WorldWideScience

Sample records for riparian forest structure

  1. Structure, composition and regeneration of riparian forest along an altitudinal gradient in northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Ali Salehi; Seyed Jalil Alavi; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    In order to protect and understand the regeneration of riparian forests, it is important to understand the environmental conditions that lead to their vegetation differentiation. We evaluated the structure, composition, density and regeneration of woody species in forests along the river Safaroud in Ramsar forest in northern Iran in relation to elevation, soil...

  2. Comparison of riparian and upland forest stand structure and fuel loads in beetle infested watersheds, southern Rocky Mountains

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    Kathleen A. Dwire; Robert Hubbard; Roberto Bazan

    2015-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB), spruce beetle (SB), and other insects are altering forest stand structure throughout western North America, and thereby contributing to the heterogeneity of fuel distribution. In forested watersheds, conifer-dominated riparian forests frequently occur as narrow linear features in the landscape mosaic and contribute to...

  3. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

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    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it

  4. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

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    Christopher R. Keyes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  5. Evaluating the quality of riparian forest vegetation: the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index

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    Fernando Magdaleno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper presents a novel index, the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index, for assessing the ecological condition of riparian forests. The status of riparian ecosystems has global importance due to the ecological and social benefits and services they provide. The initiation of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE requires the assessment of the hydromorphological quality of natural channels. The Directive describes riparian forests as one of the fundamental components that determine the structure of riverine areas. The RFV index was developed to meet the aim of the Directive and to complement the existing methodologies for the evaluation of riparian forests.Area of study: The RFV index was applied to a wide range of streams and rivers (170 water bodies inSpain.Materials and methods: The calculation of the RFV index is based on the assessment of both the spatial continuity of the forest (in its three core dimensions: longitudinal, transversal and vertical and the regeneration capacity of the forest, in a sampling area related to the river hydromorphological pattern. This index enables an evaluation of the quality and degree of alteration of riparian forests. In addition, it helps to determine the scenarios that are necessary to improve the status of riparian forests and to develop processes for restoring their structure and composition.Main results: The results were compared with some previous tools for the assessment of riparian vegetation. The RFV index got the highest average scores in the basins of northernSpain, which suffer lower human influence. The forests in central and southern rivers got worse scores. The bigger differences with other tools were found in complex and partially altered streams and rivers.Research highlights: The study showed the index’s applicability under diverse hydromorphological and ecological conditions and the main advantages of its application. The utilization of the index allows a

  6. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

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    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sustainability and maintenance of riparian vegetation or restoring of degraded sites is critical to sustain inherent ecosystem function and values. Description of patterns in species assemblages and diversity is an essential step before generating hypotheses in functional ecology. If we want to have information about ecosystem function, soil biodiversity is best considered by focusing on the groups of soil organisms that play major roles in ecosystem functioning when exploring links with provision of ecosystem services. Information about the spatial pattern of soil biodiversity at the regional scale is limited though required, e.g. for understanding regional scale effects of biodiversity on ecosystem processes. The practical consequences of these findings are useful for sustainable management of soils and in monitoring soil quality. Soil macrofauna play significant, but largely ignored roles in the delivery of ecosystem services by soils at plot and landscape scales. One main reason responsible for the absence of information about biodiversity at regional scale is the lack of adequate methods for sampling and analyzing data at this dimension. An adequate approach for the analysis of spatial patterns is a transect study in which samples are taken in a certain order and with a certain distance between samples. Geostatistics provide descriptive tools such as variogram to characterize the spatial pattern of continuous and categorical soil attributes. This method allows assessment of consistency of spatial patterns as well as the scale at which they are expressed. This study was conducted to analyze spatial patterns of soil macrofauna in relation to tree canopy in the riparian forest landscape of Maroon. Materilas and Methods: The study was carried out in the Maroon riparian forest of the southeasternIran (30o 38/- 30 o 39/ N and 50 o 9/- 50 o 10/ E. The climate of the study area is semi-arid. Average yearly rainfall is about 350.04 mm

  7. Assessing Anthropogenic Influence and Edge Effect Influence on Forested Riparian Buffer Spatial Configuration and Structure: An Example Using Lidar Remote Sensing Methods

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    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Forested riparian buffers (FRB) perform numerous critical ecosystem services. However, globally, FRB spatial configuration and structure have been modified by anthropogenic development resulting in widespread ecological degradation as seen in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. Riparian corridors within developed areas are particularly vulnerable to disturbance given two edges - the naturally occurring stream edge and the matrix edge. Increased edge length predisposes riparian vegetation to "edge effects", characterized by modified physical and environmental conditions at the interface between the forested buffer and the adjacent landuse, or matrix and forest fragment degradation. The magnitude and distance of edge influence may be further influenced by adjacent landuse type and the width of the buffer corridor at any given location. There is a need to quantify riparian buffer spatial configuration and structure over broad geographic extents and within multiple riparian systems in support of ecologically sound management and landuse decisions. This study thus assesses the influence of varying landuse types (agriculture, suburban development and undeveloped) on forested riparian buffer 3-dimensional structure and spatial configuration using high resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data collected within a headwater watershed. Few studies have assessed riparian buffer structure and width contiguously for an entire watershed, an integral component of watershed planning and restoration efforts such as those conducted throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The objectives of the study are to 1) quantify differences in vegetation structure at the stream and matrix influenced riparian buffer edges, compared to the forested interior and 2) assess continuous patterns of changes in vegetation structure throughout the buffer corridor beginning at the matrix edge and ending at the stream within buffers a) of varying width and b) that are adjacent to varying landuse

  8. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  9. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

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    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  10. Assessing the Effects of Periodic Flooding on the Population Structure and Recruitment Rates of Riparian Tree Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest stands are subjected to a variety of hydrological stresses as a result of annual fluctuations in water levels during the growing season. Spring floods create additional water-related stress as a result of a major inflow of water that floods riverside land. This exploratory study assesses the impacts of successive floods on tree dynamics and regeneration in an active sedimentation area, while determining the age of the stands using the recruitment rates, tree structure and tree rings based on dendrochronological analysis. Environmental data were also recorded for each vegetation quadrat. In total, 2633 tree stems were tallied throughout the quadrats (200 m2, and tree specimens were analyzed based on the various flood zones. A total of 720 specimens were counted (100 m2 strip to measure natural regeneration. Higher recruitment rates are noted for the no-flood zones and lower rates in active floodplains. During the period of the establishment of tree species, the survival rates are comparable between the flood zones and the no-flood zones. Tree diameter distribution reveals a strong predominance of young trees in flooded areas. Different factors appear to come into play in the dynamics of riparian forest stands, including the disruptions associated with successive flooding.

  11. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA.

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    Moore, Georgianne W; Bond, Barbara J; Jones, Julia A; Phillips, Nathan; Meinzer, Federick C

    2004-05-01

    Large areas of forests in the Pacific Northwest are being transformed to younger forests, yet little is known about the impact this may have on hydrological cycles. Previous work suggests that old trees use less water per unit leaf area or sapwood area than young mature trees of the same species in similar environments. Do old forests, therefore, use less water than young mature forests in similar environments, or are there other structural or compositional components in the forests that compensate for tree-level differences? We investigated the impacts of tree age, species composition and sapwood basal area on stand-level transpiration in adjacent watersheds at the H.J. Andrews Forest in the western Cascades of Oregon, one containing a young, mature (about 40 years since disturbance) conifer forest and the other an old growth (about 450 years since disturbance) forest. Sap flow measurements were used to evaluate the degree to which differences in age and species composition affect water use. Stand sapwood basal area was evaluated based on a vegetation survey for species, basal area and sapwood basal area in the riparian area of two watersheds. A simple scaling exercise derived from estimated differences in water use as a result of differences in age, species composition and stand sapwood area was used to estimate transpiration from late June through October within the entire riparian area of these watersheds. Transpiration was higher in the young stand because of greater sap flux density (sap flow per unit sapwood area) by age class and species, and greater total stand sapwood area. During the measurement period, mean daily sap flux density was 2.30 times higher in young compared with old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Sap flux density was 1.41 times higher in young red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) compared with young P. menziesii trees, and was 1.45 times higher in old P. menziesii compared with old western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf

  12. Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions

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    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966

  13. Cicada emergence in southwestern riparian forest: Influences of wildfire and vegetation composition

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    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    2006-01-01

    Annually emerging cicadas are a numerically and ecologically dominant species in Southwestern riparian forests. Humans have altered disturbance regimes that structure these forests such that floods are less common and wildfires occur more frequently than was historically the case. Impacts of these changes on primary consumers such as riparian cicadas are unknown....

  14. Avian nest box selection and nest success in burned and unburned southwestern riparian forests

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    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Riparian forest communities in the southwestern United States were historically structured by a disturbance regime of annual flooding. In recent decades, however, frequency of flooding has decreased and frequency of wildfires has increased. Riparian forests provide important breeding habitat for a large variety of bird species, and the effects of this altered...

  15. Function, Design, and Establishment of Riparian Forest Buffers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia Caldwell

    1999-01-01

    Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests protect and improve water quality, provide habitat for plants and animals, support aquatic communities, and provide many benefits to humans. Virginia, along with other states in the Chesapeake Bay region, has recognized the importance of riparian forests by implementing a plan to restore forested buffers along streams, rivers, and lakes. This project reviews selected literature on riparian forest bu...

  16. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

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    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  17. Thinning and riparian buffer configuration effects on down wood abundance in headwater streams in coniferous forests

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    Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Down wood is associated with the function, structure, and diversity of riparian systems. Considerable knowledge has been generated regarding down wood stocks and dynamics in temperate forests, but there are few studies on effects of silvicultural practices and riparian buffer design on down wood, particularly in headwater streams. We analyzed interactive eff ects of...

  18. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

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    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  19. SNAG AND LARGE WOODY DEBRIS DYNAMICS IN RIPARIAN FORESTS

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    Important components of riparian forests are snags and streamside large woody debris (LWD) because they are functional in maintaining water quality and providing habitat for numerous plants and animals. To effectively manage riparian forests, it is important to understand the dy...

  20. Adaptation of the QBR index for use in riparian forests of central Ohio

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    Stephanie R. Colwell; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Although high quality riparian forests are an endangered ecosystem type throughout the world, there has been no ecological index to measure the habitat quality of riparian forests in Ohio. The QBR (qualitat del bosc de ribera, or riparian forest quality) index was developed to assess the quality of habitat in Mediterranean forested riparian areas, and we have modified...

  1. Riparian vegetation structure under desertification scenarios

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    Rosário Fernandes, M.; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Riparian areas are responsible for many ecological and ecosystems services, including the filtering function, that are considered crucial to the preservation of water quality and social benefits. The main goal of this study is to quantify and understand the riparian variability under desertification scenario(s) and identify the optimal riparian indicators for water scarcity and droughts (WS&D), henceforth improving river basin management. This study was performed in the Iberian Tâmega basin, using riparian woody patches, mapped by visual interpretation on Google Earth imagery, along 130 Sampling Units of 250 m long river stretches. Eight riparian structural indicators, related with lateral dimension, weighted area and shape complexity of riparian patches were calculated using Patch Analyst extension for ArcGis 10. A set of 29 hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were computed, by a water modelling system (MOHID), using monthly meteorological data between 2008 and 2014. Land-use classes were also calculated, in a 250m-buffer surrounding each sampling unit, using a classification based system on Corine Land Cover. Boosted Regression Trees identified Mean-width (MW) as the optimal riparian indicator for water scarcity and drought, followed by the Weighted Class Area (WCA) (classification accuracy =0.79 and 0.69 respectively). Average Flow and Strahler number were consistently selected, by all boosted models, as the most important explanatory variables. However, a combined effect of hidrogeomorphology and land-use can explain the high variability found in the riparian width mainly in Tâmega tributaries. Riparian patches are larger towards Tâmega river mouth although with lower shape complexity, probably related with more continuous and almost monospecific stands. Climatic, hydrological and land use scenarios, singly and combined, were used to quantify the riparian variability responding to these changes, and to assess the loss of riparian

  2. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

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    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.

  3. Fire history of coniferous riparian forests in the Sierra Nevada

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    K. Van de Water; M. North

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological process in many western U.S. coniferous forests, yet high fuel loads, rural home construction and other factors have encouraged the suppression of most wildfires. Using mechanical thinning and prescribed burning, land managers often try to reduce fuels in strategic areas with the highest fuel loads. Riparian forests, however, are often...

  4. Linked in: connecting riparian areas to support forest biodiversity

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    Marie Oliver; Kelly Burnett; Deanna Olson

    2010-01-01

    Many forest-dwelling species rely on both terrestrial and aquatic habitat for their survival. These species, including rare and little-understood amphibians and arthropods, live in and around headwater streams and disperse overland to neighboring headwater streams. Forest management policies that rely on riparian buffer strips and structurebased management—practices...

  5. Water use sources of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests.

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    Si, Jianhua; Feng, Qi; Cao, Shengkui; Yu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunyan

    2014-09-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main body of natural oases in the lower reaches of inland rivers; its growth and distribution are closely related to water use sources. However, how does the desert riparian forest obtains a stable water source and which water sources it uses to effectively avoid or overcome water stress to survive? This paper describes an analysis of the water sources, using the stable oxygen isotope technique and the linear mixed model of the isotopic values and of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests growing at sites with different groundwater depths and conditions. The results showed that the main water source of Populus euphratica changes from water in a single soil layer or groundwater to deep subsoil water and groundwater as the depth of groundwater increases. This appears to be an adaptive selection to arid and water-deficient conditions and is a primary reason for the long-term survival of P. euphratica in the desert riparian forest of an extremely arid region. Water contributions from the various soil layers and from groundwater differed and the desert riparian P. euphratica forests in different habitats had dissimilar water use strategies.

  6. Effects of changes in the riparian forest on the butterfly community (Insecta: Lepidoptera in Cerrado areas

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    Helena S.R. Cabette

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preserved riparian vegetation usually has greater environmental complexity than the riparian vegetation modified by human actions. These systems may have a greater availability and diversity of food resources for the species. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of changes on the structure of the riparian forest on species richness, beta diversity and composition of butterfly species in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that: (i higher species richness and (ii beta diversity would be recorded in more preserved environments; and (iii species composition would be more homogeneous in disturbed habitats. For hypothesis testing, the riparian vegetation of eight streams were sampled in four periods of the year in a fixed transect of 100 m along the shores. The richness of butterfly species is lower in disturbed than in preserved areas. However, species richness is not affected by habitat integrity. Beta diversity differed among sites, such that preserved sites have greater beta diversity, showing greater variation in species composition. In addition, beta diversity was positively affected by environmental heterogeneity. A total of 23 of the 84 species sampled occurred only in the changed environment, 42 were exclusive to preserved sites and 19 occurred in both environments. The environmental change caused by riparian forest removal drastically affects the butterfly community. Therefore, riparian vegetation is extremely important for butterfly preservation in the Cerrado and may be a true biodiversity oasis, especially during the dry periods, when the biome undergoes water stress and resource supply is more limited.

  7. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Marli Candalaft Alcantara Parra; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ralisch, Ricardo; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ripol, Cristovon Videira; Instituto Paranaense de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural do Paraná/EMATER

    2009-01-01

    Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environment...

  8. Nesting characteristics of mourning doves in central New Mexico: Response to riparian forest change

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    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2012-01-01

    Riparian forests of the American Southwest are especially prone to changes in composition and structure due to natural and anthropogenic factors. To determine how breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) respond to these changes, we examined nest site use and nest survival in control plots, fuel reduction plots before and after mechanical thinning, and post-wildfire...

  9. A phytosociological study of riparian forests in Benin (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Floristic ordination and classification of riparian forests in Benin were derived from a comprehensive floristic inventory. TWINSPAN classification and DCA analysis of a data set of 818 plant species and 180 releve's yielded 12 plant communities. Importance of waterways, relief, topography, latitude

  10. Transpirational water loss in invaded and restored semiarid riparian forests

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    Georgianne W. Moore; M. Keith Owens

    2011-01-01

    The invasive tree, Tamarix sp., was introduced to the United States in the 1800s to stabilize stream banks. The riparian ecosystem adjacent to the middle Rio Grande River in central NewMexico consists of mature cottonwood (Populus fremontii ) gallery forests with a dense Tamarix understory. We hypothesized that Populus would compensate for reduced competition by...

  11. Simulation of Soil Quality with Riparian Forests and Cultivated with Sugarcane

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    da Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Riparian forests are entrusted with important hydrological functions, such as riparian zone protection, filtering sediments and nutrients and mitigation of the amount of nutrients and xenobiotic molecules from the surrounding agro ecosystems. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0,2 and 0.2-0.4 m and its chemical (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, sum of bases-SB, bases saturation, V%, and aluminum saturation, m%); physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological attributes (basal respiration and microbial biomass) were determined. This work aimed to study the liner method of combining data, figures of merit (FoM), weighing process and the scoring functions developed by Wymore and asses the quality of the soil (SQI) by means of chemical, physical and microbiological soil attributes, employing the additive pondered model for two areas of riparian forest at different stages of ecological succession and an adjacent area cultivated with sugar cane, located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. Some hierarchical functions containing FoMs and their parameters were constructed, and from them weights were assigned to each FoM and parameter, in a way that cluster of structures with the same FoMs and parameters with different weights were formed. These clusters were used to calculate the SQI for all vegetal formations considering two types of soil (Oxisol and Podzol), in that way, the SQI was calculated for each combination of vegetation and soil. The SQIs values were usually higher in the oldest riparian forest, while the recent riparian forest showed the smallest SQI values, for both types of soil. The variation of values within a combination vegetation/soil was also different between all combinations, being that the set of values from the oldest riparian forest presented the lowest amplitude. It was also observed that the Oxisols, regardless of the vegetation, presented higher SQIs

  12. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a...

  13. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  16. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  18. Effects of riparian buffer width on wood loading in headwater streams after repeated forest thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia I. Burton; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2016-01-01

    Forested riparian buffer zones are used in conjunction with upland forest management, in part, to provide for the recruitment for large wood to streams. Small headwater streams account for the majority of stream networks in many forested regions. Yet, our understanding of how riparian buffer width influences wood dynamics in headwater streams is relatively less...

  19. Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA to Assess Genetic Diversity and Structure of Natural Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae Populations in Riparian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability in two natural populations of Calophyllum brasiliense located along two different rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using RAPD molecular markers. Eighty-two polymorphic fragments were amplified using 27 primers. The values obtained for Shannon index (I were 0.513 and 0.530 for the populations located on the margins of the Rio Grande and Rio das Mortes, respectively, demonstrating the high genetic diversity in the studied populations. Nei’s genetic diversity (He was 0.341 for the Rio Grande population and 0.357 for the Rio das Mortes population. These results were not significantly different between populations and suggest a large proportion of heterozygote individuals within both populations. AMOVA showed that 70.42% of the genetic variability is found within populations and 29.58% is found among populations (ФST=0.2958. The analysis of kinship coefficients detected the existence of family structures in both populations. Average kinship coefficients between neighboring individuals were 0.053 (P<0.001 in Rio das Mortes and 0.040 (P<0.001 in Rio Grande. This could be due to restricted pollen and seed dispersal and the history of anthropogenic disturbance in the area. These factors are likely to contribute to the relatedness observed among these genotypes.

  20. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  1. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia C.; Johnson, James E. (James Eric), 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Discusses riparian forests' ability to support many species of wildlife and explains that the importance of a particular riparian area for wildlife will depend on the size of the area, adjoining land uses, riparian vegetation, features inside the area, and the wildlife species of interest.

  2. Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perry, Laura G; Rose, Chanoane A; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dams affect the shifting habitat mosaic of river bottomlands is key for protecting the many ecological functions and related goods and services that riparian forests provide and for informing approaches to riparian ecosystem restoration. We examined the downstream effects of two large dams on patterns of forest composition, structure, and dynamics within different geomorphic contexts and compared them to upstream reference conditions along the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Patterns of riparian vegetation in river segments downstream of the dams were driven largely by channel and bottomland geomorphic responses to a dramatically reduced sediment supply. The river segment upstream of both dams was the most geomorphically dynamic, whereas the segment between the dams was the least dynamic due to substantial channel armoring, and the segment downstream of both dams was intermediate due to some local sediment supply. These geomorphic differences were linked to altered characteristics of the shifting habitat mosaic, including older forest age structure and fewer young Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa stands in the relatively static segment between the dams compared to more extensive early-successional forests (dominated by Alnus rubra and Salix spp.) and pioneer seedling recruitment upstream of the dams. Species composition of later-successional forest communities varied among river segments as well, with greater Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla abundance upstream of both dams, Acer spp. abundance between the dams, and P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa and Thuja plicata abundance below both dams. Riparian forest responses to the recent removal of the two dams on the Elwha River will depend largely on channel and geomorphic adjustments to the release, transport, and deposition of the large volume of sediment formerly stored in the reservoirs, together with changes in large wood dynamics.

  3. PHYTOCOENOSES OF URBAN RIPARIAN FORESTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LAS OSOBOWICKI FOREST (WROCŁAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stefańska-Krzaczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Las Osobowicki forest is remnant riparian woodland of the Odra valley. Floristic data were collected from circular 100m2 plots (with a radius of 5.64m which were systematically chosen in forest communities. Four plant communities were determined within data set. They were represented Fagetalia order and Querco-Fagetea class. Flood prevention caused disappearance of riparian forest species, expansion of common hornbeam and Norway maple expansion and a decrease of species richness. However, spatial distribution of phytocoenoses proves the river influence on the vegetation.

