings which accumulated at the inlet to the heat exchanger. Interestingly, the scalings were recovered after the ground level facilities had been cleaned. The scalings showed distinct ripple structures, which is likely a result of solid particle deposition. From the ripple features the the flow conditions during their formation were calculated based on empirical equations (Soulsby, 2012). The calculations suggest that the deposits were formed during maintenance works. Thin section images of the sediments indicate a two-step process: deposition of sediment grains, followed by stabilization with a calcite layer. The latter likely occured during maintenance. To prevent this type of scalings blocking the heat exchangers, the maintenance procedure has to be revised. References: Soulsby, R. L.; Whitehouse, R. J. S.; Marten, K. V.: Prediction of time-evolving sand ripples in shelf seas. Continental Shelf Research 2012, 38, 47-62

  1. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  2. Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anna; Traub, Roger D.; Vladimirov, Nikita; Jenkins, Alistair; Nicholson, Claire; Whittaker, Roger G.; Schofield, Ian; Clowry, Gavin J.; Cunningham, Mark O.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ripples (FRs) are network oscillations, defined variously as having frequencies of > 150 to > 250 Hz, with a controversial mechanism. FRs appear to indicate a propensity of cortical tissue to originate seizures. Here, we demonstrate field oscillations, at up to 400 Hz, in spontaneously epileptic human cortical tissue in vitro, and present a network model that could explain FRs themselves, and their relation to ‘ordinary’ (slower) ripples. We performed network simulations with model pyramidal neurons, having axons electrically coupled. Ripples ( 250 Hz, were sustained or interrupted, and had little jitter in the firing of individual axons. The form of model FR was similar to spontaneously occurring FRs in excised human epileptic tissue. In vitro, FRs were suppressed by a gap junction blocker. Our data suggest that a given network can produce ripples, FRs, or both, via gap junctions, and that FRs are favored by clusters of axonal gap junctions. If axonal gap junctions indeed occur in epileptic tissue, and are mediated by connexin 26 (recently shown to mediate coupling between immature neocortical pyramidal cells), then this prediction is testable. PMID:24118191

  3. Analysis and Speed Ripple Mitigation of a Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation-Based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor with a Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is proposed for reducing speed ripple of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs controlled by space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM. A flux graph and mathematics are used to analyze the speed ripple characteristics of the PMSM. Analysis indicates that the 6P (P refers to pole pairs of the PMSM time harmonic of rotor mechanical speed is the main harmonic component in the SVPWM control PMSM system. To reduce PMSM speed ripple, harmonics are superposed on a SVPWM reference signal. A particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is proposed to determine the optimal phase and multiplier coefficient of the superposed harmonics. The results of a Fourier decomposition and an optimized simulation model verified the accuracy of the analysis as well as the effectiveness of the speed ripple reduction methods, respectively.

  4. Noise Reduction and Gap Filling of fAPAR Time Series Using an Adapted Local Regression Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Moreno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Time series of remotely sensed data are an important source of information for understanding land cover dynamics. In particular, the fraction of absorbed photosynthetic active radiation (fAPAR is a key variable in the assessment of vegetation primary production over time. However, the fAPAR series derived from polar orbit satellites are not continuous and consistent in space and time. Filtering methods are thus required to fill in gaps and produce high-quality time series. This study proposes an adapted (iteratively reweighted local regression filter (LOESS and performs a benchmarking intercomparison with four popular and generally applicable smoothing methods: Double Logistic (DLOG, smoothing spline (SSP, Interpolation for Data Reconstruction (IDR and adaptive Savitzky-Golay (ASG. This paper evaluates the main advantages and drawbacks of the considered techniques. The results have shown that ASG and the adapted LOESS perform better in recovering fAPAR time series over multiple controlled noisy scenarios. Both methods can robustly reconstruct the fAPAR trajectories, reducing the noise up to 80% in the worst simulation scenario, which might be attributed to the quality control (QC MODIS information incorporated into these filtering algorithms, their flexibility and adaptation to the upper envelope. The adapted LOESS is particularly resistant to outliers. This method clearly outperforms the other considered methods to deal with the high presence of gaps and noise in satellite data records. The low RMSE and biases obtained with the LOESS method (|rMBE| < 8%; rRMSE < 20% reveals an optimal reconstruction even in most extreme situations with long seasonal gaps. An example of application of the LOESS method to fill in invalid values in real MODIS images presenting persistent cloud and snow coverage is also shown. The LOESS approach is recommended in most remote sensing applications, such as gap-filling, cloud-replacement, and observing temporal

  5. Structure of the ripple phase of phospholipid multibilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Kheya; Raghunathan, V.A.; Katsaras, John

    2003-01-01

    We present electron density maps (EDMs) of the ripple phase formed by phosphorylcholine lipids such as dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), dihexadecyl phosphatidylcholine, and dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC). With the exception of DLPC, the rippled bilayers have a sawtooth shape in all the systems, with one arm being almost twice as long as the other. For DMPC and POPC bilayers, EDMs have been obtained at different temperatures at a fixed relative humidity, and the overall shape of the ripples and the ratio of the lengths of the two arms are found to be insensitive to temperature. EDMs of all the systems with saturated hydrocarbon chains suggest the existence of a mean chain tilt along the ripple wave vector. In the literature it is generally assumed that the asymmetry of the rippled bilayers (absence of a mirror plane normal to the ripple wave vector) arises from a sawtoothlike height profile. However, in the case of DLPC, the height profile is found to be almost symmetric and the asymmetry results mainly from different bilayer thicknesses in the two arms of the ripple. We also present EDMs of the metastable ripple phase of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, formed on cooling from the L α phase

  6. Vibrational resonances of nonrigid vehicles: Polygonization and ripple patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.

    2009-01-01

    The well-known phenomenon of ripples on roads has its modern counterpart in ripple patterns on railroads and polygonization of wheels on state-of-the-art lightrail streetcars. Here we study an idealized mechanical suspension model for the vibrational frequency response of a buggy with a nonrigid

  7. Automatic Detection of Sand Ripple Features in Sidescan Sonar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-09

    Among the features used in forensic scientific fingerprint analysis are terminations or bifurcations of print ridges. Sidescan sonar imagery of ripple...always be pathological cases. The size of the blocks of pixels used in determining the ripple wavelength is evident in the output images on the right in

  8. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-31

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  9. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Shen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN, electronic-thermal noise (ETN, flicker noise (FN and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN. The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF. There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  10. Reduction of radiation exposure while maintaining high-quality fluoroscopic images during interventional cardiology using novel x-ray tube technology with extra beam filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Boer, A; de Feyter, P J; Hummel, W A; Keane, D; Roelandt, J R

    1994-06-01

    Radiographic technology plays an integral role in interventional cardiology. The number of interventions continues to increase, and the associated radiation exposure to patients and personnel is of major concern. This study was undertaken to determine whether a newly developed x-ray tube deploying grid-switched pulsed fluoroscopy and extra beam filtering can achieve a reduction in radiation exposure while maintaining fluoroscopic images of high quality. Three fluoroscopic techniques were compared: continuous fluoroscopy, pulsed fluoroscopy, and a newly developed high-output pulsed fluoroscopy with extra filtering. To ascertain differences in the quality of images and to determine differences in patient entrance and investigator radiation exposure, the radiated volume curve was measured to determine the required high voltage levels (kVpeak) for different object sizes for each fluoroscopic mode. The fluoroscopic data of 124 patient procedures were combined. The data were analyzed for radiographic projections, image intensifier field size, and x-ray tube kilovoltage levels (kVpeak). On the basis of this analysis, a reference procedure was constructed. The reference procedure was tested on a phantom or dummy patient by all three fluoroscopic modes. The phantom was so designed that the kilovoltage requirements for each projection were comparable to those needed for the average patient. Radiation exposure of the operator and patient was measured during each mode. The patient entrance dose was measured in air, and the operator dose was measured by 18 dosimeters on a dummy operator. Pulsed compared with continuous fluoroscopy could be performed with improved image quality at lower kilovoltages. The patient entrance dose was reduced by 21% and the operator dose by 54%. High-output pulsed fluoroscopy with extra beam filtering compared with continuous fluoroscopy improved the image quality, lowered the kilovoltage requirements, and reduced the patient entrance dose by 55% and

  11. A mechanism for tuning 5 GHz HTS filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsaka, M.; Takeuchi, S.; Ono, S.; Lee, J.H.; Saito, A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan); Akasegawa, A.; Yamanaka, K.; Kurihara, K. [Fujitsu LTD., 10-1 Wakamiya, Morinosato, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0197 (Japan); Ohshima, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Johnan, Yonezawa 992-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: ohshima@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp

    2008-09-15

    We developed a tuning mechanism of HTS filter with a dielectric tuning plate, dielectric trimming rods, and conducting trimming rods. The tuning plate has windows through which the dielectric and conducting trimming rods pass. The tuning plate was designed for a 3-pole filter with 5 GHz center frequency (f{sub c}) and 100 MHz bandwidth (BW) using a 3-dimensional electromagnetic simulator. We were able to shift the f{sub c} to frequencies below 500 MHz using the tuning plate with a dielectric constant of 45. However, the insertion loss (IL) and the pass-band ripple of the filter became more severe and the BW of the filter was narrower after tuning. We tried to improve the filter properties after tuning using the dielectric and conducting trimming rods. We decreased the IL and the pass-band ripple by adjusting the height of the dielectric trimming rods to above the resonators. Also, the BW was improved by using copper (Cu) trimming rods above the spaces between the resonators. The tuning plate and the trimming rods did not affect the IL. So, we simulated 500 MHz tuning without the filter properties deteriorating at f{sub c} = 5 GHz. Also, we experimentally evaluated that the f{sub c} could be shifted to 340 MHz using the dielectric plate, the pass-band ripple could be decreased by ripple trimming using the dielectric rods, and the BW could be increased 31 MHz by BW trimming using the Cu rods.

  12. HARLIE 3-D Aerosol Backscatter and Wind Profile Measurements During Recent Field Experiments: Background Noise Reduction with a Fabry-Perot Etalon Filter in the HARLIE System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Miller, David O.; Schwemmer, Geary; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Andrus, Ionio; Egbert, Cameron; Anderson, Mark; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Background noise reduction of War signals is one of the most important factors in achieving better signal to noise ratio and precise atmospheric data from Mar measurements. Fahey Perot etalons have been used in several lidar systems as narrow band pass filters in the reduction of scattered sunlight. An slalom with spectral bandwidth, (Delta)v=0.23/cm, free spectral range, FSR=6.7/cm, and diameter, d=24mm was installed in a fiber coupled box which included a 500 pm bandwidth interference Filter. The slalom box couples the telescope and detector with 200 pm core fibers and 21 mm focal length collimators. The angular magnification is M=48. The etalon box was inserted into the Holographic Airborne Rotating Lidar Instrument Experiment (HARLIE) system and tested during the HARGLO-2 intercomparison campaign conducted in November 2001 at Wallops Island, Virginia. This paper presents the preliminary test results of the slalom and a complete analysis will be presented at the conference.

  13. Evaluation of the effects of different filters and helium bag on the reduction of electron contamination in photon beam of Neptune linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahreyni Toosi, M. T.; Saberi, H.; Momen Nejad, M.

    2005-01-01

    Skin sparing is one of the most desirable characteristics of high energy photon beams. However, the photons emerging from the target of linacs are contaminated by secondary electrons as a result of their interactions with air, collimators, flattening filter and any other objects in their path. This phenomenon tends to increase the skin dose received by the patients. A practical and simple way to reduce the contribution of electron contamination is to place a sheet of medium to high Z material just after the secondary collimator. In this study, filters having different thickness and atomic number were applied and their effectiveness on the reduction of skin dose was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The filters of different thickness and atomic number were applied. The percent depth dose values were determined by the direct measurements made in a Scanditronix water phantom using a PTW 31006 Pin Point chamber having a sensitive volume of 0.015 cm 3 . A Perspex filter holder was made to be installed on the accessory slot. A plastic bag containing helium was also made using thin plastic sheet to study the effect of the helium bag when it replaces the air column between the head of the linac and the phantom. All of the measurements were carried out for the three field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm 2 . The setups were adjusted for SSD 100 cm. The ratio of the surface dose to maximum dose (Ds) was used as the criterion to determine the optimum filter. Results: The dosimetry results obtained in the water phantom indicated that a 0.4 mm thick Pb filter is the most effective one. This filter reduces the Ds for the field sizes of 10*10, 20*20 and 25*25 cm 2 by 5.7, 7.9 and 9.6%, respectively. Also the simultaneous use of the optimum filter and He bag is more effective than the filter alone. It reduces the Ds by 6.3, 10.1 and 12.3% for the field sizes of 10*10,20*20 and 25*25 cm 2 , respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: Based on the results of this work it is evident

  14. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  15. Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: Effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Milim; Lee, Jeong Min; Son, Hyo Shin; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong Hee; Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes. Three different-sized phantoms with diameters of 24 cm, 30 cm, and 40 cm were built up using the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom and layers of pork belly fat. Each phantom was scanned eight times using different mAs. Images were reconstructed using the FBP and three different strengths of the AIDR 3D. The image noise, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the phantom were assessed. Two radiologists assessed the image quality of the 4 image sets in consensus. The effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction compared with FBP were also compared according to the phantom sizes. Adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D significantly reduced the image noise compared with FBP and enhanced the SNR and CNR (p < 0.05) with improved image quality (p < 0.05). When a stronger reconstruction algorithm was used, greater increase of SNR and CNR as well as noise reduction was achieved (p < 0.05). The noise reduction effect of AIDR 3D was significantly greater in the 40-cm phantom than in the 24-cm or 30-cm phantoms (p < 0.05). The AIDR 3D algorithm is effective to reduce the image noise as well as to improve the image-quality parameters compared by FBP algorithm, and its effectiveness may increase as the phantom size increases.

  16. Contrast-enhanced dual energy mammography with a novel anode/filter combination and artifact reduction: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knogler, Thomas; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Leitner, Sabine; Helbich, Thomas H. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Vienna (Austria); Homolka, Peter; Leithner, Robert [Medical University of Vienna, Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Vienna (Austria); Hoernig, Mathias [Siemens AG, Healthcare, X-Ray Products, Erlangen (Germany); Langs, Georg; Waitzbauer, Martin [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Computational Imaging Research Laboratory, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-15

    To demonstrate the feasibility of contrast-enhanced dual-energy mammography (CEDEM) using titanium (Ti) filtering at 49 kVp for high-energy images and a novel artefact reducing image-subtraction post-processing algorithm. Fifteen patients with suspicious findings (ACR BI-RADS 4 and 5) detected with digital mammography (MG) that required biopsy were included. CEDEM examinations were performed on a modified prototype machine. Acquired HE and low-energy raw data images were registered non-rigidly to compensate for possible subtle tissue motion. Subtracted CEDEM images were generated via weighted subtraction, using a fully automatic, locally adjusted tissue thickness-dependent subtraction factor to avoid over-subtraction at the breast border. Two observers evaluated the MG and CEDEM images according to ACR BI-RADS in two reading sessions. Results were correlated with histopathology. Seven patients with benign and eight with malignant findings were included. All malignant lesions showed a strong contrast enhancement. BI-RADS assessment was altered in 66.6 % through the addition of CEDEM, resulting in increased overall accuracy. With CEDEM, additional lesions were depicted and false-positive rate was reduced compared to MG. CEDEM using Ti filtering with 49 kVp for HE exposures is feasible in a clinical setting. The proposed image-processing algorithm has the potential to reduce artefacts and improve CEDEM images. (orig.)

  17. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz, Miguel A., E-mail: MiguelAngel.Arranz@uclm.es [Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo J. Cela 10, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Colino, José M. [Instituto de Nanociencia, Nanotecnología y Materiales Moleculares, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fábrica de Armas, 45071 Toledo (Spain)

    2015-06-22

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes.

  18. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M. J.; Day, M.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S. G.; Bridges, N. T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ming, D. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Rice, M. S.; Sumner, D. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Yingst, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter- to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.

  19. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M G; Ewing, R C; Lamb, M P; Fischer, W W; Grotzinger, J P; Rubin, D M; Lewis, K W; Ballard, M; Day, Mitch D.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S G; Bridges, N T; Des Marais, D J; Fraeman, A A; Grant, J A; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Ming, D W; Mischna, M A; Rice, M S; Sumner, D A; Vasavada, A R; Yingst, R A

    2016-01-01

    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter– to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.

  20. PathShuffle: Credit Mixing and Anonymous Payments for Ripple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Sanchez Pedro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The I owe you (IOU credit network Ripple is one of the most prominent alternatives in the burgeoning field of decentralized payment systems. Ripple’s path-based transactions set it apart from cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Its pseudonymous nature, while still maintaining some regulatory capabilities, has motivated several financial institutions across the world to use Ripple for processing their daily transactions. Nevertheless, with its public ledger, a credit network such as Ripple is no different from a cryptocurrency in terms of weak privacy; recent demonstrative deanonymization attacks raise important concerns regarding the privacy of the Ripple users and their transactions. However, unlike for cryptocurrencies, there is no known privacy solution compatible with the existing credit networks such as Ripple.

  1. Angular tuning of the magnetic birefringence in rippled cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz, Miguel A.; Colino, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We report the measurement of magnetically induced birefringence in rippled Co films. For this purpose, the magneto-optical properties of ion beam eroded ferromagnetic films were studied using Kerr magnetometry and magnetic birefringence in the transmitted light intensity. Upon sufficient ion sculpting, these ripple surface nanostructures developed a defined uniaxial anisotropy in the in-plane magnetization, finely tuning the magnetic birefringence effect. We have studied its dependence on the relative orientation between the ripple direction and the magnetic field, and found this effect to be dramatically correlated with the capability to neatly distinguish the mechanisms for the in-plane magnetization reversal, i.e., rotation and nucleation. This double refraction corresponds univocally to the two magnetization axes, parallel and perpendicular to the ripples direction. We have also observed that tuned birefringence in stack assemblies of rippled Co films, which enables us to technically manipulate the number and direction of refraction axes

  2. Pyramidal cell-interneuron interactions underlie hippocampal ripple oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Eran; Roux, Lisa; Eichler, Ronny; Senzai, Yuta; Royer, Sebastien; Buzsáki, György

    2014-07-16

    High-frequency ripple oscillations, observed most prominently in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer, are associated with memory consolidation. The cellular and network mechanisms underlying the generation, frequency control, and spatial coherence of the rhythm are poorly understood. Using multisite optogenetic manipulations in freely behaving rodents, we found that depolarization of a small group of nearby pyramidal cells was sufficient to induce high-frequency oscillations, whereas closed-loop silencing of pyramidal cells or activation of parvalbumin- (PV) or somatostatin-immunoreactive interneurons aborted spontaneously occurring ripples. Focal pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptors abolished ripples. Localized PV interneuron activation paced ensemble spiking, and simultaneous induction of high-frequency oscillations at multiple locations resulted in a temporally coherent pattern mediated by phase-locked interneuron spiking. These results constrain competing models of ripple generation and indicate that temporally precise local interactions between excitatory and inhibitory neurons support ripple generation in the intact hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ripple/Carcinoid pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Sebaceoma is a benign sebaceous neoplasm, which has been reported to show characteristic growth patterns, such as, ripple, labyrinthine/sinusoidal, and carcinoid-like patterns. Another recent finding regarding in sebaceoma is the observation of apocrine differentiation within the sebaceoma lesion. This report describes a case of carcinoid (a partial ripple and labyrinthine) pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation with a literature review and immunohistochemical studies. The various characteristic growth patterns in sebaceoma were suggested to simply be variations of the same growth pattern arranged in cords, namely, a unified term "ripple/carcinoid pattern." The primitive sebaceous germinative cells in sebaceoma may still have the ability to undergo apocrine differentiation. Most of the reports so far on sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation, including the present case, describe a ripple/carcinoid pattern, thus suggesting that ripple/carcinoid pattern sebaceoma is composed of more primitive sebaceous germinative cells than conventional sebaceoma.

  4. Highly sensitive detection of a current ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takashi; Gushiken, Tutomu; Nishikigouri, Kazutaka; Kumada, Masayuki.

    1996-01-01

    In the HIMAC, there are six thyristor-controlled power sources for driving two synchrotrons. These power sources are the three-output terminal power sources which are equipped with positive output, negative output and neutral point for the common mode countermeasures. As electromagnet circuits are connected to the three-output terminal power sources, those are three-line type. In the inside of the power source circuits controlled by thyristors, there is the oscillation peculiar to the power sources, and the variation of voltage induces current spikes. This time, in order to assess the results of the common mode countermeasures in the power source and electromagnet circuits, as one method of cross-check, it is considered that since electromagnet current flows being divided to the bridging resistance and the coil, if attention is paid to the current on bridging resistance side, the ripple components of common mode and normal mode can be detected with high sensitivity, and this was verified. The present state of heightening the performance of synchrotron power sources is explained. The cross-check of the method of assessing the performance of electromagnet power sources is reported. The method of measuring ripple current and the results of the measurement are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Quantum and classical ripples in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hašík, Juraj; Tosatti, Erio; MartoÅák, Roman

    2018-04-01

    Thermal ripples of graphene are well understood at room temperature, but their quantum counterparts at low temperatures are in need of a realistic quantitative description. Here we present atomistic path-integral Monte Carlo simulations of freestanding graphene, which show upon cooling a striking classical-quantum evolution of height and angular fluctuations. The crossover takes place at ever-decreasing temperatures for ever-increasing wavelengths so that a completely quantum regime is never attained. Zero-temperature quantum graphene is flatter and smoother than classical graphene at large scales yet rougher at short scales. The angular fluctuation distribution of the normals can be quantitatively described by coexistence of two Gaussians, one classical strongly T -dependent and one quantum about 2° wide, of zero-point character. The quantum evolution of ripple-induced height and angular spread should be observable in electron diffraction in graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as MoS2, bilayer graphene, boron nitride, etc.

  6. Cone beam CT with zonal filters for simultaneous dose reduction, improved target contrast and automated set-up in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C J; Marchant, T E; Amer, A M

    2006-01-01

    Cone beam CT (CBCT) using a zonal filter is introduced. The aims are reduced concomitant imaging dose to the patient, simultaneous control of body scatter for improved image quality in the tumour target zone and preserved set-up detail for radiotherapy. Aluminium transmission diaphragms added to the CBCT x-ray tube of the Elekta Synergy TM linear accelerator produced an unattenuated beam for a central 'target zone' and a partially attenuated beam for an outer 'set-up zone'. Imaging doses and contrast noise ratios (CNR) were measured in a test phantom for transmission diaphragms 12 and 24 mm thick, for 5 and 10 cm long target zones. The effect on automatic registration of zonal CBCT to conventional CT was assessed relative to full-field and lead-collimated images of an anthropomorphic phantom. Doses along the axis of rotation were reduced by up to 50% in both target and set-up zones, and weighted dose (two thirds surface dose plus one third central dose) was reduced by 10-20% for a 10 cm long target zone. CNR increased by up to 15% in zonally filtered CBCT images compared to full-field images. Automatic image registration remained as robust as that with full-field images and was superior to CBCT coned down using lead-collimation. Zonal CBCT significantly reduces imaging dose and is expected to benefit radiotherapy through improved target contrast, required to assess target coverage, and wide-field edge detail, needed for robust automatic measurement of patient set-up error

  7. Rhodium SPND's Error Reduction using Extended Kalman Filter combined with Time Dependent Neutron Diffusion Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Park, Tong Kyu; Jeon, Seong Su

    2014-01-01

    The Rhodium SPND is accurate in steady-state conditions but responds slowly to changes in neutron flux. The slow response time of Rhodium SPND precludes its direct use for control and protection purposes specially when nuclear power plant is used for load following. To shorten the response time of Rhodium SPND, there were some acceleration methods but they could not reflect neutron flux distribution in reactor core. On the other hands, some methods for core power distribution monitoring could not consider the slow response time of Rhodium SPND and noise effect. In this paper, time dependent neutron diffusion equation is directly used to estimate reactor power distribution and extended Kalman filter method is used to correct neutron flux with Rhodium SPND's and to shorten the response time of them. Extended Kalman filter is effective tool to reduce measurement error of Rhodium SPND's and even simple FDM to solve time dependent neutron diffusion equation can be an effective measure. This method reduces random errors of detectors and can follow reactor power level without cross-section change. It means monitoring system may not calculate cross-section at every time steps and computing time will be shorten. To minimize delay of Rhodium SPND's conversion function h should be evaluated in next study. Neutron and Rh-103 reaction has several decay chains and half-lives over 40 seconds causing delay of detection. Time dependent neutron diffusion equation will be combined with decay chains. Power level and distribution change corresponding movement of control rod will be tested with more complicated reference code as well as xenon effect. With these efforts, final result is expected to be used as a powerful monitoring tool of nuclear reactor core

  8. Rhodium SPND's Error Reduction using Extended Kalman Filter combined with Time Dependent Neutron Diffusion Equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Park, Tong Kyu; Jeon, Seong Su [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Rhodium SPND is accurate in steady-state conditions but responds slowly to changes in neutron flux. The slow response time of Rhodium SPND precludes its direct use for control and protection purposes specially when nuclear power plant is used for load following. To shorten the response time of Rhodium SPND, there were some acceleration methods but they could not reflect neutron flux distribution in reactor core. On the other hands, some methods for core power distribution monitoring could not consider the slow response time of Rhodium SPND and noise effect. In this paper, time dependent neutron diffusion equation is directly used to estimate reactor power distribution and extended Kalman filter method is used to correct neutron flux with Rhodium SPND's and to shorten the response time of them. Extended Kalman filter is effective tool to reduce measurement error of Rhodium SPND's and even simple FDM to solve time dependent neutron diffusion equation can be an effective measure. This method reduces random errors of detectors and can follow reactor power level without cross-section change. It means monitoring system may not calculate cross-section at every time steps and computing time will be shorten. To minimize delay of Rhodium SPND's conversion function h should be evaluated in next study. Neutron and Rh-103 reaction has several decay chains and half-lives over 40 seconds causing delay of detection. Time dependent neutron diffusion equation will be combined with decay chains. Power level and distribution change corresponding movement of control rod will be tested with more complicated reference code as well as xenon effect. With these efforts, final result is expected to be used as a powerful monitoring tool of nuclear reactor core.

  9. SU-E-J-243: Possibility of Exposure Dose Reduction of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in An Image Guided Patient Positioning System by Using Various Noise Suppression Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamezawa, H; Arimura, H; Ohki, M; Shirieda, K; Kameda, N

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of exposure dose reduction of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image guided patient positioning system by using 6 noise suppression filters. Methods: First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT (X-ray volume imaging system, Elekta Co.) images were acquired with a reference dose of 86.2 mGy (weighted CT dose index: CTDIw) and various low doses of 1.4 to 43.1 mGy, respectively. Second, an automated rigid registration for three axes was performed for estimating setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images, which were processed by 6 noise suppression filters, i.e., averaging filter (AF), median filter (MF), Gaussian filter (GF), bilateral filter (BF), edge preserving smoothing filter (EPF) and adaptive partial median filter (AMF). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as an Euclidean distance between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT image and RD-CBCT image. Finally, the relationships between the residual error and CTDIw were obtained for 6 noise suppression filters, and then the CTDIw for LD-CBCT images processed by the noise suppression filters were measured at the same residual error, which was obtained with the RD-CBCT. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom and two cancer patients. Results: For the phantom, the exposure dose could be reduced from 61% (GF) to 78% (AMF) by applying the noise suppression filters to the CBCT images. The exposure dose in a prostate cancer case could be reduced from 8% (AF) to 61% (AMF), and the exposure dose in a lung cancer case could be reduced from 9% (AF) to 37% (AMF). Conclusion: Using noise suppression filters, particularly an adaptive partial median filter, could be feasible to decrease the additional exposure dose to patients in image guided patient positioning systems

  10. SU-E-J-243: Possibility of Exposure Dose Reduction of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in An Image Guided Patient Positioning System by Using Various Noise Suppression Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamezawa, H [Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujimoto General Hospital, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki (Japan); Arimura, H; Ohki, M [Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirieda, K; Kameda, N [Fujimoto General Hospital, Miyakonojo, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the possibility of exposure dose reduction of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an image guided patient positioning system by using 6 noise suppression filters. Methods: First, a reference dose (RD) and low-dose (LD)-CBCT (X-ray volume imaging system, Elekta Co.) images were acquired with a reference dose of 86.2 mGy (weighted CT dose index: CTDIw) and various low doses of 1.4 to 43.1 mGy, respectively. Second, an automated rigid registration for three axes was performed for estimating setup errors between a planning CT image and the LD-CBCT images, which were processed by 6 noise suppression filters, i.e., averaging filter (AF), median filter (MF), Gaussian filter (GF), bilateral filter (BF), edge preserving smoothing filter (EPF) and adaptive partial median filter (AMF). Third, residual errors representing the patient positioning accuracy were calculated as an Euclidean distance between the setup error vectors estimated using the LD-CBCT image and RD-CBCT image. Finally, the relationships between the residual error and CTDIw were obtained for 6 noise suppression filters, and then the CTDIw for LD-CBCT images processed by the noise suppression filters were measured at the same residual error, which was obtained with the RD-CBCT. This approach was applied to an anthropomorphic pelvic phantom and two cancer patients. Results: For the phantom, the exposure dose could be reduced from 61% (GF) to 78% (AMF) by applying the noise suppression filters to the CBCT images. The exposure dose in a prostate cancer case could be reduced from 8% (AF) to 61% (AMF), and the exposure dose in a lung cancer case could be reduced from 9% (AF) to 37% (AMF). Conclusion: Using noise suppression filters, particularly an adaptive partial median filter, could be feasible to decrease the additional exposure dose to patients in image guided patient positioning systems.

  11. Ripples and ripples: from sandy deserts to ion-sputtered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, T; Valbusa, U

    2005-01-01

    We study the morphological evolution of surfaces during ion sputtering and we compare their dynamical corrugation with aeolian ripple formation in sandy deserts. We show that, although the two phenomena are physically different, they must obey similar geometrical constraints and therefore they can be described within the same theoretical framework. The present theory distinguishes between atoms that stay bounded in the bulk and others that are mobile on the surface. We describe the excavation mechanisms, the adsorption and the surface mobility by means of a continuous equation derived from the study of dune formation on sand. We explore the spontaneous development of ordered nanostructures and explain the different dynamical behaviours experimentally observed in metals or in semiconductors or in amorphous systems. We also show that this novel approach can describe the occurrence of rotation in the ripple direction and the formation of other kinds of self-organized patterns induced by changes in the sputtering incidence angle

  12. The molecular dynamics simulation of ion-induced ripple growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suele, P.; Heinig, K.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The wavelength-dependence of ion-sputtering induced growth of repetitive nanostructures, such as ripples has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in Si. The early stage of the ion erosion driven development of ripples has been simulated on prepatterned Si stripes with a wavy surface. The time evolution of the height function and amplitude of the sinusoidal surface profile has been followed by simulated ion-sputtering. According to Bradley-Harper (BH) theory, we expect correlation between the wavelength of ripples and the stability of them. However, we find that in the small ripple wavelength (λ) regime BH theory fails to reproduce the results obtained by molecular dynamics. We find that at short wavelengths (λ 35 nm is stabilized in accordance with the available experimental results. According to the simulations, few hundreds of ion impacts in λ long and few nanometers wide Si ripples are sufficient for reaching saturation in surface growth for for λ>35 nm ripples. In another words, ripples in the long wavelength limit seems to be stable against ion-sputtering. A qualitative comparison of our simulation results with recent experimental data on nanopatterning under irradiation is attempted.

