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Sample records for ripening starter geotrichum

  1. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  2. Metatranscriptome analysis of fungal strains Penicillium and Geotrichum reveal cheese matrix breakdown and potential development of sensory properties of ripened Camembert-type cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Lessard, Marie-Hélène; Viel, Catherine; Boyle, Brian; St-Gelais, Daniel; Labrie, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background Camembert-type cheese ripening is driven mainly by fungal microflora including Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium camemberti. These species are major contributors to the texture and flavour of typical bloomy rind cheeses. Biochemical studies showed that G. candidum reduces bitterness, enhances sulphur flavors through amino acid catabolism and has an impact on rind texture, firmness and thickness, while P. camemberti is responsible for the white and bloomy aspect of the rind, and p...

  3. Sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: Relationship between starter cultures and ripening molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Bruno Domingues; Martin, José Guilherme Prado; da Silva, Paula Porrelli Moreira; Porto, Ernani; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2016-10-03

    Starter cultures and ripening molds used in the manufacture of moldy cheese aimed at obtaining characteristic flavors and textures considerably differ among dairy industries. Thus, the study of variables inherent to the process and their influence on sensory patterns in cheese can improve the standardization and control of the production process. The aim of this work was to study the influence of three different variables on the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese: type of lactic bacteria, type of ripener molds and inoculation method. Batches of Camembert-type cheese were produced using O or DL-type mesophilic starter culture, ripened with Penicillium camemberti or Penicillium candidum and mold inoculation was made directly into the milk or by spraying. All batches were sensorially evaluated using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) with panelists trained for various attributes. Among the combinations analyzed, those resulting in more typical Camembert-type cheese were those using O-type mesophilic starter culture and P. candidum maturation mold directly applied into the milk or sprayed and those using DL-type mesophilic starter and P. camemberti ripener mold applied by surface spraying. These results demonstrate, therefore, that the combination of different ripener molds, inoculation methods and starter cultures directly influences the sensory quality of Camembert-type cheese, modifying significantly its texture, appearance, aroma and taste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Metatranscriptome analysis of fungal strains Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum reveal cheese matrix breakdown and potential development of sensory properties of ripened Camembert-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Marie-Hélène; Viel, Catherine; Boyle, Brian; St-Gelais, Daniel; Labrie, Steve

    2014-03-26

    Camembert-type cheese ripening is driven mainly by fungal microflora including Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium camemberti. These species are major contributors to the texture and flavour of typical bloomy rind cheeses. Biochemical studies showed that G. candidum reduces bitterness, enhances sulphur flavors through amino acid catabolism and has an impact on rind texture, firmness and thickness, while P. camemberti is responsible for the white and bloomy aspect of the rind, and produces enzymes involved in proteolysis and lipolysis activities. However, very little is known about the genetic determinants that code for these activities and their expression profile over time during the ripening process. The metatranscriptome of an industrial Canadian Camembert-type cheese was studied at seven different sampling days over 77 days of ripening. A database called CamemBank01 was generated, containing a total of 1,060,019 sequence tags (reads) assembled in 7916 contigs. Sequence analysis revealed that 57% of the contigs could be affiliated to molds, 16% originated from yeasts, and 27% could not be identified. According to the functional annotation performed, the predominant processes during Camembert ripening include gene expression, energy-, carbohydrate-, organic acid-, lipid- and protein- metabolic processes, cell growth, and response to different stresses. Relative expression data showed that these functions occurred mostly in the first two weeks of the ripening period. These data provide further advances in our knowledge about the biological activities of the dominant ripening microflora of Camembert cheese and will help select biological markers to improve cheese quality assessment.

  5. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radeljević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

  7. Modelling the influence of metabolite diffusion on non-starter lactic acid bacteria growth in ripening Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czárán, Tamás; Rattray, Fergal P.; Møller, Cleide O.de A.

    2018-01-01

    The influence of metabolite diffusion within the cheese matrix on growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) during Cheddar cheese ripening was mathematically modelled. The model was calibrated at a realistic range of diffusion of metabolites and the decay and growth parameters...

  8. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  9. Characterization of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in traditionally produced home-made Radan cheese during ripening

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    Jokovic Natasa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred thirteen non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Radan cheese during ripening were identified with both a classical biochemical test and rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. For most isolates, which belong to the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Enterococcus faecium, a phenotypic identification was in good agreement with rep-PCR identification. Lactococeus lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium and subspecies from the Lenconostoc mesenteroides group were the dominant population of lactic acid bacteria in cheese until 10 days of ripening and only one Streptococcus thermophilus strain was isolated from the 5-day-old cheese sample. As ripening progressed, Lactobacillus plantarum became the predominant species together with the group of heterofermentative species of lactobacilli that could not be precisely identified with rep-PCR.

  10. Generation of flavour compounds in fermented sausages-the influence of curing ingredients, Staphylococcus starter culture and ripening time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite...... throughout maturation. Curing salts had a pronounced effect on the level of volatile compounds. In particular, curing with nitrate instead of nitrite resulted in a striking difference. Generally, nitrate increased the level of volatile compounds compared to nitrite, whereas ascorbate had only a small...... observed depending on whether S. xylosus or S. carnosus were used as starter culture. In particular the effects of nitrate was much more predominant in the sausages made with S. carnosus than S. xylosus....

  11. Interaction between sodium chloride and texture in semi-hard Danish cheese as affected by brining time, DL-starter culture, chymosin type and cheese ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Marije; Søndergaard Kristensen, Lise; Jespersen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Reduced NaCl in semi-hard cheeses greatly affects textural and sensory properties. The interaction between cheese NaCl concentration and texture was affected by brining time (0-28 h), . dl-starter cultures (C1, C2, and C3), chymosin type (bovine or camel), and ripening time (1-12 weeks). Cheese Na...... is reducible without significant textural impact using well-defined starter cultures and camel chymosin....

  12. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

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    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  13. Effect of starters and ripening time on the physicochemical, nitrogen fraction and texture profile of goat's cheese coagulated with a vegetable coagulant (Cynara cardunculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Víctor; Rovira, Silvia; Boutoial, Khalid; Ferrandini, Eduardo; López Morales, María B

    2014-02-01

    The increase in the demand for goat's cheese throughout the world has encouraged research into the development of new related products with different textural characteristics. The aim of this work was to study the effect of three commercial starter cultures through the assessment of physicochemical and textural characteristics of goat's milk cheeses made with vegetable coagulant (Cynara cardunculus) during ripening. Use of the different starter cultures produced a significant effect (P starters ensures the correct acidification rate and produced cheeses with lower pH values and greater hardness. Use of thermophilic starter cultures produces cheeses with less instrumental hardness and the use of mixed cultures produced less proteolysis. These results are found useful for selecting the most suitable starter for the development of new goat's cheeses. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogačić, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diversity of Geotrichum candidum strains isolated from traditional cheesemaking fabrications in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellino, N; Beuvier, E; Grappin, R; Guéguen, M; Benson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The diversity of French fungus-ripened cheeses is due partly to the succession of fungi that colonize the cheese during ripening. Geotrichum candidum appears in the early stages of ripening on soft cheeses such as Camembert and semihard cheeses such as St. Nectaire and Reblochon. Its lipases and proteases promote flavor development, and its aminopeptidases reduce bitterness imparted by low-molecular-weight peptides in cheese. We assessed the genetic diversity of G. candidum strains by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR correlated with phenotypic tests for carbon assimilation and salt tolerance. Strains were isolated from milk, curd, and cheese collected in seven major cheesemaking regions of France. Sixty-four isolates were characterized. We found high genetic diversity of G. candidum even within the same cheesemaking regions. Strains did not group according to region. All of the strains from the Haute-Savoie were able to assimilate lactate as the sole source of carbon, while lactate assimilation varied among strains from the Auvergne. Strains varied in D-mannitol assimilation, and none used citrate as the sole source of carbon. Yeast-like colony morphology predominated in Reblochon, while all of the strains isolated from St. Nectaire were filamentous. The RAPD-PCR technique readily differentiated Geotrichum fragrans isolated from milk and curd in a St. Nectaire cheesemaking facility. This study reveals an enormous diversity of G. candidum that has been empirically selected through the centuries by the cheesemakers of France.

  16. Characterization of polygalacturonases produced by Geotrichum candidum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Illková, K.; Zemková, Z.; Omelková, J.; Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Vadkertiová, R.; Stratilová, E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 18 (2011), s1014-s1015 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /5./. 14.09.2011-16.09.2011, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : polygalacturonases * Geotrichum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  17. Enantioselective properties of induced lipases from Geotrichum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zarevúcka, Marie; Kejík, Z.; Šaman, David; Wimmer, Zdeněk; Demnerová, K.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2005), s. 481-486 ISSN 0141-0229 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC D30.001; GA MŠk(CZ) OC D13.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Geotrichum * lipase * enantioselectivity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.705, year: 2005

  18. Post operative fungal endopthalmitis due to Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thein Myint

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geotrichum species have been rarely reported as the cause of sepsis, disseminated infection in immunosuppressed patients. The patient we describe developed indolent endophthalmitis four months after her routine right eye cataract surgery. The intraoperative sample from right vitreous fluid grew Geotrichum candidum. The patient underwent vitrectomy, artificial lens explantation and intravitreal injection of amphotericin B followed by oral voriconazole. Despite these interventions, she underwent enucleation. This is the first published case of Geotrichum candidum endophthalmitis.

  19. Galactomyces geotrichum - moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygier, Anna; Myszka, Kamila; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances and wastewater treatment. It has also been found to have potential for biofuel production. In addition to this, G. geotrichum can be applicable in two further major areas: agriculture and health protection.

  20. Mixed culture engineering for steering starter functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spuś, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Undefined mixed complex starter cultures are broadly used in Gouda-type cheese production due to their robustness to phage predation, resilience for changes in environmental conditions and aroma compounds production ability during ripening. These microbial communities of lactic acid bacteria

  1. Interactions between yeasts and bacteria in the smear surface-ripened cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, A; Rossi, J; Gobbetti, M

    2001-09-19

    In the initial phase of ripening, the microflora of bacterial smear surface-ripened cheeses such as Limburger, Taleggio, Brick, Münster and Saint-Paulin and that of surface mould-ripened cheeses such as Camembert and Brie may be similar, but at the end of the ripening, bacteria such as Brevibacterium spp., Arthrobacter spp., Micrococcus spp., Corynebacterium spp. and moulds such as Penicillium camemberti are, respectively, the dominant microorganisms. Yeasts such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Debaryomyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Pichia spp., Rhodotorula spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Yarrowia lipolytica are often and variably isolated from the smear surface-ripened cheeses. Although not dominant within the microorganisms of the smear surface-ripened cheeses, yeasts establish significant interactions with moulds and especially bacteria, including surface bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Some aspects of the interactions between yeasts and bacteria in such type of cheeses are considered in this paper.

  2. Track Starter's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Charles H.; Rankin, Kelly D.

    This guide was developed to serve both the novice and experienced starter in track and field events. Each year in the United States, runners encounter dozens of different starters' mannerisms as they travel to track meets in various towns and states. The goal of any competent and conscientious starter is to insure that all runners receive a fair…

  3. Galactomyces geotrichum – moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Grygier; Kamila Myszka; Magdalena Rudzińska

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances a...

  4. Evaluation of autochthonous micrococcus strains as starter cultures for the production of Kedong sufu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Z; Huang, S; Ai, Z W; Zhang, M; Zhai, S; Chen, X

    2016-03-01

    The technological properties of 22 micrococcus strains from traditional fermented Kedong sufu were evaluated in order to develop autochthonous starter cultures. The proteolytic, autolytic and lipolytic activity, salt tolerance, production and degradation of the biogenic amines of six Micrococcus luteus, nine Kocuria kristinae and seven Kocuria rosea were evaluated. The results indicated that these micrococcus strains exhibited a certain technological diversity, and the results also indicated the best properties to be used in mixed starter cultures. Based on the above findings, two sets of autochthonous starters were formulated. Considering the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of sufu, the maturation period of sufu was shortened by 30 days. The profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured using autochthonous mixed starters. Compared to back-slopping fermentation, sufu manufactured with selected autochthonous starter cultures exhibited lower levels of total biogenic amines. The selected strains could be used as starter to avoid the accumulation of high concentrations of biogenic amines while also maintaining typical sensory characteristics and preserving the autochthonous strains of the traditional Kedong sufu. The maturation times of Kedong sufu were shortened by 30 days with application of the autochthonous starter. Autochthonous mixed starters can reduce the generation of biogenic amines, speed up the sufu maturation process and preserve typical sensory quality. Furthermore, the rotation of two sets of mixed starter cultures can effectively resist phage attack during the production of sufu. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters.

  6. SPSS for starters

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  7. Xylitol production and furfural consumption by a wild type Geotrichum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Thiago Silveira Rocha Matos

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: This strain presents most remarkable potential in performing furfural consumption simultaneous to xylitol production. Subsequent efforts must be employed to establish bioprocess to simultaneous detoxification and xylitol production by Geotrichum sp.

  8. Decryptification of Acid Phosphatase in Arthrospores of Geotrichum Species Treated with Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, David A.; Martel, Anita J.; MacDonald, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Decryptification of acid phosphatase in Geotrichum sp. arthrospores was accomplished using acetone or dimethyl sulfoxide treatment. Both dimethyl sulfoxide and acetone irreversibly destroyed the integrity of the spore membranes without solubilizing acid phosphatase. PMID:1167386

  9. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  10. Instant Sublime Text starter

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    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  11. Instant Sinatra starter

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    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  12. Instant Prezi starter

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    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  13. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.

  14. Instant OSGi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  15. Improvement of lipase production from Geotrichum sp. in shaken flasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonadoa Resende Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the study of different variables on inoculum build-up aiming to improve the lipase production by Geotrichum sp. by means a sequential strategy of experimental design. The effects of inoculum size, corn steep liquor concentration, volume of inoculum, pH of medium, age of inoculum and soybean oil concentration on lipase activity were assessed by means of two factorial experimental designs. A maximum lipase activity of 35.20±0.8 U/mL was obtained with a inoculum composed of one circular area of 0.78cm2 containing spores, 50 mL of inoculum volume medium, 12 hours of inoculum age, 15% w/v of corn steep liquor concentration, 1.0%w/v of soybean oil concentration and initial pH 5.0 at 30°C and 150 rpm in flasks. This work showed that an enhancement of lipase activity can be obtained using a sequential statistical factorial approach to define the variables for inoculum build-up.

  16. Detection and viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout cheese ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ruggirello

    Full Text Available Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese.

  17. Detection and Viability of Lactococcus lactis throughout Cheese Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidences highlighted the presence of Lactococcus lactis during late cheese ripening. For this reason, the role of this microorganism, well known as dairy starter, should be reconsidered throughout cheese manufacturing and ripening. Thus, the main objective of this study was to develop a RT-qPCR protocol for the detection, quantification and determination of the viability of L. lactis in ripened cheese samples by direct analysis of microbial nucleic acids. Standard curves were constructed for the specific quantification of L. lactis in cheese matrices and good results in terms of selectivity, correlation coefficient and efficiency were obtained. Thirty-three ripened cheeses were analyzed and, on the basis of RNA analysis, twelve samples showed 106 to 108 CFU of L. lactis per gram of product, thirteen from 103 to 105 CFU/g, and in eight cheeses, L. lactis was not detected. Traditional plating on M17 medium led to loads ranging from 105 to 109 CFU/g, including the cheese samples where no L. lactis was found by RT-qPCR. From these cheeses, none of the colonies isolated on M17 medium was identified as L. lactis species. These data could be interpreted as a lack of selectivity of M17 medium where colony growth is not always related to lactococcal species. At the same time, the absence or low abundance of L. lactis isolates on M17 medium from cheese where L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR support the hypothesis that L. lactis starter populations are mainly present in viable but not culturable state during ripening and, for this reason, culture-dependent methods have to be supplemented with direct analysis of cheese. PMID:25503474

  18. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  19. Ripening of Semiconductor Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Florian D; Riedinger, Andreas; Ochsenbein, David R; Knüsel, Philippe N; Erwin, Steven C; Mazzotti, Marco; Norris, David J

    2017-11-08

    Ostwald ripening describes how the size distribution of colloidal particles evolves with time due to thermodynamic driving forces. Typically, small particles shrink and provide material to larger particles, which leads to size defocusing. Semiconductor nanoplatelets, thin quasi-two-dimensional (2D) particles with thicknesses of only a few atomic layers but larger lateral dimensions, offer a unique system to investigate this phenomenon. Experiments show that the distribution of nanoplatelet thicknesses does not defocus during ripening, but instead jumps sequentially from m to (m + 1) monolayers, allowing precise thickness control. We investigate how this counterintuitive process occurs in CdSe nanoplatelets. We develop a microscopic model that treats the kinetics and thermodynamics of attachment and detachment of monomers as a function of their concentration. We then simulate the growth process from nucleation through ripening. For a given thickness, we observe Ostwald ripening in the lateral direction, but none perpendicular. Thicker populations arise instead from nuclei that capture material from thinner nanoplatelets as they dissolve laterally. Optical experiments that attempt to track the thickness and lateral extent of nanoplatelets during ripening appear consistent with these conclusions. Understanding such effects can lead to better synthetic control, enabling further exploration of quasi-2D nanomaterials.

  20. Geotrichum candidum: A Rare Infection Agent in Urinary System: Case Report and Review of The Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Bayındır Bilman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geotrichum is a species of fungi that can be found in every environment in nature, in soil, in water and in air. As it can be found in plants and in cereals and milk products, it has also been shown to be found in normal human flora (mucus and faeces. Geotrichum candidum, mostly saprophytic, can cause clinical picture called Geotrichosis. Neoplasms, leukosis, HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, and kidney transplantation are generally the underlying diseases in such cases. In a case in which we detected G.candidum reproduction in urinary tract infection, we aimed to present the case with its clinic findings and to review the literature.

  1. Diffusion of lactate and ammonium in relation to growth of Geotrichum candidum at the surface of solid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldarf, M; Fourcade, F; Amrane, A; Prigent, Y

    2004-07-05

    Geotrichum candidum was cultivated at the surface of solid model media containing peptone to simulate the composition of Camembert cheese. The surface growth of G. candidum induced the diffusion of substrates from the core to the rind and the diffusion of produced metabolites from the rind to the core. In the range of pH measured during G. candidum growth, constant diffusion coefficients were found for lactate and ammonium, 0.4 and 0.8 cm(2) day(-1), respectively, determined in sterile culture medium. Growth kinetics are described using the Verlhust model and both lactate consumption and ammonium production are considered as partially linked to growth. The experimental diffusion gradients of lactate and ammonium recorded during G. candidum growth have been fitted. The diffusion/reaction model was found to match with experimental data until the end of growth, except with regard to ammonium concentration gradients in the presence of lactate in the medium. Indeed, G. candidum preferentially assimilated peptone over lactate as a carbon source, resulting in an almost cessation of ammonium release before the end of growth. On peptone, it was found that the proton transfer did not account for the ammonium concentration gradients. Indeed, amino acids, being positively charged, are involved in the proton transfer at the beginning of growth. This effect can be neglected in the presence of lactate within the medium, and the sum of both lactate consumption and ammonium release gradients corresponded well to the proton transfer gradients, confirming that both components are responsible for the pH increase observed during the ripening of soft Camembert cheese. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Multilingual school starters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    Multilingual school starters: social semiotics perspectives on second language and literacy learning in education Helle Pia Laursen The starting point for this paper is the still increasing role of literacy in educational settings. Often primary education is seen as almost being synonymous...... of globalisation. Furthermore, this perception of literacy entails that the student’s possible insights into other ways of adding signs to language than those we know from a specific version of the Latin alphabet, fall outside the interests of research and teaching. From this perspective and with a social semiotic...

  3. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  4. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  5. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  6. Production of Geotrichum candidum polygalacturonases via solid state fermentation on grape pomace

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Illková, K.; Zemková, Z.; Flodrová, Dana; Jäger, J.; Benkovská, Dagmar; Omelková, J.; Vadkertiová, R.; Bobálová, Janette; Stratilová, E.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 852-860 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : geotrichum candidum * exopolygalacturonase * endopolygalacturonase Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2012

  7. Differences in hydrolytic abilities of two crude lipases from Geotrichum candidum 4013

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabcová, Jana; Zarevúcka, Marie; Macková, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2010), s. 1029-1038 ISSN 0749-503X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : lipase * Geotrichum candidum * substrate specificity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.626, year: 2010

  8. Highly selective purification of three lipases from Geotrichum candidum 4013 and their characterization and biotechnological applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabcová, Jana; Demianova, Zuzana; Vondrášek, Jiří; Jágr, Michal; Zarevúcka, Marie; Palomo, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 98, Dec 30 (2013), s. 62-72 ISSN 1381-1177 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200551203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : lipase s * hydrophobic supports * substrate specifity * Geotrichum candidum Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CE - Biochemistry (FGU-C) Impact factor: 2.745, year: 2013

  9. Application of autochthonous mixed starter for controlled Kedong sufu fermentation in pilot plant tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Xu, Miao; Zhai, Shuang; Chen, Hong; Li, Ai-li; Lv, Xin-tong; Deng, Hong-ling

    2015-01-01

    Traditional sufu is fermented by back-slopping and back-slopping has many defects. The objective of this study was to apply autochthonous mixed starter to control Kedong sufu fermentation. Sufu was manufactured using back-slopping (batch A) and autochthonous mixed starter (batch B) with Kocuria kristinae F7, Micrococcus luteus KDF1, and Staphylococcus carnosus KDFR1676. Considering physicochemical properties of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B met the standard requirements, respectively. Considering sensory characteristics of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). The maturation period of sufu was shortened by 60 d. Profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of typical sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured by autochthonous mixed starter. In final products, content of total biogenic amines was reduced by 48%. Autochthonous mixed starter performed better than back-slopping. Fermentation had a positive influence on the quality, safety, and sensory properties of sufu. The application of autochthonous mixed starter does not change the sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sufu. In addition, it reduces maturation period and improves their homogeneity and safety. It is possible to substitute autochthonous mixed starter for back-slopping in the manufacture of sufu. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Starter distillate. 184.1848 Section 184.1848 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1848 Starter distillate. (a) Starter distillate (butter starter distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown on...

  11. Microbiological and biochemical aspects of Camembert-type cheeses depend on atmospheric composition in the ripening chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Picque, D; Riahi, H; Corrieu, G

    2006-08-01

    Camembert-type cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk seeded with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Microorganism growth and biochemical dynamics were studied in relation to ripening chamber CO(2) atmospheric composition using 31 descriptors based on kinetic data. The chamber ripening was carried out under 5 different controlled atmospheres: continuously renewed atmosphere, periodically renewed atmosphere, no renewed atmosphere, and 2 for which CO(2) was either 2% or 6%. All microorganism dynamics depended on CO(2) level. Kluyveromyces lactis was not sensitive to CO(2) during its growth phases, but its death did depend on it. An increase of CO(2) led to a significant improvement in G. candidum. Penicillium camemberti mycelium development was enhanced by 2% CO(2). The equilibrium between P. camemberti and G. candidum populations was disrupted in favor of the yeast when CO(2) was higher than 4%. Growth of B. aurantiacum depended more on O(2) than on CO(2). Two ripening progressions were observed in relation to the presence of CO(2) at the beginning of ripening: in the presence of CO(2), the ripening was fast-slow, and in the absence of CO(2), it was slow-fast. The underrind was too runny if CO(2) was equal to or higher than 6%. The nitrogen substrate progressions were slightly related to ripening chamber CO(2) and O(2) levels. During chamber ripening, the best atmospheric condition to produce an optimum between microorganism growth, biochemical dynamics, and cheese appearance was a constant CO(2) level close to 2%.

  12. Levels of cystathionine gamma lyase production by Geotrichum candidum in synthetic media and correlation with the presence of sulphur flavours in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gente, Stéphanie; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Guéguen, Micheline

    2007-03-10

    Geotrichum candidum is a cheese-ripening agent with the potential to produce sulphur flavour compounds in soft cheeses. We aimed to develop an alternative test for predicting the aromatic (sulphur flavours) potential of G. candidum strains in soft cheese. Twelve strains of G. candidum with different levels of demethiolase activity (determined by a chemical method) in YEL-met (yeast extract, lactate methionine) medium were studied. We investigated cgl (cystathionine gamma lyase) gene expression after culture in three media - YEL-met, casamino acid and curd media - and then carried out sensory analysis on a Camembert cheese matrix. We found no correlation between demethiolase activity in vitro and cgl gene expression. Sensory analysis (detection of sulphur flavours) identified different aromatic profiles linked to cgl expression, but not to demethiolase activity. The RT-PCR technique described here is potentially useful for predicting the tendency of a given strain of G. candidum to develop sulphur flavours in cheese matrix. This is the first demonstration that an in vitro molecular approach could be used as a predictive test for evaluating the potential of G. candidum strains to generate sulphur compounds in situ (Camembert cheese matrix).

  13. The composition of Camembert cheese-ripening cultures modulates both mycelial growth and appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Marie-Hélène; Bélanger, Gaétan; St-Gelais, Daniel; Labrie, Steve

    2012-03-01

    The fungal microbiota of bloomy-rind cheeses, such as Camembert, forms a complex ecosystem that has not been well studied, and its monitoring during the ripening period remains a challenge. One limitation of enumerating yeasts and molds on traditional agar media is that hyphae are multicellular structures, and colonies on a petri dish rarely develop from single cells. In addition, fungi tend to rapidly invade agar surfaces, covering small yeast colonies and resulting in an underestimation of their number. In this study, we developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method using TaqMan probes to quantify a mixed fungal community containing the most common dairy yeasts and molds: Penicillium camemberti, Geotrichum candidum, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Kluyveromyces lactis on soft-cheese model curds (SCMC). The qPCR method was optimized and validated on pure cultures and used to evaluate the growth dynamics of a ripening culture containing P. camemberti, G. candidum, and K. lactis on the surface of the SCMC during a 31-day ripening period. The results showed that P. camemberti and G. candidum quickly dominated the ecosystem, while K. lactis remained less abundant. When added to this ecosystem, D. hansenii completely inhibited the growth of K. lactis in addition to reducing the growth of the other fungi. This result was confirmed by the decrease in the mycelium biomass on SCMC. This study compares culture-dependent and qPCR methods to successfully quantify complex fungal microbiota on a model curd simulating Camembert-type cheese.

  14. Fermented sausage production using E. faecium as starter culture: Physicochemical and microbiological profile, sensorial acceptance and cellular viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Calochi Pires de Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are defined as a mixture of lean meat and fat, curing salts, sucrose and spices, stuffed in a natural or artificial casing and submitted to fermentation and air-drying process. Starter culture and ripening process may affect the quality and acceptability of the final product. Current research evaluates the use of Enterococcus faecium as starter culture in fermented sausage production and its physicochemical and microbiological profile during maturation process, coupled to sausage sensory acceptance after ripening. Enterococcus faecium showed 10.9 log CFU g-1 and remained viable after the ripening period with 8.32 log CFU g-1. Fermented sausage was monitored during the ripening period by physicochemical (pH control, water activity and weight loss and microbiological (analysis of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms and Salmonella spp. analyses. All tests complied with standards established by Brazilian legislation and did not interfere in final product quality. Results showed that E. faecium was resistant to curing salt and sodium chloride, maintaining its viability during ripening and conferring beneficial effects on fermented sausage technological characteristics. E. faecium also proved to be in vitro resistant to simulate passage through the human digestive tract. Fermented sausage containing E. faecium had better sensory acceptance than commercial sausage evaluated.

  15. Kmen Geotrichum candidum 4013 - zdroj biotechnologicky významných enzymů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavsová, Klára; Zarevúcka, Marie; Macková, M.; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 189 ISSN 0009-0646. [24. kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D30.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : lipase * Geotrichum candidum Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  16. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range...... of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate......, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB...

  17. Fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Graham B; Østergaard, Lars; Chapman, Natalie H; Knapp, Sandra; Martin, Cathie

    2013-01-01

    Fruiting structures in the angiosperms range from completely dry to highly fleshy organs and provide many of our major crop products, including grains. In the model plant Arabidopsis, which has dry fruits, a high-level regulatory network of transcription factors controlling fruit development has been revealed. Studies on rare nonripening mutations in tomato, a model for fleshy fruits, have provided new insights into the networks responsible for the control of ripening. It is apparent that there are strong similarities between dry and fleshy fruits in the molecular circuits governing development and maturation. Translation of information from tomato to other fleshy-fruited species indicates that regulatory networks are conserved across a wide spectrum of angiosperm fruit morphologies. Fruits are an essential part of the human diet, and recent developments in the sequencing of angiosperm genomes have provided the foundation for a step change in crop improvement through the understanding and harnessing of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic variation.

  18. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  19. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  20. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  1. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  2. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina; Høier, Erik; Andersen, Ulf; Hammershøj, Marianne; Møller, Jean R; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-20

    Reduction of sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese manufacturing is a challenge for the dairy industry. NaCl has a profound role on microbial development influencing cheese sensory and technological properties. The purpose of this work was to investigate how proliferation, distribution and autolysis of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB counts at the early stages of ripening, with differences between the two DL-starter cultures. The unsalted cheeses produced with C1 had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) after 1 and 2 weeks of ripening (i.e. 58% and 71%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11 weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found in cheeses ripened for 7 weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells or in groups of ≥4 cells. During ripening the decrease in the number of viable bacteria was mainly due to a reduction in the number of viable bacteria organized in groups of ≥4 cells. A negative correlation between NaCl content and PepX activity was observed. At the end of ripening the total FAA content was lower in the unsalted cheeses, compared to the reduced- and normal-salted cheeses. In conclusion, NaCl had a significant influence on

  3. Isolation and risk assessment of Geotrichum spp. in the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 from culture ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ochoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done in order to identify the fungus invading some of the supralittoral ponds used for shrimp aquaculture in the CIBNOR facilities in La Paz, Baja California Sur (BCS, México during the summer season. From the walls and bottoms of the ponds, two strains of Geotrichum spp. were isolated and morphologically identified. Fungal adhesion towards hemocytes and primary cultures of various white shrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei tissues (gill, tegument, and gut was analyzed to determine infectivity. Extracellular protease, lipase, and amylase activity were evaluated as virulence factors. Survival of shrimp post-larvae (PL8 exposed to fungal culture supernatant or to their filaments was also investigated. The results showed that shrimp tegument cells and hemocytes were very susceptible to Geotrichum spp. invasion, and that this fungus provokes great mortality of post-larvae. Hence, Geotrichum spp. could be considered an opportunistic pathogen that might represent a serious health risk to shrimp in culture.

  4. Estudio del metabolismo energético de Geotrichum klebahnii

    OpenAIRE

    Baruque, Diego Jorge

    2003-01-01

    El género Geotrichum esta comprendido dentro del phylum ascomycota. Los miembros de este género son hongos levaduriformes caracterizados por hifas estrechas con ramificaciones escasas y cortas. No poseen blastoconidias, conidioforos ni pseudohifas pero si presentan artroconidias con un tamaño promedio de 6-12 x 3-6 µm, unicelulares, en cadena, hialinas que resultan de la fragmentación de hifas indiferenciadas por fisión mediante la formación de septos dobles. Pueden ser rectangulares o poseer...

  5. Characterization of uranium bioaccumulation on a fungal isolate Geotrichum sp. dwc-1 as investigated by FTIR, TEM and XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changsong Zhao; Congcong Ding; Jiali Liao; Jijun Yang; Yuanyou Yang; Jun Tang; Ning Liu; Qun Sun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, TEM-EDX, FTIR, XPS, PIXE, and EPBS were employed to identify the uranium biosorption behavior and the potential mechanism on cells of Geotrichum sp. dwc-1, isolated from soils. These results displayed that the biosorption behavior was greatly dependent on pH and uranium was absorbed by bounding to amino, phosphate as well as carboxyl functional groups. Uranium biosorption behavior on Geotrichum sp. dwc-1 involves bioaccumulation, electrostatic interaction and ion exchange process. This work throws further light on potential fungal roles these mechanisms for elemental recovery and bioremediation. (author)

  6. Effect of starter cultures on survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Čajna sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošković, M.; Tadić, V.; Đorđević, J.; Glišić, M.; Lakićević, B.; Dimitrijević, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during the production of Čajna sausage with short maturation time. Sausage batter was inoculated with three different serotypes 4b and serotype 1/2a of L. monocytogenes. Control sausages were without any starter culture added; the second batch was inoculated with strains of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus, and the third batch was inoculated with strains of Debaryomyces hansenii, Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus. After 18 days of ripening, L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the sausages, but during this fermentation and drying, the numbers of this pathogen was lower in the sausages inoculated with starter cultures.

  7. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  8. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    -starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low....... A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria...... with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL...

  9. Controlled production of camembert-type cheeses: part III role of the ripening microflora on free fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, Marie-Noëlle; Corrieu, Georges; Spinnler, Henry-Eric

    2007-05-01

    Phenomena generating FFAs, important flavour precursors, are significant in cheese ripening. In Camembert-like cheeses, it was intended to establish the relationships between the dynamics of FFA concentrations changes and the succession of ripening microflora during ripening. Experimental Camembert-type cheeses were prepared in duplicate from pasteurised milk inoculated with Kluyveromyces lactis, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum under aseptic conditions. For each cheese and each cheesy medium, concentrations of FFAs with odd-numbered carbons, except for 9:0 and 13:0, did not change over time. For long-chain FFAs, concentrations varied with the given cheese part (rind or core). K. lactis produced only short or medium-chain FFAs during its growth and had a minor influence on caproic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acids in comparison with G. candidum, the most lipolytic of the strains used here. It generated all short or medium-chain FFAs (4:0-12:0) during its exponential and slowdown growth periods and only long-chain ones (14:0-18:0) during its stationary phase. Pen. camemberti produced more long-chain FFAs (14:0-18:0) during its sporulation. Brev. aurantiacum did not generate any FFAs. The evidence of links between specific FFAs and the growth of a given microorganism is shown.

  10. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  11. Simulation of automotive starter faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubiński Mieczysław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a new diagnostic method of a motor starter based on the analysis of the starter’s power and the Hall effect. Using the Matlab Simulink program the wear and tear impact of the starter sleeves on power characteristics was simulated. For the analysis of the flux propagation and the distribution of magnetic induction for selected states of the wear and tear of the sleeve the QuickField program was used. Within the experimental tests, registration of the distribution of magnetic induction was conducted by the Hall sensor placed in the link slot. The model and the tests made it possible to develop diagnostic patterns within the OBD diagnostics.

  12. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  13. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  14. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Benedetta; Agrimonti, Caterina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    those species during ripening of derived dairy products. A major increase in understanding the starter culture contribution to cheese ecosystem could be harnessed to control cheese ripening and flavor formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of FAME analyses to discriminate between different strains of Geotrichum klebahnii with different viabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenauer, Thomas; Lins, Philipp; Reitschuler, Christoph; Illmer, Paul

    2012-02-01

    A considerable decline in viability of spray dried cells of Geotrichum klebahnii was observed and was attributed to an undefined alteration of the used strain. As common techniques were not able to distinguish the altered from the still viable strains, we used the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. On the basis of FAME data we were able to discriminate the three strains under investigation. Especially the ratios of cis/trans fatty acid ratios and of saturated/unsaturated fatty acid were significantly reduced in the less viable strain, pointing to an increased stress level in this strain. These findings clearly show the applicability of the FAME analysis to detect strain alterations and that this method is therefore a suitable, fast and feasible tool for quality assurance.

  16. Suivi de la survie de "Geotrichum candidum" pendant la digestion in vitro du fromage type Camembert

    OpenAIRE

    Farhat, Rihab

    2017-01-01

    Au contraire du Camembert traditionnel, la pré-acidification du Camembert stabilisé est limitée par l’inoculation des bactéries lactiques thermophiles à une température inférieure à celle de leur croissance optimale (35-39 °C). Geotrichum candidum est une levure essentielle pour l’affinage du fromage Camembert grâce à ses activités biochimiques. En outre, quelques études ont rapporté que cette levure a été détectée dans les fèces humaines suite à la digestion du Camembert. Cette présence pour...

  17. Mechanism of thorium biosorption by the cells of the soil fungal isolate Geotrichum sp. dwc-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Congcong; Feng, Su [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Key Laboratory of Biological Resource and Ecological Environment; Li, Xiaolong [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology; and others

    2014-04-01

    In order to understand the impact of microorganisms on the fate of thorium in soils, we investigated the thorium biosorption behavior and the corresponding mechanisms by the cells of Geotrichum sp. dwc-1, one of the dominant species of fungal group isolated from 3.5 m depth soil layer in Southwest China. It was observed that fast thorium adsorption onto cells of G. sp. dwc-1 could take place, with a high distribution coefficient K{sub d} (0.93 mL/mg) obtained, when Geotrichum sp. dwc-1and thorium concentrations were 5 g/L and 10 mg/L, respectively. The thorium biosorption behavior was dependent on the pH value, and the lower pH could disrupt cell membrane of G. sp. dwc-1. At pH 1, thorium was accumulated in the cytoplasmic region of the cells. When pH was higher than 1, thorium was adsorbed on the cell surface of G. sp. dwc-1, like in periplasmic region or in the outer membrane. FTIR study combined with biosorption experiments further indicated that the thorium distribution and binding behavior on cell surface were associated with amino, hydroxyl groups and phosphate or sulphur functional groups, and might also be governed by electrostatic interaction. Moreover, PIXE and EPBS showed that ion-exchange mechanism contributed to the thorium biosorption process, in which the tetravalent thorium ions replaced smaller counter-ions (K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) occuring on the cell surface. (orig.)

  18. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  19. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  20. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  1. 7 CFR 58.331 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Starter distillate. 58.331 Section 58.331 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.331 Starter distillate. The refined flavor components when used to flavor butter and related...

  2. Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

  3. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  4. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  5. The Effect of Xanthan Gum and Flaxseed Mucilage as Edible Coatings in Cheddar Cheese during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Soleimani-Rambod

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the possibility of using xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage as edible coatings for Cheddar cheese during ripening for 90 days. Five samples of Cheddar cheese blocks were coated with different coating materials in triplicate as follows: Coated with polyvinyl acetate as control (C, coated with 0.5% xanthan gum (XG, coated with 0.75% flaxseed mucilage (FM1, coated with 1% flaxseed mucilage (FM2, and coated with 1.25% flaxseed mucilage (FM3. All samples were kept at 8 ± 2 °C in a cold room for 90 days. The statistical analysis of the results showed that the moisture content of the samples decreased and the protein content increased during the ripening period (P < 0.01. The pH, acidity, fat in dry matter, and TCA-SN/TN of samples were significantly affected by xanthan gum and flaxseed mucilage treatment (P < 0.01. The free fatty acid composition of samples was significantly affected by edible coatings. Edible coatings affected the growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria and the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria in a non-significant manner (P > 0.01. The growth of starter bacteria was significantly altered under the effect of edible coating materials (P < 0.05. Tyrosine and tryptophan contents as an index of proteolysis, lipolysis, and sensory evaluation of samples were not significantly different.

  6. Interaction between Galactomyces geotrichum KL20B, Lactobacillus plantarum LAT3 and Enterococcus faecalis KE06 during Milk Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Chaves-López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial interactions are fundamental during milk fermentation, determining the product final characteristics. Galactomyces geotrichum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecalis are among the most common microorganisms in the Colombian Kumis. The aim of the research was to evaluate the yeast–bacteria interactions in milk fermentation at 28 °C. UHT (Ultra-High Temperature milk was inoculated with single- or multiple-strains associations and analysed periodically to determine the microbial counts, organic acids and total free amino acids (FAA. The results evidenced different growth performance of the strains in single or co-culture, with a positive effect of G. geotrichum KL20B on the lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth performance. All the strains consumed citric acid after 6 h of incubation with E. faecalis KE06 as the major consumer; however, all the co-cultures showed an early metabolism of citrate but with a low intake rate. In addition, the interaction between G. geotrichum KL20B and E. faecalis KE06 led to a low accumulation of acetic acid. Formic acid fluctuated during fermentation. The strains interaction also led to an increase in ethanol content and a lower accumulation of FAA. In conclusion, the three strains co-culture enhances the LAB viability, with high production of lactic acid and ethanol, as a consequence of adaptation to the environment and substrate exploitation. To our knowledge, this is the first time in which it is showed that G. geotrichum KL20B could be used to compensate for the slow acid-producing ability of Lb. plantarum and E. faecalis in milk, underlining that this consortium applies some mechanisms to regulate the growth and milk composition in acids and ethanol content.

  7. Evaluation of bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu, a typical Chinese traditional bacteria-fermented soybean product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Gao, Wei; Ren, Dan; Chen, Xi; Li, Juan-juan

    2013-04-01

    Kedong sufu is a typical bacteria-fermented sufu in China. Isolation and identification of the autochthonous bacteria involved would allow the design of specific starters for this speciality. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and culturing. In terms of bacterial diversity, 22 strains were isolated and identified and 27 strains were detected by DGGE. Regarding bacterial dynamics, the results of culturing and PCR-DGGE exhibited a similar trend towards dominant strains. Throughout the fermentation of sufu, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus were the dominant microflora, while the secondary microflora comprised Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Streptococcus lutetiensis, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. This study is the first to reveal the bacterial flora during the ripening of Kedong sufu using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. This information will help in the design of autochthonous starter cultures for the production of Kedong sufu with desirable characteristic sensory profiles and shorter ripening times. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. PFP supply fan motor starters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake

  9. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by piscicolin 126 in milk and Camembert cheese manufactured with a thermophilic starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J; Harmark, K; Davidson, B E; Hillier, A J; Gordon, J B; Wilcock, A; Hickey, M W; Coventry, M J

    1997-03-01

    The effect of bacteriocin, piscicolin 126, on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and cheese starter bacteria was investigated in milk and in Camembert cheese manufactured from milk challenged with 10(2) cfu ml(-1) L. monocytogenes. In milk incubated at 30 degrees C, piscicolin 126 added in the range of 512-2,048 AU ml(-1) effectively inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes for more than 20 d when challenged with approximately 10(2) cfu ml(-1) L. monocytogenes. At higher challenge levels (10(4) and 10(6) cfu ml(-1)), piscicolin 126 reduced the viable count of L. monocytogenes by 4-5 log units immediately after addition of the bacteriocin; however, growth of Listeria occurred within 24 h. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of piscicolin 126 against lactic acid cheese starter bacteria was generally greater than 204,800 AU ml(-1) , and the viable count and acid production of these starter cultures in milk were not affected by the addition of 2,048 AU ml(-1) piscicolin 126. Camembert cheeses made from milk challenged with L. monocytogenes and with added piscicolin 126 showed a viable count of L. monocytogenes 3-4 log units lower than those without piscicolin 126. Inactivation of piscicolin 126 by proteolytic enzymes from cheese starter bacteria and mould together with the emergence of piscicolin 126-resistant isolates was responsible for the recovery of L. monocytogenes in the cheeses during ripening.