  4. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  5. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Citizen Scientists Provide Critical Data to Refine Aboveground Carbon Estimates in Restored Riparian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating citizen scientists into ecological informatics research can be difficult due to limited opportunities for meaningful engagement given vast data streams. This is particularly true for analysis of remotely sensed data, which are increasingly being used to quantify ecosystem services over space and time, and to understand how land uses deliver differing values to humans and thus inform choices about future human actions. Carbon storage and sequestration are such ecosystem services, and recent environmental policy advances in California (i.e., AB 32) have resulted in a nascent carbon market that is helping fuel the restoration of riparian forests in agricultural landscapes. Methods to inventory and monitor aboveground carbon for market accounting are increasingly relying on hyperspatial remotely sensed data, particularly the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technologies, to estimate biomass. Because airborne discrete return LiDAR can inexpensively capture vegetation structural differences at high spatial resolution ( 1000 ha), its use is rapidly increasing, resulting in vast stores of point cloud and derived surface raster data. While established algorithms can quantify forest canopy structure efficiently, the highly complex nature of native riparian forests can result in highly uncertain estimates of biomass due to differences in composition (e.g., species richness, age class) and structure (e.g., stem density). This study presents the comparative results of standing carbon estimates refined with field data collected by citizen scientists at three different sites, each capturing a range of agricultural, remnant forest, and restored forest cover types. These citizen science data resolve uncertainty in composition and structure, and improve allometric scaling models of biomass and thus estimates of aboveground carbon. Results indicate that agricultural land and horticulturally restored riparian forests store similar amounts of aboveground carbon

  6. The negative influences of the new brazilian forest code on the conservation of riparian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Normandes Matos da

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available More than one million hectares of riparian forests were degraded or altered in Mato Grosso State (Brazil up to 2009. The aim of the research is to set a comparative scenario to show differences in the quantification of environmental liabilities in riparian forest areas resulting from the change in native vegetation protection rules due to the transition between Laws 4771/65 and 12651/2012. Data collection took place in a marginal stretch of Vermelho River in Rondonópolis County, Mato Grosso State. The following data set was taken into consideration: aerial images derived from unmanned aerial vehicle, Rapid Eye satellite images and orbital images hosted at Google Earth. The spatial resolution of those images was compared. The aerial photos composed a mosaic that was photo-interpreted to generate land use and occupation classes. The riparian forest areas of a rural property were used as parameter, and their environmental situation was compared in 05 meter and 100 meter strips. Thus, by taking into consideration the current rules, 23,501 m2 of area ceased to be an environmental liability within the riparian forest and became a consolidated rural area. According to the previous Forest Code, in a different scenario, that is, in a set of rural properties, the public authority would receive USD 68,600.00 in fines. The new Brazilian Forestry Code of 2012, which replaces the previous one made in 1965, exempts those responsible for rural property from regenerating previously deforested native vegetation - an obligation established by older Forest Code. We have shown that the new Forest Code has diminished the legal responsibility of the rural owners in relation to the maintenance of forest fragments in their properties.

  7. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  8. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  9. Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) removal and its effect on native plant communities of Riparian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Scott Horn; John W. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Chinese privet is a major invasive shrub within riparian zones throughout the southeastern United States. Weremoved privet shrubs from four riparian forests in October 2005 with a GyrotracH mulching machine or by handfelling with chainsaws and machetes to determine how well these treatments controlled privet and how they affected plant...

  10. Watershed scale assessment of the impact of forested riparian zones on stream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Webber; K. W. J. Williard; M. R. Whiles; M. L. Stone; J. J. Zaczek; D. K. Davie

    2003-01-01

    Federal and state land management agencies have been promoting forest and grass riparian zones to combat non-point source nutrient and sediment pollution of our nations' waters. The majority of research examining the effectiveness of riparian buffers at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to streams has been conducted at the field scale. This study took a...

  11. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L...

  12. Riparian buffer and density management influences on microclimate of young headwater forests of Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; David J. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2007-01-01

    Thinning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands of the Pacific Northwest, United States. Empirical relationships among riparian functions, silvicultural treatments, and different riparian buffer widths are not well documented for small headwater...

  13. Soil organic carbon in riparian forests, rice fields, and pastures in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Jair Andrade-Castañeda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in the interface between riparian forests and a matrix of rice fields and pastures with organic management. The study took place in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia. Two plots in production (rice and pasture were selected and SOC was estimated in these areas and in the edge and the interior of adjacent riparian forests at a depth of 0 to 20 cm. Bulk density and SOC concentration were quantified between May and July, 2013. Potential change in SOC storage due to land use change among rice fields, pastures, and riparian forests was estimated. The interfaces rice field-riparian forest and pasture-riparian forest stored an average of 65.6 and 61.3 t C/ha, respectively, with no statistical differences (p>0.05. Statistical differences were not detected (p>0.05 between agricultural matrices (rice fields and pastures in any of the variables. The sampling position (matrix and the edge and interior of forests had a significant impact (p<0.05 just in bulk density: 1.7 vs 1.1 vs 1.0 g/cm3 in interior and edge of the riparian forests and the matrix, respectively. SOC was not statistically affected (p>0.05 by the position in the riparian forest-matrix interface. Conversion from riparian forests to rice fields or pastures with organic management is not emitting greenhouse gases, on the contrary, it is increasing SOC in 3.2 t C/ha. 

  14. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  15. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  19. Edaphic, salinity, and stand structural trends in chronosequences of native and non-native dominated riparian forests along the Colorado River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarix spp. are introduced shrubs that have become among the most abundant woody plants growing along western North American rivers. We sought to empirically test the long-held belief that Tamarix actively displaces native species through elevating soil salinity via salt exudation. We measured chemical and physical attributes of soils (e.g., salinity, major cations and anions, texture), litter cover and depth, and stand structure along chronosequences dominated by Tamarix and those dominated by native riparian species (Populus or Salix) along the upper and lower Colorado River in Colorado and Arizona/California, USA. We tested four hypotheses: (1) the rate of salt accumulation in soils is faster in Tamarix-dominated stands than stands dominated by native species, (2) the concentration of salts in the soil is higher in mature stands dominated by Tamarix compared to native stands, (3) soil salinity is a function of Tamarix abundance, and (4) available nutrients are more concentrated in native-dominated stands compared to Tamarix-dominated stands. We found that salt concentration increases at a faster rate in Tamarix-dominated stands along the relatively free-flowing upper Colorado but not along the heavily-regulated lower Colorado. Concentrations of ions that are known to be preferentially exuded by Tamarix (e.g., B, Na, and Cl) were higher in Tamarix stands than in native stands. Soil salt concentrations in older Tamarix stands along the upper Colorado were sufficiently high to inhibit germination, establishment, or growth of some native species. On the lower Colorado, salinity was very high in all stands and is likely due to factors associated with floodplain development and the hydrologic effects of river regulation, such as reduced overbank flooding, evaporation of shallow ground water, higher salt concentrations in surface and ground water due to agricultural practices, and higher salt concentrations in fine-textured sediments derived from naturally saline

  20. Coevolution of floodplain and riparian forest dynamics on large, meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Riddle, J. D.; Battles, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    On large meandering rivers, riparian forests coevolve with the floodplains that support them. Floodplain characteristics such as local disturbance regime, deposition rates and sediment texture drive plant community dynamics, which in turn feed back to the abiotic processes. We investigated floodplain and riparian forest coevolution along the along the Sacramento River (California, USA), a large, mediterranean-climate river that has been extensively regulated for 70 years, but whose 160-km middle reach (Red Bluff to Colusa) retains some channel mobility and natural forest stands. Guided by maps of floodplain change over time and current vegetation cover, we conducted an extensive forest inventory and chronosequence analysis to quantify how abiotic conditions and forest structural characteristics such as tree density, basal area and biomass vary with floodplain age. We inventoried 285 fixed-area plots distributed across 19 large point bars within vegetation patches ranging in age from 4 to 107 years. Two successional trajectories were evident: (1) shifting species dominance over time within forested areas, from willow to cottonwood to walnut, boxelder and valley oak; and (2) patches of shrub willow (primarily Salix exigua) that maintained dominance throughout time. Sediment accretion was reduced in the persistent willow plots compared to the successional forest stands, suggesting an association between higher flood energy and arrested succession. Forested stands 40-60 years old were the most extensive across the chronosequence in terms of floodplain area, and supported the highest biomass, species diversity, and functional wildlife habitat. These stands were dominated by Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and reached their maxima in terms of tree size and biomass at age 50 years. The persistent willow stands reached their structural maxima earlier (32 years) and supported lower biomass. Basal area and abundance of large trees decreased in stands >90 years old

  1. Forest attributes and fuel loads of riparian vs. upland stands in mountain pine beetle infested watersheds, southern Rocky Mountains [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Roberto A. Bazan; Robert Hubbard

    2015-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB), spruce beetle (SB), and other insects are altering forest stand structure throughout the Western United States, and thereby increasing the natural heterogeneity of fuel distribution. Riparian forests frequently occur as narrow linear features in the landscape mosaic and can contribute to the spatial complexity of...

  2. Benefits of riparian forest for the aquatic ecosystem assessed at a large geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Looy K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claimed benefits of riparian forest cover for the aquatic ecosystem include purification, thermal control, organic matter input and habitat provision, which may improve physicochemical and biotic quality. However, these beneficial effects might be flawed by multiple stressor conditions of intensive agriculture and urbanization in upstream catchments. We examined the relationship between riparian forest cover and physicochemical quality and biotic integrity indices in extensive large scale datasets. Measurements of hydromorphological conditions and riparian forest cover across different buffer widths for 59 × 103 river stretches covering 230 × 103 km of the French river network were coupled with data for physicochemical and biotic variables taken from the national monitoring network. General linear and quantile regression techniques were used to determine responses of physicochemical variables and biological integrity indices for macroinvertebrates and fish to riparian forest cover in selections of intermediate stress for 2nd to 4th order streams. Significant responses to forest cover were found for the nutrient variables and biological indices. According to these responses a 60% riparian forest cover in the 10 m buffer corresponds to good status boundaries for physicochemical and biotic elements. For the 30 m buffer, the observed response suggests that riparian forest coverage of at least 45% corresponds with good ecological status in the aquatic ecosystem. The observed consistent responses indicate significant potential for improving the quality of the aquatic environment by restoring riparian forest. The effects are more substantial in single-stressor environments but remain significant in multi-stressor environments.

  3. Pavement and riparian forest shape the bird community along an urban river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J.W. McClure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of habitat use by animals within urban-riparian corridors during the breeding season is important for conservation, yet remains understudied. We examined the bird community along an urban-riparian corridor through metropolitan Boise, Idaho and predicted that occupancy of individual species and species richness would be greater in forested areas than in urbanized areas. We surveyed birds throughout the summers of 2009 and 2010 and quantified the m2 of each cover-type within 50-m, 100-m, and 200-m buffers surrounding each survey location using satellite imagery. Occupancy modeling revealed that eight of 14 species analyzed were positively associated with riparian forest, and no species avoided forest. Species richness was negatively associated with the amount of paved surface within 100 m of a survey site with richness declining by more than two species for every hectare of paved surface. Most associations with cover-types–especially riparian forest–were at ⩾100 m. Therefore, the riparian forest within 100 m of a given site along an urban-riparian corridor should be the most important for maintaining species richness.

  4. Quantifying change in riparian ash forests following the introduction of EAB in Michigan and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae; EAB) is an introduced beetle that kills ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. While most EAB-related ash mortality has been documented in urban areas, the effects of EAB in forested settings, particularly in riparian forests, are not well known. This study utilizes...

  5. Breeding birds in riparian and upland dry forests of the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl; E. Dorsey Burger; Emily K. Drew; John P. Lindsey; Maryellen Haggard; Kent Z. Woodruff

    2007-01-01

    We quantified breeding bird abundance, diversity, and indicator species in riparian and upland dry forests along six third- to fourth-order streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Upland mesic forest on southerly aspects was dominated by open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  6. Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Salamanders in Riparian Forests: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Clipp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Salamanders and riparian forests are intimately interconnected. Salamanders are integral to ecosystem functions, contributing to vertebrate biomass and complex food webs in riparian forests. In turn, these forests are critical ecosystems that perform many environmental services, facilitate high biodiversity and species richness, and provide habitat to salamander populations. Due to the global decline of amphibians, it is important to understand, as thoroughly and holistically as possible, the roles of environmental parameters and the impact of human activities on salamander abundance and diversity in riparian forests. To determine the population responses of salamanders to a variety of environmental factors and anthropogenic activities, we conducted a review of published literature that compared salamander abundance and diversity, and then summarized and synthesized the data into general patterns. We identify stream quality, leaf litter and woody debris, riparian buffer width, and soil characteristics as major environmental factors influencing salamander populations in riparian forests, describe and explain salamander responses to those factors, and discuss the effects of anthropogenic activities such as timber harvest, prescribed fires, urbanization, road construction, and habitat fragmentation. This review can assist land and natural resource managers in anticipating the consequences of human activities and preparing strategic conservation plans.

  7. Arthropod prey for riparian associated birds in headwater forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Li, Judith; Sobota, Janel; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Headwater riparian areas occupy a large proportion of the land base in Pacific Northwest forests, and thus are ecologically and economically important. Although a primary goal of management along small headwater streams is the protection of aquatic resources, streamside habitat also is important for many terrestrial wildlife species. However, mechanisms underlying the riparian associations of some terrestrial species have not been well studied, particularly for headwater drainages. We investigated the diets of and food availability for four bird species associated with riparian habitats in montane coastal forests of western Oregon, USA. We examined variation in the availability of arthropod prey as a function of distance from stream. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) emergent aquatic insects were a food source for insectivorous birds in headwater riparian areas, and (2) the abundances of aquatic and terrestrial arthropod prey did not differ between streamside and upland areas during the bird breeding season. We found that although adult aquatic insects were available for consumption throughout the study period, they represented a relatively small proportion of available prey abundance and biomass and were present in only 1% of the diet samples from only one of the four riparian-associated bird species. Nonetheless, arthropod prey, comprised primarily of insects of terrestrial origin, was more abundant in streamside than upland samples. We conclude that food resources for birds in headwater riparian areas are primarily associated with terrestrial vegetation, and that bird distributions along the gradient from streamside to upland may be related to variation in arthropod prey availability. Because distinct vegetation may distinguish riparian from upland habitats for riparian-associated birds and their terrestrial arthropod prey, we suggest that understory communities be considered when defining management zones for riparian habitat.

  8. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  9. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  10. Removing Chinese privet from riparian forests still benefits pollinators five years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob R. Hudson; James Hanula; Scott Horn

    2014-01-01

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is an invasive shrub of the Southeastern U.S. that forms dense stands and limits biodiversity. It was removed from heavily infested riparian forests of the Georgia Piedmont in 2005 by mulching machine or chainsaw felling and subsequent herbicide application. Abundance and species richness of bees and butterflies...

  11. Removing an exotic shrub from riparian forests increases butterfly abundance and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Scott Horn

    2011-01-01

    Invasive plants are one of the greatest threats to endangered insect species and a major threat to Lepidoptera in eastern North America. We investigated the effects of the invasive shrub Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) and two methods (mulching or hand-felling) of removing it from riparian forests on butterfly communities and compared them to untreated, heavily...

  12. Rhododendron maximum impacts seed bank composition and richness following Tsuga canadensis loss in riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan M. Cofer; Katherine J. Elliott; Janis K. Bush; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2018-01-01

    Southern Appalachian riparian forests have undergone changes in composition and function from invasive pathogens and pests. Castanea dentata mortality in the 1930s from chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and Tsuga canadensis mortality in the 2000s from the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) have led to the expansion and...

  13. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  14. Width of riparian buffer and structure of adjacent plantations influence occupancy of conservation priority birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; T. Bently Wigley; M. Anthony Melchiors; Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Darren A. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity on forest landscapes dominated by plantations has become an increasingly important topic, and opportunities to maintain or enhance biodiversity within these forests need to be recognized and applied. Riparian buffers of mature forest retained along streams in managed forest landscapes offer an opportunity to enhance biodiversity across...

  15. Variable density management in riparian reserves: lessons learned from an operational study in managed forests of western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Chan; Paul Anderson; John Cissel; Larry Lateen; Charley Thompson

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale operational study has been undertaken to investigate variable density management in conjunction with riparian buffers as a means to accelerate development of late-seral habitat, facilitate rare species management, and maintain riparian functions in 40-70 year-old headwater forests in western Oregon, USA. Upland variable retention treatments include...

  16. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  17. The influence of connectivity in forest patches, and riparian vegetation width on stream macroinvertebrate fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IC Valle

    Full Text Available We assessed two dimensions of stream connectivity: longitudinal (between forest patches along the stream and lateral (riparian vegetation, using macroinvertebrate assemblages as bioindicators. Sites representing different land-uses were sampled in a lowland basin that holds a mosaic of protected areas. Land-use analysis, forest successional stages and riparian zone widths were calculated by the GIS analysis. Macroinvertebrate fauna was strongly affected by land-use. We observed a continuous decrease in the number of sensitive species, %Shredders and IBE-IOC biotic index from the upstream protected area to highly deforested sites, increasing again where the stream crosses a Biological Reserve. When analysing buffer strips, we found aquatic fauna responding to land-use alterations beyond the 30 m riparian corridor (60 m and 100 m wide. We discussed the longitudinal connectivity between forest patches and the riparian vegetation buffer strips necessary to hold high macroinvertebrate diversity. We recommend actions for the increase/maintenance of biodiversity in this and other lowland basins.

  18. Oldman river dam mitigation program downstream vegetation project report, Volume II: The potential effects of an operating plan for the Oldman River dam on Riparian cottonwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive cottonwood (poplar) forests exist in the Oldman River valley downstream of the Oldman River dam. Studies of similar forests in nearby river valleys and elsewhere on the western prairies have found significant declines of some riparian forests following river damming. This investigation was initiated to determine the causes of cottonwood forest decline downstream from existing dams in southern Alberta; inventory the existing river valley forests in the Oldman Basin; establish study sites in the Oldman River forests to monitor changes in forest status following commissioning of the Oldman River dam, and evaluate the probable impact of proposed operating plans for the Oldman River dam and associated water control structures on downstream forests. This report summarizes the progress made in the analyses of the probable effects on the survival of the forests, including a discussion of the hydrological conditions essential for cottonwood forest regeneration and an explanation of the effects of altering these characteristics on riparian forests; the hydrological alterations expected along various river reaches in the Oldman Basin with the implementation of the proposed OD05 Oldman Dam operating plan; and preliminary analyses of the problem impacts of the OD05 operating plan on the cottonwood forests along these reaches.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  20. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  1. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  2. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  4. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  5. Evapotranspiration Rates of Riparian Forests, Platte River, Nebraska, 2002-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Eggemeyer, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) in riparian areas is a poorly understood component of the regional water balance in the Platte River Basin, where competing demands have resulted in water shortages in the ground-water/surface-water system. From April 2002 through March 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Platte River Cooperative Hydrology Study Group, and Central Platte Natural Resources District conducted a micrometeorological study of water and energy balances at two sites in central Nebraska near Odessa and Gothenburg to improve understanding of ET rates and factors affecting them in Platte River riparian forests. A secondary objective of the study was to constrain estimates of ground-water use by riparian vegetation to satisfy ET consumptive demands, a useful input to regional ground-water flow models. Both study sites are located on large islands within the Platte River characterized by a cottonwood-dominated forest canopy on primarily sandy alluvium. Although both sites are typical of riparian forests along the Platte River in Nebraska, the Odessa understory is dominated by deciduous shrubs, whereas the Gothenburg understory is dominated by eastern redcedars. Additionally, seasonal ground-water levels fluctuated more at Odessa than at Gothenburg. The study period of April 2002 through March 2006 encompassed precipitation conditions ranging from dry to wet. This study characterized the components of the water balance in the riparian zone of each site. ET was evaluated from eddy-covariance sensors installed on towers above the forest canopy at a height of 26.1 meters. Precipitation was measured both above and below the forest canopy. A series of sensors measured soil-moisture availability within the unsaturated zone in two different vertical profiles at each site. Changes in ground-water altitude were evaluated from piezometers. The areal footprint represented in the water balance extended up to 800 meters from each tower. During the study, ET was less variable

  6. Riparian vegetation structure and the hunting behavior of adult estuarine crocodiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Evans

    Full Text Available Riparian ecosystems are amongst the most biodiverse tropical habitats. They are important, and essential, ecological corridors, linking remnant forest fragments. In this study, we hypothesised that crocodile's actively select nocturnal resting locations based on increased macaque predation potential. We examined the importance of riparian vegetation structure in the maintenance of crocodile hunting behaviours. Using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR and GPS telemetry on animal movement, we identified the repeated use of nocturnal resting sites by adult estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus throughout the fragmented Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary in Sabah, Malaysia. Crocodile resting locations were found to resemble, in terms of habitat characteristics, the sleeping sites of long-tailed macaque; positioned in an attempt to avoid predation by terrestrial predators. We found individual crocodiles were actively selecting overhanging vegetation and that the protrusion of trees from the tree line was key to site selection by crocodiles, as well as influencing both the presence and group size of sleeping macaques. Although these findings are correlational, they have broad management implications, with the suggestion that riparian corridor maintenance and quality can have implications beyond that of terrestrial fauna. We further place our findings in the context of the wider ecosystem and the maintenance of trophic interactions, and discuss how future habitat management has the potential to mitigate human-wildlife conflict.

  7. Abundance and species richness of snakes along the Middle Rio Grande riparian forest in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Howard L. Snell; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    To understand the effects of removal of non-native plants and fuels on wildlife in the riparian forest of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, we monitored snakes from 2000 to 2006 using trap arrays of drift fences, pitfalls, and funnel traps. We recorded 158 captures of 13 species of snakes from 12 study sites. We captured more snakes in funnel traps than in pitfalls...

  8. Do Riparian Buffers Protect Stream Invertebrate Communities in South American Atlantic Forest Agricultural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Marrochi, N.; Bonetto, C.; Liess, M.; Buss, D. F.; Vieira da Silva, C.; Chiu, M.-C.; Resh, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence and relative importance of insecticides and other agricultural stressors in determining variability in invertebrate communities in small streams in intensive soy-production regions of Brazil and Paraguay. In Paraguay we sampled 17 sites on tributaries of the Pirapó River in the state of Itapúa and in Brazil we sampled 18 sites on tributaries of the San Francisco River in the state of Paraná. The riparian buffer zones generally contained native Atlantic forest remnants and/or introduced tree species at various stages of growth. In Brazil the stream buffer width was negatively correlated with sediment insecticide concentrations and buffer width was found to have moderate importance in mitigating effects on some sensitive taxa such as mayflies. However, in both regions insecticides had low relative importance in explaining variability in invertebrate communities, while various habitat parameters were more important. In Brazil, the percent coverage of soft depositional sediment in streams was the most important agriculture-related explanatory variable, and the overall stream-habitat score was the most important variable in Paraguay streams. Paraguay and Brazil both have laws requiring forested riparian buffers. The ample forested riparian buffer zones typical of streams in these regions are likely to have mitigated the effects of pesticides on stream invertebrate communities. This study provides evidence that riparian buffer regulations in the Atlantic Forest region are protecting stream ecosystems from pesticides and other agricultural stressors. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum buffer widths necessary to achieve optimal protection.