  13. Facile characterization of ripple domains on exfoliated graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Sik; Kim, Jin-Soo; Byun, Ik-Su; Lee, Duk Hyun; Hwang, In Rok; Park, Bae Ho; Choi, Taekjib; Park, Jeong Young; Salmeron, Miquel

    2012-07-01

    Ripples in graphene monolayers deposited on SiO(2)/Si wafer substrates were recently shown to give rise to friction anisotropy. High friction appears when the AFM tip slides in a direction perpendicular to the ripple crests and low friction when parallel. The direction of the ripple crest is, however, hard to determine as it is not visible in topographic images and requires elaborate measurements of friction as a function of angle. Here we report a simple method to characterize ripple crests by measuring the cantilever torsion signal while scanning in the non-conventional longitudinal direction (i.e., along the cantilever axis, as opposed to the usual friction measurement). The longitudinal torsion signal provides a much clearer ripple domain contrast than the conventional friction signal, while both signals show respective rotation angle dependences that can be explained using the torsion component of the normal reaction force exerted by the graphene ripples. We can also determine the ripple direction by comparing the contrast in torsion images obtained in longitudinal and lateral scans without sample rotation or complicated normalization.

  14. Strategy of restraining ripple error on surface for optical fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tan; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Tam, Honyuen

    2014-09-10

    The influence from the ripple error to the high imaging quality is effectively reduced by restraining the ripple height. A method based on the process parameters and the surface error distribution is designed to suppress the ripple height in this paper. The generating mechanism of the ripple error is analyzed by polishing theory with uniform removal character. The relation between the processing parameters (removal functions, pitch of path, and dwell time) and the ripple error is discussed through simulations. With these, the strategy for diminishing the error is presented. A final process is designed and demonstrated on K9 work-pieces using the optimizing strategy with magnetorheological jet polishing. The form error on the surface is decreased from 0.216λ PV (λ=632.8  nm) and 0.039λ RMS to 0.03λ PV and 0.004λ RMS. And the ripple error is restrained well at the same time, because the ripple height is less than 6 nm on the final surface. Results indicate that these strategies are suitable for high-precision optical manufacturing.

  15. Thermal ripples in model molybdenum disulfide monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remsing, Richard C.; Klein, Michael L. [Institute for Computational Molecular Science, Center for the Computational, Design of Functional Layered Materials, and Department of Chemistry, Temple University, 1925 N. 12th St., 19122, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Waghmare, Umesh V. [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, 560 064, Jakkur, Bangalore (India)

    2017-01-15

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) monolayers have the potential to revolutionize nanotechnology. To reach this potential, it will be necessary to understand the behavior of this two-dimensional (2D) material on large length scales and under thermal conditions. Herein, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the nature of the rippling induced by thermal fluctuations in monolayers of the 2H and 1T phases of MoS{sub 2}. The 1T phase is found to be more rigid than the 2H phase. Both monolayer phases are predicted to follow long wavelength scaling behavior typical of systems with anharmonic coupling between vibrational modes as predicted by classic theories of membrane-like systems. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. MOTION ARTIFACT REDUCTION IN FUNCTIONAL NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY SIGNALS BY AUTOREGRESSIVE MOVING AVERAGE MODELING BASED KALMAN FILTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI AMIAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is a technique that is used for noninvasive measurement of the oxyhemoglobin (HbO2 and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb concentrations in the brain tissue. Since the ratio of the concentration of these two agents is correlated with the neuronal activity, fNIRS can be used for the monitoring and quantifying the cortical activity. The portability of fNIRS makes it a good candidate for studies involving subject's movement. The fNIRS measurements, however, are sensitive to artifacts generated by subject's head motion. This makes fNIRS signals less effective in such applications. In this paper, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA modeling of the fNIRS signal is proposed for state-space representation of the signal which is then fed to the Kalman filter for estimating the motionless signal from motion corrupted signal. Results are compared to the autoregressive model (AR based approach, which has been done previously, and show that the ARMA models outperform AR models. We attribute it to the richer structure, containing more terms indeed, of ARMA than AR. We show that the signal to noise ratio (SNR is about 2 dB higher for ARMA based method.

  17. A method of noise reduction in heterodyne interferometric vibration metrology by combining auto-correlation analysis and spectral filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Hongliang; Xiao, Wen; Chen, Zonghui; Ma, Lan; Pan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Heterodyne interferometric vibration metrology is a useful technique for dynamic displacement and velocity measurement as it can provide a synchronous full-field output signal. With the advent of cost effective, high-speed real-time signal processing systems and software, processing of the complex signals encountered in interferometry has become more feasible. However, due to the coherent nature of the laser sources, the sequence of heterodyne interferogram are corrupted by a mixture of coherent speckle and incoherent additive noise, which can severely degrade the accuracy of the demodulated signal and the optical display. In this paper, a new heterodyne interferometric demodulation method by combining auto-correlation analysis and spectral filtering is described leading to an expression for the dynamic displacement and velocity of the object under test that is significantly more accurate in both the amplitude and frequency of the vibrating waveform. We present a mathematical model of the signals obtained from interferograms that contain both vibration information of the measured objects and the noise. A simulation of the signal demodulation process is presented and used to investigate the noise from the system and external factors. The experimental results show excellent agreement with measurements from a commercial Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV).

  18. Martian Dune Ripples as Indicators of Recent Surface Wind Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M.; Zimbelman, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Sand dunes have been shown to preserve the most recent wind patterns in their ripple formations. This investigation continues the manual documentation of ripples on Martian dunes in order to assess surface wind flow. Study sites investigated must have clear HiRISE frames and be able to represent diverse locations across the surface, decided primarily by their spread of latitude and longitude values. Additionally, frames with stereo pairs are preferred because of their ability to create digital terrain models. This will assist in efforts to relate dune slopes and obstacles to ripple patterns. The search and analysis period resulted in 40 study sites with mapped ripples. Lines were drawn perpendicular to ripple crests across three adjacent ripples in order to document both ripple wavelength from line length and inferred wind direction from azimuth. It is not possible to infer a unique wind direction from ripple orientation alone and therefore these inferred directions have a 180 degree ambiguity. Initial results from all study sites support previous observations that the Martian surface has many dune types in areas with adequate sand supply. The complexity of ripple patterns varies greatly across sites as well as within individual sites. Some areas of uniform directionality for hundreds of kilometers suggest a unimodal wind regime while overlapping patterns suggest multiple dominant winds or seasonally varying winds. In most areas, form flow related to dune shape seems to have a large effect on orientation and must be considered along with the dune type. As long as the few steep slip faces on these small dunes are avoided, form flow can be considered the dominant cause of deviation from the regional wind direction. Regional results, wind roses, and comparisons to previous work will be presented for individual sites.

  19. Edge pedestal characteristics in JET and JT-60U tokamaks under variable toroidal field ripple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urano, H.; Saibene, G.; Oyama, N.; Parail, V.; P. de Vries,; Sartori, R.; Kamada, Y.; Kamiya, K.; Loarte, A.; Lonnroth, J.; Sakamoto, Y.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Takenaga, H.; Yoshida, M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of toroidal field (TF) ripple on the edge pedestal characteristics were examined in the TF ripple scan experiments at the plasma current I(p) of 1.1 MA in JET and JT-60U. The TF ripple amplitude delta(R) was defined as a value averaged over the existing ripple wells at the separatrix on

  20. Periodic additive noises reduction in 3D images used in building of voxel phantoms through an efficient implementation of the 3D FFT: zipper artifacts filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Alex C.H. de; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Vieira, Jose W.; Leal Neto, Viriato

    2009-01-01

    The anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry are predominantly build from scanning CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) image stacks obtained of patients or volunteers. The building of these stacks (usually called of voxel phantoms or tomography phantoms) requires computer processing to be used in an exposure computational model. Noises present in these stacks can be confused with significant structures. In a 3D image with periodic additive noise in the frequency domain, the noise is fully added to its central slice. The discrete Fourier transform is the fundamental mathematical tool that allows the switch of the spatial domain for the frequency domain, and vice versa. The FFT (fast Fourier transform) algorithm is an ideal computational tool for this switch in domain with efficiency. This paper presents a new methodology for implementation in managed C++ language (Microsoft Visual Studio R .NET) of the fast Fourier transform of 3D digital images (FFT3D) using, essentially, the trigonometric recombination. The reduction of periodic additive noise consists in filtering only the central slice of 3D image in the frequency domain and transforms it back into the spatial domain through the inverse FFT3D. An example of application of this method it is the zipper artifacts filtering in images of MRI. These processes were implemented in the software DIP (Digital Image Processing). (author)

  1. Reduction of Used Memory Ensemble Kalman Filtering (RumEnKF): A data assimilation scheme for memory intensive, high performance computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, Rolf; Amisigo, Barnabas A.; Steele-Dunne, Susan; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-12-01

    Reduction of Used Memory Ensemble Kalman Filtering (RumEnKF) is introduced as a variant on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). RumEnKF differs from EnKF in that it does not store the entire ensemble, but rather only saves the first two moments of the ensemble distribution. In this way, the number of ensemble members that can be calculated is less dependent on available memory, and mainly on available computing power (CPU). RumEnKF is developed to make optimal use of current generation super computer architecture, where the number of available floating point operations (flops) increases more rapidly than the available memory and where inter-node communication can quickly become a bottleneck. RumEnKF reduces the used memory compared to the EnKF when the number of ensemble members is greater than half the number of state variables. In this paper, three simple models are used (auto-regressive, low dimensional Lorenz and high dimensional Lorenz) to show that RumEnKF performs similarly to the EnKF. Furthermore, it is also shown that increasing the ensemble size has a similar impact on the estimation error from the three algorithms.

  2. Raman scattering in a nearly resonant density ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, H.C.; Chen, F.F.

    1987-01-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering of light waves by an underdense plasma is affected by the presence of a density ripple caused by a simultaneously occurring stimulated Brillouin instability. The problem is treated kinetically for the particularly interesting case where the ripple has nearly the same wavelength as the plasma wave. The ripple is found to reduce the growth rate of the usual Raman instability but allows other decay modes to occur. Numerical results for the frequencies, growth rates, and k spectra of these modes are obtained. A physical explanation is given for a baffling result of the calculation. The physical picture is also of interest to particle acceleration by plasma waves

  3. Immune-mediated rippling muscle disease and myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Mariela; Gonorazky, Hernan; Chaves, Marcelo; Fulgenzi, Ernesto; Figueredo, Alejandra; Christiansen, Silvia; Cristiano, Edgardo; Bertini, Enrico S; Rugiero, Marcelo

    2016-10-15

    Cases of acquired rippling muscle disease in association with myasthenia gravis have been reported. We present three patients with iRMD (immune-mediated rippling muscle disease) and AChR-antibody positive myasthenia gravis. None of them had thymus pathology. They presented exercise-induced muscle rippling combined with generalized myasthenia gravis. One of them had muscle biopsy showing a myopathic pattern and a patchy immunostaining with caveolin antibodies. They were successfully treated steroids and azathioprine. The immune nature of this association is supported by the response to immunotherapies and the positivity of AChR-antibodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Transformerless Hybrid Active Filter Capable of Complying with Harmonic Guidelines for Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Ryota; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a transformerless hybrid active filter that is integrated into medium-voltage adjustable-speed motor drives for fans, pumps, and compressors without regenerative braking. The authors have designed and constructed a three-phase experimental system rated at 400V and 15kW, which is a downscaled model from a feasible 6.6-kV 1-MW motor drive system. This system consists of the hybrid filter connecting a passive filter tuned to the 7th harmonic filter in series with an active filter that is based on a three-level diode-clamped PWM converter, as well as an adjustable-speed motor drive in which a diode rectifier is used as the front end. The hybrid filter is installed on the ac side of the diode rectifier with no line-frequency transformer. The downscaled system has been exclusively tested so as to confirm the overall compensating performance of the hybrid filter and the filtering performance of a switching-ripple filter for mitigating switching-ripple voltages produced by the active filter. Experimental results verify that the hybrid filter achieves harmonic compensation of the source current in all the operating regions from no-load to the rated-load conditions, and that the switching-ripple filter reduces the switching-ripple voltages as expected.

  5. Performance of the RI exhaust filter at Chosun university cyclotron facility and {sup 18}F emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Cheol Ki; Jang, Han; Lee, Goung Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Recently, the number of PET cyclotrons has increased in Korea. A cyclotron mainly produces {sup 18}F, which is used for the production of [{sup 18}F]FDG, a cancer diagnostic radiopharmaceutical. For radiation protection, the discharge control standard under the Nuclear Safety Act limits the radioactive concentration of {sup 18}F in the exhaust discharged from a nuclear power utilization facility to below 2,000 Bq m-3. However, the radioactive concentration of 18F discharged during [18F]FDG production at the cyclotron facility at Chosun University is maintained at about 1,500 Bq m{sup -3} on average, which is 75% of the concentration limit of the discharge control standard, and temporarily exceeds the standard as per the real-time monitoring results. This study evaluated the performance of the exhaust flter unit of the cyclotron facility at Chosun University by assessing the concentration of {sup 18}F in the exhaust, and an experiment was conducted on the discharge reduction, where {sup 18}F is discharged without reacting with the FDG precursors during [{sup 18}F]FDG synthesis and is immediately captured by the [{sup 18}F]FDG automatic synthesis unit. Based on the performance evaluation results of the exhaust flter at the cyclotron facility of Chosun University, the measured capture effciency before and after the flter was found to be 92%. Furthermore, the results of the discharge reduction experiment, where the exhaust {sup 18}F was immediately captured by the [{sup 18}F]FDG synthesizer, showed a very satisfactory 94.3% reduction in the concentration of discharge compared to the existing discharge concentration.

  6. Filtering out the noise: evaluating the impact of noise and sound reduction strategies on sleep quality for ICU patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Karen J; Ranieri, V Marco

    2009-01-01

    The review article by Xie and colleagues examines the impact of noise and noise reduction strategies on sleep quality for critically ill patients. Evaluating the impact of noise on sleep quality is challenging, as it must be measured relative to other factors that may be more or less disruptive to patients' sleep. Such factors may be difficult for patients, observers, and polysomnogram interpreters to identify, due to our limited understanding of the causes of sleep disruption in the critically ill, as well as the challenges in recording and quantifying sleep stages and sleep fragmentation in the intensive care unit. Furthermore, most research in this field has focused on noise level, whereas acousticians typically evaluate additional parameters such as noise spectrum and reverberation time. The authors highlight the disparate results and limitations of existing studies, including the lack of attention to other acoustic parameters besides sound level, and the combined effects of different sleep disturbing factors.

  7. Climbing ripple structure and associated storm-lamination from a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pranhita–Godavari Valley, south India, displays well developed climbing ripple lamination and ... sedimentary environments, such as river flood .... Sediment, sequence and facies ..... tic Archaean Witwatersrand Supergroup, South Africa;.

  8. Oscillatory ripples, evaluation of ancient wave climates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oscillatory ripples, evaluation of ancient wave climates and epierogeny in the Anambra ... conditions, epierogenic patterns and paleogeographic history of the basins. ... shallow and marked by low to moderate hydrodynamic energy conditions.

  9. Real time algorithms for sharp wave ripple detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ankit; Kemere, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Neural activity during sharp wave ripples (SWR), short bursts of co-ordinated oscillatory activity in the CA1 region of the rodent hippocampus, is implicated in a variety of memory functions from consolidation to recall. Detection of these events in an algorithmic framework, has thus far relied on simple thresholding techniques with heuristically derived parameters. This study is an investigation into testing and improving the current methods for detection of SWR events in neural recordings. We propose and profile methods to reduce latency in ripple detection. Proposed algorithms are tested on simulated ripple data. The findings show that simple realtime algorithms can improve upon existing power thresholding methods and can detect ripple activity with latencies in the range of 10-20 ms.

  10. Design and Analysis of LT Codes with Decreasing Ripple Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new design of LT codes, which decreases the amount of necessary overhead in comparison to existing designs. The design focuses on a parameter of the LT decoding process called the ripple size. This parameter was also a key element in the design proposed in the original...... work by Luby. Specifically, Luby argued that an LT code should provide a constant ripple size during decoding. In this work we show that the ripple size should decrease during decoding, in order to reduce the necessary overhead. Initially we motivate this claim by analytical results related...... to the redundancy within an LT code. We then propose a new design procedure, which can provide any desired achievable decreasing ripple size. The new design procedure is evaluated and compared to the current state of the art through simulations. This reveals a significant increase in performance with respect...

  11. All-Pole Recursive Digital Filters Design Based on Ultraspherical Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    N. Stojanovic; N. Stamenkovic; V. Stojanovic

    2014-01-01

    A simple method for approximation of all-pole recursive digital filters, directly in digital domain, is described. Transfer function of these filters, referred to as Ultraspherical filters, is controlled by order of the Ultraspherical polynomial, nu. Parameter nu, restricted to be a nonnegative real number (nu ≥ 0), controls ripple peaks in the passband of the magnitude response and enables a trade-off between the passband loss and the group delay response of the resulting filter. Chebyshev f...

  12. Correlation between the ripple phase and stripe domains in membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernchou, Uffe; Midtiby, Henrik; Ipsen, John Hjort; Simonsen, Adam Cohen

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between stripe domains and the ripple phase in membranes. These have previously been observed separately without being linked explicitly. Past results have demonstrated that solid and ripple phases exhibit rich textural patterns related to the orientational order of tilted lipids and the orientation of ripple corrugations. Here we reveal a highly complex network pattern of ripple and solid domains in DLPC, DPPC bilayers with structures covering length scales from 10 nm to 100 μm. Using spincoated double supported membranes we investigate domains by correlated AFM and fluorescence microscopy. Cooling experiments demonstrate the mode of nucleation and growth of stripe domains enriched in the fluorescent probe. Concurrent AFM imaging reveals that these stripe domains have a one-to-one correspondence with a rippled morphology running parallel to the stripe direction. Both thin and thick stripe domains are observed having ripple periods of 13.5±0.2 nm and 27.4±0.6 nm respectively. These are equivalent to previously observed asymmetric/equilibrium and symmetric/metastable ripple phases, respectively. Thin stripes grow from small solid domains and grow predominantly in length with a speed of ~3 times that of the thick stripes. Thick stripes grow by templating on the sides of thinner stripes or can emerge directly from the fluid phase. Bending and branching angles of stripes are in accordance with an underlying six fold lattice. We discuss mechanisms for the nucleation and growth of ripples and discuss a generic phase diagram that may partly rationalize the coexistence of metastable and stable phases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MD 1691: Active halo control using tune ripple at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia Morales, Hector; Bruce, Roderik; Redaelli, Stefano; Fitterer, Miriam; Fiascaris, Maria; Nisbet, David; Thiesen, Hugues; Valentino, Gianluca; Xu, Chen; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In this MD we performed halo excitation through tune ripple. This consists in an excitation that introduces new resonance sidebands around the existing resonance lines. In presence of sufficient detuning with amplitude, these sidebands can in principle affect only the dynamics of the halo particles at large amplitudes. Tune ripple was induced through a current modulation of the warm trim quadrupoles in IR7. This is the first time this method is experimentally tested at the LHC.

  14. Uniting ripple-formation theory under water and winds: A universal scaling relation for the wavelength of fluid-drag ripples across fluids and planetary bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Ewing, R. C.; McElroy, B. J.

    2016-12-01

    Current ripples form on riverbeds and on the seafloor from viscous drag exerted by water flow over sand and are thought to be absent in subaerial systems, where ripple formation is dominated by a mechanism involving the impacting and splashing of sand grains. A fluid-drag mechanism, however, is not precluded in subaerial conditions and was originally hypothesized by R. A. Bagnold. Despite decades of observations in the field and in the laboratory, no universal scaling relation exists to predict the size of fluid-drag ripples. We combine dimensional analysis and a new extensive data compilation to develop a relationship and predict the equilibrium wavelength of current ripples. Our analysis shows that ripples are spaced farther apart when formed by more viscous fluids, smaller bed shear velocities, in coarser grains, or for smaller sediment specific gravity. Our scaling relation also highlights the abrupt transition between current ripples and subaqueous dunes, and thus allows for a process-based segregation of ripples from dunes. When adjusting for subaerial conditions, we predict the formation of decimeter-scale wind-drag ripples on Earth and meter-scale wind-drag ripples on Mars. The latter are ubiquitous on the Red Planet, and are found to co-exist with smaller decimeter-scale ripples, which we interpret as impact ripples. Because the predicted scale of terrestrial wind-drag ripples overlaps with that of impact ripples, it is possible that wind-drag ripples exist on Earth too, but are not recognized as such. When preserved in rocks, fluid-drag ripple stratification records flow directions and fluid properties that are crucial to constrain paleo-environments. Our new theory allows for predictions of ripple size, perhaps in both fluvial and eolian settings, and thus potentially represents a powerful tool for paleo-environmental reconstructions on different planetary bodies.

  15. Deterministic ripple-spreading model for complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Ming; Leeson, Mark S; Hines, Evor L; Di Paolo, Ezequiel

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a deterministic complex network model, which is inspired by the natural ripple-spreading phenomenon. The motivations and main advantages of the model are the following: (i) The establishment of many real-world networks is a dynamic process, where it is often observed that the influence of a few local events spreads out through nodes, and then largely determines the final network topology. Obviously, this dynamic process involves many spatial and temporal factors. By simulating the natural ripple-spreading process, this paper reports a very natural way to set up a spatial and temporal model for such complex networks. (ii) Existing relevant network models are all stochastic models, i.e., with a given input, they cannot output a unique topology. Differently, the proposed ripple-spreading model can uniquely determine the final network topology, and at the same time, the stochastic feature of complex networks is captured by randomly initializing ripple-spreading related parameters. (iii) The proposed model can use an easily manageable number of ripple-spreading related parameters to precisely describe a network topology, which is more memory efficient when compared with traditional adjacency matrix or similar memory-expensive data structures. (iv) The ripple-spreading model has a very good potential for both extensions and applications.

  16. Robust low frequency current ripple elimination algorithm for grid-connected fuel cell systems with power balancing technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Choe, Gyu-Yeong; Lee, Byoung-Kuk [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Soo [R and D Center, Advanced Drive Technology (ADT) Company, 689-26 Geumjeong-dong, Gunpo-si, Gyeonggi-do 435-862 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems is generated from dc-ac inverter operation, which generates 60 Hz fundamental component, and gives harmful effects on fuel cell stack itself, such as making cathode surface responses slower, causing an increase of more than 10% in the fuel consumption, creating oxygen starvation, causing a reduction in the operating lifetime, and incurring a nuisance tripping such as overload situation. With these reasons, low frequency current ripple makes fuel cell system unstable and lifetime of fuel cell stack itself short. This paper presents a fast and robust control algorithm to eliminate low frequency current ripple in grid-connected fuel cell systems. Compared with the conventional methods, in the proposed control algorithm, dc link voltage controller is shifted from dc-dc converter to dc-ac inverter, resulting that dc-ac inverter handles dc link voltage control and output current control simultaneously with help of power balancing technique. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only completely eliminate current ripple but also significantly reduce the overshoot or undershoot during transient states without any extra hardware. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified by computer simulations and also by experiments with a 1 kW laboratory prototype. (author)

  17. HEPA Filter Vulnerability Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter vulnerability was requested by the USDOE Office of River Protection (ORP) to satisfy a DOE-HQ directive to evaluate the effect of filter degradation on the facility authorization basis assumptions. Within the scope of this assessment are ventilation system HEPA filters that are classified as Safety-Class (SC) or Safety-Significant (SS) components that perform an accident mitigation function. The objective of the assessment is to verify whether HEPA filters that perform a safety function during an accident are likely to perform as intended to limit release of hazardous or radioactive materials, considering factors that could degrade the filters. Filter degradation factors considered include aging, wetting of filters, exposure to high temperature, exposure to corrosive or reactive chemicals, and exposure to radiation. Screening and evaluation criteria were developed by a site-wide group of HVAC engineers and HEPA filter experts from published empirical data. For River Protection Project (RPP) filters, the only degradation factor that exceeded the screening threshold was for filter aging. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of filter aging on the filter strength was conducted, and the results were compared with required performance to meet the conditions assumed in the RPP Authorization Basis (AB). It was found that the reduction in filter strength due to aging does not affect the filter performance requirements as specified in the AB. A portion of the HEPA filter vulnerability assessment is being conducted by the ORP and is not part of the scope of this study. The ORP is conducting an assessment of the existing policies and programs relating to maintenance, testing, and change-out of HEPA filters used for SC/SS service. This document presents the results of a HEPA filter vulnerability assessment conducted for the River protection project as requested by the DOE Office of River Protection

  18. Active pre-filters for dc/dc Boost regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Andrés Ramos-Paja

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an active pre-filter to mitigate the current harmonics generated by classical dc/dc Boost regulators, which generate current ripples proportional to the duty cycle. Therefore, high output voltage conditions, i.e., high voltage conversion ratios, produce high current harmonics that must be filtered to avoid damage or source losses. Traditionally, these current components are filtered using electrolytic capacitors, which introduce reliability problems because of their high failure rate. The solution introduced in this paper instead uses a dc/dc converter based on the parallel connection of the Boost canonical cells to filter the current ripples generated by the Boost regulator, improving the system reliability. This solution provides the additional benefits of improving the overall efficiency and the voltage conversion ratio. Finally, the solution is validated with simulations and experimental results.

  19. A Fuzzy Gravitational Search Algorithm to Design Optimal IIR Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Pelusi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goodness of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR digital filters design depends on pass band ripple, stop band ripple and transition band values. The main problem is defining a suitable error fitness function that depends on these parameters. This fitness function can be optimized by search algorithms such as evolutionary algorithms. This paper proposes an intelligent algorithm for the design of optimal 8th order IIR filters. The main contribution is the design of Fuzzy Inference Systems able to tune key parameters of a revisited version of the Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA. In this way, a Fuzzy Gravitational Search Algorithm (FGSA is designed. The optimization performances of FGSA are compared with those of Differential Evolution (DE and GSA. The results show that FGSA is the algorithm that gives the best compromise between goodness, robustness and convergence rate for the design of 8th order IIR filters. Moreover, FGSA assures a good stability of the designed filters.

  20. Control strategies of active filters in the context of power conditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Stan George; Benjamin, Doniga Daniel; Magureanu, R.

    2005-01-01

    performance of active filters, and thus constitute a viable improved approach for harmonic compensation. In this paper a parallel hybrid filter is studied for current harmonic compensation. The hybrid filter is formed by a single tuned LC filter per phase and a small-rated power three-phase active filter......Active Power Filters have been intensively explored in the past decade. Various topologies and control schemes have been documented aiming at reducing the cost and improving the performance of the compensation system. Hybrid active filters inherit the efficiency of passive filters and the improved......, which are directly connected in series without any matching transformer. The required rating of the active filter is much smaller than a conventional standalone active filter would be. No additional switching-ripple filter is required for the hybrid filter because the LC filter functions not only...

  1. Compact microstrip bandpass filter with tunable notch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Silas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2014-01-01

    Two different designs combining a bandpass and a notch filter are developed to operate in the receiving band from 350–470 MHz. The bandpass filter is designed from a simple structure, by use of only four short circuited stubs and a half wavelength transmission line connecting the stubs. The tunable...... notch filter ensures an attenuation level of 19.3 dB to 27.3 dB in the frequency range from 360–480 MHz. The measured passband ripple of the combined filter is less than 0.5 dB, while the insertion loss for the simplest design is less than 1.7 dB only 10 MHz from the notch frequency. Even though...... the wavelength on the selected substrate (εr = 3.55) is approximately 45 cm, the outer dimensions of the final filter only measure 10×10 cm2....

  2. CT urography in the urinary bladder: To compare excretory phase images using a low noise index and a high noise index with adaptive noise reduction filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeyama, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Takaki; Ohgiya, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Although CT urography (CTU) is widely used for the evaluation of the entire urinary tract, the most important drawback is the radiation exposure. Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a noise reduction filter (NRF) using a phantom and to quantitatively and qualitatively compare excretory phase (EP) images using a low noise index (NI) with those using a high NI and postprocessing NRF (pNRF). Material and Methods: Each NI value was defined for a slice thickness of 5 mm, and reconstructed images with a slice thickness of 1.25 mm were assessed. Sixty patients who were at high risk of developing bladder tumors (BT) were divided into two groups according to whether their EP images were obtained using an NI of 9.88 (29 patients; group A) or an NI of 20 and pNRF (31 patients; group B). The CT dose index volume (CTDI vol ) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the bladder with respect to the anterior pelvic fat were compared in both groups. Qualitative assessment of the urinary bladder for image noise, sharpness, streak artifacts, homogeneity, and the conspicuity of polypoid or sessile-shaped BTs with a short-axis diameter greater than 10 mm was performed using a 3-point scale. Results: The phantom study showed noise reduction of approximately 40% and 76% dose reduction between group A and group B. CTDI vol demonstrated a 73% reduction in group B (4.6 ± 1.1 mGy) compared with group A (16.9 ± 3.4 mGy). The CNR value was not significantly different (P = 0.60) between group A (16.1 ± 5.1) and group B (16.6 ± 7.6). Although group A was superior (P < 0.01) to group B with regard to image noise, other qualitative analyses did not show significant differences. Conclusion: EP images using a high NI and pNRF were quantitatively and qualitatively comparable to those using a low NI, except with regard to image noise

  3. A Novel SFG Structure for C-T Highpass Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Ivan Riis

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a sixth order elliptic highpass filter having a passband frequency of 3.0KHz, a passband ripple of 1.0dB and a stopband attenuation of 50dB. The filter is based on a novel integrator based SFG describing a passive prototype filter; this SFG is simulated using MOSFET-C building blocks. The noise performance is considerably enhanced when compared to other highpass filter structures. Well within the stopband the output noise is dominated by amplifier noise, but ...