  10. Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Core Flight System Satellite Starter Kit (cFS Kit) will allow a small satellite or CubeSat developer to rapidly develop, deploy, test, and operate flight...

  11. Mold-Ripened Soft Cheeses Fortified with Date Palm Fruit Product as Functional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M; Haddadin, Jamal S; Haddadin, Malik S Y

    2016-01-01

    Date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. Therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. This study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus, Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum. Date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture were added at the stage of curdling. Based on the kinetic growth of the microbial groups in all the treatments, there was no change in the growth of these in various date palm product. On the contrary It may be said that addition of the date fruit product supports their growth. After 35 days, the amounts of total poly phenols were 128.3 ± 1.01, 81.8 ± 1.11, 33.5 ± 2.19, 156.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g in the cheeses support with date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture, respectively. Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.13 IC50 (date syrup-2) to 82.23 IC50 (date syrup-1). Based on the chemical characteristics and sensory analysis, the study results showed the potential for innovative application of date products for developing new functional dairy products as an ideal medium for the delivery of biological active compounds with beneficial health effects over.

  12. Production of lipase from Geotrichum sp and adsorption studies on affinity resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. KAMIMURA

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in microbial lipase production due to its great potential for industrial applications such as food additives, industrial reagents and stain removers, as well as for medical applications. Specially for medical applications a high degree of purity is required, which is accomplished with high resolution chromatographic techniques. Affinity chromatography is considered a very high resolution chromatographic technique. In this work the adsorption isotherms and kinetics of the adsorption of lipase from Geotrichum sp on biospecific resin were determined. The resin was prepared using EAH sepharose 4B gel (Pharmacia, made to react with oleic acid as the specific ligand.The lipase was produced in a five-liter fermenter, with both complex and synthetic media. Fermentation conditions were a temperature of 30°C, an aeration of 1VVM and an agitation of 400 rpm. Maximum lipase activity was around 28 U/ml after 10 hours of fermentation for the complex medium. The kinetic model and parameters were determined by dynamic fitting to experimental results using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

  13. Identification and Characterisation of A Locally Isolated Lipolytic Microfungus - Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo, J. L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Geotrichum candidum was successfully isolated from local soil samples and some of its characteristics determined. The strain produces lipase that hydrolysed palm olein on a selective agar incorporated with Nile Blue sulphate and palm olein. Suspension culture was used to study the growth and lipolytic activity. The results showed that the highest dry cell mass of G. candidum was achieved after 96 hours of growth when 2% (v/v seed culture was used as inoculum. Using spore suspension as an inoculum was not favourable since less yield of mycelia mass was obtained at peak of log phase and the culture exhibited relatively low lipolytic activity and efficiency of hydrolysis. The maximum amount of free fatty acids (90.5% was released after 48 hours of incubation. However, the highest lipolytic activity, 7.02 mmole FFA/g dry cell was detected at 54 hours. The production of cell-bound lipase of G. candidum was concomitant with growth and declined when growth ceased. During the course of growth, changes to palm olein added into the culture medium caused the growth culture to turn into a creamy colloidal emulsion. Towards the end of the incubation period, solid fatty particles were formed. Thin layer chromatographic analysis showed that triacylglycerols in the palm olein were rapidly hydrolysed to fatty acids in 18 hours, with no pronounced change in the amounts of 1,2-diacylglycerols and 1,3-diacylglycerols.

  14. Mycelium-Bound Lipase from a Locally Isolated Strain of Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Ling Loo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL, from a locally isolated Geotrichum candidum strain, was produced and characterized as a natural immobilized lipase. A time course study of its lipolytic activity in 1 L liquid broth revealed the maximum MBL activity at 4 h for mycelium cells harvested after 54 h. The yield and specific activity of MBL were 3.87 g/L dry weight and 508.33 U/g protein, respectively, while less than 0.2 U/mL lipase activity was detected in the culture supernatant. Prolonged incubation caused release of the bound lipase into the growth medium. The growth pattern of G. candidum, and production and properties of MBL were not affected by the scale. The stability of mycelia harboring lipase (MBL, harvested and lyophilized after 54 h, studied at 4 °C depicted a loss of 4.3% and 30% in MBL activity after 1 and 8 months, while the activity of free lipase was totally lost after 14 days of storage. The MBL from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.

  15. Growth and Ripening of Globe Artichoke Achens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Basnizki

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Under dry summer eastern Mediterranean conditions, the growth and ripening of seeds (from flowering onward can proceed without supply of water. The leaves and capitule bearing stems dry out while the receptacles stay moist and allow seed ripening. The functioning of the various capitule components was examined.

  16. The use of acetonitrile as the sole nitrogen and carbon source by Geotrichum sp. JR1 Uso de acetonitrila como única fonte de carbono e nitrogênio por Geotrichum sp. JR1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Passos Rezende

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A yeast strain identified as Geotrichum sp. JR1 was able to use acetonitrile as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. The strain grew in 0.5 to 2M acetonitrile. Ammonia generation as enzymatic product during the strain growth indicates the presence of an acetonitrile degrading enzyme. Acetic acid and acetamide were detected during assays with the resting cells cultivated in acetonitrile, indicating the presence of nitrile and amide degrading enzymes. This paper is the first to describe the use of acetonitrile as the sole carbon and nitrogen source by a yeast.Uma linhagem de levedura identificada como Geotrichum sp. JR1 foi capaz de utilizar acetonitrila, em concentrações de 0,5 a 2M, como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio. A geração de amônia durante o crescimento do microrganismo indica a presença de sistema enzimático capaz de degradar acetonitrila. Durante os ensaios enzimáticos, com células cultivadas em acetonitrila, foram detectados ácido acético e acetamida como produtos indicando a presença de sistema enzimático capaz de degradar acetonitrila e acetamida. Este trabalho é o primeiro a descrever a utilização de acetonitrila como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio por uma levedura.

  17. Feasibility study for the development of a pyro starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, M.; Welland, W.; Bouquet, F.; Lee, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Pyro starters can play a role as turbopump starter in liquid propellant propulsion systems by supplying pressurized gas to power turbines for engine start up. For such a purpose, the pyro starters supply a flow of combustion gases with a relatively low flame temperature to the turbines. A

  18. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...... provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from...

  19. Influence of starter culture and a protease on the generation of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant bioactive nitrogen compounds in Iberian dry-fermented sausage “salchichón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Fernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the generation of angiotensin-I–converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds by the dry-fermented sausage “salchichón” was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the starter culture (P200S34, separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared to a control batch. Among the ripening time points (20, 35, 65, 90 days studied, batches inoculated with EPg222 had higher nitrogen compound concentrations at 63 days of ripening. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also highest in both batches with EPg222 at 63 days of ripening, and these activities were stable in most cases after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These activities were correlated with the most relevant compounds detected by HLPC-ESI-MS. The principal components analysis (PCA linked the P200S34 + EPg222 batch with the major compounds identified. The antioxidant activity was higher at 63 days of ripening, especially in highly proteolytic batches, such as P200S34 + EPg222. The ACE-inhibitory activity was not associated with any of the major compounds. The use of the enzyme EPg222 in association with the starter culture P200S34 in the preparation of dry-cured meat products could be of great importance due to their demonstrated ability to produce compounds with high biological activity, such as ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity.

  20. The impact of different starter cultures on fat content, pН and SH dynamics in white brined cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Makarijoski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White brined cheese is a specific dairy product for Balkan Peninsula countries, Mediterranean, North Africa, Eastern Europe and some parts of Asia. The survey was conducted in 2016 at a dairy industry laboratory in R. of Macedonia. In this research work the influence of three different starter cultures of three white brined cheese variants (A, B, C has been examined regarding the fat content dynamics. The starter culture in variant А (SMCH-5 contained following bacteria strains: Lb. bulgaricus, Str. thermophilus and Lb. acidophilus. In the variant B (Choozit Feta A the follow bacteria strains were included: Lac. lactis ssp. lactis, Lac. lactis ssp. cremoris, Str. thermophilus, Lb. bulgaricus and Lb. helveticus. The variant C (MOTC 092 EE was a combination of the strains: Lac. lactis ssp. lactis, Str. thermophilus, Lb. bulgaricus, Lb. helveticus and Lb. casei. The impact of the above mentioned three different starter cultures was determined over the fat content, рН and SH during the process of ripening of the white brined cheese.

  1. Effect of different concentrations of nisin on starter culture of model Cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is a natural preservative produced by strains of Lactococcuslactis subsp. Lactis, has been approved for use in food by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives and has been awarded generally recognized as safe (GRAS. It remains the only bacteriocin allowed in food as an addedpreservative. Nisin has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity againstgram-positive bacteria, thus one of the problems associated with nisin application is inhibition of starter culture and prevention of ripening, which is required for development of cheese characteristics during ripening. In the current study, the effects of different concentrations of nisin and temperature on growth and activity of lactic acid bacteria in model cheeses manufactured from ultrafiltrated milk was evaluated. Cheese samples were supplemented with nisin at concentrations of 0, 2, 4 and 6 µg/g and stored at 8 and 25 °C up to 60 days. Microbiological and physico-chemical properties of the cheese samples were analyzedat 0, 1, 8, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Results showed that addition of nisin at concentrations of 4 and 6 µg/g affects (p

  2. Digestible tryptophan levels for male broilers in pre-starter and starter diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Samuel Borges

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the digestible tryptophan requirements for male broilers in pre-starter and starter phases. Two experiments using 400 Cobb broilers were performed 200 males in the first experiment for the pre-starter phase (one to seven days old, and 200 males in the second experiment for the starter phase (eight to 21 days old. Chicks were housed in batter boxes made of galvanized steel as an experimental shed. The experiments were performed in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and five replicates, with ten birds each. In both experiments, the tryptophan requirement was determined using diets with different levels of digestible tryptophan. A tryptophan-deficient diet was formulated, as a basal diet, which was supplemented with increased levels of L-tryptophan in order to achieve the desirable digestible tryptophan levels. Treatments consisted of 0.209% (basal diet; 0.223%; 0.235% and 0.248% digestible tryptophan for the pre-starter phase (experiment 1 and 0.187% (basal diet; 0.200%, 0.211% and 0.223% digestible tryptophan for the starter phase (experiment 2. We evaluated feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion, as well as the metabolizability of feed nutrients. The performance and metabolic data were subjected to analysis of variance, and estimates of digestible tryptophan levels were made through polynomial regression models at 5% probability. There was no significant difference between the digestible tryptophan levels in the diet over performance and digestibility in both treatments. It is possible to conclude that the basal diet with 0.209% digestible tryptophan for the pre-starter phase and 0.187% for the starter phase, at a tryptophan: lysine ratio of 16%, as sufficient to meet the broilers requirements.

  3. Haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the haematological and biochemical responses of starter broiler chickens fed copper and probiotics supplemented diets. A total of 180-day old Marshal broiler chicks were randomly allotted to six treatment groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were divided into three replicates of ten ...

  4. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum

  5. Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

  6. Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César CASTRO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2 no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL, umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP, aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7esporos mL-1 mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05 ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo.The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of

  7. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, P; McKay, L L; Metzger, L E

    2006-02-01

    Cheddar cheese ripening involves the conversion of lactose to glucose and galactose or galactose-6-phosphate by starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Under ideal conditions (i.e., where bacteria grow under no stress of pH, water activity, and salt), these sugars are mainly converted to lactic acid. However, during ripening of cheese, survival and growth of bacteria occurs under the stressed condition of low pH, low water activity, and high salt content. This forces bacteria to use alternate biochemical pathways resulting in production of other organic acids. The objective of this study was to determine if the level and type of organic acids produced during ripening was influenced by calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) of cheese. Eight cheeses with 2 levels of Ca and P (0.67 and 0.47% vs. 0.53 and 0.39%, respectively), lactose at pressing (2.4 vs. 0.78%), and S/M (6.4 vs. 4.8%) were manufactured. The cheeses were analyzed for organic acids (citric, orotic, pyruvic, lactic, formic, uric, acetic, propanoic, and butyric acids) and residual sugars (lactose, galactose) during 48 wk of ripening using an HPLC-based method. Different factors influenced changes in concentration of residual sugars and organic acids during ripening and are discussed in detail. Our results indicated that the largest decrease in lactose and the largest increase in lactic acid occurred between salting and d 1 of ripening. It was interesting to observe that although the lactose content in cheese was influenced by several factors (Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M), the concentration of lactic acid was influenced only by S/M. More lactic acid was produced in low S/M treatments compared with high S/M treatments. Although surprising for Cheddar cheese, a substantial amount (0.2 to 0.4%) of galactose was observed throughout ripening in all treatments. Minor changes in the levels of citric, uric, butyric, and propanoic acids were observed during

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF RIPENING STAGES OF MYRTLE FRUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DYALLA RIBEIRO DE ARAUJO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The myrtle (Eugenia gracillima Kiaersk. is a native fruit species in the Chapada of Araripe, state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The fruits are collected from the wild and are consumed fresh or processed as pulp, juice, jelly, liquor or desserts. Myrtle fruit production is of significant socioeconomic value for the region and, therefore, the description of myrtle fruit ripening stages may contribute to the development of its production chain. As a result, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the physical, quality and ripening changes of myrtle fruits at different developmental stages. The fruits were picked at five distinctive stages and evaluated for longitudinal and transverse diameters; fresh, dry and water mass; water contents; soluble solids (SS; titratable acidity (TA; pH; SS/TA ratio; carbohydrates (starch, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars; ascorbic acid; total pectin, soluble pectins and percentage of pectin solubilization; polymeric, oligomeric and dimeric phenolics; total anthocyanins, carotenoids and chlorophyll; and yellow flavonoids. Along fruit ripening processes increases in SS, anthocyanins and carotenoids, in the SS/TA ratio and of percentages of pectin solubilization were determined. On the other hand, decreases in TA and total chlorophyll were observed. The ripening stage at which peel color is completely dark red (ripening stage 4 is most appropriate to harvest myrtle fruits for human consumption.

  9. Physico-chemical characteristics and free fatty acid composition of dry fermented mutton sausages as affected by the use of various combinations of starter cultures and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; Jin, Ye; Ma, Changwei; Song, Huanlu; Li, Hui; Wang, Zhenyu; Xiao, Shan

    2011-08-01

    The microbiological, physico-chemical and free fatty acid composition of dry fermented mutton sausages were determined during ripening and storage. Three sausage mixtures (starter culture [SC], SC and black pepper [SC+BP] and SC, BP and cumin [SC+BP+C]) were compared with a control (CO). In general, the lactic acid bacteria populations in the SC+BP increased significantly to 9 log CFU/g and were higher than the CO (8 log CFU/g) (P0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on development and autolysis of DL-starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina

    2015-01-01

    of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing .... Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), distribution of bacteria as single cells or microcolonies, their viability in the cheeses and cell autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB...

  11. Isolation of Penicillium nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production by disruption of the pcbAB gene and application as starters on cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martin, Juan F

    2003-06-01

    The presence of some fungi on a variety of food products, like cheeses or cured meat products, is beneficial for the ripening of the product and for the development of specific flavour features. The utilization of these fungi as starters, which are inoculated normally as asexual spores on the food products at the beginning of the ripening process, is becoming a usual procedure in the food industry. The starter culture also prevents undesirable fungi or bacteria from growing on the product. Penicillium nalgiovense is the most frequently used starter for cured and fermented meat products, but the fact that this fungus can secrete penicillin to the meat product makes it important to get strains unable to synthesize this antibiotic. In this work we report that P. nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production can be obtained by disruption of the pcbAB gene (the first gene of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway). When applied as starter on cecina (a salted, smoke-cured beef meat product from the region of León, Spain), the pcbAB-disrupted strain showed no differences with respect to the parental penicillin-producing strain in its ability to colonize the meat pieces and to control their normal mycoflora. Both strains exerted a similar control on the presence of bacteria in cecina. A similar proportion of penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant bacteria were isolated from pieces inoculated with the penicillin-producing or the non-producing P. nalgiovense strains. The decrease of the bacterial population on the surface of cecina seems to be due to the higher competition for nutrients as a consequence of the inoculation and development of the P. nalgiovense mycelium and not due to the production of penicillin by this fungus. Penicillin production was less affected than growth in a solid medium with high NaCl concentrations; this suggests that the high salt concentration present in cecina is not a limiting factor for penicillin production by P. nalgiovense.

  12. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the manufacture and ripening of Fontina Protected Designation of Origin cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, A; Bianchi, D M; Vitale, N; Vernetti, L; Gallina, S; Decastelli, L

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to describe the cheese-making procedure of Fontina Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese and to evaluate the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during cheese manufacture and ripening. The study was divided into 2 phases: the production of Fontina PDO cheese was monitored at 3 different dairies in the Aosta Valley and an E. coli O157 challenge was conducted at a fourth dairy. The dairies employ different commercial starter cultures for cheese making. The growth of lactic acid bacilli (LAB) and the decrease in pH were slower in the first hours and the LAB concentrations were overall higher in dairy A than in the other 2 dairies. The pH remained substantially unchanged during ripening (range 5.2 to 5.4) in all dairies. Water activity remained constant at around 0.98 until d 21, when it decreased to around 0.97 until d 80 in dairies A and B and 0.95 in dairy E. Whole raw cow milk was used for making Fontina cheese according to the standard procedure. For the experimental production, the milk was inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 at a concentration of approximately 5 log 10 cfu/mL and commercial starter cultures were used according to the Fontina PDO regulation. An increase of 2.0 log 10 cfu/g in E. coli O157:H7 was observed during the first 9.5 h of cheese making, followed by a decrease at 46 h when pH decreased to 5.4 in all trials. Fresh cheeses were salted and held at 10°C for ripening for 80 d. Water activity was decreased to 0.952 at the end of the ripening stage. The LAB concentrations declined gradually; this trend was more marked for the lactobacilli than either the thermophilic or the mesophilic lactococci. The increase in LAB count and the decrease in pH in the first hours did not seem to affect E. coli O157 growth. Ripening was found to inhibit pathogen survival, however, as seen in the reduction of 3 log 10 from the maximum concentration measured during the earlier stages of production. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy

  13. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  14. Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Biological and Chemical Ripening Agents on the Nutritional and Metal Composition of Banana ( Musa spp ) ... Journal Home > Vol 18, No 2 (2014) > ... curcas leaf were used and compared with a control with no ripening agent.

  15. The language of cheese-ripening cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Microbial interactions are of importance for the establishment and growth of cheese ripening cultures. An interesting aspect of microbial interactions is cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing; the process in which micro-organisms communicate with signalling molecules and co......-ordinate gene expression in a cell density dependent manner. Little is known about quorum sensing in foods. However, as quorum sensing is expected to be a general phenomenon in micro-organisms, it is likely to be of importance for micro-organisms in foods. An example of a food product where quorum sensing could...... be of importance is surface ripened cheeses. The present review focuses on our findings on quorum sensing systems in cheese ripening cultures. The main focus is on the group of bacterial non-species-specific signalling molecules referred to as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) in smear bacteria as well as alcohol...

  16. Ethylene-producing bacteria that ripen fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Fabio; Girelli, Gabriele; Aor, Bruno; Marchioretti, Caterina; Pedrotti, Michele; Perli, Thomas; Tonon, Emil; Valentini, Viola; Avi, Damiano; Ferrentino, Giovanna; Dorigato, Andrea; Torre, Paola; Jousson, Olivier; Mansy, Sheref S; Del Bianco, Cristina

    2014-12-19

    Ethylene is a plant hormone widely used to ripen fruit. However, the synthesis, handling, and storage of ethylene are environmentally harmful and dangerous. We engineered E. coli to produce ethylene through the activity of the ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) from Pseudomonas syringae. EFE converts a citric acid cycle intermediate, 2-oxoglutarate, to ethylene in a single step. The production of ethylene was placed under the control of arabinose and blue light responsive regulatory systems. The resulting bacteria were capable of accelerating the ripening of tomatoes, kiwifruit, and apples.

  17. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  18. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    increased during ripening. Pepper compound concentrations peaked in the middle of the ripening period. Lipid oxidation products increased especially towards the end of ripening, in particular, the compounds 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-heptanone and 2-nonanone. Surface moulds probably caused 4-heptanone...

  19. Physical and chemical characteristics of off vine ripened mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to develop the best off vine mango ripening technique for both consumption and processing was investigated. Some physical and chemical measurements were performed on mature Green Dodo mangoes before and during a 3-day and 6-day ripening period by smoked pit ripening (SPR), ethylene (fruit ...

  20. Effective survival of immobilized Lactobacillus casei during ripening and heat treatment of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and investigation of the microbial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Galanis, Alex; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-02-01

    The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7 log cfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol. Members of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, Bacillus and Debaryomyces were the main microbial populations detected. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 in the samples after 66 days of ripening were above the minimum concentration for conferring a probiotic effect (≥ 6 log cfu/g). However, after heat treatment, this strain was detected at the above levels, only in sausages containing immobilized cells. © 2013.

  1. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  2. Cold shock treatment extends shelf life of naturally ripened or ethylene-ripened avocado fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Liu, Xixia; Li, Fenfang; Li, Yixing; Yuan, Debao

    2017-01-01

    Avocado is an important tropical fruit with high commercial value, but has a relatively short storage life. In this study, the effects of cold shock treatment (CST) on shelf life of naturally ripened and ethylene-ripened avocado fruits were investigated. Fruits were immersed in ice water for 30 min, then subjected to natural or ethylene-induced ripening. Fruit color; firmness; respiration rate; ethylene production; and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were measured. Immersion in ice water for 30 min effectively delayed ripening-associated processes, including peel discoloration, pulp softening, respiration rate, and ethylene production during shelf life. The delay in fruit softening by CST was associated with decreased PG and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, but not PME activity. This method could potentially be a useful postharvest technology to extend shelf life of avocado fruits.

  3. Temperature and relative humidity influence the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on microbial and biochemical ripening kinetics, Camembert-type cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk seeded with Kluyveromyces marxianus, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Microorganism growth and biochemical changes were studied under different ripening temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and RH (88, 92, and 98%). The central point runs (12°C, 92% RH) were both reproducible and repeatable, and for each microbial and biochemical parameter, 2 kinetic descriptors were defined. Temperature had significant effects on the growth of both K. marxianus and G. candidum, whereas RH did not affect it. Regardless of the temperature, at 98% RH the specific growth rate of P. camemberti spores was significantly higher [between 2 (8°C) and 106 times (16°C) higher]. However, at 16°C, the appearance of the rind was no longer suitable because mycelia were damaged. Brevibacterium aurantiacum growth depended on both temperature and RH. At 8°C under 88% RH, its growth was restricted (1.3 × 10(7) cfu/g), whereas at 16°C and 98% RH, its growth was favored, reaching 7.9 × 10(9) cfu/g, but the rind had a dark brown color after d 20. Temperature had a significant effect on carbon substrate consumption rates in the core as well as in the rind. In the rind, when temperature was 16°C rather than 8°C, the lactate consumption rate was approximately 2.9 times higher under 88% RH. Whatever the RH, temperature significantly affected the increase in rind pH (from 4.6 to 7.7 ± 0.2). At 8°C, an increase in rind pH was observed between d 6 and 9, whereas at 16°C, it was between d 2 and 3. Temperature and RH affected the increasing rate of the underrind thickness: at 16°C, half of the cheese thickness appeared ripened on d 14 (wrapping day). However, at 98% RH, the underrind was runny. In conclusion, some descriptors, such as yeast growth and the pH in the rind, depended solely on

  4. Compositional changes during papaya fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shattir, A. E.; Abu-Goukh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate compositional changes during ripening of Baladi, Ekostika I and Ekostika II papaya fruit cultivars at 20±1°C and 85% -90% relative humidity. The fruits of the three cultivars exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration with peak of respiration of 82,92 and 98 mg CO 2 / kg-hr, reached after 10 days in the three cultivars, respectively. Weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), total sugars and ascorbic acid content progressively increased during ripening of the three papaya cultivars. More increase in TSS and total sugars was observed after the climacteric peak of respiration. Fruit tissue firmness and total phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening in the three cultivars. Reducing sugars, total protein and titratable acidity steadily increased to reach a peak, which coincided with climacteric peak of respiration, and subsequently decreased afterwards. The local Baladi cultivar had a lower respiration rate, more firm and less weight loss during ripening, which may indicate a longer shelf life than the other two introduced cultivars. On the other hand, the introduced cultivars were higher in TSS, total and reducing sugars and ascorbic acid content and lower in titratable acidity and phenolic compounds, which may reflect a better eating quality.(Author)

  5. In vivo NMR spectroscopy of ripening avocado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, A.B.; Smith, G.M.; Nichols, B.

    1987-01-01

    Ripening of avocado fruit is associated with a dramatic increase in respiration. Previous studies have indicated that the increase in respiration is brought about by activation of the glycolytic reaction catalyzing the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. The authors reinvestigated the proposed role of glycolytic regulation in the respiratory increase using in vivo 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using an external surface coil and analysis of phosphofructokinase (PFK), phosphofructophosphotransferase (PFP), and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (fru 2,6-P 2 ) levels in ripening avocado fruit. In vivo 31 P NMR spectroscopy revealed large increases in ATP levels accompanying the increase in respiration. Both glycolytic enzymes, PFK and PFP, were present in avocado fruit, with the latter activity being highly stimulated by fru 2,6-P 2 . Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels increased approximately 90% at the onset of ripening, indicating that the respiratory increase in ripening avocado may be regulated by the activation of PFP brought about by an increase in fru 2,6-P 2

  6. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Protease and Lipase Enzymes by Different Methods to Accelerate Kaşar Cheese Ripening 1. The Effect on Cheese Physical and Chemical Properties (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, pasteurized cow milk was used for Kaşar cheese processing. One lipase (Palatase M, one protease (Neutrase, and combination of both enzymes were added to milk which was processed into cheese. Three different enzymes with the levels (based on raw milk amount of 0.0001% Palatese M. 0.004% Neutrase and 0.0001% Palatase M + 0.004% Neutrase were evaluated for physical and chemical properties at 2nd, 30th, 60th and 90th day of the ripening periods. Enzyme added cheese samples were compared with the Control-I (from fresh milk and Control-II (from pasteurized and starter added cheese samples. The 1% starter composed of Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris (1:1 was added into the milk. Experiment was set up according to random block design with factorial arrangement, and the analysis were carried out in duplicate. Cheese yields of all the cheese samples produced with the enzyme addition were lower than the control groups. But, 0.0001% Palatase M(Mik-L added with microencapsulation technique gave the higher cheese yield which is closer to the control groups. With the enzyme addition, dry-matter; fat, protein, salt, acidity, fat in dry-matter, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree; with the ripening period dry-matter, fat, protein, ash, salt, acidity, salt in dry-matter and the ripening degree gave statistically (P<0.01 significant results. It was determined that the interaction of enzyme addition x ripened period had an significant influence on dry-matter, fat, protein, acidity, fat in dry-matter and ripening degree of the cheeses produced in this research (P<0.01. The best ripened condition was achieved by adding lipase+protease enzymes together into milk with direct technique (Di-L+P. The same ripened state in the cheeses was reached in 30-60 days ripened period with the direct incorporation of lipase + protease enzymes together (Di+L+P or protease only (Di-P, but in 90 days in control groups containing no enzymes.

  8. Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediaries Obtained by Reduction of 2-Halo-1-(4-substituted phenyl-ethanones Mediated by Geotrichum candidum CCT 1205 and Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucídio C. Fardelone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective reductions of p-R1-C6H4C(OCH2R2 (R1 = Cl, Br, CH3, OCH3, NO2 and R2 = Br, Cl mediated by Geotrichum candidum CCT 1205 and Rhodotorula glutinis CCT 2182 afforded the corresponding halohydrins with complementary R and S configurations, respectively, in excellent yield and enantiomeric excesses. The obtained (R- or (S-halohydrins are important building blocks in chemical and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Indukce lipas v kvasinkách rodu Geotrichum a stanovení jejich stereospecificity a selektivity pro nenasycené mastné kyseliny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejík, Z.; Zarevúcka, Marie; Demnerová, K.; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 5 (2004), s. 284 ISSN 0009-2770. [Mezioborové setkání mladých biologů, biochemiků a chemiků /4./. 09.06.2004-12.06.2004, Žďárské vrchy] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D30.001; GA MŠk OC D13.10 Keywords : lipase * stereospecificity * Geotrichum Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  10. Effect of wild strains used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures on the volatile compounds of the Pecorino Siciliano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; Pitino, I; De Luca, S; Scifò, G O; Caggia, C

    2008-03-20

    The effect of six wild strains on the volatile profile of the PS cheese was investigated and compared to that generated from industrial starters generally used to produce PS cheese. All cheeses were subjected to microbiological, physicochemical, and volatile compounds analyses. The DGGE of the 16S rDNA analysis was also applied. The volatile compounds generated during ripening were studied through the SPME and the GC-MS methods. No difference was detected between the experimental and control cheeses throughout chemical and microbiological analyses, while the DGGE results showed the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus in all cheeses, and the dominance of Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus casei in most of the experimental cheeses. Moreover, the presence of Lactococcus lactis species as in the control and in the experimental P2 and P4 cheeses was also revealed. The SPME results showed more pronounced volatile compounds in the experimental cheese samples than in the control ones.

  11. Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet, 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1 and starter (Assay 2 diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X² and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X. Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X. Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X² and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention

  12. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  13. DRY COMPOSITION OF STARTER CULTURES FORM LACTIC ACID MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    At. Kraevska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of producing of lyophilized lactic acid starter Lb. plantarum strain 226/1, designed for a starter culture in the production of pickles. The results of our studies demonstrate achievement of this goal by the specified process parameters.

  14. Investigation into brittle failure of some starter bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the cause and consequences of an observed brittle behaviour of some starter bars on a construction site in the Netherlands. A few bars suddenly failed when they were bent in order to align them. For the investigation firstly a batch of starter bars that

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Milk-Derived microRNAs and Microbiota during the Manufacturing and Ripening of Soft Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangnam; Park, Mi-Ri; Ryu, Sangdon; Maburutse, Brighton; Kim, Ji-Uk; Kim, Younghoon

    2017-09-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are abundant in bovine milk and milk derived from other livestock, and they have functional roles in infants and in the secretion process of mammary glands. However, few studies have evaluated miRNAs in dairy processes, such as during cheese making and ripening. Thus, we investigated the characteristics of milk-derived miRNAs during the manufacturing and ripening of Camembert cheese as well as the microbiota present using the quantitative reverse transcription polymer chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, respectively. Pyrosequencing showed that the cheese microbiota changed dramatically during cheese processing, including during the pasteurization, starter culture, and ripening stages. Our results indicated that the RNA contents per 200 mg/200 μl of the sample increased significantly during cheese-making and ripening. The inner cheese fractions had higher RNA contents than the surfaces after 12 and 22 days of ripening in a timedependent manner (21.9 and 13.2 times higher in the inner and surface fractions than raw milk, respectively). We performed a comparative analysis of the miRNAs in each fraction by RT-qPCR. Large amounts of miRNAs ( miR-93, miR-106a, miR-130, miR-155, miR-181a , and miR- 223 ) correlated with immune responses and mammary glands were present in aged cheese, with the exception of miR-223 , which was not present on the surface. Considerable amounts of miRNAs were also detected in whey, which is usually disposed of during the cheese-making process. Unexpectedly, there were no significant correlations between immune-related miRNAs and the microbial populations during cheese processing. Taken together, these results show that various functional miRNAs are present in cheese during its manufacture and that they are dramatically increased in amount in ripened Camembert cheese, with differences according to depth.

  16. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, Geetha [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2000-05-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are {sup 85}Kr, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 3}H and {sup 232}Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha; Shukla, V.K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85 Kr, 147 Pm, 3 H and 232 Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Starter cultures for cereal based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Markus J

    2014-02-01

    Fermented cereals play a significant role in human nutrition in all parts of the world where cereals grow. These fermentations are started spontaneously or there have been traditional techniques developed in order to keep starter cultures for these processes alive. With the growing impact of industrial microbiology during 20th century this traditional starter culture propagation was replaced often, especially in the dairy industry, by the use of pure, frozen or freeze-dried cultures grown on microbial media. In contrast to the production of ethanol from cereals, in sourdough a pasteurization step before inoculation is avoided due to gelatinization of starch and inactivation of endogenous enzymes. Therefore cultures must be competitive to the relatively high microbial load of the cereal raw materials and well adapted to the specific ecology determined by the kind of cereal and the process conditions. Less adapted cultures could be used, but then the process of back-slopping of cultures is limited. Although cereal fermentations take the biggest volume among fermented foods, only for sourdoughs commercial cultures are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluating the feasibility of fermentation starter inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for improving acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine in Baoning bran vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing; Wu, Chongde

    2017-08-16

    Fermentation starters (Daqu) used in present study included traditional herb Daqu (C Daqu), modified Daqu without herbs (M Daqu) and S Daqu fermented by inoculating acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine high-producing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens into M Daqu. To evaluate the feasibility of S Daqu combined with M Daqu applied for improving contents of acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine in Baoning bran vinegar without remarkably changing the original microbial community and the other volatiles contents compared with C Daqu, vinegar Pei C, M, M1, M2 and S were correspondingly prepared in lab scale using C Daqu, M Daqu, M1 Daqu (S Daqu: M Daqu=1:9, w/w), M2 Daqu (S Daqu: M Daqu=5:5) and S Daqu. PCR-DGGE suggested that Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Oceanobacillus, Acetobacter, Pichia, Geotrichum and Trichoderma were dominant microbes. Microbial community of M were similar with M1, while that of the others were similar. Differences in physicochemical properties among samples may be ascribed to different enzymes activities of Daqu and bioactivities of microbial metabolism during fermentation. Moreover, total contents of organic acids in M, M1, M2 and S increased by 33.10%, 25.77%, 4.32% and 7.74% relative to C, respectively. Volatiles and PLS-DA analysis suggested that volatile profiles of M were similar with M1, that of M2 were similar with C, while that of S were significantly different with the others. Both M2 Daqu and S Daqu facilitated the formation of acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine. However, M2 Daqu was more efficient for enhancing acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine contents by 191.84% and 123.17% respectively, without significantly changing the other volatiles contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  1. Effect of starter cultures on microbial and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main amino acids present in all stages of ripening were aspartic and glutamic acids, arginine, glycine, threonine, alanine, tyrosine, phenylalaline, leucine and isoleucine. Keywords: Staphylococcus xylosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, ripening, dry fermented sausage. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(43) 4155- ...

  2. Physicochemical Characteristic of Fermented Goat Milk Added with Different Starters Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anif Mukaromah Wati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of traditional food including dadih to be commercial fermented milk was needed to achieve efficiency and effective of products. Dadih with natural starter needs to be changed with starters because starters can be produced commercially. This study aims to evaluate physicochemical characteristic of fermented goat milk that added with different starters Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB isolated from dadih. The materials used for this research were starters LAB that isolated from dadih. In this experiment, treatments were used different starters that namely starter 11, starter 21, starter 25, starter 29, and starter 41 then analized about water content, ash content, fat content, syneresis, and viscosity. The experiment was carried out with three replications. The data were analyzed by ANOVA using the basic design of Completely Randomized Design (CRD and continued by Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT if there was a significantly different. The results showed that different starters had influence on water content, ash content, fat content, syneresis, and viscosity. It could be concluded that starters 11 and 41 were the best starter that can be applied in fermented goat milk product based on physical quality with lower syneresis and higher viscosity. But based on chemical quality, starter 11 was the best starter with lower water content and higher ash content.

  3. Preliminary characterization of wild lactic acid bacteria and their abilities to produce flavour compounds in ripened model cheese system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, C L; De Luca, S; Todaro, A; Restuccia, C; Lanza, C M; Spagna, G; Caggia, C

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this work was to preliminary characterize wild lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated during artisanal Pecorino Siciliano (PS) cheese-making for technological and flavour formation abilities in a model cheese system. Twelve LAB were studied for the ability to grow at 10 and 45 degrees C, to coagulate and acidify both reconstituted skim milk and ewe's milk. Moreover, the capacity of the strains to generate aroma compounds was evaluated in a model cheese system at 30- and 60-day ripening. Flavour compounds were screened by sensory analysis and throughout gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). Most of the strains were able to grow both at 10 and 45 degrees C and exhibited high ability to acidify and coagulate ewes' milk. Sensory evaluation revealed that the wild strains produced more significant flavour attributes than commercial strains in the 60-day-old model cheese system. GC-MS data confirmed the results of sensory evaluations and showed the ability of wild lactobacilli to generate key volatile compounds. Particularly, three wild lactobacilli strains, belonging to Lactobacillus casei, Lb. rhamnosus and Lb. plantarum species, generated both in 60- and 30-day-old model cheeses system, the 3-methyl butan(al)(ol) compound, which is associated with fruity taste. The present work preliminarily demonstrated that the technological and flavour formation abilities of the wild strains are strain-specific and that wild lactobacilli, which produced key flavour compounds during ripening, could be used as tailor-made starters. This study reports the technological characterization and flavour formation ability of wild LAB strains isolated from artisanal Pecorino cheese and highlights that the catabolic activities were highly strain dependent. Hence, wild lactobacilli could be selected as tailor-made starter cultures for the PS cheese manufacture.

  4. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  5. Development of a goat fermented milk with probiotics starter culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Hernández-Monzón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The goat milk for their multiple properties nutraceutical and for the high yield of their derived products, it represents an interesting commercial alternative for the elaboration of special fermented milk. At the present time the probiotics starter culture for their proven properties are used thoroughly in the elaboration of fermented milk. Keeping in mind these antecedents this work had as objective to develop a fermented milk of goat with characteristic probiotics, good acceptability and appropriate shelf life using the starter culture Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus acidophilus jointly with the starter culture of the yogurt. It was carried out a design of experiment of response surface (22 with the independent variables, starter culture dose (1.5 to 2.5% and the relationship of starter culture of yogurt: probiotics starter culture 1:3 at 1:5. As variable answers they took: the viability, the acidity and the sensorial indicators. The formulation selected with the best characteristics was conserved to temperature of 4 oC for the evaluation of the storage life. The best formulation was the 2% starter culture with a relationship of 1:4. The fermented milk was evaluated of “I like” and its viability was above the therapeutic minimum until the 21 days (log (UFC/ml of 8.8 at 7.0.

  6. The Use of Starter Cultures in Traditional Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Laranjo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starter cultures could play an essential role in the manufacture of traditional cured meat products. In order to achieve objectives related to meat products’ quality and safety improvement, the selection of particular strains constituting a starter culture should be carried out in the context of its application, since its functionality will depend on the type of sausage and process conditions. Also, strain selection should comply with particular requirements to warrant safety. The aim of the current review is to update the knowledge on the use of starter cultures in traditional meat products, with focus on dry-fermented products. In this manuscript, we will try to give answers to some relevant questions: Which starter cultures are used and why? Why are LAB used? What are their role and their specific mode of action? Which other groups of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi are used as starter cultures and how do they act? A particular revision of omics approach regarding starter cultures is made since the use of these techniques allows rapid screening of promising wild strains with desirable functional characteristics, enabling the development of starter cultures better adapted to the meat matrix.

  7. Assessment of probiotic viability during Cheddar cheese manufacture and ripening using propidium monoazide-PCR quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie eDesfossés-Foucault

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of a suitable food carrier such as cheese could significantly enhance probiotic viability during storage. The main goal of this study was to assess viability of commercial probiotic strains during Cheddar cheesemaking and ripening (four to six months by comparing the efficiency of microbiological and molecular approaches. Molecular methods such as quantitative PCR (qPCR allow bacterial quantification, and DNA-blocking molecules such as propidium monoazide (PMA select only the living cells’ DNA. Cheese samples were manufactured with a lactococci starter and with one of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, Lactobacillus rhamnosus RO011 or Lactobacillus helveticus RO052 or a mixed culture containing B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and L. helveticus RO052 (MC1, both lactobacilli strains (MC2 or all three strains (MC3. DNA extractions were then carried out on PMA-treated and non-treated cell pellets in order to assess PMA treatment efficiency, followed by quantification using the 16S rRNA gene, the elongation factor Tu gene (tuf or the transaldolase gene (tal. Results with intact/dead ratios of bacteria showed that PMA-treated cheese samples had a significantly lower bacterial count than non-treated DNA samples (P<0.005, confirming that PMA did eliminate dead bacteria from PCR quantification. For both quantification methods, the addition of probiotic strains seemed to accelerate the loss of lactococci viability in comparison to control cheese samples, especially when L. helveticus RO052 was added. Viability of all three probiotic strains was also significantly reduced in mixed culture cheese samples (P<0.0001, B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 being the most sensitive to the presence of other strains. However, all probiotic strains did retain their viability (log nine cfu/g of cheese throughout ripening. This study was successful in monitoring living probiotic species in Cheddar cheese samples through PMA-qPCR.

  8. Physicochemical Characteristic of Fermented Goat Milk Added with Different Starters Lactic Acid Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Anif Mukaromah Wati; Mei Jen Lin; Lilik Eka Radiati

    2018-01-01

    Development of traditional food including dadih to be commercial fermented milk was needed to achieve efficiency and effective of products. Dadih with natural starter needs to be changed with starters because starters can be produced commercially. This study aims to evaluate physicochemical characteristic of fermented goat milk that added with different starters Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from dadih. The materials used for this research were starters LAB that isolated from dadih. In ...

  9. Characterization of volatile fraction of typical Irpinian wines fermented with a new starter yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabretti, A; La Cara, F; Sorrentino, A; Di Stasio, M; Santomauro, F; Rastrelli, L; Gabrielli, L; Limone, F; Volpe, M G

    2012-04-01

    Non-Saccharomyces yeasts are microorganisms that play an important role in the fermentation dynamics, compositions and flavour of wine. The aromatic compounds responsible for varietal aroma in wine are mainly terpenes, of which the most important group are the monoterpenes because of their volatility and odour if present in a free form. In fact, some terpenyl-glycosides do not contribute to the aroma unless they are hydrolysed. The glycosylated form of terpenes can be converted by hydrolysis with β-glycosidases produced by yeasts during the winemaking process, into aromatic compounds. In this study we utilized a non-Saccharomyces yeast, with a high extra-cellular glycosidase activity, isolated from grapes of cultivars typical of Irpinia region. This strain, identified as a Rhodotorula mucillaginosa (strain WLR12), was used to carry out an experimental winemaking process and the results were compared with those obtained with a commercial yeast starter. Chemical and sensorial analysis demonstrated that the wines produced with WLR12 strain had a more floral aroma and some sweet and ripened fruit notes compared to those obtained with commercial yeast. The data also showed an increasing of the free terpenes fraction that, however, did not significatively modify the bouquet of the wines.