  9. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines tree buffer for this community as only trees and forest. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  10. Riparian soil development linked to forest succession above and below dams along the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perakis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Riparian forest soils can be highly dynamic, due to frequent fluvial disturbance, erosion, and sediment deposition, but effects of dams on riparian soils are poorly understood. We examined soils along toposequences within three river segments located upstream, between, and downstream of two dams on the Elwha River to evaluate relationships between riparian soil development and forest age, succession, and channel proximity, explore dam effects on riparian soils, and provide a baseline for the largest dam removal in history. We found that older, later-successional forests and geomorphic surfaces contained soils with finer texture and greater depth to cobble, supporting greater forest floor mass, mineral soil nutrient levels, and cation exchange. Forest stand age was a better predictor than channel proximity for many soil characteristics, though elevation and distance from the channel were often also important, highlighting how complex interactions between fluvial disturbance, sediment deposition, and biotic retention regulate soil development in this ecosystem. Soils between the dams, and to a lesser extent below the lower dam, had finer textures and higher mineral soil carbon, nitrogen, and cation exchange than above the dams. These results suggested that decreased fluvial disturbance below the dams, due to reduced sediment supply and channel stabilization, accelerated soil development. In addition, reduced sediment supply below the dams may have decreased soil phosphorus. Soil δ15N suggested that salmon exclusion by the dams had no discernable effect on nitrogen inputs to upstream soils. Recent dam removal may alter riparian soils further, with ongoing implications for riparian ecosystems.

  11. Assessment of a subtropical riparian forest focusing on botanical, meteorological, ecological characterization and chemical analysis of rainwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graeff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests are heterogeneous environments, in which epiphytes find ideal conditions to develop. These plants absorb the necessary nutrients for survival from the atmosphere, and their occurrence and distribution can be influenced by the quality and quantity of precipitation. The objective of this research was to perform an integrated analysis of botanical, meteorological and chemical precipitation parameters so as to compare them in fragments of the riparian forest in the lower (São Leopoldo-SL and upper (Caraá-CA stretches of the Rio dos Sinos Hydrographic Basin (RSHB, RS, Brazil. Rainwater was chemically analyzed, the community structure of epiphytic ferns was surveyed and the ecological characterization was evaluated through the Rapid Habitat Assessment Protocol (RHAP. The results showed that the chemical composition of rainwater is influenced by the environment of each area. In the upper stretch (CA, for instance, the main contribution is that of marine ions, while in the lower stretch (SL, the most impacting aspects are urbanization and industrialization. Similarly, the results depict a reduction of richness and a simplification of the community structure of epiphytic ferns and their environmental quality according to the RHAP categories, towards the base level of the RSHB. The integrated analysis, in which different methods were applied, proved to be an efficient tool to evaluate environmental quality. This analysis considers that a greater number of biotic and abiotic variables may be applied in different scenarios.

  12. Evaluating hillslope and riparian contributions to dissolved nitrogen (N) export from a boreal forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M.; Ledesma, José L. J.; Näsholm, Torgny; Laudon, Hjalmar; Sponseller, Ryan A.

    2017-02-01

    Catchment science has long held that the chemistry of small streams reflects the landscapes they drain. However, understanding the contribution of different landscape units to stream chemistry remains a challenge which frequently limits our understanding of export dynamics. For limiting nutrients such as nitrogen (N), an implicit assumption is that the most spatially extensive landscape units (e.g., uplands) act as the primary sources to surface waters, while near-stream zones function more often as sinks. These assumptions, based largely on studies in high-gradient systems or in regions with elevated inputs of anthropogenic N, may not apply to low-gradient, nutrient-poor, and peat-rich catchments characteristic of many northern ecosystems. We quantified patterns of N mobilization along a hillslope transect in a northern boreal catchment to assess the extent to which organic matter-rich riparian soils regulate the flux of N to streams. Contrary to the prevailing view of riparian functioning, we found that near-stream, organic soils supported concentrations and fluxes of ammonium (NH4+) and dissolved organic nitrogen that were much higher than the contributing upslope forest soils. These results suggest that stream N chemistry is connected to N mobilization and mineralization within the riparian zone rather than the wider landscape. Results further suggest that water table fluctuation in near-surface riparian soils may promote elevated rates of net N mineralization in these landscapes.

  13. Regeneration of Salicaceae riparian forests in the Northern Hemisphere: A new framework and management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; Shafroth, Patrick B; Sher, Anna A; Henry, Annie L; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Corenblit, Dov

    2018-04-25

    Human activities on floodplains have severely disrupted the regeneration of foundation riparian shrub and tree species of the Salicaceae family (Populus and Salix spp.) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Restoration ecologists initially tackled this problem from a terrestrial perspective that emphasized planting. More recently, floodplain restoration activities have embraced an aquatic perspective, inspired by the expanding practice of managing river flows to improve river health (environmental flows). However, riparian Salicaceae species occupy floodplain and riparian areas, which lie at the interface of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems along watercourses. Thus, their regeneration depends on a complex interaction of hydrologic and geomorphic processes that have shaped key life-cycle requirements for seedling establishment. Ultimately, restoration needs to integrate these concepts to succeed. However, while regeneration of Salicaceae is now reasonably well-understood, the literature reporting restoration actions on Salicaceae regeneration is sparse, and a specific theoretical framework is still missing. Here, we have reviewed 105 peer-reviewed published experiences in restoration of Salicaceae forests, including 91 projects in 10 world regions, to construct a decision tree to inform restoration planning through explicit links between the well-studied biophysical requirements of Salicaceae regeneration and 17 specific restoration actions, the most popular being planting (in 55% of the projects), land contouring (30%), removal of competing vegetation (30%), site selection (26%), and irrigation (24%). We also identified research gaps related to Salicaceae forest restoration and discuss alternative, innovative and feasible approaches that incorporate the human component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p23 Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  15. Floodplain forest succession reveals fluvial processes: A hydrogeomorphic model for temperate riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Gregory; Politti, Emilio; Lautsch, Erwin; Benjankar, Rohan; Gill, Karen M; Rood, Stewart B

    2015-09-15

    River valley floodplains are physically-dynamic environments where fluvial processes determine habitat gradients for riparian vegetation. These zones support trees and shrubs whose life stages are adapted to specific habitat types and consequently forest composition and successional stage reflect the underlying hydrogeomorphic processes and history. In this study we investigated woodland vegetation composition, successional stage and habitat properties, and compared these with physically-based indicators of hydraulic processes. We thus sought to develop a hydrogeomorphic model to evaluate riparian woodland condition based on the spatial mosaic of successional phases of the floodplain forest. The study investigated free-flowing and dam-impacted reaches of the Kootenai and Flathead Rivers, in Idaho and Montana, USA and British Columbia, Canada. The analyses revealed strong correspondence between vegetation assessments and metrics of fluvial processes indicating morphodynamics (erosion and shear stress), inundation and depth to groundwater. The results indicated that common successional stages generally occupied similar hydraulic environments along the different river segments. Comparison of the spatial patterns between the free-flowing and regulated reaches revealed greater deviation from the natural condition for the braided channel segment than for the meandering segment. This demonstrates the utility of the hydrogeomorphic approach and suggests that riparian woodlands along braided channels could have lower resilience than those along meandering channels and might be more vulnerable to influences such as from river damming or climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Portland, Maine - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  17. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  18. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  19. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  20. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, Iowa - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  1. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  4. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  5. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  6. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  8. Effectiveness monitoring for the aquatic and riparian component of the Northwest Forest Plan: conceptual framework and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; David B. Hohler; David P. Larsen; David E. Busch; Kim Kratz; Keith Reynolds; Karl F. Stein; Thomas Atzet; Polly Hays; Michael. Tehan

    2004-01-01

    An Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Plan (AREMP) for the Northwest Forest Plan is intended to characterize the ecological condition of watersheds and aquatic ecosystems. So to determine the effectiveness of the Northwest Forest Plan to meet relevant objectives, this report presents the conceptual foundation of options for use in pilot testing and...

  9. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  10. ASSESSMENT OF A 5-YEAR-OLD REHABILITATED RIPARIAN FOREST: IS IT ALREADY SUSTAINABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Londe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAs important as the establishment of projects of ecological restoration is its assessment post-implementation to know whether the area is becoming self-sustainable or need to be redirected. In this way, this study aimed to know the current situation of a 5-year-old rehabilitated riparian forest,inserted in an anthropogenic impacted region,at the das Velhas River, Minas Gerais State, studying the canopy openness and recruitment of seedlings as plant indicators. 15 plots were allocated in the forest, where hemispherical photographs were taken to analyze the canopy openness and evaluate all seedlings from 0.30 m to 1.30 m height.Canopy openness ranged from 23.7% to 38.8% between seasons and only 192 seedlings were found,from 13 species, five of them exotic and aggressive. Although canopy openness was low, it seems that lateral penetration of light has been favoring the development and dominancy of plants from invasive species, whereas few native ones have been recruited. The exotic/invasive plants may compromise the success of restoration mainly by competition with native planted species. The outcomes evidenced an unsustainability of the riparian forest and the requirement of some management actions to control exotic and invasive plants and ensure the preservation of the area and its ecological roles over time.

  11. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  12. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  13. Decoupling of dissolved organic matter patterns between stream and riparian groundwater in a headwater forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Susana; Lupon, Anna; Catalán, Núria; Castelar, Sara; Martí, Eugènia

    2018-03-01

    Streams are important sources of carbon to the atmosphere, though knowing whether they merely outgas terrestrially derived carbon dioxide or mineralize terrestrial inputs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still a big challenge in ecology. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of riparian groundwater (GW) and in-stream processes on the temporal pattern of stream DOM concentrations and quality in a forested headwater stream, and whether this influence differed between the leaf litter fall (LLF) period and the remaining part of the year (non-LLF). The spectroscopic indexes (fluorescence index, biological index, humification index, and parallel factor analysis components) indicated that DOM had an eminently protein-like character and was most likely originated from microbial sources and recent biological activity in both stream water and riparian GW. However, paired samples of stream water and riparian GW showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations as well as the spectroscopic character of DOM differed between the two compartments throughout the year. A simple mass balance approach indicated that in-stream processes along the reach contributed to reducing DOC and DON fluxes by 50 and 30 %, respectively. Further, in-stream DOC and DON uptakes were unrelated to each other, suggesting that these two compounds underwent different biogeochemical pathways. During the LLF period, stream DOC and DOC : DON ratios were higher than during the non-LLF period, and spectroscopic indexes suggested a major influence of terrestrial vegetation on stream DOM. Our study highlights that stream DOM is not merely a reflection of riparian GW entering the stream and that headwater streams have the capacity to internally produce, transform, and consume DOM.

  14. Regeneration of Salicaceae riparian forests in the Northern Hemisphere: A new framework and management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eduardo; Martinez-Fernandez, Vanesa; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A.; Henry, Annie L.; Garofano-Gomez, Virginia; Corenblit, Dov

    2018-01-01

    Human activities on floodplains have severely disrupted the regeneration of foundation riparian shrub and tree species of the Salicaceae family (Populus and Salix spp.) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Restoration ecologists initially tackled this problem from a terrestrial perspective that emphasized planting. More recently, floodplain restoration activities have embraced an aquatic perspective, inspired by the expanding practice of managing river flows to improve river health (environmental flows). However, riparian Salicaceae species occupy floodplain and riparian areas, which lie at the interface of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems along watercourses. Thus, their regeneration depends on a complex interaction of hydrologic and geomorphic processes that have shaped key life-cycle requirements for seedling establishment. Ultimately, restoration needs to integrate these concepts to succeed. However, while regeneration of Salicaceae is now reasonably well-understood, the literature reporting restoration actions on Salicaceae regeneration is sparse, and a specific theoretical framework is still missing. Here, we have reviewed 105 peer-reviewed published experiences in restoration of Salicaceae forests, including 91 projects in 10 world regions, to construct a decision tree to inform restoration planning through explicit links between the well-studied biophysical requirements of Salicaceaeregeneration and 17 specific restoration actions, the most popular being planting (in 55% of the projects), land contouring (30%), removal of competing vegetation (30%), site selection (26%), and irrigation (24%). We also identified research gaps related to Salicaceae forest restoration and discuss alternative, innovative and feasible approaches that incorporate the human component.

  15. Colonization by benthic macroinvertebrates in two artificial substrate types of a Riparian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Borges dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim To analyze the efficiency of organic and inorganic substrates in samples of benthic macroinvertebrates of riparian forests from the Cerrado. Specific objectives (i characterize the ecological succession and taxonomic richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in stream affluent of a riparian forest; (ii analyze the influence of seasonality on the colonization of macroinvertebrates; and (iii determine the effect of the types of artificial substrates on the richness, composition and abundance of the benthic community. Methods Sampling was carried out in the rainy and dry seasons, and we installed in the watercourse two types of substrates: organic (leaf packs and inorganic (bricks, organized in pairs. Six samples per season were done to verify colonization, succession, richness and abundance of benthic community. The substrates were carefully sorted and the organisms were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Results The ecological succession was clearly observed, with the initial occurrence of Chironomidae and Baetidae (considered early colonizers, and a late occurrence of organisms such as Helotrephidae and Trichoptera (considered late colonizers. No significant difference was found in the richness and abundance among the studied seasons (rainy and dry, but the organic substrate was significantly higher than the inorganic substrate for these parameters. Conclusion Organic artificial substrates are more efficient in characterizing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates in the study area, because they are more similar to the conditions of the substrate found naturally in the environment.

  16. Effects of groundwater-flow paths on nitrate concentrations across two riparian forest corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater levels, apparent age, and chemistry from field sites and groundwater-flow modeling of hypothetical aquifers collectively indicate that groundwater-flow paths contribute to differences in nitrate concentrations across riparian corridors. At sites in Virginia (one coastal and one Piedmont), lowland forested wetlands separate upland fields from nearby surface waters (an estuary and a stream). At the coastal site, nitrate concentrations near the water table decreased from more than 10 mg/L beneath fields to 2 mg/L beneath a riparian forest buffer because recharge through the buffer forced water with concentrations greater than 5 mg/L to flow deeper beneath the buffer. Diurnal changes in groundwater levels up to 0.25 meters at the coastal site reflect flow from the water table into unsaturated soil where roots remove water and nitrate dissolved in it. Decreases in aquifer thickness caused by declines in the water table and decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients from the uplands to the wetlands indicate that more than 95% of the groundwater discharged to the wetlands. Such discharge through organic soil can reduce nitrate concentrations by denitrification. Model simulations are consistent with field results, showing downward flow approaching toe slopes and surface waters to which groundwater discharges. These effects show the importance of buffer placement over use of fixed-width, streamside buffers to control nitrate concentrations.

  17. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their influencing factors in the downstream Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jingyi; Zhao, Wenwu; Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Fan, Hao; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Yaping

    2017-05-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main restored vegetation community in Heihe River basin. They provide critical habitats and a variety of ecosystem services in this arid environment. Since desert riparian forests are also sensitive to disturbance, examining the spatial distribution and temporal variation of these forests and their influencing factors is important to determine the limiting factors of vegetation recovery after long-term restoration. In this study, field experiment and remote sensing data were used to determine the spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their relationship with the environmental factors. We classified five types of vegetation communities at different distances from the river channel. Community coverage and diversity formed a bimodal pattern, peaking at the distances of 1000 and 3000 m from the river channel. In general, the temporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) trend from 2000 to 2014 was positive at different distances from the river channel, except for the region closest to the river bank (i.e. within 500 m from the river channel), which had been undergoing degradation since 2011. The spatial distribution of desert riparian forests was mainly influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture, bulk density and soil particle composition). Meanwhile, while the temporal variation of vegetation was affected by both the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture and soil particle composition) and to a lesser extent, the temporal variation of water availability (e.g. annual average and variability of groundwater, soil moisture and runoff). Since surface (0-30 cm) and deep (100-200 cm) soil moisture, bulk density and the annual average of soil moisture at 100 cm obtained from the remote sensing data were regarded as major determining factors of community distribution and temporal variation, conservation measures that protect the soil structure

  18. INDICATED SPECIES TO RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FORESTS IN SUBWATERSHED OF PEIXE-BOI RIVER, PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor do Vale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815736This study aims to indicate native species to be used in the restoration of degraded riparian forests in the subwatershed of Peixe-Boi river. All trees and shrubs with diameter at breast height (DBH > 5 cm were inventoried in ten areas of secondary forest and six areas of igapó forest. The results were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the silviculture of the species was assessed by literature review. In Igapó areas 66 species were found; the areas had low richness and low diversity index of Shannon, when compared with data from the secondary forests. The floristic composition was heterogeneous, and the floristic similarity is higher between areas that are closer geographically. In the secondary forests were found 175 species; the areas showed high abundance of individuals, high species richness, diversity and evenness. Secondary forests were separated according to geographic proximity and age, which is directly linked to the successional stage. The PCA analysis established the ecological importance of 29 tree species; however only ten species had enough silvicultural information. Due to a greater ecological importance and viable silvicultural techniques available in the literature, Carapa guianensis, Pachira aquatica, Spondias mombin, Tapirira guianensis and Virola guianensis are the most suitable species to restore the degraded areas, in association with Inga edulis, Jacaranda copaia, Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya, Simarouba amara and Vismia guianensis of the secondary forests, that can be planted in the borders and in the nearby areas of igapó forests.

  19. Impacts of removing Chinese privet from riparian forests on plant communities and tree growth five years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob R. Hudson; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2014-01-01

    An invasive shrub, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.), was removed from heavily infested riparian forests in the Georgia Piedmont in 2005 by mulching machine or chainsaw felling. Subsequent herbicide treatment eliminated almost all privet by 2007. Recovery of plant communities, return of Chinese privet, and canopy tree growth were measured on...

  20. Removing an invasive shrub (Chinese privet) increases native bee diversity and abundance in riparian forests of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2011-01-01

    1. Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.) was removed from riparian forests in the Piedmont of Georgia in November 2005 by mulching with a track-mounted mulching machine or by chainsaw felling. The remaining privet in the herbaceous layer was killed with herbicide in December 2006. 2. Bee (Hymentoptera: Apoidea) abundance, diversity and community similarity in the...

  1. Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Dick L. Fowler

    2010-01-01

    Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the...

  2. Quantifying geomorphic controls on riparian forest dynamics using a linked physical-biological model: implications for river corridor conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Harper, E. B.; Fremier, A. K.; Hayden, M. K.; Battles, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    each patch. Model parameters of tree life-history traits (e.g., dispersal timing) and hydrogeomorphic processes (e.g., sedimentation rate) were determined by field and experimental studies, and aerial LIDAR, with separate range of values for point bar versus floodplain habitats. In most runs, abandoned channels were colonized one third as frequently as point bars, but supported much larger forest patches when colonization was successful (from 15-99% of forest area, depending on point bar success). Independent evaluation of aerial photos confirm that cottonwood forest stands associated with abandoned channels were less frequent (38% of all stands) but more extensive (53% of all forest area) relative to those caused by migrating point bars. Results indicate that changes to the rate and scale of river migration, and particularly channel abandonment, from human and climatic alterations to the flow regime will likely influence riparian corridor-wide tree population structure and forest dynamics, with consequences for the community of organisms that depend on this habitat.

  3. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus; Marcia Suelí Bohn; Maria Virginia Petry

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland e...

  4. Initial riparian down wood dynamics in relation to thinning and buffer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Deanna H. Olson; Adrian. Ares

    2013-01-01

    Down wood plays many functional roles in aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Simplifi cation of forest structure and low abundance of down wood in stream channels and riparian areas is a common legacy of historical management in headwater forests west of the Cascade Range in the US northwest. Contemporary management practices emphasize the implementation of vegetation...

  5. Novel plant communities limit the effects of a managed flood to restore riparian forests along a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D.J.; Andersen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Dam releases used to create downstream flows that mimic historic floods in timing, peak magnitude and recession rate are touted as key tools for restoring riparian vegetation on large regulated rivers. We analysed a flood on the 5th-order Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam, Colorado, in a broad alluvial valley where Fremont cottonwood riparian forests have senesced and little recruitment has occurred since dam completion in 1962. The stable post dam flow regime triggered the development of novel riparian communities with dense herbaceous plant cover. We monitored cottonwood recruitment on landforms inundated by a managed flood equal in magnitude and timing to the average pre-dam flood. To understand the potential for using managed floods as a riparian restoration tool, we implemented a controlled and replicated experiment to test the effects of artificially modified ground layer vegetation on cottonwood seedling establishment. Treatments to remove herbaceous vegetation and create bare ground included herbicide application (H), ploughing (P), and herbicide plus ploughing (H+P). Treatment improved seedling establishment. Initial seedling densities on treated areas were as much as 1200% higher than on neighbouring control (C) areas, but varied over three orders of magnitude among the five locations where manipulations were replicated. Only two replicates showed the expected seedling density rank of (H+P)>P>H>C. Few seedlings established in control plots and none survived 1 year. Seedling density was strongly affected by seed rain density. Herbivory affected growth and survivorship of recruits, and few survived nine growing seasons. Our results suggest that the novel plant communities are ecologically and geomorphically resistant to change. Managed flooding alone, using flows equal to the pre-dam mean annual peak flood, is an ineffective riparian restoration tool where such ecosystem states are present and floods cannot create new habitat for seedling establishment

  6. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  7. Microbial community structure across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone in the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, T F; Johnson, P R; Shriner, A D; Matheny, T A; Hunt, P G

    2013-01-01

    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world because of their ability to retain nutrients, prevent soil erosion, protect aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, and filter pollutants. Despite their importance, the microbial community structures of riparian buffer zones remains poorly defined. Our objectives for this study were twofold: first, to characterize the microbial populations found in riparian buffer zone soils; and second, to determine if microbial community structure could be linked to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). To achieve these objectives, we investigated the microbial populations of a riparian buffer zone located downslope of a pasture irrigated with swine lagoon effluent, utilizing DNA sequencing of the 16S rDNA, DEA, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the denitrification genes nirK, nirS, and nosZ. Clone libraries of the 16S rDNA gene were generated from each of twelve sites across the riparian buffer with a total of 986 partial sequences grouped into 654 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The Proteobacteria were the dominant group (49.8% of all OTUs), with the Acidobacteria also well represented (19.57% of all OTUs). Analysis of qPCR results identified spatial relationships between soil series, site location, and gene abundance, which could be used to infer both incomplete and total DEA rates.