  4. Power Quality Improvement in a Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Interfaced Grid Connected System Using a Modified Inductive–Capacitive–Inductive Filter with Reduced Power Loss and Improved Harmonic Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Jayaraman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multilevel inverters are more researched due to the advantages they offer over conventional voltage source inverters in grid connected applications. Passive filters are connected at the output of these inverters to produce sinusoidal waveforms with reduced harmonics and to satisfy grid interconnection standard requirements. This work proposes a new passive filter topology for a pulse width modulated five-level cascaded inverter interfaced grid connected system. The proposed passive filter inserts an additional resistance-capacitance branch in parallel to the filter capacitor of the traditional inductive–capacitive–inductive filter in addition to a resistance in series with it to reduce damping power loss. It can attenuate the switching frequency harmonic current components much better than the traditional filter while maintaining the same overall inductance, reduced capacitance and resistance values. The basic parameter design procedure and an approach to discover the parameters of the proposed filter is introduced. Further, a novel methodology using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is recommended to guarantee minimum damping loss while ensuring reduced peak during resonance. In addition, PSO algorithm is newly employed in this work to maximize harmonic attenuation in and around the switching frequency on the premise of allowable values of filter inductance and capacitance. A comparative discussion considering traditional passive filters and the proposed filter is presented and evaluated through experiments conducted on a 110 V, 1 kW five-level grid connected inverter. The modulation algorithm for the multilevel inverter is implemented using a SPARTAN 6-XC6SLX25 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA processor. The analysis shows that the proposed filter not only provides decreased damping power loss but also is capable of providing considerable harmonic ripple reduction in the high frequency band, improved output waveforms and lesser

  5. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  6. Thermal dynamics of silver clusters grown on rippled silica surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Mukul, E-mail: mkbh10@gmail.com [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Ranjan, Mukesh [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India); Jolley, Kenny; Lloyd, Adam; Smith, Roger [Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, Subroto [FCIPT, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Low energy oblique angle ion bombardment forms ripple pattern on silicon surface. • The ripple patterns have wavelengths between 20 and 45 nm and correspondingly low height. • Silver nanoparticles have been deposited at an angle of 70° on patterned silicon templates. • The as-deposited np are annealed in vacuo at temperature of 573 K for a time duration of 1 h. • MD simulation is used to model the process and compare the results to the experiment. • Results show that silver clusters grow preferentially along parallel to the rippled surface. • Mobility of silver atoms depends on the site to which they are bonded on this amorphous surface. • MD simulations show contour ordered coalescence which is dependent on ripple periodicity. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles have been deposited on silicon rippled patterned templates at an angle of incidence of 70° to the surface normal. The templates are produced by oblique incidence argon ion bombardment and as the fluence increases, the periods and heights of the structures increase. Structures with periods of 20 nm, 35 nm and 45 nm have been produced. Moderate temperature vacuum annealing shows the phenomenon of cluster coalescence following the contour of the more exposed faces of the ripple for the case of 35 nm and 45 nm but not at 20 nm where the silver aggregates into larger randomly distributed clusters. In order to understand this effect, the morphological changes of silver nanoparticles deposited on an asymmetric rippled silica surface are investigated through the use of molecular dynamics simulations for different deposition angles of incidence between 0° and 70° and annealing temperatures between 500 K and 900 K. Near to normal incidence, clusters are observed to migrate over the entire surface but for deposition at 70°, a similar patterning is observed as in the experiment. The random distribution of clusters for the periodicity ≈ of 20 nm is linked to the geometry of the silica

  7. VHTR Construction Ripple Effect using Inter-Industry Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of a VHTR economic analysis, we have studied the VHTR construction cost and operation and maintenance cost. However, it is somewhat difficult to expect the exact cost due to insufficient reference data and experience. As a result, we propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect, added value inducement effect, and employment inducement effect for VHTR 600MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. This paper presents a new method for the ripple effect and preliminary ripple effect consequence. We proposed a ripple effect analysis method using a time series and inter-industry table. As a result, we can predict that a 600MWth x 4 module VHTR reactor construction will bring about a 43771 employment effect, 24160 billion KRW production effect, and 4472 billion added value effect for 22 years. It is necessary to use the sub-account values of an inter-industry table to obtain a more precise effect result. However, the methodology can be applied with minor modification to another reactor type.

  8. VHTR Construction Ripple Effect using Inter-Industry Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a part of a VHTR economic analysis, we have studied the VHTR construction cost and operation and maintenance cost. However, it is somewhat difficult to expect the exact cost due to insufficient reference data and experience. As a result, we propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect, added value inducement effect, and employment inducement effect for VHTR 600MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. This paper presents a new method for the ripple effect and preliminary ripple effect consequence. We proposed a ripple effect analysis method using a time series and inter-industry table. As a result, we can predict that a 600MWth x 4 module VHTR reactor construction will bring about a 43771 employment effect, 24160 billion KRW production effect, and 4472 billion added value effect for 22 years. It is necessary to use the sub-account values of an inter-industry table to obtain a more precise effect result. However, the methodology can be applied with minor modification to another reactor type.

  9. Spontaneous ripple formation in phosphorene: electronic properties and possible applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yungang; Yang, Li; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei

    2016-06-09

    According to the Mermin-Wagner theorem and theory of elasticity, long-range order in two-dimensional (2D) crystals will be inevitably destroyed due to a thermal fluctuation. Thus, a 2D lattice prefers a corrugation meaning that a 2D crystal is easy to present a ripple. In this work, we, via employing ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, for the first time evidenced that the inherent dynamics of phosphorene would lead to a spontaneous formation of ripples at room temperature. The height of a ripple closely associates with the temperature and the width. Via density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we further demonstrated that the emergence of ripples would remarkably reduce the bandgap of phosphorene. Via the construction of the unique phosphorene structure, we finally found that such a rippled structure is expected to be used in the light-emitting field. These results give us further knowledge of phosphorene, which goes beyond the current scope of phosphorene limited to the flat lattice.

  10. Wave plus current over a ripple-covered bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Andersen, Ken Haste; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    1999-01-01

    This paper concerns the combined wave and current boundary layer flow over a ripple-covered bed, The study comprises experiments as well as a numerical modelling study: the experimental part comprises laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) velocity and turbulence measurements, and a flow-visualization st......This paper concerns the combined wave and current boundary layer flow over a ripple-covered bed, The study comprises experiments as well as a numerical modelling study: the experimental part comprises laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) velocity and turbulence measurements, and a flow......-visualization study in the laboratory with ripples, 22 cm in length, and 3.5 cm in height. One wave-alone, three current-alone, and three combined waves and current tests were conducted. The wave-velocity-to-current-velocity ratio ranges from 1 to 2.4. The orbiral-amplitude-ro-ripple-length ratio (at the bed) is 0.......41. The effect of superimposing waves on a current is to displace the velocity profile to higher elevations. The velocity profiles exhibit two "logarithmic layers", one associated with the actual roughness of the bed (the actual ripple roughness), and the other with the apparent roughness induced by the waves...

  11. The bad public decisions’ ripple – setting the education off balance. Marketing simulation – education design decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Teodora DINU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The research goes in-depth of a highly debated public decision on education due to its topicality and suddenly enforced changes. The analysis argues that the perceptions of the groups which are mostly impacted by the changes contradict the effects targeted by the Law. These perceptions are tested in a split focus group (in three target subgroups – teaching staff, students and secretarial staff and both the initial observations and the ones filtered through the field literature prove a strong burden on the higher education system, which will only multiply like ripples in the context of the current economic situation.

  12. The effect of soot on ammonium nitrate species and NO2 selective catalytic reduction over Cu-zeolite catalyst-coated particulate filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Oana; Tamm, Stefanie; Stenfeldt, Marie; Olsson, Louise

    2016-02-28

    A selective catalytic reduction (SCR)-coated particulate filter was evaluated by means of dynamic tests performed using NH3, NO2, O2 and H2O. The reactions were examined both prior to and after soot removal in order to study the effect of soot on ammonium nitrate formation and decomposition, ammonia storage and NO2 SCR. A slightly larger ammonia storage capacity was observed when soot was present in the sample, which indicated that small amounts of ammonia can adsorb on the soot. Feeding of NO2 and NH3 in the presence of O2 and H2O at low temperature (150, 175 and 200°C) leads to a large formation of ammonium nitrate species and during the subsequent temperature ramp using H2O and argon, a production of nitrous oxides was observed. The N2O formation is often related to ammonium nitrate decomposition, and our results showed that the N2O formation was clearly decreased by the presence of soot. We therefore propose that in the presence of soot, there are fewer ammonium nitrate species on the surface due to the interactions with the soot. Indeed, we do observe CO2 production during the reaction conditions also at 150°C, which shows that there is a reaction with these species and soot. In addition, the conversion of NOx due to NO2 SCR was significantly enhanced in the presence of soot; we attribute this to the smaller amount of ammonium nitrate species present in the experiments where soot is available since it is well known that ammonium nitrate formation is a major problem at low temperature due to the blocking of the catalytic sites. Further, a scanning electron microscopy analysis of the soot particles shows that they are about 30-40 nm and are therefore too large to enter the pores of the zeolites. There are likely CuxOy or other copper species available on the outside of the zeolite crystallites, which could have been enhanced due to the hydrothermal treatment at 850°C of the SCR-coated filter prior to the soot loading. We therefore propose that soot is

  13. Measurements of the ripple effect and geometric distribution of switched gradient fields inside a magnetic resonance scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Henrik; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Wilén, Jonna

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of patient exposure during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures is limited, and the need for such knowledge has been demonstrated in recent in vitro and in vivo studies of the genotoxic effects of MRI. This study focuses on the dB/dt of the switched gradient field (SGF) and its geometric distribution. These values were characterized by measuring the peak dB/dt generated by a programmed gradient current of alternating triangles inside a 1.5T MR scanner. The maximum dB/dt exposure to the gradient field was 6-14 T/s, and this occurred at the edges of the field of view (FOV) 20-25 cm from the isocenter in the longitudinal direction. The dB/dt exposure dropped off to roughly half the maximum (3-7 T/s) at the edge of the bore. It was found that the dB/dt of the SGF was distorted by a 200 kHz ripple arising from the amplifier. The ripple is small in terms of B-field, but the high frequency content contributes to a peak dB/dt up to 18 times larger than that predicted by the slew rate (4 T/s m) and the distance from the isocenter. Measurements on a 3 T MRI scanner, however, revealed a much smaller filtered ripple of 100 kHz in dB/dt. These findings suggest that the gradient current to each coil together with information on the geometrical distribution of the gradient field and ripple effects could be used to assess the SGF exposure within an MRI bore. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mechanisms for Selective Single-Cell Reactivation during Offline Sharp-Wave Ripples and Their Distortion by Fast Ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Manuel; Averkin, Robert G; Fernandez-Lamo, Ivan; Aguilar, Juan; Lopez-Pigozzi, Diego; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; Cid, Elena; Tamas, Gabor; Menendez de la Prida, Liset

    2017-06-21

    Memory traces are reactivated selectively during sharp-wave ripples. The mechanisms of selective reactivation, and how degraded reactivation affects memory, are poorly understood. We evaluated hippocampal single-cell activity during physiological and pathological sharp-wave ripples using juxtacellular and intracellular recordings in normal and epileptic rats with different memory abilities. CA1 pyramidal cells participate selectively during physiological events but fired together during epileptic fast ripples. We found that firing selectivity was dominated by an event- and cell-specific synaptic drive, modulated in single cells by changes in the excitatory/inhibitory ratio measured intracellularly. This mechanism collapses during pathological fast ripples to exacerbate and randomize neuronal firing. Acute administration of a use- and cell-type-dependent sodium channel blocker reduced neuronal collapse and randomness and improved recall in epileptic rats. We propose that cell-specific synaptic inputs govern firing selectivity of CA1 pyramidal cells during sharp-wave ripples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rippling modes in the edge of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Callen, J.D.; Gaffney, P.W.; Hicks, H.R.

    1982-02-01

    A promising resistive magnetohydrodynamic candidate for the underlying cause of turbulence in the edge of a tokamak plasma is the rippling instability. In this paper we develop a computational model for these modes in the cylindrical tokamak approximation and explore the linear growth and single-helicity quasi-linear saturation phases of the rippling modes for parameters appropriate to the edge of a tokamak plasma. Large parallel heat conduction does not stabilize these modes; it only reduces their growth rate by a factor scaling as k/sub parallel//sup -4/3/. Nonlinearly, individual rippling modes are found to saturate by quasi-linear flattening of the resistivity profile. The saturated amplitude of the modes scales as m/sup -1/, and the radial extent of these modes grows linearly with time due to radial Vector E x Vector B 0 convection. This evolution is found to be terminated by parallel heat conduction

  16. Rippling modes in the edge of a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Gaffney, P.W.; Hicks, H.R.; Callan, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    A promising resistive magnetohydrodynamic candidate for the underlying cause of turbulence in the edge of a tokamak plasma is the rippling instability. In this paper a computational model for these modes in the cylindrical tokamak approximation was developed and the linear growth and single-helicity quasi-linear saturation phases of the rippling modes for parameters appropriate to the edge of a tokamak plasma were explored. Large parallel heat conduction does not stabilize these modes; it only reduces their growth rate by a factor sacling as K/sup -4/3//sub parallel/. Nonlinearly, individual rippling modes are found to saturate by quasi-linear flattening of the resistivity profile. The saturated amplitude of the modes scales as m -1 , and the radial extent of these modes grows linearly with time due to radial E x B 0 convection. This evolution is found to be terminated by parallel heat conduction

  17. Evolution of a Rippled Membrane during Phospholipase A2 Hydrolysis Studied by Time-Resolved AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, Chad; Mouritsen, Ole G.; Jørgensen, Kent

    2004-01-01

    The sensitivity of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) for lipid membrane curvature is explored by monitoring, through time-resolved atomic force microscopy, the hydrolysis of supported double bilayers in the ripple phase. The ripple phase presents a corrugated morphology. PLA2 is shown to have higher activity...... toward the ripple phase compared to the gel phase in 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes, indicating its preference for this highly curved membrane morphology. Hydrolysis of the stable and metastable ripple structures is monitored for equimolar DMPC/1,2-distearoyl- sn-glycero-3....... This is reflected in an increase in ripple spacing, followed by a sudden flattening of the lipid membrane during hydrolysis. Hydrolysis of the ripple phase results in anisotropic holes running parallel to the ripples, suggesting that the ripple phase has strip regions of higher sensitivity to enzymatic attack. Bulk...

  18. Helical ripple transport in stellarators at low collision frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, C.D.

    1987-12-01

    Numerical and analytical techniques have been developed to investigate the plasma transport which is due to particles trapping/detrapping in the local helical ripple wells of a stellarator's magnetic field. This process is of considerable importance as it provides the dominant transport mechanism in a stellarator plasma at ''low'' collision frequency: that is, when the frequency with which a particle is collisionally detrapped from a local ripple well is less than the bounce frequency of the particle in that well. A form of the longitudinal adiabatic invariant, J, is constructed and shown to describe accurately the orbits of ripple trapped particles. Unlike previous expressions for J, the form derived here correctly accounts for the local toroidal variation of the magnetic field. The expression for J is incorporated into a rapid ''hybrid'' Monte Carlo simulation of ripple transport in stellarators. The simulation is a hybrid in the sense that particle orbits in the narrow region of phase space on either side of the ripple trapping/detrapping boundary are followed using guiding center equations of motion while orbits in the remainder of phase space are described using adiabatic invariants. An analytical expression for the distribution function of ripple trapped particles in a stellarator - valid at all low collision frequencies - has been obtained by series solution of the bounce - averaged kinetic equation. This solution has been applied to both 'standard' and a class of 'transport optimized' stellarator magnetic fields. Analytical estimates of the diffusion coefficient obtained from the series solution show excellent agreement with the numerical results of the hybrid Monte Carlo code in all cases studied. 55 refs., 30 figs

  19. Mechanisms of sharp wave initiation and ripple generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlingloff, Dániel; Káli, Szabolcs; Freund, Tamás F; Hájos, Norbert; Gulyás, Attila I

    2014-08-20

    Replay of neuronal activity during hippocampal sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) is essential in memory formation. To understand the mechanisms underlying the initiation of irregularly occurring SWRs and the generation of periodic ripples, we selectively manipulated different components of the CA3 network in mouse hippocampal slices. We recorded EPSCs and IPSCs to examine the buildup of neuronal activity preceding SWRs and analyzed the distribution of time intervals between subsequent SWR events. Our results suggest that SWRs are initiated through a combined refractory and stochastic mechanism. SWRs initiate when firing in a set of spontaneously active pyramidal cells triggers a gradual, exponential buildup of activity in the recurrent CA3 network. We showed that this tonic excitatory envelope drives reciprocally connected parvalbumin-positive basket cells, which start ripple-frequency spiking that is phase-locked through reciprocal inhibition. The synchronized GABA(A) receptor-mediated currents give rise to a major component of the ripple-frequency oscillation in the local field potential and organize the phase-locked spiking of pyramidal cells. Optogenetic stimulation of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked full SWRs and EPSC sequences in pyramidal cells. Even with excitation blocked, tonic driving of parvalbumin-positive cells evoked ripple oscillations. Conversely, optogenetic silencing of parvalbumin-positive cells interrupted the SWRs or inhibited their occurrence. Local drug applications and modeling experiments confirmed that the activity of parvalbumin-positive perisomatic inhibitory neurons is both necessary and sufficient for ripple-frequency current and rhythm generation. These interneurons are thus essential in organizing pyramidal cell activity not only during gamma oscillation, but, in a different configuration, during SWRs. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3411385-14$15.00/0.

  20. Effects of complex magnetic ripple on fast ions in JFT-2M ferritic insert experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kouji; Kawashima, H.; Tsuzuki, K.

    2003-01-01

    In JFT-2M, the ferritic steel plates (FPs) were installed inside the vacuum vessel all over vacuum vessel, which is named Ferritic Inside Wall (FIW), as the third step of the Advanced Material Tokamak Experiment (AMTEX) program. A toroidal field ripple was reduced, however the magnetic field structure has become the complex ripple structure with a non-periodic feature in the toroidal direction because of the existence of other components and ports that limit the periodic installation of FPs. Under the complex magnetic ripple, we investigated its effect on the heat flux to the first wall due to the fast ion loss. The small heat flux was observed as the result of the reduced magnetic ripple by FIW. Additional FPs were also installed outside the vacuum vessel to produce the localized larger ripple. The small ripple trapped loss was observed when the shallow ripple well exist in the poloidal cross section, and the large ripple trapped loss was observed when the ripple well hollow out the plasma region deeply. The experimental results were almost consistent with the newly developed Fully three Dimensional magnetic field Orbit-Following Monte-Carlo (F3D OFMC) code including the three dimensional complex structure of the toroidal field ripple and the non-axisymmetric first wall geometry. By using F3D OFMC, we investigated the effect on the ripple trapped loss of the localized larger ripple produced by FPs in detail. The ripple well structure, e.g. the thickness of the ripple well, is important for ripple trapped loss in complex magnetic ripple rather than the value defined at one position in a poloidal cross section. (author)

  1. Ion bombardment induced ripple topography on amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Paton, F.; Williams, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    Earlier studies of the ion bombardment induced ripple morphology on the surfaces of amorphous solids when compared with geomorphological effects are shown to possess many similar features. The present study, with 40 keV Ar + ion bombarded Si suggests that analogies are incomplete, however, and that greater similarities with the process of macroscopic sandblasting (corrosion) exist. It is shown that the genesis of wave like structures on Si is from isolated features, which have the appearance of ripple trains, which are faceted. It is suggested that these features result from particle flux enhancement processes near surface dimples generated by stress induced surface lifting. (author)

  2. Gravitational-Like Lens Based on Graphene Ripple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqing; Chen, Shuyue; Ma, Ning; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a semiclassical study on carrier movement in curved graphene. A previous attempt was made to show that curved graphene is a readily available and cheap laboratory material used to study general relativity effects, especially if the electron energies satisfy 4μeV ≪ |E| ≪ 3eV. Furthermore, a gravitational-like lens can be constructed based on a special graphene ripple; this lens has neither chromatic nor cometic aberration. One can design an ideal electron lens using a graphene ripple.

  3. Preliminary ripple effect analysis for HTR 350MWt 4 modules construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect and employment inducement effect for HTR 350MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. It is known that APR1400 reactors export ripple effect is about 8,500 billion KRW. As a result, HTR construction has more effective effect than that of APR1400.

  4. Filter arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ralph H.; Doty, Patrick F.

    2017-08-01

    The various technologies presented herein relate to a tiled filter array that can be used in connection with performance of spatial sampling of optical signals. The filter array comprises filter tiles, wherein a first plurality of filter tiles are formed from a first material, the first material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a first wavelength band pass therethrough. A second plurality of filter tiles is formed from a second material, the second material being configured such that only photons having wavelengths in a second wavelength band pass therethrough. The first plurality of filter tiles and the second plurality of filter tiles can be interspersed to form the filter array comprising an alternating arrangement of first filter tiles and second filter tiles.

  5. Plasma-filled rippled wall rectangular backward wave oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performance of the backward wave oscillator (BWO) is greatly enhanced with the introduction of plasma. Linear theory of the dispersion relation and the growth rate have been derived and analysed numerically for plasma-filled rippled wall rectangular waveguide driven by sheet electron beam. To see the effect of plasma ...

  6. Wave Driven Fluid-Sediment Interactions over Rippled Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Diane; Nichols, Claire

    2008-11-01

    Empirical investigations relating vortex shedding over rippled beds to oscillatory flows date back to Darwin in 1883. Observations of the shedding induced by oscillating forcing over fixed beds have shown vortical structures to reach maximum strength at 90 degrees when the horizontal velocity is largest. The objective of this effort is to examine the vortex generation and ejection over movable rippled beds in a full-scale, free surface wave environment. Observations of the two-dimensional time-varying velocity field over a movable sediment bed were obtained with a submersible Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system in two wave flumes. One wave flume was full scale and had a natural sand bed and the other flume had an artificial sediment bed with a specific gravity of 1.6. Full scale observations over an irregularly rippled bed show that the vortices generated during offshore directed flow over the steeper bed form slope were regularly ejected into the water column and were consistent with conceptual models of the oscillatory flow over a backward facing step. The results also show that vortices remain coherent during ejection when the background flow stalls (i.e. both the velocity and acceleration temporarily approach zero). These results offer new insight into fluid sediment interaction over rippled beds.

  7. Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Lab de Metallurgie Physique; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

    1997-10-01

    Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 {micro}m) and spacing (typically {approximately} 60 {micro}m) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f{sub 0} given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v{sub s}/f{sub 0}, where v{sub s} is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.

  8. Ripple distribution for nonlinear fiber-optic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, Mariia; Sygletos, Stylianos; Turitsyn, Sergei

    2017-02-06

    We demonstrate data rates above the threshold imposed by nonlinearity on conventional optical signals by applying novel probability distribution, which we call ripple distribution, adapted to the properties of the fiber channel. Our results offer a new direction for signal coding, modulation and practical nonlinear distortions compensation algorithms.

  9. Uncovering Transdisciplinary Team Project Outcomes through Ripple Effect Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Catherine H.; Chalker-Scott, Linda; Martini, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Garden Team at Washington State University is a transdisciplinary, geographically dispersed group of faculty and staff. As with many such teams, member retention requires effort, as busy individuals may not see the overall benefits of active team membership. Ripple effect mapping is a strategy that can illustrate the tangible and often…

  10. The WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory: Analysis of Its Ripple Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the ripple effects of the WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory held at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) in 2014, held as a result of a partnership between the Sloan School of Management of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the UNIFESP, and the Brazilian Chapter of the System Dynamics Society of…

  11. Ripple design of LT codes for AWGN channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical framework for designing LT codes in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. We show that some of analytical results from binary erasure channels (BEC) also hold in AWGN channels with slight modifications. This enables us to apply a ripple-based design...

  12. Ripple Design of LT Codes for BIAWGN Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Koike-Akino, Toshiaki; Orlik, Philip

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel framework, which enables a design of rateless codes for binary input additive white Gaussian noise (BIAWGN) channels, using the ripple-based approach known from the works for the binary erasure channel (BEC). We reveal that several aspects of the analytical results from...

  13. Delayed ripple counter simplifies square-root computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, R.

    1965-01-01

    Ripple subtract technique simplifies the logic circuitry required in a binary computing device to derive the square root of a number. Successively higher numbers are subtracted from a register containing the number out of which the square root is to be extracted. The last number subtracted will be the closest integer to the square root of the number.

  14. Ripple Effect Mapping: A "Radiant" Way to Capture Program Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Debra Hansen; Flage, Lynette; Chazdon, Scott; Paine, Nathan; Higgins, Lorie

    2012-01-01

    Learn more about a promising follow-up, participatory group process designed to document the results of Extension educational efforts within complex, real-life settings. The method, known as Ripple Effect Mapping, uses elements of Appreciative Inquiry, mind mapping, and qualitative data analysis to engage program participants and other community…

  15. Ripple coarsening on ion beam-eroded surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Marc; Lorbeer, Jan; Frost, Frank; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The temporal evolution of ripple pattern on Ge, Si, Al 2 O 3, and SiO 2 by low-energy ion beam erosion with Xe (+) ions is studied. The experiments focus on the ripple dynamics in a fluence range from 1.1 × 10(17) cm(-2) to 1.3 × 10(19) cm(-2) at ion incidence angles of 65° and 75° and ion energies of 600 and 1,200 eV. At low fluences a short-wavelength ripple structure emerges on the surface that is superimposed and later on dominated by long wavelength structures for increasing fluences. The coarsening of short wavelength ripples depends on the material system and angle of incidence. These observations are associated with the influence of reflected primary ions and gradient-dependent sputtering. The investigations reveal that coarsening of the pattern is a universal behavior for all investigated materials, just at the earliest accessible stage of surface evolution.

  16. Relationship between behavioral and physiological spectral-ripple discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Ho; Clinard, Christopher G; Kwon, Seeyoun; Dasika, Vasant K; Nie, Kaibao; Drennan, Ward R; Tremblay, Kelly L; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have found a significant correlation between spectral-ripple discrimination and speech and music perception in cochlear implant (CI) users. This relationship could be of use to clinicians and scientists who are interested in using spectral-ripple stimuli in the assessment and habilitation of CI users. However, previous psychoacoustic tasks used to assess spectral discrimination are not suitable for all populations, and it would be beneficial to develop methods that could be used to test all age ranges, including pediatric implant users. Additionally, it is important to understand how ripple stimuli are processed in the central auditory system and how their neural representation contributes to behavioral performance. For this reason, we developed a single-interval, yes/no paradigm that could potentially be used both behaviorally and electrophysiologically to estimate spectral-ripple threshold. In experiment 1, behavioral thresholds obtained using the single-interval method were compared to thresholds obtained using a previously established three-alternative forced-choice method. A significant correlation was found (r = 0.84, p = 0.0002) in 14 adult CI users. The spectral-ripple threshold obtained using the new method also correlated with speech perception in quiet and noise. In experiment 2, the effect of the number of vocoder-processing channels on the behavioral and physiological threshold in normal-hearing listeners was determined. Behavioral thresholds, using the new single-interval method, as well as cortical P1-N1-P2 responses changed as a function of the number of channels. Better behavioral and physiological performance (i.e., better discrimination ability at higher ripple densities) was observed as more channels added. In experiment 3, the relationship between behavioral and physiological data was examined. Amplitudes of the P1-N1-P2 "change" responses were significantly correlated with d' values from the single-interval behavioral

  17. Ripple formation in unilamellar-supported lipid bilayer revealed by FRAPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Frédéric; Simon, Anne; Tinland, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of formation and conditions of the existence of the ripple phase are fundamental thermodynamic questions with practical implications for medicine and pharmaceuticals. We reveal a new case of ripple formation occurring in unilamellar-supported bilayers in water, which results solely from the bilayer/support interaction, without using lipid mixtures or specific ions. This ripple phase is detected by FRAPP using diffusion coefficient measurements as a function of temperature: a diffusivity plateau is observed. It occurs in the same temperature range where ripple phase existence has been observed using other methods. When AFM experiments are performed in the appropriate temperature range the ripple phase is confirmed.

  18. Effects of Resonant Helical Field on Toroidal Field Ripple in IR-T1 Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavipour, B.; Salar Elahi, A.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2018-02-01

    The toroidal magnetic field which is created by toroidal coils has the ripple in torus space. This magnetic field ripple has an importance in plasma equilibrium and stability studies in tokamak. In this paper, we present the investigation of the interaction between the toroidal magnetic field ripple and resonant helical field (RHF). We have estimated the amplitude of toroidal field ripples without and with RHF (with different q = m/n) ( m = 2, m = 3, m = 4, m = 5, m = 2 & 3, n = 1) using “Comsol Multiphysics” software. The simulations show that RHF has effects on the toroidal ripples.

  19. Spatial patterns of cyanobacterial mat growth on sand ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, G.; Klepac-Ceraj, V.; Perron, J. T.; Bosak, T.

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats produce organic matter, cycle nutrients, bind pollutants and stabilize sediment in sandy marine environments. Here, we investigate the influence of bedforms and wave motion on the growth rate, composition and spatial variability of microbial mats by growing cyanobacterial mats on a rippled bed of carbonate sand in a wave tank. The tank was forced with an oscillatory flow with velocities below the threshold for sediment motion yet able to induce a porewater flow within the sediment. Different spatial patterns developed in mats depending on the initial biochemistry of the water medium. When growing in a medium rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and micronutrients, mats grew faster on ripple troughs than on ripple crests. After two months, mats covered the bed surface uniformly, and the microbial communities on the crests and in the troughs had similar compositions. Differences in bed shear stress and nutrient availability between crests and troughs were not able to explain the faster growth in the troughs. We hypothesize that this growth pattern is due to a "strainer" effect, i.e. the suspended bacteria from the inoculum were preferentially delivered to troughs by the wave-induced porewater flow. In the experiments initiated in a medium previously used up by a microbial mat and thus depleted in nutrients, mats grew preferentially on the ripple crests. This spatial pattern persisted for nearly two years, and the microbial composition on troughs and crests was different. We attribute this pattern to the upwelling of porewater in the crests, which increased the delivery of nutrients from sediment to the cyanobacteria on the bed surface. Thus, the macroscopic patterns formed by photosynthetic microbial mats on sand ripples may be used to infer whether mats are nutrient-limited and whether they are recently colonized or older than a month.