  10. Flavour profiles of dry sausages fermented by selected novel meat starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkilä, S; Petäjä, E; Eerola, S; Lilleberg, L; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Suihko, M L

    2001-06-01

    Probiotic or bioprotective Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, LC-705 and E-97800 as well as Pediococcus pentosaceus E-90390 and Lactobacillus plantarum E-98098 were studied for their ability to act as main fermenting organisms in the manufacturing process of dry sausages. In the preliminary tests, their abilities to produce lactic acid and biogenic amines, histamine or tyramine, were studied in MRS broth and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The strains produced higher or equal amounts of lactic acid compared to control and were amine negative. During the actual fermentation process of dry sausages the numbers of inoculated bacteria increased from the level 6.5-7.0 log cfu/g to 8.0-9.0 log cfu/g. The most fast growing strains were P. pentosaceus E-90390 and the control while the growth of L. plantarum E-98098 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were the slowest. The pH value of the sausages decreased from 5.6 to 4.9-5.0. The presence of these experimental strains as major organisms in the sausages after fermentation and ripening was confirmed on the bases of their genetic fingerprints. The flavour profiles of the experimental sausages produced by these probiotic or protective strains were similar with that produced by the commercial meat starter culture and commercial North European dry sausage recipe.

  11. Spray-dried adjunct cultures of autochthonous non-starter lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Guillermo H; Bergamini, Carina V; Audero, Gabriela; Páez, Roxana; Wolf, I Verónica; Perotti, M Cristina; Hynes, Erica R

    2017-08-16

    Spray-drying of lactic cultures provides direct-to-vat starters, which facilitate their commercialization and use. However, this process may alter the metabolic activity and deteriorate technological features. In this work, we assessed the influence of spray-drying on the survival and aroma production of two strains of mesophilic lactobacilli: Lactobacillus paracasei 90 and Lactobacillus plantarum 91, which have already been characterized as good adjunct cultures. The spray-drying was carried out using a laboratory scale spray and the dried cultures were monitored during the storage for the survival rate. The dried cultures were applied to two cheese models: sterile cheese extract and miniature soft cheese. The influence on the carbohydrate metabolism and the production of organic acids and volatile compounds was determined. Both strains retained high levels of viable counts in the powder after drying and during the storage at 5°C for twelve months. In addition, they also remained at high level in both cheese models during incubation or ripening. Similar profiles of carbohydrate fermentation and bioformation of volatile compounds were observed in the cheese extracts for each of the strains when tested as both fresh and dried cultures. In addition, the ability of Lb. paracasei 90 to increase the production of acetoin and diacetyl remarkably in cheese models was also confirmed for the spray-dried culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  13. Effect of starter cultures on microbial and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-10-22

    Oct 22, 2014 ... 1Research Unity, Food and Science Technologies–UR 04 AGR02, High Food Industries School of Tunisia, 58 Avenue .... The mixture of each batch was stuffed into artificial ..... Effects of starter cultures and additives on.

  14. Indigenous knowledge associated with the production of starters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... starters culture to be used for opaque sorghum beers manufacturing in Benin. Methodology and ..... bacterial flora) from antibiotics (Ruszczynski et al 2008;. Ruszczynski et al. ... of fodder for domestic livestock. CONCLUSION.

  15. Quantification of physical properties of dredged sediments during physical ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.; Dijk, S.G.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The soil formation process ripening can be used as a bioremediation technique for dredged sediments that are polluted with organic chemicals. Currently, data are lacking that quantify the effects of physical ripening on parameters that affect aerobic bioremediation. We quantified the effects of

  16. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, M.C.; Marinho, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength wer...

  17. Dominant lactic acid bacteria in artisanal Pirot cheeses of different ripening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić-Vidojević Amarela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study two raw cow's milk cheeses of a different ripening period were examined. The cheeses were taken from a country household in the region of mountain Stara Planina and manufactured without adding of starter culture. A total 106 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated from both cheeses. They are tested by classical physiological tests as well as by API 50 CH tests. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activities were done too. Identification of LAB isolates was done by repetitive extragenic palindromic-polimerase chain reaction (rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. The LAB isolates from cheese BGPT9 (four days old belonged to the eight species of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus brevis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc garlicum, while in the BGPT10 cheese (eight months old only two species were present (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium. Proteolytic activity showed 30 LAB from BGPT9 cheese, mainly enterococci. From BGPT10 cheese only one isolate (which belonged to the Lactobacillus plantarum species possessed partial ability to hydrolyze β-casein. Seven enterococci from BGPT9 cheese and four enterococci from BGPT10 cheese produced antimicrobial compounds.

  18. Influence of atmospheric oxygen and ozone on ripening indices of normal (Rin) and ripening inhibited (rin) tomato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Y.P.; Solberg, M.; Haard, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ethylene (10 ppm) dependent mediation of normal and mutant (rin) tomato fruit ripening was promoted by 100% oxygen, 3.7 pphm ozone, or their combination. All ripening indices studied (respiration, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid accumulation, softening, and aroma development) were promoted by oxygen and/or ozone. Ozone also acted independent of ethylene in promoting chlorophyll degradation and aroma development in normal fruit, but did not appreciably affect these quality attributes in mutant fruit. Lycopene accumulation in normal and mutant fruit and aroma formation in normal fruit were promoted to a greater extent by ozone than were other ripening indices. Mutant (rin) fruit contained 27% of the lycopene that was present in normal (Rin) fruit after ripening in O/sub 2/ containing 10ppm ethylene and 3.7 pphm ozone, whereas they contained only 3% of the lycopene in normal fruit after ripening in air containing 10ppm ethylene.

  19. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Ripening Duration and Rosemary Powder Addition on Salchichon Modified Sausage Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv 60 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary. Significant differences were observed in both moisture and fat content for ripening durations, with the highest moisture and least fat content observed in salchichon modified sausage (SMS ripened for 45 days. Ripening duration and rosemary addition appeared to influence water activity (aw of salchichon sausages. The aw of SMS ripened for 45 days was 0.80, whereas the other had aw values <0.80. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant, as Korean traditional fermented red pepper paste was added to sausages; however, the Bacillus cereus population was significantly affected by rosemary powder addition. Chewiness and gumminess decreased significantly due to the addition of rosemary powder compared to SMS without rosemary powder, and both 45 days of ripening and rosemary powder addition influenced the hardness of SMS. In conclusion, ripening duration of SMS for 45 days in the presence of rosemary powder provided superior SMS quality with an economical ripening duration compared to that of ripening with rosemary powder or ripening for 60 days.

  1. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used.

  2. Development of an autochthonous starter culture for spreadable goat cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia FRAU

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to select strains of LAB autochthonous from Santiago del Estero to formulate a starter culture for making spreadable goat cheese. Four strains were selected: CRL1799 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high acidifying activity, CRL1803 (Lactobacillus fermentum with high proteolytic activity, CRL1808 (Lactobacillus rhamnosus with production of exopolysaccharide and CRL1785 (Enterococcus faecium with diacetyl-acetoin production. The selected strains showed qualities that make them useful as starter culture in the elaboration of spreadable cheese. This starter culture is an alternative that allows obtaining differentiated products. The inclusion of CRL1808 strains seems to improve the rheology and texture, excluding the use of additives.

  3. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  4. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  5. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    25240, Erzurum, Turkey. Accepted 25 ... ripened soft cheese that is maturated in brine to develop the desired ... functions, salt exerts a number of important effects on cheese. ..... In: Fox PF (ed) Cheese: chemistry, physics and.

  6. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Influenced by ... evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on postharvest storage of mango. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  7. Effect of ripening period on composition of pepino (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    % for raw and ... of glucose and fructose declined during ripening, whereas sucrose showed an increase in ... Solanaceae like tomato, potato, tobacco and pepper ... Abbreviation: NDF, Neutral detergent fiber; ADF, acid detergent fiber;. HPLC,.

  8. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained in...

  9. Kajian Kualitas Yogurt Menggunakan Starter Komersil (Lactobacillus Bulgaricus)

    OpenAIRE

    Yurliasni, Yurliasni

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the quality of yoghurt produced by using a commercial starter culture of lactobacillus bulgaricus. Raw milk which was prepared by mixing 12 % powder milk into distilled water was placed into 12 Erlenmeyer glasses of 250 ml each. The glasses were divided into 3 groups of 4 glasses each as replications. Each group of milk in the glasses was added 3 different levels of 5; 7.5 and 10 % of commercial starter of L. bulgaricus. After well mixing, the Erl...

  10. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in ripening pineapple fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koia, Jonni H; Moyle, Richard L; Botella, Jose R

    2012-12-18

    Pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical fruit crop of significant commercial importance. Although the physiological changes that occur during pineapple fruit development have been well characterized, little is known about the molecular events that occur during the fruit ripening process. Understanding the molecular basis of pineapple fruit ripening will aid the development of new varieties via molecular breeding or genetic modification. In this study we developed a 9277 element pineapple microarray and used it to profile gene expression changes that occur during pineapple fruit ripening. Microarray analyses identified 271 unique cDNAs differentially expressed at least 1.5-fold between the mature green and mature yellow stages of pineapple fruit ripening. Among these 271 sequences, 184 share significant homology with genes encoding proteins of known function, 53 share homology with genes encoding proteins of unknown function and 34 share no significant homology with any database accession. Of the 237 pineapple sequences with homologs, 160 were up-regulated and 77 were down-regulated during pineapple fruit ripening. DAVID Functional Annotation Cluster (FAC) analysis of all 237 sequences with homologs revealed confident enrichment scores for redox activity, organic acid metabolism, metalloenzyme activity, glycolysis, vitamin C biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and cysteine peptidase activity, indicating the functional significance and importance of these processes and pathways during pineapple fruit development. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the microarray expression results for nine out of ten genes tested. This is the first report of a microarray based gene expression study undertaken in pineapple. Our bioinformatic analyses of the transcript profiles have identified a number of genes, processes and pathways with putative involvement in the pineapple fruit ripening process. This study extends our knowledge of the molecular basis of pineapple fruit

  11. Aerobic Fitness of Starter and Non-Starter Soccer Players in the Champion’s League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Giorgos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify individual response patterns in selected aerobic fitness variables of regular starters (ST; N = 7 and non-starters (Non-ST; N = 10, top level professional soccer players were tested for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, velocity at 4 mM of lactate (V4, velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (νVO2max and oxygen pulse (O2-pulse in July and December following consecutive periods of fixture congestion. V4 was the only variable that increased significantly in December compared to July (15.1 ± 0.5 vs. 14.6 ± 0.5, p = 0.001. There was an almost certain beneficial large mean team change for V4 (ES = 1.2 (0.67; 1.57, 100/0/0, while beneficial mean team changes were less likely for νVO2max and O2-pulse [ES = 0.31 (-0.08; 0.70, 68/30/2 and ES = 0.24 (0.01; 0.49, 64/36/0, respectively] and unclear for VO2max (ES = 0.02 (-0.31; 0.70, 18/69/13. With the exception of V4 where 10 out of 17 players (7 ST and 3 Non-ST showed positive changes higher than the biological variability, all other variables were characterized by a substantial proportion of changes lower than the biological variability. The present study demonstrated that aerobic fitness variables that require maximal effort may be characterized by greater variability of the individual response pattern compared to that of submaximal aerobic fitness variables irrespective of the accumulated game time. Submaximal aerobic fitness variables appear to be more informative in the physiological evaluation of top level soccer players and this may be an advantage during exposure to periods of consecutive games.

  12. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  13. Towards the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi (edible starch: Screening for potential starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubrat A. Oyinlola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented cassava products like fufu and usi are important staple foods in many African homes. Natural fermentation time is usually long resulting in slower acidification and inconsistent nutritional composition of products which could be overcome with the use of starter culture. However, most available starters are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical. This necessitates the development of a starter culture for multiple related food products to reduce cost. Hence, this study aimed at screening for potential starters in the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi.Fresh, peeled, chipped and grated cassava tubers were spontaneously fermented and lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the fermenting mash at 24 hour intervals. Ninety eight (98 isolates were randomly picked. Lactobacillus plantarum had highest occurrence (50.0% in both fermentations.All selected isolates did not hydrolyze starch, but produced linamarase and pectinase. Fermenting pH ranged between 6.50 and 3.58 during 72 hours fermentation. Lactic acid concentration ranged from 1.10 g/L to 1.78 g/L at 24 hours, 1.22 g/L to 2.45 g/L at 48 hours and 0.57 g/L to 2.55 g/l at 72 hours. The highest hydrogen peroxide concentration produced was 629 µg/L at 24 hours while the least was 136 µg/L at 72 hours. 1.08 g/L of diacetyl was the least concentration produced at 24 hours while the highest was 2.86 g/L at 48 hours.Five potential starters were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus F2A, L. plantarum subsp. argentolarensis F2B, L. plantarum F2C, L. plantarum U2A and L. paraplantarum U2C.

  14. Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of red guava (Psidium guajava) velva at different fruit ripening time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishartani, D.; Rahman, F. L. F.; Hartanto, R.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2018-01-01

    This study purposed to determine the effect of red guava fruit ripening time on the physical (overrun and melting rate), chemical (vitamin C, pH, total dissolved solid) and sensory (color, taste, aroma, texture, and overall compare to control (without ripening) velva) characteristic of red guava velva. Red guava fruits were harvested at 90 days after flowering, ripened and then processed into velva. This research used Completely Randomized Design with fruit ripening time (without ripening, 4 days, and 6 days) as single factor. The research was conducted in triplicate. Chemical and physical characteristic data was analysed using One Way Analysis of Varian whether sensory characteristic data was analyzed using Independent Sample T-test. The result showed that fruit ripening time significantly affected the physical, chemical and sensory characteristic of the velva. Vitamin C, pH, and total solid of the velva were increased as the ripening time prolonged. In other hand, increasing of fruit ripening time decreased the overrun and melting rate of the velva. Red guava velva made from 6 days ripening had better sensory characteristics compared to velva made from red guava fruit without ripening or 4 day ripening. This research conclude that 6 days ripening time gives better chemical, physical and sensory characteristics of the velva compare to 4 days ripening time. Red guava fruits ripened for 6 days were recommended as raw material in velva making.

  15. Viscoelasticity of Edam cheese during its ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Series of the indentation of the ball (10 mm in diameter by the constant speed into blocks of Edam cheese has been conducted. The indentation tests were performed at different speeds (1, 5, 10, 20 and 100 mm/min, and the corresponding force–displacement responses were fitted with an analytical solution to obtain the time-dependent constants and the instantaneous force–displacement response. The measurement has been performed for the cheeses of different stages of their maturity. The dependence of the indentation force on the penetration depth has been evaluated. This dependence can be fitted by a polynom. The indentation force decreases with cheese fat content. It increases with the loading rate. Its value also decreases with the time of the cheese ripening. The recently proposed method for the indenation of the ball into viscoelastic solids has been used for our data analysis. This procedure, which needs the use of the numeric methods, enables to obtain stress relaxation moduli, which describe the viscoelasticity of the tested materials. The obtained moduli describe the stage of the cheese maturity.

  16. Ostwald ripening: an approach with dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Lameiras

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This approach assumes three functions independently acting on a set of microparticles. The first one, w1, concerns re-distribution of mass to decrease the surface energy. The second one, w2, concerns re-distribution of mass to increase the entropy of the microparticle set. The third one, w3, is a further re-distribution of mass that vanishes a microparticle. Once vanished, its mass is distributed among its neighbors. w1 and w3 release energy, whereas w2 absorbs energy. Part of the energy released should be available to sustain w2. The action frequency of w1, w2, and w3, the amount of mass exchanged in each iteraction, the fraction of released energy available to sustain w2, and the size of a vanishing microparticle can be varied. As the dynamical system formed by w1, w2, and w3 act on an initial microparticle set, it is observed an evolution resembling the Ostwald ripening concerning steady-state size distribution and microparticle growth.

  17. Nutritional evaluation of yoghurt prepared by different starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yoghurt was prepared with two different types of starter cultures; Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The preparation was made by 3, 4 and 5% concentrations. It was stored at 4°C for 12 days. To analyze the effect of the two different cultures and their concentrations on the properties of yoghurt, different ...

  18. Assessment of the Nutrient Contents of Finished Broiler Starter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to assess and compare the proximate composition and amino acid profile of six (6) finished broiler starter and finisher diets with recommendations of National Research Council (NRC) nutrient requirements table for the different physiological age growth stage. Four samples of each feed type were ...

  19. Growth performance and immunity status of starter broiler birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding diets containing Neem Leaf Meal (NLM), Garlic Meal (GM) and their combinations (NLM + GM) on growth performance and serum parameters of starter broiler birds. A total of 180 day-old Cobb broiler chickens were divided into twelve groups of fifteen chicks with ...

  20. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spus, M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Abee, T.; Smid, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic

  1. Methionine in Velvet Bean ( Mucuna pruriens ) Based Broiler Starter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler chicks fed starter diets containing 30% raw or heat treated, and 20% heat treated velvet beans with varying levels of methionine was determined. The influence of varying levels of heat treated velvet beans on growth and carcass characteristics of finishing broilers was also investigated. There was ...

  2. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lactic acid fermentation of cassava on the chemical and sensory characteristic of fufu flour were investigated. Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as starter cultures for the fermentation of cassava to fufu for 96 h. The resultant wet fufu samples were dried at 65oC in a cabinet dryer for 48 h and ...

  3. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  4. STARTER-GENERATOR SYSTEM FOR AUXILIARY POWER UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Levin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a starter-generator system for an auxiliary power unit of an aircraft. A feature of the presented system is the use of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. The main problem of the system is the generation of electric energy of an aircraft on the basis of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets is the absence of the possibility of regulating the voltage and frequency of electrical energy, in this connection, a semiconductor converter that ensures the conversion of generated electric energy with significant mass-dimensions characteristics.The article proposes an approach to designing a starter-generator system with a parallel connection of a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter. This approach makes it possible to significantly reduce the part of the electrical energy that needs to be converted, as a consequence, the semiconductor converter has significantly smaller mass-and-batch characteristics.In the article the modes of generation of electric energy and the starter mode of operation of the starter-generator system are considered in detail, the circuit realization of the semiconductor converter is shown. A scheme for replacing one phase of the system for generating electric energy and calculating electric parameters is presented.The possibility of creating a highly efficient starter-generator system based on a synchronous generator with excitation from permanent magnets and a semiconductor converter for an auxiliary power plant of aircrafts is shown. Structural and basic schemes for constructing a system for generating electrical energy are proposed. The approach to the choice of rational circuit solutions is substantiated, basic estimates of the electrical parameters of the system are obtained. The possibility of achieving a specific mass of a semiconductor converter for synchronous

  5. Media components and amino acid supplements influencing the production of fruity aroma by Geotrichum candidum Influência da composição do meio de cultivo e da suplementação com aminoácidos na produção de aroma frutal por Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pinotti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of Geotrichum candidum to produce fruity aroma in food grade sucrose, molasses, corn steep liquor and peptone based culture media was tested by sensory evaluation and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. A strong and sweet fruity aroma was produced from molasses, with peptone or corn steep liquor stimulating aroma production. Molasses with peptone supplemented with leucine, valine, or alanine yielded better fruity aroma production and the presence of many esters was consistent with the fruity aroma production.Geotrichum candidum foi cultivado em diversos meios de cultura contendo sacarose ou melaço e milhocina ou peptona e a produção de aroma frutal foi verificada através de avaliação sensorial e cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas. Os meios contendo melaço, peptona e leucina, valina ou alanina apresentaram os melhores resultados e a presença de diversos ésteres foi consistente com a formação de aroma frutal.

  6. Effect of the addition of phytosterols and tocopherols on Streptococcus thermophilus robustness during industrial manufacture and ripening of a functional cheese as evaluated by qPCR and RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, J; Rizzo, S; Pérez, C D; Rossetti, L; Díaz, G; Ruzal, S M; Nanni, M; Descalzo, A M

    2016-09-02

    The quality of functional food products designed for the prevention of degenerative diseases can be affected by the incorporation of bioactive compounds. In many types of cheese, the performance of starter microorganisms is critical for optimal elaboration and for providing potential probiotic benefits. Phytosterols are plant lipophilic triterpenes that have been used for the design of functional dairy products because of their ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in humans. However, their effect on the starter culture behavior during cheesemaking has not yet been studied. Here, we followed DNA and RNA kinetics of the bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus, an extensively used dairy starter with probiotic potential, during industrial production of a functional, semi-soft, reduced-fat cheese containing phytosterol esters and alpha-tocopherol as bioactive compounds. For this purpose, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) assays were optimized and applied to samples obtained during the manufacture and ripening of functional and control cheeses. An experimental set-up was used to evaluate the detection threshold of free nucleic acids for extraction protocols based on pelleted microorganisms. To our knowledge, this straight-forward approach provides the first experimental evidence indicating that DNA is not a reliable marker of cell integrity, whereas RNA may constitute a more accurate molecular signature to estimate both bacterial viability and metabolic activity. Compositional analysis revealed that the bioactive molecules were effectively incorporated into the cheese matrix, at levels considered optimal to exert their biological action. The starter S. thermophilus was detected by qPCR and RT-qPCR during cheese production at the industrial level, from at least 30min after its inoculation until 81days of ripening, supporting the possible role of this species in shaping organoleptic profiles. We also showed for the first time that

  7. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ostwald ripening in two-phase mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorhees, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the temperature of a rapidly solidified solid-liquid mixture have been made over a range of volume fractions solid 0.23 to 0.95. These experiments demonstrate the viability of measuring the change in interfacial curvature with time via precision thermometry. The experimental measurements also indicate that there is no radical change in interface morphology over a wide range of volume fractions solid. A solution to the multi-particle diffusion problem (MDP) has been constructed through the use of potential theory. The solution to the MDP was used to describe the diffusion field within a coarsening two-phase mixture consisting of dispersed spherical second-phase particles. Since this theory is based upon the MDP, interparticle diffusional interactions are specifically included in the treatment. As a result, the theory yields, for the first time, insights into the influence of the local distribution of curvature on a particle's coarsening rate. The effect of interparticle interactions on the collective behavior of an ensemble of coarsening particles was also investigated. It was found that any arbitrary distribution of particle radii will tend to a specific time independent distribution when the particle radii are scaled by the average particle radius. Furthermore, it was determined that with increasing volume fraction of coarsening phase, these time independent distributions become broader and more symmetric. It was also found that the ripening kinetics, as measured by the growth rate of the average particle size, increases by a factor of five upon increasing the volume fraction of coarsening phase from zero to 0.5

  9. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervin, Christian; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening. PMID:26511917

  10. Natural Variation in Banana Varieties Highlights the Role of Melatonin in Postharvest Ripening and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Yang, Hai; Tie, Weiwei; Yan, Yan; Ding, Zehong; Liu, Yang; Wu, Chunlai; Wang, Jiashui; Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Shi, Haitao; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2017-11-22

    This study aimed to investigate the role of melatonin in postharvest ripening and quality in various banana varieties with contrasting ripening periods. During the postharvest life, endogenous melatonin showed similar performance with ethylene in connection to ripening. In comparison to ethylene, melatonin was more correlated with postharvest banana ripening. Exogenous application of melatonin resulted in a delay of postharvest banana ripening. Moreover, this effect is concentration-dependent, with 200 and 500 μM treatments more effective than the 50 μM treatment. Exogenous melatonin also led to elevated endogenous melatonin content, reduced ethylene production through regulation of the expression of MaACO1 and MaACS1, and delayed sharp changes of quality indices. Taken together, this study highlights that melatonin is an indicator for banana fruit ripening in various varieties, and the repression of ethylene biosynthesis and postharvest ripening by melatonin can be used for biological control of postharvest fruit ripening and quality.

  11. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  12. Kinetic synergistic transitions in the Ostwald ripening processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachkov, I. N.; Turygina, V. F.; Dolganov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    There is proposed approach to mathematical description of the kinetic transitions in Ostwald ripening processes of volatile substance in nonuniformly heated porous materials. It is based upon the finite element method. There are implemented computer software. The main feature of the software is to calculate evaporation and condensation fluxes on the walls of a nonuniformly heated cylindrical capillary. Kinetic transitions are detected for three modes of volatile substances migration which are different by condensation zones location. There are controlling dimensionless parameters of the kinetic transition which are revealed during research. There is phase diagram of the Ostwald ripening process modes realization.

  13. [Subchronic toxicity testing of mold-ripened cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, U; Lüthy, J; Schlatter, C

    1984-08-01

    The biological effects of known mycotoxins of Penicillium roqueforti or P. camemberti and other still unknown, but potentially toxic metabolites in mould ripened cheese (commercial samples of Blue- and Camembert cheese) were investigated. High amounts of mycelium (equivalents of 100 kg cheese/man and day) were fed to mice in a subchronic feeding trial. The following parameters were determined: development of body weight, organ weights, hematology, blood plasma enzymes. No signs of adverse effects produced by cheese mycotoxins could be detected after 28 days. No still unknown toxic metabolites could be demonstrated. From these results no health hazard from the consumption of mould ripened cheese, even in high amounts, appears to exist.

  14. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis as Potential Functional Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Cvrtila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and characterise potential autochthonous functional starter cultures in homemade horsemeat sausage. The dominant microflora in the samples of horsemeat sausage were lactic acid bacteria (LAB, followed by micrococci. Among the LAB, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species, and since the first is not common in fermented sausages, we characterised it as a potential functional starter culture. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis produced a significant amount of lactic acid, displayed good growth capability at 12, 18 and 22 °C, growth in the presence of 5 % NaCl, good viability after lyophilisation and in simulated gastric and small intestinal juice, antimicrobial activity against test pathogens, and good adhesive properties in vitro.

  16. Effects of physical form of a starter for dairy replacement calves on feed intake and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Giménez, A; Juaristi, J L; Ahedo, J

    2007-06-01

    One hundred six female Holstein calves [body weight (BW) = 41.5 +/- 0.37 kg and 11.2 +/- 0.3 d old] were used to evaluate the effects of physical form of a starter on animal performance and starter intake. Calves were randomly allocated to 2 treatments consisting of either a multiparticle or a pelleted starter. Both starters had exactly the same ingredient and nutrient composition but differed in their physical form. Calves received 4 L/d of the same milk replacer at a 150 g/kg dilution rate in 2 offers of 2 L each until they consumed an average of 300 g/d of starter (as fed) for 2 consecutive days; then the dilution rate was decreased to 120 g/kg until the age of 49 d when milk replacer was limited to 1 daily dose of 2 L until 57 d of age. Calves were kept in individual hutches for at least 1 wk after weaning. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 49 and 64 d of age. The median perimeters for the multiparticle and pelleted starters were 0.61 +/- 0.016 and 2.71 +/- 0.082 cm, respectively. Overall starter consumption was greater in calves receiving the multiparticle starter (944.8 +/- 30.01 g/d) than in those receiving the pelleted starter (863.9 +/- 32.04 g/d). There were no differences in the total milk replacer intake between the 2 treatments. Calf BW when leaving the individual hutches at the end of the study was similar between both treatments. Consequently, feed conversion efficiency was greater in calves consuming the pelleted than the multiparticle starter up to 64 d of age, mainly due to the greater conversion efficiency obtained with the pelleted than with the multiparticle starter after the preweaning period. It is concluded that pelleted starters may result in lower dry feed consumption compared with multiparticle starters, but because final BW was similar in both treatments, feed efficiency of calves consuming pelleted starters may be greater than that of calves consuming multiparticle starters. Therefore, when feeding a starter

  17. Performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the performance and some carcass measurements in starter broiler birds fed sweet potato meal. Three hundred and five (305) Anak broilers of one week old were randomly assigned to five treatment diets. Diets 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 contain 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% levels of ...

  18. Analytical Control of a Starter Pig Feed Medicated with Amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zemanová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Amoxicillin concentrations were determined by two independent laboratories for a pig starter feed medicated from a coated amoxicillin premix. The analytical method was previously transferred from one laboratory to the other one. The data between the two laboratories were consistent, showing ruggedness of the assay. Mean amoxicillin feed concentrations before and after pelletization were higher than 90% of the theoretical content, confirming satisfactory stability of this active ingredient in the coated form tested.

  19. Microbial ecology and starter culture technology in coffee processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Gilberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-09-02

    Coffee has been for decades the most commercialized food product and most widely consumed beverage in the world, with over 600 billion cups served per year. Before coffee cherries can be traded and processed into a final industrial product, they have to undergo postharvest processing on farms, which have a direct impact on the cost and quality of a coffee. Three different methods can be used for transforming the coffee cherries into beans, known as wet, dry, and semi-dry methods. In all these processing methods, a spontaneous fermentation is carried out in order to eliminate any mucilage still stuck to the beans and helps improve beverage flavor by microbial metabolites. The microorganisms responsible for the fermentation (e.g., yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) can play a number of roles, such as degradation of mucilage (pectinolytic activity), inhibition of mycotoxin-producing fungi growth, and production of flavor-active components. The use of starter cultures (mainly yeast strains) has emerged in recent years as a promising alternative to control the fermentation process and to promote quality development of coffee product. However, scarce information is still available about the effects of controlled starter cultures in coffee fermentation performance and bean quality, making it impossible to use this technology in actual field conditions. A broader knowledge about the ecology, biochemistry, and molecular biology could facilitate the understanding and application of starter cultures for coffee fermentation process. This review provides a comprehensive coverage of these issues, while pointing out new directions for exploiting starter cultures in coffee processing.

  20. Growth and morphology of thermophilic dairy starters in alginate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Laurence; St-Gelais, Daniel; Champagne, Claude P; Lamoureux, Maryse

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this research was to produce concentrated biomasses of thermophilic lactic starters using immobilized cell technology (ICT). Fermentations were carried out in milk using pH control with cells microentrapped in alginate beads. In the ICT fermentations, beads represented 17% of the weight. Some assays were carried out with free cells without pH control, in order to compare the ICT populations with those of classical starters. With Streptococcus thermophilus, overall populations in the fermentor were similar, but maximum bead population for (8.2 x 10(9) cfu/g beads) was 13 times higher than that obtained in a traditional starter (4.9 x 10(8) cfu/ml). For both Lactobacillus helveticus strains studied, immobilized-cell populations were about 3 x 10(9) cfu/g beads. Production of immobilized Lb. bulgaricus 210R strain was not possible, since no increases in viable counts occurred in beads. Therefore, production of concentrated cell suspension in alginate beads was more effective for S. thermophilus. Photomicrographs of cells in alginate beads demonstrated that, while the morphology of S. thermophilus remained unchanged during the ICT fermentation, immobilized cells of Lb. helveticus appeared wider. In addition, cells of Lb. bulgaricus were curved and elongated. These morphological changes would also impair the growth of immobilized lactobacilli.

  1. Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Kefir Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Kamyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycotoxins naturally occur in foods. Aflatoxins can cause serious health problems in consumers. Nowadays, biological detoxification method is considered to decrease the aflatoxins level in foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of kefir starter microorganisms to decrease the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 levels in milk. Methods: The study was carried out at Shabestar branch, Islamic Azad University in 2016. AFM1 at three levels 150, 200 and 250 ng/L was added to milk samples. Then a pool of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, yeasts and full kefir starter culture was added to milk samples. After cool storage of samples in 4 °C for 7 d, all samples were collected and the level of AFM1 determined by HPLC method. All samples were prepared in triplicate. Results: The highest reduction percentage of AFM1 was observed in yeast (65.33%-68.89% and LAB pool (65%. Samples with full kefir starter showed the reduction percent range of 11.67-34.66% that was lower in compare with other treatment groups. Conclusion: These findings support the ability of LAB and yeasts to bind to aflatoxins in foods. Kefir drink in countries with high contamination by AFM1 in milk can be a safe dairy product choice for consumers.

  2. Pengaruh Jenis Susu dan Persentase Starter yang Berbeda terhadap Kualitas Kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different milk and starter percentage on kefir quality ABSTRACT. The objective of this study is to study the quality of kefir with different amount of starter added and different kind of milk. The quality of kefir was evaluated by measuring lactic acid level, syneresis, crude protein, crude fat and amount of active microorganism. The result showed that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has a high significant on syneresis and Lactic Acid level (P < 0,01. The best interaction was resulted from the combination of 10% starter and UHT milk. The result also indicated that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has no effect on crude protein, crude fat and the amount of active microorganism. The combination of 10% Starter and UHT milk, produces the best quality of kefir

  3. Histochemistry and morphoanatomy study on guava fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a highly perishable fruit due to its intense metabolism during ripening. Information on the enzyme activities that degrade pectic substances, as well as the amount of pectin, is very contradictory and not clearly defined. Thus, this study aimed to monitor the changes occurred in the fruit during ripening through histochemical, physical, and scanning microscopy processes. Guavas were picked at the half-mature stage and stored for 9 days at 22 ± 1 °C and 78 ± 1% RH. The analyses conducted on the day of harvest (0 and each day of storage (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days were: firmness and histochemical analyses (ferric chloride, lugol, comassie blue, vanillin hydrochloric, and ruthenium red observed under an optic microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Ruthenium red showed a high amount of pectin in the cell wall on day zero as well as its decrease in the wall during ripening and its accumulation in the central area of the cell. Scanning microscopy showed loss of the cell structure during ripening. Those observations suggest that the pectin is the main polymer responsible for firmness maintenance in the guava fruit.

  4. Histological and Molecular Characterization of Grape Early Ripening Bud Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Long Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An early ripening bud mutant was analyzed based on the histological, SSR, and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP analysis and a layer-specific approach was used to investigate the differentiation between the bud mutant and its parent. The results showed that the thickness of leaf spongy tissue of mutant (MT is larger than that of wild type (WT and the differences are significant. The mean size of cell layer L2 was increased in the mutant and the difference is significant. The genetic background of bud mutant revealed by SSR analysis is highly uniform to its parent; just the variations from VVS2 SSR marker were detected in MT. The total methylation ratio of MT is lower than that of the corresponding WT. The outside methylation ratio in MT is much less than that in WT; the average inner methylation ratio in MT is larger than that in WT. The early ripening bud mutant has certain proportion demethylation in cell layer L2. All the results suggested that cell layer L2 of the early ripening bud mutant has changed from the WT. This study provided the basis for a better understanding of the characteristic features of the early ripening bud mutant in grape.

  5. Is gene transcription involved in seed dry after-ripening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Meimoun

    Full Text Available Orthodox seeds are living organisms that survive anhydrobiosis and may display dormancy, an inability to germinate at harvest. Seed germination potential can be acquired during a prolonged period of dry storage called after-ripening. The aim of this work was to determine if gene transcription is an underlying regulatory mechanism for dormancy alleviation during after-ripening. To identify changes in gene transcription strictly associated with the acquisition of germination potential but not with storage, we used seed storage at low relative humidity that maintains dormancy as control. Transcriptome profiling was performed using DNA microarray to compare change in gene transcript abundance between dormant (D, after-ripened non-dormant (ND and after-ripened dormant seeds (control, C. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to confirm gene expression. Comparison between D and ND showed the differential expression of 115 probesets at cut-off values of two-fold change (p<0.05. Comparisons between both D and C with ND in transcript abundance showed that only 13 transcripts, among 115, could be specific to dormancy alleviation. qPCR confirms the expression pattern of these transcripts but without significant variation between conditions. Here we show that sunflower seed dormancy alleviation in the dry state is not related to regulated changes in gene expression.

  6. Compositional changes in banana ( Musa ssp. ) fruits during ripening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    overripe banana fruits, respectively. The results showed that the nutritional composition of banana pulp was diversely affected by ripening. Changes in mineral composition varied and were not consistent with the stages of ripeness. Bananas are considered a good source of Mg in the diet, and the data obtained herein ...

  7. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Upshot of the ripening time on biological activities, phenol content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anis

    2013-10-02

    Oct 2, 2013 ... ripening time, seed count and ability to reflow (Wessels,. 1988; Pimienta, 1990 .... at 50°C for 120 min, and the absorbance was measured using a model EAR 400 micro .... regenerate the ''active” reduced antioxidant. Iron reducing .... adsorption to cell membranes, interaction with enzymes, substrate and ...

  9. Transcriptional control of fleshy fruit development and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Chapman, N.; David, K.; Angenent, G.C.; Seymour, G.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on

  10. Functional implications of the microbial community structure of undefined mesophilic starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Eddy J; Erkus, Oylum; Spus, Maciej; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Alexeeva, Svetlana; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2014-08-29

    This review describes the recent advances made in the studies of the microbial community of complex and undefined cheese starter cultures. We report on work related to the composition of the cultures at the level of genetic lineages, on the presence and activity of bacteriophages and on the population dynamics during cheese making and during starter culture propagation. Furthermore, the link between starter composition and starter functionality will be discussed. Finally, recent advances in predictive metabolic modelling of the multi-strain cultures will be discussed in the context of microbe-microbe interactions.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar) grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7), harvest (TH), and 10-days after harvest (TH+10)). Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S-adenosyl-L-methionine:salicylic acid carboxyl

  12. Transcriptional analysis of late ripening stages of grapevine berry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaumie Sabine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of grapevine berry at harvest is a major determinant of wine quality. Optimal oenological maturity of berries is characterized by a high sugar/acidity ratio, high anthocyanin content in the skin, and low astringency. However, harvest time is still mostly determined empirically, based on crude biochemical composition and berry tasting. In this context, it is interesting to identify genes that are expressed/repressed specifically at the late stages of ripening and which may be used as indicators of maturity. Results Whole bunches and berries sorted by density were collected in vineyard on Chardonnay (white cultivar grapevines for two consecutive years at three stages of ripening (7-days before harvest (TH-7, harvest (TH, and 10-days after harvest (TH+10. Microvinification and sensory analysis indicate that the quality of the wines made from the whole bunches collected at TH-7, TH and TH+10 differed, TH providing the highest quality wines. In parallel, gene expression was studied with Qiagen/Operon microarrays using two types of samples, i.e. whole bunches and berries sorted by density. Only 12 genes were consistently up- or down-regulated in whole bunches and density sorted berries for the two years studied in Chardonnay. 52 genes were differentially expressed between the TH-7 and TH samples. In order to determine whether these genes followed a similar pattern of expression during the late stages of berry ripening in a red cultivar, nine genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis with Cabernet Sauvignon grown under two different temperature regimes affecting the precocity of ripening. The expression profiles and their relationship to ripening were confirmed in Cabernet Sauvignon for seven genes, encoding a carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, a galactinol synthase, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, a dirigent-like protein, a histidine kinase receptor, a valencene synthase and a putative S

  13. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Identification and antioxidant properties of polyphenols in lotus seed epicarp at different ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ma, Shuang-shuang; Ibrahim, S A; Li, Er-hu; Yang, Hong; Huang, Wen

    2015-10-15

    In this study, polyphenols from lotus seed epicarp (PLSE) at three different ripening stages were purified by column chromatography and identified by RP-HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS(2). The antioxidant activities of PLSE were also investigated. We found that the contents of PLSE at the green ripening stage, half ripening stage and full ripening stage are 13.08%, 10.95% and 6.73% respectively. The levels of catechin, epicatechin, hyperoside, and isoquercitrin in PLSE at the three different ripening stages were different. Moreover, the amounts of catechin and epicatechin decreased, while the contents of hyperoside and isoquercitrin increased as the seed ripened. We found that PLSE at three different ripening stages had good scavenging abilities on DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals. However, the scavenging ability decreased with maturation. Our results may be valuable with regard to the utilization of lotus seed epicarp as a functional food material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  16. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Proline iminopeptidase PepI overexpressing Lactobacillus casei as an adjunct starter in Edam cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidghasemizad, Sahar; Takala, Timo M; Alatossava, Tapani; Saris, Per EJ

    2013-01-01

    In this study the growth of genetically modified Lactobacillus casei LAB6, overexpressing proline iminopeptidase PepI and its capacity to increase free proline was investigated during ripening of Edam cheese. The strain successfully survived 12 weeks of ripening period in cheese. The food-grade plasmid pLEB604, carrying the pepI gene, was stable, and PepI enzyme was active in LAB6 cells isolated at different stages of the ripening process. However, HPLC analyses indicated that Lb. casei LAB6 could not increase the amount of free proline in ripened cheese. PMID:23851577

  18. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  19. Interaction between the physical forms of starter and forage source on growth performance and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Kiani, A; Mirzaei, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS). Both starters had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their physical forms. Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained in the study until d 70. All calves had free access to drinking water and the starter feeding at all times. No interaction was detected between the physical forms of starter feeds and forage source concerning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain (ADG)/ME intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (FE). The preweaning and overall starter feed intake, dry matter intake, and ME intake were greater for calves fed TF starter diets than those fed CM starter diets. The ADG/ME intake was greater for calves fed TF starter diets than that fed CM starter. The FE was greater for calves fed TF starter diets compared with those fed CM starter during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The WS improved FE during the postweaning period compared with AH. The physical form of starter, forage source, and their interaction did not affect plasma glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein

  20. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Popova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

  1. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, J.; Carlisle, S.

    1994-01-01

    In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

  2. Influence of winding construction on starter-generator thermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, P. Yu; Bazarov, A. A.; Tabachinskiy, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic processes in starter-generators features high winding are overcurrent. It can lead to insulation overheating and fault operation mode. For hybrid and electric vehicles, new high efficiency construction of induction machines windings is proposed. Stator thermal processes need be considered in the most difficult operation modes. The article describes construction features of new compact stator windings, electromagnetic and thermal models of processes in stator windings and explains the influence of innovative construction on thermal processes. Models are based on finite element method.

  3. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular rice wine for its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. Wine is made from purple glutinous rice at home or by small cottage industries, by washing, soaking, steam-cooking, cooling and inoculation of the cooled rice with powdered rice-wine starter ( Men ). The fermentation takes place in two stages, i.e. an...

  4. Instant Django 1.5 application development starter

    CERN Document Server

    Rocco, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in a practical Starter style with lots of helpful screenshots and step-by-step tutorials which will guide you gently into the world of Django.This book is for Python developers who want to jump into the world of Django. If you want to create awesome Python web applications without sacrificing speed then this book is for you. This book will also appeal to people learning Python who wish to hit the ground running and develop P

  5. (Koop)starters voor en tijdens de crisis op de Nederlandse woningmarkt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, C.P.; Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    In de discussies rond 'starters op de woningmarkt' lijkt het er wel op alsof starters op de woningmarkt altijd het kind van de rekening zijn; zowel voor als tijdens de meest recente crisis (2008-2013). Lange wachtlijsten voor betaalbare (sociale) huurwoningen, (te) hoge prijzen in de particuliere

  6. Microbial diversity and chemical analysis of the starters used in traditional Chinese sweet rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haiying; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Jie; Cai, Chenggang; Mao, Jianwei

    2018-08-01

    Chinese sweet rice wine (CSRW) is a popular alcoholic drink in China. To investigate the effect of the microbial composition in CSRW starters on the final quality of the alcoholic drink, high-throughput sequencing on the fungal internal transcribed spacer II and bacterial 16S rRNA gene of the microflora in 8 starter samples was performed. The sequencing data analysis showed that 10 genera of yeasts and mold, and 11 genera of bacteria were identified. Fungal diversity analyses showed the significant variances in the fungal compositions among the starter samples. Starter microbiota were dominated by the Rhizopus genus in SZ5, LS6, NN8, QD9, DZ10 and DZ11, indicating its important role in starch hydrolysis during CSRW brewing. According to principal coordinate analyses, the bacterial composition had even less similarity among the 8 starter samples. The chemical determination of CSRW fermented with the 8 starters demonstrated that the CSRW quality and flavor were drastically influenced by the taxonomic composition and metabolism of the microbes in the starters. This study suggests it is necessary to standardize rice wine manufacturing and flavor classification by specifying starter and fermentation techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І.М. Іщенко

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

  8. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were

  9. The role of developmental networks in career starters' meaning of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Suzanne; Alberts, M.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how career starters (age: 26-33 years) experience work meaning and how their developmental network influences this sense of work meaning. Accordingly, we interviewed 16 career starters about how they sense purpose, values, self-efficacy, and positive self-worth in their work.