  8. Phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl (Meliaceae in subtropical riparian forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate is one of the main factors that affect plant behavior. The phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl, which is a small tree used for reforestation of degraded areas, was monitored for 18 months in a riparian forest at the Schmidt Stream, Campo Bom, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Vegetative (leaf fall and leaf flushing and reproductive events were observed, with the latter divided into flowering (flower buds and anthesis and fruiting (unripe, ripening and ripe fruit. Phenological events were related to temperature, photoperiod and precipitation and their seasonality was verified by circular statistical analysis. Vegetative phenophases were continuous; they were not related to climate factors and presented low intensity, emphasizing the perennial aspect of the species. Flowering occurred during spring and summer. Both flower buds and anthesis were related to temperature and photoperiod. Fruiting was constant and went through all stages of development. Unripe fruits developed during the months with the lowest photoperiod and ripen more intensely in winter, on colder days. Ripe fruit became available for dispersal in spring, in times of longer photoperiod and higher temperatures. Except for leaf fall, all other phenological events showed seasonality in their manifestation. The one-month difference between the onsets of the flowering phases observed in this study indicated that local climate changes induced the early occurrence of this phenophase.

  9. Experimental study on water transport observations of desert riparian forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Zhou, Honghua; Chen, Yapeng; XinmingHao; Fu, Aihong; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Studying the water use processes of desert riparian vegetation in arid regions and analyzing the response and adaptation strategies of plants to drought stress are of great significance for developing ecological restoration measures. Based on field monitoring and test analyses of physiological ecological indicators of dominant species (Populus euphratica and Tamarix chinensis) in the desert riparian forest in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, the water relations of P. euphratica and T. chinensis under drought stress are discussed and some water use strategies put forward. The results show that (1) concerning plant water uptake, desert riparian forests depend mainly on groundwater to survive under long-term water stress. (2) Concerning plant water distribution, the survival of P. euphratica and nearby shallow root plants is mainly due to the hydraulic lift and water redistribution of P. euphratica under drought stress. (3) Concerning plant water transport, P. euphratica sustains the survival of competitive and advantageous branches by improving their ability to acquire water while restraining the growth of inferior branches. (4) Concerning plant transpiration, the sap flow curves of daily variations of P. euphratica and T. chinensis were wide-peak sin and narrower-peak respectively. T. chinensis has better environmental adaptability.

  10. Biodiversity and Phytosociological Studies of Upstream and Downstream Riparian Areas of Pakistan: Special Reference to Taunsa Wildlife Sanctuary and Keti Shah Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfeen, R. Z.; Saleem, A.; Mirza, S. N.; Tayyab, H. M.; Akmal, M.; Afzal, O.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan riparian zone mostly belongs to Sindh and Punjab provinces and prone to climatic problems and anthropogenic activities. The research was conduct to estimate and compare the structure and composition of riverine floral diversity in low riparian zone of River Indus. The data was collected from Keti Shah forest and Taunsa wildlife sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species and 11 families during the pre-monsoon season and 2460 plants were recorded in post-monsoon season, belonging to 16 species and 10 families. These species mostly belong to Fabaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Different phytosociological parameters indicate Tamarix dioca, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperata cylindrica, Fimbristylis hispidula, Acacia nilotica, Phragmites karka, Tamarix sp. and Saccharum bengalense as dominant species. The biodiversity in upstream and downstream areas were rich in pre-monsoon season in comparison to post-monsoon season in surveyed areas. This study is useful for management of the area in the future as conservation strategies can be made through considering the adaptive tree species in future plantation and endangered species can be conserved. (author)

  11. Black-chinned hummingbird nest-site selection and nest survival in response to fuel reduction in a southwestern riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread efforts to avert wildfire by reducing the density of flammable vegetation, little is known about the effects of this practice on the reproductive biology of forest birds. We examined nest-site selection and nest survival of the Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) in New Mexico riparian forests treated or not for fuel...

  12. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environment, and an endangeredspecies: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed from woodland (n = 426 individuals to urban environments (n = 939 individuals (F2,6 = 7.315; P = 0.025. Species composition and feeding guilds differed significantly in the bird community structures among these three riparian environments. In the grassland and urban environments there were more generalist insectivorous species, while in the woodland environments we find more leaf and trunk insectivorous species and frugivorous species, sensitive to human impacts. Bird species can be biological quality indicators and they contribute to ecosystems performing relevant functions. With the knowledge on bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to implement management practices for restoration of degraded riparian environments.

  13. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Danielle; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Engel, Vera Lex; Façanha, Cristiane Lima; Oliveira, Elivaldo Moreira de; Moura, Emanoel Gomes de

    2014-01-27

    Riparian forests provide ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being. The Pepital River is the main water supply for Alcântara (Brazil) and its forests are disappearing. This is affecting water volume and distribution in the region. Promoting forest restoration is imperative. In deprived regions, restoration success depends on the integration of ecology, livelihoods and traditional knowledge (TEK). In this study, an interdisciplinary research framework is proposed to design riparian forest restoration strategies based on ecological data, TEK and social needs. This study takes place in a region presenting a complex history of human relocation and land tenure. Local populations from seven villages were surveyed to document livelihood (including 'free-listing' of agricultural crops and homegarden tree species). Additionally, their perceptions toward environmental changes were explored through semi-structured interviews (n = 79). Ethnobotanical information on forest species and their uses were assessed by local-specialists (n = 19). Remnants of conserved forests were surveyed to access ecological information on tree species (three plots of 1,000 m2). Results included descriptive statistics, frequency and Smith’s index of salience of the free-list results. The local population depends primarily on slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture to meet their needs. Interviewees showed a strong empirical knowledge about the environmental problems of the river, and of their causes, consequences and potential solutions. Twenty-four tree species (dbh > 10 cm) were found at the reference sites. Tree density averaged 510 individuals per hectare (stdv = 91.6); and 12 species were considered the most abundant (density > 10ind/ha). There was a strong consensus among plant-specialists about the most important trees. The species lists from reference sites and plant-specialists presented an important convergence. Slash-and-burn agriculture is the main source of livelihood

  14. Methane Fluxes at the Tree Stem, Soil, and Ecosystem-scales in a Cottonwood Riparian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, L. B.; Nikkel, D. J.; Scherloski, L. M.; Tkach, R. E.; Rood, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Trees can emit methane to the atmosphere that is produced by microbes inside their decaying stems or by taking up and releasing methane that is produced by microbes in adjacent, anoxic soil layers. The significance of these two methane production pathways for possible net release to the atmosphere depends on the magnitude of simultaneous oxidation of atmospheric methane that occurs in well-aerated, shallow soil zones. In order to quantify the significance of these processes, we made methane flux measurements using the eddy covariance technique at the ecosystem-scale and via chamber-based methods applied on the soil surface and on tree stems in a riparian cottonwood ecosystem in southern Alberta that was dominated by Populus tree species and their natural hybrids. Tree stem methane fluxes varied greatly among individual Populus trees and changed seasonally, with peak growing season average values of 4 nmol m-2 s-1 (tree surface area basis). When scaled to the ecosystem, the tree stem methane emissions (0.9 nmol m-2 s-1, ground area basis) were slightly higher than average soil surface methane uptake rates (-0.8 nmol m-2 s-1). In addition, we observed regular nighttime increases in methane concentration within the forest boundary layer (by 300 nmol mol-1 on average at 22 m height during July). The majority of the methane concentration build-up was flushed from the ecosystem to the well-mixed atmosphere, with combined eddy covariance and air column storage fluxes reaching values of 70-80 nmol m-2 s-1 for approximately one hour after sunrise. Daily average net methane emission rates at the ecosystem-scale were 4.4 nmol m-2 s-1 during July. Additional lab studies demonstrated that tree stem methane was produced via the CO2-reduction pathway, as tissue in the central stem of living Populus trees was being decomposed. This study demonstrated net methane emission from an upland, cottonwood forest ecosystem, resulting from microbe methane production in tree stems that

  15. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  16. Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the kerian river basin, perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nur Munira; Latip, Nurul Salmi Abdul; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana

    2011-12-01

    The diversity and the feeding guilds of birds in three different habitats (secondary forest, oil palm plantation and paddy field) were investigated in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin (KRB), Perak, Malaysia. Point-count observation and mist-netting methods were used to determine bird diversity and abundance. A total of 132 species of birds from 46 families were recorded in the 3 habitats. Species diversity, measured by Shannon's diversity index, was 3.561, 3.183 and 1.042 in the secondary forest, the paddy field and the oil palm plantation, respectively. The vegetation diversity and the habitat structure were important determinants of the number of bird species occurring in an area. The relative abundance of the insectivore, insectivore-frugivore and frugivore guilds was greater in the forest than in the monoculture plantation. In contrast, the relative abundance of the carnivore, granivore and omnivore guilds was higher in the plantation. The results of the study show that the conversion of forest to either oil palm plantation or paddy fields produced a decline in bird diversity and changes in the distribution of bird feeding guilds.

  17. Spatial-structural analysis of leafless woody riparian vegetation for hydraulic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Jalonen, Johanna; Järvelä, Juha; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2013-04-01

    Woody riparian vegetation is a vital element of riverine environments. On one hand woody riparian vegetation has to be taken into account from a civil engineering point of view due to boundary shear stress and vegetation drag. On the other hand it has to be considered from a river ecological point of view due to shadowing effects and as a source of organic material for aquatic habitats. In hydrodynamic and hydro-ecological studies the effects of woody riparian vegetation on flow patterns are usually investigated on a very detailed level. On the contrary vegetation elements and their spatial patterns are generally analysed and discussed on the basis of an integral approach measuring for example basal diameters, heights and projected plant areas. For a better understanding of the influence of woody riparian vegetation on turbulent flow and on river ecology, it is essential to record and analyse plant data sets on the same level of quality as for hydrodynamic or hydro-ecologic purposes. As a result of the same scale of the analysis it is possible to incorporate riparian vegetation as a sub-model in the hydraulic analysis. For plant structural components, such as branches on different topological levels it is crucial to record plant geometrical parameters describing the habitus of the plant on branch level. An exact 3D geometrical model of real plants allows for an extraction of various spatial-structural plant parameters. In addition, allometric relationships help to summarize and describe plant traits of riparian vegetation. This paper focuses on the spatial-structural composition of leafless riparia woddy vegetation. Structural and spatial analyses determine detailed geometric properties of the structural components of the plants. Geometrical and topological parameters were recorded with an electro-magnetic scanning device. In total, 23 plants (willows, alders and birches) were analysed in the study. Data were recorded on branch level, which allowed for the

  18. Variation and Genetic Structure in Platanus mexicana (Platanaceae along Riparian Altitudinal Gradient

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    Dulce M. Galván-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Platanus mexicana is a dominant arboreal species of riparian ecosystems. These ecosystems are associated with altitudinal gradients that can generate genetic differences in the species, especially in the extremes of the distribution. However, studies on the altitudinal effect on genetic variation to riparian species are scarce. In Mexico, the population of P. mexicana along the Colipa River (Veracruz State grows below its reported minimum altitude range, possibly the lowest where this tree grows. This suggests that altitude might be an important factor in population genetics differentiation. We examined the genetic variation and population structuring at four sites with different altitudes (70, 200, 600 and 1700 m a.s.l. using ten inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR markers. The highest value for Shannon index and Nei’s gene diversity was obtained at 1700 m a.s.l. (He = 0.27, Ne = 1.47, I = 0.42 and polymorphism reached the top value at the middle altitude (% p = 88.57. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis indicated intrapopulation genetic differentiation. The arithmetic average (UPGMA dendrogram identified 70 m a.s.l. as the most genetically distant site. The genetic structuring resulted from limited gene flow and genetic drift. This is the first report of genetic variation in populations of P. mexicana in Mexico. This research highlights its importance as a dominant species, and its ecological and evolutionary implications in altitudinal gradients of riparian ecosystems.

  19. Modeling the effects of anadromous fish nitrogen on the carbon balance of riparian forests in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble Stuen, A. J.; Kavanagh, K.; Wheeler, T.

    2010-12-01

    Wild anadromous fish such as Pacific Chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) were once abundant in Idaho, where they deposited their carcasses, rich in marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the tributaries of the Columbia River. Anadromous fish are believed to have been a historically important nutrient source to the relatively nutrient-poor inland ecosystems of central Idaho, but no longer reach many inland watersheds due to presence of dams. This study investigates the multi-decadal cumulative effect of presence versus absence of anadromous fish nitrogen on net ecosystem exchange (NEE), or net carbon uptake, of riparian forests along historically salmon-bearing streams in the North Fork Boise River watershed, Idaho, in the context of a changing climate. The ecosystem process model BIOME-BGC is used to develop a representative forest ecosystem and predict the impact of decades of addition and continuing absence of MDN on NEE and net primary production (NPP). The study has 2 objectives: 1) to determine whether BIOME-BGC can reasonably simulate the riparian forests of central Idaho. A potentially confounding factor is the complex terrain of the region, particularly regarding soil water: water accumulation in valley bottoms and their riparian zones may lead to discrepancies in soil moisture and productivity of the riparian forest and of the simulations. The model is parameterized using local ecophysiology and site data and validated using field measurements of leaf area and soil moisture. Objective 2): to determine the effects on forest carbon balance and productivity of the presence or ongoing absence of anadromous-fish derived nitrogen. The forest simulation developed in objective 1 is run under two scenarios into the mid-20th century; one continuing without any supplemental nitrogen and one with nitrogen added in levels consistent with estimates of historical deposition by anadromous fish. Both scenarios incorporate warming due to

  20. Importance of riparian remnants for frog species diversity in a highly fragmented rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mendoza, Clara; Pineda, Eduardo

    2010-12-23

    Tropical forests undergo continuous transformation to other land uses, resulting in landscapes typified by forest fragments surrounded by anthropogenic habitats. Small forest fragments, specifically strip-shaped remnants flanking streams (referred to as riparian remnants), can be particularly important for the maintenance and conservation of biodiversity within highly fragmented forests. We compared frog species diversity between riparian remnants, other forest fragments and cattle pastures in a tropical landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We found similar species richness in the three habitats studied and a similar assemblage structure between riparian remnants and forest fragments, although species composition differed by 50 per cent. Frog abundance was halved in riparian remnants compared with forest fragments, but was twice that found in pastures. Our results suggest that riparian remnants play an important role in maintaining a portion of frog species diversity in a highly fragmented forest, particularly during environmentally stressful (hot and dry) periods. In this regard, however, the role of riparian remnants is complementary, rather than substitutive, with respect to the function of other forest fragments within the fragmented forest.

  1. Trading Natural Riparian Forests for Urban Shelterbelt Plantations—A Sustainability Assessment of the Kökyar Protection Forest in NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Missall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities at the fringe of the Taklimakan desert in NW China are prone to dust and sand storms with serious consequences for human well-being. The Kökyar Protection Forest was established in the 1980s as an ecological engineering project with the intent of protecting the city of Aksu, NW China, from these impacts. It is designed as a combination of poplar shelterbelts and orchards, irrigated by river water from the Aksu River, the main tributary of the Tarim River. Prevalent literature describes it as an afforestation project for combatting desertification with manifold positive effects for the economic, social, and environmental dimension of sustainable development. This paper sets out to challenge these claims by a sustainability assessment in which the plantation is examined from a broader perspective, embedding it to the wider context of social and environmental problems in South Xinjiang. Methods comprise evapotranspiration calculations, interviews, a socioeconomic household survey, stakeholder dialogues, and literature research. Results affirm its economic sustainability, but see a mixed record for the social sphere. From the nature conservation point of view, it has to be classified as unsustainable because its high irrigation water consumption results in the downstream desiccation and desertification of natural riparian forests along the Tarim River, causing a forest loss in the downstream area twice the size of the forest gain in the upstream area. There is a trade-off between artificial shelterbelt plantations for urban ecosystem services on the one hand side, and natural riparian forests and their biodiversity on the other hand side. The paper recommends restricting agricultural extension, and using locally adapted less water consuming agroforestry schemes to protect urban dwellers from dust stress.

  2. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  3. Dictionary of forest structural terminology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report lists and defines attributes (both functional and structural) that have been used in other structural classifications of forest vegetation. Field techniques are summarized. The recommended use of each attribute and technique is presented...

  4. Riparian area protection and outdoor recreation: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Impero Wilson; Troy E. Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan required the US Forest Service (USFS) to shift its management focus to ecological values rather than the utilitarian ones that had dominated forest policy in the region. This article examines the effects of this shift on the USFS's historic mission to provide recreational access to the region's forests. Focusing on six national...

  5. Effects of Construction of the Digital Multipurpose Range Complex (DMPRC) on Riparian and Stream Ecosystems at Fort Benning, Georgia. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    root dynamics in riparian forests. Soil Science Society of America 69(3):729-737. Houser, J. N., P. J. Mulholland, and K. O. Maloney. 2006. Upland...Forested Wetlands, D. M. Amatya and J. Nettles (eds). New Bern, NC. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI...primary productivity, vegetation composition, structure, and fine root dynamics in riparian forests. Kelly O. Maloney, Ph.D. in Biological Sciences

  6. Feeding ecology of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in a riparian flooded forest of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the midnight catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus collected in rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest (Eastern Amazonia, Brazil were investigated through the different hydrological periods (dry, filing, flood and drawdown. A total of 589 specimens were collected throughout seven samplings between July 2008 and July 2009, of which 74 were young males, 177 adult males, 89 young females and 249 adult females. The diet composition (Alimentary index - Ai% was analyzed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS and by the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, which included 37 items grouped into nine categories (Aquatic insects, Other aquatic invertebrates, Arthropods fragment, Fish, Plant fragment, Seeds, Terrestrial insects, Other terrestrial invertebrates, and Terrestrial vertebrates. We also calculated the niche breadth (Levins index and the repletion index (RI%. Differences in the diet composition between hydrological seasons were registered, primarily on diet composition between dry and flood season, but changes related with sex and maturity were not observed. The midnight catfish showed more specialists feeder habit in the flood period (March 2009 and more generalist habits in the dry season (November 2008. The amount of food eaten by A. longimanus based on repletion index (RI%, did not differ significantly from sex and maturity. However, we evidenced differences in RI% when comparing the studied months. These results provide important biological information about the trophic ecology of auchenipterids fish. In view of the higher occurrence of allochthonous items, this research also underpins the importance of riparian forests as critical environments in the maintenance and conservation of wild populations of fish in the Amazon basin.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus coletados em rios da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã (Amazônia Oriental, Brasil ao longo de diferentes

  7. Influence of riparian vegetation on near-bank flow structure and erosion rates on a large meandering river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsoer, K. M.; Rhoads, B. L.; Langendoen, E. J.; Johnson, K.; Ursic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Rates of meander migration are dependent upon dynamic interactions between planform geometry, three-dimensional flow structure, sediment transport, and the erodibility and geotechnical properties of the channel banks and floodplains. Riparian vegetation can greatly reduce the rate of migration through root-reinforcement and increased flow resistance near the bank. In particular, forested riverbanks can also provide large woody debris (LWD) to the channel, and if located near the outer bank, can act to amour the bank by disrupting three-dimensional flow patterns and redirecting flow away from the bank-toe, the locus of erosion in meandering rivers. In this paper, three-dimensional flow patterns and migration rates are compared for two meander bends, one forested and one non-forested, on the Wabash River, near Grayville, Illinois. Flow data were obtained using acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) for two large flow events in May and June 2011. LWD was mapped using a terrestrial LiDAR survey, and residence times for the LWD were estimated by comparing the survey data to time-series aerial photography. Rates of migration and planform evolution were determined through time-series analysis of aerial photography from 1938-2011. Results from this study show that near-bank LWD can have a significant influence on flow patterns through a meander bend and can disrupt helical flow near the outer bank, thereby reducing the effect of the high velocity core on the toe of the bank. Additionally, these effects influence migration rates and the planform evolution of meandering rivers.

  8. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  9. Effects of Channelisation, Riparian Structure and Catchment Area on Physical Habitats in Small Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    Rivers and streams form a longitudinal network in which physical conditions and biological processes change through the river system. Geomorphology, topography, geology and hydraulic conditions change from site to site within the river system, thereby creating a complex network of reaches that ar.......e. a confined and steep valley (V-shaped) is less likely to be used for agricultural production compared to a broad valley. The results are useful to water managers, who seek to identify natural and impacted physical conditions in large river systems....... that are dominated by a hierarchy of physical processes. The complexity is further enhanced by local human alteration of the physical structure, natural processes and alteration of the riparian areas. The aim of the study was to analyse variations in land use and riparian characteristics along small Danish streams...... and to determine the effect of channelisation on physical habitats. Physical stream characteristics were measured in 149 stream small and medium sized Danish streams (catchment area: 0.1 to 67.2 km2). The measured physical parameters included discharge, stream slope, width, depth, current velocity, substrata...