  20. The effect of biological cohesion on current ripple development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarkey, Jonathan; Baas, Jaco H.; Hope, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Results are presented from laboratory experiments examining the role of biological cohesion, associated with Extra Polymeric Substances, on the development of current ripples. The results demonstrate the importance of biological cohesion compared to the effect of physical cohesion associated with clays in an otherwise sandy bed. FURTHER INFORMATION In fluvial and marine environments sediment transport is mainly dependent on the nature of the bed surface (rippled or flat) and the nature of cohesion in the bed. Cohesion can be either physical, as a result of the presence of clays, or biological as a result of the presence of organisms. In the case of the latter, biological cohesion occurs as a result of the presence of Extra Polymeric Substances (EPS) secreted by microorganisms. While it is known that EPS can dramatically increase the threshold of motion (Grant and Gust, 1987), comparatively little is known about the effect of EPS on ripple formation and development. The experiments described here seek to fill this gap. They also allow the effect of biological cohesion to be compared with that of physical cohesion from previous experiments (Baas et al., 2013). The experiments, which were conducted in a 10m flume at Bangor University, involved a current over a bed made of fine sand, with a median diameter of 0.148mm, and various amounts of xanthan gum, a proxy for naturally occurring EPS (Vardy et al., 2007). The hydrodynamic experimental conditions were matched very closely to those of Baas et al. (2013). The ripple dimensions were recorded through the glass side wall of the tank using time lapse photography. In the physical cohesion experiments of Baas et al. (2013) for clay contents up to 12%, the clay was very quickly winnowed out of the bed, leaving essentially clay-free ripples that developed at more or less the same rate as clean sand ripples. The resulting equilibrium ripples were essentially the same length as the clean sand ripples but reduced in height. By

  1. Development of DC active filter for high magnetic field stable power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Liu Xiaoning

    2008-01-01

    The DC active filter (DAF), with very low current ripple, of the stable power supply system of high magnetic field device is developed by using the PWM and parallel active power filter technique. Due to the PWM control technique, the required DAF current can be obtained and the current ripple can be compensated by means of monitoring the load voltage, and the current ripple becomes very low by adjusting the load voltage. The simulation and analysis show that this system can respond to the reference quickly and is effective in suppressing the harmonics, especially the low-order harmonics. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is proved on the equipment built in the laboratory. (authors)

  2. Rectifier Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Bladyko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains definition of a smoothing factor which is suitable for any rectifier filter. The formulae of complex smoothing factors have been developed for simple and complex passive filters. The paper shows conditions for application of calculation formulae and filters

  3. Numerical study of canister filters with alternatives filter cap configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, A. N.; Daud, A. R.; Abdullah, K.; Seri, S. M.; Razali, M. A.; Hushim, M. F.; Khalid, A.

    2017-09-01

    Air filtration system and filter play an important role in getting a good quality air into turbo machinery such as gas turbine. The filtration system and filter has improved the quality of air and protect the gas turbine part from contaminants which could bring damage. During separation of contaminants from the air, pressure drop cannot be avoided but it can be minimized thus helps to reduce the intake losses of the engine [1]. This study is focused on the configuration of the filter in order to obtain the minimal pressure drop along the filter. The configuration used is the basic filter geometry provided by Salutary Avenue Manufacturing Sdn Bhd. and two modified canister filter cap which is designed based on the basic filter model. The geometries of the filter are generated by using SOLIDWORKS software and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to analyse and simulates the flow through the filter. In this study, the parameters of the inlet velocity are 0.032 m/s, 0.063 m/s, 0.094 m/s and 0.126 m/s. The total pressure drop produce by basic, modified filter 1 and 2 is 292.3 Pa, 251.11 Pa and 274.7 Pa. The pressure drop reduction for the modified filter 1 is 41.19 Pa and 14.1% lower compared to basic filter and the pressure drop reduction for modified filter 2 is 17.6 Pa and 6.02% lower compared to the basic filter. The pressure drops for the basic filter are slightly different with the Salutary Avenue filter due to limited data and experiment details. CFD software are very reliable in running a simulation rather than produces the prototypes and conduct the experiment thus reducing overall time and cost in this study.

  4. Dispersion induced penalty for a 1xN passive interferometric optical MUX/DEMUX and its reduction using all-pass filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lasse; Peucheret, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    The cascadability of 1timesN passband flattened interferometer DEMUX is investigated numerically. The passband flattening process results in detrimental dispersion induced penalty at 10 Gbit/s which can be significantly reduced with all-pass filters on the input arm......The cascadability of 1timesN passband flattened interferometer DEMUX is investigated numerically. The passband flattening process results in detrimental dispersion induced penalty at 10 Gbit/s which can be significantly reduced with all-pass filters on the input arm...

  5. Highly Tunable Narrow Bandpass MEMS Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-07-07

    We demonstrate a proof-of-concept highly tunable narrow bandpass filter based on electrothermally and electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) resonators. The device consists of two mechanically uncoupled clamped-clamped arch resonators, designed such that their resonance frequencies are independently tuned to obtain the desired narrow passband. Through the electrothermal and electrostatic actuation, the stiffness of the structures is highly tunable. We experimentally demonstrate significant percentage tuning (~125%) of the filter center frequency by varying the applied electrothermal voltages to the resonating structures, while maintaining a narrow passband of 550 ± 50 Hz, a stopband rejection of >17 dB, and a passband ripple ≤ 2.5 dB. An analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to confirm the behavior of the filter, and the origin of the high tunability using electrothermal actuation is discussed.

  6. Spectral Ripple Discrimination in Normal-Hearing Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, David L; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T; Werner, Lynne A

    Spectral resolution is a correlate of open-set speech understanding in postlingually deaf adults and prelingually deaf children who use cochlear implants (CIs). To apply measures of spectral resolution to assess device efficacy in younger CI users, it is necessary to understand how spectral resolution develops in normal-hearing children. In this study, spectral ripple discrimination (SRD) was used to measure listeners' sensitivity to a shift in phase of the spectral envelope of a broadband noise. Both resolution of peak to peak location (frequency resolution) and peak to trough intensity (across-channel intensity resolution) are required for SRD. SRD was measured as the highest ripple density (in ripples per octave) for which a listener could discriminate a 90° shift in phase of the sinusoidally-modulated amplitude spectrum. A 2 × 3 between-subjects design was used to assess the effects of age (7-month-old infants versus adults) and ripple peak/trough "depth" (10, 13, and 20 dB) on SRD in normal-hearing listeners (experiment 1). In experiment 2, SRD thresholds in the same age groups were compared using a task in which ripple starting phases were randomized across trials to obscure within-channel intensity cues. In experiment 3, the randomized starting phase method was used to measure SRD as a function of age (3-month-old infants, 7-month-old infants, and young adults) and ripple depth (10 and 20 dB in repeated measures design). In experiment 1, there was a significant interaction between age and ripple depth. The infant SRDs were significantly poorer than the adult SRDs at 10 and 13 dB ripple depths but adult-like at 20 dB depth. This result is consistent with immature across-channel intensity resolution. In contrast, the trajectory of SRD as a function of depth was steeper for infants than adults suggesting that frequency resolution was better in infants than adults. However, in experiment 2 infant performance was significantly poorer than adults at 20 d

  7. Observation of phase noise reduction in photonically synthesized sub-THz signals using a passively mode-locked laser diode and highly selective optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criado, A. R.; Acedo, P.; Carpintero, G.

    2012-01-01

    A Continuous Wave (CW) sub-THz photonic synthesis setup based on a single Passively Mode-Locked Laser Diode (PMLLD) acting as a monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generator (OFCG) and highly selective optical filtering has been implemented to evaluate the phase noise performance of the generated sub...

  8. Theory of the rippling instability in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.

    1985-04-01

    The theory of the rippling instability is developed for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas including ion viscosity and parallel electron heat conduction, but assuming that the growth rate is small compared to the wave angular frequency. Parallel electron heat conduction is stabilizing but ion viscosity broadens the instability domain. Under certain conditions, an important top-bottom asymmetry of the density fluctuation spectrum may arise. (orig./GG)

  9. Periodic sediment shift in migrating ripples influences benthic microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatanović, Sanja; Fabian, Jenny; Mendoza-Lera, Clara; Woodward, K. Benjamin; Premke, Katrin; Mutz, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Migrating bedforms have high levels of particulate organic matter and high rates of pore water exchange, causing them to be proposed as hot spots of carbon turnover in rivers. Yet, the shifting of sediments and associated mechanical disturbance within migrating bedforms, such as ripples, may stress and abrade microbial communities, reducing their activity. In a microcosm experiment, we replicated the mechanical disturbances caused by the periodic sediment shift within ripples under oligotrophic conditions. We assessed the effects on fungal and bacterial biomass ratio (F:B), microbial community respiration (CR), and bacterial production (BCP) and compared with stable undisturbed sediments. Interactions between periodic mechanical disturbance and sediment-associated particulate organic matter (POM) were tested by enriching sediments collected from migrating ripples with different qualities of POM (fish feces, leaf litter fragments and no addition treatments). F:B and BCP were affected by an interaction between mechanical disturbance and POM quality. Fish feces enriched sediments showed increased F:B and BCP compared to sediments with lower POM quality and responded with a decrease of F:B and BCP to sediment disturbance. In the other POM treatments F:B and BCP were not affected by disturbance. Microbial respiration was however reduced by mechanical disturbance to similar low activity levels regardless of POM qualities added, whereas fish feces enriched sediment showed short temporary boost of CR. With the worldwide proliferation of migrating sand ripples due to massive catchment erosion, suppressed mineralization of POM will increasingly affect stream metabolism, downstream transport of POM and carbon cycling from reach to catchment scale.

  10. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M. J.; Daybell, M.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S. G.; Bridges, N. T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter– to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them ...

  11. Ripple compensation for a class-D amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Stephen M.; du Toit Mouton, Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first detailed mathematical analysis of the ripple compensation technique for reducing audio distortion in a class-D amplifier with negative feedback. The amplifier converts a relatively low-frequency audio signal to a high-frequency train of rectangular pulses whose widths are slowly modulated according to the audio signal (pulse-width modulation, PWM). Distortion manifests itself through unwanted audio-frequency harmonics that arise in the output due to nonlinearitie...

  12. Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H; Maimbourg, T; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

    2012-09-14

    We report new experimental results which suggest that the generation of extreme wave events in the Faraday surface ripples is related to the increase in the horizontal mobility of oscillating solitons (oscillons). The analysis of the oscillon trajectories in a horizontal plane shows that at higher vertical acceleration, oscillons move chaotically, merge and form enclosed areas on the water surface. The probability of the formation of such craters, which precede large wave events, increases with the increase in horizontal mobility.

  13. A PIPO Boost Converter with Low Ripple and Medium Current Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandri, S.; Sofian, A.; Ismail, F.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a Parallel Input Parallel Output (PIPO) boost converter is proposed to gain power ability of converter, and reduce current inductors. The proposed technique will distribute current for n-parallel inductor and switching component. Four parallel boost converters implement on input voltage 20.5Vdc to generate output voltage 28.8Vdc. The PIPO boost converter applied phase shift pulse width modulation which will compare with conventional PIPO boost converters by using a similar pulse for every switching component. The current ripple reduction shows an advantage PIPO boost converter then conventional boost converter. Varies loads and duty cycle will be simulated and analyzed to verify the performance of PIPO boost converter. Finally, the unbalance of current inductor is able to be verified on four area of duty cycle in less than 0.6.

  14. Reducing torque ripples in permanent magnet synchronous motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihab Abdelmoula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs are exceptionally promising thanks to their many advantages compared with other types of electrical machines. Indeed, PMSMs are characterized by their important torque density, light weight, high air gap flux density, high acceleration, high efficiency and strong power-to-weight ratio. A surface-mounted PMSM (SPMSM is used in this work. The SPMSM is built using a 2D finite element method (FEM. Cogging torque, torque ripples and back-EMF are examined during the design process in order to obtain sinusoidal back-EMF and to minimise torque ripples which are one of the major problems with PMSMs. Two procedures are used to reduce the cogging torque of SPMSM: the effect of slot opening and the influence of skewing the stator laminations. Cogging torque factor tc and the torque ripples factor tr have been calculated to compare the two configurations (open slots and closed slots. Then, the configuration with closed slots is utilised with skewing the stator laminations for different angle 0°, 10° and 15°.

  15. Ripple-Spreading Network Model Optimization by Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Bing Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small-world and scale-free properties are widely acknowledged in many real-world complex network systems, and many network models have been developed to capture these network properties. The ripple-spreading network model (RSNM is a newly reported complex network model, which is inspired by the natural ripple-spreading phenomenon on clam water surface. The RSNM exhibits good potential for describing both spatial and temporal features in the development of many real-world networks where the influence of a few local events spreads out through nodes and then largely determines the final network topology. However, the relationships between ripple-spreading related parameters (RSRPs of RSNM and small-world and scale-free topologies are not as obvious or straightforward as in many other network models. This paper attempts to apply genetic algorithm (GA to tune the values of RSRPs, so that the RSNM may generate these two most important network topologies. The study demonstrates that, once RSRPs are properly tuned by GA, the RSNM is capable of generating both network topologies and therefore has a great flexibility to study many real-world complex network systems.

  16. Validation of a clinical assessment of spectral-ripple resolution for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Ward R; Anderson, Elizabeth S; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    Nonspeech psychophysical tests of spectral resolution, such as the spectral-ripple discrimination task, have been shown to correlate with speech-recognition performance in cochlear implant (CI) users. However, these tests are best suited for use in the research laboratory setting and are impractical for clinical use. A test of spectral resolution that is quicker and could more easily be implemented in the clinical setting has been developed. The objectives of this study were (1) To determine whether this new clinical ripple test would yield individual results equivalent to the longer, adaptive version of the ripple-discrimination test; (2) To evaluate test-retest reliability for the clinical ripple measure; and (3) To examine the relationship between clinical ripple performance and monosyllabic word recognition in quiet for a group of CI listeners. Twenty-eight CI recipients participated in the study. Each subject was tested on both the adaptive and the clinical versions of spectral ripple discrimination, as well as consonant-nucleus-consonant word recognition in quiet. The adaptive version of spectral ripple used a two-up, one-down procedure for determining spectral ripple discrimination threshold. The clinical ripple test used a method of constant stimuli, with trials for each of 12 fixed ripple densities occurring six times in random order. Results from the clinical ripple test (proportion correct) were then compared with ripple-discrimination thresholds (in ripples per octave) from the adaptive test. The clinical ripple test showed strong concurrent validity, evidenced by a good correlation between clinical ripple and adaptive ripple results (r = 0.79), as well as a correlation with word recognition (r = 0.7). Excellent test-retest reliability was also demonstrated with a high test-retest correlation (r = 0.9). The clinical ripple test is a reliable nonlinguistic measure of spectral resolution, optimized for use with CI users in a clinical setting. The test

  17. VALIDATION OF A CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF SPECTRAL RIPPLE RESOLUTION FOR COCHLEAR-IMPLANT USERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Ward. R.; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Won, Jong Ho; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Non-speech psychophysical tests of spectral resolution, such as the spectral-ripple discrimination task, have been shown to correlate with speech recognition performance in cochlear implant (CI) users (Henry et al., 2005; Won et al. 2007, 2011; Drennan et al. 2008; Anderson et al. 2011). However, these tests are best suited for use in the research laboratory setting and are impractical for clinical use. A test of spectral resolution that is quicker and could more easily be implemented in the clinical setting has been developed. The objectives of this study were 1) To determine if this new clinical ripple test would yield individual results equivalent to the longer, adaptive version of the ripple discrimination test; 2) To evaluate test-retest reliability for the clinical ripple measure; and 3) To examine the relationship between clinical ripple performance and monosyllabic word recognition in quiet for a group of CI listeners. Design Twenty-eight CI recipients participated in the study. Each subject was tested on both the adaptive and the clinical versions of spectral ripple discrimination, as well as CNC word recognition in quiet. The adaptive version of spectral ripple employed a 2-up, 1-down procedure for determining spectral ripple discrimination threshold. The clinical ripple test used a method of constant stimuli, with trials for each of 12 fixed ripple densities occurring six times in random order. Results from the clinical ripple test (proportion correct) were then compared to ripple discrimination thresholds (in ripples per octave) from the adaptive test. Results The clinical ripple test showed strong concurrent validity, evidenced by a good correlation between clinical ripple and adaptive ripple results (r=0.79), as well as a correlation with word recognition (r = 0.7). Excellent test-retest reliability was also demonstrated with a high test-retest correlation (r = 0.9). Conclusions The clinical ripple test is a reliable non-linguistic measure

  18. Variable Span Filters for Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider enhancement of multichannel speech recordings. Linear filtering and subspace approaches have been considered previously for solving the problem. The current linear filtering methods, although many variants exist, have limited control of noise reduction and speech...

  19. Effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.

    1980-02-01

    Analytic calculations of three important effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas are presented. In the first process, collisional ripple-trapping, beam ions become trapped in local magnetic wells near their banana tips due to pitch-angle scattering as they traverse the ripple on barely unripple-trapped orbits. In the second process, collisionless ripple-trapping, near-perpendicular untrapped ions are captured (again near a banana tip) due to their finite orbits, which carry them out into regions of higher ripple. In the third process, banana-drift diffusion, fast-ion banana orbits fail to close precisely, due to a ripple-induced variable lingering period near the banana tips. These three mechanisms lead to substantial radial transport of banana-trapped, neutral-beam-injected ions when the quantity α* identical with epsilon/sin theta/Nqdelta is of order unity or smaller

  20. Effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Analytic calculations of three important effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas are presented. In the first process, collisional ripple-trapping, ions become trapped in local magnetic wells near their banana tips owing to pitch-angle scattering as they traverse the ripple on barely unripple-trapped orbits. In the second process, collisionless ripple-trapping, ions are captured (again near a banana tip) owing to their finite orbits, which carry them out into regions of higher ripple. In the third process, banana-drift diffusion, fast-ion banana orbits fail to close precisely, due to a ripple-induced 'variable lingering period' near the banana tips. These three mechanisms lead to substantial radial transport of banana-trapped, neutral-beam-injected ions when the quantity α* is identical with epsilonsinthetaNqdelta is of order unity or smaller. (author)

  1. Learning-enhanced coupling between ripple oscillations in association cortices and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodagholy, Dion; Gelinas, Jennifer N; Buzsáki, György

    2017-10-20

    Consolidation of declarative memories requires hippocampal-neocortical communication. Although experimental evidence supports the role of sharp-wave ripples in transferring hippocampal information to the neocortex, the exact cortical destinations and the physiological mechanisms of such transfer are not known. We used a conducting polymer-based conformable microelectrode array (NeuroGrid) to record local field potentials and neural spiking across the dorsal cortical surface of the rat brain, combined with silicon probe recordings in the hippocampus, to identify candidate physiological patterns. Parietal, midline, and prefrontal, but not primary cortical areas, displayed localized ripple (100 to 150 hertz) oscillations during sleep, concurrent with hippocampal ripples. Coupling between hippocampal and neocortical ripples was strengthened during sleep following learning. These findings suggest that ripple-ripple coupling supports hippocampal-association cortical transfer of memory traces. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  2. Limitations on current ripple of the power supplies for the SSC bending magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    Noise and ripple in the bending magnets of large proton collider cause the beam emittance growth and the luminosity degradation. The emittance growth due to voltage ripple of the bending magnets power supplies is studied. The role of the collider transverse feedback system is shown to be very important to facilitate the requirements to value of ripple. The longitudinal emittance growth due to slow variations of power supply current is studied as well. 9 refs.; 15 figs

  3. Detailed Analysis of Torque Ripple in High Frequency Signal Injection based Sensor less PMSM Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikumar Setty A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High Frequency Signal Injection based techniques are robust and well proven to estimate the rotor position from stand still to low speed. However, Injected high frequency signal introduces, high frequency harmonics in the motor phase currents and results in significant Output Torque ripple. There is no detailed analysis exist in the literature, to study the effect of injected signal frequency on Torque ripple. Objective of this work is to study the Torque Ripple resulting from High Frequency signal injection in PMSM motor drives. Detailed MATLAB/Simulink simulations are carried to quantify the Torque ripple at different Signal frequencies.

  4. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  5. Effects of toroidal field ripple on injected deuterons in the FED device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, R.H.; Rome, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    A Monte Carlo beam deposition and thermalization code is used to assess the effects of toroidal field (TF) ripple on injected fast deuterons in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The code uses realistic geometry for the beam, plasma equilibrium, TF ripple, and vacuum chamber. For injection at an angle of 35 0 (co) from perpendicular, no particles were ripple trapped and less than 1% of the injected power went to the wall and the limiter. However, due to the large amounts of computer time required by these programs, only 100 particles were followed in the rippled case and the results must be regarded as preliminary

  6. Age Is Associated with Reduced Sharp-Wave Ripple Frequency and Altered Patterns of Neuronal Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Jean-Paul L; Gray, Daniel T; Schimanski, Lesley A; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, C A; Cowen, Stephen L

    2016-05-18

    Spatial and episodic memory performance declines with age, and the neural basis for this decline is not well understood. Sharp-wave ripples are brief (∼70 ms) high-frequency oscillatory events generated in the hippocampus and are associated with the consolidation of spatial memories. Given the connection between ripple oscillations and memory consolidation, we investigated whether the structure of ripple oscillations and ripple-triggered patterns of single-unit activity are altered in aged rats. Local field and single-unit activity surrounding sharp-wave ripple events were examined in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of old (n = 5) and young (n = 6) F344 rats during periods of rest preceding and following performance on a place-dependent eyeblink-conditioning task. Neural responses in aged rats differed from responses in young rats in several ways. First, compared with young rats, the rate of ripple occurrence (ripple density) is reduced in aged rats during postbehavior rest. Second, mean ripple frequency during prebehavior and postbehavior rest is lower in aged animals (aged: 132 Hz; young: 146 Hz). Third, single neurons in aged animals responded more consistently from ripple to ripple. Fourth, variability in interspike intervals was greater in aged rats. Finally, neurons were tuned to a narrower range of phases of the ripple oscillation relative to young animals. Together, these results suggest that the CA1 network in aged animals has a reduced "vocabulary" of available representational states. The hippocampus is a structure that is critical for the formation of episodic memories. Sharp-wave ripple events generated in the hippocampus have been implicated in memory consolidation processes critical to memory stabilization. We examine here whether these ripple oscillations are altered over the course of the life span, which could contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory deficits that occur during aging. This experiment used young and aged memory-impaired rats

  7. Diffraction analysis of sidelobe characteristics of optical elements with ripple error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Luo, Yupeng; Bai, Jian; Zhou, Xiangdong; Du, Juan; Liu, Qun; Luo, Yujie

    2018-03-01

    The ripple errors of the lens lead to optical damage in high energy laser system. The analysis of sidelobe on the focal plane, caused by ripple error, provides a reference to evaluate the error and the imaging quality. In this paper, we analyze the diffraction characteristics of sidelobe of optical elements with ripple errors. First, we analyze the characteristics of ripple error and build relationship between ripple error and sidelobe. The sidelobe results from the diffraction of ripple errors. The ripple error tends to be periodic due to fabrication method on the optical surface. The simulated experiments are carried out based on angular spectrum method by characterizing ripple error as rotationally symmetric periodic structures. The influence of two major parameter of ripple including spatial frequency and peak-to-valley value to sidelobe is discussed. The results indicate that spatial frequency and peak-to-valley value both impact sidelobe at the image plane. The peak-tovalley value is the major factor to affect the energy proportion of the sidelobe. The spatial frequency is the major factor to affect the distribution of the sidelobe at the image plane.

  8. Differentiation of specific ripple patterns helps to identify epileptogenic areas for surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Karolin; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Schelter, Björn; Le Van, Pierre; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2014-07-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) at 80-500 Hz are promising markers of epileptic areas. Several retrospective studies reported that surgical removal of areas generating HFOs was associated with a good seizure outcome. Recent reports suggested that ripple (80-200 Hz) HFO patterns co-existed with different background EEG activities. We hypothesized that the coexisting background EEG pattern may distinguish physiological from epileptic ripples. Rates of HFOs were analyzed in intracranial EEG recordings of 22 patients. Additionally, ripple patterns were classified for each channel depending either as coexisting with a flat or oscillatory background activity. A multi-variate analysis was performed to determine whether removal of areas showing the above EEG markers correlated with seizure outcome. Removal of areas generating high rates of 'fast ripples (>200 Hz)' and 'ripples on a flat background activity' showed a significant correlation with a seizure-free outcome. In contrast, removal of high rates of 'ripples' or 'ripple patterns in a continuously oscillating background' was not significantly associated with seizure outcome. Ripples occurring in an oscillatory background activity may be suggestive of physiological activity, while those on a flat background reflect epileptic activity. Consideration of coexisting background patterns may improve the delineation of the epileptogenic areas using ripple oscillations. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrahigh-rate supercapacitors based on eletrochemically reduced graphene oxide for ac line-filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Kaixuan; Sun, Yiqing; Li, Chun; Yuan, Wenjing; Shi, Gaoquan

    2012-02-01

    The recent boom in multifunction portable electronic equipments requires the development of compact and miniaturized electronic circuits with high efficiencies, low costs and long lasting time. For the operation of most line-powered electronics, alternating current (ac) line-filters are used to attenuate the leftover ac ripples on direct current (dc) voltage busses. Today, aluminum electrolytic capacitors (AECs) are widely applied for this purpose. However, they are usually the largest components in electronic circuits. Replacing AECs by more compact capacitors will have an immense impact on future electronic devices. Here, we report a double-layer capacitor based on three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating graphene electrodes fabricated by electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide (ErGO-DLC). At 120-hertz, the ErGO-DLC exhibited a phase angle of -84 degrees, a specific capacitance of 283 microfaradays per centimeter square and a resistor-capacitor (RC) time constant of 1.35 milliseconds, making it capable of replacing AECs for the application of 120-hertz filtering.

  10. Filter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to liquid filters, precoated by replaceable powders, which are used in the production of ultra pure water required for steam generation of electricity. The filter elements are capable of being installed and removed by remote control so that they can be used in nuclear power reactors. (UK)

  11. Phantom examination for reduction of radiation dose using new needle screen storage phosphor radiography and add beam filter in digital thoracic radiography on adolescents and larger children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyne, J.P.; Mentzel, H.J.; Neumann, R.; Lopatta, E.; Zimmermann, U.; Kaiser, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: how much can the radiation dose be reduced in thoracic radiography on adolescents and larger children by using needle screen storage phosphor (NIP) radiography and add beam filtration? Materials and methods: a chest phantom with typical anatomical structures, pathological findings, added catheters, and simulated nodules, tumors, and calcifications was X-rayed digitally (DX-S, Agfa Healthcare) in posterior-anterior (p.a.) orientation with and without add beam filter. While keeping the voltage constant, the tube current time product was reduced gradually. In addition to LgM, the surface entrance dose (ED) and the dose area product (DAP) were measured by the Dosimax sensor and Kerma X-plus (both Wellhoefer). Five investigators evaluated the images for characteristics and critical features, pathological findings, and catheter recognizability. Results: the ED of the digital chest radiogram p.a. with 115 kV and 0.71 mAs was 27 μGy, the DAP 3.6 μGy x m 2 , the LgM value 1.56. This initial radiogram was able to be evaluated very well and conforms to the quality guidelines. The dose-reduced chest radiograms with the add beam filter Al 1.0 mm/Cu 0.1 mm were evaluated as sufficiently reduced to a dose of 63% of the initial dose, with the add beam filter Al 1.0 mm/Cu 0.2 mm reduced to 50% (0.52 mAs, DAP 1.82 μGy x m 2 , LgM 1.35). P.a. radiograms were able to be X-rayed on 115 kV with 0.52 mAs. (orig.)

  12. Monte Carlo Simulations of New 2D Ripple Filters for Particle Therapy Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringbæk, Toke Printz; Weber, Uli; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.

    2014-01-01

    ). At the Universitätsklinikum Gießen und Marburg, Germany, a new second generation RiFi has been developed with two-dimensional groove structures. In this work we evaluate this new RiFi design. Methods: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT12A is used to determine the RiFi- induced inhomogeneities in the dose distribution...... for various ion types, initial particle energies and distances from the RiFi to the phantom surface as well as in the depth of the phantom. The beam delivery and monitor system (BAMS) used at Marburg, the Heidelberg Ionentherapiezentrum (HIT), Universit ̈tsklinikum Heidelberg, Germany and the GSI...... Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany is modeled and simulated. To evaluate the PTV dose coverage performance of the new RiFi design, the heavy ion treatment planning system TRiP98 is used for dose optimization. SHIELD-HIT12A is used to prepare the facility-specific physical dose kernels...

  13. All-Pole Recursive Digital Filters Design Based on Ultraspherical Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stojanovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for approximation of all-pole recursive digital filters, directly in digital domain, is described. Transfer function of these filters, referred to as Ultraspherical filters, is controlled by order of the Ultraspherical polynomial, nu. Parameter nu, restricted to be a nonnegative real number (nu ≥ 0, controls ripple peaks in the passband of the magnitude response and enables a trade-off between the passband loss and the group delay response of the resulting filter. Chebyshev filters of the first and of the second kind, and also Legendre and Butterworth filters are shown to be special cases of these allpole recursive digital filters. Closed form equations for the computation of the filter coefficients are provided. The design technique is illustrated with examples.

  14. Rippling and drift instabilities in the straight cylinder tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, A.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the electron and ion diamagnetic drifts stabilize the rippling mode in the straigth cylindrical tokamak model. Parallel electron heat conduction is further stabilizing if the parameter etasub(e) = dlnTsub(e)/dlnN is positive. This has a consequence that the mode does not survive at temperatures exceeding, typically, 50 eV for standard values of magnetic field and density. The collisional drift wave is found to be always stable even when the effect of the tokamak current is included in the calculation. (orig.)

  15. Rippled cosmological dark matter from a damped oscillating Newton constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Aharon

    2005-01-01

    Let the reciprocal Newton 'constant' be an apparently non-dynamical Brans-Dicke scalar field damped oscillating towards its general relativistic VEV. We show, without introducing additional matter fields or dust, that the corresponding cosmological evolution averagely resembles, in the Jordan frame, the familiar dark radiation → dark matter → dark energy domination sequence. The fingerprints of our theory are fine ripples, hopefully testable, in the FRW scale factor; they die away at the general relativity limit. The possibility that the Brans-Dicke scalar also serves as the inflaton is favourably examined

  16. Rippled shock front solutions for testing hydrodynamic stability simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The response of a shock front to arbitrary small perturbations can be calculated analytically. Such rippled shock front solutions are useful for determining the accuracy of hydrodynamic simulation codes such as LASNEX [Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 51 (1977)], which are used to compute perturbation growth in inertial fusion targets. The LASNEX fractional errors are of order κ 2 L 2 , where κ is the transverse wavenumber of the perturbation, and L is the largest zone dimension. Numerical errors are about 25% for a calculation using 26 zones per transverse wavelength

  17. Temperature-controlled structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one- and two-component supported lipid bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasgaard, Thomas; Leidy, Chad; Crowe, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize and study the structure and kinetics of ripple phases in one-component dipalmitoylphosphaticlylcholine (DPPC) and two-component dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC-DSPC) lipid bilayers....... The lipid bilayers are mica-supported double bilayers in which ripple-phase formation occurs in the top bilayer. In one-component DPPC lipid bilayers, the stable and metastable ripple phases were observed. In addition, a third ripple structure with approximately twice the wavelength of the metastable...... ripples was seen. From height profiles of the AFM images, estimates of the amplitudes of the different ripple phases are reported. To elucidate the processes of ripple formation and disappearance, a ripple-phase DPPC lipid bilayer was taken through the pretransition in the cooling and the heating...