  10. Genome sequences of two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from Danish dairy starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr; Hansen, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters....

  11. Effects of time of change from broiler starter to broiler finisher diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of time of change from broiler starter ration (BSR) to broiler finisher ration (BFR) on growth performance and economy of gain of meat- type chickens. Six hundred Abor Acres broiler chickens were used in an 8-week study in which same starter and finisher diets were fed but at ...

  12. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene. PMID:23518588

  13. The Effect of Starter Culture Producing Exopolysaccharide on Physicochemical Properties of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Cartasev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the impact of indigenous starter culture capable to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPSs on physicochemical properties of yoghurt. Two starter cultures, EPS-producing and non-EPS-producing, were developed from the autochthonous lactic acid bacteria strains by pairwise combining Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. In the present study the ropy strain of Streptococcus thermophilus CNMN LB-50 was incorporated in EPS-producing starter culture. The microstructure, viscosity, EPS amount, structural properties and syneresis of yoghurt samples were assessed. It has been established that the EPS-producing starter culture provided a reduction of structural degradation and increased degree of structural recovery after deformation. Besides, it was observed that the use of EPS synthesized starter culture in yoghurt production restrains the syneresis of the gel.

  14. The development of tobacco use in adolescence among "snus starters" and "cigarette starters": an analysis of the Swedish "BROMS" cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Wickholm, Seppo

    2008-02-01

    Whether the use of smokeless tobacco can facilitate the transition to cigarette smoking and/or to prolonged tobacco use in adolescence is unclear. We analyzed data from a cohort of 2,938 Swedish adolescents, with six follow-up assessments of tobacco use between the ages of 11 and 18 years. The majority of tobacco users (70%) started by smoking cigarettes, 11% took up snus before smoking, and 19% used both tobacco types close in time. Ever users of tobacco at baseline had a higher risk of being current smokers and/or smokeless tobacco users at the end of follow-up compared with never users, with the highest excess relative risk for "mixed users." Adolescents who initiated tobacco use with cigarettes had a non-significantly increased probability to end up as current smokers compared with snus starters (adjusted OR=1.42; 95% CI 0.98-2.10) The OR of smoking for "mixed starters" was 2.54 (95% CI 1.68-3.91). The risk of becoming current user of any tobacco was also significantly enhanced for "mixed starters." Marked sex differences were observed in these associations, as initiation with cigarettes rather than with snus predicted current smoking or tobacco use only among females. Progression of tobacco use in adolescence is not predicted by onset with snus or cigarettes, but rather by initiation with both tobacco types close in time and/or at young age. The proportion of adolescent smoking prevalence attributable to a potential induction effect of snus is likely small.

  15. Tocopherols in rose hips (Rosa spp.) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Staffan C; Olsson, Marie E; Gustavsson, Karl-Erik; Johansson, Eva; Rumpunen, Kimmo

    2012-08-15

    Rose hips are used as a food ingredient and in health products. They are rich in various bioactive compounds such as carotenoids and vitamin C, but data on their vitamin E content (tocopherols and tocotrienols) are limited. In this study, four different species of Rosa were analysed for tocopherol and tocotrienol content during ripening in three different years. Only α- and γ-tocopherol were found in the fleshy parts of the rose hips, and the tocopherol content and vitamin E activity varied depending on date of harvesting, species and year. The amount of vitamin E activity differed between species of Rosa and years, whereas the changes during ripening were relatively small. The choice of species must be considered if tocopherol content is to be optimised when rose hips are used as a food ingredient. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen...... consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton...... was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6 f complex in chromorespiration...

  17. Effect of different brine concentrations and ripening period on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheeses made from pasteurized milk (65°C for 30 min) were ripened in 11, 14 and 17 g 100 ml-1 NaCl for 90 days at 7±1°C. Some physicochemical and biochemical analyses were carried out during storage time. The effects of brine concentrations on total solids, protein, ash, salt, pH, and WSN values were found to be ...

  18. Detection of artificially ripened mango using spectrometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithun, B. S.; Mondal, Milton; Vishwakarma, Harsh; Shinde, Sujit; Kimbahune, Sanjay

    2017-05-01

    Hyperspectral sensing has been proven to be useful to determine the quality of food in general. It has also been used to distinguish naturally and artificially ripened mangoes by analyzing the spectral signature. However the focus has been on improving the accuracy of classification after performing dimensionality reduction, optimum feature selection and using suitable learning algorithm on the complete visible and NIR spectrum range data, namely 350nm to 1050nm. In this paper we focus on, (i) the use of low wavelength resolution and low cost multispectral sensor to reliably identify artificially ripened mango by selectively using the spectral information so that classification accuracy is not hampered at the cost of low resolution spectral data and (ii) use of visible spectrum i.e. 390nm to 700 nm data to accurately discriminate artificially ripened mangoes. Our results show that on a low resolution spectral data, the use of logistic regression produces an accuracy of 98.83% and outperforms other methods like classification tree, random forest significantly. And this is achieved by analyzing only 36 spectral reflectance data points instead of the complete 216 data points available in visual and NIR range. Another interesting experimental observation is that we are able to achieve more than 98% classification accuracy by selecting only 15 irradiance values in the visible spectrum. Even the number of data needs to be collected using hyper-spectral or multi-spectral sensor can be reduced by a factor of 24 for classification with high degree of confidence

  19. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  20. Distribution of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in apples tissues during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Aline; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Couto, Marcelo; Judacewski, Priscila; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi; Nogueira, Alessandro

    2017-05-01

    The effect of variety and ripening stage on the distribution of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Gala, Fuji Suprema and Eva apples were evaluated. Hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids, flavanols, flavonols, dihydrochalcones and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) were assessed in the epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp of three varieties at three ripening stages (unripe, ripe and senescent). The Fuji Suprema variety distinguished by its content of flavonols at senescent stage, while Eva variety distinguished by its content of dihydrochalcones (unripe stage) and anthocyanins (ripe stage). In general, phenolic acids and flavonoids decreased with ripening in the epicarp and endocarp. However, in the mesocarp, the effect of ripening was related with the apple variety. Hierarchical cluster analysis confirmed the influence of ripening in the apple tissue. The evolution of these compounds during ripening occurred irregularly and it was influenced by the variety.

  1. Effect of Stages of Maturity and Ripening Conditions on the Biochemical Characteristics of Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    K. M. Moneruzzaman; A. B.M.S. Hossain; W. Sani; M. Saifuddin

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to evaluate the biochemical characteristics of tomato in different maturity stages and ripening conditions. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits (cv. Ruma VF) were harvested at the three maturity stages viz., mature green, half ripen and full ripen and stored at three condition control (without covering), straw covering and CaC2 + straw covering. At that time ascorbic acid, pH, titrable acidity, sugar (reducing, non-reducing sugar and total) percent...

  2. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  3. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  4. Carbohydrate metabolism in ripening banana and its alteration on gamma irradiation in relation to delay in ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendranathan, K.K.; Nair, P.M.

    1980-01-01

    Ripening, of climacteric class of fruits like banana, is accompanied with an upsurge in respiration, indicating a change in metabolism from hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt pathway to glycolytic pathway. The key enzyme in glycolytic pathway, namely, phosphofructokinase, is activated and this activation paralleled with the increase in respiration rate. The enhancement in the activity of enzymes of glycolytic and Kreb's cycle help the fruit to assimilate energy as ATP produced from the breakdown and oxidation of storage starch. The demand for energy supply is great for the different ripening processes. Gamma irradiation of the fruit at the preclimacteric stage delayed the onset of climacteric to about 7 to 8 days, thereby extending the ripening to 15-20 days. This delay was brought about by the alterations in the metabolism of carbohydrate. There is a predominance of HMP pathway in irradiated banana. This along with the activation of phosphatases like FDPase and F-6-Pase restricted the entrance of sugar phosphate esters to Kreb's cycle for oxidation. The functioning of Kreb's cycle is also affected by the inhibition of succinic dehydrogenase. But activation of glyoxylate shunt pathway helped to maintain the levels of Kreb's cycle intermediates, like citrate and malate, although energy production is reduced. Finally the activation of gluconeogenic pathway helps in channelling the metabolites back to sugars. All these metabolic changes cause a considerable depletion in the production of ATP. (auth.)

  5. Biochemical fate of N6 substituted purines (cytokinins) in normal ripening and mutant tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The initial rates of disappearance of cytokinins, as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography, for tomatoes which were vacuum infused with benzyladenine and isopentenyladenine were dissimilar between the normal ripening (Ohio CR-6 and Rutgers), ripening inhibited mutant (RIN) and non-ripening mutant (NOR) tomato varieties. Radiolabeled [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolism was followed during a 2 h period utilizing thin layer chromatography and visualization by fluorography. The [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolite patterns were different among the varieties. The [8- 14 C]Benzyladenine metabolite pattern in Ohio CR-6 tomato changed as the fruit ripened

  6. PERAN MIKROBA STARTER DALAM DEKOMPOSISI KOTORAN TERNAK DAN PERBAIKAN KUALITAS PUPUK KANDANG (The Role of Microbial Starter in Animal Dung Decomposition and Manure Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyono Agus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pupuk organik perlu didekomposisi oleh mikroba dan memerlukan lingkungan yang sesuai agar cepat matang sempurna dan tidak memberikan dampak negatif pada aspek sosial, estetika maupun kesehatan pada makluk hidup dan lingkungan. Dekomposisi bahan pupuk organik dilakukan dengan menggunakan kotoran sapi, dengan 2 perlakuan mikroba (tanpa dan dengan mikroba starter dan 3 variasi waktu, yaitu 0, 6 dan 24 jam setelah diberi mikroba starter. Analisis meliputi  uji fisik bahan pupuk yang meliputi pH, warna, aroma, lengas, dan DHL,  uji mikroba patogen (Eschericia. coli dan Salmonella pada pupuk, pengujian kandungan hara pupuk total (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, S, Cd, Cr, B, Fe, Cu, Zn  dan Ntersedia (NH4 dan NO3,  serta analisis emisi gas amonia (NH3, oksigen (O2, karbon monoksida (CO, karbon dioksida (CO2, metana (CH4, NOx, NO, dan SO2. Mikroba starter mengandung mikrobia dan unsur hara yang sangat diperlukan dalam proses dekomposisi bahan organik. Pupuk kandang sapi setelah aplikasi  mikroba starter masih mengandung E. coli dan Salmonella sp. yang cenderung menurun seiring dengan lama waktu inkubasi. Terjadi dinamika kandungan unsur-unsur hara seperti P, K, Mg, Fe dan Cu serta logam berat Cr selama proses inkubasi baik pada pupuk kandang ayam maupun sapi. Dengan perlakuan mikroba starter, bagian senyawa sulfur dari bahan organik banyak yang terombak menjadi gas SO2 yang relatif tidak berbau, dan sebaliknya H2S serta senyawa reduktif sulfida lainnya menjadi terhambat pembentukannya. Perombakan dengan  mikroba starter sebaiknya diupayakan dalam suasana aerobik atau dengan suasana lembab tetapi tidak sampai anaerobik sehingga kehadiran senyawa H2S dan senyawa sulfur reduktif lainnya dapat dikurangi atau tidak terbentuk. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkkan pentingnya penggunaan mikroba starter optimal dan benar untuk memperbaiki kandungan nutrisi dan kualitas pupuk kandang.   ABSTRACT Process of decomposition of organic fertilizer relies on the

  7. The flame characteristics of the biogas has produced through the digester method with various starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut, Caturwati Ni; Agung, Sudrajat; Mekro, Permana; Heri, Haryanto; Bachtiar

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the volume of waste, especially in urban areas is a source of problems in realizing the comfort and health of the environment. It needs to do a good handling of garbage so as to provide benefits for the whole community. Organic waste processing through bio-digester method to produce a biogas as an energy source is an effort. This research was conducted to test the characteristics of biogas flame generated from organic waste processing through digester with various of the starter such as: cow dung, goat manure, and leachate that obtained from the landfill at Bagendung-Cilegon. The flame height and maximum temperature of the flame are measured for the same pressure of biogas. The measurements showed the flame produced by bio-digester with leachate starter has the lowest flame height compared to the other types of biogas, and the highest flame height is given by biogas from digester with cow dung as a starter. The maximum flame temperature of biogas produced by leachate as a starter reaches 1027 °C. This value is 7% lower than the maximum flame temperature of biogas produced by cow dung as a starter. Cow dung was observed to be the best starter compared to goat manure and leachate, but the use of leachate as a starter in producing biogas with biodigester method is not the best but it worked.

  8. The ambiguous ripening nature of the fig (Ficus carica L.) fruit: a gene-expression study of potential ripening regulators and ethylene-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, Zohar E.; Rosianskey, Yogev; Dasmohapatra, Rajeswari; Kamara, Itzhak; Flaishman, Moshe A.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional definition of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits has been put into question. A significant example of this paradox is the climacteric fig fruit. Surprisingly, ripening-related ethylene production increases following pre- or postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) application in an unexpected auto-inhibitory manner. In this study, ethylene production and the expression of potential ripening-regulator, ethylene-synthesis, and signal-transduction genes are characterized in figs ripening on the tree and following preharvest 1-MCP application. Fig ripening-related gene expression was similar to that in tomato and apple during ripening on the tree, but only in the fig inflorescence–drupelet section. Because the pattern in the receptacle is different for most of the genes, the fig drupelets developed inside the syconium are proposed to function as parthenocarpic true fruit, regulating ripening processes for the whole accessory fruit. Transcription of a potential ripening regulator, FcMADS8, increased during ripening on the tree and was inhibited following 1-MCP treatment. Expression patterns of the ethylene-synthesis genes FcACS2, FcACS4, and FcACO3 could be related to the auto-inhibition reaction of ethylene production in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Along with FcMADS8 suppression, gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of FcEBF1, and downregulation of FcEIL3 and several FcERFs by 1-MCP treatment. This corresponded with the high storability of the treated fruit. One FcERF was overexpressed in the 1-MCP-treated fruit, and did not share the increasing pattern of most FcERFs in the tree-ripened fig. This demonstrates the potential of this downstream ethylene-signal-transduction component as an ethylene-synthesis regulator, responsible for the non-climacteric auto-inhibition of ethylene production in fig. PMID:25956879

  9. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  10. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  11. Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia; Bassi, Daniela; López, Constanza; Pisacane, Vincenza; Otero, Maria Claudia; Puglisi, Edoardo; Rebecchi, Annalisa; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Vignolo, Graciela

    2016-11-07

    Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Decrease in fruit moisture content heralds and might launch the onset of ripening processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Chaim; Hartman, Thomas G

    2012-10-01

    It is known that fruit ripening is a genetically programmed event but it is not entirely clear what metabolic cue(s) stimulate the onset of ripening, ethylene action notwithstanding. Here, we examined the conjecture that fruit ripening might be evoked by an autonomously induced decrease in tissue water status. We found decline in water content occurring at the onset of ripening in climacteric and nonclimacteric fruit, suggesting that this phenomenon might be universal. This decline in water content persisted throughout the ripening process in some fruit, whereas in others it reversed during the progression of the ripening process. Applied ethylene also induced a decrease in water content in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers. In ethylene-mutant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit (antisense to1-aminocyclopropane carboxylate synthase), cold-induced decline in water content stimulated onset of ripening processes apparently independently of ethylene action, suggesting cause-and-effect relationship between decreasing water content and onset of ripening. The decline in tissue water content, occurring naturally or induced by ethylene, was strongly correlated with a decrease in hydration (swelling) efficacy of cell wall preparations suggesting that hydration dynamics of cell walls might account for changes in tissue moisture content. Extent of cell wall swelling was, in turn, related to the degree of oxidative cross-linking of wall-bound phenolic acids, suggesting that oxidant-induced wall restructuring might mediate cell wall and, thus, fruit tissue hydration status. We propose that oxidant-induced cell wall remodeling and consequent wall dehydration might evoke stress signaling for the onset of ripening processes. This study suggests that decline in fruit water content is an early event in fruit ripening. This information may be used to gauge fruit maturity for appropriate harvest date and for processing. Control of fruit hydration state might be used to regulate the

  13. Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 against Listeria innocua when used as an adjunct starter in the manufacture of cheese

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 isolated from a soft French artisanal cheese produces a potent class IIa bacteriocin with 100% homology to plantaricin 423 and bacteriocidal activity against Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was found to be highly stable at temperatures as high as 100°C and pH ranges from 1-10. While this relatively narrow spectrum bacteriocin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against species of enterococci, it did not inhibit dairy starters including lactococci and lactobacilli when tested by well diffusion assay (WDA). In order to test the suitability of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 as an anti-listerial adjunct with nisin-producing lactococci, laboratory-scale cheeses were manufactured. Results indicated that combining Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 (at 108 colony forming units (cfu)\\/ml) with a nisin producer is an effective strategy to eliminate the biological indicator strain, L. innocua. Moreover, industrial-scale cheeses also demonstrated that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 was much more effective than the nisin producer alone for protection against the indicator. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of plantaricin 423 and nisin in the appropriate cheeses over an 18 week ripening period. A spray-dried fermentate of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 also demonstrated potent anti-listerial activity in vitro using L. innocua. Overall, the results suggest that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 is a suitable adjunct for use with nisin-producing cultures to improve the safety and quality of dairy products.

  14. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of starters and non-starters and playing positions in elite Australian Rules Football: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, W B; Newton, R U; Doyle, T L A; Chapman, D; Cormack, S; Stewart, G; Dawson, B

    2005-09-01

    A purpose of this study was to determine if pre-season anthropometric and physiological measures were significantly different for the players from one Australian Football League (AFL) club selected to play in the first game of the season compared to the players not selected. Another purpose was to compare fitness test results for defenders, forwards and mid-fielders in the same AFL club. Thirty-four players were tested for isolated quadriceps and hamstrings strength, leg extensor muscle strength and power, upper body strength, sprinting speed, vertical jump (VJ), endurance, skinfolds and hamstring flexibility. The starters who were selected to play the first game were a significantly older and more experienced playing group, and were significantly better (p starters. Although there were trends for the superiority of the starters, the differences in lower and upper body strength, VJ and predicted VO2max were non-significant. The forwards generally produced the worst fitness scores of the playing positions with the midfielders having significantly lower skinfolds and the defenders possessing better hamstring strength and VJ compared to the forwards. It was concluded that some fitness qualities can differentiate between starters and non-starters, at least in one AFL club. Comparisons of playing positions and the development of fitness norms for AFL players require further research.

  15. Different Preclimacteric Events in Apple Cultivars with Modified Ripening Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available “Anna” is an early season apple cultivar exhibiting a fast softening and juiciness loss during storage, in comparison to two mid-late season cultivars “Galaxy” and “GD.” The poor storage capacity of “Anna” was correlated with high lipid oxidation-related autoluminescence, high respiration and ethylene production rates, associated with high expression of MdACO1, 2, 4, 7, and MdACS1. All cultivars at harvest responded to exogenous ethylene by enhancing ethylene production, typical of system-II. The contribution of pre-climacteric events to the poor storage capacity of “Anna” was examined by comparing respiration and ethylene production rates, response to exogenous ethylene, expression of genes responsible for ethylene biosynthesis and response, and developmental regulators in the three cultivars throughout fruit development. In contrast to the “Galaxy” and “GD,” “Anna” showed higher ethylene production and respiration rates during fruit development, and exhibited auto-stimulatory (system II-like effect in response to exogenous ethylene. The higher ethylene production rate in “Anna” was correlated with higher expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes, MdACS3a MdACO2, 4, and 7 during early fruit development. The expression of negative regulators of ripening (AP2/ERF and ethylene response pathway, (MdETR1,2 and MdCTR1 was lower in “Anna” in comparison to the other two cultivars throughout development and ripening. Similar pattern of gene expression was found for SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box genes, including MdCNR and for MdFUL. Taken together, this study provides new understanding on pre-climacteric events in “Anna” that might affect its ripening behavior and physiology following storage.

  16. Nanoscale Molecules Under Thermodynamic Control:" Digestive Ripening" or " Nanomachining"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-06-04

    Overall Research Goals and Specific Objectives: Nanoscale materials are becoming ubiquitous in science and engineering, and are found widely in nature. However, their formation processes and uniquely high chemical reactivities are not understood well, indeed are often mysterious. Over recent years, a number of research teams have described nanoparticle synthesis, and aging, thermal treatment, or etching times have been mentioned. We have used the terms “digestive ripening” and “nanomachining” and have suggested that thermodynamics plays an important part in the size adjustment to monodisperse arrays being formed. Since there is scant theoretical understanding of digestive ripening, the overall goal in our research is to learn what experimental parameters (ligand used, temperature, solvent, time) are most important, how to control nanoparticle size and shape after initial crude nanoparticles have been synthesized, and gain better understanding of the chemical mechanism details. Specific objectives for the past twentynine months since the grant began have been to (1) Secure and train personnel;as of 2011, a postdoc Deepa Jose, female from the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore, India; Yijun Sun, a second year graduate student, female from China; and Jessica Changstrom, female from the USA, GK12 fellow (program for enhancing teaching ability) are actively carrying out research. (2) Find out what happens to sulfur bound hydrogen of thiol when it interacts with gold nanoparticles. Our findings are discussed in detail later. (3) Determine the effect of particle size, shape, and temperature on dodecyl thiol assited digestive ripening of gold nanoparticles. See our discussions later. (4) To understand in detail the ligand interaction in molecular clusters and nanoparticles (5) Determine the effect of chain length of amines on Au nanoparticle size under digestive ripening conditions (carbon chain length varied from 4-18). (6) Determine the catalytic activity

  17. The formation of fat-derived flavour compounds during the ripening of Gouda-type cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cheese flavour is an important quality attribute, and is mainly formed during cheese ripening. Besides compounds that are formed from protein and carbohydrates, milk fat-derived compounds are essential for cheese flavour. Before, but mainly during ripening, free fatty acids, lactones, ketones,

  18. Activity of autoinducer two (AI-2) in bacteria isolated from surface ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Jespersen, Lene

    2007-01-01

    ). Corynebacterium casei, Microbacterium barkeri, Microbacterium gubbeenense and S. equorum subsp. linens (all isolated from the smear of surface ripened cheeses) using the AI-2 bioluminescence assay. This indicates that AI-2 signaling could take place between bacteria found in the smear of surface ripened cheeses....

  19. Local Correlation during Ostwald ripening of two-dimensional islands on Ag(111)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern, Karina; Rosenfeld, G.; Comsa, George

    1999-01-01

    Using two-dimensional Ag adatom islands on Ag(111) as a model system, we study the importance of local correlations in diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening. For the coverages studied (0.08, 0.21, and 0.3 ML), we find that the ripening can be surprisingly well described in a nearest neighbour model

  20. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Analysis on the Regulation of Tomato Ripening by Exogenous Auxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Li

    Full Text Available Auxin has been shown to modulate the fruit ripening process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin regulation of fruit ripening are still not clear. Illumina RNA sequencing was performed on mature green cherry tomato fruit 1 and 7 days after auxin treatment, with untreated fruit as a control. The results showed that exogenous auxin maintained system 1 ethylene synthesis and delayed the onset of system 2 ethylene synthesis and the ripening process. At the molecular level, genes associated with stress resistance were significantly up-regulated, but genes related to carotenoid metabolism, cell degradation and energy metabolism were strongly down-regulated by exogenous auxin. Furthermore, genes encoding DNA demethylases were inhibited by auxin, whereas genes encoding cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases were induced, which contributed to the maintenance of high methylation levels in the nucleus and thus inhibited the ripening process. Additionally, exogenous auxin altered the expression patterns of ethylene and auxin signaling-related genes that were induced or repressed in the normal ripening process, suggesting significant crosstalk between these two hormones during tomato ripening. The present work is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of auxin-treated tomato fruit during ripening. Our results provide comprehensive insights into the effects of auxin on the tomato ripening process and the mechanism of crosstalk between auxin and ethylene.

  1. Microbial succession of Debaryomyces hansenii strains during the production of Danish surfaced-ripened cheeses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Mee; Westall, Signe; Jespersen, Lene

    2002-01-01

    to be the dominant yeast species throughout the ripening period, whereas other yeast species such as Trichosporon spp., Rhodotorula spp., and Candida spp. were found in minor concentrations during early stages of cheese ripening. Mitochondrial DNA RFLP was used to show that several strains of D. hansenii were...

  2. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  3. Metabolomics analysis of postharvest ripening heterogeneity of ‘Hass' avocadoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi, R.; Munoz, P.; Robledo, P.; Becerra, C.; Defilippi, B.G.; Eekelen, van H.D.L.M.; Mumm, R.; Westra, E.H.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    The complex physiology of ‘Hass’ avocado renders its postharvest ripening heterogeneous and unpre-dictable. Several approaches have previously been undertaken to broaden our understanding of the causesof this postharvest ripening heterogeneity but without much success. In this study, a fruit biopsy

  4. Ripening of PAH and TPH polluted sediments : determination and quantification of bioremediation parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, bioremediation parameters were determined and quantified for different clayey dredged sediments. The research described in this thesis increased the insight into the individual processes of physical ripening, biochemical ripening – including PAH and TPH degradation – that result from

  5. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  6. Preparation of titanium-tritium suspension for use in fluorescent tube starters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, K.V.S.; Kulkarni, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Titanium-tritium suspension is useful in the starter glow bulbs of fluorescent tube lights for initial ionisation. This paper describes the method of preparation and conditions for better yield. (author). 1 tab

  7. Using the Hall Effect for Monitoring the Starter Condition in Motor Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Dziubiński

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a new method of controlling the operational wear of the starter used for transport. The new method consists in making use of the magnetic field in the armature gap as a diagnostic signal for determining fitness for use. Testing the starter with the Hall sensor involved recording the voltage course obtained from the sensor, which was commensurate with magnetic induction. The tests were carried for the unloaded starter, i.e., while running idle, as well as for the loaded one. As part of the experiment, simulation of different kinds of operational wear and selected simulated failures of starter elements were carried out. The objective of this study is to elaborate a diagnostic model for the operational control of the starting system for motor transport.

  8. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF CALF STARTER AND CONVENTIONAL RATIONS IN BUFFALO SUCKLING CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ahmad, M. A. Jabbar1, I. Ahmad2 , M. Rafique and I. Ahmad3

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four buffalo calves, having similar age and initial body weight, were divided into two groups with equal number of calves of both sexes in each group to study the effect of calf starter ration on feed intake and weight gain. Calf starter and conventional dairy rations with crude protein 18% and total digestible nutrients 75–80% along with green fodder were offered ad libitum to calves of respective groups for a period of 113 days. The average daily feed intakes were 0.95 and 0.57 kg, average daily weight gains were 0.47 and 0.34 kg and feed conversion ratio averaged 2.00 and 1.70 in calf starter and conventional groups respectively. On the overall performance, calf starter group was found better than the conventional ration.

  9. Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390. Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos.In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to

  10. Overview of a surface-ripened cheese community functioning by meta-omics analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dugat-Bony

    Full Text Available Cheese ripening is a complex biochemical process driven by microbial communities composed of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Surface-ripened cheeses are widely consumed all over the world and are appreciated for their characteristic flavor. Microbial community composition has been studied for a long time on surface-ripened cheeses, but only limited knowledge has been acquired about its in situ metabolic activities. We applied metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and biochemical analyses to an experimental surface-ripened cheese composed of nine microbial species during four weeks of ripening. By combining all of the data, we were able to obtain an overview of the cheese maturation process and to better understand the metabolic activities of the different community members and their possible interactions. Furthermore, differential expression analysis was used to select a set of biomarker genes, providing a valuable tool that can be used to monitor the cheese-making process.

  11. Physiological, molecular and ultrastructural analyses during ripening and over-ripening of banana (Musa spp., AAA group, Cavendish sub-group) fruit suggest characteristics of programmed cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Sánchez, Maricruz; Huber, Donald J; Vallejos, C Eduardo; Kelley, Karen

    2018-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a part of plant development that has been studied for petal senescence and vegetative tissue but has not been thoroughly investigated for fleshy fruits. The purpose of this research was to examine ripening and over-ripening in banana fruit to determine if there were processes in common to previously described PCD. Loss of cellular integrity (over 40%) and development of senescence related dark spot (SRDS) occurred after day 8 in banana peel. Nuclease and protease activity in the peel increased during ripening starting from day 2, and decreased during over-ripening. The highest activity was for proteases and nucleases with apparent molecular weights of 86 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. Images of SRDS showed shrinkage of the upper layers of cells, visually suggesting cell death. Decrease of electron dense areas was evident in TEM micrographs of nuclei. This study shows for the first time that ripening and over-ripening of banana peel share physiological and molecular processes previously described in plant PCD. SRDS could represent a morphotype of PCD that characterizes a structural and biochemical failure in the upper layers of the peel, thereafter spreading to lower and adjacent layers of cells. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. New microbial resource: microbial diversity, function and dynamics in Chinese liquor starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhong; Yi, Zhuolin; Jin, Yanling; Zhao, Yonggui; He, Kaize; Liu, Dayu; Zhao, Dong; He, Hui; Luo, Huibo; Zhang, Wenxue; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai

    2017-11-06

    Traditional Chinese liquor (Baijiu) solid state fermentation technology has lasted for several thousand years. The microbial communities that enrich in liquor starter are important for fermentation. However, the microbial communities are still under-characterized. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing technology was applied to comprehensively analyze the microbial diversity, function and dynamics of two most-consumed liquor starters (Jiang- and Nong-flavor) during production. In total, 315 and 83 bacterial genera and 72 and 47 fungal genera were identified in Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively. The relatively high diversity was observed when the temperature increased to 70 and 62 °C for Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively. Some thermophilic fungi have already been isolated. Microbial communities that might contribute to ethanol fermentation, saccharification and flavor development were identified and shown to be core communities in correlation-based network analysis. The predictively functional profile of bacterial communities showed significant difference in energy, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and the degradation of aromatic compounds between the two kinds of liquor starters. Here we report these liquor starters as a new functionally microbial resource, which can be used for discovering thermophilic and aerobic enzymes and for food and feed preservation.

  13. Tryptophan Levels during Grape Ripening: Effects of Cultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz-Rodríguez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Some cultural practices that are carried out during the grape ripening period are associated with vine stress, including leaf removal, grape bunch removal, and vegetable cover crops. Additionally, several nitrogen and sulfur supplements have also been used directly on leaves during the last stage of the ripening period. In the work described here, five different cultural practices and the reference were applied in three replicates in the same vineyard. The evolution of tryptophan levels was evaluated from just after grape veraison until the harvest date. In some cases, certain specific treatments were also evaluated after the regular harvest date. The cultural techniques that involved the application of nitrogen led to higher levels of tryptophan at the harvest day when compared to other cultural techniques. It was also found that the application of nitrogen without sulfur had a faster effect on the level of tryptophan. It was established that a period of around 20 days is needed for the grapes to show clear differences in tryptophan levels after the application of nitrogen.

  14. Compositional and enzymatic changes during Guafa fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashir, Hind Abdelmonem [Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1999-05-01

    Compositional changes in fruit pulp and peel during ripening of white-and pink-fleshed guava fruit types were investigated. Fruit tissue firmeness decreased progressively, in a similar manner,in both Guava types. The white and pink guavas exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration, with climacteric peak at 7.6 kilogram-force (kg-f) flesh firmness in both types. Total soluble solids (TTS) and total sugars increased in pulp and peel of both guava types with decrease in flesh firmness, more increase in total sugars ,which was determined using calorimetric method, was observed after the climacteric peak. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity increased up to the climacteric peak and decreased afterwards. Total protein increased up to the full-ripe stage and then decreased. Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening of the two types. The peel showed higher values of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds compared to the pulp. The white-fleshed guavas had higher levels of TTS, total sugars, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content compared to the pink-fleshed fruits. Changes in the activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, pectinesterase (PE), Polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose were also studied to find out the reason for tissue softening in guava fruit during handling, transportation and storage.

  15. Compositional and enzymatic changes during Guafa fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, Hind Abdelmonem

    1999-05-01

    Compositional changes in fruit pulp and peel during ripening of white-and pink-fleshed guava fruit types were investigated. Fruit tissue firmeness decreased progressively, in a similar manner,in both Guava types. The white and pink guavas exhibited a typical climacteric pattern of respiration, with climacteric peak at 7.6 kilogram-force (kg-f) flesh firmness in both types. Total soluble solids (TTS) and total sugars increased in pulp and peel of both guava types with decrease in flesh firmness, more increase in total sugars ,which was determined using calorimetric method, was observed after the climacteric peak. Reducing sugars and titratable acidity increased up to the climacteric peak and decreased afterwards. Total protein increased up to the full-ripe stage and then decreased. Ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds decreased continuously during ripening of the two types. The peel showed higher values of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds compared to the pulp. The white-fleshed guavas had higher levels of TTS, total sugars, reducing sugars, titrable acidity and ascorbic acid content compared to the pink-fleshed fruits. Changes in the activities of the cell wall degrading enzymes, pectinesterase (PE), Polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose were also studied to find out the reason for tissue softening in guava fruit during handling, transportation and storage

  16. Physiological characteristics and related gene expression of after-ripening on seed dormancy release in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Cheng, J; Cheng, Y; Wang, L; He, Y; Wang, Z; Zhang, H

    2015-11-01

    After-ripening is a common method used for dormancy release in rice. In this study, the rice variety Jiucaiqing (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica) was used to determine dormancy release following different after-ripening times (1, 2 and 3 months). Germination speed, germination percentage and seedling emergence increased with after-ripening; more than 95% germination and 85% seedling emergence were observed following 1 month of after-ripening within 10 days of imbibition, compared with rice dormancy release. Dormancy release by after-ripening is mainly correlated with a rapid decline in ABA content and increase in IAA content during imbibition. Subsequently, GA(1)/ABA, GA(7)/ABA, GA(12)/ABA, GA(20)/ABA and IAA/ABA ratios significantly increased, while GA(3)/ABA, GA(4)/ABA and GAs/IAA ratio significantly decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening, thereby altering α-amylase activity during seed germination. Peak α-amylase activity occurred at an earlier germination stage in after-ripened seeds than in freshly harvested seeds. Expression of ABA, GA and IAA metabolism genes and dormancy-related genes was regulated by after-ripening time upon imbibition. Expression of OsCYP707A5, OsGA2ox1, OsGA2ox2, OsGA2ox3, OsILR1, OsGH3-2, qLTG3-1 and OsVP1 increased, while expression of Sdr4 decreased in imbibed seeds following 3 months of after-ripening. Dormancy release through after-ripening might be involved in weakening tissues covering the embryo via qLTG3-1 and decreased ABA signalling and sensitivity via Sdr4 and OsVP1. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Home cervical ripening with dinoprostone gel in nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Sarah J; Taylor, Rebecca; Mairs, Rebecca; Azaghdani, Abdulhamid; Hor, Kahyee; Smith, Imogen; Dundas, Kirsty; Kissack, Chris; Norman, Jane E; Denison, Fiona

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate whether home cervical ripening is safe and results in shorter hospital stay. This was a retrospective cohort study of women with singleton pregnancies having induction of labor for postmaturity at a single center between January 2007 and June 2010. Women were offered home cervical ripening with 1 mg dinoprostone gel if they were nulliparous, had uncomplicated singleton pregnancies, and the indication for induction was postmaturity. Nine hundred seven of 1,536 (59.1%) nulliparous women having induction of labor for postmaturity were eligible for home cervical ripening. The median number of hours at home was 11.76 hours (range 0-24.82 hours). There were no cases of birth outside of the hospital, uterine rupture, or significant neonatal morbidity or neonatal death related to home cervical ripening. Eighty-five (5.5%) women who underwent hospital cervical ripening because of maternal preference or social issues formed a hospital cervical ripening comparison group. There was no significant difference in the total number of hours before delivery spent in the hospital between the two groups (26.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 25.27-27.23 in home cervical ripening group compared with 24.28; 95% CI 22.5-26.0 in the hospital group; P=.26). Clinical outcomes are comparable in nulliparous women who receive a single dose of dinoprostone gel for home cervical ripening compared with those who undergo hospital cervical ripening. However, preadmission home cervical ripening with 1 mg dinoprostone does not decrease the number of hours women spend in the hospital. II.

  18. Microbial community dynamics in thermophilic undefined milk starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Matera, Attilio; De Filippis, Francesca; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-18

    Model undefined thermophilic starter cultures were produced from raw milk of nine pasta-filata cheesemaking plants using a selective procedure based on pasteurization and incubation at high temperature with the objective of studying the microbial community dynamics and the variability in performances under repeated (7-13) reproduction cycles with backslopping. The traditional culture-dependent approach, based on random isolation and molecular characterization of isolates was coupled to the determination of pH and the evaluation of the ability to produce acid and fermentation metabolites. Moreover, a culture-independent approach based on amplicon-targeted next-generation sequencing was employed. The microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V3 regions), while the microdiversity of Streptococcus thermophilus populations was explored by using novel approach based on sequencing of partial amplicons of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB). In addition, the occurrence of bacteriophages was evaluated by qPCR and by multiplex PCR. Although it was relatively easy to select for a community dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) within a single reproduction cycle, final pH, LAB populations and acid production activity fluctuated over reproduction cycles. Both culture-dependent and -independent methods showed that the cultures were dominated by either S. thermophilus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis or by both species. Nevertheless, subdominant mesophilic species, including lactococci and spoilage organisms, persisted at low levels. A limited number of serB sequence types (ST) were present in S. thermophilus populations. L. delbrueckii and Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages were below the detection limit of the method used and high titres of cos type S. thermophilus bacteriophages were detected in only two cases. In one case a high titre of bacteriophages was concurrent with a S. thermophilus biotype shift in the culture

  19. Evaluation of chemical parameters in soft mold-ripened cheese during ripening by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-del-Campo, S T; Picque, D; Cosío-Ramírez, R; Corrieu, G

    2007-06-01

    The suitability of mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) to follow the evolution throughout ripening of specific physicochemical parameters in Camembert-type cheeses was evaluated. The infrared spectra were obtained directly from raw cheese samples deposited on an attenuated total reflectance crystal. Significant correlations were observed between physicochemical data, pH, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, ammonia (NH4+), lactose, and lactic acid. Dry matter showed significant correlation only with lactose and nonprotein nitrogen. Principal components analysis factorial maps of physicochemical data showed a ripening evolution in 2 steps, from d 1 to d 7 and from d 8 to d 27, similar to that observed previously from infrared spectral data. Partial least squares regressions made it possible to obtain good prediction models for dry matter, acid-soluble nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, lactose, lactic acid, and NH4+ values from spectral data of raw cheese. The values of 3 statistical parameters (coefficient of determination, root mean square error of cross validation, and ratio prediction deviation) are satisfactory. Less precise models were obtained for pH.

  20. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  1. Preoperative ripening of the cervix before operative hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fozan, Haya; Firwana, Belal; Al Kadri, Hanan; Hassan, Samar; Tulandi, Togas

    2015-04-23

    Hysteroscopy is an operation in which the gynaecologist examines the uterine cavity using a small telescopic instrument (hysteroscope) inserted via the vagina and the cervix. Almost 50% of hysteroscopic complications are related to difficulty with cervical entry. Potential complications include cervical tears, creation of a false passage, perforation, bleeding, or simply difficulty in entering the internal os (between the cervix and the uterus) with the hysteroscope. These complications may possibly be reduced with adequate preparation of the cervix (cervical ripening) prior to hysteroscopy. Cervical ripening agents include oral or vaginal prostaglandin, which can be synthetic (e.g misoprostol) or natural (e.g. dinoprostone) and vaginal osmotic dilators, which can be naturally occurring (e.g. laminaria) or synthetic. To determine whether preoperative cervical preparation facilitates cervical dilatation and reduces the complications of operative hysteroscopy in women undergoing the procedure for any condition. In August 2014 we searched sources including the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and reference lists of relevant articles. We searched for published and unpublished studies in any language. Two review authors independently selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cervical ripening agents used before operative hysteroscopy in pre- and postmenopausal women. Cervical ripening agents could be compared to each other, placebo or no treatment. Data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently by two review authors. The primary review outcomes were effectiveness of cervical dilatation (defined as the proportion of women requiring mechanical cervical dilatation) and intraoperative complications. Secondary outcomes were mean time required to dilate the cervix, preoperative pain, cervical width

  2. Date Fiber as a Constituent of Broiler Starter Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. AI-Marzooki

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In Oman, efforts are underway to find alternative sources of fwd to support domestic livestock. The date industry thrives in Oman and one of its by-products is date fiber, a by-product of date syrup production. Although the product contains some free sugars, an evaluation of its potential in broiler diets has never been undertaken. Therefore, we conducted an experiment to investigate the value of date fiber in broiler chick diets. The experimental diets consisted of four graded levels of date fiber: 0, 15, 30 and 45 % in a broiler-starter ration replacing corn as an energy source. The diets were isonitrogenous. There were five replicates for each of the four diets and each replicate contained six broiler chicks. As date fiber percent increased in the dietary treatment, there were linear reductions in body weight gain, calculated apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn content, and apparent protein digestibility (P < 0.05. Poor feed utilization (i .e., reduced feed efficiency was observed in birds fed date fiber diets compared to the control group (P < 0.05. The poor performance of birds fed date fiber may be attributed to protein and energy limitations. We conclude that date fiber has no value in growing broiler diets. However, it may have utility in diets where a stable body weight is desirable.

  3. Controlling An Electric Car Starter System Through Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract These days automotive has turned into a stand out amongst the most well-known modes of transportation on the grounds that a large number of Malaysians could bear to have an auto. There are numerous decisions of innovations in auto that have in the market. One of the engineering is voice controlled framework. Voice Recognition is the procedure of consequently perceiving a certain statement talked by a specific speaker focused around individual data included in discourse waves. This paper is to make an car controlled by voice of human. An essential pre-processing venture in Voice Recognition systems is to recognize the vicinity of noise. Sensitivity to speech variability lacking recognition precision and helplessness to mimic are among the principle specialized obstacles that keep the far reaching selection of speech-based recognition systems. Voice recognition systems work sensibly well with a quiet conditions however inadequately under loud conditions or in twisted channels. The key focus of the project is to control an electric car starter system.