  10. Quantifying Forested Riparian Buffer Ability to Ameliorate Stream Temperature in a Missouri Ozark Border Stream of the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Riparian buffers play an important role in modulating stream water quality, including temperature. There is a need to better understand riparian form and function to validate and improve contemporary management practices. Further studies are warranted to characterize energy attenuation by forested riparian canopy layers that normally buffer stream temperature, particularly in the central hardwood forest regions of the United States where relationships between canopy density and stream temperature are unknown. To quantify these complex processes, two intensively instrumented hydroclimate stations were installed along two stream reaches of a riparian stream in central Missouri, USA in the winter of 2008. Hydroclimate stations are located along stream reaches oriented in both cardinal directions, which will allow interpolation of results to other orientations. Each station consists of an array of instrumentation that senses the flux of water and energy into and out of the riparian zone. Reference data are supplied from a nearby flux tower (US DOE) located on top of a forested ridge. The study sites are located within a University of Missouri preserved wildland area on the border of the southern Missouri’s Ozark region, an ecologically distinct region in the central United States. Limestone underlies the study area, resulting in a distinct semi-Karst hydrologic system. Vegetation forms a complex, multi-layered canopy extending from the stream edge through the riparian zone and into surrounding hills. Climate is classified as humid continental, with approximate average annual temperature and precipitation of 13.2°C and 970mm, respectively. Preliminary results (summer 2009 data) indicate incoming short-wave radiation is 24.9% higher at the N-S oriented stream reach relative to the E-W oriented reach. Maximum incoming short wave radiation during the period was 64.5% lower at the N-S reach relative to E-W reach. Average air temperature for the E-W reach was 0.3°C lower

  11. GIS applications in riparian management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie Christman; Douglas W. Shaw; Charles L. Spann; Penny Luehring

    1996-01-01

    GIS was used to prioritize watersheds for treatment needs across the USDA Forest Service Southwestern Region. Factors in this analysis included soil condition, riparian habitat, population centers and mining sites.

  12. Tree mortality in mature riparian forest: Implications for Fremont cottonwood conservation in the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Mature tree mortality rates are poorly documented in desert riparian woodlands. I monitored deaths and calculated annual survivorship probability (Ps) in 2 groups of large (27–114 cm DBH), old (≥40 years old) Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii Wats.) in a stand along the free-flowing Yampa River in semiarid northwestern Colorado. Ps = 0.993 year-1 in a group (n = 126) monitored over 2003–2013, whereas Ps = 0.985 year-1 in a group (n = 179) monitored over the same period plus 3 earlier years (2000–2003) that included drought and a defoliating insect outbreak. Assuming Ps was the same for both groups during the 10-year postdrought period, the data indicate that Ps = 0.958 year-1 during the drought. I found no difference in canopy dieback level between male and female survivors. Mortality was equal among size classes, suggesting Ps is independent of age, but published longevity data imply that either Ps eventually declines with age or, as suggested in this study, periods with high Ps are interrupted by episodes of increased mortality. Stochastic population models featuring episodes of low Ps suggest a potential for an abrupt decline in mature tree numbers where recruitment is low. The modeling results have implications for woodland conservation, especially for relictual stands along regulated desert rivers.

  13. Assessing the extent and diversity of riparian ecosystems in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M.L.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Valdes-Casillas, C.; Erker, J.A.; Reynolds, E.W.; Shafroth, P.B.; Gomez-Limon, E.; Jones, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation of forested riparian ecosystems is of international concern. Relatively little is known of the structure, composition, diversity, and extent of riparian ecosystems in Mexico. We used high- and low-resolution satellite imagery from 2000 to 2006, and ground-based sampling in 2006, to assess the spatial pattern, extent, and woody plant composition of riparian forests across a range of spatial scales for the state of Sonora, Mexico. For all 3rd and higher order streams, river bottomlands with riparian forests occupied a total area of 2,301 km2. Where forested bottomlands remained, on average, 34% of the area had been converted to agriculture while 39% remained forested. We estimated that the total area of riparian forest along the principal streams was 897 km2. Including fencerow trees, the total forested riparian area was 944 km2, or 0.5% of the total land area of Sonora. Ground-based sampling of woody riparian vegetation consisted of 92, 50 m radius circular plots. About 79 woody plant species were noted. The most important tree species, based on cover and frequency, were willow species Salix spp. (primarily S. goodingii and S. bonplandiana), mesquite species Prosopis spp. (primarily P. velutina), and Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. Woody riparian taxa at the reach scale showed a trend of increasing diversity from north to south within Sonora. Species richness was greatest in the willow-bald cypress Taxodium distichum var. mexicanum-Mexican cottonwood P. mexicana subsp. dimorphia ecosystem. The non-native tamarisk Tamarix spp. was rare, occurring at just three study reaches. Relatively natural stream flow patterns and fluvial disturbance regimes likely limit its establishment and spread. ?? 2008 Springer Science + Business Media BV.

  14. Soil water content drives spatiotemporal patterns of CO2 and N2O emissions from a Mediterranean riparian forest soil

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    S. Poblador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones play a fundamental role in regulating the amount of carbon (C and nitrogen (N that is exported from catchments. However, C and N removal via soil gaseous pathways can influence local budgets of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and contribute to climate change. Over a year, we quantified soil effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O from a Mediterranean riparian forest in order to understand the role of these ecosystems on catchment GHG emissions. In addition, we evaluated the main soil microbial processes that produce GHG (mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification and how changes in soil properties can modify the GHG production over time and space. Riparian soils emitted larger amounts of CO2 (1.2–10 g C m−2 d−1 than N2O (0.001–0.2 mg N m−2 d−1 to the atmosphere attributed to high respiration and low denitrification rates. Both CO2 and N2O emissions showed a marked (but antagonistic spatial gradient as a result of variations in soil water content across the riparian zone. Deep groundwater tables fueled large soil CO2 effluxes near the hillslope, while N2O emissions were higher in the wet zones adjacent to the stream channel. However, both CO2 and N2O emissions peaked after spring rewetting events, when optimal conditions of soil water content, temperature, and N availability favor microbial respiration, nitrification, and denitrification. Overall, our results highlight the role of water availability on riparian soil biogeochemistry and GHG emissions and suggest that climate change alterations in hydrologic regimes can affect the microbial processes that produce GHG as well as the contribution of these systems to regional and global biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Riparian Forest Buffers - Function for Protection and Enhancement of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Welsch

    1991-01-01

    Streamside forests are crucial to the protection and enhancement of the water resources of the Eastern United States. They are extremely complex ecosystems that help provide optimum food and habitat for stream communities as well as being useful in mitigating or controlling nonpoint source pollution (NPS). Used as a component of an integrated management system...

  16. Runoff water quality from a sierran upland forest, transition ecotone, and riparian wet meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    High concentrations of inorganic N, P, and S have been reported in overland and litter interflow within forested uplands of the Tahoe basin and surrounding watersheds. In this study we compared runoff nutrient concentration and load as well as soil nutrient fluxes at three watershed locations; an up...

  17. Incorporating climate change and exotic species into forecasts of riparian forest distribution.

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    Dana H Ikeda

    Full Text Available We examined the impact climate change (CC will have on the availability of climatically suitable habitat for three native and one exotic riparian species. Due to its increasing prevalence in arid regions throughout the western US, we predicted that an exotic species, Tamarix, would have the greatest increase in suitable habitat relative to native counterparts under CC. We used an ecological niche model to predict range shifts of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, Salix exigua and Tamarix, from present day to 2080s, under five general circulation models and one climate change scenario (A1B. Four major findings emerged. 1 Contrary to our original hypothesis, P. fremontii is projected to have the greatest increase in suitable habitat under CC, followed closely by Tamarix. 2 Of the native species, S. gooddingii and S. exigua showed the greatest loss in predicted suitable habitat due to CC. 3 Nearly 80 percent of future P. fremontii and Salix habitat is predicted to be affected by either CC or Tamarix by the 2080s. 4 By the 2080s, 20 percent of S. gooddingii habitat is projected to be affected by both Tamarix and CC concurrently, followed by S. exigua (19 percent and P. fremontii (13 percent. In summary, while climate change alone will negatively impact both native willow species, Tamarix is likely to affect a larger portion of all three native species' distributions. We discuss these and other results in the context of prioritizing restoration and conservation efforts to optimize future productivity and biodiversity. As we are accounting for only direct effects of CC and Tamarix on native habitat, we present a possible hierarchy of effects- from the direct to the indirect- and discuss the potential for the indirect to outweigh the direct effects. Our results highlight the need to account for simultaneous challenges in the face of CC.

  18. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  19. The Role of Phytodiversity in Riparian Alder Forests in Supporting the Provision of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariničová Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature, ecosystems and biodiversity provide human society with many benefits known as ecosystem services. Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity. In this paper, we applied inductive approach to the identification, mapping and evaluation of ecosystem services of the Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae community in Tribeč Mts. The results from 2015 show that the alder floodplain forest represents one of the most productive forest ecosystems with seasonal maximum production of 59.03 g m−2, species diversity of N0 = 40 and functional diversity of FD = 10. The forage potential of this community is medium, the melliferous potential is high and the therapeutic potential was estimated as extremely rich in medicinal plants. From the functional groups for providing ecosystem services, woody plants and hemicryptophytes play the most significant role.

  20. Scaling up and error analysis of transpiration for Populus euphratica in a desert riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, J.; Li, W.; Feng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water consumption information of the forest stand is the most important factor for regional water resources management. However, water consumption of individual trees are usually measured based on the limited sample trees , so, it is an important issue how to realize eventual scaling up of data from a series of sample trees to entire stand. Estimation of sap flow flux density (Fd) and stand sapwood area (AS-stand) are among the most critical factors for determining forest stand transpiration using sap flow measurement. To estimate Fd, the various links in sap flow technology have great impact on the measurement of sap flow, to estimate AS-stand, an appropriate indirect technique for measuring each tree sapwood area (AS-tree) is required, because it is impossible to measure the AS-tree of all trees in a forest stand. In this study, Fd was measured in 2 mature P. euphratic trees at several radial depths, 0~10, 10~30mm, using sap flow sensors with the heat ratio method, the relationship model between AS-tree and stem diameter (DBH), growth model of AS-tree were established, using investigative original data of DBH, tree-age, and AS-tree. The results revealed that it can achieve scaling up of transpiration from sample trees to entire forest stand using AS-tree and Fd, however, the transpiration of forest stand (E) will be overvalued by 12.6% if using Fd of 0~10mm, and it will be underestimated by 25.3% if using Fd of 10~30mm, it implied that major uncertainties in mean stand Fd estimations are caused by radial variations in Fd. E will be obviously overvalued when the AS-stand is constant, this result imply that it is the key to improve the prediction accuracy that how to simulate the AS-stand changes in the day scale; They also showed that the potential errors in transpiration with a sample size of approximately ≥30 were almost stable for P.euphrtica, this suggests that to make an allometric equation it might be necessary to sample at least 30 trees.

  1. Functional species traits of carabid beetles living in two riparian alder forests of the Sila plateau subject to different disturbance factors (Coleoptera: Carabidae

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    Antonio Mazzei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied carabid beetle assemblages found in riparian black alder forests in the Sila plateau (Southern Apennines. These carabid assemblages are characterized by a high incidence of endemic small-sized, low dispersal, highly stenotopic (hygrophilic, and trophycally specialized species. To evaluate the influence of anthropogenic disturbance on these insects, we compared carabid assemblage of an old undisturbed forest (65-170y, wilderness landscape with that of a younger, partly grazed stand (40-60y, cropland landscape. The carabid assemblage of the disturbed stand was characterized by a higher number of species, but showed a lower incidence of zoophagous specialists and brachypterous beetles, with many species probably coming from an adjacent cropland. However, the disturbed stand maintains almost 80% of the core species found in the older forest, which suggests that these insects are not particularly sensitive to disturbance factors represented by periodic wood harvesting and extensive cattle grazing.

  2. A novel dendrochronological approach reveals drivers of carbon sequestration in tree species of riparian forests across spatiotemporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Isaak; Kowarik, Ingo; Cherubini, Paolo; Cierjacks, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Aboveground carbon (C) sequestration in trees is important in global C dynamics, but reliable techniques for its modeling in highly productive and heterogeneous ecosystems are limited. We applied an extended dendrochronological approach to disentangle the functioning of drivers from the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation), the lithosphere (sedimentation rate), the hydrosphere (groundwater table, river water level fluctuation), the biosphere (tree characteristics), and the anthroposphere (dike construction). Carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass of riparian Quercus robur L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. was modeled (1) over time using boosted regression tree analysis (BRT) on cross-datable trees characterized by equal annual growth ring patterns and (2) across space using a subsequent classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on cross-datable and not cross-datable trees. While C sequestration of cross-datable Q. robur responded to precipitation and temperature, cross-datable F. excelsior also responded to a low Danube river water level. However, CART revealed that C sequestration over time is governed by tree height and parameters that vary over space (magnitude of fluctuation in the groundwater table, vertical distance to mean river water level, and longitudinal distance to upstream end of the study area). Thus, a uniform response to climatic drivers of aboveground C sequestration in Q. robur was only detectable in trees of an intermediate height class and in taller trees (>21.8m) on sites where the groundwater table fluctuated little (≤0.9m). The detection of climatic drivers and the river water level in F. excelsior depended on sites at lower altitudes above the mean river water level (≤2.7m) and along a less dynamic downstream section of the study area. Our approach indicates unexploited opportunities of understanding the interplay of different environmental drivers in aboveground C sequestration. Results may support species-specific and

  3. INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL GROUP COMPOSITION, PLANTATION SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT IN THE RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST ON RESERVOIR SHORES

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    Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of spacing, arrangement and ecological group composition of planted seedlings on the restoration process of artificial reservoir shores in southeastern Brazil. The assessments were performed 12 years after the settlement of the experiment in which five mixed stand models were tested. First, a general evaluation of the stand was performed when we surveyed the overstory and understory, seed bank and soil for chemical analysis.Then, the restoration indicators survival of planted trees, basal area and density of the tree community, litter accumulated on the soil and canopy closure index were utilized to compare the plantation models and to assess the influence the experimental factors on these parameters. In the general analysis, we found that the studied stand presents low diversity, poor regeneration, and seed bank dominated mostly by one planted exotic tree species and weeds, which may jeopardize the self- maintenance of the stand in the future. The factor that most influenced the models was the ecological group composition with the best performance found for models in which both pioneer and non-pioneer groups were used. Probably, the plantation arrangement and spacing did not have greater influence due to both plant mortality and natural regeneration that has developed to this age. Hence, it is not recommended the use of only pioneer species in the implantation of riparian forest and the proportion of 50% pioneers and 50% non-pioneers using as much species as possible is indicated for areas that might present constraints for the natural regeneration.

  4. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-Rivas, Isabel; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna). Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  5. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    Full Text Available A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna. Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  6. Biodiversity management approaches for stream-riparian areas: perspectives for Pacific Northwest headwater forests, microclimates, and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Olson; P.D. Anderson; C.A. Frissell; H.H. Welsh; D.F. Bradford

    2007-01-01

    New science insights are redefining stream riparian zones, particularly relative to headwaters, microclimate conditions, and fauna such as amphibians. We synthesize data on these topics, and propose management approaches to target sensitive biota at reach to landscape scales.

  7. Biomass Carbon Sequestration Potential by Riparian Forest in the Tarim River Watershed, Northwest China: Implication for the Mitigation of Climate Change Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayierjiang Aishan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon management in forests has become the most important agenda of the first half of the 21st century in China in the context of the mitigation of climate change impact. As the main producer of the inland river basin ecosystem in arid region of Northwest China, the desert riparian forest maintains the regional environment and also holds a great significance in regulating the regional/global carbon cycle. In this study, we estimated the total biomass, carbon storage, as well as monetary ecosystem service values of desert riparian Populus euphratica Oliv. in the lower reaches of the Tarim River based on terrestrial forest inventory data within an area of 100 ha (100 plots with sizes of 100 m × 100 m and digitized tree data within 1000 ha (with 10 m × 10 m grid using a statistical model of biomass estimation against tree height (TH and diameter at breast height (DBH data. Our results show that total estimated biomass and carbon storage of P. euphratica within the investigated area ranged from 3.00 to 4317.00 kg/ha and from 1.82 to 2158.73 kg/ha, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship (p < 0.001 between biomass productivity of these forests and distance to the river and groundwater level. Large proportions of biomass (64% of total biomass are estimated within 200 m distance to the river where groundwater is relatively favorable for vegetation growth and biomass production. However, our data demonstrated that total biomass showed a sharp decreasing trend with increasing distance to the river; above 800 m distance, less biomass and carbon storage were estimated. The total monetary value of the ecosystem service “carbon storage” provided by P. euphratica was estimated to be $6.8 × 104 USD within the investigated area, while the average monetary value was approximately $70 USD per ha, suggesting that the riparian forest ecosystem in the Tarim River Basin should be considered a relevant regional carbon sink. The findings of

  8. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  9. RICHNESS AND FLORISTIC COMPOSITION OF THE FERN COMMUNITY IN RIPARIAN FOREST OF THE RIVER ‘CADEIA’, IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

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    Ivanete Teresinha Mallmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813327The present study analyzed richness and specific composition of the fern community in fragments fromthe riparian forest of river ‘Cadeia’, under different levels of human impact, in Santa Maria do Herval, RioGrande do Sul state, Brazil. An amount of 120 sample units were delimited, equitably distributed in threefragments (FI, II and III in which all species were surveyed and the richness was recorded. The floristiccomposition among fragments was compared using Jaccard’s index and spatial distribution of units wasevaluated through multidimensional scaling. Richness data were presented in the form of rarefaction curvesbased on samples and non-parametric diversity estimators. A total of 40 species were found, belonging to13 families. The greater floristic similarity was between FI and FII. Sample units from FI formed the mostdefined grouping and they had more exclusive species than the others. The rarefaction curve for the totalsampling almost reached the asymptote and estimators indicated a maximum of 45 species, which meansthat the majority of species was surveyed at the study site. A decreasing gradient of mean richness per unitwas observed as the urbanization increased in the matrix habitat of the fragments. These results form a database to be used in management, conservation and reforestation measures in degraded riparian forests. Theycan be directly compared to results from other studies that used rarefaction and richness estimators, whichis not possible to do with many of the surveys accomplished in Brazil so far.

  10. Large-Scale Mapping of Carbon Stocks in Riparian Forests with Self-Organizing Maps and the k-Nearest-Neighbor Algorithm

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    Leonhard Suchenwirth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the machine learning tools being used in recent years for environmental applications such as forestry, self-organizing maps (SOM and the k-nearest neighbor (kNN algorithm have been used successfully. We applied both methods for the mapping of organic carbon (Corg in riparian forests due to their considerably high carbon storage capacity. Despite the importance of floodplains for carbon sequestration, a sufficient scientific foundation for creating large-scale maps showing the spatial Corg distribution is still missing. We estimated organic carbon in a test site in the Danube Floodplain based on RapidEye remote sensing data and additional geodata. Accordingly, carbon distribution maps of vegetation, soil, and total Corg stocks were derived. Results were compared and statistically evaluated with terrestrial survey data for outcomes with pure remote sensing data and for the combination with additional geodata using bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. Results show that SOM and kNN approaches enable us to reproduce spatial patterns of riparian forest Corg stocks. While vegetation Corg has very high RMSEs, outcomes for soil and total Corg stocks are less biased with a lower RMSE, especially when remote sensing and additional geodata are conjointly applied. SOMs show similar percentages of RMSE to kNN estimations.

  11. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  12. Community Structure of Riparian Community of Sematang Borang River of South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetty Hastiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetasi riparian adalah sebagai ekoton antara habitat teresterial dengan sistem perairan (sungai. Penyangga riparian berfungsi untuk menjaga kelestarian fungsi sungai dengan cara menahan atau menangkap tanah (lumpur yang tererosi serta unsur hara dan bahan kimia termasuk pestisida yang terbawa dari lahan dibagian kiri kanan sungai agar tidak masuk ke perairan. Sungai Sematang Borang merupakan bagian dari Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS Musi, Sungai Sematang Borang memiliki karaketeristik struktur sungai dengan panjang seitar 5 km, lebar sungai mencapai 70 m dan kedalaman sekitar 10 m. Saat ini sungai ini mulai terancam mengalami penurunan kualitas baik fisik, kimia maupun biologi Selain kehilangan habitat alami ikan yang akan berdampak pada penurunan kelimpahan dan biodiversity, perairan ini juga mengalami abrasi pada sisi kiri kanan tebing sungai. Keberadaan vegetasi riparian menjadi penting, selain untuk mencegah abrasi, juga berperan dalam produksi serasah. Produksi serasah berkontribusi dalam transfer bahan organik vegetasi ke dalam tanah. Unsur hara yang dhasilkan dari proses dekomposisi serasah dalam tanah sangat penting bagi kelangsungan hidup vegetasi dan sebagai sumber detritus bagi ekosistem dalam menyokong kehidupan organisme akuatik. Pentingnya kontribusi vegetasi riparian dalam suatu ekosistem, maka perlu dilakukan penelitian terhadap diversitas dan profil vegetasi. Kajian aspek vegetasi, diperkuat dengan melakukan pengamatan terhadap kondisi fisik kimia perairan Sematang Borang. Parameter fisik kimiaperairan yang diamati meliputi: suhu, kedalaman, kecepatan arus, COD, BOD, DO, pH, dan Salinitas. Penelitian menerapkan metode ekologi deskriptif kuantitatif dan kualitatif, untuk analisis kualitas fisik kimia perairan didukung analisis laboratorium dan survei. Hasil penelitian teridentifikasi 15 species riparian dengan kategori indeks keanekaragaman riparian 0,09-1,03 dan memiliki pola penyebaran cenderung berkelompok

  13. Tree mortality in response to typhoon-induced floods and mudslides is determined by tree species, size, and position in a riparian Formosan gum forest in subtropical Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wang, Wei; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Chiu, Ching-An; Kuo, Chu-Chia; Tsai, Shang-Te

    2018-01-01

    Global warming-induced extreme climatic changes have increased the frequency of severe typhoons bringing heavy rains; this has considerably affected the stability of the forest ecosystems. Since the Taiwan 921 earthquake occurred in 21 September 1999, the mountain geology of the Island of Taiwan has become unstable and typhoon-induced floods and mudslides have changed the topography and geomorphology of the area; this has further affected the stability and functions of the riparian ecosystem. In this study, the vegetation of the unique Aowanda Formosan gum forest in Central Taiwan was monitored for 3 years after the occurrence of floods and mudslides during 2009-2011. Tree growth and survival, effects of floods and mudslides, and factors influencing tree survival were investigated. We hypothesized that (1) the effects of floods on the survival are significantly different for each tree species; (2) tree diameter at breast height (DBH) affects tree survival-i.e., the larger the DBH, the higher the survival rate; and (3) the relative position of trees affects tree survival after disturbances by floods and mudslides-the farther trees are from the river, the higher is their survival rate. Our results showed that after floods and mudslides, the lifespans of the major tree species varied significantly. Liquidambar formosana displayed the highest flood tolerance, and the trunks of Lagerstoemia subcostata began rooting after disturbances. Multiple regression analysis indicated that factors such as species, DBH, distance from sampled tree to the above boundary of sample plot (far from the riverbank), and distance from the upstream of the river affected the lifespans of trees; the three factors affected each tree species to different degrees. Furthermore, we showed that insect infestation had a critical role in determining tree survival rate. Our 3-year monitoring investigation revealed that severe typhoon-induced floods and mudslides disturbed the riparian vegetation in the

  14. Tree mortality in response to typhoon-induced floods and mudslides is determined by tree species, size, and position in a riparian Formosan gum forest in subtropical Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wang, Wei; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Chiu, Ching-An; Kuo, Chu-Chia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming-induced extreme climatic changes have increased the frequency of severe typhoons bringing heavy rains; this has considerably affected the stability of the forest ecosystems. Since the Taiwan 921 earthquake occurred in 21 September 1999, the mountain geology of the Island of Taiwan has become unstable and typhoon-induced floods and mudslides have changed the topography and geomorphology of the area; this has further affected the stability and functions of the riparian ecosystem. In this study, the vegetation of the unique Aowanda Formosan gum forest in Central Taiwan was monitored for 3 years after the occurrence of floods and mudslides during 2009–2011. Tree growth and survival, effects of floods and mudslides, and factors influencing tree survival were investigated. We hypothesized that (1) the effects of floods on the survival are significantly different for each tree species; (2) tree diameter at breast height (DBH) affects tree survival–i.e., the larger the DBH, the higher the survival rate; and (3) the relative position of trees affects tree survival after disturbances by floods and mudslides–the farther trees are from the river, the higher is their survival rate. Our results showed that after floods and mudslides, the lifespans of the major tree species varied significantly. Liquidambar formosana displayed the highest flood tolerance, and the trunks of Lagerstoemia subcostata began rooting after disturbances. Multiple regression analysis indicated that factors such as species, DBH, distance from sampled tree to the above boundary of sample plot (far from the riverbank), and distance from the upstream of the river affected the lifespans of trees; the three factors affected each tree species to different degrees. Furthermore, we showed that insect infestation had a critical role in determining tree survival rate. Our 3-year monitoring investigation revealed that severe typhoon-induced floods and mudslides disturbed the riparian vegetation

  15. Water-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the Mediterranean climate zone of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Shaw, Bruce C.; Everson, Colin S.; Clulow, Alistair D.