  18. Missing lynx and trophic cascades in food webs: A reply to Ripple et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires; Nicholas J. DeCesare; Mark Hebblewhite; Joel Berger

    2012-01-01

    Ripple et al. (2011) proposed a hypothesis that the recovery of gray wolves (Canis lupus) may positively affect the viability of threatened Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) populations in the contiguous United States through indirect species interactions. Ripple et al. (2011) proposed 2 key trophic linkages connecting wolf restoration with lynx recovery. First, recovering...

  19. Radial electric field in JET advanced tokamak scenarios with toroidal field ripple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombe, K.; Andrew, Y.; Biewer, T. M.; Blanco, E.; de Vries, P. C.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Meigs, A.; Tala, T.; von Hellermann, M.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2009-01-01

    A dedicated campaign has been run on JET to study the effect of toroidal field (TF) ripple on plasma performance. Radial electric field measurements from experiments on a series of plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs) and different levels of ripple amplitude are presented. They have been

  20. Reynolds Number Effect on Spatial Development of Viscous Flow Induced by Wave Propagation Over Bed Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, Athanassios A.; Kolokythas, Gerasimos A.

    Numerical simulations of the free-surface flow, developing by the propagation of nonlinear water waves over a rippled bottom, are performed assuming that the corresponding flow is two-dimensional, incompressible and viscous. The simulations are based on the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations subject to the fully-nonlinear free-surface boundary conditions and appropriate bottom, inflow and outflow boundary conditions. The equations are properly transformed so that the computational domain becomes time-independent. For the spatial discretization, a hybrid scheme is used where central finite-differences, in the horizontal direction, and a pseudo-spectral approximation method with Chebyshev polynomials, in the vertical direction, are applied. A fractional time-step scheme is used for the temporal discretization. Over the rippled bed, the wave boundary layer thickness increases significantly, in comparison to the one over flat bed, due to flow separation at the ripple crests, which generates alternating circulation regions. The amplitude of the wall shear stress over the ripples increases with increasing ripple height or decreasing Reynolds number, while the corresponding friction force is insensitive to the ripple height change. The amplitude of the form drag forces due to dynamic and hydrostatic pressures increase with increasing ripple height but is insensitive to the Reynolds number change, therefore, the percentage of friction in the total drag force decreases with increasing ripple height or increasing Reynolds number.

  1. Evidence of across-channel processing for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Won, Jong; Jones, Gary L.; Drennan, Ward R.; Jameyson, Elyse M.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2011-01-01

    Spectral-ripple discrimination has been used widely for psychoacoustical studies in normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and cochlear implant listeners. The present study investigated the perceptual mechanism for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners. The main goal of this study was to determine whether cochlear implant listeners use a local intensity cue or global spectral shape for spectral-ripple discrimination. The effect of electrode separation on spectral-ripple discrimination was also evaluated. Results showed that it is highly unlikely that cochlear implant listeners depend on a local intensity cue for spectral-ripple discrimination. A phenomenological model of spectral-ripple discrimination, as an “ideal observer,” showed that a perceptual mechanism based on discrimination of a single intensity difference cannot account for performance of cochlear implant listeners. Spectral modulation depth and electrode separation were found to significantly affect spectral-ripple discrimination. The evidence supports the hypothesis that spectral-ripple discrimination involves integrating information from multiple channels. PMID:21973363

  2. Effect of buck driver ripple on BER performance in visible light communication using LED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.; Arulandu, K.; Zhou, G.; Wu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the communication performance for visible light communication (VLC) with Manchester encoded amplitude modulation. In particular, it considers the ripple generated by the LED driver as an important noise contribution for VLC. The ripple depends on the oscillation frequency of the

  3. New possibility of magnetic ripple shielding for specific heat measurements in hybrid magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarnawski, Z.; Meulen, der, H. van; Franse, J.J.M.; Kadowaki, K.; Veenhuizen, P.A.; Klaasse, J.

    1988-01-01

    A test of the new high Tc superconducting materials for magnetic ripple shielding has been carried out. It was found that magnetic ripples of 0.0009 T (peak-to-peak) in the frequency range below 20 kHz can be completely shielded in high static fields by a 2 mm thick Y-Ba-Cu-O screen.

  4. Asynchronous ripple oscillations between left and right hippocampi during slow-wave sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Claudio; Maldonado, Pedro E; Valdés, José L

    2017-01-01

    Spatial memory, among many other brain processes, shows hemispheric lateralization. Most of the published evidence suggests that the right hippocampus plays a leading role in the manipulation of spatial information. Concurrently in the hippocampus, memory consolidation during sleep periods is one of the key steps in the formation of newly acquired spatial memory traces. One of the most characteristic oscillatory patterns in the hippocampus are sharp-wave ripple (SWR) complexes. Within this complex, fast-field oscillations or ripples have been demonstrated to be instrumental in the memory consolidation process. Since these ripples are relevant for the consolidation of memory traces associated with spatial navigation, and this process appears to be lateralized, we hypothesize that ripple events between both hippocampi would exhibit different temporal dynamics. We tested this idea by using a modified "split-hyperdrive" that allows us to record simultaneous LFPs from both right and left hippocampi of Sprague-Dawley rats during sleep. We detected individual events and found that during sleep periods these ripples exhibited a different occurrence patterns between hemispheres. Most ripple events were synchronous between intra- rather than inter-hemispherical recordings, suggesting that ripples in the hippocampus are independently generated and locally propagated within a specific hemisphere. In this study, we propose the ripples' lack of synchrony between left and right hippocampi as the putative physiological mechanism underlying lateralization of spatial memory.

  5. Evidence of across-channel processing for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jong Ho; Jones, Gary L; Drennan, Ward R; Jameyson, Elyse M; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2011-10-01

    Spectral-ripple discrimination has been used widely for psychoacoustical studies in normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and cochlear implant listeners. The present study investigated the perceptual mechanism for spectral-ripple discrimination in cochlear implant listeners. The main goal of this study was to determine whether cochlear implant listeners use a local intensity cue or global spectral shape for spectral-ripple discrimination. The effect of electrode separation on spectral-ripple discrimination was also evaluated. Results showed that it is highly unlikely that cochlear implant listeners depend on a local intensity cue for spectral-ripple discrimination. A phenomenological model of spectral-ripple discrimination, as an "ideal observer," showed that a perceptual mechanism based on discrimination of a single intensity difference cannot account for performance of cochlear implant listeners. Spectral modulation depth and electrode separation were found to significantly affect spectral-ripple discrimination. The evidence supports the hypothesis that spectral-ripple discrimination involves integrating information from multiple channels. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  6. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  7. Computational studies of the effect of magnetic field ''ripple'' on neutral beam heating of ZEPHYR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, G.G.; Gruber, O.

    1981-01-01

    The results of computations to estimate the heating efficiency of neutral injection in the proposed ZEPHYR experiment are presented. A suitably modified version of the Monte-Carlo neutral deposition and orbit following code FREYA was used for these calculations, in which particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of toroidal field ripple. We find that the ripple associated with the preliminary design of the experiment (+-6%) would result in intolerable energy losses due to ''ripple trapping'' of the fast ions produced by the neutral beam and insufficient heating of the central plasma. The necessary conditions for ignition can be obtained with a total heating power of 25 MW provided the ripple can be reduced to +-1%, in which case energy losses could be kept below 30%. These results are compatible with those found from transport code calculations of the losses to be expected due to ripple enhanced thermal conduction in the plasma

  8. Real-time observation of FIB-created dots and ripples on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, F; Fujita, H; Kawakatsu, H

    2008-01-01

    We report a phenomenological study of Ga dots and ripples created by a focused ion beam (FIB) on the GaAs(001) surface. Real-time observation of dot diffusion and ripple formation was made possible by recording FIB movies. In the case of FIB irradiation with a 40 nA current of Ga + ions accelerated under 40 kV with an incidence angle of θ = 30 0 , increasing ion dose gives rise to three different regimes. In Regime 1, dots with lateral sizes in the range 50-460 nm are formed. Dots diffuse under continuous sputtering. In Regime 2, dots self-assemble into Bradley and Harper (BH) type ripples with a pseudo-period of λ = 1150 ± 25 nm. In Regime 3, ripples are eroded and the surface topology evolves into microplanes. In the case of normal incidence, FIB sputtering leads only to the formation of dots, without surface rippling

  9. Ion peak narrowing by applying additional AC voltage (ripple voltage) to FAIMS extractor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervukhin, Viktor V; Sheven, Dmitriy G

    2010-01-01

    The use of a non-uniform electric field in a high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) analyzer increases sensitivity but decreases resolution. The application of an additional AC voltage to the extractor electrode ("ripple" voltage, U(ripple)) can overcome this effect, which decreases the FAIMS peak width. In this approach, the diffusion ion loss remains minimal in the non-uniform electric field in the cylindrical part of the device, and all ion losses under U(ripple) occur in a short portion of their path. Application of the ripple voltage to the extractor electrode is twice as efficient as the applying of U(ripple) along the total length of the device. 2010 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High speed non-latching squid binary ripple counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.H.; Phillips, R.R.; Sandell, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    High speed, single flux quantum (SFQ) binary scalers are important components in superconducting analog-to-digital converters (ADC). This paper reviews the concept for a SQUID ADC and the design of an SFQ binary ripple counter, and reports the simulation of key components, and fabrication and performance of non-latching SQUID scalers and SFQ binary ripple counters. The SQUIDs were fabricated with Nb/Nb 2 O 5 /PbIn junctions and interconnected by monolithic superconducting transmission lines and isolation resistors. Each SQUID functioned as a bistable flip-flop with the input connected to the center of the device and the output across one junction. All junctions were critically damped to optimize the pulse response. Operation was verified by observing the dc I-V curves of successive SQUIDs driven by a cw pulse train generated on the same chip. Each SQUID exhibited constant-voltage current steps at 1/2 the voltage of the preceding device as expected from the Josephson voltage-to-frequency relation. Steps were observed only for the same voltage polarity of successive devices and for proper phase bias of the SQUID. Binary frequency division was recorded up to 40GHz for devices designed to operate to 28GHz

  11. Permanent magnet working point ripple in synchronous generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Sjökvist

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnets (PMs are today widely used in electrical machines of all sorts. With their increase in popularity, the amount of research has increased as well. In this study, the magnetic flux density ripple of the working point of the PMs in a 100 kW PM synchronous generator has been investigated for three different load cases: no load, AC load, and DC load. The PMs will be subjected to a shift in working point as a consequence of the characteristics of the electrical loading. This study is based on finite element method simulations where the ripple of the magnetic flux density in the PMs was recorded at three positions within a PM. The slot harmonic of 7.5 times the electrical frequency (f(el was present in the results for all load cases, but mainly at the surface of the PM, as expected. Results showed an unexpected harmonic of 1.5 f(el, assumed to be an undertone of the slot harmonics. The 6f(el harmonic for the DC load case was significantly higher than for the AC load case and is caused by the current fluctuation during passive rectification. For the studied machine, the added harmonics in the magnetic field due to passive rectification are less than the slot-related harmonics.

  12. Ion flow ripples in the Earth's plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Spiegeleer, Alexandre; Hamrin, Maria; Pitkänen, Timo; Norqvist, Patrik; Mann, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    For a long time, magnetotail flows were considered rather smooth and laminar, and primarily dominated by a simple convection flow pattern. However, in the early 90's, high speed bursty bulk flows (BBFs) were discovered and found to commonly perturb the underlying convection flows. In addition, there are other disturbances complicating the magnetotail flow pattern. Instabilities such as the Kelvin-Helmholz instability and the kink instability can cause different types of magnetic field oscillations, such as field line resonances. It is expected that ions will follow these oscillations if the typical time and length scales are larger than the gyroperiod and gyroradius of the ions. Though low-velocity sloshing and ripple disturbances of the average magnetotail convection flows have been observed, their connection with magnetic field oscillations is not fully understood. Furthermore, when studying BFFs, these "Ion Flow Ripples" (IFRs) are often neglected, dismissed as noise or can even erroneously be identified as BBFs. It is therefore of utter importance to find out and understand the role of IFRs in magnetotail dynamics. In a statistical investigation, we use several years of Cluster plasma sheet data to study the low-speed flows in the magnetotail. We investigate different types of IFRs, study their occurrence, and discuss their possible causes.

  13. Wave-induced ripple development in mixed clay-sand substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuxu; Parsons, Daniel; Baas, Jaco H.; Mouazé, Dominique; McLelland, Stuart; Amoudry, Laurent; Eggenhuisen, Jorris; Cartigny, Matthieu; Ruessink, Gerben

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports on a series of experiments that aim to provide a fuller understanding of ripple development within clay-sand mixture substrates under oscillatory flow conditions. The work was conducted in the Total Environment Simulator at the University of Hull and constituted 6 separate runs, in which 5 runs were conducted under identical sets of regular waves (an additional run was conducted under irregular waves, but is not discussed in present paper). The bed content was systematically varied in its composition ranging from a pure sand bed through to a bed comprising 7.4% clay. A series of state-of-the-art measurements were employed to quantify interactions of near-bed hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and turbulence over rippled beds formed by wave action, during and after, each run. The experimental results demonstrate the significant influence of the amount of cohesive clay materials in the substrate on ripple evolution under waves. Most importantly, addition of clay in the bed dramatically slowed down the rate of ripple development and evolution. The equilibrium time of each run increased exponentially from 30 minutes under the control conditions of a pure sand bed, rising to ~350 minutes for the bed with the highest fraction of clay. The paper discusses the slower ripple growth rates with higher cohesive fractions, via an influence on critical shear, but highlights that the end equilibrium size of ripples is found to be independent of increasing substrate clay fraction. The suspended particles mass (SPM) concentration indicates that clay particles were suspended and winnowed by wave action. Additionally, laser granulometry of the final substrates verified that ripple crests were composed of pure sand layers that were absent at ripple troughs, reflecting a relatively higher winnowing efficiency at wave ripples crest. The winnowing process and its efficiency is inexorably linked to wave ripple development and evolution. The implications of the results

  14. A unified approach for suppressing sidelobes arising in the spectral response of rugate filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Zahhad, M.; Bataineh, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests a universal approach to reduce the side lobes which usually appear at both sides of a stop band of a ru gate filter. Both quin tic matching layers and anodization functions are to used to improve the filter's response. The proposed technique could be used to control the ripples level by properly choosing the refractive index profile after amending it to include mat aching layers and/or modulating its profile with a slowly varying anodization (or ta perine) function. Two illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed technique. The given examples suggest that combining both effects on the index of refraction profile lead to the lowest possible ripple level. A multichannel filter response is obtained by wavelet cons traction of the refractive index profile with potential applications in multimode lasers and wavelength division multiple xin networks. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability of the adopted approach to design ripple free ru gate filters. The extension to stack filters and other wave guiding structures are also visible. (authors). 14 refs., 8 figs

  15. Analytical Design of Passive LCL Filter for Three-phase Two-level Power Factor Correction Rectifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive analytical LCL filter design method for three-phase two-level power factor correction rectifiers (PFCs). The high frequency converter current ripple generates the high frequency current harmonics that need to be attenuated with respect to the grid standards...

  16. Ripple transport in helical-axis advanced stellarators - a comparison with classical stellarator/torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beidler, C.D.; Hitchon, W.N.G.

    1993-08-01

    Calculations of the neoclassical transport rates due to particles trapped in the helical ripples of a stellarator's magnetic field are carried out, based on solutions of the bounce-averaged kinetic equation. These calculations employ a model for the magnetic field strength, B, which is an accurate approximation to the actual B for a wide variety of stellarator-type devices, among which are Helical-Axis Advanced Stellarators (Helias) as well as conventional stellarators and torsatrons. Comparisons are carried out in which it is shown that the Helias concept leads to significant reductions in neoclassical transport rates throughout the entire long-mean-free-path regime, with the reduction being particularly dramatic in the ν -1 regime. These findings are confirmed by numerical simulations. Further, it is shown that the behavior of deeply trapped particles in Helias can be fundamentally different from that in classical stellarator/torsatrons; as a consequence, the beneficial effects of a radial electric field on the transport make themselves felt at lower collision frequency than is usual. (orig.)

  17. Reduction of levels of radiation exposure over patients and medical staff by using additional filters of copper and aluminum on the outputs of X-ray tubes in hemodynamic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Guilherme L.; Müller, Felipe M.; Schuch, Luiz A.

    2013-01-01

    Radioprotection in hemodynamic services is extremely important. Decrease of total exposition time, better positioning of medical staff in the room, use of individual and collective protection equipment and shorter distance between the patient and the image intensifier tube are, among others, some ways to reduce the levels of radiation. It is noted that these possible forms of reducing the radiation exposition varies depending on the medical staff. Hence, the purpose of the present paper is to reduce such levels of radiation exposition in a way apart from medical staffs. It is proposed, therefore, the use of additional filters on the output of the X-ray tube in three hemodynamic equipment from different generations: detector with a flat panel of amorphous selenium, image intensifier tube with charge coupled device, and image intensifier tube with video camera. In order to quantify the quality of the images generated, a simulator made of aluminum plates and other devices was set up, so it was possible to measure and compare the acquired images. Methods of images analysis (threshold, histogram, 3D surface) were used to measure the signal/noise ratio, the spatial resolution, the contrast and the definition of the signal area, thus doubts regarding the analysis of the images among observers (inter-observers) and even for a single observer (intra-observer) can be avoided. Ionization chambers were also used in order to quantify the doses of radiation that penetrated the skin of the patients with and without the use of the filters. In all cases was found an arrangement of filters that combines quality of the images with a significant reduction of the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation, concerning both the patient and the medical staff. (author)

  18. Back-flow ripples in troughs downstream of unit bars: Formation, preservation and value for interpreting flow conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, Christopher; Alexander, Jan; Martinez De Alvaro, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Back-flow ripples are bedforms created within the lee-side eddy of a larger bedform with migration directions opposed or oblique to that of the host bedform. In the flume experiments described in this article, back-flow ripples formed in the trough downstream of a unit bar and changed with mean flow velocity; varying from small incipient back-flow ripples at low velocities, to well-formed back-flow ripples with greater velocity, to rapidly migrating transient back-flow ripples formed at the g...

  19. SU-E-I-62: Assessing Radiation Dose Reduction and CT Image Optimization Through the Measurement and Analysis of the Detector Quantum Efficiency (DQE) of CT Images Using Different Beam Hardening Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J; Aldoohan, S; Gill, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Reducing patient dose while maintaining (or even improving) image quality is one of the foremost goals in CT imaging. To this end, we consider the feasibility of optimizing CT scan protocols in conjunction with the application of different beam-hardening filtrations and assess this augmentation through noise-power spectrum (NPS) and detector quantum efficiency (DQE) analysis. Methods: American College of Radiology (ACR) and Catphan phantoms (The Phantom Laboratory) were scanned with a 64 slice CT scanner when additional filtration of thickness and composition (e.g., copper, nickel, tantalum, titanium, and tungsten) had been applied. A MATLAB-based code was employed to calculate the image of noise NPS. The Catphan Image Owl software suite was then used to compute the modulated transfer function (MTF) responses of the scanner. The DQE for each additional filter, including the inherent filtration, was then computed from these values. Finally, CT dose index (CTDIvol) values were obtained for each applied filtration through the use of a 100 mm pencil ionization chamber and CT dose phantom. Results: NPS, MTF, and DQE values were computed for each applied filtration and compared to the reference case of inherent beam-hardening filtration only. Results showed that the NPS values were reduced between 5 and 12% compared to inherent filtration case. Additionally, CTDIvol values were reduced between 15 and 27% depending on the composition of filtration applied. However, no noticeable changes in image contrast-to-noise ratios were noted. Conclusion: The reduction in the quanta noise section of the NPS profile found in this phantom-based study is encouraging. The reduction in both noise and dose through the application of beam-hardening filters is reflected in our phantom image quality. However, further investigation is needed to ascertain the applicability of this approach to reducing patient dose while maintaining diagnostically acceptable image qualities in a

  20. Emission spectra from super-critical rippled plasma density profiles illuminated by intense laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondarza R, R.; Boyd, T.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    High-order harmonic emission from the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with super-critical plasmas characterized by a rippled density profile at the vacuum-plasma interface has been observed from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A plasma simulation box several laser wavelengths in extent was prepared with a rippled density of a fraction of a laser wavelength. Emission spectra at the very initial stage of the interaction were recorded with spectral characteristics dissimilar to those previously reported in the literature. The reflected light spectra were characterized by a strong emission at the plasma line and by a series of harmonics at multiples of the ripple frequency. Harmonic spectra were obtained for different values of the plasma ripple frequency. In all cases the harmonics were emitted at the precise multiple harmonic number of the ripple frequency. Another important feature apparent from the simulations was that the emission peaks appeared to havea complex structure as compared with those for unrippled plasmas. For the cases when the plasma was rippled the peaks that corresponded to the multiples of the rippled density typically showed a double peak for the first few harmonics. The reflected emission plots for the main laser pulse showed strong emission at the plasma frequency and at multiples of that frequency as reported by the authors in the literature. (Author)

  1. Effect of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, P.S.; Meyn, D.A.; Bayles, R.A.; Feng, C.R.; Yoder, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors have extended their study on the effect of the ripple loads on the sustained-load cracking (SLC) behavior of two titanium alloys, Ti-6Al-4V (an α-β alloy) and Ti-15V-3Cr-3Al-3Sn (a β-α alloy), in an ambient air environment. The methodology which has been used successfully to treat ripple effects on stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) is employed again to address the influence of ripple loads on sustained-load cracking. Ripple loads can significantly reduce the apparent sustained load cracking resistance of titanium alloys in a relatively benign environment such as ambient air. For a ripple-load amplitude equal to 5% of the sustained load, the ripple-load cracking thresholds (K IRLC ) of beta-annealed Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-15V-3Cr-3al-3Sn are less than half of the respective sustained-load cracking thresholds (K ISLC ). The extent of ripple-load degradation for these alloys in ambient air -- relative to K ISLC , were found comparable to those observed in a much more aggressive 3.5% NaCl aqueous solution

  2. Seasonal and local time variability of ripples from airglow imager observations in US and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yue

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ripples as seen in airglow imagers are small wavy structures with short horizontal wavelengths (<15 km. Ripples are thought to form as the result of local instabilities, which are believed to occur when the amplitude of gravity waves becomes large enough. We have investigated ripple formation based on years of airglow imager observations located at Fort Collins, Colorado (41° N, 105° W and Misato Observatory, Japan (34° N, 135° E/Shigaraki MU Observatory (35° N, 136° E. Na temperature-wind lidar observations are employed to detect convective and dynamic instabilities in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT region over Fort Collins, Colorado. Seasonal variation of the ripple occurrence in Colorado is compared to that of the lidar-measured instability. The occurrence frequency of ripples varies semiannually, with maxima occurring during solstices and minima during equinoxes in both Colorado and Japan. However, the probability of convective and dynamic instabilities varies annually with a peak in Colorado winter. The seasonal variation of the occurrence frequency of ripples correlates with that of the gravity wave variances in the MLT. Ripple occurrence over Colorado also shows strong local time dependence, but it bears little resemblance to the local time dependence of instability probability.

  3. Comparing spatial tuning curves, spectral ripple resolution, and speech perception in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth S; Nelson, David A; Kreft, Heather; Nelson, Peggy B; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2011-07-01

    Spectral ripple discrimination thresholds were measured in 15 cochlear-implant users with broadband (350-5600 Hz) and octave-band noise stimuli. The results were compared with spatial tuning curve (STC) bandwidths previously obtained from the same subjects. Spatial tuning curve bandwidths did not correlate significantly with broadband spectral ripple discrimination thresholds but did correlate significantly with ripple discrimination thresholds when the rippled noise was confined to an octave-wide passband, centered on the STC's probe electrode frequency allocation. Ripple discrimination thresholds were also measured for octave-band stimuli in four contiguous octaves, with center frequencies from 500 Hz to 4000 Hz. Substantial variations in thresholds with center frequency were found in individuals, but no general trends of increasing or decreasing resolution from apex to base were observed in the pooled data. Neither ripple nor STC measures correlated consistently with speech measures in noise and quiet in the sample of subjects in this study. Overall, the results suggest that spectral ripple discrimination measures provide a reasonable measure of spectral resolution that correlates well with more direct, but more time-consuming, measures of spectral resolution, but that such measures do not always provide a clear and robust predictor of performance in speech perception tasks. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  4. Extracellular calcium controls the expression of two different forms of ripple-like hippocampal oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aivar, Paloma; Valero, Manuel; Bellistri, Elisa; Menendez de la Prida, Liset

    2014-02-19

    Hippocampal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are prominent in physiological and pathological conditions. During physiological ripples (100-200 Hz), few pyramidal cells fire together coordinated by rhythmic inhibitory potentials. In the epileptic hippocampus, fast ripples (>200 Hz) reflect population spikes (PSs) from clusters of bursting cells, but HFOs in the ripple and the fast ripple range are vastly intermixed. What is the meaning of this frequency range? What determines the expression of different HFOs? Here, we used different concentrations of Ca(2+) in a physiological range (1-3 mM) to record local field potentials and single cells in hippocampal slices from normal rats. Surprisingly, we found that this sole manipulation results in the emergence of two forms of HFOs reminiscent of ripples and fast ripples recorded in vivo from normal and epileptic rats, respectively. We scrutinized the cellular correlates and mechanisms underlying the emergence of these two forms of HFOs by combining multisite, single-cell and paired-cell recordings in slices prepared from a rat reporter line that facilitates identification of GABAergic cells. We found a major effect of extracellular Ca(2+) in modulating intrinsic excitability and disynaptic inhibition, two critical factors shaping network dynamics. Moreover, locally modulating the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration in an in vivo environment had a similar effect on disynaptic inhibition, pyramidal cell excitability, and ripple dynamics. Therefore, the HFO frequency band reflects a range of firing dynamics of hippocampal networks.

  5. The Ripple Effect: Citation Chain Reactions of a Nobel Prize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber Frandsen, Tove; Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the possible citation chain reactions of a Nobel Prize using the mathematician Robert J. Aumann as a case example. The results show that the award of the Nobel Prize in 2005 affected not only the citations to his work, but also affected the citations to the references in his s...... citation network. The effect is discussed using innovation decision process theory as a point of departure to identify the factors that created a bandwagon effect leading to the reported observations....... scientific oeuvre. The results indicate that the spillover effect is almost as powerful as the effect itself. We are consequently able to document a ripple effect in which the awarding of the Nobel Prize ignites a citation chain reaction to Aumann's scientific ouvre and to the references in its nearest...

  6. The Ripple Pond: Enabling Spiking Networks to See

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed eAfshar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the biologically inspired Ripple Pond Network (RPN, a simply connected spiking neural network which performs a transformation converting two dimensional images to one dimensional temporal patterns suitable for recognition by temporal coding learning and memory networks. The RPN has been developed as a hardware solution linking previously implemented neuromorphic vision and memory structures such as frameless vision sensors and neuromorphic temporal coding spiking neural networks. Working together such systems are potentially capable of delivering end-to-end high-speed, low-power and low-resolution recognition for mobile and autonomous applications where slow, highly sophisticated and power hungry signal processing solutions are ineffective. Key aspects in the proposed approach include utilising the spatial properties of physically embedded neural networks and propagating waves of activity therein for information processing, using dimensional collapse of imagery information into amenable temporal patterns and the use of asynchronous frames for information binding.

  7. The ripple pond: enabling spiking networks to see.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Saeed; Cohen, Gregory K; Wang, Runchun M; Van Schaik, André; Tapson, Jonathan; Lehmann, Torsten; Hamilton, Tara J

    2013-01-01

    We present the biologically inspired Ripple Pond Network (RPN), a simply connected spiking neural network which performs a transformation converting two dimensional images to one dimensional temporal patterns (TP) suitable for recognition by temporal coding learning and memory networks. The RPN has been developed as a hardware solution linking previously implemented neuromorphic vision and memory structures such as frameless vision sensors and neuromorphic temporal coding spiking neural networks. Working together such systems are potentially capable of delivering end-to-end high-speed, low-power and low-resolution recognition for mobile and autonomous applications where slow, highly sophisticated and power hungry signal processing solutions are ineffective. Key aspects in the proposed approach include utilizing the spatial properties of physically embedded neural networks and propagating waves of activity therein for information processing, using dimensional collapse of imagery information into amenable TP and the use of asynchronous frames for information binding.

  8. Emulating porphyrins with a rippled multivacancy graphene system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombrú, Dominique; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2018-04-01

    The interaction between a complex porphyrin-like system formed by an iron atom and multivacant graphene layer and O2, CO and CO2 molecules is studied, using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The multivacancy graphene system used for this study, consists in the removal of a 1,4-dimethybenzene-like moiety, in a 6 × 6 supercell. This removal and the structural optimization subsequently performed, yield to a biaxial vacancy, where the location of an iron atom embedded in it, lead to a system with resemblance to iron-porphyrin systems. This similar structure could be used to form complexes where gas molecules are allowed to interact with these iron-octavacant graphene systems. The study focuses on the structure of the system and the net magnetic moment for different gas molecules: O2, CO2 and CO. Rippling in the vacant graphene is enhanced through this interaction.

  9. Direct measurements of mean Reynolds stress and ripple roughness in the presence of energetic forcing by surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Malcolm; Trowbridge, John; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Jones, Katie R.; Traykovski, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    Direct covariance observations of the mean flow Reynolds stress and sonar images of the seafloor collected on a wave‐exposed inner continental shelf demonstrate that the drag exerted by the seabed on the overlying flow is consistent with boundary layer models for wave‐current interaction, provided that the orientation and anisotropy of the bed roughness are appropriately quantified. Large spatial and temporal variations in drag result from nonequilibrium ripple dynamics, ripple anisotropy, and the orientation of the ripples relative to the current. At a location in coarse sand characterized by large two‐dimensional orbital ripples, the observed drag shows a strong dependence on the relative orientation of the mean current to the ripple crests. At a contrasting location in fine sand, where more isotropic sub‐orbital ripples are observed, the sensitivity of the current to the orientation of the ripples is reduced. Further, at the coarse site under conditions when the currents are parallel to the ripple crests and the wave orbital diameter is smaller than the wavelength of the relic orbital ripples, the flow becomes hydraulically smooth. This transition is not observed at the fine site, where the observed wave orbital diameter is always greater than the wavelength of the observed sub‐orbital ripples. Paradoxically, the dominant along‐shelf flows often experience lower drag at the coarse site than at the fine site, despite the larger ripples, highlighting the complex dynamics controlling drag in wave‐exposed environments with heterogeneous roughness.