  4. Application of novel starter cultures for sourdough bread production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessas, S; Alexopoulos, A; Mantzourani, I; Koutinas, A; Voidarou, C; Stavropoulou, E; Bezirtzoglou, E

    2011-12-01

    Sourdough application has been extensively increased in the last years due to the consumers demand for food consumption without the addition of chemical preservatives. Several starter cultures have been applied in sourdough bread making targeting the increase of bread self-life and the improvement of sensorial character. More specific, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sakei as single and mixed cultures were used for sourdough bread making. Various sourdough breads were produced with the addition of sourdough perviously prepared with 10% w/w L. acidophilus, 10% w/w L. sakei and 5% w/w L. acidophilus and 5% w/w L. sakei at the same time. Various chemical parameters were determined such as lactic acid, total titratable acidity and pH. The results revealed that the produced sourdough bread made with sourdough containing the mixed culture was preserved for more days (12 days) than all the other breads produced in the frame of this study, since it contained lactic acid in higher concentrations. The respective total titratable acidity varied between 10.5 and 11 ml NaOH N/10. The same sourdough bread had a firmer texture, better aroma, flavor and overall quality compared to other sourdough breads examined in this study, as shown by sensory evaluation tests and results obtained through SPME GC-MS analysis, which revealed significant differences among the different bread types. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics of Developing and Ripening Muscadine Grape Berry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambiranda, Devaiah; Katam, Ramesh; Basha, Sheikh M.; Siebert, Shalom

    2014-01-01

    Grapes are among the widely cultivated fruit crops in the world. Grape berries like other nonclimacteric fruits undergo a complex set of dynamic, physical, physiological, and biochemical changes during ripening. Muscadine grapes are widely cultivated in the southern United States for fresh fruit and wine. To date, changes in the metabolites composition of muscadine grapes have been well documented; however, the molecular changes during berry development and ripening are not fully known. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the berry proteome during ripening in muscadine grape cv. Noble. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the berry proteome. A total of 674 proteins were detected, and 76 were differentially expressed across four time points in muscadine berry. Proteins obtained were further analyzed to provide information about its potential functions during ripening. Several proteins involved in abiotic and biotic stimuli and sucrose and hexose metabolism were upregulated during berry ripening. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis validated the protein expression results for nine proteins. Identification of vicilin-like antimicrobial peptides indicates additional disease tolerance proteins are present in muscadines for berry protection during ripening. The results provide new information for characterization and understanding muscadine berry proteome and grape ripening. PMID:24251720

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two contrasting watermelon genotypes during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Zicheng; Amanullah, Sikandar; Davis, Angela R; Luan, Feishi

    2017-01-03

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop with an attractive ripe fruit that has colorful flesh. Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process. In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the regulators and pathways that are involved in the fruit ripening of pale-yellow-flesh cultivated watermelon (COS) and red-flesh cultivated watermelon (LSW177). We first identified 797 novel genes to extend the available reference gene set. Second, 3958 genes in COS and 3503 genes in LSW177 showed at least two-fold variation in expression, and a large number of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during fruit ripening were related to carotenoid biosynthesis, plant hormone pathways, and sugar and cell wall metabolism. Third, we noted a correlation between ripening-associated transcripts and metabolites and the key function of these metabolic pathways during fruit ripening. The results revealed several ripening-associated actions and provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening.

  7. Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

    2015-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a

  8. Anti-Listeria starters: in vitro selection and production plant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Stefano; Popovic, Mina; Amaretti, Alberto; Di Gioia, Diana; Rossi, Maddalena

    2014-05-01

    Anti-Listeria bacterial starters are highly demanded by the meat industry. Novel bioprotective anti-Listeria starters were searched among Lactobacillus species strains isolated from artisanal sausages. The screening confirmed that anti-Listeria activity is a strain-specific property and yielded only 1 strain (of 36) exhibiting a satisfactory level of inhibition, L. delbrueckii WC0286. This strain was compared with two commercial bioprotective starters, SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20, in a model simulating in vitro the first step of the fermentation process. The presence of the bioprotective starters did not modify the pH in such a way that could affect the safety or organoleptic properties of the product. Both SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20 effected an important reduction of Listeria counts (0.56 and 0.72 log CFU g(-1), respectively, in 72 h), while the anti-Listeria effect of L. delbrueckii WC0286 was minor (0.15 log CFU g(-1)). These results discouraged the utilization of L. delbrueckii WC0286 for a challenge test in a pilot salami production, in favor of the best-performing bioprotective starter, SafePro B-LC-20. The test confirmed that SafePro B-LC-20 did not alter the acidification trend of sausages and was capable of inhibiting Listeria, which decreased by 1.21 log CFU g(-1). This information is relevant to address research activity toward the development of new bioprotective starters. The data herein presented demonstrate that the efficacy in Listeria control of potentially bioprotective bacterial starters requires further validation in real meat matrixes, possibly by using in vitro meat fermentation experiments to narrow down the list of candidates before pilot scale challenge tests.

  9. Characterization and Application of Autochthonous Starter Cultures for Fresh Cheese Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of commercial starter cultures in fresh cheese production from pasteurized milk results in the loss of typical characteristics of artisan fresh cheese due to the replacement of complex native microbiota with a defined starter culture. Hence, the aim of this research is to isolate and characterize dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB in artisan fresh cheese and to evaluate their capacity as autochthonous starter cultures for fresh cheese production. Fifteen most prevalent Gram-positive, catalase-negative and asporogenous bacterial strains were selected for a more detailed characterization. Eleven lactic acid bacterial strains were determined to be homofermentative cocci and four heterofermentative lactobacilli. Further phenotypic and genotypic analyses revealed that those were two different LAB strains with high acidifying and proteolytic activity, identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These two autochthonous strains, alone or in combination with commercial starter, were used to produce different types of fresh cheese, which were evaluated by a panel. Conventional culturing, isolation, identification and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE procedures, applied to the total fresh cheese DNA extracts, were employed to define and monitor the viability of the introduced LAB strains and their effect on the final product characteristics. Production of fresh cheese using a combination of commercial starter culture and selected autochthonous strains resulted in improved sensorial properties, which were more similar to the ones of spontaneously fermented fresh cheese than to those of cheese produced with only starter culture or selected strains. After 10 days of storage, that cheese retained the best sensorial properties in comparison with all other types of cheese. The presence of inoculated autochthonous and starter cultures and their identification was demonstrated by DGGE analysis. The obtained

  10. Microbiology, biochemistry, and volatile composition of Tulum cheese ripened in goat's skin or plastic bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Cakmakci, S; Brechany, E Y; Deegan, K C; McSweeney, P L H

    2007-03-01

    Tulum cheeses were manufactured from raw ewe's milk and ripened in goat's skin bags (tulums) or plastic containers to understand the effect of ripening container on the chemical composition, biochemistry, microbiology, and volatile composition of Tulum cheeses during 150 d of ripening. Chemical compositions of the cheeses ripened in tulums were significantly different and the moisture contents decreased rapidly in those cheeses because of the porous structure of the tulum. Higher microbial counts were detected in the cheeses ripened in plastic than in cheeses ripened in tulums. Differences in nitrogenous compounds and total free AA of the cheeses were not significant. Total concentrations of free AA in cheeses increased with age and Glu, Ala, Val, Leu, and Phe were the most abundant AA in the cheeses. Urea-PAGE of pH 4.6-insoluble fractions of the cheeses during ripening showed similar degradation patterns in all cheeses. Peptide profiles by reversed-phase HPLC of pH 4.6- and ethanol-soluble or ethanol-insoluble fractions of the cheeses revealed only minor differences in the concentrations of some peptides among the cheeses; however, age-related changes in peptide concentrations were significantly different among the cheeses. Cheeses were analyzed at 90 d of ripening for volatile compounds by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. One hundred volatile components were identified, including 11 acids, 16 esters, 12 methyl ketones, 7 aldehydes, 22 alcohols, 7 sulfur compounds, 6 terpenes, and 19 miscellaneous compounds. The main components were short-chain fatty acids, 2-butanone, diacetyl, and primary alcohols. Quantitative differences in several volatile compounds were evident among the cheeses. Cheeses ripened in tulums or plastic had similar aroma patterns, but the concentrations of some components were different.

  11. Early ripening, productive soybean mutant variety suitable for combine harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausse, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1979 and 1981 seeds of the early ripening Swedish variety ''Fiskeby V'' were treated with N-nitroso-N-methylurea, sodium azide or gamma rays. Induced mutants were selected which are characterized by longer stalk, higher insertion point of the lowest pods and improved grain yield as well as sufficiently early maturity. Starting from 60 000 treated seeds, 6 mutant lines were developed, and in 1988 one variety named ''Dorado'' was released. Under optimal agrotechnical conditions in fields of 2-10 ha ''Dorado'' achieved grain yields between 1,5 and 2,3 t/ha during the last four years. It is intended to grow this variety in the middle and southern districts of the German Democratic Republic, primarily for human consumption. A technology for growing this variety was recommended

  12. Phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts from sweet orange during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Lun; Ding, Yuduan; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Shunyuan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-02-01

    Like other types of plastids, chromoplasts have essential biosynthetic and metabolic activities which may be regulated via post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, of their resident proteins. We here report a proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in chromoplast-enriched samples prepared from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] at different ripening stages by titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography for phosphoprotein enrichment with LC-MS/MS. A total of 109 plastid-localized phosphoprotein candidates were identified that correspond to 179 unique phosphorylation sites in 135 phosphopeptides. On the basis of Motif-X analysis, two distinct types of phosphorylation sites, one as proline-directed phosphorylation motif and the other as casein kinase II motif, can be generalized from these identified phosphopeptides. While most identified phosphoproteins show high homology to those already identified in plastids, approximately 22% of them are novel based on BLAST search using the public databases PhosPhAt and P(3) DB. A close comparative analysis showed that approximately 50% of the phosphoproteins identified in citrus chromoplasts find obvious counterparts in the chloroplast phosphoproteome, suggesting a rather high-level of conservation in basic metabolic activities in these two types of plastids. Not surprisingly, the phosphoproteome of citrus chromoplasts is also characterized by the lack of phosphoproteins involved in photosynthesis and by the presence of more phosphoproteins implicated in stress/redox responses. This study presents the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts and may help to understand how phosphorylation regulates differentiation of citrus chromoplasts during fruit ripening. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  13. Estudio cinético del proceso de biometanización de alpechín de almazara clásica previamente sometido a tratamiento aerobio con Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán Barrantes, M. M.

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The apparent kinetic constant was determined for the anaerobic digetion of olive mill wastewater (OMW which comes from clasical press factory previously subjected to aerobic digestion with Geotrichum candidum in view of his high content in organic matter. The results obtained revealed it to markedly decrease (from 1 to 0,2 days-1 with increase in its COD (from 6 to 11 g/l in the presence of both free and supported on Sepiolite (Pansil biomass. This shows the existence of an inhibition process which is determined by using the Levenspiel kinetic model. Anaerobic digestion allowed up to 80% of the COD present to be removed with an average yield coefficient of 315 ml CH4 STP/g COD.Se ha determinado la constante cinética aparente del proceso de digestión anaerobia de alpechín procedente de almazara clásica de prensas, que previamente se somete a un proceso de digestión aerobia con Geotrichum candidum dado su alto contenido en materia orgánica (DQO. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto una acusada disminución de la misma (1-0,2 días-1 al aumentar la DQO (6-11 g O2 tanto en presencia de biomasa libre como soportada sobre Sepiolita (Pansil, lo que demuestra la existencia de un proceso de inhibición que se cuantifica utilizando el modelo cinético de Levenspiel. La digestión anaerobia es capaz de eliminar el 80% de la DQO presente con un coeficiente de rendimiento medio de 315 ml CH4 en condiciones estándar de presión y temperatura/g DQO.

  14. Performance changes in NBA basketball players vary in starters vs. nonstarters over a competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Hoffman, Jay R; Rogowski, Joseph P; Burgos, William; Manalo, Edwin; Weise, Keon; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare starters (S) with nonstarters (NS), on their ability to maintain strength, power, and quickness during a competitive National Basketball Association (NBA) season. Twelve NBA players were assessed at the beginning and end of the competitive season. However, because of trades and injury, only 7 (S = 4, NS = 3) players (28.2 ± 3.4 years; 200.9 ± 9.4 cm; 104.7 ± 13.9 kg; 7.2 ± 1.9% body fat) participated in both testing sessions and underwent analysis. Anthropometric performance (repetitive vertical jump power [VJP], squat power [SQT power], and reaction time) and subjective feelings of energy, focus, alertness, and fatigue were recorded during each testing session. Results were interpreted using magnitude-based statistics to make inferences on true differences between starters and nonstarters using the unequal variances t-statistic. Starters played an average of 27.8 ± 6.9 minutes per game and nonstarters played an average of 11.3 ± 7.0 minutes per game. During the course of the season, changes in VJP indicated that starters were likely to increase VJP (Δ = 77.3 ± 78.1 W) compared to nonstarters (Δ= -160.0 ± 151.0 W). There also appeared to be a possible beneficial effect on maintaining reaction time in starters (Δ = 0.005 ± 0.074 seconds) compared with nonstarters (Δ = 0.047 ± 0.073 seconds). In addition, no clear differences in ΔSQT power were seen between starters (Δ = 110.8 ± 141.4 W) and nonstarters (Δ = 143.5 ± 24.7 W). Changes in subjective feelings of energy indicated that starters were very likely to maintain their energy over the course of a season. It also appeared possible that starters were able to have a more positive response to subjective measures of fatigue and alertness than nonstarters, with only trivial differences between starters and nonstarters in regards to maintaining focus. Results of this study suggest that NBA players may enhance lower-body power, repetitive jump ability, and

  15. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  16. A Study On Effect Of Added Neutralisers On Starter Culture Growth In Fermented Milks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanna.M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dairy starter culture is referred to carefully selection of desirable microorganisms. Those are intentionally added to milk during conversion into cheese dahi yoghurt and other fermented dairy products to bring about specific changes in the appearance body and texture flavor and desired organoleptic characteristics of the final product. The quality of milk itself has an important bearing on the growth of starter organisms. The mastitis milk has abnormal in composition and such milk with high salt concentration does not support the growth of starter culture that leads to production of poor quality of fermented dairy products with week body.. The presence of certain neutralizing substances performed in milk has found to interfere with growth of starters. There was a definite lag in the growth of the starter organisms as well as acid development when neutralizers were added to raw milk samples. This may be due to the bacteriostatic effect of added neutralizers. But discrepancy was seen to the greatest extent in the case of neutralized mastitis and highly advanced lactation milks and to a lesser degree on the early lactation milk obtained on the 4th and 5th days.

  17. Production Of Bio fuel Starter From Biomass Waste Using Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Azman Che Mat Isa; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Zulkafli Ghazali; Mohd Zaid Mohamed; Phongsakorn, P.T.; Mohamad Puad Abu

    2014-01-01

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic in 2010, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass of which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. The biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce activated carbon and bio fuel starter. A new type of rotary kiln, called Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) was developed in Nuclear Malaysia to utilize the large amount of the biomass to produce high value added products. This system is capable to process biomass with complete combustion to produce bio fuel starter. With this system, the produced charcoal has calorific value, 33MJ/ kg that is better than bituminous coal with calorific value, 25-30 MJ/ kg. In this research, the charcoals produced were further used to produce the bio fuel starter. This paper will elaborate the experimental set-up of the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) for bio fuel starter production and the quality of the produced bio fuel starter. (author)

  18. The Effect of Autochthonous Starter Culture, Sugars and Temperature on the Fermentation of Slavonian Kulen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Mastanjević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of an isolated and well-characterised autochthonous starter culture, glucose and maltodextrin (w=0.8 % and temperatures of 12 and 20 °C on fermentation and quality of Slavonian kulen produced using the traditional technology and recipe were investigated. Physicochemical and microbiological analyses were carried out after 20 days of fermentation. Upon the completion of the production process (90 days, a sensory analysis was carried out. Furthermore, pH value was continuously measured throughout the twenty-day fermentation period. The addition of an autochthonous starter culture and sugars and diff erent fermentation temperatures significantly (p<0.05 affected the instrumental colour and texture parameters of the Slavonian kulen. The fermentation was most intense in the samples with added autochthonous starter culture and 0.8 % glucose, and fermented at 20 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that samples with added autochthonous starter culture and fermented at higher temperature contained a higher number of lactic acid bacteria and coagulase-negative staphylococci and were safe. Sensory evaluation confirmed the outcomes of physicochemical and microbiological analyses and showed differences among samples fermented at two different temperatures and with added glucose or maltodextrin and an autochthonous starter culture.

  19. The effect of spices and manganese on meat starter culture activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, M J; Hickey, M W

    1993-01-01

    Three species, two proprietary spice blends and six starter preparations used in commercial salami manufacture were analysed for manganese and magnesium content. A mettwurst spices blend showed the highest levels of manganese (0·77 ppm expressed as effective product level assuming a 1% spice content) while mild and hot paprika and milano blend contained levels of manganese 1 4 - 1 3 lower. Magnesium levels for spices ranged from 3·14 to 25·81 ppm. Only two of the six meat starter cultures showed high levels of manganese (7·77 and 16·12 ppm as effective product level based on inoculation rate) while magnesium levels for all starter cultures did not exceed 0·37 ppm. The pH of salami products made with starter cultures containing no added manganese lagged behind that of products made with added mangenese (5 ppm) by 0·2 pH units at 48 h. The effect of manganese ions on the fermentation rate of starter bacteria was studied further in a salami model system, in the absence and presence of added spices. The mettwurst blend produced greatest stimulation and the milano the least. A level of 1·2 ppm of added manganese was sufficient to achieve an optimal (spices tested in the salami model system. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Efficacies of Various Anaerobic Starter Seeds for Biogas Production from Different Types of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawinee Chaiprasert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various anaerobic starter seeds from different sources were investigated for their efficacies in treatment of different types of wastewater. Six combinations of starter seeds and wastewaters were selected out of 25 combination batch experiments and operated in semicontinuous reactors. It was noticed that the efficacies of various anaerobic starter seeds for biogas production from different types of wastewater in terms of reactor performance and stability were depended on wastewater characteristics and F/M ratio affecting microbial community and their microbial activities. However, exogenous starter seed can be used across different types of wastewater with or without acclimatization. Four reactors reached the targeted OLR of 2 kg COD/m3·d with high performance and stability except for concentrated rubber wastewater (RBw, even using high active starter seeds of cassava starch (CSs and palm oil (POs. The toxic compounds in RBw such as ammonia and sulfate might also adversely affect methanogenic activity in CSsRBw and POsRBw reactors. DGGE analysis showed that propionate utilizers, Smithella propionica strain LYP and Syntrophus sp., were detected in all samples. For Archaea domain, methylotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and acetoclastic methanogens were also detected. Syntrophic relationships were assumed between propionate utilizers and methanogens as acetate/H2 producers and utilizers, respectively.

  1. Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Saturnino Chaves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter with possible early weaning and ground starter (control, were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males. Animals were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05, despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P <0.05, but did not affect the dimensions of the papillary rumen and omasum mitotic index (MI. The Ruter feeding system was potentially beneficial for weight gain and morphofunctional rumen development in lactating animals; however, this treatment did not allow early weaning as proposed by the feeding system.

  2. Two-dimensional nanoparticle self-assembly using plasma-induced Ostwald ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J; Photopoulos, P; Tsoukalas, D; Tserepi, A

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a novel Ag nanoparticle self-assembly process based on plasma-induced two-dimensional Ostwald ripening is demonstrated. Ag nanoparticles are deposited on p-doped Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering process. With the assistance of O 2 /Ar plasma treatment, different sizes and patterns of Ag nanoparticles are formed, due to the Ostwald ripening. The evolution of plasma-induced nanoparticle ripening is studied and a clear increase in particle size and a decrease in particle density are observed with increasing plasma treatment. From the experiments, it is concluded that the initial nanoparticle density and the plasma gas mixture (Ar/O 2 ratio) are important factors that affect the ripening process. The proposed plasma-directed Ag nanoparticle self-assembly provides a rapid method of tailoring the nanoparticle distribution on substrates, with potential applications in the fields of solar cells, biosensors, and catalysis.

  3. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph A; Thomas, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0

  4. Studies on physico-chemical changes during artificial ripening of banana (Musa sp) variety 'Robusta'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shyamrao Gururao; Kudachikar, V B; Keshava Prakash, M N

    2011-12-01

    Banana (Musa sp var 'Robusta') fruits harvested at 75-80% maturity were dip treated with different concentrations of ethrel (250-1,000 ppm) solution for 5 min. Ethrel at 500 ppm induced uniform ripening without impairing taste and flavour of banana. Untreated control banana fruits remained shriveled, green and failed to ripen evenly even after 8 days of storage. Fruits treated with 500 ppm of ethrel ripened well in 6 days at 20 ± 1 °C. Changes in total soluble solids, acidity, total sugars and total carotenoids showed increasing trends up to 6 days during ripening whereas fruit shear force values, pulp pH and total chlorophyll in peel showed decreasing trends. Sensory quality of ethrel treated banana fruits (fully ripe) were excellent with respect to external colour, taste, flavour and overall quality.

  5. Textural and biochemical changes during ripening of old-fashioned salted herrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Eva; Christensen, Line

    2011-01-01

    the ripening period could be explained by free-radical-induced cross-linking of myosin and the formation of aggregates. In addition, degradation of these aggregates correlated with the decrease in hardness observed at 371 days. CONCLUSIONS: Texture changes during ripening of salted herrings can be explained...... of salted herrings. The aim of this study was to measure the texture changes during ripening using two differentmethods and to correlate the texture changeswith brine composition andwith biochemical modifications at themolecular level. RESULTS: During ripening (up to 151 days), hardness was higher in salted...... herrings compared to raw herrings, irrespective of the brine composition. However, the increase in hardness of herring prepared with extra brine occurred later. After prolonged storage (371 days), hardness was found for both batches to decrease to the level of raw herring. The increase in hardness during...

  6. A NEW MID-RIPENING VARIETY OF PEA SOVINTER FOR CANNED-FOODS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Pronina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thevariety‘Sovinter’isaresultofbreedingprogramandoriginatedat FGBNU, Federal Research Centre of Vegetable Breeding has been included into State Register of Breeding Achievements and permitted to be used in 2015 as mid-ripening, simultaneous-pod-ripening and very suitable for canned-foods industry. The variety can be used as a raw plant material for cannery and will be served in industrial techno-logical chain as permanent source for food production.

  7. Berry flesh and skin ripening features in Vitis vinifera as assessed by transcriptional profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lijavetzky

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ripening of fleshy fruit is a complex developmental process involving the differentiation of tissues with separate functions. During grapevine berry ripening important processes contributing to table and wine grape quality take place, some of them flesh- or skin-specific. In this study, transcriptional profiles throughout flesh and skin ripening were followed during two different seasons in a table grape cultivar 'Muscat Hamburg' to determine tissue-specific as well as common developmental programs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an updated GrapeGen Affymetrix GeneChip® annotation based on grapevine 12×v1 gene predictions, 2188 differentially accumulated transcripts between flesh and skin and 2839 transcripts differentially accumulated throughout ripening in the same manner in both tissues were identified. Transcriptional profiles were dominated by changes at the beginning of veraison which affect both pericarp tissues, although frequently delayed or with lower intensity in the skin than in the flesh. Functional enrichment analysis identified the decay on biosynthetic processes, photosynthesis and transport as a major part of the program delayed in the skin. In addition, a higher number of functional categories, including several related to macromolecule transport and phenylpropanoid and lipid biosynthesis, were over-represented in transcripts accumulated to higher levels in the skin. Functional enrichment also indicated auxin, gibberellins and bHLH transcription factors to take part in the regulation of pre-veraison processes in the pericarp, whereas WRKY and C2H2 family transcription factors seems to more specifically participate in the regulation of skin and flesh ripening, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A transcriptomic analysis indicates that a large part of the ripening program is shared by both pericarp tissues despite some components are delayed in the skin. In addition, important tissue differences are

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis of two contrasting watermelon genotypes during fruit development and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Qianglong; Gao, Peng; Liu, Shi; Zhu, Zicheng; Amanullah, Sikandar; Davis, Angela R.; Luan, Feishi

    2017-01-01

    Background Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an economically important crop with an attractive ripe fruit that has colorful flesh. Fruit ripening is a complex, genetically programmed process. Results In this study, a comparative transcriptome analysis was performed to identify the regulators and pathways that are involved in the fruit ripening of pale-yellow-flesh cultivated watermelon (COS) and red-flesh cultivated watermelon (LSW177). We first identified 797 novel g...

  9. Comparative genomics reveals candidate carotenoid pathway regulators of ripening watermelon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement. Results Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening. Conclusions Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening. PMID:24219562

  10. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested...... in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...

  11. Die Starter: A New System to Manage Early Feasibility in Sheet Metal Forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narainen, Rodrigue; Porzner, Harald

    2016-08-01

    Die Starter, a new system developed by ESI Group, allows the user to drastically reduce the number of iterations during the early tool process feasibility. This innovative system automatically designs the first quick die face, generating binder and addendum surfaces (NURBS surfaces) by taking account the full die process. Die Starter also improves the initial die face based on feasibility criteria (avoiding splits, wrinkles) by automatically generating the geometrical modifications of the binder and addendum and the bead restraining forces with minimal material usage. This paper presents a description of the new system and the methodology of Die Starter. Some industrial examples are presented from the part geometry to final die face including automatic developed flanges, part on binder and inner binder.

  12. Lactococcus lactis Diversity in Undefined Mixed Dairy Starter Cultures as Revealed by Comparative Genome Analyses and Targeted Amplicon Sequencing of epsD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantzen, Cyril A; Kleppen, Hans Petter; Holo, Helge

    2018-02-01

    Undefined mesophilic mixed (DL) starter cultures are used in the production of continental cheeses and contain unknown strain mixtures of Lactococcus lactis and leuconostocs. The choice of starter culture affects the taste, aroma, and quality of the final product. To gain insight into the diversity of Lactococcus lactis strains in starter cultures, we whole-genome sequenced 95 isolates from three different starter cultures. Pan-genomic analyses, which included 30 publically available complete genomes, grouped the strains into 21 L. lactis subsp . lactis and 28 L. lactis subsp. cremoris lineages. Only one of the 95 isolates grouped with previously sequenced strains, and the three starter cultures showed no overlap in lineage distributions. The culture diversity was assessed by targeted amplicon sequencing using purR , a core gene, and epsD , present in 93 of the 95 starter culture isolates but absent in most of the reference strains. This enabled an unprecedented discrimination of starter culture Lactococcus lactis and revealed substantial differences between the three starter cultures and compositional shifts during the cultivation of cultures in milk. IMPORTANCE In contemporary cheese production, standardized frozen seed stock starter cultures are used to ensure production stability, reproducibility, and quality control of the product. The dairy industry experiences significant disruptions of cheese production due to phage attacks, and one commonly used countermeasure to phage attack is to employ a starter rotation strategy, in which two or more starters with minimal overlap in phage sensitivity are used alternately. A culture-independent analysis of the lactococcal diversity in complex undefined starter cultures revealed large differences between the three starter cultures and temporal shifts in lactococcal composition during the production of bulk starters. A better understanding of the lactococcal diversity in starter cultures will enable the development of

  13. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  14. Learning Opportunities And Learning Behaviours Of Small Business Starters: Relations With Goal Achievement, Skill Development, And Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Gelderen (Marco); L. van der Sluis; P. Jansen (Paul)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractLearning is a vital issue for small business starters, contributing to short term and long term business performance, as well as to personal development. This study investigates when and how small business starters learn. It specifies the situations that offer learning opportunities, as

  15. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Betty K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We previously indicated the presence of up-regulated transcription factors in ripening tomato fruit by data mining in TIGR Tomato Gene Index. In our in-vitro system, green tomato sepals cultured at 16 to 22°C turn red and swell like ripening tomato fruit while those at 28°C remain green. Results Here, we have further examined regulation of putative developmental genes possibly involved in tomato fruit ripening and development. Using molecular biological methods, we have determined the relative abundance of various transcripts of genes during in vitro sepal ripening and in tomato fruit pericarp at three stages of development. A number of transcripts show similar expression in fruits to RIN and PSY1, ripening-associated genes, and others show quite different expression. Conclusions Our investigation has resulted in confirmation of some of our previous database mining results and has revealed differences in gene expression that may be important for tomato cultivar variation. We present new and intriguing information on genes that should now be studied in a more focused fashion.

  16. How to prevent ripening blockage in 1-MCP-treated 'Conference' pears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, Maria-Angeles; Schotsmans, Wendy C; Larrigaudière, Christian; Dupille, Eve; Recasens, Inmaculada

    2011-08-15

    Some European pear varieties treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) often remain 'evergreen', meaning that their ripening process is blocked and does not resume after removal from cold storage. In this work this was confirmed also to be the case in 'Conference' pears. To reverse the blockage of ripening 1-MCP treatments combined with external exogenous ethylene were tested. 1-MCP treatment of 'Conference' pears is very effective in delaying ripening and, more specifically, softening. The same 1-MCP concentration in different experimental years caused a different response. The higher dose of 1-MCP (600 nL L⁻¹) always resulted in irreversible blockage of ripening, whereas the behaviour of fruit receiving a lower dose (300 nL L⁻¹) depended on the year, and this did not depend on maturity at harvest or on storage conditions. Simultaneous exposure to 1-MCP and exogenous ethylene significantly affected fruit ripening, allowing significant softening to occur but at a lower rate compared with control fruit. The application of exogenous ethylene and 1-MCP simultaneously after harvest permitted restoration of the ripening process after storage in 'Conference' pears, extending the possibility of marketing and consumption. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Effects of Pu-erh ripened tea on hyperuricemic mice studied by serum metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Chen, Dong; Wu, Hualing

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate effects of Pu-erh ripened tea in hyperuricemic mice, a mouse hyperuricemia model was developed by oral administration of potassium oxonate for 7 d. Serum metabolomics, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was used to generate metabolic profiles from normal control, hyperuricemic and allopurinol-treated hyperuricemic mice, as well as hyperuricemic mice given Pu-erh ripened tea at three doses. Pu-erh ripened tea significantly lowered serum uric acid levels. Twelve potential biomarkers associated with hyperuricemia were identified. Pu-erh ripened tea and allopurinol differed in their metabolic effects in the hyperuricemic mice. Levels of glutamic acid, indolelactate, L-allothreonine, nicotinoylglycine, isoleucine, l-cysteine and glycocyamine, all involved in amino acid metabolism, were significantly changed in hyperuricemic mice treated Pu-erh ripened tea. Thus, modulating amino acid metabolism might be the primary mechanism of anti-hyperuricemia by Pu-erh ripened tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Sensory Properties, Shelf-Life and Microbiological Safety of Industrial Sausages Produced with Autochthonous and Commercial Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Frece

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use isolated and characterized autochthonous functional starter cultures from traditional Croatian dry sausages and to evaluate their capacity for industrial production of five sausages (Čajna sausage, Zimska sausage, Bečka sausage, Srijemska sausage and Slavonski kulen. These defined autochthonous functional starter cultures (combination of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains were used to produce five different industrial sausages which were compared by a panel. The viability of introduced autochthonous Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains and their effect on the final product characteristics, namely microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties were monitored. The obtained results indicate that autochthonous starter cultures survived industrial production of sausages and can be used for production of sausages under controlled conditions. Autochthonous starter cultures obtained better results in the organoleptic evaluation, microbial safety and prolonged shelf-life in comparison with commercial starter cultures.

  19. Effect of macronutrient ratio of the pre-starter diet on broiler performance and intermediary metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    SWENNEN, Quirine; Everaert, N.; Debonne, M.; Verbaeys, I.; Careghi, C.; Tona, K.; Janssens, G. P. J.; Decuypere, E.; Bruggeman, V.; Buyse, J.

    2010-01-01

    P>The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of isoenergetic substitution between the three energy delivering macronutrients in pre-starter diets on performance and intermediary nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens. From hatch until 5 days of age, 600 chicks, collected during peak of hatch, were fed one of the three experimental pre-starter diets with isoenergetic (13 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) substitutions between fat (43 vs. 108 g/kg), protein (126 vs. 240 g/kg) and carbohy...

  20. Photographic and LMA observations of a blue starter over a New Mexico thunderstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Hunyady, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    On the evening of August 3, 2010 we photographed a blue starter over an electrically active storm complex about 120 km to the WNW of Langmuir Laboratory in central New Mexico. The event occurred close to a broad overshooting top at an altitude of 15 km above MSL. It was also observed visually and detected by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) deployed around the mountaintop observatory. The blue starter appears as a white-blue leader channel propagating away from the storm top not straight upward but at a large angle from vertical, slightly curving upward and transitioning to an increasingly diffuse blue glow. In addition to this leader, a more diffuse glow of blue light from one or two additional leaders is seen in the background. The curved channel of the main leader and the fact that it did not propagate along a straight path upward indicates that a relatively strong local electric field near the storm top existed that dictated leader propagation and direction rather than the large-scale storm electric field. The visible part of the starter is estimated to have developed to about 1 km above the storm top. From the LMA data we infer that the blue starter was a screening layer discharge that initiated between upper positive charge and a negatively charged screening layer. A negative leader appears to initiate at 15 km altitude and propagates downward for 2 to 3 km, after which scattered and ill-defined activity occurred in the cloud between 10 to 15 km altitude. This indicates that the visible part of the blue starter emanating out of the storm top, which was photographed but not detected by the LMA, was positive breakdown. The event lasted for 100 ms in the LMA data. The storm where the starter occurred in was producing predominantly intracloud (IC) flashes at a rate of about 20 per minute. The starter itself occurred independently of other discharges in the storm about 4 seconds after a normal polarity IC flash. About 5 minutes after the first blue starter, a

  1. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

  2. Modeling of rheological characteristics of the fermented dairy products obtained by novel and traditional starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukić, Dajana V; Vukić, Vladimir R; Milanović, Spasenija D; Ilicić, Mirela D; Kanurić, Katarina G

    2018-06-01

    Tree different fermented dairy products obtained by conventional and non-conventional starter cultures were investigated in this paper. Textural and rheological characteristics as well as chemical composition during 21 days of storage were analysed and subsequent data processing was performed by principal component analysis. The analysis of samples` flow behaviour was focused on their time dependent properties. Parameters of Power law model described flow behaviour of samples depended on used starter culture and days of storage. The Power law model was applied successfully to describe the flow of the fermented milk, which had characteristics of shear thinning and non-Newtonian fluid behaviour.

  3. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Oltramari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO or glucose syrup (GS in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO; ii starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO; iii starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO; and iv starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS. Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids, divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h. Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA. At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05 concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  4. Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1, L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2, L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3 and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4 and stored at low temperatures (refrigerator for 0, 7 and 14 days. The observed variables were viscosity, total lactic acid bacteria, total Bifidobacterium bifidum and organoleptic properties (color, aroma, taste and firmness. The result showed that combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly (P>0.05 viscosity and total Bificobacterium bifidum of dadih at H-0 (before storage, but affect significantly (P<0.05 total lactic acid bacteria. The characteristics of dadih during 14 days of storage in low temperature showed that combinations of starter did not significantly affect viscosity but storage time affect significantly (P<0.05. Total Bificobacterium bifidum was not affected significantly by either starter combination or storage time.Total lactic acid bacteria was significantly affected (P<0.05 by storage time and very significantly affected (P<0.01 by starter combinations. A4 starter combination (L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum has the most preference modus value for firmness, color, flavor and aroma according to panelist test result. Among those four organoleptic parameters, only aroma was affected significantly by starter combination.

  5. Performance and Metabolism of Calves Fed Starter Feed Containing Sugarcane Molasses or Glucose Syrup as a Replacement for Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramari, C E; Nápoles, G G O; De Paula, M R; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Pasetti, M H O; Bittar, C M M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn grain for sugar cane molasses (MO) or glucose syrup (GS) in the starter concentrate on performance and metabolism of dairy calves. Thirty-six individually housed Holstein male calves were blocked according to weight and date of birth and assigned to one of the starter feed treatments, during an 8 week study: i) starter containing 65% corn with no MO or GS (0MO); ii) starter containing 60% corn and 5% MO (5MO); iii) starter containing 55% corn and 10% MO (10MO); and iv) starter containing 60% corn and 5% GS (5GS). Animals received 4 L of milk replacer daily (20 crude protein, 16 ether extract, 12.5% solids), divided in two meals (0700 and 1700 h). Starter and water were provided ad libitum. Starter intake and fecal score were monitored daily until animals were eight weeks old. Body weight and measurements (withers height, hip width and heart girth) were measured weekly before the morning feeding. From the second week of age, blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after the morning feeding, for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate determination. Ruminal fluid was collected at 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age using an oro-ruminal probe and a suction pump for determination of pH and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). At the end of the eighth week, animals were harvested to evaluate development of the proximal digestive tract. The composition of the starter did not affect (p>0.05) concentrate intake, weight gain, fecal score, blood parameters, and rumen development. However, treatment 5MO showed higher (p0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that the replacement of corn by 5% or 10% sugar cane molasses or 5% GS on starter concentrate did not impact performance, however it has some positive effects on rumen fermentation which may be beneficial for calves with a developing rumen.

  6. Rheological and sensory properties and aroma compounds formed during ripening of soft brined cheese made from camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    over a ripening period of 60 d. Casein degradation in soft brined camel milk cheese significantly (p fracture significantly (p ... during ripening. However, cheese made with 85 IMCU L−1 coagulant resulted in softening of cheese texture and higher salt uptake. Using descriptive sensory analysis, the experimental cheeses were described as salty, sour and firm. The volatile aroma compounds formed in soft ripened camel milk cheese...

  7. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansavini Silviero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-Methylcyclopropene. Results To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies, we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated. The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Conclusion Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization

  8. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabrizio; Alba, Rob; Schouten, Henk; Soglio, Valeria; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Sansavini, Silviero; Costa, Guglielmo; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James

    2010-10-25

    Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene. To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies), we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato) microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated.The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database) and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato) microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization during normal climacteric apple ripening, as well as

  9. Functional genomics provides insights into the role of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS in cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Teija; Laine, Pia K S; Ahlroos, Terhi; Tanskanen, Jarna; Pitkänen, Saara; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Kankainen, Matti; Tynkkynen, Soile; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri

    2017-01-16

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and determining its global transcriptional profiles during industrial cheese-making using transcriptome sequencing. The annotation of the genome identified a total of 2377 protein-coding genes and revealed the presence of enzymes and pathways for formation of several flavor compounds. Based on transcriptome profiling, the expression of 348 protein-coding genes was altered between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several propionate, acetate, and diacetyl/acetoin production related genes had higher expression levels in the warm room, whereas a general slowing down of the metabolism and an activation of mobile genetic elements was seen in the cold room. A few ripening-related and amino acid catabolism involved genes were induced or remained active in cold room, indicating that strain JS contributes to the aroma development also during cold room ripening. In addition, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain JS and 29 other Propionibacterium strains of 10 different species, including an isolate of both P. freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii and shermanii. Ortholog grouping of the predicted protein sequences revealed that close to 86% of the ortholog groups of strain JS, including a variety of ripening-related ortholog groups, were conserved across the P. freudenreichii isolates. Taken together, this study contributes to the understanding of the genomic basis of P. freudenreichii

  10. Segregating gas from melt: an experimental study of the Ostwald ripening of vapor bubbles in magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautze, Nicole C.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusive coarsening (Ostwald ripening) of H2O and H2O-CO2 bubbles in rhyolite and basaltic andesite melts was studied with elevated temperature–pressure experiments to investigate the rates and time spans over which vapor bubbles may enlarge and attain sufficient buoyancy to segregate in magmatic systems. Bubble growth and segregation are also considered in terms of classical steady-state and transient (non-steady-state) ripening theory. Experimental results are consistent with diffusive coarsening as the dominant mechanism of bubble growth. Ripening is faster in experiments saturated with pure H2O than in those with a CO2-rich mixed vapor probably due to faster diffusion of H2O than CO2 through the melt. None of the experimental series followed the time1/3 increase in mean bubble radius and time-1 decrease in bubble number density predicted by classical steady-state ripening theory. Instead, products are interpreted as resulting from transient regime ripening. Application of transient regime theory suggests that bubbly magmas may require from days to 100 years to reach steady-state ripening conditions. Experimental results, as well as theory for steady-state ripening of bubbles that are immobile or undergoing buoyant ascent, indicate that diffusive coarsening efficiently eliminates micron-sized bubbles and would produce mm-sized bubbles in 102–104 years in crustal magma bodies. Once bubbles attain mm-sizes, their calculated ascent rates are sufficient that they could transit multiple kilometers over hundreds to thousands of years through mafic and silicic melt, respectively. These results show that diffusive coarsening can facilitate transfer of volatiles through, and from, magmatic systems by creating bubbles sufficiently large for rapid ascent.

  11. Camembert-type cheese ripening dynamics are changed by the properties of wrapping films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M N; Guillemin, H; Perret, B; Cattenoz, T; Provost, J J; Corrieu, G

    2010-12-01

    Four gas-permeable wrapping films exhibiting different degrees of water permeability (ranging from 1.6 to 500 g/m(2) per d) were tested to study their effect on soft-mold (Camembert-type) cheese-ripening dynamics compared with unwrapped cheeses. Twenty-three-day trials were performed in 2 laboratory-size (18L) respiratory-ripening cells under controlled temperature (6 ± 0.5°C), relative humidity (75 ± 2%), and carbon dioxide content (0.5 to 1%). The films allowed for a high degree of respiratory activity; no limitation in gas permeability was observed. The wide range of water permeability of the films led to considerable differences in cheese water loss (from 0.5 to 12% on d 23, compared with 15% for unwrapped cheeses), which appeared to be a key factor in controlling cheese-ripening progress. A new relationship between 2 important cheese-ripening descriptors (increase of the cheese core pH and increase of the cheese's creamy underrind thickness) was shown in relation to the water permeability of the wrapping film. High water losses (more than 10 to 12% on d 23) also were observed for unwrapped cheeses, leading to Camembert cheeses that were too dry and poorly ripened. On the other hand, low water losses (from 0.5 to 1% on d 23) led to over-ripening in the cheese underrind, which became runny as a result. Finally, water losses from around 3 to 6% on d 23 led to good ripening dynamics and the best cheese quality. This level of water loss appeared to be ideal in terms of cheese-wrapping film design. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of different ripening stages on walnut kernel quality: antioxidant activities, lipid characterization and antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Furheen; Masoodi, F A; Baba, Waqas N; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Ganie, Bashir Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Packing tissue between and around the kernel halves just turning brown (PTB) is a phenological indicator of kernel ripening at harvest in walnuts. The effect of three ripening stages (Pre-PTB, PTB and Post-PTB) on kernel quality characteristics, mineral composition, lipid characterization, sensory analysis, antioxidant and antibacterial activity were investigated in fresh kernels of indigenous numbered walnut selection of Kashmir valley "SKAU-02". Proximate composition, physical properties and sensory analysis of walnut kernels showed better results for Pre-PTB and PTB while higher mineral content was seen for kernels at Post-PTB stage in comparison to other stages of ripening. Kernels showed significantly higher levels of Omega-3 PUFA (C18:3 n3 ) and low n6/n3 ratio when harvested at Pre-PTB and PTB stages. The highest phenolic content and antioxidant activity was observed at the first stage of ripening and a steady decrease was observed at later stages. TBARS values increased as ripening advanced but did not show any significant difference in malonaldehyde formation during early ripening stages whereas it showed marked increase in walnut kernels at post-PTB stage. Walnut extracts inhibited growth of Gram-positive bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus ) with respective MICs of 1, 1 and 5 mg/mL and gram negative bacteria ( E. coli, P. and K. pneumonia ) with MIC of 100 mg/mL. Zone of inhibition obtained against all the bacterial strains from walnut kernel extracts increased with increase in the stage of ripening. It is concluded that Pre-PTB harvest stage with higher antioxidant activities, better fatty acid profile and consumer acceptability could be preferred harvesting stage for obtaining functionally superior walnut kernels.