    2017-09-01

    In South Africa, the invasion of riparian forests by alien trees has the potential to affect the country's limited water resources. Tree water-use measurements have therefore become an important component of recent hydrological studies. It is difficult for South African government initiatives, such as the Working for Water (WfW) alien clearing program, to justify alien tree removal and implement rehabilitation unless hydrological benefits are known. Consequently, water use within a riparian forest along the Buffeljags River in the Western Cape of South Africa was monitored over a 3-year period. The site consisted of an indigenous stand of Western Cape afrotemperate forest adjacent to a large stand of introduced Acacia mearnsii. The heat ratio method of the heat pulse velocity sap flow technique was used to measure the sap flow of a selection of indigenous species in the indigenous stand, a selection of A. mearnsii trees in the alien stand and two clusters of indigenous species within the alien stand. The indigenous trees in the alien stand at Buffeljags River showed significant intraspecific differences in the daily sap flow rates varying from 15 to 32 L day-1 in summer (sap flow being directly proportional to tree size). In winter (June), this was reduced to only 7 L day-1 when limited energy was available to drive the transpiration process. The water use in the A. mearnsii trees showed peaks in transpiration during the months of March 2012, September 2012 and February 2013. These periods had high average temperatures, rainfall and high daily vapor pressure deficits (VPDs - average of 1.26 kPa). The average daily sap flow ranged from 25 to 35 L in summer and approximately 10 L in the winter. The combined accumulated daily sap flow per year for the three Vepris lanceolata and three A. mearnsii trees was 5700 and 9200 L, respectively, clearly demonstrating the higher water use of the introduced Acacia trees during the winter months. After spatially upscaling the

  16. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  17. Structural characterization of the gallery forest of the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rodríguez Sosa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The work was carried out in the gallery forest of the Cupaynicú stream, belonging to the Guisa Agroforestry Experimental Station, with the objective of characterizing its structure. Eight parcels of 500 m2 were randomly raised, in them the species were identified, their height and diameter were measured. The flora was analyzed through the origin of the species and the frequency histogram. The structure of the forest was analyzed through the diametric structure and the Value Index of Ecological Importance, the vertical structure was described taking into consideration the forest strata as well as the preparation of the canopy diagram. A descriptive analysis of the parameters diameter, height and basal area was made to study the parametric structure. The richness of the riparian forest was evidenced by the registry of 25 families, 40 genera and 43 species, as well as the predominance of the Meliaceae family followed by Lauraceae, Mimosaceae and Sapindaceae, which reflects the high timber value, melliferous and ecological of the same. The species Roystonea regia, Sterculiaapetala, Dendropanaxarboreus, Andirainermis and Mangifera indica, determine the physiognomy of the gallery Forest. The trees reach 33 cm in diameter and 18.27 m in height on average, although the presence of trees with 30 m is the most frequent, which denotes the irregular structure of the forest.

  18. Arboreous vegetation of an alluvial riparian forest and their soil relations: Porto Rico island, Paraná river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of alluvial deposits in floodplains forms islands and sandbanks. Deposits frequently accumulate at the river margins and on islands with consequent side growths. One of these sandbanks which started to form in 1952 annexed an area of 12.4ha to the Porto Rico island (53masculine15?W and 22masculine45?S. At present a forest fragment of approximately 2.0 ha exists in this place. The structural analysis of arboreous vegetation of this fragment showed a floristic gradient related to the physical and chemical variations of the substratum. High density of pioneer species associated to the absence of recruitment of new individuals of these and other successional categories indicated that the forest was impaired in its succession process. This fact could be associated with constant disturbances caused by cattle in the area.

  19. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  20. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    declines in the black bear and Florida panther . The extent to which patch size affects animal populations has been most thoroughly investi- gated with... animal communities. Reservoir construction and agricultural practices have eliminated or severely degraded many of the wetlands and riparian areas...oak (Q. falcata), and black oak (Q. velutina), and a variety of hickories, including mockernut (Carya tomentosa), pignut (C. glabra), and shagbark

  1. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  2. Forestry best management practices relationships with aquatic and riparian fauna: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Brooke M.; Aust, W. Michael; Barrett, Scott M.; Ford, W. Mark; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Schilling, Erik B.; Wigley, T. Bently; Bolding, M. Chad

    2017-01-01

    Forestry best management practices (BMPs) were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1) a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2) data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3) forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs) are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4) stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5) SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  3. Forestry Best Management Practices Relationships with Aquatic and Riparian Fauna: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke M. Warrington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1 a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2 data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3 forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4 stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5 SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  4. Image fusion for enhanced forest structural assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, JW

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research explores the potential benefits of fusing active and passive medium resolution satellite-borne sensor data for forest structural assessment. Image fusion was applied as a means of retaining disparate data features relevant to modeling...

  5. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  6. ANALYSIS OF GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE OF PLANTS Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir. D.C. IN FLOODING FOR THE RECOVERY OF THE RIPARIAN FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812349In order to select species for using in the restoration of riparian forests on the banks of the Sao FranciscoRiver, in the state of Sergipe, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and gas exchange ofplants Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir. D.C., subject to flooding conditions in the nursery. The experimentwas conducted at Forest Nursery, Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS,the municipality of São Cristóvão, (11 º 01 'S latitude and 37 º 12' longitude W, altitude 20 m , stateof Sergipe, Brazil, from October 2006 to January 2007 under ambient conditions. We used a completelyrandomized design (CRD, factorial (2x7, two treatments (control - T0, plants at field capacity and flooded- T1 and days after flooding (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days. To simulate the condition of flooding,the plants were placed in plastic pots of black color with a volume of 5 L and more substrate. Followingthese pots were attached to pots with a volume of 10 L, which was added water until it reaches a waterdepth of 5 cm above the top of the plants. The control plants kept in pots with a volume of 5 L substratemaintained at field capacity. In non-destructive variables were used four replicates per treatment evaluatedevery fifteen days, where each replicate consists of six plants, totaling 24. Destructive variables used were4 replicates per treatment, determined biweekly from 15 days after flooding, where each replicate consistsof a plant totaling 24 plants. Therefore, 48 plants were used per treatment. The non-destructive variableswere height, diameter and number of leaves. While the destructive variables analyzed were dry weight ofroots, dry weight of shoots and dry weight of root / shoot ratio. In addition, we carried out analysis of gasexchange on a monthly basis and evaluated twelve plants per treatment, with two sampling leaves, fullyexpanded, per plant. The biometric variables were

  7. Riparian responses to extreme climate and land-use change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension). Riparian data were extracted by planimetric analysis of high spatial-resolution Word Imagery Layer (ESRI). Hydrological, climatic and land-use variables were obtained from available datasets and generated with process-based modeling using current climate data (2008-2014), while also considering the high-end RCP8.5 climate-change and "Icarus" socio-economic scenarios for the 2046-2065 time slice. Our results show that hydrological and land-use changes strongly influence future projections of riparian connectivity and complexity, albeit to diverse degrees and with differing effects. A harsh reduction in average flows may impair riparian zones while an increase in extreme rain events may benefit connectivity by promoting hydrologic dynamics with the surrounding floodplains. The expected increase in broad-leaved woodlands and mixed forests may enhance the riparian galleries by reducing the agricultural pressure on the area in the vicinity of the river. According to our results, 63% of river segments in the Tâmega basin exhibited a moderate risk of functionality loss, 16% a high risk, and 21% no risk. Weaknesses and strengths of the method are highlighted and results are discussed based on a resilience perspective with regard to riparian ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  9. Implementation of a subcanopy solar radiation model on a forested headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians to estimate riparian canopy density and stream insolation for stream temperature models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, L.; Petras, V.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Caldwell, P.; Mitasova, H.; Nelson, S. A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature is a key aspect of water quality and understanding how the thermal regimes of forested headwater streams may change in response to climatic and land cover changes is increasingly important to scientists and resource managers. In recent years, the forested mountain watersheds of the Southeastern U.S. have experienced changing climatic patterns as well as the loss of a keystone riparian tree species and anticipated hydrologic responses include lower summer stream flows and decreased stream shading. Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy to streams and a key parameter in heat-budget models of stream temperature; a decrease in flow volume combined with a reduction in stream shading during summer have the potential to increase stream temperatures. The high spatial variability of forest canopies and the high spatio-temporal variability in sky conditions make estimating the solar radiation reaching small forested headwater streams difficult. The Subcanopy Solar Radiation Model (SSR) (Bode et al. 2014) is a GIS model that generates high resolution, spatially explicit estimates of solar radiation by incorporating topographic and vegetative shading with a light penetration index derived from leaf-on airborne LIDAR data. To evaluate the potential of the SSR model to provide estimates of stream insolation to parameterize heat-budget models, it was applied to the Coweeta Basin in the Southern Appalachians using airborne LIDAR (NCALM 2009, 1m resolution). The LIDAR derived canopy characteristics were compared to current hyperspectral images of the canopy for changes and the SSR estimates of solar radiation were compared with pyranometer measurements of solar radiation at several subcanopy sites during the summer of 2016. Preliminary results indicate the SSR model was effective in identifying variations in canopy density and light penetration, especially in areas associated with road and stream corridors and tree mortality. Current LIDAR data and

  10. Light habitat, structure, diversity and dynamic of the tropical dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Melo-Cruz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests are complex and fragile ecosystems with high anthropic intervention and restricted reproductive cycles. These have unique richness, structural diversity, physiological and phenological . This research was executed  in the Upper Magdalena Valley, in four forest fragments with different successional stages. In each fragment four permanent plots of 0.25 ha were established and lighting habitat associated with richness, relative abundance and rarity of species. The forest dynamics included the mortality, recruitment and diameter growth for a period of 5.25 years. The species rischness found in the mature riparian forestis higher than that reported in other studies of similar areas in Valle del Cauca and the Atlantic coast.  The values of richness, diversity and rarity species are more evidenced  than the magnitudes found in  drier areas of Tolima. The structure, diversity and dynamics of forests were correlated with the lighting habitat, showing differences in canopy architecture and its role in the capture and absorption of radiation. Forests with dense canopy have limited availability of photosynthetically active radiation in understory related low species richness, while illuminated undergrowth are richer and heterogeneous.

  11. Linking stream flow and groundwater to avian habitat in a desert riparian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Bateman, Heather L

    2012-10-01

    Increasing human populations have resulted in aggressive water development in arid regions. This development typically results in altered stream flow regimes, reduced annual flow volumes, changes in fluvial disturbance regimes, changes in groundwater levels, and subsequent shifts in ecological patterns and processes. Balancing human demands for water with environmental requirements to maintain functioning ecosystems requires quantitative linkages between water in streams and ecosystem attributes. Streams in the Sonoran Desert provide important habitat for vertebrate species, including resident and migratory birds. Habitat structure, food, and nest-building materials, which are concentrated in riparian areas, are provided directly or indirectly by vegetation. We measured riparian vegetation, groundwater and surface water, habitat structure, and bird occurrence along Cherry Creek, a perennial tributary of the Salt River in central Arizona, USA. The purpose of this work was to develop an integrated model of groundwater-vegetation-habitat structure and bird occurrence by: (1) characterizing structural and provisioning attributes of riparian vegetation through developing a bird habitat index (BHI), (2) validating the utility of our BHI through relating it to measured bird community composition, (3) determining the riparian plant species that best explain the variability in BHI, (4) developing predictive models that link important riparian species to fluvial disturbance and groundwater availability along an arid-land stream, and (5) simulating the effects of changes in flow regime and groundwater levels and determining their consequences for riparian bird communities. Riparian forest and shrubland vegetation cover types were correctly classified in 83% of observations as a function of fluvial disturbance and depth to water table. Groundwater decline and decreased magnitude of fluvial disturbance caused significant shifts in riparian cover types from riparian forest to

  12. Florística e estrutura da comunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestal ripário no município de Guariba, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Floristic and structure of the arboreal community of riparian forest remain at Guariba municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Maria Marson DONADIO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento sobre a composição eestrutura de comunidades florestais é fundamentalpara embasar ações de conservação e restauração.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar olevantamento florístico e descrever a estrutura dacomunidade arbórea de um remanescente florestallocalizado no município de Guariba, Estado de SãoPaulo. Foram alocadas 30 parcelas de 10 x 10 m,para amostrar os indivíduos arbóreos e arbustivoscom diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP ³ 5 cm.Foram encontradas 54 espécies, pertencentes a 47gêneros, distribuídos em 32 famílias botânicas,com índice de diversidade (H’ de 2,67 eequabilidade (J de 0,20. As famílias Meliaceae eFabaceae apresentaram maior riqueza em espécies.Calophyllum brasiliensis, Astronium graveolens,Scheffera morototoni, Xylopia aromatica eProtium widgrenii destacaram-se como as espéciesde maior valor de importância. Foram amostrados420 indivíduos. A presença de espécies do cerradosugere condição de ecótono e a dominância de umaespécie higrófila indica saturação hídrica em parteda área. A distribuição dos indivíduos em classesde tamanho revelou uma comunidade emregeneração com a maioria dos indivíduos com até15,0 cm de DAP e distribuídos entre 7 e 14,9 m,e com estoques de jovens tanto das espéciespioneiras como secundárias podendo garantir ofuturo da comunidade. Em termos sucessionais aárea estudada encontra-se em estádio de médiopara avançado.Knowledge of the composition andstructure of arboreal communities is paramount forconservation and restoration efforts. The mainobjectives of this study were to characterize thearboreal species floristic composition and describethe structure of the arboreal community of aremaining forest located at the municipality ofGuariba, State of São Paulo. Thirty plots of 10 x 10 mwere allocated. In each plot, diameter and heightwere measured for each individual tree withdiameter at breast height (dbh ³ 5 cm. Fifty-fourspecies were

  13. Structural Dynamics of Tropical Moist Forest Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Maria O.; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas; Cook, Bruce; Lefsky, Michael; Ducey, Mark; Saleska, Scott; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Schietti, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest structure (top down) differ from traditional field measurements (bottom up), and necessitate clear-cut definitions unencumbered by the wisdom of a field observer. We offer a new definition of a forest gap that is driven by forest dynamics and consistent with precise ranging measurements from airborne lidar data and tall, multi-layered tropical forest structure. We used 1000 ha of multi-temporal lidar data (2008, 2012) at two sites, the Tapajos National Forest and Ducke Reserve, to study gap dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon. Here, we identified dynamic gaps as contiguous areas of significant growth, that correspond to areas > 10 m2, with height gap at Tapajos National Forest (4.8 %) as compared to Ducke Reserve (2.0 %). On average, gaps were smaller at Ducke Reserve and closed slightly more rapidly, with estimated height gains of 1.2 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1 at Tapajos. At the Tapajos site, height growth in gap centers was greater than the average height gain in gaps (1.3 m y-1 versus 1.1 m y-1). Rates of height growth between lidar acquisitions reflect the interplay between gap edge mortality, horizontal ingrowth and gap size at the two sites. We estimated that approximately 10 % of gap area closed via horizontal ingrowth at Ducke Reserve as opposed to 6 % at Tapajos National Forest. Height loss (interpreted as repeat damage and/or mortality) and horizontal ingrowth accounted for similar proportions of gap area at Ducke Reserve (13 % and 10 %, respectively). At Tapajos, height loss had a much stronger signal (23 % versus 6 %) within gaps. Both sites demonstrate limited gap contagiousness defined by an

  14. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  15. Assessment of Vegetation Density and Soil Macrofauna Relationship in Riparian Forest of Karkhe River for the Determination of Rivers Buffer Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Gholami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of soil organisms is influenced by the plant cover, thus resulting in a horizontal mosaic of areas subjected to gradients of nutrient availability and microclimatic conditions.This study was conducted to investigate the spatial variability of soil macrofauna in relation to vegetation density in the riparian forest landscape of Karkhe. The vegetation density was determined by calculating the NDVI index. Soil macrofauna were sampled using 200 sampling points along parallel transects (perpendicular to the river. The maximum distance between samples was 0.5 km. Soil macrofauna were extracted from 50 cm×50 cm×25 cm soil monolith by the hand-sorting procedure. Abundance, diversity (Shannon H’ index, richness (Menhinick index and evenness (Sheldon index were calculated. Soil macrofauna and NDVI data were analyzed using geostatistics (variogram in order to describe and quantify the spatial continuity. The variograms were spherical, revealing the presence of spatial autocorrelation. The range of influence was 1724 m for abundance, 1326 m for diversity, 1825 m for richness, 1450 for evenness and 1977 m for NDVI. The kriging maps showed that the NDVI Index and soil macrofauna had spatial variability. The spatial pattern of soil macrofauna abundance and biodiversity were similar to the spatial pattern of vegetation density as shown in the correlation.

  16. A Quantitative Index of Forest Structural Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A. Cale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest health is a complex concept including many ecosystem functions, interactions and values. We develop a quantitative system applicable to many forest types to assess tree mortality with respect to stable forest structure and composition. We quantify impacts of observed tree mortality on structure by comparison to baseline mortality, and then develop a system that distinguishes between structurally stable and unstable forests. An empirical multivariate index of structural sustainability and a threshold value (70.6 derived from 22 nontropical tree species’ datasets differentiated structurally sustainable from unsustainable diameter distributions. Twelve of 22 species populations were sustainable with a mean score of 33.2 (median = 27.6. Ten species populations were unsustainable with a mean score of 142.6 (median = 130.1. Among them, Fagus grandifolia, Pinus lambertiana, P. ponderosa, and Nothofagus solandri were attributable to known disturbances; whereas the unsustainability of Abies balsamea, Acer rubrum, Calocedrus decurrens, Picea engelmannii, P. rubens, and Prunus serotina populations were not. This approach provides the ecological framework for rational management decisions using routine inventory data to objectively: determine scope and direction of change in structure and composition, assess excessive or insufficient mortality, compare disturbance impacts in time and space, and prioritize management needs and allocation of scarce resources.

  17. Riparian planning in Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, R.; Prakoso, E.; Sadali, M. I.; Yusuf, M. G.

    2018-04-01

    Riparian is a potential for slums in urban areas. The city of Yogyakarta is passed by three rivers namely Code, Gajahwong, and Winongo, crossing the city. Riparian in the three rivers are potential for slum if the area is not well managed. This paper is based on the survey results of the structured interview with the people living in the riparian area in Yogyakarta City. They were 75 respondents from the three riparian. The result shows that several reasons why people prefer to remain living in the area are limited spaces and high land price in the city as well as inherited from their parents. The facts that there are still several problems related to the condition of settlement environment in the riparian, i.e., The condition of densely-populated areas, limited availability of land, and limited public spaces. Efforts that can be done to solve problems related to the riparian planning are anticipating disasters like flood and landslide, paying attention to densely-populated and unwell-planned areas, and handling garbage that has been abandoned into the river. The program expected by those living along both riversides is intended to give priorities on providing some aid for those whose houses are not in good condition, controlling buildings without a permit, and building a dike along the river. Efficiency can be made by making use of the space adequately between the one for settlement and the other one for open-green space for both aesthetic and economic purposes.