  10. Ripples on spikes show increased phase-amplitude coupling in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy seizure onset zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shennan A; Orosz, Iren; Salamon, Noriko; Moy, Stephanie; Wei, Linqing; Van ’t Klooster, Maryse A; Knight, Robert T; Harper, Ronald M; Bragin, Anatol; Fried, Itzhak; Engel, Jerome; Staba, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Ripples (80–150 Hz) recorded from clinical macroelectrodes have been shown to be an accurate biomarker of epileptogenic brain tissue. We investigated coupling between epileptiform spike phase and ripple amplitude to better understand the mechanisms that generate this type of pathological ripple (pRipple) event. Methods We quantified phase amplitude coupling (PAC) between epileptiform EEG spike phase and ripple amplitude recorded from intracranial depth macroelectrodes during episodes of sleep in 12 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. PAC was determined by 1) a phasor transform that corresponds to the strength and rate of ripples coupled with spikes, and a 2) ripple-triggered average to measure the strength, morphology, and spectral frequency of the modulating and modulated signals. Coupling strength was evaluated in relation to recording sites within and outside the seizure onset zone (SOZ). Results Both the phasor transform and ripple-triggered averaging methods showed ripple amplitude was often robustly coupled with epileptiform EEG spike phase. Coupling was more regularly found inside than outside the SOZ, and coupling strength correlated with the likelihood a macroelectrode’s location was within the SOZ (pripples coupled with EEG spikes inside the SOZ to rates of coupled ripples in non-SOZ was greater than the ratio of rates of ripples on spikes detected irrespective of coupling (pripple amplitude (pripple spectral frequency (pripple amplitude. The changes in excitability reflected as epileptiform spikes may also cause clusters of pathologically interconnected bursting neurons to grow and synchronize into aberrantly large neuronal assemblies. PMID:27723936

  11. Area/latency optimized early output asynchronous full adders and relative-timed ripple carry adders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, P; Yamashita, S

    2016-01-01

    This article presents two area/latency optimized gate level asynchronous full adder designs which correspond to early output logic. The proposed full adders are constructed using the delay-insensitive dual-rail code and adhere to the four-phase return-to-zero handshaking. For an asynchronous ripple carry adder (RCA) constructed using the proposed early output full adders, the relative-timing assumption becomes necessary and the inherent advantages of the relative-timed RCA are: (1) computation with valid inputs, i.e., forward latency is data-dependent, and (2) computation with spacer inputs involves a bare minimum constant reverse latency of just one full adder delay, thus resulting in the optimal cycle time. With respect to different 32-bit RCA implementations, and in comparison with the optimized strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output full adder designs, one of the proposed early output full adders achieves respective reductions in latency by 67.8, 12.3 and 6.1 %, while the other proposed early output full adder achieves corresponding reductions in area by 32.6, 24.6 and 6.9 %, with practically no power penalty. Further, the proposed early output full adders based asynchronous RCAs enable minimum reductions in cycle time by 83.4, 15, and 8.8 % when considering carry-propagation over the entire RCA width of 32-bits, and maximum reductions in cycle time by 97.5, 27.4, and 22.4 % for the consideration of a typical carry chain length of 4 full adder stages, when compared to the least of the cycle time estimates of various strong-indication, weak-indication, and early output asynchronous RCAs of similar size. All the asynchronous full adders and RCAs were realized using standard cells in a semi-custom design fashion based on a 32/28 nm CMOS process technology.

  12. Surface ripple evolution by argon ion irradiation in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Meetika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu

    2016-01-01

    In this report, an attempt has been made to investigate the morphological evolution of nanoscale surface ripples on aliphatic (polypropylene, PP) and aromatic (polyethylene terephthalate, PET) polymeric substrates irradiated with 50 keV Ar"+ ions. The specimens were sputtered at off normal incidence of 30° with 5 × 10"1"6 Ar"+ cm"−"2. The topographical features and structural behavior of the specimens were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and UV-Visible spectroscopy techniques, respectively. The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter simulations were performed to calculate sputtering yield of irradiated PP and PET polymers. Sputtering yield of carbon atoms has been found to be smaller for PP (0.40) as compared to PET (0.73), which is attributed to the different structures of two polymers. AFM analysis demonstrates the evolution of ripple like features with amplitude (2.50 nm) and wavelength (690 nm) on PET while that of lower amplitude (1.50 nm) and higher wavelength (980 nm) on PP specimen. The disorder parameter (Urbach energy) has been found to increase significantly from 0.30 eV to 1.67 eV in case of PP as compared to a lesser increase from 0.35 eV to 0.72 eV in case of PET as revealed by UV-Visible characterization. A mutual correlation between ion beam sputtering induced topographical variations with that of enhancement in the disorder parameter of the specimens has been discussed.

  13. An extended dual input dual output three level Z source inverter with improved switch loss reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Deshmukh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverter (MLI is a proven technology used for industrial applications due to low output total harmonic distortion (THD, high power handling capability and low active device rating. Dual output inverter is a recent trend associated with inverter topologies for specialized applications. This paper deals with three phase three level dual input dual output inverter topology with minimum active device count. Reduction in switch count leads to reduction in losses and improves reliability. Both the input sources share power equally as neutral point current ripple is maintained low. For further reduction in switching losses at higher switching frequencies, the concept of “no switching zone” or discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM has been put forth recently. This paper proposes modification in the placement of “no switching zone” in order to optimize switching losses and output THD (output filtering requirements for low power factor load. This study also proposes novel graphical approach to analyze the loss reduction along with its effect on output THD. The sinusoidal PWM (SPWM is used which gives satisfactory switching loss reduction without complex calculations. Moreover, the proposed topology is generalized to provide dual output at higher voltage levels. It is seen that the components reduction phenomenon becomes more pronounced as number of levels goes on increasing. The proposed converter is simulated in MATLAB software environment and results are obtained.

  14. FLOC: Field Line and Orbit Code for the study of ripple beam injection into tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R. H.; Lee, D. K.; Gaffney, P. W.; Rome, J. A.

    1978-06-01

    The computer code described is used to study ripple beam injection into a tokamak plasma. The collisionless guiding center equations of motion are integrated to find the orbits of single particles in realistic magnetic fields for ripple injection. In order to determine if the ripple is detrimental to the plasma, the magnetic flux surfaces are constructed by integration of the field line equations. The numerical techniques are described, and use of the code is outlined. A program listing is provided, and the results of sample cases are presented.

  15. Adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple improves the closed loop system performance significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points

  16. Online high voltage power supply ripple estimation and feedforward in LEDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. They propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points

  17. Final Report: Mechanisms of sputter ripple formation: coupling among energetic ions, surface kinetics, stress and composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chason, Eric; Shenoy, Vivek

    2013-01-22

    Self-organized pattern formation enables the creation of nanoscale surface structures over large areas based on fundamental physical processes rather than an applied template. Low energy ion bombardment is one such method that induces the spontaneous formation of a wide variety of interesting morphological features (e.g., sputter ripples and/or quantum dots). This program focused on the processes controlling sputter ripple formation and the kinetics controlling the evolution of surfaces and nanostructures in high flux environments. This was done by using systematic, quantitative experiments to measure ripple formation under a variety of processing conditions coupled with modeling to interpret the results.

  18. A New Switched Reluctance Motor Design to Reduce Torque Ripple using Finite Element Fuzzy Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mousavi-Aghdam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new design to reduce torque ripple in Switched Reluctance Motors (SRM. Although SRM possesses many advantages in terms of motor structure, it suffers from large torque ripple that causes problems such as vibration and acoustic noise. The paper describes new rotor and stator pole shapes with a non-uniform air gap profile to reduce torque ripple while retaining its average value. An optimization using fuzzy strategy is successfully performed after sensitivity analysis. The two dimensional (2-D finite element method (FEM results, have demonstrated validity of the proposed new design.

  19. Magnetic ripple and the modeling of lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Y.; Arslanbekov, R.; Basiuk, V.; Carrasco, J.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D.; Bizarro, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Using ray-tracing, a detailed investigation of the lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation in presence of toroidal magnetic field ripple is presented. By coupling ray tracing with a one-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck code, simulations of LH experiments have been performed for the Tore Supra tokamak. Taking into account magnetic ripple in LH simulations, a better agreement is found between numerical predictions and experimental observations, such as non-thermal Bremsstrahlung emission, current profile, ripple-induced power losses in local magnetic mirrors, when plasma conditions correspond to the ' 'few passes' regime. (author)

  20. FLOC: Field Line and Orbit Code for the study of ripple beam injection into tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, R.H.; Lee, D.K.; Gaffney, P.W.; Rome, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    The computer code described is used to study ripple beam injection into a tokamak plasma. The collisionless guiding center equations of motion are integrated to find the orbits of single particles in realistic magnetic fields for ripple injection. In order to determine if the ripple is detrimental to the plasma, the magnetic flux surfaces are constructed by integration of the field line equations. The numerical techniques are described, and use of the code is outlined. A program listing is provided, and the results of sample cases are presented

  1. The wave plus current flow over vortex ripples at an arbitrary angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Faraci, C

    2003-01-01

    This work concerns the wave plus current flow over a sand bed covered by vortex ripples, with the current and the waves coming from different angles. Experiments were performed in a basin, where current and waves were perpendicular, in order to determine the conditions (current strength) leading...... to a regular ripple pattern formation. Numerical simulations were conducted changing the direction between the waves and the current from 0degrees to 90degrees and the ratio between the current strength and the wave orbital velocity from 0.2 to 1.5. Close to the bed, the current aligns parallel to the ripple...

  2. Pattern dynamics of vortex ripples in sand: Nonlinear modeling and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Abel, M.; Krug, J.

    2002-01-01

    Vortex ripples in sand are studied experimentally in a one-dimensional setup with periodic boundary conditions. The nonlinear evolution, far from the onset of instability, is analyzed in the framework of a simple model developed for homogeneous patterns. The interaction function describing the mass...... transport between neighboring ripples is extracted from experimental runs using a recently proposed method for data analysis, and the predictions of the model are compared to the experiment. An analytic explanation of the wavelength selection mechanism in the model is provided, and the width of the stable...... band of ripples is measured....

  3. Generalised Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Friston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a Bayesian filtering scheme for nonlinear state-space models in continuous time. This scheme is called Generalised Filtering and furnishes posterior (conditional densities on hidden states and unknown parameters generating observed data. Crucially, the scheme operates online, assimilating data to optimize the conditional density on time-varying states and time-invariant parameters. In contrast to Kalman and Particle smoothing, Generalised Filtering does not require a backwards pass. In contrast to variational schemes, it does not assume conditional independence between the states and parameters. Generalised Filtering optimises the conditional density with respect to a free-energy bound on the model's log-evidence. This optimisation uses the generalised motion of hidden states and parameters, under the prior assumption that the motion of the parameters is small. We describe the scheme, present comparative evaluations with a fixed-form variational version, and conclude with an illustrative application to a nonlinear state-space model of brain imaging time-series.

  4. Filter This

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Barbakoff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe welcomes Audrey Barbakoff, a librarian at the Milwaukee Public Library, and Ahniwa Ferrari, Virtual Experience Manager at the Pierce County Library System in Washington, for a point-counterpoint piece on filtering in libraries. The opinions expressed here are those of the authors, and are not endorsed by their employers. [...

  5. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  6. Plasma waves generated by rippled magnetically focused electron beams surrounded by tenuous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperman, S.; Petran, F.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter investigates the electrostatic instability and the corresponding unstable wave spectrum of magnetically focused neutralized rippled electron beams under spacelike conditions. Topics considered include general equations and equilibrium, the derivation of the dispersion relation, and the solution of the dispersion relation (long wavelength perturbations, short wavelength perturbations, the rippled beam). The results indicate that in the long wavelength limit two types of instability (extending over different frequency ranges) exist. An instability of the beam-plasma type occurs due to the interaction between the beam electrons and the surrounding plasm electrons at the beam-plasma interface. A parametric type instability is produced by the coupling of a fast forward wave and a fast backward wave due to the rippling (modulation) of the beam. It is demonstrated that in the short wavelength limit, surface waves which are stable for the laminar beam may become unstable in the rippled beam case

  7. Implementation of vertically asymmetric toroidal-field ripple for beam heating of tokamak reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.; Sheffield, G.V.; Towner, H.H.; Weissenburger, D.W.

    1976-10-01

    The neutral-beam energy required for adequate penetration of tokamak plasmas of high opacity can be reduced by a large factor if the beam is injected vertically into a region of large TF (toroidal-field) ripple. Energetic ions are trapped in local magnetic wells and drift vertically toward the midplane (z = 0). If the ripple is made very small on the opposite side of the midplane, drifting ions are detrapped and thermalized in the central plasma region. This paper discusses design considerations for establishing the required vertically asymmetric ripple. Examples are given of special TF-coil configurations, and of the use of auxiliary coil windings to create the prescribed ripple profiles

  8. Roles of effective helical ripple rates in nonlinear stability of externally induced magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Magnetic islands are externally produced by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in toroidal plasmas. Spontaneous annihilation of RMP-induced magnetic islands called self-healing has been observed in helical systems. A possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by helical ripple-induced neoclassical flows, which give rise to neoclassical viscous torques. In this study, effective helical ripple rates in multi-helicity helical systems are revisited, and a multi-helicity effect on the self-healing is investigated, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands. It is confirmed that effective helical ripple rates are sensitive to magnetic axis positions. It is newly found that self-healing thresholds also strongly depend on magnetic axis positions, which is due to dependence of neoclassical viscous torques on effective helical ripple rates.

  9. Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, P C de; Hawkes, N C; Challis, C D; Andrew, Y; Beurskens, M; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Zastrow, K-D [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Litaudon, X [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/DFRC, CEA Cadarache, 13108, St Paul lez Durance (France); Brzozowski, J; Johnson, T [Association EURATOM-VR, Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Hobirk, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Loennroth, J; Salmi, A [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Tala, T [Association Euratom-Tekes, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Yavorskij, V [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Association EURATOM-OEAW, University of Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Peter.de.Vries@jet.uk

    2008-06-15

    The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to {delta} = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.

  10. Self-Assembled Gold Nano-Ripple Formation by Gas Cluster Ion Beam Bombardment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilakaratne, Buddhi P; Chen, Quark Y; Chu, Wei-Kan

    2017-09-08

    In this study, we used a 30 keV argon cluster ion beam bombardment to investigate the dynamic processes during nano-ripple formation on gold surfaces. Atomic force microscope analysis shows that the gold surface has maximum roughness at an incident angle of 60° from the surface normal; moreover, at this angle, and for an applied fluence of 3 × 10 16 clusters/cm², the aspect ratio of the nano-ripple pattern is in the range of ~50%. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry analysis reveals a formation of a surface gradient due to prolonged gas cluster ion bombardment, although the surface roughness remains consistent throughout the bombarded surface area. As a result, significant mass redistribution is triggered by gas cluster ion beam bombardment at room temperature. Where mass redistribution is responsible for nano-ripple formation, the surface erosion process refines the formed nano-ripple structures.

  11. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters.

  12. A third-order class-D amplifier with and without ripple compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen M.; du Toit Mouton, H.

    2018-06-01

    We analyse the nonlinear behaviour of a third-order class-D amplifier, and demonstrate the remarkable effectiveness of the recently introduced ripple compensation (RC) technique in reducing the audio distortion of the device. The amplifier converts an input audio signal to a high-frequency train of rectangular pulses, whose widths are modulated according to the input signal (pulse-width modulation) and employs negative feedback. After determining the steady-state operating point for constant input and calculating its stability, we derive a small-signal model (SSM), which yields in closed form the transfer function relating (infinitesimal) input and output disturbances. This SSM shows how the RC technique is able to linearise the small-signal response of the device. We extend this SSM through a fully nonlinear perturbation calculation of the dynamics of the amplifier, based on the disparity in time scales between the pulse train and the audio signal. We obtain the nonlinear response of the amplifier to a general audio signal, avoiding the linearisation inherent in the SSM; we thereby more precisely quantify the reduction in distortion achieved through RC. Finally, simulations corroborate our theoretical predictions and illustrate the dramatic deterioration in performance that occurs when the amplifier is operated in an unstable regime. The perturbation calculation is rather general, and may be adapted to quantify the way in which other nonlinear negative-feedback pulse-modulated devices track a time-varying input signal that slowly modulates the system parameters.

  13. Evaluation of Core Loss in Magnetic Materials Employed in Utility Grid AC Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    magnetic materials adopted in utility grid ac filters have been investigated and measured for both sinusoidal and rectangular excitation, with and without dc bias condition. The core loss information can ensure cost effective passive filter designs and may avoid trial-error design procedures of the passive......Inductive components play an important role in filtering the switching harmonics related to the pulse width modulation in voltage source converters. Particularly, the filter reactor on the converter side of the filter is subjected to rectangular excitation which may lead to significant losses...... in the core, depending on the magnetic material of choice and current ripple specifications. Additionally, shunt or series reactors that exists in LCL or trap filters and which are subjected to sinusoidal excitations have different specifications and requirements. Therefore, the core losses of different...

  14. Design and control of an LCL-filter-based three-phase active rectifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede; Hansen, Steffan

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a step-by-step procedure for designing the LCL filter of a front-end three-phase active rectifier. The primary goal is to reduce the switching frequency ripple at a reasonable cost, while at the same time achieving a high-performance front-end rectifier (as characterized...... by a rapid dynamic response and good stability margin). An example LCL filter design is reported and a filter has been built and tested using the values obtained from this design. The experimental results demonstrate the performance of the design procedure both for the LCL filter and for the rectifier...... a powerful tool to design an LCL-filter-based active rectifier while avoiding trial-and-error procedures that can result in having to build several filter prototypes....

  15. Studies of suprathermal electron loss in the magnetic ripple of Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Lipa, M.; Martin, G.; Chantant, M.; Guilhem, D.; Imbeaux, F.; Mitteau, R.; Peysson, Y.; Surle, F.

    2000-01-01

    A new prototype of protection against fast electron trapped in the magnetic ripple was installed on Tore-Supra in 1998. It was designed to support the high flux of fast electron generated by lower hybrid in the CIEL project (up to 6 MW/m 2 ) during steady state experiments. So it is actively cooled and allows a direct measurement of the energy lost in the ripple. (author)

  16. Surface magnetization and the role of pattern defects in various types of ripple patterned films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colino, Jose M; Arranz, Miguel A; Barbero, Antonio J; Bollero, A; Camarero, J

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the magnetic properties of cobalt films with wide-area nanoscale ripple patterns, either on their surface only, or on both the film surface and substrate interface. Angular dependence vectorial-resolved magnetometry measurements and magnetic force microscopy with in situ magnetic field have been used to determine the magnetization reversal processes to correlate them to the different patterned nanostructures. All the samples show well-defined uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the anisotropy axis lying along the ripple direction. Atomic force microscopy of the different types of pattern reveals various pattern defects: height corrugation and breaks of continuity along the ripple direction, and overlapping ripples and Y-shaped defects (pattern dislocation) across the pattern. In spite of the existence of such customary defects of erosive-regime patterns, the type of low-amplitude, surface-patterned films remarkably behave as a macrospin over almost the whole in-plane angular range (340°), with negligible spread of anisotropy axis or energy. In turn, it is found that high-amplitude surface-patterned films develop an angular distribution of anisotropy axes, probably related to the large distribution of amplitudes in a pattern of short ripples, and a significant distribution of anisotropy fields ΔH k /H k up to 15%. On the other hand, films grow on pre-patterned silicon with a significantly longer mean ripple length, and develop a larger anisotropy energy with H k up to 110 mT, probably because of the double interface effect. The switching fields close to the magnetization easy axis of all types of ripple pattern are not well reproduced by the macrospin approximation, but the observed pattern defects seem to be not responsible for the domain wall pinning that occurs with the field applied along the ripple direction. (paper)

  17. Simulation of Alpha Particles in Rotating Plasma Interacting with a Stationary Ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Superthermal ExB rotation can provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and enhanced confinement to axisymmetric mirrors. However, the rotation speed has been limited by phenomena at end electrodes. A new prediction is that rotation might instead be produced using a magnetic ripple and alpha particle kinetic energy, in an extension of the alpha channeling concept. The interaction of alpha particles with the ripple results in visually interesting and practically useful orbits.

  18. Temperature-Controlled High-Speed AFM: Real-Time Observation of Ripple Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirohide; Miyagi, Atsushi; Redondo-Morata, Lorena; Scheuring, Simon

    2016-11-01

    With nanometer lateral and Angstrom vertical resolution, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed unique data improving the understanding of lipid bilayers. Lipid bilayers are found in several different temperature-dependent states, termed phases; the main phases are solid and fluid phases. The transition temperature between solid and fluid phases is lipid composition specific. Under certain conditions some lipid bilayers adopt a so-called ripple phase, a structure where solid and fluid phase domains alternate with constant periodicity. Because of its narrow regime of existence and heterogeneity ripple phase and its transition dynamics remain poorly understood. Here, a temperature control device to high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) to observe dynamics of phase transition from ripple phase to fluid phase reversibly in real time is developed and integrated. Based on HS-AFM imaging, the phase transition processes from ripple phase to fluid phase and from ripple phase to metastable ripple phase to fluid phase could be reversibly, phenomenologically, and quantitatively studied. The results here show phase transition hysteresis in fast cooling and heating processes, while both melting and condensation occur at 24.15 °C in quasi-steady state situation. A second metastable ripple phase with larger periodicity is formed at the ripple phase to fluid phase transition when the buffer contains Ca 2+ . The presented temperature-controlled HS-AFM is a new unique experimental system to observe dynamics of temperature-sensitive processes at the nanoscopic level. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Assessing the role of spectral and intensity cues in spectral ripple detection and discrimination in cochlear-implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth S; Oxenham, Andrew J; Nelson, Peggy B; Nelson, David A

    2012-12-01

    Measures of spectral ripple resolution have become widely used psychophysical tools for assessing spectral resolution in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. The objective of this study was to compare spectral ripple discrimination and detection in the same group of CI listeners. Ripple detection thresholds were measured over a range of ripple frequencies and were compared to spectral ripple discrimination thresholds previously obtained from the same CI listeners. The data showed that performance on the two measures was correlated, but that individual subjects' thresholds (at a constant spectral modulation depth) for the two tasks were not equivalent. In addition, spectral ripple detection was often found to be possible at higher rates than expected based on the available spectral cues, making it likely that temporal-envelope cues played a role at higher ripple rates. Finally, spectral ripple detection thresholds were compared to previously obtained speech-perception measures. Results confirmed earlier reports of a robust relationship between detection of widely spaced ripples and measures of speech recognition. In contrast, intensity difference limens for broadband noise did not correlate with spectral ripple detection measures, suggesting a dissociation between the ability to detect small changes in intensity across frequency and across time.

  20. A High Power Density Integrated Charger for Electric Vehicles with Active Ripple Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests a high power density on-board integrated charger with active ripple compensation circuit for electric vehicles. To obtain a high power density and high efficiency, silicon carbide devices are reported to meet the requirement of high-switching-frequency operation. An integrated bidirectional converter is proposed to function as AC/DC battery charger and to transfer energy between battery pack and motor drive of the traction system. In addition, the conventional H-bridge circuit suffers from ripple power pulsating at second-order line frequency, and a scheme of active ripple compensation circuit has been explored to solve this second-order ripple problem, in which a pair of power switches shared traction mode, a ripple energy storage capacitor, and an energy transfer inductor. Simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink validated the eligibility of the proposed topology. The integrated charger can work as a 70 kW motor drive circuit or a converter with an active ripple compensation circuit for 3 kW charging the battery. The impact of the proposed topology and control strategy on the integrated charger power losses, efficiency, power density, and thermal performance has also been analysed and simulated.

  1. A MEMS coupled resonator for frequency filtering in air

    KAUST Repository

    Ilyas, Saad

    2018-02-03

    We present design, fabrication, and characterization of a mechanically coupled MEMS H resonator capable of performing simultaneous mechanical amplification and filtering in air. The device comprises of two doubly clamped polyimide microbeams joined through the middle by a coupling beam of the same size. The resonator is fabricated via a multi-layer surface micromachining process. A special fabrication process and device design is employed to enable operation in air and to achieve mechanical amplification of the output response. Moreover, mixed-frequency excitation is used to demonstrate a tunable wide band filter for low frequency applications. It is demonstrated that through the multi-source harmonic excitation and the operation in air, an improved band-pass filter with flat response and minimal ripples can be achieved.

  2. IDENTIFIKASI PENYAKIT PADA TERUMBU KARANG MENGGUNAKAN RIPPLE DOWN RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Cahyo Nugroho

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of technology, people developed a system that capable of adopting processes and human thinking as an expert system that contains specific knowledge so that everyone can use it to solve a specific problem, namely the diagnosis of coral reef disease. The purpose of this study is to develop an expert system for diagnosing coral reef disease  in the form of websites using PHP with a MySQL database. Expert system for diagnosing coral reef disease problem is using Ripple Down Rules (RDR method has a goal to discover symptoms that appear in the form of questions that can diagnose the coral reef disease based on website. Web based expert system is able to recognize types of coral reef disease after consultation by answering a few questions that are displayed by the application of expert systems and can infer some types of coral  reef disease. Data coral reef disease that already known adapt to rules which are made for matching the symptoms of coral reef disease.

  3. Bag filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M; Komeda, I; Takizaki, K

    1982-01-01

    Bag filters are widely used throughout the cement industry for recovering raw materials and products and for improving the environment. Their general mechanism, performance and advantages are shown in a classification table, and there are comparisons and explanations. The outer and inner sectional construction of the Shinto ultra-jet collector for pulverized coal is illustrated and there are detailed descriptions of dust cloud prevention, of measures used against possible sources of ignition, of oxygen supply and of other topics. Finally, explanations are given of matters that require careful and comprehensive study when selecting equipment.

  4. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  5. A practical approach to harmonic compensation in power systems-series connection of passive and active filters

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Hideaki; Akagi, Hirofumi

    1991-01-01

    The authors present a combined system with a passive filter and a small-rated active filter, both connected in series with each other. The passive filter removes load produced harmonics just as a conventional filter does. The active filter plays a role in improving the filtering characteristics of the passive filter. This results in a great reduction of the required rating of the active filter and in eliminating all the limitations faced by using only the passive filter, leading to a practica...

  6. Mathematical Relationship Between Particle Reynolds Number and Ripple Factor using Tapi River Data, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Yadav

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The computation of bed load allows for the fact that only part of the shear stress is used for transport of sediments and some of the shear stress is wasted in overcoming the resistance due to bed forms therefore the total shear stress developed in the open channel requires correction in the form of correction factor called ripple factor. Different methods have been followed for correcting the actual shear stress in order to compute the sediment load. Correction factors are based on particular characteristics grain size of particle. In the present paper the ripple factor has been obtained for non uniform bed material considering the various variables like discharge, hydraulic mean depth, flow velocity, bed slope, average diameter of particle etc. by collecting the field data of Tapi river for 15 years for a particular gauging station. The ripple factor is obtained using Meyer Peter and Muller formula, Einstein Formula, Kalinske’s formula, Du Boy’s formula, Shield’s formula, Bagnold’s formula, average of six formulae and multiple regression analysis. The variation of ripple factor with particle Reynolds Number is studied. The ripple factor obtained by different approaches are further analyzed using Origin software and carrying out multiple regression on the 15 years of data with more than 10 parameters, ripple factor by multiple regression has been obtained. These values are further analysed and giving statistical mean to the parameters a relationship of power form has been developed. The ripple factor increases with the increase in the value of Particle Reynolds number. The large deviation is observed in case of Kalinske’s approach when compare with other approaches

  7. Two different mechanisms associated with ripple-like oscillations (100-250 Hz) in the human epileptic subiculum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Rojas, C; Huberfeld, G; Baulac, M; Clemenceau, S; Charpier, S; Miles, R; Menendez de la Prida, L; Le Van Quyen, M

    2015-01-01

    Transient high-frequency oscillations (150-600 Hz) in local field potential generated by human hippocampal and parahippocampal areas have been related to both physiological and pathological processes. The cellular basis and effects of normal and abnormal forms of high-frequency oscillations (HFO) has been controversial. Here, we searched for HFOs in slices of the subiculum prepared from human hippocampal tissue resected for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. HFOs occurred spontaneously in extracellular field potentials during interictal discharges (IID) and also during pharmacologically induced preictal discharges (PID) preceding ictal-like events. While most of these events might be considered pathological since they invaded the fast ripple band (>250 Hz), others were spectrally similar to physiological ripples (150-250 Hz). Do similar cellular mechanisms underly IID-ripples and PID-ripples? Are ripple-like oscillations a valid proxy of epileptogenesis in human TLE? With combined intra- or juxta-cellular and extracellular recordings, we showed that, despite overlapping spectral components, ripple-like IID and PID oscillations were associated with different cellular and synaptic mechanisms. IID-ripples were associated with rhythmic GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic potentials with moderate neuronal firing. In contrast, PID-ripples were associated with depolarizing synaptic inputs frequently reaching the threshold for bursting in most cells. Thus ripple-like oscillations (100-250 Hz) in the human epileptic hippocampus are associated with different mechanisms for synchrony reflecting distinct dynamic changes in inhibition and excitation during interictal and pre-ictal states. PMID:25448920

  8. Dynamics of Neural Responses in Ferret Primary Auditory Cortex: I. Spectro-Temporal Response Field Characterization by Dynamic Ripple Spectra

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Depireux, Didier A; Simon, Jonathan Z; Klein, David J; Shamma, Shihab A

    1999-01-01

    .... It is calculated here from the responses to elementary 'ripples,' a family of sounds with drifting, sinusoidal, spectral envelopes - the complex spectrotemporal envelope of any broadband, dynamic...

  9. Assessment of Estimation Methods ForStage-Discharge Rating Curve in Rippled Bed Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Maleki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interactionbetweenwater flow characteristics andthe bed erodibilityplays an important role in sediment transport process. In order to reach stability, rivers with deposition or bottom erosion make a different bed form in the riverbed. One way to identify thebehavior of therivers is to study the structure and formation of bed forms within them. Ripples are the smallest of the bed forms. The longitudinal cross section of ripples are usually not symmetrical. The upstream face is long and has a gentle slope, and the downstream face is short and steep. The height of ripples is usually between 0.5 cm and 2 cm; the height ripple is not more than 5 cm. The wave lengths normally do not exceed 30cm, and they are usually within the range of 1 cm to 15 cm. Their occurrence is the result of the unstable viscous layer near the boundary. They can form in both shallow and deep water.With an increase of the flow velocity, the plan form of the ripples gradually develops form straight line to curves and then to a pattern like fish scales, symmetrical or unsymmetrical, as shown in Fig 1. Figure1-The patterndevelopment oftheripple Raudkivi (1966 was the first person that, the flow structure over ripples was investigated experimentally.Hethenestablishseveraldifferent conditionsonthemovingsandbedinanlaboratorychannelconsisted of a rectangular cross-section with base width of 70cm, wasable toform arow ofripples , he wassucceed toform arow ofripples.JafariMianaei and Keshavarzi(2008,studied the turbulentflow betweentwoartificialripples for investigate the change of kinetic energyandshearstress on overripples. The stage- discharge rating curve is one of the most important tools in the hydraulic studies. In alluvial rivers,bed rippled are formed and significantly affect the stage- discharge rating curve. In this research, the effects of two different type of ripples (parallel and flakeshape onthe hydraulic characteristicsof flow were experimentally studied

  10. Extension of the maintenance cycle of HEPA filters by optimization of the technical characteristics of filters and their construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, H.; Stiehl, H.H.; Sinhuber, D.