  13. Characteristics of some traditional Vietnamese starch-based rice wine fermentation starters (men)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta region of South-Vietnam, wine from purple glutinous rice is particularly interesting because of its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. It is manufactured at home or by small cottage industries, using traditional solid-state starters (Men). With the

  14. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation process for starter culture development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edward, VA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available and hygienic safety of the food are vitally important for less toxic products to be obtained. Quality, safety and acceptability of traditional fermented foods may be improved through the use of starter cultures. There has been a trend recently to isolate wild...

  15. Daqu : a traditional fermentation starter in China: microbial ecology and functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Fermented products have high nutritional value and constitute an important part of the Chinese dietary profile; they are also gaining popularity throughout the world. Daqu is a traditional natural fermentation starter culture that has a significant impact on the

  16. Characterization of volatile compounds in Fen-Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter for the production of Chinese liquor Fen (alcoholic spirit) and Fen traditional vinegar. The volatile compounds produced at seven incubation steps were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. A total of 83 major volatile compounds were identified,

  17. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  18. Effect of altering the starter and finisher dietary phases on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-10-19

    Oct 19, 2011 ... other hand, managerial factors such as feed and water availability to the birds, ... On arrival the chicks were given a stress pack for three days. ... Treatments consisted of a control (T1), the birds were given starter (0 to 18.

  19. Story Starters on the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas. A Creative Writing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Steve; Henrich, Jean

    Designed to supplement an established language arts and social studies program, this books deals with the Aztecs, Incas, and Mayas of Latin America. All of the "Story Starter" books are intended to give a variety of vocabulary and story ideas to help with the writing process. Each of the books is divided into four main sections: (1) an…

  20. Analisis Sifat Fisik dan Kimia Yogurt Yang Menggunakan Starter Lactobacillus bulgaricus Dengan Persentase Yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT.  A study of pyisical properties and quality of yogurt with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter has been doon. Objectives of this study is to know how many percent starter of L. bulgaricus in yogurt to decrease suscepetibility to syneresis and to increase quality of yogurt. Yogurt was analyzed for susceptibility to syineresis, titratable acidity and content of crude protein and crude fat. Syinerisis of yogurt was evaluated according to centrifugal methods of Halwarkar and Kalab. The result of the study showed that yogurt with 2.5-10 % L. bulgaricus as a starter are not have any effect of susceptibility to synerisis and content of crude fat, but centripuged at 250-1000 rpm. Had significantly different (<0.01 on susceptibility to synerisis. On the other hand the increasing of centrifuge rotation, increase susceptibility to synerisis. The starter of 5-10% L. bulgaricus used in yogurt able to increase titratable acidity and content of crude protein. The yogurt prepared by 10% L. bulgaricus had the highest score (3.88% of crude protein, although there is no significant differences with yogurt using 7.5% L. bulgaricus.

  1. Effect of sodium butyrate supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P

    2009-01-01

    the effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) supplementation in milk replacer and starter diet on rumen development in rearing calves. Fourteen bull calves (5-day-old) were randomly allocated to two groups: Control (C) and NaB. The later received 0.3 % NaB in milk replacer and starter diet. Animals were in experiment...... up to age of 26 days. Addition of NaB to milk replacer and starter diet had no effect on daily growth rate, but reduced the weight loss observed in C calves in first 11 days of age. Additionally, the NaB calves weighed more at the end of the study and tended to have higher growth rate in the whole......, and no change in muscle layer thickness, as compared to control. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-2 relative increase was higher in NaB group than in C group, and may be involved in rumen development. In conclusion, supplementation of the diet (milk replacer and starter diet) with NaB may enhance rumen development...

  2. Susceptibility of nine organophosphorus pesticides in skimmed milk towards inoculated lactic acid bacteria and yogurt starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Wei; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that fresh milk might be polluted by some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs). In this study the dissipation of nine OPPs, namely chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, phorate, pirimiphos-methyl and trichlorphon, in skimmed milk was investigated to clarify their susceptibility towards lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yogurt starters. Skimmed milk was spiked with nine OPPs, inoculated with five strains of LAB and two commercial yogurt starters at 42 °C for 24 and 5 h respectively and subjected to quantitative OPP analysis by gas chromatography. Degradation kinetic constants of these OPPs were calculated based on a first-order reaction model. OPP dissipation in the milk was enhanced by the inoculated strains and starters, resulting in OPP concentrations decreasing by 7.0-64.6 and 7.4-19.2% respectively. Totally, the nine OPPs were more susceptible to Lactobacillus bulgaricus, as it enhanced their degradation rate constants by 18.3-133.3%. Higher phosphatase production of the assayed stains was observed to bring about greater OPP degradation in the milk. Both LAB and yogurt starters could enhance OPP dissipation in skimmed milk, with the nine OPPs studied having different susceptibilities towards them. Phosphatase was a key factor governing OPP dissipation. The LAB of higher phosphatase production have more potential to decrease OPPs in fermented foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The AskA Starter Kit: How To Build and Maintain Digital Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Kasowitz, Abby S.

    This Starter Kit is designed to help organizations and individuals who wish to offer human-mediated information services via the Internet to users in the K-12 community. A six-step process is proposed for organizations to follow in creating an "AskA" service. This process addresses all aspects involved in building and maintaining an AskA…

  4. Comparison of the acidification activities of commercial starter cultures in camel and bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berhe, Tesfemariam; Ipsen, Richard; Seifu, Eyassu

    2018-01-01

    Camel milk has been reported to be difficult to ferment due to anti-microbial properties. The present study tested eight commercial starter cultures for their ability to grow in camel milk. All investigated cultures were able to acidify camel milk and reached a final pH at a level similar to what...

  5. Improving the Achievement on Writing Narrative Text through Discussion Starter Story Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Rodearta

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find out whether discussion starter story significantly improves the achievement on narrative text of the first grade students of Senior High School. This study was conducted by applying Classroom Action Research (CAR). The subject of this study is the first grade students of SMA Negeri 2 Pangururan in academic…

  6. Simultaneous growth and metabolite production by yoghurt starters and probiotics: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate the simultaneous growth and metabolite production by yoghurt starters and different probiotic strains, i.e. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 and Lactobacillus

  7. Sesame meal as the first protein source in piglet starter diets and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gerardo Mariscal

    2017-08-05

    Aug 5, 2017 ... The protein source or phytase did not affect villus height, crypt depth, or TTA. However ... The transition from milk to a starter diet at weaning can challenge the digestive tract of piglets ... Protection, and Use of Laboratory Animals (Diario Oficial de la ..... Effect of a novel phytase on growth performance, bone.

  8. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  9. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese. Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch

  10. Diagnostics of D.C. Starter Generators While Using Fuzzy Logic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for sparking control in generator brush contact has been developed on the basis of the proposed fuzzy diagnostic model for ad.c.starter-generator and complex processing of diagnostic data. The paper provides investigation results, namely: dependence of voltage parameters  in an external generator circuit on collector sparking intensity.

  11. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages.

    A survey to document the traditional processing

  13. Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

  14. Functionality of selected strains of moulds and yeasts from Vietnamese rice wine starters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.T.P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The role of starch-degrading mycelial fungi, and the alcohol production and ethanol tolerance of the yeasts isolated from selected Vietnamese traditional rice wine starters were examined, and optimum conditions for these essential steps in rice wine fermentation were determined. Of pure isolates

  15. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karslo?lu, Bet?l; ?i?ek, ?mran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Cando?an, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p

  16. A qualified presumption of safety approach for the safety assessment of Grana Padano whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Lia; Carminati, Domenico; Zago, Miriam; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2009-03-15

    A Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach was applied to dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with Grana Padano cheese whey starters. Thirty-two strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, and representing the overall genotypic LAB diversity associated with 24 previously collected whey starters [Rossetti, L., Fornasari, M.E., Gatti, M., Lazzi, C., Neviani, E., Giraffa, G., 2008. Grana Padano cheese whey starters: microbial composition and strain distribution. International Journal of Food Microbiology 127, 168-171], were analyzed. All L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus isolates were susceptible to four (i.e. vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin) of the clinically most relevant antibiotics. One L. fermentum strain displayed phenotypic resistance to tetracycline (Tet(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml, and gentamycin (Gm(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml. PCR was applied to this strain to test the presence of genes tet(L), tet(M), tet(S), and aac(6')-aph(2')-Ia, which are involved in horizontal transfer of Tet(R) and Gm(R), respectively but no detectable amplification products were observed. According to QPS criteria, we conclude that Grana cheese whey starters do not present particular safety concerns.

  17. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Functional implications of the microbial community structure of undefined mesophilic starter cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, E.J.; Erkus, O.; Spus, M.; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J.C.M.; Alexeeva, S.V.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the recent advances made in the studies of the microbial community of complex and undefined cheese starter cultures. We report on work related to the composition of the cultures at the level of genetic lineages, on the presence and activity of bacteriophages and on the

  19. Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, T B; Kot, W P; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, S J; Broadbent, J R; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

    2014-06-05

    Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26. Copyright © 2014 Pedersen et al.

  20. INOVASI STARTER DAN MODIFIKASI DESTILATOR UNTUK PRODUKSI BIOETANOL DARI LIMBAH MAKANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Astuti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian adalah menentukan konsentrasi asam sulfat optimum pada proses hidrolisa asam, mengisolasi jamur penghasil amylase dan memformulasi inovasi starter dari jamur dan yeast serta menguji prototipe alat destilator yang telah dimodifikasi untuk menghasilkan bioetanol dengan rendemen tinggi. Metode penelitian terdiri dari 4 tahap, yaitu : (1 Hidrolisis asam, (2 isolasi jamur penghasil amylase, (3 optimasi fermentasi menggunakan starter inovatif, (4 Produksi Bioetanol dengan modifikasi desain destilator bersirip tiga dan penambahan regulator untuk control temperature dari motor servo. Inovasi starter diuji daya hidrolisis pati. Hasil Hidrolisis asam dan fermentasi diuji jod, gula reduksi, pH, asam tertitrasi, rendemen alcohol dan kadar etanol. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Proses hidrolisis asam limbah kantin memerlukan konsentrasi asam sulfat optimum 0,1N sebesar 10 %. Diperoleh jamur Aspergillus sp yang terbukti dapat menghidrolisis pati. Fermentasi limbah kantin menggunakan inovasi starter ragi tape dapat menghasilkan rendemen tertinggi (5 ml dengan kadar alcohol 3%. Inovasi pesangan sirip-sirip di evaporator pada proses destilasi bioetanol terbukti mempercepat pemanasan .Pemasangan regulator dengan kontrol temperature dan motor servo, sudah dapat mencapai suhu 70-80 derajat, namun belum stabil.

  1. Fruit ripening in Vitis vinifera: light intensity before and not during ripening determines the concentration of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine in Cabernet Sauvignon berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alfredo; Ebeler, Susan E; Williams, Larry E; Matthews, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The roles of light and temperature in the accumulation of the vegetal impact compound 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine (MIBP) in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries were determined. Individual clusters were exposed to various light intensities using neutral density shade cloth before ripening, during ripening or throughout the season in three growing seasons. A recently developed method using headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with GC-MS in the selected ion-monitoring mode was employed to measure MIBP in berries. Berry MIBP concentration increased subsequent to berry set, reached a maximum prior to onset of ripening, and then decreased thereafter until harvest. Complete shading of clusters increased the concentration of MIBP more than 100% compared to unshaded controls in 2 out of 3 years. Light increasingly inhibited MIBP concentrations up to 25-50% of ambient light intensities (1500 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1) ). However, only changes in light intensity before ripening had any effect on MIBP accumulation or final MIBP concentration. Analyses of weather data showed that the 1 year in which shading was ineffective was unusually warm, warm early in the season, and had more hot days and higher early season degree days than the other 2 years. In controlled environment experiments, warm growth conditions reduced MIBP concentrations in fruit about as much as light exposure reduced MIBP concentrations in the field experiments. The results indicate that both light and temperature significantly affect MIBP in harvested fruit, but that the light environment during ripening does not significantly affect MIBP concentrations in the berries at harvest. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  2. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the

  3. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum (KACC 92189) as a Potential Probiotic Starter Culture for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermenting temperature on the applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum for production of fermented sausages as starter cultures, and its applicable efficiency was also compared with those inoculated with commercial starter culture or non-inoculated control. The L. plantarum isolated from a naturally-fermented meat, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and again identified by de novo Assembly Analysis method was used as a starter culture. Six treatments: 3 with L. plantarum at different fermenting temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C), and other 3 treatments (1 with commercial starter culture, 1 with its mixture with L. plantarum and 1 non-inoculated control) fermented under the same conditions (25°C) were prepared. Results revealed that the fermenting temperature considerably affected the pH change in samples added with L. plantarum; the highest pH drop rate (1.57 unit) was obtained on the samples fermented at 30°C, followed by those at 25°C (1.3 unit) and 20°C (0.99 unit) after 4 days fermentation. Increasing the temperature up to 30°C resulted in significantly lower spoilage bacteria count (5.15 log CFU/g) and lipid oxidation level in the products inoculated with L. plantarum. The sensory analysis also showed that the samples added with L. plantarum at 30°C had significantly higher odor, taste and acceptability scores than those fermented at lower temperatures. Under the same processing condition, although the L. plantarum showed slightly lower acidification than the commercial starter culture, however, it significantly improved the eating quality of the product. PMID:29725237

  5. The effect of different physical forms of starter feed on rumen fermentation indicators and weight gain in calves after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoš Pavlata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of different physical forms of starter feed on rumen fermentation indicators of calves after weaning and their weight gain. The experiment was performed with Czech Fleckvieh calves after weaning. The calves were fed ad libitum completely pelleted starter feed or texturized starter feed with chopped straw. The rumen fluid samples were collected after a month of feeding the starter feeds. The calves were weighed monthly. The pH, total acidity, total volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate, butyrate, lactic acid, ammonia and the number of rumen ciliate protozoa were determined in the rumen fluid samples. The calves receiving the starter feed with straw showed significantly higher rumen pH (6.24 ± 0.51 vs. 5.58 ± 0.30, total volatile fatty acids (98.02 ± 20.46 vs. 61.40 ± 26.51 mmol/l, molar proportion of acetate (61.20 ± 4.87 vs. 50.53 ± 4.66%, and the acetate:propionate ratio (2.38 ± 0.53 vs. 1.34 ± 0.18 and lower molar proportion of propionate (26.55 ± 4.48 vs. 37.92 ± 3.58% compared with the calves receiving pelleted starter feed. Average daily gain of the calves did not differ significantly. The feeding of starter feed with chopped straw compared with the pelleted starter feed led to better development of the rumen fermentation evaluated by rumen pH, by total volatile fatty acids production, and by the proportion and ratio of acetic and propionic acids. The feeding of starter feed with chopped straw reduced the occurrence of subacute ruminal acidosis in the weaned calves.

  6. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  7. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-30

    During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Using immunoprecipitated (IPed) DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites) in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes during ripening. Moreover, the binding of RIN to its own

  8. Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninio, Racheli; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Mizrahi, Yosef; Sitrit, Yaron

    2003-01-29

    The columnar cactus Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller, Cactaceae (koubo), is grown commercially in Israel. The unripe fruits are green, and the color changes to violet and then to red when the fruit is fully ripe. The content of soluble sugars was found to increase 5-fold during ripening. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars accumulated in the fruit pulp, and each increased from 0.5 to 5.5 g/100 g fresh weight during ripening. The polysaccharides content decreased during ripening from 1.4 to 0.4 g/100 g fresh weight. The titratable acidity decreased and the pH increased during ripening. The major organic acid found in the fruit was malic acid, which decreased from 0.75 g/100 g fresh weight at the mature green stage to 0.355 g/100 g fresh weight in ripe fruits. Citric, succinic, and oxalic acids were found in concentrations lower than 0.07 g/100 g fresh weight. Prominent accumulation of aroma volatiles occurred toward the end of the ripening process. The main volatile found in the ripe fruit was linalool, reaching concentrations of 1.5-3.5 microg/g fresh weight.

  9. Investigation into the role of endogenous abscisic acid during ripening of imported avocado cv. Hass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marjolaine D; Chope, Gemma A; Terry, Leon A

    2017-08-01

    The importance of ethylene in avocado ripening has been extensively studied. In contrast, little is known about the possible role of abscisic acid (ABA). The present work studied the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) (0.3 μL L -1 ), e+® Ethylene Remover and the combination thereof on the quality of imported avocado cv. Hass fruit stored for 7 days at 12 °C. Ethylene production, respiration, firmness, colour, heptose (C7) sugars and ABA concentrations in mesocarp tissue were measured throughout storage. Treatment with e+® Ethylene Remover reduced ethylene production, respiration rate and physiological ripening compared with controls. Fruit treated with 1-MCP + e+® Ethylene Remover and, to a lesser extent 1-MCP alone, had the lowest ethylene production and respiration rate and hence the best quality. Major sugars measured in mesocarp tissue were mannoheptulose and perseitol, and their content was not correlated with ripening parameters. Mesocarp ABA concentration, as determined by mass spectrometry, increased as fruit ripened and was negatively correlated with fruit firmness. Results suggest a relationship between ABA and ethylene metabolism since blocking ethylene, and to a larger extent blocking and removing ethylene, resulted in lower ABA concentrations. Whether ABA influences avocado fruit ripening needs to be determined in future research. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Prediction of textural attributes using color values of banana (Musa sapientum) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Pranita; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Bhardwaj, Rishi; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Wadhawan, Vishakha

    2014-06-01

    Banana is an important sub-tropical fruit in international trade. It undergoes significant textural and color transformations during ripening process, which in turn influence the eating quality of the fruit. In present study, color ('L', 'a' and 'b' value) and textural attributes of bananas (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; pulp toughness; stickiness) were studied simultaneously using Hunter Color Lab and Texture Analyser, respectively, during ripening period of 10 days at ambient atmosphere. There was significant effect of ripening period on all the considered textural characteristics and color properties of bananas except color value 'b'. In general, textural descriptors (peel, fruit and pulp firmness; and pulp toughness) decreased during ripening except stickiness, while color values viz 'a' and 'b' increased with ripening barring 'L' value. Among various textural attributes, peel toughness and pulp firmness showed highest correlation (r) with 'a' value of banana peel. In order to predict textural properties using color values of banana, five types of equations (linear/polynomial/exponential/logarithmic/power) were fitted. Among them, polynomial equation was found to be the best fit (highest coefficient of determination, R(2)) for prediction of texture using color properties for bananas. The pulp firmness, peel toughness and pulp toughness showed R(2) above 0.84 with indicating its potentiality of the fitted equations for prediction of textural profile of bananas non-destructively using 'a' value.

  11. Formation of early and advanced Maillard reaction products correlates to the ripening of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanneberg, Robert; Salzwedel, Grit; Glomb, Marcus A

    2012-01-18

    The present study deals with the characterization of the ripening of cheese. A traditional German acid curd cheese was ripened under defined conditions at elevated temperature, and protein and amino acid modifications were investigated. Degree of proteolysis and analysis of early [Amadori compound furosine (6)] and advanced [N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (4), N(ε)-carboxyethyllysine (5)] Maillard reaction products confirmed the maturation to proceed from the rind to the core of the cheese. Whereas 6 was decreased, 4 and 5 increased over time. Deeper insight into the Maillard reaction during the ripening of cheese was achieved by the determination of selected α-dicarbonyl compounds. Especially methylglyoxal (2) showed a characteristic behavior during storage of the acid curd cheese. Decrease of this reactive structure was directly correlated to the formation of 5. To extend the results of experimental ripening to commercial cheeses, different aged Gouda types were investigated. Maturation times of the samples ranged from 6 to 8 weeks (young) to more than 1 year (aged). Again, increase of 5 and decrease of 2 were able to describe the ripening of this rennet coagulated cheese. Therefore, both chemical parameters are potent markers to characterize the degree of maturation, independent of coagulation.

  12. Distribution and stability of Aflatoxin M1 during processing and ripening of traditional white pickled cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, H H; Cibik, R; Yilmaz, E; Kalkanli, O

    2006-02-01

    The distribution of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) has been studied between curd, whey, cheese and pickle samples of Turkish white pickled cheese produced according to traditional techniques and its stability studied during the ripening period. Cheeses were produced in three cheese-making trials using raw milk that was artificially contaminated with AFM(1) at the levels of 50, 250 and 750 ng/l and allowed to ripen for three months. AFM(1) determinations were carried out at intervals by LC with fluorescence detection after immunoaffinity column clean-up. During the syneresis of the cheese a proportionately high concentration of AFM(1) remained in curd and for each trial the level was 3.6, 3.8 and 4.0 times higher than levels in milk. At the end of the ripening, the distribution of AFM(1) for cheese/whey + brine samples was 0.9, 1.0 and 1.3 for first, second and third spiking respectively indicating that nearly half of the AFM(1) remained in cheese. It has been found that only 2-4% of the initial spiking of AFM(1) transferred into the brine solution. During the ripening period AFM(1) levels remained constant suggesting that AFM(1) was quite stable during manufacturing and ripening.

  13. Colour traits in the evaluation of the ripening period of Asiago cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out on Asiago d’Allevo cheese samples produced in a single farm located in the Altopiano dei Sette Comuni (above 1000m a.s.l.. After 6-12-18 and 36 months of ripening, samples were analyzed for quality traits, in order to evaluate the effect of ripening on colour and gross composition. As expected crude protein and fat significantly increased through the considered period. Ripening led to a significant decrease of L*, a* and b* values. Lightness showed a negative relationship with crude protein, meanwhile a* and b* were both negatively related to fat content. Concerning L*, the trend could be explained by water loss and N-soluble compounds concentration, which could alter protein matrix. a* and b* reduction was probably related to degradation processes such as lipolysis, which seemed to be extensive in hard and long ripened cheese. Ripening affected significantly the light reflectance at all λ with green cheese having the higher values.

  14. Evaluation of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke, a traditional cheese of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaka, R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dangke is a traditional soft cheese from Enrekang, South Sulawesi Indonesia which is produced through heat denaturation at 85°C and enzymatic coagulation using papaya latex. The quality, microstructure and storage life of the cheese are affected by several factors such as denaturation temperature, enzyme concentration, moulding pressure, coating, and ripening. The objective of this study was to evaluated of using edible coating and ripening on Dangke cheese. The experiment was conducting using factorial design with five replications. The experimental variables were the type of edible coating used (agar, CMC and bee wax and the length of ripening (10, 20 and 30 days. Parameter was measured hardness, microstructure, and sensory evaluation. The overall result indicated that the use of edible coating can extend the shelf life, increase hardness, and more compact microstructure. Sensory evaluation also indicated that the cheese coated with film forming edible materials had had white color, more milk like smell (smelly milk, and smoother texture.

  15. Physicochemical quality and antioxidant changes in ‘Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannipa Youryon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical and antioxidant changes of ‘Kluai Leb Mue Nang’ banana fruit (Musa AA group were investigated during ripening. The visual appearance, peel and pulp color, firmness, total soluble solids concentration (TSS, total acidity (TA and bioactive compounds of the fruit at three stages of ripening (mature green, ripe and overripe were monitored. Changes in both the peel and pulp color, texture, TSS and TA contents during banana ripening were similar to those of other banana fruits. Interestingly, the highest total antioxidants capacity and total phenols concentration were found in the ripe banana fruit. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity remained constant and the highest total flavonoids concentration was found in the mature green fruit.

  16. Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene Treatments on Ripening and Quality of Harvested Sapodilla Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Qiuping

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sapodilla fruits were exposed to the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP at 0, 40 or 80 nL/L for 24 h at 20 °C. Fruits were then stored at 20 °C and 85−95 % relative humidity and later assessed for quality and ripening characteristics. 1-MCP treatments delayed the increases in the rates of respiration and ethylene production by 6 days. Treatments also delayed by 6 days the increase in polygalacturonase activity. Decreases in ascorbic acid, titratable acidity and chlorophyll content that are normally seen with ripening were delayed. Changes in the content of soluble solids were also slowed compared to untreated fruit. The application of 1-MCP was an effective technology for ripening inhibition and quality maintenance of harvested sapodilla fruit.

  17. Evolution of the taste of a bitter Camembert cheese during ripening: characterization of a matrix effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, E; Nicklaus, S; Septier, C; Salles, C; Le Quéré, J L

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of ripening on the taste of a typically bitter Camembert cheese. The first step was to select a typically bitter cheese among several products obtained by different processes supposed to enhance this taste defect. Second, the evolution of cheese taste during ripening was characterized from a sensory point of view. Finally, the relative impact of fat, proteins, and water-soluble molecules on cheese taste was determined by using omission tests performed on a reconstituted cheese. These omission tests showed that cheese taste resulted mainly from the gustatory properties of water-soluble molecules but was modulated by a matrix effect due to fat, proteins, and cheese structure. The evolution of this matrix effect during ripening was discussed for each taste characteristic.

  18. Feeding on ripening and over-ripening fruit: interactions between sugar, ethanol and polyphenol contents in a tropical butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Michaël; Franke, Kristin; Fischer, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    In ripe fruit, energy mostly derives from sugar, while in over-ripe fruit, it also comes from ethanol. Such ripeness differences may alter the fitness benefits associated with frugivory if animals are unable to degrade ethanol when consuming over-ripe fruit. In the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana , we found that females consuming isocaloric solutions mimicking ripe (20% sucrose) and over-ripe fruit (10% sucrose, 7% ethanol) of the palm Astrocaryum standleyanum exhibited higher fecundity than females consuming a solution mimicking unripe fruit (10% sucrose). Moreover, relative to butterflies consuming a solution mimicking unripe fruit, survival was enhanced when butterflies consumed a solution mimicking either ripe fruit supplemented with polyphenols (fruit antioxidant compounds) or over-ripe fruit devoid of polyphenols. This suggests that (1) butterflies have evolved tolerance mechanisms to derive the same reproductive benefits from ethanol and sugar, and (2) polyphenols may regulate the allocation of sugar and ethanol to maintenance mechanisms. However, variation in fitness owing to the composition of feeding solutions was not paralleled by corresponding physiological changes (alcohol dehydrogenase activity, oxidative status) in butterflies. The fitness proxies and physiological parameters that we measured therefore appear to reflect distinct biological pathways. Overall, our results highlight that the energy content of fruit primarily affects the fecundity of B. anynana butterflies, while the effects of fruit consumption on survival are more complex and vary depending on ripening stage and polyphenol presence. The actual underlying physiological mechanisms linking fruit ripeness and fitness components remain to be clarified. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Reduction of ripening time of full-scale manganese removal filters with manganese oxide-coated media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, J.H.; Petrusevski, B.; Slokar, Y.M.; Huysman, K.; Joris, K.; Kruithof, J.C.; Kennedy, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    Effective manganese removal by conventional aeration-filtration with virgin filter media requires a long ripening time. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of manganese oxide-coated media to shorten the ripening time of filters with virgin media, under practical conditions. A full

  20. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  1. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102 at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw decreased (p<0.05 up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05 increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05 color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.

  2. Activation of ethylene-responsive p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase leads to increased tocopherol levels during ripening in mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh K.; Ali, Sharique A.; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2011-01-01

    Mango is characterized by high tocopherol and carotenoid content during ripening. From a cDNA screen of differentially expressing genes during mango ripening, a full-length p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (MiHPPD) gene homologue was isolated that encodes a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of tocopherols. The gene encoded a 432-amino-acid protein. Transcript analysis during different stages of ripening revealed that the gene is ripening related and rapidly induced by ethylene. The increase in MiHPPD transcript accumulation was followed by an increase in tocopherol levels during ripening. The ripening-related increase in MiHPPD expression was also seen in response to abscisic acid and to alesser extent to indole-3-acetic acid. The expression of MiHPPD was not restricted to fruits but was also seen in other tissues such as leaves particularly during senescence. The strong ethylene induction of MiHPPD was also seen in young leaves indicating that ethylene induction of MiHPPD is tissue independent. Promoter analysis of MiHPPD gene in tomato discs and leaves of stable transgenic lines of Arabidopsis showed that the cis elements for ripening-related, ethylene-responsive, and senescence-related expression resided within the 1590 nt region upstream of the ATG codon. Functionality of the gene was demonstrated by the ability of the expressed protein in bacteria to convert p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate. These results provide the first evidence for HPPD expression during ripening of a climacteric fruit. PMID:21430290

  3. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2014-08-06

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05). The identified proteins were classified into 14 functional categories. The categories with the most proteins were ‘disease and defense’ (16.5%) and ‘metabolism’ (15.4%). Twenty-nine proteins have not previously been identified in other fleshy fruits and 64 showed contrasting expression patterns in other fruits. Abundance of most proteins with a role in abiotic stress responses increased during ripening with the exception of heat shock proteins. Proteins with a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall degradation were upregulated particularly from the onset of ripening and during ripening. In contrast, expression of pentose phosphate- and photosynthesis-related proteins decreased during fruit maturation. Although date palm is considered a climacteric species, the analysis revealed downregulation of two enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, suggesting an ethylene-independent ripening of ‘Barhi’ fruits. In summary, this proteomics study provides insights into physiological processes during date fruit development and ripening at the systems level and offers a reference proteome for the study of regulatory mechanisms that can inform molecular and biotechnological approaches to further improvements of horticultural traits including fruit quality and yield.

  4. Straw particle size in calf starters: Effects on digestive system development and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2016-01-01

    Two trials were conducted to determine effects of straw particle size in calf starter on rumen fermentation and development in calves. Holstein calves (n=17 in trial 1; n=25 in trial 2) were housed in individual pens; bedding (wood shavings) was covered with landscape fabric to completely avoid consumption of bedding. Milk replacer was fed at 12% of birth body weight per day and water offered free choice. Calves were randomly assigned to 4 treatments differing in geometric mean particle length (Xgm) of straw comprising 5% of starter dry matter. Straw was provided within the pellet at manufacture (PS; 0.82 mm Xgm) or mixed with the pellet at time of feeding at Xgm of 3.04 (SS), 7.10 (MS), or 12.7 (LS) mm. Calves (n=12; 3/treatment) in trial 1 were fitted with a rumen cannula by wk 2 of age. A fixed amount of starter that was adjusted with age and orts were fed through the cannula in cannulated calves. Calves were euthanized 6 wk after starter was offered (9 and 7 wk of age for trials 1 and 2, respectively). Rumen digesta pH linearly decreased with age, whereas volatile fatty acid concentration increased with age. Overall pH had a cubic trend with SS lower than that of PS and MS. Molar proportion of acetate decreased with age whereas propionate proportion increased. Overall molar proportions of volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Fecal Xgm was not different in spite of changes in diet particle size and rumen digesta of PS being greater than SS, MS, and LS at slaughter. Fecal pH and starch concentration were not affected by diet; however, pH decreased whereas starch content increased with age. Weight of stomach compartments, rumen papillae length and width, and rumen wall thickness did not differ between diets. Omasum weight as a percentage of body weight at harvest linearly decreased as straw particle size increased. Under the conditions of this study, modifying straw particle length in starter grain resulted in minimal rumen fermentation parameter

  5. Characteristic of cow milk dadih using starter of probiotic of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Usmiati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dadih is an original dairy product from West Sumatera processed traditionally. It is a spontaneous fermentation of buffalo milk at room temperature for 48 hours in a bamboo tube, has no standard of processing and quality. Dadih is potentially to be develop into probiotic products (functional food that can be enjoyed by the public widely. Development of cow's milk dadih is necessary since buffalo milk is available only in certain area. Product and characteristic information of cow milk dadih using probiotic of lactic acid bacteria starter has not been known. The research objective was to determine the characteristics of cow milk dadih that used starter of probiotic lactic acid bacteria during storage at room temperature (27oC and cold temperature (4oC. The study was designed using a factorial randomized block design pattern 12x3 at room temperature and 12X4 at cold temperatures, with the number of repeatation of 3 times. Treatment consisted of: (i starter formula (A using a single bacterium or a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, and (ii storage time (B. Observed parameters included pH value, titrable acidity, the total plate count, and in-vitro probiotic testing (bacterial resistance to bile salts and low pH of cow milk dadih. The results showed that L. acidophilus early exponential phase was at the hour 3rd, L. casei at the hour 4th and B. longum on the 3rd of which is used as the optimum time of mixing two or more bacteria in the manufacture of cow milk dadih. The volume of starter used was 3% with time fermentation of 48 hours at room temperature (27-30oC. Cow milk dadih that was stored for 7 days at room temperature (27-30oC and for 21 days at cold temperatures (4-10oC was able to maintain viability of bacteria to bile salts and low pH at 1010-1012 cfu/ml with percentage resistance varied. The cow milk dadih using a combination starter of B. longum with other probiotics on the

  6. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  7. Dynamics of lactose changes during ripening of Edam cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Vorlová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The published data show that milk and dairy products are an important part of the diet in the European population and the population of North America, where they cover from 20 to 30% of protein, 15% of lipids and about 80% of calcium from food sources. The exclusion of milk and dairy products from human diet due to lactose intolerance (approximately 75% of the global population are lactose malabsorbers can cause very serious health consequences. From a public health point of view, it is therefore extremely important for diary products to capture all the facts about the fluctuation process or rather reduction of lactose content during dairy production technology. The aim of our study was to determine the lactose in various stages of Edam cheese ripening, to assess its suitability for consumption on the afflicted population. For the determination of lactose (day of production, first, second and sixth month of storage the reference enzymatic method using the enzymatic set Megazyme International Ireland with a detection limit of 0.00296 g.100 g-1was applied. This set is intended for determination of lactose in samples presented as low-lactose or lactose-free products and is based on the hydrolysis of lactose to D-galactose and D-glucose by the enzyme β-galactosidase. After the subsequent oxidation of galactose, the amount of formed NADH (stoichiometrically related to the amount of lactose contained in the sample is measured in a spectrophotometer at 340 nm.  According to current legislation, the lactose-free product must contain less than 10 mg of lactose per 100 g or 100 mL of the consumed product, while a product that contains up to 1 g of lactose in 100 g or 100 mL of the product consumed is considered as a product with low lactose content. The study results showed that even after one month of storage Edam cheese can be, according to current national and EU legislation, designated as a lactose-free food. This means that the consumer receives a

  8. Interactions between ethylene and auxin are crucial to the control of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berry ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2013-12-23

    Fruit development is controlled by plant hormones, but the role of hormone interactions during fruit ripening is poorly understood. Interactions between ethylene and the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are likely to be crucial during the ripening process, since both hormones have been shown to be implicated in the control of ripening in a range of different fruit species. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) homologues of the TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED (TAR) and YUCCA families, functioning in the only characterized pathway of auxin biosynthesis, were identified and the expression of several TAR genes was shown to be induced by the pre-ripening application of the ethylene-releasing compound Ethrel. The induction of TAR expression was accompanied by increased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations, indicative of an upregulation of auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Exposure of ex planta, pre-ripening berries to the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine resulted in decreased IAA and IAA-Asp concentrations. The delayed initiation of ripening observed in Ethrel-treated berries might therefore represent an indirect ethylene effect mediated by increased auxin concentrations. During berry development, the expression of three TAR genes and one YUCCA gene was upregulated at the time of ripening initiation and/or during ripening. This increase in auxin biosynthesis gene expression was preceded by high expression levels of the ethylene biosynthesis genes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase. In grape berries, members of both gene families involved in the two-step pathway of auxin biosynthesis are expressed, suggesting that IAA is produced through the combined action of TAR and YUCCA proteins in developing berries. The induction of TAR expression by Ethrel applications and the developmental expression patterns of auxin and ethylene biosynthesis genes indicate that elevated concentrations of ethylene prior to the

  9. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation

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    Trost Eva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium variabile is part of the complex microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and contributes to the development of flavor and textural properties during cheese ripening. Still little is known about the metabolic processes and microbial interactions during the production of smear-ripened cheeses. Therefore, the gene repertoire contributing to the lifestyle of the cheese isolate C. variabile DSM 44702 was deduced from the complete genome sequence to get a better understanding of this industrial process. Results The chromosome of C. variabile DSM 44702 is composed of 3, 433, 007 bp and contains 3, 071 protein-coding regions. A comparative analysis of this gene repertoire with that of other corynebacteria detected 1, 534 predicted genes to be specific for the cheese isolate. These genes might contribute to distinct metabolic capabilities of C. variabile, as several of them are associated with metabolic functions in cheese habitats by playing roles in the utilization of alternative carbon and sulphur sources, in amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation. Relevant C. variabile genes confer the capability to catabolize gluconate, lactate, propionate, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and to utilize external caseins. In addition, C. variabile is equipped with several siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters for iron acquisition and an exceptional repertoire of AraC-regulated iron uptake systems. Moreover, C. variabile can produce acetoin, butanediol, and methanethiol, which are important flavor compounds in smear-ripened cheeses. Conclusions The genome sequence of C. variabile provides detailed insights into the distinct metabolic features of this bacterium, implying a strong adaption to the iron-depleted cheese surface habitat. By combining in silico data obtained from the genome annotation with previous experimental knowledge, occasional observations on genes that are involved in the complex

  10. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of corrientes artisanal cheese during ripening Avaliação físico-química e microbiológica de queijo artesanal corrientes durante a maturação

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    Olga Myriam Vasek

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and chemical parameters (total solids, pH, acidity, fat, acid degree value of fat, salt, protein and nitrogen fractions and their effects on the beneficial (lactic acid bacteria: LAB and undesirable microbial populations (coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, moulds, and yeast during ripening of Artisanal Corrientes Cheese, an Argentinian cow's milk variety, to determine whether a longer ripening period than usual improve its hygienic-sanitary quality. The protein content was much higher than that of other cow's milk cheeses with similar values of fat. The larger peptides showed values three times higher in the 30 day-old cheese than those obtained in the beginning of the process. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli were detected (3.04 ± 1.48 log10 cfu/g of cheese, 2.21 ± 0.84 log10 MPN/g of cheese even at 15 and 30 days of ripening, respectively. The distribution of three hundred LAB strains classified to the genus level (lactococci:lactobacilli:leuconostocs was maintained during the ripening period. The high number of LAB in rennet may have contributed to the fermentation as a natural whey starter, unknown source of LAB for this specific cheese so far. The physicochemical changes that occur during ripening were not big enough to inhibit the growth of undesirable microorganisms.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar alguns parâmetros físicos e químicos (sólidos totais, pH, acidez, gordura, grau de acidez da gordura, sal, proteínas e frações de nitrogênio e seus efeitos sobre as populações microbianas benéficas (bactérias lácticas: LAB e indesejáveis (coliformes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, fungos e leveduras durante a maturação do Queijo Artesanal de Corrientes, uma variedade argentina do leite cru da vaca, para determinar se um tempo de maturação mais longo do que o atual melhora as condições higiênico-sanitárias do queijo. O teor de

  11. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

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    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  12. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

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    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  13. Impact of vitamin E and selenium on antioxidant capacity and lipid oxidation of cheddar cheese in accelerated ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Maryam; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gulzar, Nabila; Shahid, Muhammad Qamar; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Khan, Imran Taj

    2018-04-11

    Ripening of cheddar cheese is a time taking process, duration of the ripening may be as long as one year. Long ripening time is a big hindrance in the popularity of cheese in developing countries. Further, energy resources in these countries are either insufficient or very expensive. Therefore, those methods of cheese ripening should be discovered which can significantly reduce the ripening time without compromising the quality characteristics of cheddar cheese. In accelerated ripening, cheese is usually ripened at higher temperature than traditional ripening temperatures. Ripening of cheddar cheese at high temperature with the addition of vitamin E and selenium is not previously studied. This investigation aimed to study the antioxidant activity of selenium and vitamin E in accelerated ripening using cheddar cheese as an oxidation substrate. The ripening of cheddar cheese was performed at 18 °C and to prevent lipid oxidation, vitamin E and selenium were used alone and in combination. The treatments were as: cheddar cheese without any addition of vitamin E and selenium (T1), cheddar cheese added with 100 mg/kg vitamin E (T 2 ), 200 mg/kg vitamin E (T 3 ), 800 μg/kg selenium (T 4 ), 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 5 ), vitamin E 100 mg/kg + 800 μg/kg selenium (T 6 ) and vitamin E 200 mg/kg + 1200 μg/kg selenium (T 7 ). Traditional cheddar cheese ripne ripened at 4-6 °C for 9 months was used as positive control. Cheese samples were ripened at 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 6 and 12 weeks of storage. All these treatments were compared with a cheddar cheese without vitamin E, selenium and ripened at 4 °C or 12 weeks. Vacuum packaged cheddar cheese was ripened 18 °C for a period of 12 weeks and analyzed for chemical and oxidative stability characteristics at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of storage period. Addition of Vitamin E and selenium did not have any effect on moisture, fat and

  14. An experimental evaluation of the performance deficit of an aircraft engine starter turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. E.; Roelke, R. J.; Hermann, P.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to determine the aerodynamic performance deficit of a 13.5 - centimeter-tip-diameter aircraft engine starter turbine. The two-phased evaluation comprised both the stator and the stage performance, and the experimental design is described in detail. Data obtained from the investigation of three honeycomb shrouds clearly showed that the filled honeycomb reached a total efficiency of 0.868, 8.2 points higher than the open honeycomb shroud, at design equivalent conditions of speed and blade-jet speed ratio. It was concluded that the use of an open honeycomb shroud caused the large performance deficit for the starter turbine. Further research is suggested to ascertain stator inlet boundary layer measurements.

  15. Leuconostoc Strains Unable to Split a Lactose Analogue Revealed by Characterisation of Mesophilic Dairy Starters

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    Maarit Mäki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesophilic starter cultures used in dairy industry have been traditionally characterised by metabolic and biochemical methods. As closely related species of lactic acid bacteria have often only minor differences in phenotypic traits, which may also be variable within certain species, clear identification is often complicated. Therefore, techniques of molecular biology have been applied for rapid detection and differentiation of lactic acid bacteria. In this work, some bacterial clones isolated from mesophilic starters, which were preliminary identified as lactococci by phenotypic methods, were found to be Leuconostoc strains by both PCR and PFGE. According to the results, genotypic differentiation methods used in combination with phenotypic tests provide a fast and convenient way to reliably identify lactic acid bacteria displaying atypical metabolic characteristics.