  18. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  19. Comparison of leaf-on and leaf-off ALS data for mapping riparian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslier, Marianne; Ba, Antoine; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Dufour, Simon

    2017-10-01

    Forest species composition is a fundamental indicator of forest study and management. However, describing forest species composition at large scales and of highly diverse populations remains an issue for which remote sensing can provide significant contribution, in particular, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. Riparian corridors are good examples of highly valuable ecosystems, with high species richness and large surface areas that can be time consuming and expensive to monitor with in situ measurements. Remote sensing could be useful to study them, but few studies have focused on monitoring riparian tree species using ALS data. This study aimed to determine which metrics derived from ALS data are best suited to identify and map riparian tree species. We acquired very high density leaf-on and leaf-off ALS data along the Sélune River (France). In addition, we inventoried eight main riparian deciduous tree species along the study site. After manual segmentation of the inventoried trees, we extracted 68 morphological and structural metrics from both leaf-on and leaf-off ALS point clouds. Some of these metrics were then selected using Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) algorithm. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification results showed good accuracy with 7 metrics (0.77). Both leaf-on and leafoff metrics were kept as important metrics for distinguishing tree species. Results demonstrate the ability of 3D information derived from high density ALS data to identify riparian tree species using external and internal structural metrics. They also highlight the complementarity of leaf-on and leaf-off Lidar data for distinguishing riparian tree species.

  20. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus P. Eichhorn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-dominant B. ermanii forests. Basal area ranged from 7.8–38.1 m2/ha and average tree height from 8.3–24.7 m, both being greater in lowland forests. Size distributions varied considerably among plots, though they were consistently more even for L. cajanderi than B. platyphylla. Upland sites also contained a dense subcanopy of Pinus pumila averaging 38% of ground area. Soil characteristics differed among plots, with upland soils being of lower pH and containing more carbon. Comparisons are drawn with boreal forests elsewhere and the main current threats assessed. These forests provide a potential baseline to contrast with more disturbed regions elsewhere in the world and therefore may be used as a target for restoration efforts or to assess the effects of climate change independent of human impacts.

  1. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  2. SELECTIVE FORAGING ON WOODY SPECIES BY THE BEAVER CASTOR FIBER, AND ITS IMPACT ON A RIPARIAN WILLOW FOREST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOLET, BA; HOEKSTRA, A; OTTENHEIM, MM

    1994-01-01

    Beavers were re-introduced in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, a wood dominated by willows Salix spp. Conservationists expected that herbivory by beavers would enhance succession to a mixed broad-leaved forest. Willows formed the staple food of the beavers, but they removed only 1.4% of the standing

  3. Forest structure and carbon dynamics in Amazonian tropical rain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Simone; de Camargo, Plinio Barbosa; Selhorst, Diogo; da Silva, Roseana; Hutyra, Lucy; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Brown, I Foster; Higuchi, Niro; dos Santos, Joaquim; Wofsy, Steven C; Trumbore, Susan E; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio

    2004-08-01

    Living trees constitute one of the major stocks of carbon in tropical forests. A better understanding of variations in the dynamics and structure of tropical forests is necessary for predicting the potential for these ecosystems to lose or store carbon, and for understanding how they recover from disturbance. Amazonian tropical forests occur over a vast area that encompasses differences in topography, climate, and geologic substrate. We observed large differences in forest structure, biomass, and tree growth rates in permanent plots situated in the eastern (near Santarém, Pará), central (near Manaus, Amazonas) and southwestern (near Rio Branco, Acre) Amazon, which differed in dry season length, as well as other factors. Forests at the two sites experiencing longer dry seasons, near Rio Branco and Santarém, had lower stem frequencies (460 and 466 ha(-1) respectively), less biodiversity (Shannon-Wiener diversity index), and smaller aboveground C stocks (140.6 and 122.1 Mg C ha(-1)) than the Manaus site (626 trees ha(-1), 180.1 Mg C ha(-1)), which had less seasonal variation in rainfall. The forests experiencing longer dry seasons also stored a greater proportion of the total biomass in trees with >50 cm diameter (41-45 vs 30% in Manaus). Rates of annual addition of C to living trees calculated from monthly dendrometer band measurements were 1.9 (Manaus), 2.8 (Santarém), and 2.6 (Rio Branco) Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). At all sites, trees in the 10-30 cm diameter class accounted for the highest proportion of annual growth (38, 55 and 56% in Manaus, Rio Branco and Santarém, respectively). Growth showed marked seasonality, with largest stem diameter increment in the wet season and smallest in the dry season, though this may be confounded by seasonal variation in wood water content. Year-to-year variations in C allocated to stem growth ranged from nearly zero in Rio Branco, to 0.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) in Manaus (40% of annual mean) and 0.9 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1) (33% of

  4. Variable Width Riparian Model Enhances Landscape and Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.; Spencer, L.

    2017-12-01

    Riparian areas are ecotones that represent about 1% of USFS administered landscape and contribute to numerous valuable ecosystem functions such as wildlife habitat, stream water quality and flows, bank stability and protection against erosion, and values related to diversity, aesthetics and recreation. Riparian zones capture the transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with specific vegetation and soil characteristics which provide critical values/functions and are very responsive to changes in land management activities and uses. Two staff areas at the US Forest Service have coordinated on a two phase project to support the National Forests in their planning revision efforts and to address rangeland riparian business needs at the Forest Plan and Allotment Management Plan levels. The first part of the project will include a national fine scale (USGS HUC-12 digits watersheds) inventory of riparian areas on National Forest Service lands in western United States with riparian land cover, utilizing GIS capabilities and open source geospatial data. The second part of the project will include the application of riparian land cover change and assessment based on selected indicators to assess and monitor riparian areas on annual/5-year cycle basis.This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional nature of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process. The results suggest that incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning can improve riparian protection and restoration. The application of Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) approach can provide the agency Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) with observed riparian area condition on an annual basis and on multiple scales. The use of this model to map moderate to low gradient systems of sufficient width in conjunction with an understanding of the influence of distinctive landscape

  5. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  6. Boreal Forests of Kamchatka: Structure and Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorn, Markus P.

    2010-01-01

    Central Kamchatka abounds in virgin old-growth boreal forest, formed primarily by Larix cajanderi and Betula platyphylla in varying proportions. A series of eight 0.25–0.30 ha plots captured the range of forests present in this region and their structure is described. Overall trends in both uplands and lowlands are for higher sites to be dominated by L. cajanderi with an increasing component of B. platyphylla with decreasing altitude. The tree line on wet sites is commonly formed by mono-domi...

  7. Are riparian forest reserves sources of invertebrate biodiversity spillover and associated ecosystem functions in oil palm landscapes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gray, C. L.; Simmons, B. I.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Mann, D. J.; Slade, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 194, Feb 01 (2016), s. 176-183 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09427S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecosystem function * forest fragments * tropical agriculture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320715301956

  8. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Liang, Shuang; Martin, Katherine L; North, Malcolm P; Koch, George W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-03-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and any potential carbon benefits from treatment may depend on the occurrence of wildfire. We sought to determine how forest treatments alter the effects of stochastic wildfire events on the forest carbon balance. We modeled three treatments (control, thin-only, and thin and burn) with and without the occurrence of wildfire. We evaluated how two different probabilities of wildfire occurrence, 1% and 2% per year, might alter the carbon balance of treatments. In the absence of wildfire, we found that thinning and burning treatments initially reduced total ecosystem carbon (TEC) and increased net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB). In the presence of wildfire, the thin and burn treatment TEC surpassed that of the control in year 40 at 2%/yr wildfire probability, and in year 51 at 1%/yr wildfire probability. NECB in the presence of wildfire showed a similar response to the no-wildfire scenarios: both thin-only and thin and burn treatments increased the C sink. Treatments increased TEC by reducing both mean wildfire severity and its variability. While the carbon balance of treatments may differ in more productive forest types, the carbon balance benefits from restoring forest structure and fire in southwestern ponderosa pine forests are clear.

  9. The Importance and Future Condition of Western Riparian Ecosystems as Migratory Bird Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Rob Hazlewood; Michael L. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Riparian forests have long been considered important habitats for breeding western landbirds, and growing evidence reinforces their importance during the migratory period as well. Extensive modification of natural flow regimes, grazing, and forest clearing along many rivers in the western U.S. have led to loss and simplification of native riparian forests and to...

  10. Large woody debris input and its influence on channel structure in agricultural lands of Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Felipe Rossetti; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Gerhard, Pedro; Vettorazzi, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Anderson

    2011-10-01

    Riparian forests are important for the structure and functioning of stream ecosystems, providing structural components such as large woody debris (LWD). Changes in these forests will cause modifications in the LWD input to streams, affecting their structure. In order to assess the influence of riparian forests changes in LWD supply, 15 catchments (third and fourth order) with riparian forests at different conservation levels were selected for sampling. In each catchment we quantified the abundance, volume and diameter of LWD in stream channels; the number, area and volume of pools formed by LWD and basal area and tree diameter of riparian forest. We found that riparian forests were at a secondary successional stage with predominantly young trees (diameter at breast height LWD abundance, volume, frequency of LWD pools with subunits and area and volume of LWD pools. LWD diameter, LWD that form pools diameter and frequency of LWD pools without subunits did not differ between stream groups. Regression analyses showed that LWD abundance and volume, and frequency of LWD pools (with and without subunits) were positively related with the proportion of riparian forest. LWD diameter was not correlated to riparian tree diameter. The frequency of LWD pools was correlated to the abundance and volume of LWD, but characteristics of these pools (area and volume) were not correlated to the diameter of LWD that formed the pools. These results show that alterations in riparian forest cause modifications in the LWD abundance and volume in the stream channel, affecting mainly the structural complexity of these ecosystems (reduction in the number and structural characteristics of LWD pools). Our results also demonstrate that riparian forest conservation actions must consider not only its extension, but also successional stage to guarantee the quantity and quality of LWD necessary to enable the structuring of stream channels.

  11. Flooding Regime Impacts on Radiation, Evapotranspiration, and Latent Energy Fluxes over Groundwater-Dependent Riparian Cottonwood and Saltcedar Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Cleverly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and energy balances are key drivers of ecosystem water and carbon cycling. This study reports on ten years of eddy covariance measurements over groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs in New Mexico, USA, to compare the role of drought and flooding on radiation, water, and energy budgets of forests differing in species composition (native cottonwood versus nonnative saltcedar and flooding regime. After net radiation (700–800 W m−2, latent heat flux was the largest energy flux, with annual values of evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation by 250–600%. Evaporative cooling dominated the energy fluxes of both forest types, although cottonwood generated much lower daily values of sensible heat flux (<−5 MJ m−2 d−1. Drought caused a reduction in evaporative cooling, especially in the saltcedar sites where evapotranspiration was also reduced, but without a substantial decline in depth-to-groundwater. Our findings have broad implications on water security and the management of native and nonnative vegetation within semiarid southwestern North America. Specifically, consideration of the energy budgets of GDEs as they respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions can inform the management options for reducing evapotranspiration and maintaining in-stream flow, which is legally mandated as part of interstate and international water resources agreements.

  12. Riparian adaptive management symposium: a conversation between scientists and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas F. Ryan; John M. Calhoun

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, land managers and policy makers discussed whether riparian (stream side) forest management and policy for state, federal and private lands in western Washington are consistent with current science. Answers were mixed: some aspects of riparian policy and management have a strong basis in current science, while other aspects may not. Participants agreed that...

  13. Influences of watershed geomorphology on extent and composition of riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Watershed (drainage basin) morphometry and geology were derived from digital data sets (DEMs and geologic maps). Riparian corridors were classified into five vegetation types (riparian forest, riparian shrub, wet/mesic meadow, dry meadow and shrub dry meadow) using high-resolution aerial photography. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to relate geomorphic...

  14. From soil water to surface water – how the riparian zone controls element transport from a boreal forest to a stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lidman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Boreal headwaters are often lined by strips of highly organic soils, which are the last terrestrial environment to leave an imprint on discharging groundwater before it enters a stream. Because these riparian soils are so different from the Podzol soils that dominate much of the boreal landscape, they are known to have a major impact on the biogeochemistry of important elements such as C, N, P and Fe and the transfer of these elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. For most elements, however, the role of the riparian zone has remained unclear, although it should be expected that the mobility of many elements is affected by changes in, for example, pH, redox potential and concentration of organic carbon as they are transported through the riparian zone. Therefore, soil water and groundwater was sampled at different depths along a 22 m hillslope transect in the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden using soil lysimeters and analysed for a large number of major and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr and other parameters such as sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC. The results showed that the concentrations of most investigated elements increased substantially (up to 60 times as the water flowed from the uphill mineral soils and into the riparian zone, largely as a result of higher TOC concentrations. The stream water concentrations of these elements were typically somewhat lower than in the riparian zone, but still considerably higher than in the uphill mineral soils, which suggests that riparian soils have a decisive impact on the water quality of boreal streams. The degree of enrichment in the riparian zone for different elements could be linked to the affinity for organic matter, indicating that the pattern with strongly elevated concentrations in riparian soils is typical for organophilic substances. One likely explanation is that the

  15. Floristic and phytosociological description of a riparian forest and the relationship with the edaphic environment in Caiuá Ecological Station - Paraná - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysias Vellozo da Costa Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationship in soil physical and chemical properties of soil, floristic and phytosociological association of semi-deciduous riparian forest of the Paranapanema River (R and Rosana Reservoir (Re in the Caiuá Ecological Station were evaluated. Aerial photography and satellite image were used to determine the forest cover and to locate 15 transects 50 x 30m (1500m²,which were used to sample trees with diameters at breast height (DBH>15 cm. R contained 1487 individuals from 33 families, 64 genders and 73 species. The Shannon-weaver index (H' was 3.318. Re contained 1146 individuals from 35 families, 72 genders and 85 species and the H' was 3.755. There was a statistically significant difference (PDas análises das propriedades física e química dos solos, da florística e da fítossociológica da vegetação arbórea de fragmentos da floresta estacional semidecidual localizados às margens do Rio Paranapanema (R e do Reservatório de Rosana (Re na Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (22°41'S e 52°55'W, verificou-se as correlações vegetação x solo. Utilizou-se fotografias aéreas e imagens de satélite para determinar a similaridade da cobertura florestal e alocar 15 transectos de 50m x 30m (1500m² cada, amostrou-se os indivíduos com perímetro a altura do peito (PAP 15 cm. No R amostrou-se 1487 indivíduos, de 33 famílias, 64 gêneros e 73 espécies e índice de Shannon-weaver (H' de 3,318. No Re registrou-se 1146 indivíduos de 35 famílias, 72 gêneros e 85 espécies e H' de 3,755. Os resultados mostraram ambientes estatisticamente diferentes e efetiva correlação entre os atributos físicos do solo e os Valores de Importância (VI ordenados pela Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA.

  16. Testing for change in structural elements of forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda Vokoun; David Wear; Robert Abt

    2009-01-01

    In this article we develop a methodology to test for changes in the underlying relationships between measures of forest productivity (structural elements) and site characteristics, herein referred to as structural changes, using standard forest inventories. Changes in measures of forest growing stock volume and number of trees for both...

  17. The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yude Pan; Richard A. Birdsey; Oliver L. Phillips; Robert B. Jackson

    2013-01-01

    Forests are the dominant terrestrial ecosystem on Earth. We review the environmental factors controlling their structure and global distribution and evaluate their current and future trajectory. Adaptations of trees to climate and resource gradients, coupled with disturbances and forest dynamics, create complex geographical patterns in forest assemblages and structures...

  18. Animal water balance drives top-down effects in a riparian forest-implications for terrestrial trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2016-08-17

    Despite the clear importance of water balance to the evolution of terrestrial life, much remains unknown about the effects of animal water balance on food webs. Based on recent research suggesting animal water imbalance can increase trophic interaction strengths in cages, we hypothesized that water availability could drive top-down effects in open environments, influencing the occurrence of trophic cascades. We manipulated large spider abundance and water availability in 20 × 20 m open-air plots in a streamside forest in Arizona, USA, and measured changes in cricket and small spider abundance and leaf damage. As expected, large spiders reduced both cricket abundance and herbivory under ambient, dry conditions, but not where free water was added. When water was added (free or within moist leaves), cricket abundance was unaffected by large spiders, but spiders still altered herbivory, suggesting behavioural effects. Moreover, we found threshold-type increases in herbivory at moderately low soil moisture (between 5.5% and 7% by volume), suggesting the possibility that water balance may commonly influence top-down effects. Overall, our results point towards animal water balance as an important driver of direct and indirect species interactions and food web dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Gainesville's urban forest structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    The urban forest provides a community numerous benefits. The urban forest is composed of a mix of native and non-native species introduced by people managing this forest and by residents. Because they usually contain non-native species, many urban forests often have greater species diversity than forests in the surrounding natural...

  20. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environmental preservation and law. The results by means of interviews with the farmers and county leaders. It was concluded that the reparian forest state program was efficient due to the partner ship between Pitangueiras City Hall, Government Department of Environment and Coffee Farmer Association. The installation of a native tree nursery in Pitangueiras offered plants to farmers at the opportune period for planting; the farmers have conscience about the necessity of planting riparing forests; and is necessary to do a public policy to include the farmers in the carbon credict projects created with the riparian forest restoration.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjeric

  1. Processos hidrológicos em diferentes modelos de plantio de restauração de mata ciliar em região de cerrado. Hydrological processes in different riparian forest restoration models in cerrado domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baldo de GÊNOVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A restauração de florestas ciliares temsido recomendada como a melhor estratégiavisando à proteção dos recursos hídricos e àrecuperação da biodiversidade. No entanto, quasenada se conhece sobre o papel hidrológico dasflorestas plantadas e seus efeitos protetores.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisarcomparativamente alguns modelos de plantio demata ciliar em região de cerrado, para verificar sediferem quanto ao seu papel na interceptação daágua das chuvas e em sua influência na umidadedo solo, com reflexos sobre a função protetora dafloresta. Foram coletados, durante cinco meses,dados pluviométicos no interior de quatro modelosde plantio aos dezessete anos (um plantio mistocom espécies de cerrado e três plantios puros,com Pinus elliottii, Tapirira guianensis eAnadenanthera falcata e em área aberta paracomparação. Para análises de umidade, foramcoletadas amostras compostas da camada superficialdo solo (0 a 20 cm em cada uma das parcelas.Houve variação na porcentagem da água daschuvas interceptada pelas copas entre os diferentesmodelos, com o maior valor no plantio puro deTapirira guianensis (30,8%, espécie latifoliadaperenifólia e com a maior densidade de árvores.No outro extremo, o plantio de Anadenantherafalcata, uma espécie caducifólia de folhas muitopequenas, reteve apenas 12,5% da água daschuvas. A umidade do solo, como era esperado,foi inversamente proporcional à interceptação.Não se observou correlação entre a biomassaflorestal e a interceptação ou umidade do solo.Riparian forest restoration has beenreported as the most efficient strategy to protectwater resources and to recover biodiversity.However, few is known about the hydrologicalfunctioning of the planted forests and theirprotective effect. Some different riparian forestrestoration models were analized 17 years afterplanting, to verify the hypothesis that differentforest structure and composition are correlated todifferent hydrological

  2. Climate limits across space and time on European forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, A. L. S.; Neumann, M.; Hasenauer, H.

    2017-12-01

    The impact climate has on forests has been extensively studied. However, the large scale effect climate has on forest structures, such as average diameters, heights and basal area are understudied in a spatially explicit manner. The limits, tipping points and thresholds that climate places on forest structures dictate the services a forest may provide, the vulnerability of a forest to mortality and the potential value of the timber there within. The majority of current research either investigates climate impacts on forest pools and fluxes, on a tree physiological scale or on case studies that are used to extrapolate results and potential impacts. A spatially explicit study on how climate affects forest structure over a large region would give valuable information to stakeholders who are more concerned with ecosystem services that cannot be described by pools and fluxes but require spatially explicit information - such as biodiversity, habitat suitability, and market values. In this study, we quantified the limits that climate (maximum, minimum temperature and precipitation) places on 3 forest structures, diameter at breast height, height, and basal area throughout Europe. Our results show clear climatic zones of high and low upper limits for each forest structure variable studied. We also spatially analyzed how climate restricts the potential bio-physical upper limits and creates tipping points of each forest structure variable and which climate factors are most limiting. Further, we demonstrated how the climate change has affected 8 individual forests across Europe and then the continent as a whole. We find that diameter, height and basal area are limited by climate in different ways and that areas may have high upper limits in one structure and low upper limits in another limitted by different climate variables. We also found that even though individual forests may have increased their potential upper limit forest structure values, European forests as a whole

  3. Amazon Forest Structure from IKONOS Satellite Data and the Automated Characterization of Forest Canopy Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Gregory P. Asner; Stephen Hagen; Bobby . Braswell

    2008-01-01

    We developed an automated tree crown analysis algorithm using 1-m panchromatic IKONOS satellite images to examine forest canopy structure in the Brazilian Amazon. The algorithm was calibrated on the landscape level with tree geometry and forest stand data at the Fazenda Cauaxi (3.75◦ S, 48.37◦ W) in the eastern Amazon, and then compared with forest...

  4. Soil Effects on Forest Structure and Diversity in a Moist and a Dry Tropical Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Poorter, L.; Alarcon, A.; Blate, G.; Choque, U.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Justiniano, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Pariona, W.; Putz, F.E.; Quevedo, L.; Toledo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil characteristics are important drivers of variation in wet tropical forest structure and diversity, but few studies have evaluated these relationships in drier forest types. Using tree and soil data from 48 and 32 1 ha plots, respectively, in a Bolivian moist and dry forest, we asked how soil

  5. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  6. Best management practices for riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Phillips; Lloyd W. Swift; Charles R. Blinn

    2000-01-01

    Forest streams, lakes, and other water bodies create unique conditions along their margins that control and influence transfers of energy, nutrients, and sediments between aquatic and terrestrial systems. These riparian areas are among the most critical features of the landscape because they contain a rich diversity of plants and animals and help to maintain water...

  7. The relation between forest structure and soil burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham; David S. Pilliod

    2006-01-01

    A study funded through National Fire Plan evaluates the relation between pre-wildfire forest structure and post-wildfire soil burn severity across three forest types: dry, moist, and cold forests. Over 73 wildfires were sampled in Idaho, Oregon, Montana, Colorado, and Utah, which burned between 2000 and 2003. Because of the study’s breadth, the results are applicable...