    1977-01-01

    The knowledge of the parameters of HEPA filters used at present in nuclear plants allows optimization of such filters with respect to flow rate, pressure drop and service life. The application of optimizing new types of HEPA filters of improved performance is reported. The calculated results were checked experimentally. The use of HEPA filters optimized with respect to dust capacity and service life, and the effects of this new type of filter on the reduction of operating and maintenance costs are discussed

  11. High efficiency particulate air filter experience survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Causes and magnitude of HEPA filter changeouts and failures at DOE sites for the years 1977 to 1979 were evaluated. Conclusions inferred from the data follow: HEPA filters have been generally performing the task they were designed for; most changeouts have been made because of filter plugging, preventive maintenance, or precautionary reasons rather than evidence of filter failure; where failures have been experienced, records generally have not been adequate to determine the cause of failure; where cause of failure has been determined, damage attributed to personnel handling and installation has been substantially more prevalent than that from filter environmental exposure. The need for improved personnel training in handling and installation was stressed. Some reduction in filter failure frequency can be achieved by improving the acid and moisture resistance of filters, and providing adequate pretreatment of air prior to HEPA filtration

  12. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  13. Analog Electronic Filters Theory, Design and Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Hercules G

    2012-01-01

    Filters are essential subsystems in a huge variety of electronic systems. Filter applications are innumerable; they are used for noise reduction, demodulation, signal detection, multiplexing, sampling, sound and speech processing, transmission line equalization and image processing, to name just a few. In practice, no electronic system can exist without filters. They can be found in everything from power supplies to mobile phones and hard disk drives and from loudspeakers and MP3 players to home cinema systems and broadband Internet connections. This textbook introduces basic concepts and methods and the associated mathematical and computational tools employed in electronic filter theory, synthesis and design.  This book can be used as an integral part of undergraduate courses on analog electronic filters. Includes numerous, solved examples, applied examples and exercises for each chapter. Includes detailed coverage of active and passive filters in an independent but correlated manner. Emphasizes real filter...

  14. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  15. Robust Design of LCL-Filters for Active Damping in Grid Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzola, Rafael Pena; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Grid converters require a simple inductor or an LCL-filter to limit the current ripples. The LCL-filter is nowadays the preferred solution as it allows lower inductance values. In order to solve the stability concerns, active damping is preferred to passive damping since it does not use dissipative...... elements. However, large variations in the grid inductance and resonances arising from parallel converters may still compromise the system stability. This calls for a robust design of LCL-filters with active damping. This paper proposes a design flow with little iteration for two well-known methods, namely...... lead-lag network and current capacitor feedback. The proposed formulas for the resonance frequency, grid and converter inductance ratio, and capacitance of the LCL-filter allow calculating all the LCL-filter parameters. An estimation for the achieved Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the grid current...

  16. The ripple electromagnetic calculation: accuracy demand and possible responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocilovo, V.; Ramogida, G.; Formisano, A.; Martone, R.; Portone, A.; Roccella, M.; Roccella, R.

    2006-01-01

    Due to a number of causes (the finite number of toroidal field coils or the presence of concentrate blocks of magnetic materials, as the neutral beam shielding) the actual magnetic configuration in a Tokamak differs from the desired one. For example, a ripple is added to the ideal axisymmetric toroidal field, impacting the equilibrium and stability of the plasma column; as a further example the magnetic field out of plasma affects the operation of a number of critical components, included the diagnostic system and the neutral beam. Therefore the actual magnetic field has to be suitably calculated and his shape controlled within the required limits. Due to the complexity of its design, the problem is quite critical for the ITER project. In this paper the problem is discussed both from mathematical and numerical point of view. In particular, a complete formulation is proposed, taking into account both the presence of the non linear magnetic materials and the fully 3D geometry. Then the quality level requirements are discussed, included the accuracy of calculations and the spatial resolution. As a consequence, the numerical tools able to fulfil the quality needs while requiring reasonable computer burden are considered. In particular possible tools based on numerical FEM scheme are considered; in addition, in spite of the presence of non linear materials, the practical possibility to use Biot-Savart based approaches, as cross check tools, is also discussed. The paper also analyses the possible geometrical simplifications of the geometry able to make possible the actual calculation while guarantying the required accuracy. Finally the characteristics required for a correction system able to effectively counteract the magnetic field degradation are presented. Of course a number of examples will be also reported and commented. (author)

  17. Dynamic and photometric evolutionary models of tidal tails and ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation into the causes of star formation in tidal tails has been conducted using a restricted three-body dynamical model in conjunction with a broad-band photometric evolutionary code. In these models, regions of compression form inside the disk and along the tidal tail and tidal bridge. The effects these density changes have on the colors of the tidal features are examined with a broad-band photometric evolutionary code. A spiral galaxy population is synthesized and the effects of modest changes in the star formation rate are explored. Limits on the density changes needed to make detectable changes in the colors are calculated using a Schmidt (1959) law. These models suggest that the blue colors and knotty features observed in the tidal features of some galaxies result from increased rates of star formation induced by tidally produced density increases. Limitations of this model are discussed along with photometric evolutionary models based on the density evolution in the tails. The Lynds and Toomre (1976) interpretation of ring galaxies as the natural result of a nearly head-on collision between a disk galaxy and a companion galaxy has become widely accepted. Similarly, Quinn's (1984) interpretation of the shells in elliptical galaxies as the aftermath of the cannibalization of a low-mass companion has been quite successful in accounting for the observations. Restricted three-body calculations of high inclination, low impact parameter encounters demonstrate that the shell-like ripples observed in a number of disk galaxies can also be produced as collisional artifacts from internal oscillations much as in ring galaxies

  18. Turbulence and sediment transport over sand dunes and ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, A.; Le Bot, S.; lafite, R.; Bonneton, P.; Ardhuin, F.

    2013-12-01

    Several bedforms are present near to the surfzone of natural beaches. Dunes and ripples are frequently observed. Understanding the turbulence over these forms is essential for the sediment transport. The turbulent flow and the suspended sand particles interact with each other. At the moment, the modelling strategy for turbulence is still a challenge. According to the spatial scales, some different methods to model the turbulence are employed, in particular the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) and the LES (Large Eddy Simulation). A hybrid method combining both RANS and LES is set up here. We have adapted this method, initially developed for atmospheric flow, to the oceanic flow. This new method is implemented inside the 3D hydrodynamic model, MARS 3D, which is forced by waves. LES is currently the best way to simulate turbulent flow but its higher cost prevents it from being used for large scale applications. So, here we use RANS near the bottom while LES is set elsewhere. It allows us minimize the computational cost and ensure a better accuracy of the results than with a fully RANS model. In the case of megaripples, the validation step was performed with two sets of field data (Sandy Duck'97 and Forsoms'13) but also with the data from Dune2D model which uses only RANS for turbulence. The main findings are: a) the vertical profiles of the velocity are similar throughout the data b) the turbulent kinetic energy, which was underestimated by Dune2D, is in line with the observations c) the concentration of the suspended sediment is simulated with a better accuracy than with Dune2D but this remains lower than the observations.

  19. Serotonin dependent masking of hippocampal sharp wave ripples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Rizwan; Anderson, Marlene L; Hollnagel, Jan-Oliver; Worschech, Franziska; Sherkheli, Muhammad Azahr; Behrens, Christoph J; Heinemann, Uwe

    2016-02-01

    Sharp wave ripples (SPW-Rs) are thought to play an important role in memory consolidation. By rapid replay of previously stored information during slow wave sleep and consummatory behavior, they result from the formation of neural ensembles during a learning period. Serotonin (5-HT), suggested to be able to modify SPW-Rs, can affect many neurons simultaneously by volume transmission and alter network functions in an orchestrated fashion. In acute slices from dorsal hippocampus, SPW-Rs can be induced by repeated high frequency stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. We used this model to study SPW-R appearance and modulation by 5-HT. Although stimulation in presence of 5-HT permitted LTP induction, SPW-Rs were "masked"--but appeared after 5-HT wash-out. This SPW-R masking was dose dependent with 100 nM 5-HT being sufficient--if the 5-HT re-uptake inhibitor citalopram was present. Fenfluramine, a serotonin releaser, could also mask SPW-Rs. Masking was due to 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/C receptor activation. Neither membrane potential nor membrane conductance changes in pyramidal cells caused SPW-R blockade since both remained unaffected by combining 5-HT and citalopram. Moreover, 10 and 30 μM 5-HT mediated SPW-R masking preceded neuronal hyperpolarization and involved reduced presynaptic transmitter release. 5-HT, as well as a 5-HT1A agonist, augmented paired pulse facilitation and affected the coefficient of variance. Spontaneous SPW-Rs in mice hippocampal slices were also masked by 5-HT and fenfluramine. While neuronal ensembles can acquire long lasting LTP during higher 5-HT levels, lower 5-HT levels enable neural ensembles to replay previously stored information and thereby permit memory consolidation memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hurricane Sandy's Fingerprint: Ripple Bedforms at an Inner Continental Shelf Sorted Bedform Field Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Trembanis, A. C.; Beaudoin, J. D.; Schmidt, V. E.; Mayer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrodynamics and seabed morphodynamics on the inner continental shelf and near shore environments have increasing relevance with continued development of near shore structures, offshore energy technologies and artificial reef construction. Characterizing the stresses on and response of the seabed near and around seabed objects will inform best practices for structural design, seabed mine and unexploded ordnance detection, and archaeological and benthic habitat studies. As part of an ONR funded project, Delaware's Redbird Reef is being studied for object scour and sorted bedform morphodynamics (Trembanis et al., in press). Central to this study are the effects of large storm events, such as Hurricane Sandy, which have had significant impact on the seafloor. Previous studies of inner shelf bedform dynamics have typically focused on near bed currents and bed stressors (e.g. Trembanis et al., 2004), sorted bedforms (e.g. Green et al., 2004) and object scour (e.g. Quinn, 2006; Trembanis et al., 2007; Mayer et al., 2007), but our understanding of the direct effects of objects and object scour on bedform morphodynamics is still incomplete. With prominent sorted bedform ripple fields, the Delaware Redbird artificial reef site, composed of 997 former New York City subway cars, as well as various military vehicles, tugboats, barges and ballasted tires, has made an ideal study location (Raineault et al., 2013 and 2011). Acoustic mapping of the Redbird reef three days prior to Sandy and two days after the following nor'easter, captured the extensive effects of the storms to the site, while acoustic Doppler current profilers characterized both the waves and bottom currents generated by the storm events. Results of the post-Sandy survey support the theory of sorted bedform evolution proposed by Murray and Thieler (2004). Acoustic imagery analysis indicates a highly energized and mobile bed during the storms, leading to self-organization of bedforms and creation of large

  1. Effect of ripple-induced transport on H-mode performance in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parail, V.; Vries, P. de; Lonnroth, J.; Kiviniemi, T.; Johnson, T.; Loarte, A.; Saibene, G.; Hatae, T.; Kamada, Y.; Konovalov, S.; Oyama, N.; Shinohara, K.; Tobita, K.; Urano, H.

    2005-01-01

    A number of experiments have shown that ripple-induced transport influences performance of ELMy H-modes in the tokamak. A noticeable difference in confinement, ELM frequency and amplitude was found between JET (with ripple amplitude δ∼0.1%) and JT-60U (with δ∼1%) in otherwise identical discharges. It was previously shown in JET experiments with enhanced ripple that a gradual increase in the ripple amplitude first leads to a modest improvement in plasma confinement, which is followed by the degradation of edge pedestal and further transition to the L-mode regime if δ increases further. The DIII-D team recently reported a marginal increase in confinement in experiments with an edge transport enhanced by the externally driven resonant magnetic perturbation. Numerical predictive modelling of the dynamics of ELMy H-mode JET plasma relevant to a JET/JT-60U similarity experiment has been conducted taking into account ripple-induced ion transport, which was computed using the orbit following code ASCOT. This predictive modelling reveals that, depending on plasma parameters, ripple amplitude and localisation (the latter depending on the toroidal coil design), this additional transport can either improve global plasma confinement or reduce it. These controlled ripple losses might be used as an effective tool for ELM mitigation and may provide an explanation for the difference between JET and JT-60U observed in the similarity experiments. A detailed comparison between ripple- induced transport and the alternative method of ELM mitigation by an externally driven edge magnetic perturbation is discussed. The fact that ripple losses mainly increase ion transport, while a stochastic magnetic layer increases electron transport indicates that it might be beneficial to use a combination of both methods in future experiments. This work was funded partly by the United Kingdom Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and by the European Communities under the contract of

  2. Energy-separated sequential irradiation for ripple pattern tailoring on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Tanuj [Department of Physics, Central University of Haryana, Jant-Pali, Mahendergarh 1123029 (India); Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishbharadwaj@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Central University of Rajasthan, Kishangarh 305801 (India); Panchal, Vandana [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Sahoo, P.K. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • A new process for controlling the near-surface amorphization of ripples on Si surfaces. • Ripples generation by 100 KeV Ar{sup +} and amorphization control by 60 KeV Ar{sup +} irradiation. • Advantage of energy-separated irradiation demonstrated by detailed RBS and AFM studies. • Relevant mechanism is presented on the basis of DAMAGE and SIMNRA simulations. • Key role of solid flow towards the amorphous/crystalline interface is demonstrated. - Abstract: Nanoscale ripples on semiconductor surfaces have potential application in biosensing and optoelectronics, but suffer from uncontrolled surface-amorphization when prepared by conventional ion-irradiation methods. A two-step, energy-separated sequential-irradiation enables simultaneous control of surface-amorphization and ripple-dimensions on Si(1 0 0). The evolution of ripples using 100 keV Ar{sup +} bombardment and further tuning of the patterns using a sequential-irradiation by 60 keV Ar{sup +} at different fluences are demonstrated. The advantage of this approach as opposed to increased fluence at the same energy is clarified by atomic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy investigations. The explanation of our findings is presented through DAMAGE simulation.

  3. Dune and ripple migration along Curiosity's traverse in Gale Crater on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.; Ewing, R. C.; Fenton, L. K.; Michaels, T. I.; Ayoub, F.; Bridges, N. T.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has safely landed near a 35-km-long dark dune field in Gale Crater on Mars. This dune field lies along Curiosity's traverse to Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp). Here we present new evidence of aeolian activity and further estimate wind directions within the dune field through analysis of ripple migration with the COSI-Corr technique, which provides precise measurements of ripple displacement at the sub-pixel scale.The area analyzed is located ~10 km southwest of rover Curiosity's current position and ~4 km SW of its selected path through Aeolis Mons (Mt. Sharp) (Fig. 1a). Here barchan dunes with elongated horns and seif dunes coexist with more typical barchan and dome dunes (Fig. 1a, b), with slopes sculpted by two intersecting ripple crestline orientations trending at 45° and 330°. The range of dune types and ripple orientations indicate the dune field morphology is influenced by at least two winds from the NW and the NE. The direction of migration is toward the SW, suggesting the most recent sand transporting winds were from the NE (Fig. 1c). These results match previous predictions and can be used to forecast the wind conditions close to the entry point to Mt. Sharp. Fig. 1: a-b) Study area c) Ripple migration direction computed using the COSI-Corr technique

  4. Hippocampal sharp wave/ripples during sleep for consolidation of associative memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiâm Ramadan

    Full Text Available The beneficial effect of sleep on memory has been well-established by extensive research on humans, but the neurophysiological mechanisms remain a matter of speculation. This study addresses the hypothesis that the fast oscillations known as ripples recorded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus during slow wave sleep (SWS may provide a physiological substrate for long term memory consolidation. We trained rats in a spatial discrimination task to retrieve palatable reward in three fixed locations. Hippocampal local field potentials and cortical EEG were recorded for 2 h after each daily training session. There was an increase in ripple density during SWS after early training sessions, in both trained rats and in rats randomly rewarded for exploring the maze. In rats learning the place -reward association, there was a striking further significant increase in ripple density correlated with subsequent improvements in behavioral performance as the rat learned the spatial discrimination aspect of the task. The results corroborate others showing an experience-dependent increase in ripple activity and associated ensemble replay after exploratory activity, but in addition, for the first time, reveal a clear further increase in ripple activity related to associative learning based on spatial discrimination.

  5. Adhesion modification of neural stem cells induced by nanoscale ripple patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraz, P; Casado, S; Rodriguez, V; Ayuso-Sacido, A; Gnecco, E; Giordano, M C; Mongeot, F Buatier de

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of anisotropic nanopatterns (ripples) on the adhesion and morphology of mouse neural stem cells (C17.2) on glass substrates using cell viability assay, optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The ripples were produced by defocused ion beam sputtering with inert Ar ions, which physically remove atoms from the surface at the energy of 800 eV. The ripple periodicity (∼200 nm) is comparable to the thickness of the cytoplasmatic microspikes (filopodia) which link the stem cells to the substrate. All methods show that the cell adhesion is significantly lowered compared to the same type of cells on flat glass surfaces. Furthermore, the AFM analysis reveals that the filopodia tend to be trapped parallel or perpendicular to the ripples, which limits the spreading of the stem cell on the rippled substrate. This opens the perspective of controlling the micro-adhesion of stem cells and the orientation of their filopodia by tuning the anisotropic substrate morphology without chemical reactions occurring at the surface. (paper)

  6. Hierarchical thermoplastic rippled nanostructures regulate Schwann cell adhesion, morphology and spatial organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciullo, Cecilia; Dell'Anna, Rossana; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Böettger, Roman; Pepponi, Giancarlo; Cecchini, Marco

    2017-10-12

    Periodic ripples are a variety of anisotropic nanostructures that can be realized by ion beam irradiation on a wide range of solid surfaces. Only a few authors have investigated these surfaces for tuning the response of biological systems, probably because it is challenging to directly produce them in materials that well sustain long-term cellular cultures. Here, hierarchical rippled nanotopographies with a lateral periodicity of ∼300 nm are produced from a gold-irradiated germanium mold in polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a biocompatible polymer approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical applications, by a novel three-step embossing process. The effects of nano-ripples on Schwann Cells (SCs) are studied in view of their possible use for nerve-repair applications. The data demonstrate that nano-ripples can enhance short-term SC adhesion and proliferation (3-24 h after seeding), drive their actin cytoskeleton spatial organization and sustain long-term cell growth. Notably, SCs are oriented perpendicularly with respect to the nanopattern lines. These results provide information about the possible use of hierarchical nano-rippled elements for nerve-regeneration protocols.

  7. Direct imaging of atomic-scale ripples in few-layer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei L; Bhandari, Sagar; Yi, Wei; Bell, David C; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-05-09

    Graphene has been touted as the prototypical two-dimensional solid of extraordinary stability and strength. However, its very existence relies on out-of-plane ripples as predicted by theory and confirmed by experiments. Evidence of the intrinsic ripples has been reported in the form of broadened diffraction spots in reciprocal space, in which all spatial information is lost. Here we show direct real-space images of the ripples in a few-layer graphene (FLG) membrane resolved at the atomic scale using monochromated aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thickness of FLG amplifies the weak local effects of the ripples, resulting in spatially varying TEM contrast that is unique up to inversion symmetry. We compare the characteristic TEM contrast with simulated images based on accurate first-principles calculations of the scattering potential. Our results characterize the ripples in real space and suggest that such features are likely common in ultrathin materials, even in the nanometer-thickness range.

  8. Diversity of sharp-wave–ripple LFP signatures reveals differentiated brain-wide dynamical events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Besserve, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Sharp-wave–ripple (SPW-R) complexes are believed to mediate memory reactivation, transfer, and consolidation. However, their underlying neuronal dynamics at multiple scales remains poorly understood. Using concurrent hippocampal local field potential (LFP) recordings and functional MRI (fMRI), we study local changes in neuronal activity during SPW-R episodes and their brain-wide correlates. Analysis of the temporal alignment between SPW and ripple components reveals well-differentiated SPW-R subtypes in the CA1 LFP. SPW-R–triggered fMRI maps show that ripples aligned to the positive peak of their SPWs have enhanced neocortical metabolic up-regulation. In contrast, ripples occurring at the trough of their SPWs relate to weaker neocortical up-regulation and absent subcortical down-regulation, indicating differentiated involvement of neuromodulatory pathways in the ripple phenomenon mediated by long-range interactions. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for the existence of SPW-R subtypes with differentiated CA1 activity and metabolic correlates in related brain areas, possibly serving different memory functions. PMID:26540729

  9. A ripple-spreading genetic algorithm for the aircraft sequencing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Bing; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A

    2011-01-01

    When genetic algorithms (GAs) are applied to combinatorial problems, permutation representations are usually adopted. As a result, such GAs are often confronted with feasibility and memory-efficiency problems. With the aircraft sequencing problem (ASP) as a study case, this paper reports on a novel binary-representation-based GA scheme for combinatorial problems. Unlike existing GAs for the ASP, which typically use permutation representations based on aircraft landing order, the new GA introduces a novel ripple-spreading model which transforms the original landing-order-based ASP solutions into value-based ones. In the new scheme, arriving aircraft are projected as points into an artificial space. A deterministic method inspired by the natural phenomenon of ripple-spreading on liquid surfaces is developed, which uses a few parameters as input to connect points on this space to form a landing sequence. A traditional GA, free of feasibility and memory-efficiency problems, can then be used to evolve the ripple-spreading related parameters in order to find an optimal sequence. Since the ripple-spreading model is the centerpiece of the new algorithm, it is called the ripple-spreading GA (RSGA). The advantages of the proposed RSGA are illustrated by extensive comparative studies for the case of the ASP.

  10. Diversity of sharp-wave-ripple LFP signatures reveals differentiated brain-wide dynamical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F; Logothetis, Nikos K; Besserve, Michel

    2015-11-17

    Sharp-wave-ripple (SPW-R) complexes are believed to mediate memory reactivation, transfer, and consolidation. However, their underlying neuronal dynamics at multiple scales remains poorly understood. Using concurrent hippocampal local field potential (LFP) recordings and functional MRI (fMRI), we study local changes in neuronal activity during SPW-R episodes and their brain-wide correlates. Analysis of the temporal alignment between SPW and ripple components reveals well-differentiated SPW-R subtypes in the CA1 LFP. SPW-R-triggered fMRI maps show that ripples aligned to the positive peak of their SPWs have enhanced neocortical metabolic up-regulation. In contrast, ripples occurring at the trough of their SPWs relate to weaker neocortical up-regulation and absent subcortical down-regulation, indicating differentiated involvement of neuromodulatory pathways in the ripple phenomenon mediated by long-range interactions. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for the existence of SPW-R subtypes with differentiated CA1 activity and metabolic correlates in related brain areas, possibly serving different memory functions.

  11. Deciphering the role of CA1 inhibitory circuits in sharp wave-ripple complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutsuridis, Vassilis; Taxidis, Jiannis

    2013-01-01

    Sharp wave-ripples (SWRs) are population oscillatory patterns in hippocampal LFPs during deep sleep and immobility, involved in the replay of memories acquired during wakefulness. SWRs have been extensively studied, but their exact generation mechanism is still unknown. A computational model has suggested that fast perisomatic inhibition may generate the high frequency ripples (~200 Hz). Another model showed how replay of memories can be controlled by various classes of inhibitory interneurons targeting specific parts of pyramidal cells (PC) and firing at particular SWR phases. Optogenetic studies revealed new roles for interneuronal classes and rich dynamic interplays between them, shedding new light in their potential role in SWRs. Here, we integrate these findings in a conceptual model of how dendritic and somatic inhibition may collectively contribute to the SWR generation. We suggest that sharp wave excitation and basket cell (BC) recurrent inhibition synchronises BC spiking in ripple frequencies. This rhythm is imposed on bistratified cells which prevent pyramidal bursting. Axo-axonic and stratum lacunosum/moleculare interneurons are silenced by inhibitory inputs originating in the medial septum. PCs receiving rippling inhibition in both dendritic and perisomatic areas and excitation in their apical dendrites, exhibit sparse ripple phase-locked spiking.

  12. Implementasi Filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR Window Hamming dan Blackman menggunakan DSK TMS320C6713

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LITA LIDYAWATI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital

  13. Resonance Damping Techniques for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Converters with LCL filters – A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chi; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    LCL filters play an important role in grid-connected converters when trying to reduce switching-frequency ripple currents injected into the grid. Besides, their small size and low cost make them attractive for many practical applications. However, the LCL filter is a third-order system, which...... presents a resonance peak frequency. Oscillation will occur in the control loop in high frequency ranges, especially in current loop in double-loops controlled converters. In order to solve this, many strategies have been proposed to damp resonance, including passive and active methods. This paper makes...

  14. Convergent Filter Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We are inspired by the work of Henri Cartan [16], Bourbaki [10] (TG. I Filtres and Claude Wagschal [34]. We define the base of filter, image filter, convergent filter bases, limit filter and the filter base of tails (fr: filtre des sections.

  15. Higher safety and saving of filter material with multi-way sorption filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlmeyer, M.; Benzel, M.

    1978-01-01

    The multi-way filter 'Nuclear Karlsruhe' satisfies the requirements of operational safety, high utilisation of the filter material and low pressure drop. An important factor contributing to increased operational safety is due to the fact that the nearly total utilisation of the filter material eliminates the need for optimisation weighing costs against safety. The reduction in filter material consumption reduces not only the direct procurement costs but also the costs of nuclear plants, is radioactive. This contributes in several respects towards a better protection of the environment. The MWS filter can also be used, and presents the same advantages, in non-nuclear plants. (orig.) [de

  16. New 30 kA power system at Fermilab and its use for measuring the effects of ripple current on the performance of superconducting high field magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carcagno, R.; Feher, S.; Garvey, J.; Jaskierny, W.; Lamm, M.; Makulski, A.; Orris, D.F.; Pfeffer, H.; Tartaglia, M.; Tompkins, J.; Wolff, D.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    A new 30 kA, 30 V dc Power System was designed, built, and commissioned at Fermilab for testing Superconducting High Field Magnets. This system has been successfully supporting operations at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility since April 2002. It is based on six commercial 150 kW Power Energy Industries power supply modules and the following in-house modules: six 720 Hz filters, two 15 kA/1kV dc solid-state dump switch, and a 3 MJ/30 kA/1 kV dc dump resistor. Additional inhouse electronic components were designed and built to provide precise current regulation and distribution of current and current rate of change. An industrial-type Programmable Logic Controller system was used to provide equipment interlocks and monitoring. This paper summarizes studies on the influence of characteristics of this new power system--such as ripple current--on the performance of High Field Superconducting magnets.

  17. Computational study of ammonia adsorption on the perfect and rippled graphene sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyed-Talebi, Seyedeh Mozhgan; Beheshtian, Javad

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption of an ammonia molecule onto perfect and rippled graphene is studied using molecular mechanics calculations. The most stable orientation of an ammonia molecule and equilibrium distance of this molecule over graphene surface (motivated by the recent realization of graphene sensors to detect individual gas molecules) is determined using DFT calculation. This result is in agreement with the predicted molecular mechanics calculation result. It also has been found that (i) the ammonia molecule is weakly adsorbed onto the graphene sheet; (ii) the periodic nature of the potential energy stored between ammonia and perfect graphene is altered due to the sinusoidal ripples; and (iii) the effect of amplitude and wavelength of the one-dimensional created ripple on different energy modes is reported

  18. Low cost concepts to reduce the voltage ripple of the DC power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.; Liu, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    If the gain of current feedback is low, the short term stability of magnet power supply will be affected by a soft power line. Typically, the step-charge and the imbalance of the three phase power line cause the most serious voltage ripple. Usually, the voltage feedback with a coupling transformer is considered to reduce the voltage ripple. However, for the high current power supply, the space and cooling problem of the coupling transformer become inconvenient. In this paper, the authors suggest to use the toroidal core with the compensation winding, working like a DCCT, as the coupling transformer. Then, a high speed detector of the AC line level is developed. It restricts the voltage ripple passing to the coupling transformer. These methods have the advantage of small size, low power consumption and low cost

  19. Use of field ripple for burn phase control in short-pulse tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.N.; Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1979-05-01

    The possible use of toroidal field ripple to control temperature excursions was investigated. In particular, the magnitude of the power savings necessary to control the ion temperature for about 120 seconds during the burn phase of an ETF tokamak was determined through the use of a global dynamics code. Then the amount of field ripple necessary to effect that control was calculated for each case. In the next section the basic properties of the simulation code are given and the various plasma cases investigated are described in some detail. There follows a discussion of the field ripple control mechanisms and their application to the problem at hand. Finally, the results of the study are presented along with the conclusions drawn from them

  20. Computational study of ammonia adsorption on the perfect and rippled graphene sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyed-Talebi, Seyedeh Mozhgan [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Beheshtian, Javad, E-mail: J.Beheshtian@Srttu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Adsorption of an ammonia molecule onto perfect and rippled graphene is studied using molecular mechanics calculations. The most stable orientation of an ammonia molecule and equilibrium distance of this molecule over graphene surface (motivated by the recent realization of graphene sensors to detect individual gas molecules) is determined using DFT calculation. This result is in agreement with the predicted molecular mechanics calculation result. It also has been found that (i) the ammonia molecule is weakly adsorbed onto the graphene sheet; (ii) the periodic nature of the potential energy stored between ammonia and perfect graphene is altered due to the sinusoidal ripples; and (iii) the effect of amplitude and wavelength of the one-dimensional created ripple on different energy modes is reported.

  1. Reducing Torque Ripples of the Axial Flux PM Motors by Magnet Stepping and Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cetin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Higher efficiency on electric machines is the research goal of many studies. An example is the axial flux permanent magnet machines. These machines have some advantages like their watt/kg efficiency and torque density. This study aims to develop the performance characteristics of the axial flux permanent magnet machines. A new rotor magnet poles design in axial flux machines is suggested to mitigate the torque ripples. The method of stepping and shifting of the magnets is used. Two different designs are compared to verify the proposed approach. 3D finite element analysis is used for simulations. Torque ripple and back electromotive force waveforms are obtained from computer analysis. As a conclusion, the suggested method is found to be useable and mitigates the torque ripples. In addition to that, back EMF waveforms are turned to sinusoidal by the suggested design.