  16. Analysis of bacterial and fungal communities in Marcha and Thiat, traditionally prepared amylolytic starters of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Shankar Prasad; Jani, Kunal; Sharma, Avinash; Anupma, Anu; Pradhan, Pooja; Shouche, Yogesh; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2017-09-08

    Marcha and thiat are traditionally prepared amylolytic starters use for production of various ethnic alcoholic beverages in Sikkim and Meghalaya states in India. In the present study we have tried to investigate the bacterial and fungal community composition of marcha and thiat by using high throughput sequencing. Characterization of bacterial community depicts phylum Proteobacteria is the most dominant in both marcha (91.4%) and thiat (53.8%), followed by Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Estimates of fungal community composition showed Ascomycota as the dominant phylum. Presence of Zygomycota in marcha distinguishes it from the thiat. The results of NGS analysis revealed dominance of yeasts in marcha whereas molds out numbers in case of thiat. This is the first report on microbial communities of traditionally prepared amylolytic starters of India using high throughput sequencing.

  17. Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation.

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    Akolkar, A V; Durai, D; Desai, A J

    2010-07-01

    Application of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) for the acceleration of fish sauce fermentation. Traditional fish sauce fermentation was mimicked using Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) as starter culture. Protease activity, peptide release and α-amino content (parameters used to monitor the progress of the fermentation) were high at day 10 in tests and day 20 in un-inoculated controls. The total protein and nitrogen contents were also high in tests compared with controls. The amino acid profile observed at the end of fermentation in experimental samples, when compared with the commercial sauce preparation, was found to be better with respect to flavour and aroma contributing amino acids as well as essential amino acid lysine. Microflora analysis of the final fish sauce revealed the absence of any nonhalophilic or halotolerant micro-organisms. The protease-producing halophilic isolates obtained from the fish sauce of eviscerated and uneviscerated controls were identified as Halobacterium sp. F1 and F2, respectively, by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Exogenous augmentation of Halobacterium sp. SP1(1) accelerated the fish sauce fermentation process with an additive effect on the existing natural microflora present in the fish during fermentation. Halobacterium sp SP1(1), therefore, can be used as an important starter culture for accelerating the fish fermentation process, which is attributed to its extracellular protease. The present study is the first report on use of Halobacterium species as a starter culture for accelerating fish sauce fermentation. Use of halobacterial starter cultures may revolutionize the process in fish sauce industries by reducing the fermentation time and making the process more economical with improved nutritive value of product. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to Indian Government works.

  18. Generation of Food-Grade Lactococcal Starters Which Produce the Lantibiotics Lacticin 3147 and Lacticin 481

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Lisa; Ryan, Maire P.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Transconjugant lactococcal starters which produce both lantibiotics lacticin 3147 and lacticin 481 were generated via conjugation of large bacteriocin-encoding plasmids. A representative of one of the resultant strains proved more effective at killing Lactobacillus fermentum and inhibiting the growth of Listeria monocytogenes LO28H than either of the single bacteriocin-producing parental strains, demonstrating the potential of these transconjugants as protection cultures for food safety applications. PMID:12788782

  19. Torque Split Strategy for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles with an Integrated Starter Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Zhumu; Gao, Aiyun; Wang, Xiaohong; Song, Xiaona

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a torque split strategy for parallel hybrid electric vehicles with an integrated starter generator (ISG-PHEV) by using fuzzy logic control. By combining the efficiency map and the optimum torque curve of the internal combustion engine (ICE) with the state of charge (SOC) of the batteries, the torque split strategy is designed, which manages the ICE within its peak efficiency region. Taking the quantified ICE torque, the quantified SOC of the batteries, and the quantified I...

  20. Comparison of PMAC Machines for Starter-Generator Application in a Series Hybrid-Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Sinisa Jurkovic; Elias G. Strangas

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of outer rotor PMAC machine candidates for starter-generator application in hybrid bus with series power train configuration. PMAC machines with interior and surface mount permanent magnets are considered and compared, although a complete analysis is only carried out for the SPM. Different design aspects such as concentrated versus distributed windings as well as interior and exterior rotor structures are evaluated. Different slot numbers per pole per p...

  1. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnaire and focus group discussions in each of the three districts, i.e., Mudzi, Mt Darwin and Muzarabani in Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that the masau fruit is usually gathered by women and chi...

  2. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Hulak; Ana Žgomba Maksimović; Ana Kaić; Andrea Skelin; Mirna Mrkonjić Fuka

    2016-01-01

    Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may resul...

  3. Fermentation of Nocellara Etnea Table Olives by Functional Starter Cultures at Different Low Salt Concentrations

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    Alessandra Pino

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocellara Etnea is one of the main Sicilian cultivars traditionally used to produce both olive oil and naturally fermented table olives. In the present study, the effect of different salt concentrations on physico-chemical, microbiological, sensorial, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs formation was evaluated in order to obtain functional Nocellara Etnea table olives. The experimental design consisted of 8 treatments as follow: fermentations at 4, 5, 6, and 8% of salt with (E1-E4 samples and without (C1-C4 samples the addition of starters. All the trials were carried out at room temperature (18 ± 2°C and monitored for an overall period of 120 d. In addition, the persistence of the potential probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei N24 at the end of the process was investigated. Microbiological data revealed the dominance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, starting from the 7th d of fermentation, and the reduction of yeasts and enterobacteria in the final product inoculated with starters. VOCs profile highlighted a high amount of aldehydes at the beginning of fermentation, which significantly decreased through the process and a concomitant increase of alcohols, acids, esters, and phenols. In particular, esters showed an occurrence percentage higher in experimental samples rather than in control ones, contributing to more pleasant flavors. Moreover, acetic acid, ethanol, and phenols, which often generate off-flavors, were negatively correlated with mesophilic bacteria and LAB. It is interesting to note that salt content did not affect the performances of starter cultures and slightly influenced the metabolome of table olives. Sensory data demonstrated significant differences among samples registering the highest overall acceptability in the experimental sample at 5% of NaCl. The persistence of the L. paracasei N24 strain in experimental samples, at the end of the process, revealed its promising perspectives as starter culture for the production of

  4. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

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    Chen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST, but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showed as following: the freeze-drying protective agents or anti-freeze factors could enhanced survival rate of LB and ST; the freeze-dried LB and ST powders containing both of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents had higher viable count and freeze-drying survival rate that were 84.7% and 79.7% respectively; In terms of fermentation performance, the best group of freeze-dried starter for yogurt was the compound of LB3 and ST2.

  5. Short communication: Protection of lyophilized milk starter Lactobacillus casei Zhang by glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Lyophilization is considered an effective way to preserve the activity of milk starters, such as lactic acid bacteria, in which proper protective agents play key roles. In this study, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a probiotic bacterium applied as a milk starter in China, was used to investigate the effects of various cryoprotectants according to cell survival rate and physiological characteristics. The result showed a significant survival improvement to 86.6% when glutathione (GSH) was added as an ideal cryoprotectant. Further study revealed that GSH plays a key role on maintaining higher unsaturation ratio of cell membrane and shorter chain length of saturated fatty acids. In this case, the intact cell structure can be obtained. These findings will contribute not only to deepen the understanding of cells during lyophilization but also to improve the industrial performance of certain milk starters such as L. casei Zhang by application of GSH as cryoprotectant. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Secondary metabolites from Penicillium roqueforti, a starter for the production of Gorgonzola cheese

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    Lisa Vallone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of mold in food, although necessary for production, can involve the presence of secondary metabolites, which are sometimes toxic. Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprophytic fungus but it is also the essential fungus used in the production of Roquefort cheese and other varieties of blue cheese containing internal mold. The study was conducted on industrial batches of Penicillium roqueforti starters used in the production of the Gorgonzola cheese, with the aim to verify the production of secondary metabolites. Nine Penicillium roqueforti strains were tested. The presence of roquefortine C, PR toxin and mycophenolic acid was tested first in vitro, then on bread-like substrate and lastly in vivo in nine cheese samples produced with the same starters and ready to market. In vitro, only Penicillium out of nine produced roquefortine C, four starters showed mycophenolic acid production, while no significant amounts of PR toxin were detected. In the samples grown on bread-like substrate, Penicillium did not produce secondary metabolites, likewise with each cheese samples tested. To protect consumers’ health and safety, the presence of mycotoxins needs to be verified in food which is widely consumed, above all for products protected by the protected denomination of origin (DOP label (i.e. a certificate guaranteeing the geographic origin of the product, such as Gorgonzola cheese.

  7. Dynamics of Cocoa Bean Pulp Degradation during Cocoa Bean Fermentation: Effects of Yeast Starter Culture Addition

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    Laras Cempaka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a crucial step in the post-harvest processing of cocoa beans. This process comprises mixed culture microbial activities on the cocoa bean pulp, producing metabolites that act as important precursors for cocoa flavour development. Variations in the microbial population dynamics during the fermentation process may induce changes in the overall process. Thus, the introduction of a specific microbial starter culture may improve the quality of the fermentation. This article discusses the effects ofthe addition of Saccharomyces cerevisae var. Chevalieri starter culture on cocoa bean fermentation. The dynamics in the yeast concentration, sugary pulp compounds and metabolic products were measured during fermentation. The alterations in the dynamic metabolite profile were significant, although only a slight difference was observed in the yeast population. A higher fermentation index was measured for the cocoa bean fermentation with yeast starter culture, 1.13 compared to 0.84. In conclusion, this method can potentially be applied to shorten the cocoa bean fermentation time.

  8. Penicillium salamii strain ITEM 15302: A new promising fungal starter for salami production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistà, D; Ferrara, M; Del Nobile, M A; Gammariello, D; Conte, A; Perrone, G

    2016-08-16

    Traditional sausages are often considered of superior quality to sausages inoculated with commercial starter cultures and this is partially due to the action of the typical house microflora. Penicillium nalgiovense is the species commonly used as starter culture for dry-cured meat production. Recently a new species, Penicillium salamii, was described as typical colonizer during salami seasoning. In order to understand its contribution to the seasoning process, two different experiments on curing of fresh pork sausages were conducted using P. salamii ITEM 15302 in comparison with P. nalgiovense ITEM 15292 at small and industrial scale, and the dry-cured sausages were subjected to sensory analyses. Additionally, proteolytic and lipolytic in vitro assays were performed on both strains. P. salamii ITEM 15302 proved to be a fast growing mould on dry-cured sausage casings, well adapted to the seasoning process, with high lipolytic and proteolytic enzymatic activity that confers typical sensory characteristics to meat products. Therefore, P. salamii ITEM 15302 was shown to be a good candidate as new starter for meat industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduction of Biogenic Amines during Miso Fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum as a Starter Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ling; Wu, Chien-Hui; Huang, Yu-Ru; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-09-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum D-103 isolated from a miso product that possesses amine-degrading activity was used as a starter culture in miso fermentation (25°C for 120 days) in this study. The salt content in control samples (without starter culture) and inoculated samples (inoculated with L. plantarum D-103) remained constant at 10.4% of the original salt concentration throughout fermentation, whereas the pH value decreased from 6.2 to 4.6 during fermentation. The inoculated samples had significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of total volatile basic nitrogen than control samples after 40 days of fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the histamine and overall biogenic amine contents in inoculated samples were reduced by 58 and 27%, respectively, compared with control samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that application of a starter culture with amine-degrading activity in miso products was effective in reducing the accumulation of biogenic amines.

  10. Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

    2010-05-12

    The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS.

  11. Impact of yeast starter formulations on the production of volatile compounds during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Patrizia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romaniello, Rossana; Zambuto, Marianna; Calabretti, Antonella; Capece, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The most diffused starter formulation in winemaking is actually represented by active dry yeast (ADY). Spray-drying has been reported as an appropriate preservation method for yeast and other micro-organisms. Despite the numerous advantages of this method, the high air temperatures used can negatively affect cell viability and the fermentative performance of dried cells. In the present study, 11 wine S. cerevisiae strains (both indigenous and commercial) were submitted to spray-drying; different process conditions were tested in order to select the conditions allowing the highest strain survival. The strains exhibited high variability for tolerance to spray-drying treatment. Selected strains were tested in fermentation at laboratory scale in different formulations (free fresh cells, free dried cells, immobilized fresh cells and immobilized dried cells), in order to assess the influence of starter formulation on fermentative fitness of strains and aromatic quality of wine. The analysis of volatile fraction in the experimental wines produced by selected strains in different formulations allowed identification of > 50 aromatic compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes). The results obtained showed that the starter formulation significantly influenced the content of volatile compounds. In particular, the wines obtained by strains in dried forms (as both free and immobilized cells) contained higher numbers of volatile compounds than wines obtained from fresh cells. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

    2001-07-20

    Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  13. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo eCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  14. Compositional and biochemical changes in Genestoso cheese, a Spanish raw cow's milk variety, during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Ricardo; González, Leticia; Sacristán, Noelia; Tornadijo, María E; Fresno, José M

    2015-03-15

    Physicochemical characteristics, proteolysis and lipolysis were studied throughout the ripening of eight batches of a traditional Spanish variety made from raw cow's milk, in order to establish a basis for its industrial production. The main compositional characteristics of this cheese after 60 days of ripening were its high proportion of total solids (TS; 752 g kg⁻¹ of cheese), an average content of protein (452.8 g kg⁻¹ TS) and fat (475.1 g kg⁻¹ TS) and the presence of residual lactose (12.5 g kg⁻¹ TS). Its pH value (4.04) was extremely low. Phosphorus (5.13 g kg⁻¹ TS) and sodium (8.29 g kg⁻¹ TS) were the most abundant mineral elements in cheese, whereas calcium levels (1.92 g kg⁻¹ TS) were very low. Proteolysis extension and depth were very low, which resulted in almost zero degradation of αs1- and β-casein. Fat acidity increased during ripening, reaching final values of 50.1 mg KOH kg⁻¹ of fat. The main free fatty acid was C16:0, followed by C18:1 and C14:0. These results suggest that this variety undergoes a limited proteolysis and moderate lipolysis during ripening. The low pH, low calcium content and limited proteolysis led to a crumbly texture in this cheese variety. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. The home as an appropriate setting for women undertaking cervical ripening before the induction of labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Margaret; Lorimer, Karen; Norman, Jane E; Bollapragada, Shrikant S; Norrie, John

    2011-02-01

    to explore women's experiences of cervical ripening using isosorbide mononitrate (IMN) in the home as part of the main randomised controlled trial. qualitative study with semi-structured interviews carried out at three weeks post partum. Interview transcripts were analysed to identify recurrent themes, focusing on why women became involved in the study, their views about both the self-medication and the home setting, and whether they would repeat the experience. the home. twenty women enrolled in the main randomised controlled trial. the study is part of a double-blind randomised controlled trial with 350 patients investigating whether a nitric oxide donor (IMN) used in cervical ripening improves the process of induction of labour. women liked the opportunity to remain at home during the cervical ripening process. Timing and setting were central issues; women hoped that it would hasten labour, while the home was seen as a setting offering freedom, security and reassurance, as opposed to the hospital, seen as constraining. Two women reported problems with IMN but the remainder reported that they would repeat the experience. women were very positive about the opportunity to undertake cervical ripening at home. It is important to explore this setting further for appropriate interventions. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in Cuticular Wax Composition of Two Blueberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and Postharvest Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Wu, Weijie; Fang, Xiangjun

    2018-03-21

    Cuticular wax plays an important role for the quality of blueberry fruits. In this study, the cuticular wax composition of two blueberry cultivars, 'Legacy' ( Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Brightwell' ( Vaccinium ashei), was examined during fruit ripening and postharvest cold storage. The results showed that wax was gradually deposited on the epidermis of blueberry fruits and the content of major wax compounds, except that for diketones, increased significantly during fruit ripening. The total wax content was 2-fold greater in 'Brightwell' blueberries than that in 'Legacy' blueberries during fruit ripening. The total wax content of both cultivars decreased during 30 days of storage at 4 °C, and the variation of cuticular wax composition was cultivar-dependent. The content of diketones decreased significantly in 'Legacy' blueberries, while the content of triterpenoids and aliphatic compounds showed different fold changes in 'Brightwell' blueberries after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Overall, our study provided a quantitative and qualitative overview of cuticular wax compounds of blueberry fruits during ripening and postharvest cold storage.

  17. Role of surface properties for the kinetics of bubble Ostwald ripening in saponin-stabilized foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tcholakova, Slavka; Mustan, Fatmegul; Pagureva, Nevena; Golemanov, Konstantin; Denkov, Nikolai D.; Pelan, Edward G.; Stoyanov, Simeon D.

    2017-01-01

    Bubble Ostwald ripening (OR) leads to a gradual increase of the mean bubble size in foams with time. The rate of OR can be reduced significantly or even arrested completely using appropriate solid particles and/or surfactants as foam stabilizers. In the current paper, we show that saponins, a

  18. New early-ripening wheat mutant lines from the varieties Norman and Avalon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djelepov, K.

    1988-01-01

    The English wheat varieties Norman and Avalon are high-productive, resistant to lodging and to diseases but late-ripening in Bulgaria. They are 10-15 days later than the variety Sadovo 1 and therefore suffer often from dry and hot weather, causing premature ripening and shrivelled seed. Dry seeds from the two varieties were irradiated with 10 and 15 kR 60 Co gamma rays. In M 2 , several earlier ripening forms were selected and they were studied also in M 3 in 1987. In the Table, four early ripening mutant lines and the respective initial varieties are compared. They vary significantly in plant height and grain size. The mutant lines of Norman produce smaller grain but all mutants show a higher hectoliter weight. The mutant lines head and mature 4 to 10 days earlier than the respective initial varieties. Some of them are as productive as the standard and other cultivated varieties. We shall continue testing their productivity and possibilities for their use in the breeding

  19. Banana ethylene response factors are involved in fruit ripening through their interactions with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yun-yi; Chen, Jian-ye; Kuang, Jiang-fei; Shan, Wei; Xie, Hui; Jiang, Yue-ming; Lu, Wang-jin

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factor (TF) in the transcriptional regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes during fruit ripening remains largely unclear. In this study, 15 ERF genes, designated as MaERF1-MaERF15, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. These MaERFs were classified into seven of the 12 known ERF families. Subcellular localization showed that MaERF proteins of five different subfamilies preferentially localized to the nucleus. The 15 MaERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels in peel and pulp of banana fruit, in association with four different ripening treatments caused by natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and combined 1-MCP and ethylene treatments. MaERF9 was upregulated while MaERF11 was downregulated in peel and pulp of banana fruit during ripening or after treatment with ethylene. Furthermore, yeast-one hybrid (Y1H) and transient expression assays showed that the potential repressor MaERF11 bound to MaACS1 and MaACO1 promoters to suppress their activities and that MaERF9 activated MaACO1 promoter activity. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that MaERF9 and -11 physically interacted with MaACO1. Taken together, these results suggest that MaERFs are involved in banana fruit ripening via transcriptional regulation of or interaction with ethylene biosynthesis genes.

  20. Effect of gamma radiation and some growth regulators on ripening and senescence in mango fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Kady, S.M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken during the seasons of 1979 and 1980 to study the effect of gamma irradiation, some growth regulators, benlate and 'vaporgard' on ripening and senescence of 'Hindi Be - Sinnara' mango fruits during storage under room conditions and also to determine the optimum treatment for maximum extension in shelf - life

  1. Effect of time of harvest, stage of fruit ripening, and post-harvest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds were extracted from half of the fruits harvested from each stage immediately after harvest while the other halves were stored at room temperature to ripen to the soft-red stage before seed extraction. Fruit weight in both cultivars decreased with plant age. Fruits harvested at the yellow-ripe stage produced the highest ...

  2. Cheddar cheese ripening affects plasma nonesterified fatty acids and serum insulin concentrations in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of observational studies found cheese consumption to be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This may be attributed to the bioactive compounds produced during cheese ripening. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate ...

  3. Digestive ripening: a synthetic method par excellence for core–shell ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    persity of nanoparticles. An even more remarkable feature of digestive ripening exemplified here is, it could be exercised as a synthetic method towards vari- ous heterostructured materials like core–shell particles, nanoalloys, and nanocomposites in combination with the synthetic method, solvated metal atom dispersion.

  4. Particle tracking during Ostwald ripening using time-resolved laboratory X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werz, T., E-mail: thomas.werz@uni-ulm.de [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Baumann, M. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany); Wolfram, U. [Ulm University, Institute of Orthopaedic Research and Biomechanics, Helmholtzstrasse 14, 89081 (Germany); Krill, C.E. [Ulm University, Institute of Micro and Nanomaterials, Albert-Einstein-Allee 47, 89081 (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Laboratory X-ray microtomography is investigated as a method for obtaining time-resolved images of microstructural coarsening of the semisolid state of Al–5 wt.% Cu samples during Ostwald ripening. Owing to the 3D imaging capability of tomography, this technique uniquely provides access to the growth rates of individual particles, thereby not only allowing a statistical characterization of coarsening—as has long been possible by conventional metallography—but also enabling quantification of the influence of local environment on particle boundary migration. The latter information is crucial to understanding growth kinetics during Ostwald ripening at high volume fractions of the coarsening phase. Automated image processing and segmentation routines were developed to close gaps in the network of particle boundaries and to track individual particles from one annealing step to the next. The particle tracking success rate places an upper bound of only a few percent on the likelihood of segmentation errors for any given particle. The accuracy of particle size trajectories extracted from the time-resolved tomographic reconstructions is correspondingly high. Statistically averaged coarsening data and individual particle growth rates are in excellent agreement with the results of prior experimental studies and with computer simulations of Ostwald ripening. - Highlights: • Ostwald ripening in Al–5 wt.% Cu measured by laboratory X-ray microtomography • Time-resolved measurement of individual particle growth • Automated segmentation routines developed to close gaps in particle boundary network • Particle growth/shrinkage rates deviate from LSW model prediction.

  5. Induction of AGAMOUS gene expression plays a key role in ripening of tomato sepals in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, B K; Jenkins, S M; Say, B

    1998-03-01

    In vitro culture of VFNT Cherry tomato sepals (calyx) at 16-21 degrees C results in developmental changes that are similar to those that occur in fruit tissue [10]. Sepals become swollen, red, and succulent, produce ethylene, and have increased levels of polygalacturonase RNA. They also produce many flavor volatiles characteristic of ripe tomato fruit and undergo similar changes in sugar content [11]. We examined the expression of the tomato AGAMOUS gene, TAG1, in ripening, in vitro sepal cultures and other tissues from the plant and found that TAG1 RNA accumulates to higher levels than expected from data from other plants. Contrary to reports on the absence of AGAMOUS in sepals, TAG1 RNA levels in green sepals from greenhouse-grown plants is detectable, its concentration increasing with in vitro ripening to levels that were even higher than in red, ripe fruit. Sepals of fruit on transgenic tomato plants that expressed TAG1 ectopically were induced by low temperature to ripen in vivo, producing lycopene and undergoing cell wall softening as is characteristic of pericarpic tissue. We therefore propose that the induction of elevated TAG1 gene expression plays a key role in developmental changes that result in sepal ripening.

  6. Investigation of Raman chemical imaging for detection of Lycopene changes in tomatoes during postharvest ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycopene is a major carotenoid in tomatoes and detecting changes in lycopene content can be used to monitor the ripening of tomatoes. Raman chemical imaging is a new technique that shows promise for mapping constituents of interest in complex food matrices. In this study, a benchtop point-scanning...

  7. A dynamic interplay between phytohormones is required for fruit development, maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMcAtee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant species that bear fruit often utilise expansion of an ovary (carpel or accessory tissue as a vehicle for seed dispersal. While the seed(s develop, the tissue(s of the fruit follow a common progression of cell division and cell expansion, promoting growth of the fruit. Once the seed is fully developed, the fruit matures and the surrounding tissue either dries or ripens promoting the dissemination of the seed. As with many developmental processes in plants, plant hormones play an important role in the synchronisation of signals between the developing seed and its surrounding fruit tissue(s, regulating each phase of fruit development. Following pollination, fruit set is achieved through a de-repression of growth and an activation of cell division via the action of auxin and/or cytokinin and/or gibberellin. Following fruit set, growth of the fruit is facilitated through a relatively poorly studied period of cell expansion and endoreduplication that is likely regulated by similar hormones as in fruit set. Once the seeds reach maturity, fruit become ready to undergo ripening and during this period there is a major switch in relative hormone levels of the fruit, involving an overall decrease in auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin and a simultaneous increase in abscisic acid and ethylene. While the role of hormones in fruit set and ripening is well documented, the knowledge of the roles of other hormones during growth, maturation and some individual ripening components is sketchy.

  8. Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening ( OsASR ) gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation of a novel abscisic acid stress ripening ( OsASR ) gene from rice and analysis of the response of this gene to abiotic stresses. ... The cDNA with the whole open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by PCR and cloned. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNA encodes a protein of 284 amino acid residues with ...

  9. Impact of postharvest ripening strategies on 'Hass' avocado fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi Plasencia, Romina; Hollak, S.; Harkema, H.; Otma, E.; Robledo, P.; Westra, Eelke; Berg-Somhorst, van de Dianne; Ferreyra, R.; Defilippi, B.G.

    2016-01-01

    Persea americana Mill. cv 'Hass' is a subtropical fruit highly appreciated as a rich source of fatty acids mostly of the monounsaturated type. Commonly commercially applied postharvest ripening strategies for the ready to eat market based on high temperature (15 and 20 °C) and external ethylene

  10. Evolution of fatty acids in medlar (Mespilus germanica L.) mesocarp at different stages of ripening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ayaz, F. A.; Glew, R. H.; Huang, H. S.; Chuang, L. T.; VanderJagt, D. J.; Strnad, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2002), s. 352-356 ISSN 0017-3495 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 844.10; GA ČR GA301/02/0475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : fatty acid composition * Mespilus germanica L. * ripening Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.286, year: 2002

  11. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  12. Suicidal tomato cells: programmed cell death in suspension-cultured tomato cells and ripening fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening involves a series of highly organised biochemical, physiological and structural changes that are under strict genetic control. The plant hormone ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), in synergy

  13. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of plants interact with soil mycorrhizal fungi to facilitate soil nutrient acquisition by the plant and carbon transfer to the fungus. Here we use tomato fruit ripening mutations to demonstrate that this root interaction communicates with and supports genetic mechanisms associated with th...

  14. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in ripened cheese : their formation and their contribution to flavour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, W.J.M.

    1997-01-01


    Flavour is one of the most important attributes of cheese. Cheese flavour is the result of the breakdown of milk protein, fat, lactose and citrate due to enzymes from milk, rennet and microorganisms during production and ripening of cheese. For a large part the development of flavour

  15. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans;

    enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening

    Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield

  16. Identification of volatile compound markers during the ripening and senescence of lulo (Solanum quitoense Lam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpas Iguarán, Eduardo; Taborda Ocampo, Gonzalo; Tapasco Alzate, Omar

    2018-01-01

    Lulo ( Solanum quitoense Lam.) is an exotic fruit cultivated in Colombia. During ripening and senescence, this climactic fruit undergoes biochemical processes that produce the volatiles responsible for its aroma. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in the volatile content during the ripening and senescence of lulo. Analysis of the volatile composition of lulo harvested in each of its five ripening stages and during its senescence time when stored at 18 ± 2 °C was performed using HS-SPME with GC-MS. Throughout ripening, the most notable change was the transformation of alcohols such as (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and 1-penten-3-ol to afford esters such as (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and ketones such as 1-penten-3-one. Some acids reacted with alcohols to produce acetate and hexanoate esters, concentrations which increased more than sixfold between stage one and five. Moreover, all the major compounds were C 6 straight chain compounds related to the lipoxygenase pathway. During senescence, majority of compounds were methyl esters, which increased in concentration consistently until day eight. Remarkably, the content of methyl butanoate increased from 0.9% of the total amount of volatiles on day two up to 76.4% on day eight. Some of these volatiles are probably contributors to the "off flavor" during senescence.

  17. Transcript and metabolite analysis in Trincadeira cultivar reveals novel information regarding the dynamics of grape ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Agudelo-Romero, Patricia; Silva, Marta S; Ali, Kashif; Sousa, Lisete; Maltese, Federica; Choi, Young H; Grimplet, Jerome; Martinez-Zapater, José M; Verpoorte, Robert; Pais, Maria S

    2011-11-02

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are economically the most important fruit crop worldwide. However, the complexity of molecular and biochemical events that lead to the onset of ripening of nonclimacteric fruits is not fully understood which is further complicated in grapes due to seasonal and cultivar specific variation. The Portuguese wine variety Trincadeira gives rise to high quality wines but presents extremely irregular berry ripening among seasons probably due to high susceptibility to abiotic and biotic stresses. Ripening of Trincadeira grapes was studied taking into account the transcriptional and metabolic profilings complemented with biochemical data. The mRNA expression profiles of four time points spanning developmental stages from pea size green berries, through véraison and mature berries (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35 and EL 36) and in two seasons (2007 and 2008) were compared using the Affymetrix GrapeGen® genome array containing 23096 probesets corresponding to 18726 unique sequences. Over 50% of these probesets were significantly differentially expressed (1.5 fold) between at least two developmental stages. A common set of modulated transcripts corresponding to 5877 unigenes indicates the activation of common pathways between years despite the irregular development of Trincadeira grapes. These unigenes were assigned to the functional categories of "metabolism", "development", "cellular process", "diverse/miscellanenous functions", "regulation overview", "response to stimulus, stress", "signaling", "transport overview", "xenoprotein, transposable element" and "unknown". Quantitative RT-PCR validated microarrays results being carried out for eight selected genes and five developmental stages (EL 32, EL 34, EL 35, EL 36 and EL 38). Metabolic profiling using 1H NMR spectroscopy associated to two-dimensional techniques showed the importance of metabolites related to oxidative stress response, amino acid and sugar metabolism as well as secondary metabolism. These

  18. Ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit is characterized by an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Mounira; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Ruiz, Carmelo; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; Corpas, Francisco J; Palma, José M

    2015-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) fruits are consumed worldwide and are of great economic importance. In most species ripening is characterized by important visual and metabolic changes, the latter including emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls, synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyanins), formation of pectins and protein synthesis. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in fruit ripening has been established, but more work is needed to detail the metabolic networks involving NO and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process. It has been reported that RNS can mediate post-translational modifications of proteins, which can modulate physiological processes through mechanisms of cellular signalling. This study therefore examined the potential role of NO in nitration of tyrosine during the ripening of California sweet pepper. The NO content of green and red pepper fruit was determined spectrofluorometrically. Fruits at the breaking point between green and red coloration were incubated in the presence of NO for 1 h and then left to ripen for 3 d. Profiles of nitrated proteins were determined using an antibody against nitro-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), and profiles of nitrosothiols were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nitrated proteins were identified by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Treatment with NO delayed the ripening of fruit. An enhancement of nitrosothiols and nitroproteins was observed in fruit during ripening, and this was reversed by the addition of exogenous NO gas. Six nitrated proteins were identified and were characterized as being involved in redox, protein, carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism, and in glutamate biosynthesis. Catalase was the most abundant nitrated protein found in both green and red fruit. The RNS profile reported here indicates that ripening of pepper fruit is characterized by an enhancement of S

  19. From local strains to specific starters: the process structuring a research program on the activation and management of a biotechnological resource

    OpenAIRE

    Casalta, Erick; Bona, Pascale

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a research-action program carried out in Corsica with a group of cheese makers to develop specific starters. Based on the direct participation of the cheese makers, this study consisted in designing starters with lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from milks and cheeses of this group of cheese makers. This process modified an individually and empirically used resource, local strains, into a shared and collectively managed resource, specific starters. Patrimonial featur...

  20. Spatial Distribution of Lactococcus lactis Colonies Modulates the Production of Major Metabolites during the Ripening of a Model Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boucher, Clémentine; Gagnaire, Valérie; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Lortal, Sylvie; Jeanson, Sophie; Thierry, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In cheese, lactic acid bacteria are immobilized at the coagulation step and grow as colonies. The spatial distribution of bacterial colonies is characterized by the size and number of colonies for a given bacterial population within cheese. Our objective was to demonstrate that different spatial distributions, which lead to differences in the exchange surface between the colonies and the cheese matrix, can influence the ripening process. The strategy was to generate cheeses with the same growth and acidification of a Lactococcus lactis strain with two different spatial distributions, big and small colonies, to monitor the production of the major ripening metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, peptides, free amino acids, and volatile metabolites, over 1 month of ripening. The monitored metabolites were qualitatively the same for both cheeses, but many of them were more abundant in the small-colony cheeses than in the big-colony cheeses over 1 month of ripening. Therefore, the results obtained showed that two different spatial distributions of L. lactis modulated the ripening time course by generating moderate but significant differences in the rates of production or consumption for many of the metabolites commonly monitored throughout ripening. The present work further explores the immobilization of bacteria as colonies within cheese and highlights the consequences of this immobilization on cheese ripening. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. STARTER CULTURES COMPOSITIONS WITH PROBIOTICS FOR FERMENTED MILK PRODUCTS AND COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The expediency of optimization of starter cultures composition of mixed cultures Lactococcus sp. and mixed cultures Bifidobacterium bifidum BB 01 + Bifidobacterium longum BL 01 + Bifidobacterium breve BR 01 for the manufacture of fermented milk products and cosmetics for teenagers and people under the age of 40-45 years with probiotics has been substantiated.The value of titratable acidity, number of viable cells of bifidobacteria has been determined, as well as the most probable number of lactobacterium in fermented probiotic clots obtained with different ratios of mixed cultures Lactococcus sp. and mixed cultures of Bifidobacterium sp. in starter cultures compositions (the initial concentration of the mixed cultures (MC Lactococcus sp. and MC Bifidobacterium sp. varied within the range of 1×105 – 1×106 CFU/cm3 of the inoculated milk, enriched with fructose as a growth factor of bifidobacteria. The high content of probiotics and the lowest values of titratable acidity are typical of the fermented milk clots obtained using starter cultures composition with a ratio of MC Lactococcus sp. : MC Bifidobacterium sp. 1 : 10. The maximum number of lactococci viable cells is observed in clots obtained using starter cultures composition with the initial ratio of MC Lactococcus sp. : MC Bifidobacterium sp. 10 : 1. The optimum ratio of MC Lactococcus sp. and MC Bifidobacterium sp. – 1 : 10 has been established (initial concentration of the cultures at inoculation – 1×105 and 1×106 CFU/cm3, respectively for the production of fermented milk products and cosmetics with probiotics, where the maximum value of the quality aggregated factor – 7, 12 is noted.It is shown that a fermented probiotic milk clots obtained using starter cultures composition with an optimum ratio of cultures of lacto- and bifidobacteria (1 : 10 have good sensory characteristics, contain a high number of viable cells of bifidobacteria and lactobacteria – (9,15±0,14×109 and

  2. Effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of prato cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, Erika Maria Roel

    2001-01-01

    The Prato (cheese washed dough) is one of the must popular cheese of Brazil and must be ripening for 45 to 60 days for to reach characteristics of flavors and texture. The present work studied the effect of gamma radiation in the ripening period of Prato cheese. Two periods of irradiation was studied, in first day and 15 th day of ripening. The cheese was irradiated with doses of 0 (non-irradiated), 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy at a rate of 0,9696 kGy/h from a cobalto-60 source in the period referred and stored at 10-12 deg C and +- 85% RH for 60 days. The physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics and organoleptic properties were analysed every each 15 days of ripening. Through of the results observed that with the increase of the dose of radiation, decreased the total microbial count and that the irradiation retarded the ripening according to increase of the dose, this probability of the destruction of bacterial lactic. The greatest difference found was in the colour according the increasing of the dose, the cheese was more colorless, less yellow and red. Which the organoleptic properties verified that with the increase of the dose of radiation, there was a lost about the color. The cheese increase the firmness, became dryer and less creamy and tasted flavors less intense, a little more bitter and smoking compared with a control. Even though about these differences there was no refuse of Prato cheese, among the sensorial group for irradiated cheese until 2 kGy. (author)

  3. On the theory of Ostwald ripening: formation of the universal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, D V

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical description of the final stage of Ostwald ripening given by Lifshitz and Slyozov (LS) predicts that after long times the distribution of particles over sizes tends to a universal form. A qualitative behavior of their theory has been confirmed, but experimental particle size distributions are more broad and squat than the LS asymptotic solution. The origin of discrepancies between the theory and experimental data is caused by the relaxation of solutions from the early to late stages of Ostwald ripening. In other words, the initial conditions at the ripening stage lead to the formation of a transition region near the blocking point of the LS theory and completely determine the distribution function. A new theoretical approach of the present analysis based on the Slezov theory (Slezov 1978 Formation of the universal distribution function in the dimension space for new-phase particles in the diffusive decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution J. Phys. Chem. Solids 39 367–74; Slezov 2009 Kinetics of First-Order Phase Transitions (Weinheim: Wiley, VCH)) focuses on a relaxation dynamics of analytical solutions from the early stage of Ostwald ripening to its concluding state, which is described by the LS asymptotic regime. An algebraic equation for the boundaries of a transition layer independent of all material parameters is derived. A time-dependent function ε(τ) responsible for the evolution of solutions at the ripening stage is found. The distribution function obtained is more broad and flat than the LS asymptotic solution. The particle radius, supersaturation and number density as functions of time are determined. The analytical solutions obtained are in good agreement with experimental data. (paper)

  4. Numerical models of mass transfer during ripening and storage of salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fabbri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ripening, in the dry sausages manufacturing process, has an influence over the main physical, chemical and microbiological transformations that take place inside these products and that define the final organoleptic properties of dry sausages. A number of study about the influence of ripening conditions on the main chemical and microbiological characteristics of dry sausages is available today. All these studies indicate that the final quality and safety standards achieved by the sausage manufacturing process can be considered to be strictly dependent from the specific ripening conditions. The water diffusion inside a seasoned sausage is surely an aspect of primary importance with regard to the quality of final product. As a consequence the aim of this research was to develop two parametric numerical models, concerning the moisture diffusion physics, describing salami ripening and storage. Mass transfer equations inside the sausage volume were numerically solved using a finite element technique. A first model describes diffusion phenomena occurring inside the salami and the exchange phenomena involving the surface of the product and the environment. After the ripening, the salami are stored in waterproof packaging, consequently an additional model able to describe also the evaporation and condensation phenomena occurring between the salami surface and the air in the package, was developed. The moisture equilibrium between salami surface and conservation atmosphere is mainly ruled by the temperature changes during storage. Both models allow to analyze the history of the moisture content inside the salami and are parametrised on product size and maturation/storage conditions. The models were experimentally validated, comparing the numerical outputs of the simulations with experimental data, showing a good agreement.

  5. The Citrus ABA signalosome: identification and transcriptional regulation during sweet orange fruit ripening and leaf dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paco; Lafuente, María T; Rodrigo, María J

    2012-08-01

    The abscisic acid (ABA) signalling core in plants include the cytosolic ABA receptors (PYR/PYL/RCARs), the clade-A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2CAs), and the subclass III SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). The aim of this work was to identify these ABA perception system components in sweet orange and to determine the influence of endogenous ABA on their transcriptional regulation during fruit development and ripening, taking advantage of the comparative analysis between a wild-type and a fruit-specific ABA-deficient mutant. Transcriptional changes in the ABA signalosome during leaf dehydration were also studied. Six PYR/PYL/RCAR, five PP2CA, and two subclass III SnRK2 genes, homologous to those of Arabidopsis, were identified in the Citrus genome. The high degree of homology and conserved motifs for protein folding and for functional activity suggested that these Citrus proteins are bona fide core elements of ABA perception in orange. Opposite expression patterns of CsPYL4 and CsPYL5 and ABA accumulation were found during ripening, although there were few differences between varieties. In contrast, changes in expression of CsPP2CA genes during ripening paralleled those of ABA content and agreeed with the relevant differences between wild-type and mutant fruit transcript accumulation. CsSnRK2 gene expression continuously decreased with ripening and no remarkable differences were found between cultivars. Overall, dehydration had a minor effect on CsPYR/PYL/RCAR and CsSnRK2 expression in vegetative tissue, whereas CsABI1, CsAHG1, and CsAHG3 were highly induced by water stress. The global results suggest that responsiveness to ABA changes during citrus fruit ripening, and leaf dehydration was higher in the CsPP2CA gene negative regulators than in the other ABA signalosome components.

  6. Tomato Fruit Chromoplasts Behave as Respiratory Bioenergetic Organelles during Ripening1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages. PMID:25125503

  7. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Susanne; Loessner, Martin J

    2011-03-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 10(1)-10(3) cfu/cm(2)L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 10(3)/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 10(8) or 1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2). With Scott A (10(3) cfu/cm(2)) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 10(8) pfu/cm(2)) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 10(9) pfu/cm(2)) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (10(1)-10(2) cfu/cm(2)), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese.

  8. The interaction effect of mixing starter cultures on homemade natural yogurt’s pH and viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi A. Dahlan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy yogurts are common food products consumed by people all over the world. Due to the simple process, many people have made their own natural yogurt at home. The fermentation due to the starter culture causes the textural properties of dairy yogurt. However, the literature is surprisingly scarce on the topic of starter culture interactions in the development of textural properties of dairy yogurt. This study investigated the interaction effect of three common starter cultures, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles, on the viscosity of homemade yogurt. Using Design Expert software, a 10-run mixture model experiment was designed to examine the textural properties developed by single or multiple inoculation of these starter cultures. All yogurt formulations reached the isoelectric point of milk and had pHs in the range 3.97 to 4.32. Yogurt formulations with L. acidophilus and S. thermophilus resulted in viscosities which were similar to commercial yogurt viscosity (1.77 Pa.s, while L. bulgaricus resulted in yogurt with a lower viscosity. Based on the mixture model, L. acidophilus had most influence on the yogurt viscosity, followed by S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus. In conclusion, L. acidophilus can be used as a single starter culture or combined with other starter cultures to develop high viscosity homemade yogurt. A Combination of S. thermophilus and L. acidphilus can also be used to develop high viscosity yogurts. However, L. bulgaricus should not be inoculated alone or become a dominant ratio in multiple starter culture inoculation as it will decrease the overall homemade yogurt viscosity.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter.