  2. Xe ion beam induced rippled structures on differently oriented single-crystalline Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, PO Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich, E-mail: A.Hanisch@fzd.d [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2010-03-24

    We report on Xe{sup +} induced ripple formation at medium energy on single-crystalline silicon surfaces of different orientations using substrates with an intentional miscut from the [0 0 1] direction and a [1 1 1] oriented wafer. The ion beam incidence angle with respect to the surface normal was kept fixed at 65{sup 0} and the ion beam projection was parallel or perpendicular to the [1 1 0] direction. By a combination of atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy we found that the features of the surface and subsurface rippled structures such as ripple wavelength and amplitude and the degree of order do not depend on the surface orientation as assumed in recent models of pattern formation for semiconductor surfaces. (fast track communication)

  3. Ripple structures on surfaces and underlying crystalline layers in ion beam irradiated Si wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenzer, J.; Muecklich, A. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, A.; Grigorian, S.A.; Pietsch, U. [Institute of Physics, University of Siegen (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    We report on the formation of ion beam induced ripples in Si(001) wafers when bombarded with Ar+ ions at an energy of 60 keV. A set of samples varying incidence and azimuthal angles of the ion beam with respect to the crystalline surface orientation was studied by two complementary near surface sensitive techniques, namely atomic force microscopy and depth-resolved X-ray grazing incidence diffraction (GID). Additionally, cross-section TEM investigations were carried out. The ripple-like structures are formed at the sample surface as well as at the buried amorphous-crystalline interface. Best quality of the ripple pattern was found when the irradiating ion beam was aligned parallel to the (111) planes. The quality decreases rapidly if the direction of the ion beam deviates from (111). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Effect of impurities and ripple upon power regulation in self-sustained tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak power reactors will likely operate in a self sustained heating mode where additional power losses are introduced to permit higher levels of alpha particle heating (and thus higher levels of total fusion power) at thermal equilibrium. Illustrative 0-dimensional calculations are made to assess requirements for power regulation of self sustained tokamak plasmas by the use of impurity radiation. Effects of impurities upon allowable fuel density and thermal stability are determined. Requirements are calculated for passive thermal stability control by temperature driven radial motion in the presence of ripple transport losses; it appears that stability might be attained over a relatively wide temperature range with a small amount of ripple transport loss. Requirements for power regulation by the use of ripple transport are also determined

  5. An Analysis of Ripple and Error Fields Induced by a Blanket in the CFETR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guanying; Liu, Xufeng; Liu, Songlin

    2016-10-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Tokamak Reactor (CFETR) is an important intermediate device between ITER and DEMO. The Water Cooled Ceramic Breeder (WCCB) blanket whose structural material is mainly made of Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAFM) steel, is one of the candidate conceptual blanket design. An analysis of ripple and error field induced by RAFM steel in WCCB is evaluated with the method of static magnetic analysis in the ANSYS code. Significant additional magnetic field is produced by blanket and it leads to an increased ripple field. Maximum ripple along the separatrix line reaches 0.53% which is higher than 0.5% of the acceptable design value. Simultaneously, one blanket module is taken out for heating purpose and the resulting error field is calculated to be seriously against the requirement. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11175207) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program of China (No. 2013GB108004)

  6. Temperature dependence of rippled corrugations induced on the Rh(1 1 0) surface via ion sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molle, Alessandro; Buatier de Mongeot, F.; Granone, F.; Buzio, R.; Firpo, G.; Boragno, C.; Valbusa, U.

    2005-01-01

    Metal surfaces can be easily nanopatterned via ion sputtering: mounds or ripples can be created depending on the surface symmetry and temperature. However, in many cases these structures are unstable at room temperature and above, due to the adatom fast diffusion. This fact prevents the use of such systems as substrate or nanostamps for a technological implementation. In this paper we present a spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED) study on the nanopatterning of a Rh(1 1 0) single crystal. Like the other (1 1 0) metal surfaces, previously investigated, also Rh(1 1 0) shows for increasing temperatures a transition between different rippled morphologies. The main advantage of this system is its stability at room temperature. From SPA-LEED data we can measure the structural features (average periodicity and local faceting) of the observed rippled structures

  7. Lacosamide and Levetiracetam Have No Effect on Sharp-Wave Ripple Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, Jan; Chvojka, Jan; Posusta, Antonin; Kovacova, Lubica; Hong, Seung Bong; Weiss, Shennan; Volna, Kamila; Marusic, Petr; Otahal, Jakub; Jiruska, Premysl

    2017-01-01

    Pathological high-frequency oscillations are a novel marker used to improve the delineation of epileptogenic tissue and, hence, the outcome of epilepsy surgery. Their practical clinical utilization is curtailed by the inability to discriminate them from physiological oscillations due to frequency overlap. Although it is well documented that pathological HFOs are suppressed by antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the effect of AEDs on normal HFOs is not well known. In this experimental study, we have explored whether physiological HFOs (sharp-wave ripples) of hippocampal origin respond to AED treatment. The results show that application of a single dose of levetiracetam or lacosamide does not reduce the rate of sharp-wave ripples. In addition, it seems that these new generation drugs do not negatively affect the cellular and network mechanisms involved in sharp-wave ripple generation, which may provide a plausible explanation for the absence of significant negative effects on cognitive functions of these drugs, particularly on memory.

  8. A Zero Input Current Ripple ZVS/ZCS Boost Converter with Boundary-Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ming Lai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, in order to achieve zero ripple conditions, the use of a ripple mirror (RM circuit for the boost converter is proposed. The operation modes are studied and steady-state analyses performed to show the merits of the proposed converter. It is found that the proposed RM circuit technique can provide much better flexibility than the two-phase interleaved boost converter for locating the zero ripple operating point in the design stage. In addition, the choice of using a boundary-mode control is mainly based on the consideration of achieving both ZVS (zero voltage switching/ZCS (zero current switching soft-switching and constant on-time control for the converter. To verify the performance of the proposed converter, a 48 V input and 200 W/200 V output prototype is constructed. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  9. Energy measurement of fast ions trapped in the toroidal magnetic field ripple of Tore Supra during ICRF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiuk, V.; Becoulet, A.; Grisolia, C.; Hutter, T.; Mayaux, G.; Martin, G.; Saoutic, B.; Vartanian, S.

    1995-01-01

    Direct losses of ions trapped in the toroidal field ripple of Tore Supra using two techniques were made. The first (DRIPPLE I) correlates the ion loss current measured by an electric probe with the ion loss power measured by a calorimeter. As the calorimeter integrates over all particle energies and time, it yields only the averaged lost ion energy. The second technique (DRIPPLE II), still under development, is a Faraday cup positioned and filtered so as to select ions by their Larmor radius. The currents measured are small (1-100 nA), and improvements in instrumentation are needed to take full advantage of the data, but the preliminary results are still useful. During ICRH (hydrogen minority regime, resonance on axis) a direct correlation between the lost ion mean energy and the density of hydrogen was seen. The energy increased when the hydrogen minority density decreased. Moreover, the line averaged density and the lower hybrid heating (LH) had also an effect on fast ion losses. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs

  10. Feasible Dose Reduction in Routine Chest Computed Tomography Maintaining Constant Image Quality Using the Last Three Scanner Generations: From Filtered Back Projection to Sinogram-affirmed Iterative Reconstruction and Impact of the Novel Fully Integrated Detector Design Minimizing Electronic Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Ebner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study was to evaluate a dose reduction in contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography (CT by comparing the three latest generations of Siemens CT scanners used in clinical practice. We analyzed the amount of radiation used with filtered back projection (FBP and an iterative reconstruction (IR algorithm to yield the same image quality. Furthermore, the influence on the radiation dose of the most recent integrated circuit detector (ICD; Stellar detector, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany was investigated. Materials and Methods: 136 Patients were included. Scan parameters were set to a thorax routine: SOMATOM Sensation 64 (FBP, SOMATOM Definition Flash (IR, and SOMATOM Definition Edge (ICD and IR. Tube current was set constantly to the reference level of 100 mA automated tube current modulation using reference milliamperes. Care kV was used on the Flash and Edge scanner, while tube potential was individually selected between 100 and 140 kVp by the medical technologists at the SOMATOM Sensation. Quality assessment was performed on soft-tissue kernel reconstruction. Dose was represented by the dose length product. Results: Dose-length product (DLP with FBP for the average chest CT was 308 mGycm ± 99.6. In contrast, the DLP for the chest CT with IR algorithm was 196.8 mGycm ± 68.8 (P = 0.0001. Further decline in dose can be noted with IR and the ICD: DLP: 166.4 mGycm ± 54.5 (P = 0.033. The dose reduction compared to FBP was 36.1% with IR and 45.6% with IR/ICD. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR was favorable in the aorta, bone, and soft tissue for IR/ICD in combination compared to FBP (the P values ranged from 0.003 to 0.048. Overall contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR improved with declining DLP. Conclusion: The most recent technical developments, namely IR in combination with integrated circuit detectors, can significantly lower radiation dose in chest CT examinations.

  11. Utilization of reduced fuelling ripple set in ROP detector layout optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ADORE is an ROP detect layout optimization algorithm in CANDU reactors. ► The effect of using reduced set of fuelling ripples in ADORE is assessed. ► Significant speedup can be realized by adopting this approach. ► The quality of the results is comparable to results from full set of ripples. - Abstract: The ADORE (Alternative Detector layout Optimization for REgional overpower protection system) algorithm for performing the optimization of regional overpower protection (ROP) for CANDU® reactors has been recently developed. This algorithm utilizes the simulated annealing (SA) stochastic optimization technique to come up with an optimized detector layout for the ROP systems. For each history in the SA iteration where a particular detector layout is evaluated, the goodness of this detector layout is measured in terms of its trip set point value which is obtained by performing a probabilistic trip set point calculation using the ROVER-F code. Since during each optimization execution thousands of candidate detector layouts are evaluated, the overall optimization process is time consuming. Since for each ROVER-F evaluation the number of fuelling ripples controls the execution time, reducing the number of fuelling ripples will reduce the overall execution time. This approach has been investigated and the results are presented in this paper. The challenge is to construct a set of representative fuelling ripples which will significantly speedup the optimization process while guaranteeing that the resulting detector layout has similar quality to the ones produced when the complete set of fuelling ripples is employed.

  12. A unifying model for planform straightness of ripples and dunes in air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Geologists, physicists, and mathematicians have studied ripples and dunes for more than a century, but despite considerable effort, no general model has been proposed to explain perhaps the most fundamental property of their morphology: why are some bedforms straight, continuous, parallel, and uniform in planform geometry (i.e. two-dimensional) whereas others are irregular (three-dimensional)? Here we argue that physical coupling along the crest of a bedform is required to produce straight crests and that along-crest flow and sand transport provide effective physical mechanisms for that coupling. Ripples and dunes with the straightest and most continuous crests include longitudinal and oblique dunes in unidirectional flows, wave ripples, dunes in reversing flows, wind ripples, and ripples migrating along a slope. At first glance, these bedforms appear quite different (ripples and dunes; air and water; transverse, oblique, and longitudinal orientations relative to the net sand-transport direction), but they all have one property in common: a process that increases the amount of along-crest sand transport (that lengthens and straightens their crests) relative to the across-crest transport (that makes them migrate and take the more typical and more three-dimensional planform geometry). In unidirectional flows that produce straight bedforms, along-crest transport of sand is caused by along-crest flow (non-transverse bedform orientation), gravitational transport along an inclined crest, or ballistic splash in air. Bedforms in reversing flows tend to be straighter than their unidirectional counterparts, because reverse transport across the bedform crest reduces the net across-crest transport (that causes the more typical irregular geometry) relative to the along-crest transport (that smoothes and straightens planform geometry).

  13. Intelligent measurement and compensation of linear motor force ripple: a projection-based learning approach in the presence of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Song, Fazhi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Dong, Yue; Tan, Jiubin

    2018-06-01

    Due to their structural simplicity, linear motors are increasingly receiving attention for use in high velocity and high precision applications. The force ripple, as a space-periodic disturbance, however, would deteriorate the achievable dynamic performance. Conventional force ripple measurement approaches are time-consuming and have high requirements on the experimental conditions. In this paper, a novel learning identification algorithm is proposed for force ripple intelligent measurement and compensation. Existing identification schemes always use all the error signals to update the parameters in the force ripple. However, the error induced by noise is non-effective for force ripple identification, and even deteriorates the identification process. In this paper only the most pertinent information in the error signal is utilized for force ripple identification. Firstly, the effective error signals caused by the reference trajectory and the force ripple are extracted by projecting the overall error signals onto a subspace spanned by the physical model of the linear motor as well as the sinusoidal model of the force ripple. The time delay in the linear motor is compensated in the basis functions. Then, a data-driven approach is proposed to design the learning gain. It balances the trade-off between convergence speed and robustness against noise. Simulation and experimental results validate the proposed method and confirm its effectiveness and superiority.

  14. Higher-order paraxial theory of the propagation of ring rippled laser beam in plasma: Relativistic ponderomotive regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Gunjan; Rawat, Priyanka; Chauhan, Prashant; Mahmoud, Saleh T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents higher-order paraxial theory (non-paraxial theory) for the ring ripple formation on an intense Gaussian laser beam and its propagation in plasma, taking into account the relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity. The intensity dependent dielectric constant of the plasma has been determined for the main laser beam and ring ripple superimposed on the main laser beam. The dielectric constant of the plasma is modified due to the contribution of the electric field vector of ring ripple. Nonlinear differential equations have been formulated to examine the growth of ring ripple in plasma, self focusing of main laser beam, and ring rippled laser beam in plasma using higher-order paraxial theory. These equations have been solved numerically for different laser intensities and plasma frequencies. The well established experimental laser and plasma parameters are used in numerical calculation. It is observed that the focusing of the laser beams (main and ring rippled) becomes fast in the nonparaxial region by expanding the eikonal and other relevant quantities up to the fourth power of r. The splitted profile of laser beam in the plasma is observed due to uneven focusing/defocusing of the axial and off-axial rays. The growths of ring ripple increase when the laser beam intensity increases. Furthermore, the intensity profile of ring rippled laser beam gets modified due to the contribution of growth rate

  15. A comprehensive study and analysis of second order harmonic ripple in DC microgrid feeding single phase PWM inverter loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautam, Aditya R.; Fulwani, Deepak; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a detailed analysis of second order harmonic ripple in a DC microgrid. A boost converter feeding PWM inverter load is considered and equivalent circuit is proposed. The effect of the size of input capacitor, output capacitor and inductor of boost converter, on this ripple has...

  16. Multistage parallel-serial time averaging filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodosiou, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Here, a new time averaging circuit design, the 'parallel filter' is presented, which can reduce the time jitter, introduced in time measurements using counters of large dimensions. This parallel filter could be considered as a single stage unit circuit which can be repeated an arbitrary number of times in series, thus providing a parallel-serial filter type as a result. The main advantages of such a filter over a serial one are much less electronic gate jitter and time delay for the same amount of total time uncertainty reduction. (orig.)

  17. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    . Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal...... the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations....

  18. A CMOS Gm-C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor network application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Chuanchuan; Li Zhiqun; Hou Ningbing

    2011-01-01

    A G m -C complex filter with on-chip automatic tuning for wireless sensor networks is designed and implemented using 0.18 μm CMOS process. This filter is synthesized from a low-pass 5th-order Chebyshev RLC ladder filter prototype by means of capacitors and fully balanced transconductors. A conventional phase-locked loop is used to realize the on-chip automatic tuning for both center frequency and bandwidth control. The filter is centered at 2 MHz with a bandwidth of 2.4 MHz. The measured results show that the filter provides more than 45 dB image rejection while the ripple in the pass-band is less than 1.2 dB. The complete filter including on-chip tuning circuit consumes 4.9 mA with 1.8 V single supply voltage. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  19. Ripples and the formation of anisotropic lipid domains: Imaging two-component double bilayers by atomic force microscopy_copy_03

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leidy, C.; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Crowe, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    by atomic force microscopy, we investigated the origin of these anisotropic lipid domain patterns, and found that ripple phase formation is directly responsible for the anisotropic nature of these domains. The nucleation and growth of fluid-phase domains are found to be directed by the presence of ripples....... In particular, the fluid-phase domains elongate parallel to the ripples. The results show that ripple phase formation may have implications for domain formation in biological systems....

  20. Tuning the shape and damage in ion-beam induced ripples on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik, 57068 Siegen (Germany); Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Metzger, Till Hartmut [ESRF, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2011-11-15

    We investigate the influence of ion beam parameters on the ripple formation on Si(001) surfaces after bombardment with Xe{sup +} ions of 25 keV kinetic energy using a scanning ion beam system. By combining grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, small angle scattering and X-ray reflectivity, we show that during ion irradiation with 70 off-normal angle of incidence, changing the size of the irradiated area leads to an increased number of defects at the interface towards crystalline material. At 65 angle of incidence, the ripple amplitude grows. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. The effect of toroidal field ripple on confined alphas in TFTR D-T plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, H.H.; Medley, S.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Pellet Charge Exchange (PCX) diagnostic on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) presently measures trapped alpha distribution functions with very small pitch angle (v parallel /v ∼ 0.05) at the midplane. The measured PCX alpha signal exhibits a depletion region near the outboard region. Results of the alpha energy spectra and radial profile suggest stochastic ripple diffusion is the cause of the depletion. Comparison of the ripple stochastization boundary with Goldston-White-Boozer theory also shows the correct functional dependence on alpha energy and q-profile

  2. On ripples and rafts: Curvature induced nanoscale structures in lipid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Friederike; Dolezel, Stefan; Meinhardt, Sebastian; Lenz, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    We develop an elastic theory that predicts the spontaneous formation of nanoscale structures in lipid bilayers which locally phase separate between two phases with different spontaneous monolayer curvature. The theory rationalizes in a unified manner the observation of a variety of nanoscale structures in lipid membranes: Rippled states in one-component membranes, lipid rafts in multicomponent membranes. Furthermore, we report on recent observations of rippled states and rafts in simulations of a simple coarse-grained model for lipid bilayers, which are compatible with experimental observations and with our elastic model

  3. Impacts of Ripple Current to the Loading and Lifetime of Power Semiconductor Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The thermal loading of power electronics devices is determined by many factors and has being a crucial design consideration because it is closely related to the reliability and cost of the converter system. In this paper the impacts of the ripple current to the loss and thermal loading, as well...... as reliability performances of power devices are comprehensively investigated and tested. It is concluded that the amplitude of ripple current may modify the loss and thermal loading of the power devices, especially under the conditions of converter with low power output, and thus the lifetime of devices could...

  4. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter epsilon (> 0.001), a positive detection of trans......-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10^-4. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound...

  5. Hippocampal Ripple Oscillations and Inhibition-First Network Models: Frequency Dynamics and Response to GABA Modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, José R; Schmitz, Dietmar; Maier, Nikolaus; Kempter, Richard

    2018-03-21

    Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either "direct," via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or "indirect," via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation. We found that direct excitation of interneurons could evoke ripples (140-220 Hz) that exhibited intraripple frequency accommodation and were frequency-insensitive to GABA modulators, as previously shown in in vitro experiments. In addition, the indirect excitation of the basket-cell network enabled the expression of intraripple frequency accommodation in the fast-gamma range (90-140 Hz), as in vivo In our model, intraripple frequency accommodation results from a hysteresis phenomenon in which the frequency responds differentially to the rising and descending phases of the transient excitation. Such a phenomenon predicts a maximum oscillation frequency occurring several milliseconds before the peak of excitation. We confirmed this prediction for ripples in brain slices from male mice. These results suggest that ripple and fast-gamma episodes are produced by the same interneuron network that is recruited via different excitatory input pathways, which could be supported by the previously reported intralaminar connectivity bias between basket cells and functionally distinct subpopulations of pyramidal cells in CA1. Together, our findings unify competing inhibition-first models of rhythm generation in the hippocampus. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus is a part of the brain of humans and other mammals that is critical for the acquisition and

  6. Vzdrževanje likvidnosti kriptovalutnega trga v omrežju Ripple

    OpenAIRE

    BREZIGAR, JAKOB

    2017-01-01

    Vzdrževalec likvidnosti zagotavlja prodajalcem in kupcem finančnih inštrumentov nasprotno stranko pri sklepanju transakcij. Izvajanju nakupnega in prodajnega naročila hkrati pravimo vzdrževanje likvidnosti. Diplomsko delo obsega teoretično in praktično osnovo za izdelavo algoritma za samodejno vzdrževanje likvidnosti na enem izmed perspektivnih kriptovalutnih trgov Ripple. V diplomskem delu povzamemo teoretične osnove vzdrževanja likvidnosti, delovanje kriptovalutnega protokola Ripple in proc...

  7. Selection vector filter framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukac, Rastislav; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N.; Smolka, Bogdan; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios N.

    2003-10-01

    We provide a unified framework of nonlinear vector techniques outputting the lowest ranked vector. The proposed framework constitutes a generalized filter class for multichannel signal processing. A new class of nonlinear selection filters are based on the robust order-statistic theory and the minimization of the weighted distance function to other input samples. The proposed method can be designed to perform a variety of filtering operations including previously developed filtering techniques such as vector median, basic vector directional filter, directional distance filter, weighted vector median filters and weighted directional filters. A wide range of filtering operations is guaranteed by the filter structure with two independent weight vectors for angular and distance domains of the vector space. In order to adapt the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics, we provide also the generalized optimization algorithms taking the advantage of the weighted median filters and the relationship between standard median filter and vector median filter. Thus, we can deal with both statistical and deterministic aspects of the filter design process. It will be shown that the proposed method holds the required properties such as the capability of modelling the underlying system in the application at hand, the robustness with respect to errors in the model of underlying system, the availability of the training procedure and finally, the simplicity of filter representation, analysis, design and implementation. Simulation studies also indicate that the new filters are computationally attractive and have excellent performance in environments corrupted by bit errors and impulsive noise.

  8. Density ripples in expanding low-dimensional gases as a probe of correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imambekov, A.; Mazets, I. E.; Petrov, D. S.

    2009-01-01

    fluctuations. For the case of free ballistic expansion relevant to current experiments, we present simple analytical relations between the spectrum of "density ripples" and the correlation functions of the original confined systems. We analyze several physical regimes, including weakly and strongly interacting...

  9. A non-unity torque sharing function for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new torque ripple minimization technique for a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG). Although the SRG has many advantageous characteristics as a generator, it has not been widely employed in the industry. One of the most notorious disadvantages of the SRG is its high torque...

  10. Relation Between Observed Micromagnetic Ripple and FMR Width in Ultrasoft Magnetic Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, N.G.; Craus, C.B.; Chezan, A.R.; Vystavel, T.; Boerma, D.O.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De; Niesen, L.

    2002-01-01

    Using Lorentz transmission electron microscopy, the micromagnetic structure was observed and the periodicity and angular spread of the in-plane magnetization were estimated for Fe–Zr–N films sputter-deposited on different substrates. The influence of the micromagnetic ripple on the ferromagnetic

  11. Directional excitation of Rg due to ripple-fired explosions: 2-Dimensional finite-difference simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jih, Rong-Song

    1993-01-01

    A major issue for the Non-Proliferation Treaty is the discrimination of large chemical explosions from possible clandestine or small nuclear tests. Unless discrimination is possible, the numerous mining blasts could give ample opportunity for concealing clandestine tests. Ripple-fired explosions are commonly used to fragment rocks during quarry and open-pit mining. The periodicity inherent in the ripple firing could produce a seismic reinforcement at the frequency of the delay between shots or rows. It has been suggested that the convolution of a single explosion with a comb function of variable spacing and variable amplitude can be used to model the distinctive signature of ripple firing. Baumgardt and Ziegler (1988) delicately demonstrated that the incoherent array-stack spectra can be used to identify some multiple shots recorded at NORSAR. By superpositioning the waveform due to a single shot with proper time delay, they were able to model the source multiplicity under the assumption that the spatial spreading of the shots is negligible with respect to the distance to the receiver. The work by Stump et al. successfully characterized the major features of the wavefield due to ripple firings at near-source ranges

  12. Formation of two ripple modes on Si by ion erosion with simultaneous Fe incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, Marina; Ziberi, Bashkim; Meinecke, Christoph; Frost, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This report focuses on the self organized nanostructure formation on Si (0 0 1) by erosion with low energy Kr + ions with simultaneous incorporation of metallic atoms, in particular Fe. The incorporation of Fe is thought to play an important role in the formation of some features. In the experimental set-up used here the Fe atoms come from the sputtering of a cylindrical stainless steel target situated between the source and the sample holder. It is demonstrated how the Fe flux can be regulated by operational parameters of the ion source. It is shown that two different ripple modes, one perpendicular to the ion beam projection on the surface and the other parallel, were formed at near normal incidence (α = 20 o ) with ion energy between 300 eV and 2000 eV and a fluence of 6.7 x 10 18 cm -2 . The perpendicular mode ripples dominated the topography when E ion = 2000 eV, while the parallel mode ripples were the main features observed when E ion = 300 eV. The correlation of Fe concentration with ion sources parameters and resulting topography is analyzed. It is demonstrated that a certain Fe concentration is necessary for the formation of ripples that are oriented perpendicular to the ion beam and that the Fe concentration alone does not determine the evolving topography.

  13. Direct writing of sub-wavelength ripples on silicon using femtosecond laser at high repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Changxin; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Kaijun; Zhu, Min; Qiu, Rong; Zhou, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The NSRs and DSRs are obtained on silicon surface. • With increasing direct writing speed, the NSRs suddenly changes and becomes the DSRs. • We develop a Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation. - Abstract: The near sub-wavelength and deep sub-wavelength ripples on monocrystalline silicon were formed in air by using linearly polarized and high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses (f = 76 MHz, λ = 800 nm, τ = 50 fs). The effects of laser pulse energy, direct writing speed and laser polarization on silicon surface morphology are studied. When the laser pulse energy is 2 nJ/pulse and the direct writing speed varies from 10 to 25 mm/s, the near sub-wavelength ripples (NSRs) with orientation perpendicular to the laser polarization are generated. While the direct writing speed reaches 30 mm/s, the direction of the obtained deep sub-wavelength ripples (DSRs) suddenly changes and becomes parallel to the laser polarization, rarely reported so far for femtosecond laser irradiation of silicon. Meanwhile, we extend the Sipe–Drude interference theory by considering the thermal excitation, and numerically calculate the efficacy factor for silicon irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses. The revised Sipe–Drude interference theoretical results show good agreement with the periods and orientations of sub-wavelength ripples.

  14. High energy Xe{sup +} ion beam induced ripple structures on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanisch, Antje; Grenzer, Joerg; Facsko, Stefan; Winkler, Ingolf [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Biermanns, Andreas; Grigorian, Souren; Pietsch, Ullrich [University of Siegen (Germany). Institute of Physics

    2008-07-01

    Ion beam bombardment on semiconductor surfaces leads to well-defined morphological structures in the nanoscale range. Due to the impact of ions a self-organized wave-like surface structure develops. Ion bombardment causes an amorphization of a surface-adjacent layer of several nanometers and creates a periodical structure on the surface as well as at the amorphous-crystalline interface. We investigate the dependence of the periodicity on the crystallography of (100) silicon bombarded with Xe{sup +} ions, the ion beam incidence and the azimutal angle of the sample surface. So far we found that the ripple wavelength scales with the ion energy in a range of 5 to 70 keV. In order to understand the initiation of the ripple formation we also ask the question which role the initial surface structure plays. Therefore we investigate the formation of ripples on pre-structured and rough surfaces such as wafers with an intentional miscut. Therefore, we not only introduce a certain initial roughness but also vary the orientation of the (100) lattice plane in respect to the surface. We distinguish between ion beam induced surface effects (sputter erosion) and the influence of the crystalline Si lattice (strain) on the ripple formation.

  15. Spatial variability of the wave bottom boundary layer over movable rippled beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Abudo, S.; Foster, D.L.; Henriquez, M.

    2013-01-01

    Observations of the spatially dependent velocity field over movable bed forms subjected to slightly skewed and asymmetric regular wave forcing were collected. The dynamics between the ripple elements is dominated by coherent vortices, characterized by the swirling strength, and evidenced in the

  16. Analysis of dc-Link Voltage Switching Ripple in Three-Phase PWM Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vujacic

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI is de facto standard in power conversion systems. To realize high power density systems, one of the items to be correctly addressed is the design and selection of the dc-link capacitor in relation to the voltage switching ripple. In this paper, effective formulas for designing the dc-link capacitor as a function of the switching voltage ripple amplitude are obtained, considering the operating conditions such as the modulation index and the output current amplitude. The calculations are obtained considering the requirements and restrictions referring to the high (switching-frequency dc-link voltage ripple component. Analyses have been performed considering the dc source impedance (non-ideal dc voltage source at the switching frequency and a balanced load. Analytical expressions are derived for the dc-link voltage switching ripple amplitude and its maximum value over the fundamental period. Different values of modulation index and output phase angle have been considered and different diagrams are presented. Analytical results were validated both by simulations and comprehensive experimental tests.

  17. Modelling and measurements of sand transport processes over full-scale ripples in oscillatory flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Jebbe J.; Ribberink, Jan S.; O'Donoghue, Tom; Doucette, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    A new series of laboratory experiments was performed in the Aberdeen Oscillatory Flow Tunnel (AOFT) and the Large Oscillating Water Tunnel (LOWT) to investigate time-averaged suspended sand concentrations and transport rates over rippled beds in regular and irregular oscillatory flow. The

  18. Amplitude equation and long-range interactions in underwater sand ripples in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Mertens, Keith; Ellegaard, Clive

    2008-01-01

    We present an amplitude equation for sand ripples under oscillatory flow in a situation where the sand is moving in a narrow channel and the height profile is practically one dimensional. The equation has the form h(t)=epsilon-(h-(h) over bar) + ((h(x))(2)-1)h(xx)-h(xxxx) + delta((h(x))(2))(xx...

  19. Analysis and minimization of Torque Ripple for variable Flux reluctance machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, J.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Boynov, K.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Variable flux reluctance machines (VFRMs) are permanent-magnet-free three-phase machines and are promising candidates for applications requiring low cost and robustness. This paper studies the torque ripple and minimization methods for 12-stator VFRMs. Starting with the analysis of harmonics in the

  20. Analysis of transient state in HTS tapes under ripple DC load current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, M.; Grzesik, B.

    2014-05-01

    The paper concerns the analysis of transient state (quench transition) in HTS tapes loaded with the current having DC component together with a ripple component. Two shapes of the ripple were taken into account: sinusoidal and triangular. Very often HTS tape connected to a power electronic current supply (i.e. superconducting coil for SMES) that delivers DC current with ripples and it needs to be examined under such conditions. Additionally, measurements of electrical (and thermal) parameters under such ripple excitation is useful to tape characterization in broad range of load currents. The results presented in the paper were obtained using test bench which contains programmable DC supply and National Instruments data acquisition system. Voltage drops and load currents were measured vs. time. Analysis of measured parameters as a function of the current was used to tape description with quench dynamics taken into account. Results of measurements were also used to comparison with the results of numerical modelling based on FEM. Presented provisional results show possibility to use results of measurements in transient state to prepare inverse models of superconductors and their detailed numerical modelling.