  10. Microbial diversity and dynamics throughout manufacturing and ripening of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses investigated by culture-independent techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryssel, Mia; Johansen, Pernille; Al-Soud, Waleed Abu; Sørensen, Søren; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-12-23

    Microbial successions on the surface and in the interior of surface ripened semi-hard Danish Danbo cheeses were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent techniques. Culture-independent detection of microorganisms was obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing, using amplicons of 16S and 26S rRNA genes for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, respectively. With minor exceptions, the results from the culture-independent analyses correlated to the culture-dependent plating results. Even though the predominant microorganisms detected with the two culture-independent techniques correlated, a higher number of genera were detected by pyrosequencing compared to DGGE. Additionally, minor parts of the microbiota, i.e. comprising surface and the interior of the cheeses diverged. During cheese production pyrosequencing determined Lactococcus as the dominating genus on cheese surfaces, representing on average 94.7%±2.1% of the OTUs. At day 6 Lactococcus spp. declined to 10.0% of the OTUs, whereas Staphylococcus spp. went from 0.0% during cheese production to 75.5% of the OTUs at smearing. During ripening, i.e. from 4 to 18 weeks, Corynebacterium was the dominant genus on the cheese surface (55.1%±9.8% of the OTUs), with Staphylococcus (17.9%±11.2% of the OTUs) and Brevibacterium (10.4%±8.3% of the OTUs) being the second and third most abundant genera. Other detected bacterial genera included Clostridiisalibacter (5.0%±4.0% of the OTUs), as well as Pseudoclavibacter, Alkalibacterium and Marinilactibacillus, which represented surface ripened semi-hard cheeses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of chemical, rheological and sensory properties of kefir produced by kefir grains and commercial kefir starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Barukčić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of kefir produced by using kefir grains and kefir starter. The intent was also to investigate whether it is plausible to use a combined inoculum (kefir grains and starter in order to obtain a kefir with improved characteristics in terms of sensory and rheological characteristics. Kefir samples were produced at 25 °C and 35 °C by using starter culture XPL-1, kefir grains and their combinations. All of the produced kefir samples were analysed for acidity, total dry matter, ethanol content, syneresis, viscosity and were sensory evaluated by a specially trained panel. There were no significant differences considering the total dry matter, syneresis, ethanol content and acidity. Excess viscosity was observed in samples produced by starter culture at 35 °C, which was described as untypical, yoghurt like and unsatisfactory by a sensory panel. The sample produced at 25 °C by equal amounts of kefir grains and starter culture received the highest scores at sensory evaluation and showed the best potential for optimizing the further use. Further investigations need to focus on examining kefir properties during the storage period, especially regarding microbiological and sensory properties, ethanol content and texture profile.

  12. Observation of feature ripening inversion effect at the percolation threshold for the growth of thin silver films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehm, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.nehm@iapp.de; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2014-04-01

    The growth behavior of thin silver films on organic layers is investigated during deposition by means of simultaneous in-situ monitoring of sheet resistance and transmittance. Thermally evaporated films up to 11 nm show a distinct percolation behavior with strong resistance drop at the percolation thickness. Additionally, evaporations are divided into a sequence of one nanometer steps. In the deposition breaks, the films exhibit a ripening effect with an inversion at the percolation thickness, by changing from an increasing to decreasing sheet resistance over time. Scanning electron micrographs suggest same ripening mechanisms for islands below the percolation thickness as for holes above. - Highlights: • Fundamental understanding of metal thin film growth is presented. • Optical and electrical in-situ measurements used for optimizing transparent electrodes • Stepwise Ag deposition reveals extraordinary ripening effects. • Feature ripening inversion is discovered at the percolation threshold.

  13. PROTEOLYSIS DURING MANUFACTURE AND RIPENING/STORING OF “OLOMOUCKÉ TVARŮŽKY” CHEESE (PGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vendula Pachlová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two free amino acid (FAA concentrations were observed during manufacture (1st, 3rd and 7th days of production and ripening period (42 days storing at 8°C of “Olomoucké tvarůžky” (PGI, smear acid cheese. Sensory attributes were also analysed during ripening period. The free amino acids were determined by means of ion-exchange chromatography. The development of the individual FAA content positively correlated with the ripening period (r = 0.7734–0.9229; P < 0.01.The results gave information about the development precursors (FAA of typically sensory active compound in “Olomoucké tvarůžky” (PGI during its production and especially ripening. In conclusion, we found that free amino acid concentration as finally products of proteolysis are positive with improved flavour.

  14. Observation of feature ripening inversion effect at the percolation threshold for the growth of thin silver films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehm, Frederik; Schubert, Sylvio; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Leo, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The growth behavior of thin silver films on organic layers is investigated during deposition by means of simultaneous in-situ monitoring of sheet resistance and transmittance. Thermally evaporated films up to 11 nm show a distinct percolation behavior with strong resistance drop at the percolation thickness. Additionally, evaporations are divided into a sequence of one nanometer steps. In the deposition breaks, the films exhibit a ripening effect with an inversion at the percolation thickness, by changing from an increasing to decreasing sheet resistance over time. Scanning electron micrographs suggest same ripening mechanisms for islands below the percolation thickness as for holes above. - Highlights: • Fundamental understanding of metal thin film growth is presented. • Optical and electrical in-situ measurements used for optimizing transparent electrodes • Stepwise Ag deposition reveals extraordinary ripening effects. • Feature ripening inversion is discovered at the percolation threshold

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation and storage temperature on carotenoids and ascorbic acid content of mangoes on ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Janave, M.T.

    1975-01-01

    Synthesis and accumulation of carotenoids in the flesh of Alphonso mangoes on ripening was found to be maximal in fruits stored at tropical ambient temperatures (28 0 to 32 0 C). Gamma irradiation of preclimacteric fruits at 25 krad did not affect the formation of carotenoids. Storage of preclimacteric fruits either irradiated or unirradiated at 7 to 20 0 C for 16 to 43 days caused a substantial reduction in carotenoid formation even when these fruits were subsequently ripened under optimal conditions. Regardless of storage temperature, carotenes always exceeded xanthophylls in the ripe fruits and, in general, irradiated fruits showed higher levels of carotenes in comparison with unirradiated samples. Ascorbic acid loss during ripening was maximum at ambient temperatures while lengthy storage at low temperatures caused a net increase in ascorbic acid levels. Irradiation seemed to accentuate the loss in ascorbic acid during ripening. (author)

  16. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals distinct ethylene-independent regulation of ripening in response to low temperature in kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiche, William O; Mitalo, Oscar W; Kasahara, Yuka; Tosa, Yasuaki; Mworia, Eric G; Owino, Willis O; Ushijima, Koichiro; Nakano, Ryohei; Yano, Kentaro; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2018-03-21

    Kiwifruit are classified as climacteric since exogenous ethylene (or its analogue propylene) induces rapid ripening accompanied by ethylene production under positive feedback regulation. However, most of the ripening-associated changes (Phase 1 ripening) in kiwifruit during storage and on-vine occur largely in the absence of any detectable ethylene. This ripening behavior is often attributed to basal levels of system I ethylene, although it is suggested to be modulated by low temperature. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating Phase 1 ripening in kiwifruit, a comparative transcriptome analysis using fruit continuously exposed to propylene (at 20 °C), and during storage at 5 °C and 20 °C was conducted. Propylene exposure induced kiwifruit softening, reduction of titratable acidity (TA), increase in soluble solids content (SSC) and ethylene production within 5 days. During storage, softening and reduction of TA occurred faster in fruit at 5 °C compared to 20 °C although no endogenous ethylene production was detected. Transcriptome analysis revealed 3761 ripening-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2742 were up-regulated by propylene while 1058 were up-regulated by low temperature. Propylene exclusively up-regulated 2112 DEGs including those associated with ethylene biosynthesis and ripening such as AcACS1, AcACO2, AcPL1, AcXET1, Acβ-GAL, AcAAT, AcERF6 and AcNAC7. Similarly, low temperature exclusively up-regulated 467 DEGS including AcACO3, AcPL2, AcPMEi, AcADH, Acβ-AMY2, AcGA2ox2, AcNAC5 and AcbZIP2 among others. A considerable number of DEGs such as AcPG, AcEXP1, AcXET2, Acβ-AMY1, AcGA2ox1, AcNAC6, AcMADS1 and AcbZIP1 were up-regulated by either propylene or low temperature. Frequent 1-MCP treatments failed to inhibit the accelerated ripening and up-regulation of associated DEGs by low temperature indicating that the changes were independent of ethylene. On-vine kiwifruit ripening proceeded in the absence of any detectable

  17. Severe trimming and enhanced competition of laterals as a tool to delay ripening in Tempranillo vineyards under semiarid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzaga Santesteban

    2017-05-01

    Significance and impact of the study: this study proves the potentiality of the joint use of trimming and increased irrigation to delay ripening, although it is necessary to analyze the implications the obtained delay has on other quality aspects. The lower anthocyanin and phenolic values observed in trimmed vines were not solely due to delayed ripening, as lower values were observed even when data were compared for a given total soluble solid content.

  18. Effect of microgravity simulation using 3D clinostat on cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA Group) ripening process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivany, Fenny Martha; Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Prapaisie, Adeline; Puspa Kirana, Listya; Latief, Chunaeni; Ginaldi, Ari

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of microgravity simulation by 3D clinostat on Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata AAA group) ripening process. In this study, physical, physiological changes as well as genes expression were analysed. The result showed that in microgravity simulation condition ripening process in banana was delayed and the MaACOl, MaACSl and MaACS5 gene expression were affected.

  19. SEPALLATA1/2-suppressed mature apples have low ethylene, high auxin and reduced transcription of ripening-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Ross, John J.; Ling, Toby J.; David, Karine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening is an important developmental trait in fleshy fruits, making the fruit palatable for seed dispersers. In some fruit species, there is a strong association between auxin concentrations and fruit ripening. We investigated the relationship between auxin concentrations and the onset of ethylene-related ripening in Malus × domestica (apples) at both the hormone and transcriptome levels. Methodology Transgenic apples suppressed for the SEPALLATA1/2 (SEP1/2) class of gene (MADS8/9) that showed severely reduced ripening were compared with untransformed control apples. In each apple type, free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations were measured during early ripening. The changes observed in auxin were assessed in light of global changes in gene expression. Principal results It was found that mature MADS8/9-suppressed apples had a higher concentration of free IAA. This was associated with increased expression of the auxin biosynthetic genes in the indole-3-acetamide pathway. Additionally, in the MADS8/9-suppressed apples, there was less expression of the GH3 auxin-conjugating enzymes. A number of genes involved in the auxin-regulated transcription (AUX/IAA and ARF classes of genes) were also observed to change in expression, suggesting a mechanism for signal transduction at the start of ripening. Conclusions The delay in ripening observed in MADS8/9-suppressed apples may be partly due to high auxin concentrations. We propose that, to achieve low auxin associated with fruit maturation, the auxin homeostasis is controlled in a two-pronged manner: (i) by the reduction in biosynthesis and (ii) by an increase in auxin conjugation. This is associated with the change in expression of auxin-signalling genes and the up-regulation of ripening-related genes. PMID:23346344

  20. Development of Metal-Organic Framework for Gaseous Plant Hormone Encapsulation To Manage Ripening of Climacteric Produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boce; Luo, Yaguang; Kanyuck, Kelsey; Bauchan, Gary; Mowery, Joseph; Zavalij, Peter

    2016-06-29

    Controlled ripening of climacteric fruits, such as bananas and avocados, is a critical step to provide consumers with high-quality products while reducing postharvest losses. Prior to ripening, these fruits can be stored for an extended period of time but are usually not suitable for consumption. However, once ripening is initiated, they undergo irreversible changes that lead to rapid quality loss and decay if not consumed within a short window of time. Therefore, technologies to slow the ripening process after its onset or to stimulate ripening immediately before consumption are in high demand. In this study, we developed a solid porous metal-organic framework (MOF) to encapsulate gaseous ethylene for subsequent release. We evaluated the feasibility of this technology for on-demand stimulated ripening of bananas and avocados. Copper terephthalate (CuTPA) MOF was synthesized via a solvothermal method and loaded with ethylene gas. Its crystalline structure and chemical composition were characterized by X-ray diffraction crystallography, porosity by N2 and ethylene isotherms, and morphology by electron microscopy. The MOF loaded with ethylene (MOF-ethylene) was placed inside sealed containers with preclimacteric bananas and avocados and stored at 16 °C. The headspace gas composition and fruit color and texture were monitored periodically. Results showed that this CuTPA MOF is highly porous, with a total pore volume of 0.39 cm(3)/g. A 50 mg portion of MOF-ethylene can absorb and release up to 654 μL/L of ethylene in a 4 L container. MOF-ethylene significantly accelerated the ripening-related color and firmness changes of treated bananas and avocados. This result suggests that MOF-ethylene technology could be used for postharvest application to stimulate ripening just before the point of consumption.

  1. Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

    2008-10-01

    Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification.

  2. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

  3. Indigenous strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the Istrian cheese as potential starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Hulak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Istrian ewe’s milk cheese is an autochthonous product that is manufactured for generations on small family farms in the Croatian peninsula Istria. Traditional Istrian cheese is made from unpasteurized ewe’s milk, without the addition of starter cultures. Consequently, the specific flavour and texture of the Istrian cheese is owed to metabolic processes of indigenous microflora of which Lactobacillus species play pivotal role. Characterisation and selection of indigenous lactobacilli may result in the potential use of selected strains as starter, bioprotective or even probiotic cultures. This study focuses on potential use of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei isolated from traditional Istrian cheese as starter cultures, by using methods that determine their proteolytic, lipolytic, antimicrobial and haemolytic potential, as well as their ability of acidification, autoaggregation and survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Our results indicated that from 12 representative strains most revealed a low or moderate proteolytic activity as well as absence of lipolytic and haemolytic activities. From 12 strains, 5 of them showed a medium to strong acidification ability and lowered the pH of milk below 5.00 after 24 hours of incubation. Furthermore, almost all isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against Serratia marcescens, and lowest number of isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The studied Lactobacillus strains revealed high survival rate in a simulated oral cavity and duodenum conditions, while the survival ability in a simulated gastric conditions was much lower. Ability to aggregate was low for all tested strains, after 3 hours and after 5 hours of incubation.

  4. More electric aircraft starter-generator system with utilization of hybrid modulated model predictive control

    OpenAIRE

    Yoeh, Seang Shen; Yang, Tao; Tarisciotti, Luca; Hill, Christopher Ian; Bozhko, Serhiy

    2016-01-01

    The current trend for future aircraft is the adoption of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) concept. The electrical based starter-generator (S/G) system is one of the core ideas from the MEA concept. The PI based control scheme has been investigated in various papers for the permanent magnet based S/G system. Different control schemes are to be considered to improve the control performance of the S/G system. A type of non-linear control called Model Predictive Control (MPC) is considered for it...

  5. Antimicrobial Activity – The Most Important Property of Probiotic and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of industrially important lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures and probiotic bacteria is the main subject of this review. This activity has been attributed to the production of metabolites such as organic acids (lactic and acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, diacetyl, acetaldehyde, acetoine, carbon dioxide, reuterin, reutericyclin and bacteriocins. The potential of using bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria, primarily used as biopreservatives, represents a perspective, alternative antimicrobial strategy for continuously increasing problem with antibiotic resistance. Another strategy in resolving this problem is an application of probiotics for different gastrointestinal and urogenital infection therapies.

  6. [Genetic improvement of technological characteristics of starters for fermented milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, G G; Barsegian, A A; Grigorian, N G; Toptsian, A V

    2010-01-01

    Possibility for improvement of technological characteristics of lactobacilli using mutations of resistance to rifampicin (rif(r)) and streptomycin (str(r)) was studied. Using starter model of Narine Lactobacillus acidophilus INMIA-9602 Armenian diet milk product, it was showed that a possibility for selecting strains with increased rate of milk fermentation and acid production is higher in Rif(r) and Str(r) mutants induced by nitrosoguanidine than in cultures sensitive to antibiotics. The milk products obtained using Rif(r) and Str(r) strains had high viscosity, improved texture, increased amount of alive cells and good organoleptic features.

  7. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla; Rubæk, Gitte Holton

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized...... that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference...

  8. Changes in Polyphenols Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Fruits during Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea Anton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols of fruits and vegetables form an important part of human dietary compounds. Relatively little is known about accumulation of phenolics during fruits ripening process. The goal of this work was to study the changes in antioxidant activity and in content of 30 polyphenols during ripening of tomato fruits. Five organically and conventionally grown tomato cultivars were investigated at three different ripening stages. Phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. During ripening, four different changing patterns were observed: (1 high level in green fruits with minimal changes; (2 continuous increase with maximum level in red-ripe fruits; (3 decrease; (4 increase and achieving maximum level at half-ripe stage. Similar change patterns were found for organic and conventional fruits. The accumulation patterns of phenolic compounds were similar in standard-type tomatoes but differed in several cases in cherry-type cultivar. Although contents of some polyphenols decreased during ripening, total phenolics and free radical scavenging activity increased in all studied cultivars and in case of both cultivation modes. The changes in content of phenolic compounds during ripening were greatly influenced by cultivars, but cultivation mode had only minor impact on dynamics in polyphenols contents in tomato fruits.

  9. Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Gurses, Mustafa; Hayaloglu, A Adnan; Cetin, Bulent; Sekerci, Pinar; Dagdemir, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.

  10. Effects of atmospheric composition on respiratory behavior, weight loss, and appearance of Camembert-type cheeses during chamber ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Corrieu, G

    2006-08-01

    Respiratory activity, weight loss, and appearance of Camembert-type cheeses were studied during chamber ripening in relation to atmospheric composition. Cheese ripening was carried out in chambers under continuously renewed, periodically renewed, or nonrenewed gaseous atmospheres or under a CO(2) concentration kept constant at either 2 or 6% throughout the chamber-ripening process. It was found that overall atmospheric composition, and especially CO(2) concentration, of the ripening chamber affected respiratory activity. When CO(2) was maintained at either 2 or 6%, O(2) consumption and CO(2) production (and their kinetics) were higher compared with ripening trials carried out without regulating CO(2) concentration over time. Global weight loss was maximal under continuously renewed atmospheric conditions. In this case, the airflow increased exchanges between cheeses and the atmosphere. The ratio between water evaporation and CO(2) release also depended on atmospheric composition, especially CO(2) concentration. The thickening of the creamy underrind increased more quickly when CO(2) was present in the chamber from the beginning of the ripening process. However, CO(2) concentrations higher than 2% negatively influenced the appearance of the cheeses.

  11. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  12. Gas exchange in fruits related to skin condition and fruit ripening studied with diode laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Huiying; Li, Tianqi; Mei, Liang; Svanberg, Katarina; Svanberg, Sune

    2016-12-01

    The concentration of the biologically active molecular oxygen gas is of crucial importance for fruits in the metabolic respiration, maturation, and ripening processes. In our study, oxygen content and oxygen transport in fruits, exemplified by apples and guavas, were studied noninvasively by gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy. The technique is based on the fact that free gases typically have 10,000 times narrower absorption features than the bulk material. The technique was demonstrated in studies of the influence of the fruit skin in regulating the internal oxygen balance, by observing the signal response of the internal oxygen gas to a transient change in the ambient gas concentration on peeled and unpeeled fruits. In addition, the gas exchange rate at different ripening stages was also studied in intact guavas.

  13. Effects of gamma irradiation on ripening process of Morn-Thong durian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudto, T.; Uthairatanakij, A.; Jitareerat, P.; Photchanachai, S.; Vaongcheeree, S.

    2005-09-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on ripening process of ''Morn-Thong'' durian were studied. Fruits were irradiated with gamma ray at 0, 0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 kGy or dipped Benomyl r at 500 mg/L and then fruit were stored at room temperature. Soluble solids content (SSC), pulp colour (L*, a* and b* values), flesh firmness and weight loss were measured. The results found that irradiation at 0.3 kGy caused higher water loss compared to fruit treated with 0.6, 1.0 kGy, control and Benomyl r dipping, respectively. Fruit irradiated with 0.3 kGy had the highest SSC, indicating the induce of ripening process. However, there was inconsistent in pulp colour

  14. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and

  15. A NEW EARLY-RIPENING VARIETY OF GARDEN PEA KUDESNIK 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Besedin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The early-ripening variety of garden pea ‘Kudesnik 2’ was proposed for State Commission for variety trial in 2015 and regarded to be used in the canning industry. The variety was bred at Krymsk Experimental Plant Breeding Station and considered to be used for continued conveyor-like production for further processing technology at canned-food production enterprises.

  16. Modelling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mould-ripened cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol eSchvartzman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model and the Logistic model and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model and the Presser model mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modelled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (μmax were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram.

  17. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mold-ripened cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schvartzman, M Sol; Gonzalez-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw) of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model, and the Logistic model) and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model, and the Presser model) mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modeled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (μmax) were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram.

  18. Ripening and shelf life of 'BRS Caipira' banana fruit stored under room temperature or refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjana Santos Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BRS Caipira variety, internationally known as 'Yangambi km 5', is an alternative to meet the demand of 'Maçã'-type fruit due to its resistance to Panama disease. This study had the objective of generating information about 'BRS Caipira' fruit ripening and cold storage potential. For the ripening study fruits were stored under room temperature conditions (25±2°C / 58±6% U.R. and assessed for postharvest life evaluation and characterization of seven maturity stages based on peel color: completely green - MS1; green with yellow traces - MS2; more green than yellow - MS3; more yellow than green - MS4; yellow with green tips - MS5; completely yellow - MS6; yellow with brown spots - MS7. For the cold storage potential study, fruits at MS1 were cold stored (14±1°C / 53±2% U.R. for 28 days. Weekly, fruits were transferred to room temperature to ripen until MS6 when were assessed for quality attributes. Ripening of 'BRS Caipira' fruit was characterized as slow between MS1 and MS2 (averaging five days, then fast between MS2 and MS6 (up to four days in average, and undergoing determinant changes between MS6 and MS7: pulp yield reached 80%, titratable acidity reduced by 50% and ratio increased by 78%. Cold storage extended shelf life by up to 19 days as compared with control, without visible symptoms of chilling injury, although tends to reduce soluble solids in ripe fruit. Maximum recommended time for storage of 'BRS Caipira' fruit at 14°C is 21 days, since it allows a few more days under room temperature until fruit reach MS6.

  19. Evaluation of Isosorbide Mononitrate for Preinduction of Cervical Ripening: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Krishnamurthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Isosorbide mononitrate (IMN as a cervical ripening agent prior to induction of labour in term pregnant women.A randomized placebo-controlled study was conducted on 100 term singleton pregnancies planned for induction of labour. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received 40 mg IMN and the other group received 40mg of placebo kept vaginally. The main outcome of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of IMN in cervical ripening based on the change in modified Bishop score and the effect on time duration between the drug insertion and delivery. Safety of isosorbide mononitrate was assessed by measuring variables related to maternal and neonatal outcomes.Baseline demographic characteristics were similar in both groups. The mean change in modified Bishop score after 2 doses of 40mg IMN was insignificant when compared to placebo. Though IMN shortened the time duration between the drug insertion to delivery when compared to placebo, it was statistically insignificant. The need for oxytocin and 2(nd ripening agent was less in IMN group when compared to placebo group but statistically this also proved to be insignificant. It was noted that there was an increase in caesarean deliveries in IMN than in placebo group. IMN did not cause any significant change in maternal hemodynamics and adverse side effects. Though NICU admission and stay was less in IMN than in placebo group, it was statistically insignificant.Though IMN did not cause any maternal and neonatal adverse effects, it was found to be inefficient in comparison to placebo as a cervical ripening agent.

  20. Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Talaverano, M Inmaculada; Villalobos-González, Luis; Ribalta-Pizarro, Camila; Pastenes, Claudio

    2017-08-01

    The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day -1 ; T2: 1.8 mm day -1 and T3: 0.3 mm day -1 . The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2012-07-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 μL L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Suppressing Type 2C Protein Phosphatases Alters Fruit Ripening and the Stress Response in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yushu; Li, Qian; Jiang, Li; Kai, Wenbin; Liang, Bin; Wang, Juan; Du, Yangwei; Zhai, Xiawan; Wang, Jieling; Zhang, Yingqi; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Lusheng; Leng, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Although ABA signaling has been widely studied in Arabidopsis, the roles of core ABA signaling components in fruit remain poorly understood. Herein, we characterize SlPP2C1, a group A type 2C protein phosphatase that negatively regulates ABA signaling and fruit ripening in tomato. The SlPP2C1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm close to AtAHG3/AtPP2CA. The SlPP2C1 gene was expressed in all tomato tissues throughout development, particularly in flowers and fruits, and it was up-regulated by dehydration and ABA treatment. SlPP2C1 expression in fruits was increased at 30 d after full bloom and peaked at the B + 1 stage. Suppression of SlPP2C1 expression significantly accelerated fruit ripening which was associated with higher levels of ABA signaling genes that are reported to alter the expression of fruit ripening genes involved in ethylene release and cell wall catabolism. SlPP2C1-RNAi (RNA interference) led to increased endogenous ABA accumulation and advanced release of ethylene in transgenic fruits compared with wild-type (WT) fruits. SlPP2C1-RNAi also resulted in abnormal flowers and obstructed the normal abscission of pedicels. SlPP2C1-RNAi plants were hypersensitized to ABA, and displayed delayed seed germination and primary root growth, and increased resistance to drought stress compared with WT plants. These results demonstrated that SlPP2C1 is a functional component in the ABA signaling pathway which participates in fruit ripening, ABA responses and drought tolerance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplas...

  4. Study of sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries under water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenphing Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar phloem unloading in ripening grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Syrah was studied under water stress conditions using the «beny-cup» technique. After veraison, berry growth, the potential Exposed Leaf Area (pELA and photosynthetic activity are clearly reduced in water-stressed vines (- 0.5 > Ψb > - 0.6 MPa as compared to normal 1 Ψ-watcred vines (Mb = - 0.2 MPa. The ratio pELA/yield is also reduced, which is particular to this experiment. The beiries' ripening period (between veraison and maturity can be divided into three growth phases, Illa, Illb and IIlc. During phase Ma, the berries grow rapidly; at this point, water stress severely inhibits cell expan¬ sion of the berries but does not impact on daily sugar accumulation. During phase Mb, the berries grow slowly in both water-stressed and control vines. Water stress can shorten this phase and reduce sugar accumulation in the berries by decreasing daily sugar unloading. During phase II le, the Iresh weight and volume of the berries decreases as does the daily sugar unloading. During the day, sugar unloading in ripening berries occurs mainly in the morning (7 am to 10.30 am and at noon (1 to 1.30 pm; little sugar is unloaded in the afternoon (4 pm to 4.30 pin. Moderate water stress from veraison to maturity affects végétative growth (i.e. the growth of primary and secoridary shoots, and reduces the exposed leaf area, photosynthetic activity, berry growth, and the accumulation of sugar at the end of ripening (phases Mb and IIlc.

  5. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  6. High sintering resistance of size-selected platinum cluster catalysts by suppressed ostwald ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettergren, Kristina; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Deiana, Davide

    2014-01-01

    on different supports exhibit remarkable intrinsic sintering resistance even under reaction conditions. The observed stability is related to suppression of Ostwald ripening by elimination of its main driving force via size-selection. This study thus constitutes a general blueprint for the rational design...... of sintering resistant catalyst systems and for efficient experimental strategies to determine sintering mechanisms. Moreover, this is the first systematic experimental investigation of sintering processes in nanoparticle systems with an initially perfectly monomodal size distribution under ambient conditions....

  7. Ripening of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. [Guamúchil] Fruit: Physicochemical, Chemical and Antioxidant Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Medrano, Abraham; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe F; López-Díaz, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas-Aguirre, Francisco J; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón

    2016-12-01

    The fruit of Guamúchil is an excellent source of bioactive compounds for human health although their natural occurrence could be affected by the ripening process. The aim was to evaluate some physicochemical, chemical and antioxidant changes in guamúchil fruit during six ripening stages (I to VI). A defined trend (p ≤ 0.003) was observed for color [°Hue, 109 (light green) to 20 (dark red)], anthocyanins (+571 %), soluble solids (+0.33 o Brix), ash (+16 %), sucrose (-91 %), proanthocyanidins (63 %), ascorbic acid (-52 %) and hydrolysable PC (-21 %). Carotenoids were not detected and chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic compound. Maximal availability of these bioactives per ripening stage (p ≤ 0.03) was as follows: I (protein/ lipids/ sucrose/ proanthocyanidins/ hydrolysable phenolics), II (total sugars/ascorbic acid), III (total phenolics), IV (flavonoids/ chlorogenic acid) and VI (fructose/ glucose/ anthocyanins). Color change was explained by sucrose (β = 0.47) and anthocyanin (β = 0.20) contents (p < 0.001). Radical scavenging capacity (ORAC, DPPH and TEAC) strongly correlated with total PC (r = 0.49-0.65, p ≤ 0.001) but 89 % of ORAC's associated variance was explained by anthocyanin + sucrose + ascorbic acid (p ≤ 0.0001). Guamúchil fruit could be a more convenient source of specific bioactive compounds if harvested at different ripening stages.

  8. Evaluation of a single and combined inoculation of a Lactobacillus pentosus starter for processing cv. Arbequina natural green olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

    2010-09-01

    The production of Arbequina naturally green olives is a traditional and spontaneous process in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts are present. To better control the fermentation of olives, strains of LAB and yeasts that had been isolated from brines were used in this study. A strain of Lactobacillus pentosus selected from an industrial olive fermentation was used as a starter culture for the traditional fermentation of Arbequina naturally green olives. Three more strains isolated from Arbequina olive brines were selected: one yeast, (Candida diddensiae), and two Lactobacillus (one L. plantarum and the other L. pentosus). The individual fermentation profile of all the strains and the co-inoculation profile of each one of the three with the first selected L. pentosus were studied in pilot-scale fermentations. The results showed that all the strains used as a starter, and particularly the yeast C. diddensiae, reduced the Enterobacteriaceae survival period in comparison with the spontaneous process. Only when a L. pentosus strain was inoculated were the LAB counts above 10(6) cfu ml(-1) throughout the process. The C. diddensiae starter failed to colonize the brine until the end of the process and no LAB were detected. Results of rep-PCR using the primer GTG(5) showed that both L. pentosus starters were able to colonize the brine by the end of the process but when they were co-inoculated only one strain was dominant. The L. plantarum starter failed to colonize the brine. In the control fermentation, various autochthonous strains of L. pentosus and L. plantarum were detected. The pH only reached desirable levels when a L. pentosus strain was inoculated. From the results of the sensory evaluation, panellists found significant differences between the different starters used for fermenting olives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of physical form and protein source of starter feed on growth and development of dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this paper was to review the literature on effects of different methods of processing of grain fraction of the starter feeds for young dairy calves, as well as providing another part of starter which is a source of protein, minerals and vitamins in different physical forms. The second aim was to discus the impact of the main protein sources for starter feeds on performance of preweaning and posteweaning dairy calves. The main criteria for assessment of physical form effect and sources of protein in the starter feeds were intake of dry feeds, daily live weight gain and frame size growth of calves, morphological and functional development of forestomachs, digestibility of feeds and health status of young calves. Data show big variations and lack of consistency of experimental results. Good results were achieved when calves were fed whole, ground, dry-rolled, pelleted and steam-flaked grains. It seemed that fineness of grinding and quantities of fine fraction were important for starter intake. Steam-flaking and grinding improved digestibility to the same extent, but whole grain stimulated chewing and improved rumen environment for bacteria growth. Soybean meal was the most palatable and ensured best performance of calves. Evidently, it is possible to replace soybean meal with rape seed, canola type meal, dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS and other protein sources which contain more fiber and are less digestible. However, it is difficult to appraise how much and at what conditions is it possible to replace completely or a maximum possible portion of soybean meal. Additional studies are needed to clarify interactions between physical form of starters, rumen fermentation environments and age of calves. Information for composition of diets is needed allowing inclusion of maximum amounts of canola meal, DDGS and sunflower meal, which are produced locally and are cheaper than soybean meal, without decreasing live weight

  10. Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

    2012-01-01

    Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, α-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of α-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology.

  11. Ripening-induced changes in microbial groups of artisanal Sicilian goats’ milk cheese

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    Vincenzo Di Marco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the microbial flora of “Caprino dei Nebrodi”, a raw goat’s milk cheese produced in Sicily, were studied during ripening. From 2 batches of cheese, 4 samples were taken at day 0, 2, 15, and 30 of ripening. Also, samples of curd and milk used in the manufacturing process were analyzed. By the end of the ripening process (day 30, high log10 cfu/g were found for Lactobacilli (7.20, Lattococci (7.10, and Enterococci (7.00, whereas counts of Enterobacteriaceae (3.91, Escherichia coli (3.30, and Staphylococcus (3.89 were found to be lower. The study provides useful information on the microbiological properties of “Caprino dei Nebrodi” cheese, and the results obtained suggest that in order to increase the quality of this artisanal product, it is necessary to improve the sanitary conditions of milking and cheese-making. The study was intended as a preliminary step towards the isolation and identification of bacterial species found in this type of goat’s cheese.

  12. Effect of LED irradiation on the ripening and nutritional quality of postharvest banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Yi; Xu, Fengying; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-04-24

    With the ability to tailor wavelengths necessary to the photosynthetically active radiation spectrum of plant pigments, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer vast possibilities in horticultural lighting. The influence of LED light irradiation on major postharvest features of banana was investigated. Mature green bananas were treated daily with selected blue (464-474 nm), green (515-525 nm) and red (617-627 nm) LED lights for 8 days, and compared with non-illuminated control. The positive effect of LED lighting on the acceleration of ripening in bananas was greatest for blue, followed by red and green. Under the irradiation of LED lights, faster peel de-greening and flesh softening, and increased ethylene production and respiration rate in bananas were observed during storage. Furthermore, the accumulations of ascorbic acid, total phenols, and total sugars in banana fruit were enhanced by LED light exposure. LED light treatment can induce the ripening of bananas and improve their quality and nutrition potential. These findings might provide new chemical-free strategies to shorten the time to ripen banana after harvest by using LED light source. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Yeast Populations during Processing and Ripening of Blue Veined Cheese

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    Alison M. Knox

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Varieties of blue veined cheese were analyzed regularly during different stages of manufacturing and ripening to determine the origin of contaminating the yeasts present in them, their population diversity and development until the end of the storage. Yeast diversity and development in the inner and outer core of the cheeses during ripening were also compared. Air samples revealed few if any yeasts whereas the samples in contact with the equipment and the surroundings revealed high number of yeasts, implicating it as the possible main source of post-pasteurization contamination, as very few yeasts were isolated from the milk and cheese making process itself. Samples from the inner and outer core of the maturing cheeses had typical survival curves. The number of yeasts on the outer core was about a 100-fold more than of those in the inner core. The most abundant yeasts isolated from the environment and ripening cheeses were identified as Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Trichosporon beigelii, Candida versatilis and Cryptococcus albidus, while the yeasts Candida zeylanoides and Dekkera anomala were additionally isolated from the environment. Yeasts were present in high number, making their occurrence in blue-veined cheeses meaningful.

  14. Thap Maeo bananas: Fast ripening and full ethylene perception at low doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo A; Castelan, Florence P; Gomes, Bruna L; Purgatto, Eduardo; Cordenunsi-Lysenko, Beatriz R

    2018-03-01

    Brazil is a major producer and consumer of various banana types. Thap Maeo is a promising cultivar for the market due to its resistance to Black and Yellow Sigatoka disease. However, a lack of information and postharvest technologies concerning Thap Maeo physiology seems to be a significant problem limiting its expansion in the market. Thus, this study aims to establish Thap Maeo fruit's physical, biochemical, and physiological aspects, defining the best ethylene dosage for treatment considering fruit ripening parameters. Bananas were harvested and monitored during both natural and ethylene-induced ripening processes. Assessments of pulp firmness, peel color and endogenous ethylene production showed different profiles between ethylene-treated and non-treated fruits, whereas the ethylene responses concerning the carbohydrates and hormones profiles, as well as the ethylene receptors expression, were observed in all ethylene-treated fruits, even applying low concentrations of the hormone. It thus indicated the high ethylene-sensitivity of Thap Maeo cultivar. Such postharvest behaviors reverberate in lower ethylene requirements for treatment, which was established at 10μLL -1 . Ethylene-inducible changes in fruit volatile compounds throughout ripening are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptome analysis during ripening of table grape berry cv. Thompson Seedless.

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    Iván Balic

    Full Text Available Ripening is one of the key processes associated with the development of major organoleptic characteristics of the fruit. This process has been extensively characterized in climacteric fruit, in contrast with non-climacteric fruit such as grape, where the process is less understood. With the aim of studying changes in gene expression during ripening of non-climacteric fruit, an Illumina based RNA-Seq transcriptome analysis was performed on four developmental stages, between veraison and harvest, on table grapes berries cv Thompson Seedless. Functional analysis showed a transcriptional increase in genes related with degradation processes of chlorophyll, lipids, macromolecules recycling and nucleosomes organization; accompanied by a decrease in genes related with chloroplasts integrity and amino acid synthesis pathways. It was possible to identify several processes described during leaf senescence, particularly close to harvest. Before this point, the results suggest a high transcriptional activity associated with the regulation of gene expression, cytoskeletal organization and cell wall metabolism, which can be related to growth of berries and firmness loss characteristic to this stage of development. This high metabolic activity could be associated with an increase in the transcription of genes related with glycolysis and respiration, unexpected for a non-climacteric fruit ripening.

  16. Effects of early cone collection and artificial ripening on white spruce and red pine germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, D.A.; Haddon, B.D.

    1981-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted at the Petawawa National Forestry Institute. Chalk River, Ontario in 1978 to test the feasibility of early cone collection and to determine the optimum conditions for the artificial ripening of white spruce and red pine cones. Cones were collected at periodic intervals, commencing 7 weeks before natural cone ripeness, and stored under four storage conditions and three storage periods. White spruce cones collected August 1, 4 weeks before natural seed dispersal, and stored on open, screened trays for 12 weeks at 5 degrees Celcius and 75-95% relative humidity yielded seeds of high germinability. Seeds extracted from cones immediately after this collection failed to germinate. Cold storage of white spruce cones at 5 degrees Celcius for as little as 4 weeks eliminated dormancy and the subsequent need for seed stratification after extraction. Good germination of red pine seeds was obtained from cones collected August 16, 7 weeks before natural seed dispersal, and stored on screened trays in a well-ventilated, unheated building, for 4 weeks. Completion of embryo growth must be attained before artificial ripening can be successfully applied; it may be used as an index for commencement of cone collections provided subsequent cone handling includes artificial ripening. (Refs. 39).

  17. Mutated clones of sweet orange cv. pera with late ripening obtained through mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha Latado, Rodrigo; Tulmann Neto, Augusto; Ando, Akihiko; Iemma, Antonio Francisco; Pompeu Junior, Jorgino; Figueiredo, Jose Orlando; Pio, Rose Mary; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Namekata, Takao; Ceravolo, Leonardo; Rossi, Antonio Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Sweet orange cv. Pera (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) harvested from July to November, is the most important cultivar in growing area and consumption in Brazil. To obtain mutants for many characteristics, one-year-old shoots were irradiated at 40 Gy of gamma-rays and the axillary buds were budded. After two cutting-backs, about 7,580 V3M1 plants were obtained. Total of 127 putative mutants were selected from these plants for further examination. The main purpose of this experiment was to obtain late ripening clones which have good fruit quality. These all plants were divided into 15 groups based on the characteristics and random blocks design with 5 replications, including one control plant in each block, was used. The plants were planted 4 X 7 meters and were grown in field condition without artificial irrigation. Ten fruits from each tree were used in evaluating the fruit characteristics such as contents of soluble solid (TSS), acidity, ratio of juice content and skin color, for four years. The data was analyzed by Dunnett test using SAS program. Six clones (9, 10, 16, 21, 58 and 84) were considered as late ripening mutants because they showed lower level of TSS or less ratio of juice content, comparing with the control, in more than one evaluation. The color of the skin of some mutants indicates that they have later ripening characteristics. Other agronomic characteristics are under evaluation in order to see if these mutants can be released as new cultivars

  18. The impact of high temperatures on Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grapevine performance and berry ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis H Greer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat event that occurred in many parts of Australia in 2009 was the worst on record for the past decade, with air temperatures exceeding 40oC for 14 days. Our aim was to assess the impacts of this heat event on vine performance, including ripening, yield and gas exchange of Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon grown in a Riverina vineyard. To assess the affect of high temperatures on Semillon grapevines, the vines were covered with a protective layer to reduce radiant heating and were compared with vines exposed to ambient conditions. The heat event had major effects on ripening; reducing the rate by 50% and delaying harvest ripeness and causing a high incidence of berry shrivel and sunburn. Yield was not affected. Photosynthesis was reduced 35% by the heat event while transpiration increased nearly 3-fold and was accounted for by increased stomatal conductance. The conclusion of this study was that heat events delayed ripening in Semillon berries and caused a significant reduction in berry quality. Strategies to minimise the radiant load during heat events are required and this study has confirmed a protective layer can reduce canopy temperatures and enhance berry quality.

  19. Rapid assessment of selected free amino acids during Edam cheese ripening by near infrared spectroscopy

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    Jiří Mlček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on rapid determination of free amino acids produced during the ripening of cheese, by using near infrared spectroscopy. Analyses of 96 samples of Edam cheese (30% and 45% of fat in dry matter were performed at monthly intervals up to the ripening age of 6 months. In total, 19 amino acids were analysed with infrared spectrometer using two different methods, either in the regime of reflectance in the integrating sphere of the apparatus or using a fibre optic apparatus with the fibre optic probe. Reference data based on high-performance liquid chromatography were used for calibration of the spectrophotometer. Calibration models were developed using a partial least square algorithm and tested by means of cross-validation. When measured with the integrating sphere and with the probe, the values of correlation coefficients ranged from 0.835 to 0.993 and from 0.739 to 0.995, respectively. Paired t-test did not show significant differences between the reference and predicted values (P < 0.05. The results of this new calibration method showed the possibility of near infrared technology for fast determination of free amino acids, which occur during the ripening of Edam cheese. The content of free amino acids allow us to prepare Edam cheese quickly and efficiently for sale or to prepare the material for processed cheese.

  20. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Powdered Microcapsule of Tomato Extract during Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hae-Soo; Chimed, Chogsom; Yoo, Sang-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of Appenzeller cheese supplemented with different concentrations (0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%, w/w) of powdered microcapsules of tomato extracts (PMT) during ripening at 14℃ for 6 mon. The particle sizes of PMT ranged from 1 to 10 m diameter with an average particle size of approximately 2 m. Butyric acid (C4) concentrations of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were significantly higher than that of the control. Lactic acid bacteria counts in the cheese were not significantly influenced by ripening time from 0 to 6 mon or the concentrations (0-4%, w/w) of PMT. In terms of texture, the hardness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese was significantly increased compared to the control. The gumminess and chewiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were similar to those of the control. However, both cohesiveness and springiness of PMT-added Appenzeller cheese were slightly decreased. In sensory analysis, bitterness and sourness of Appenzeller cheese were not significantly changed after supplementation of PMT, but sweetness of the cheese was significantly increased after increasing the ripening time from 0 to 6 mon and increasing the concentration from 1 to 4% (w/w). Based on these results, the addition of the concentrations (1-4%, w/w) of PMT to Appenzeller cheese can be used to develop functional Appenzeller cheese. PMID:27194934