  8. Original Paper Floristic and structural changes in secondary forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from the first inventory in secondary and old-growth forests were ... Structural changes in secondary forests are less known in West Africa, and ... temporal succession from one time spatial ..... s = number of species sampled per hectare; S = species richness of the whole forest; NF = the number of taxonomic families,.

  9. EUFODOS: European Forest Downstream Services - Improved Information on Forest Structure and Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmugl, M.; Gallaun, H.; Wack, R.; Granica, K.; Schardt, M.

    2013-05-01

    Forests play a key role in the European economy and environment. This role incorporates ecological functions which can be affected by the occurrence of insect infestations, forest fire, heavy snowfall or windfall events. Local or Regional Authorities (LRAs) thus require detailed information on the degradation status of their forests to be able to take appropriate measures for their forest management plans. In the EUFODOS project, state-of-the-art satellite and laser scanning technologies are used to provide forest authorities with cost-effective and comprehensive information on forest structure and damage. One of the six test sites is located in the Austrian province of Styria where regional forest authorities have expressed a strong need for detailed forest parameters in protective forest. As airborne laser-scanning data is available, it will be utilized to derive detailed forest parameters such as the upper forest border line, tree height, growth classes, forest density, vertical structure or volume. At the current project status, the results of (i) the forest border line, (ii) the segmentation of forest stands and (iii) the tree top detection are available and presented including accuracy assessment and interim results are shown for timber volume estimations. The final results show that the forest border can be mapped operationally with an overall accuracy of almost 99% from LiDAR data. For the segmentation of forest stands, a comparison of the automatically derived result with visual-manual delineation showed in general a more detailed segmentation result, but for all visual-manual segments a congruence of 87% within a 4 m buffer. Tree top detections were compared to stem numbers estimated based on angle-count samplings in a field campaign, which led to a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.79.

  10. EUFODOS: European Forest Downstream Services – Improved Information on Forest Structure and Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hirschmugl

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Forests play a key role in the European economy and environment. This role incorporates ecological functions which can be affected by the occurrence of insect infestations, forest fire, heavy snowfall or windfall events. Local or Regional Authorities (LRAs thus require detailed information on the degradation status of their forests to be able to take appropriate measures for their forest management plans. In the EUFODOS project, state-of-the-art satellite and laser scanning technologies are used to provide forest authorities with cost-effective and comprehensive information on forest structure and damage. One of the six test sites is located in the Austrian province of Styria where regional forest authorities have expressed a strong need for detailed forest parameters in protective forest. As airborne laser-scanning data is available, it will be utilized to derive detailed forest parameters such as the upper forest border line, tree height, growth classes, forest density, vertical structure or volume. At the current project status, the results of (i the forest border line, (ii the segmentation of forest stands and (iii the tree top detection are available and presented including accuracy assessment and interim results are shown for timber volume estimations. The final results show that the forest border can be mapped operationally with an overall accuracy of almost 99% from LiDAR data. For the segmentation of forest stands, a comparison of the automatically derived result with visual-manual delineation showed in general a more detailed segmentation result, but for all visual-manual segments a congruence of 87% within a 4 m buffer. Tree top detections were compared to stem numbers estimated based on angle-count samplings in a field campaign, which led to a correlation coefficient (R of 0.79.

  11. Forest structure and downed woody debris in boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, William A; González, Grizelle; Hudak, Andrew T; Hollingsworth, Teresa Nettleton; Hollingsworth, Jamie

    2008-12-01

    Forest fragmentation affects the heterogeneity of accumulated fuels by increasing the diversity of forest types and by increasing forest edges. This heterogeneity has implications in how we manage fuels, fire, and forests. Understanding the relative importance of fragmentation on woody biomass within a single climatic regime, and along climatic gradients, will improve our ability to manage forest fuels and predict fire behavior. In this study we assessed forest fuel characteristics in stands of differing moisture, i.e., dry and moist forests, structure, i.e., open canopy (typically younger) vs. closed canopy (typically older) stands, and size, i.e., small (10-14 ha), medium (33 to 60 ha), and large (100-240 ha) along a climatic gradient of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. We measured duff, litter, fine and coarse woody debris, standing dead, and live biomass in a series of plots along a transect from outside the forest edge to the fragment interior. The goal was to determine how forest structure and fuel characteristics varied along this transect and whether this variation differed with temperature, moisture, structure, and fragment size. We found nonlinear relationships of coarse woody debris, fine woody debris, standing dead and live tree biomass with mean annual median temperature. Biomass for these variables was greatest in temperate sites. Forest floor fuels (duff and litter) had a linear relationship with temperature and biomass was greatest in boreal sites. In a five-way multivariate analysis of variance we found that temperature, moisture, and age/structure had significant effects on forest floor fuels, downed woody debris, and live tree biomass. Fragment size had an effect on forest floor fuels and live tree biomass. Distance from forest edge had significant effects for only a few subgroups sampled. With some exceptions edges were not distinguishable from interiors in terms of fuels.

  12. [Structural recovering in Andean successional forests from Porce (Antioquia, Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepes, Adriana P; del Valle, Jorge I; Jaramillo, Sandra L; Orrego, Sergio A

    2010-03-01

    Places subjected to natural or human disturbance can recover forest through an ecological process called secondary succession. Tropical succession is affected by factors such as disturbances, distance from original forest, surface configuration and local climate. These factors determine the composition of species and the time trend of the succession itself. We studied succession in soils used for cattle ranching over various decades in the Porce Region of Colombia (Andean Colombian forests). A set of twenty five permanent plots was measured, including nine plots (20 x 50 m) in primary forests and sixteen (20 x 25 m) in secondary forests. All trees with diameter > or =1.0 cm were measured. We analyzed stem density, basal area, above-ground biomass and species richness, in a successional process of ca. 43 years, and in primary forests. The secondary forests' age was estimated in previous studies, using radiocarbon dating, aerial photographs and a high-resolution satellite image analysis (7 to >43 years). In total, 1,143 and 1,766 stems were measured in primary and secondary forests, respectively. Basal area (5.7 to 85.4 m2 ha(-1)), above-ground biomass (19.1 to 1,011.5 t ha(-1)) and species richness (4 to 69) directly increased with site age, while steam density decreased (3,180 to 590). Diametric distributions were "J-inverted" for primary forests and even-aged size-class structures for secondary forests. Three species of palms were abundant and exclusive in old secondary forests and primary forests: Oenocarpus mapora, Euterpe precatoria and Oenocarpus bataua. These palms happened in cohorts after forest disturbances. Secondary forest structure was 40% in more than 43 years of forest succession and indicate that many factors are interacting and affecting the forests succession in the area (e.g. agriculture, cattle ranching, mining, etc.).

  13. The Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) model: quantifying urban forest structure and functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane

    2000-01-01

    The Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) computer model was developed to help managers and researchers quantify urban forest structure and functions. The model quantifies species composition and diversity, diameter distribution, tree density and health, leaf area, leaf biomass, and other structural characteristics; hourly volatile organic compound emissions (emissions that...

  14. Epidermal structure of some important forest plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqui, P

    1981-10-01

    Eucalyptus species are a dominant feature of the vegetation of India, largely planted in forest areas for timber and oil. The wood is used on a large scale in the paper and pulp industries. According to one researcher, Eucalyptus is represented by 605 species in the world, of which over a hundred species are cultivated in India. As they look very similar to each other, with few exceptions, it is difficult to distinguish them when not in flower. The structure of the leaf epidermis in 8 species of Eucalyptus has been studied. It is found that such studies may be useful for demarcating the different species. A guideline to the species studied is provided. (Refs. 13).

  15. Floristic Composition and Structure of Yegof Mountain Forest, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Floristic Composition and Structure of Yegof Mountain Forest, South Wollo, Ethiopia. S Mohammed, B Abraha. Abstract. In this study, Floristic composition, diversity, population structure and regeneration status of woody plant species of Yegof Forest in South Wollo Zone, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia were analyzed.

  16. Seasonality and structure of the arthropod community in a forested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The structure of an arthropod community in the forest floor vegetation was studied in a low altitude (about 700 m a.s.l.) forest valley in the Uluguru Mountains near Morogoro, Tanzania, by monthly sweep net sampling during one year (December 1996-November 1997). The community structure of arthropods changed ...

  17. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Bohn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP. It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q and a species distribution index (ΩAWP. ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length. The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a

  18. Species composition and forest structure explain the temperature sensitivity patterns of productivity in temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Friedrich J.; May, Felix; Huth, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Rising temperatures due to climate change influence the wood production of forests. Observations show that some temperate forests increase their productivity, whereas others reduce their productivity. This study focuses on how species composition and forest structure properties influence the temperature sensitivity of aboveground wood production (AWP). It further investigates which forests will increase their productivity the most with rising temperatures. We described forest structure by leaf area index, forest height and tree height heterogeneity. Species composition was described by a functional diversity index (Rao's Q) and a species distribution index (ΩAWP). ΩAWP quantified how well species are distributed over the different forest layers with regard to AWP. We analysed 370 170 forest stands generated with a forest gap model. These forest stands covered a wide range of possible forest types. For each stand, we estimated annual aboveground wood production and performed a climate sensitivity analysis based on 320 different climate time series (of 1-year length). The scenarios differed in mean annual temperature and annual temperature amplitude. Temperature sensitivity of wood production was quantified as the relative change in productivity resulting from a 1 °C rise in mean annual temperature or annual temperature amplitude. Increasing ΩAWP positively influenced both temperature sensitivity indices of forest, whereas forest height showed a bell-shaped relationship with both indices. Further, we found forests in each successional stage that are positively affected by temperature rise. For such forests, large ΩAWP values were important. In the case of young forests, low functional diversity and small tree height heterogeneity were associated with a positive effect of temperature on wood production. During later successional stages, higher species diversity and larger tree height heterogeneity were an advantage. To achieve such a development, one could plant

  19. Factors influencing density of the Northern Mealy Amazon in three forest types of a modified rainforest landscape in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel. De Labra-Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest makes it imperative to evaluate forest metric relationships of species dependent on primary, old-growth forest. The threatened Northern Mealy Amazon (Amazona guatemalae is the largest mainland parrot, and occurs in tropical moist forests of Mesoamerica that are increasingly being converted to secondary forest. However, the consequences of forest conversion for this recently taxonomically separated parrot species are poorly understood. We measured forest metrics of primary evergreen, riparian, and secondary tropical moist forest in Los Chimalapas, Mexico. We also used point counts to estimate density of Northern Mealy Amazons in each forest type during the nonbreeding (Sept 2013 and breeding (March 2014 seasons. We then examined how parrot density was influenced by forest structure and composition, and how parrots used forest types within tropical moist forest. Overall, parrot density was high in the breeding season, with few parrots present during the nonbreeding season. During the breeding season, primary forest had significantly greater density of 18.9 parrots/km² in evergreen forest and 35.9 parrots/km² in riparian forest, compared with only 3.4 parrots/km² in secondary forest. Secondary forest had significantly lower tree species richness, density, diameter, total height, and major branch ramification height, as well as distinct tree species composition compared with both types of primary forest. The number of parrots recorded at point counts was related to density of large, tall trees, characteristic of primary forest, and parrots used riparian forest more than expected by availability. Hence, the increased conversion of tropical moist forest to secondary forest is likely to lead to reduced densities of forest-dependent species such as the Northern Mealy Amazon. Furthermore, the species' requirement for primary tropical moist forest highlights the need to reevaluate

  20. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is a useful surrogate variable for analyses of the impact of disturbance on forest carbon. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS project. A companion map of the standard deviations for age estimates was developed for quantifying uncertainty. We discuss the significance of the disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, by analyzing the causes of disturbances from land management and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry models and atmosphere-based inversion models, in order to improve the spatial accuracy of carbon cycle simulations.

  1. Biomass estimation as a function of vertical forest structure and forest height: potential and limitations for radar remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Torano Caicoya, Astor; Kugler, Florian; Papathanassiou, Kostas; Biber, Peter; Pretzsch, Hans

    2010-01-01

    One common method to estimate biomass is measuring forest height and applying allometric equations to get forest biomass. Conditions like changing forest density or changing forest structure bias the allometric relations or biomass estimation fails completely. Remote sensing systems like SAR or LIDAR allow to measure vertical structure of forests. In this paper it is investigated whether vertical structure is sensitive to biomass. For this purpose vertical biomass profiles were calculated usi...

  2. Tropical rain-forest matrix quality affects bat assemblage structure in secondary forest patches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleut, I.; Levy-Tacher, I.; Galindo-Gonzalez, J.; Boer, de W.F.; Ramirez-Marcial, N.

    2012-01-01

    We studied Phyllostomidae bat assemblage structure in patches of secondary forest dominated by the pioneer tree Ochroma pyramidale, largely (.85%) or partially (,35%) surrounded by a matrix of tropical rain forest, to test 3 hypotheses: the highest bat diversity and richness is observed in the

  3. Analysis of forest structure using thematic mapper simulator data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. L.; Westman, W. E.; Brass, J. A.; Stephenson, N. J.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Spanner, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data for sensing forest structure information has been explored by principal components and feature selection techniques. In a survey of forest structural properties conducted for 123 field sites of the Sequoia National Park, the canopy closure could be well estimated (r = 0.62 to 0.69) by a variety of channel bands and band ratios, without reference to the forest type. Estimation of the basal area was less successful (r = 0.51 or less) on the average, but could be improved for certain forest types when data were stratified by floristic composition. To achieve such a stratification, individual sites were ordinated by a detrended correspondence analysis based on the canopy of dominant species. The analysis of forest structure in the Sequoia data suggests that total basal area can be best predicted in stands of lower density, and in younger even-aged managed stands.

  4. Mangrove Forest Structure in Ungwana Bay, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundotich, G; Karacchi, M.; Kairo, J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Forest structure and natural regeneration was investigated in a 12-year-old Rhizophoria reforested stand at Gazi bay, Kenya. Within 10* 10m 2 plots, tree height and stem diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees of DBH>2.5 cm were determined. Stand volume was estimated by allometric equations derived from 50 harvested trees. The composition of juveniles was determined by within 5*5 m 2 inside the 10 * 10 plots. The stand density in Rhizophora plantation was 5,132 stems ha - 1, with a mean canopy height and stem diameter of 8.4+ 1 .1 m (range: 3.0 to 11.0 m) and 6.2+ 1 .87 cm (range: 2.5 to 12.4 cm) respectively. The stand volume was 103.80 m 3 ha-1 , stilt roots and branches combined was 43.09 m 3 ha-1 . Five species with juveniles; Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguieria gymnorrhiza, Ceriops tagal, Sonneretia alba and Xylocarpus granatum, were encountered with density of 4 886 juveniles ha-1 , with clustered distribution pattern

  5. Forest owner representation of forest management and perception of resource efficiency: a structural equation modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ficko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Underuse of nonindustrial private forests in developed countries has been interpreted mostly as a consequence of the prevailing noncommodity objectives of their owners. Recent empirical studies have indicated a correlation between the harvesting behavior of forest owners and the specific conceptualization of appropriate forest management described as "nonintervention" or "hands-off" management. We aimed to fill the huge gap in knowledge of social representations of forest management in Europe and are the first to be so rigorous in eliciting forest owner representations in Europe. We conducted 3099 telephone interviews with randomly selected forest owners in Slovenia, asking them whether they thought they managed their forest efficiently, what the possible reasons for underuse were, and what they understood by forest management. Building on social representations theory and applying a series of structural equation models, we tested the existence of three latent constructs of forest management and estimated whether and how much these constructs correlated to the perception of resource efficiency. Forest owners conceptualized forest management as a mixture of maintenance and ecosystem-centered and economics-centered management. None of the representations had a strong association with the perception of resource efficiency, nor could it be considered a factor preventing forest owners from cutting more. The underuse of wood resources was mostly because of biophysical constraints in the environment and not a deep-seated philosophical objection to harvesting. The difference between our findings and other empirical studies is primarily explained by historical differences in forestland ownership in different parts of Europe and the United States, the rising number of nonresidential owners, alternative lifestyle, and environmental protectionism, but also as a consequence of our high methodological rigor in testing the relationships between the constructs

  6. Wildlife Response to Riparian Restoration on the Sacramento River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H Golet

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that assess the success of riparian restoration projects seldom focus on wildlife. More generally, vegetation characteristics are studied, with the assumption that animal populations will recover once adequate habitats are established. On the Sacramento River, millions of dollars have been spent on habitat restoration, yet few studies of wildlife response have been published. Here we present the major findings of a suite of studies that assessed responses of four taxonomic groups (insects, birds, bats, and rodents. Study designs fell primarily into two broad categories: comparisons of restoration sites of different ages, and comparisons of restoration sites with agricultural and remnant riparian sites. Older restoration sites showed increased abundances of many species of landbirds and bats relative to younger sites, and the same trend was observed for the Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus, a federally threatened species. Species richness of landbirds and ground-dwelling beetles appeared to increase as restoration sites matured. Young restoration sites provided benefits to species that utilize early successional riparian habitats, and after about 10 years, the sites appeared to provide many of the complex structural habitat elements that are characteristic of remnant forest patches. Eleven-year old sites were occupied by both cavity-nesting birds and special-status crevice-roosting bats. Restored sites also supported a wide diversity of bee species, and had richness similar to remnant sites. Remnant sites had species compositions of beetles and rodents more similar to older sites than to younger sites. Because study durations were short for all but landbirds, results should be viewed as preliminary. Nonetheless, in aggregate, they provide convincing evidence that restoration along the Sacramento River has been successful in restoring riparian habitats for a broad suite of faunal species. Not only did

  7. Automatic structure classification of small proteins using random forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirst Jonathan D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random forest, an ensemble based supervised machine learning algorithm, is used to predict the SCOP structural classification for a target structure, based on the similarity of its structural descriptors to those of a template structure with an equal number of secondary structure elements (SSEs. An initial assessment of random forest is carried out for domains consisting of three SSEs. The usability of random forest in classifying larger domains is demonstrated by applying it to domains consisting of four, five and six SSEs. Results Random forest, trained on SCOP version 1.69, achieves a predictive accuracy of up to 94% on an independent and non-overlapping test set derived from SCOP version 1.73. For classification to the SCOP Class, Fold, Super-family or Family levels, the predictive quality of the model in terms of Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC ranged from 0.61 to 0.83. As the number of constituent SSEs increases the MCC for classification to different structural levels decreases. Conclusions The utility of random forest in classifying domains from the place-holder classes of SCOP to the true Class, Fold, Super-family or Family levels is demonstrated. Issues such as introduction of a new structural level in SCOP and the merger of singleton levels can also be addressed using random forest. A real-world scenario is mimicked by predicting the classification for those protein structures from the PDB, which are yet to be assigned to the SCOP classification hierarchy.

  8. Tree diversity, composition, forest structure and aboveground biomass dynamics after single and repeated fire in a Bornean rain forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slik, J.W.F.; Bernard, C.S.; Beek, van M.; Breman, F.C.; Eichhorn, K.A.O.

    2008-01-01

    Forest fires remain a devastating phenomenon in the tropics that not only affect forest structure and biodiversity, but also contribute significantly to atmospheric CO2. Fire used to be extremely rare in tropical forests, leaving ample time for forests to regenerate to pre-fire conditions. In recent

  9. Medium resolution image fusion, does it enhance forest structure assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, JW

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explored the potential benefits of fusing optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) medium resolution satellite-borne sensor data for forest structural assessment. Image fusion was applied as a means of retaining disparate data...

  10. floristic composition and structure of the dry afromontane forest at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    Key words/phrases: Bale Mountains, floristic composition, plant community, vegetation structure. INTRODUCTION .... from ground was estimated for each tree and shrub species by ...... and environmental factors characterizing coffee forests in ...

  11. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  12. Post-wildfire recovery of riparian vegetation during a period of water scarcity in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Christian Gunning; Roy Jemison; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fires occur with increasing frequency in southwestern riparian forests, yet little is known about the effects of fire on populations of native and exotic vegetation. From 2003 to 2006, we monitored recovering woody vegetation in wildfire sites in the bosque (riparian forest) along the Middle Rio Grande of central New Mexico, USA. To examine recovery potential...

  13. REMM: The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrance, R.; Altier, L.S.; Williams, R.G.; Inamdar, S.P.; Sheridan, J.M.; Bosch, D.D.; Hubbard, R.K.; Thomas, D.L.

    2000-03-01

    Riparian buffer zones are effective in mitigating nonpoint source pollution and have been recommended as a best management practice (BMP). The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) has been developed for researchers and natural resource agencies as a modeling tool that can help quantify the water quality benefits of riparian buffers under varying site conditions. Processes simulated in REMM include surface and subsurface hydrology; sediment transport and deposition; carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport, removal, and cycling; and vegetation growth. Management options, such as vegetation type, size of the buffer zone, and biomass harvesting also can be simulated. REMM can be used in conjunction with upland models, empirical data, or estimated loadings to examine scenarios of buffer zone design for a hillslope. Evaluation of REMM simulations with field observations shows generally good agreement between simulated and observed data for groundwater nitrate concentrations and water table depths in a mature riparian forest buffer. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes that influenced the water balance or soil moisture storage affected the streamflow output. Parameter changes that influence either hydrology or rates of nutrient cycling affected total N transport and plant N uptake.

  14. Stream channel designs for riparian and wet meadow rangelands in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Jemison; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Inappropriate land uses have degraded wetland and riparian ecosystems throughout the Southwestern United States. In 1996, the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico implemented a channel relocation project, as part of a road improvement project, to determine the feasibility of restoring wet meadow and riparian ecosystems degraded by inappropriately located roads and...

  15. Riparian restoration in the Southwest: Species selection, propagation, planting methods, and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Dreesen; John Harrington; Tom Subirge; Pete Stewart; Greg Fenchel

    2002-01-01

    Riparian plant communities, though small in overall area, are among the most valuable natural areas in the Southwest. The causes of degradation of southwestern riparian zones range from excessive cattle and elk grazing in montane watersheds to invasive woody exotic species and lack of natural flooding in the cottonwood forests, "bosque," of low elevation...

  16. Forest structure, diversity and soil properties in a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan, Western India

    OpenAIRE

    J. I. Nirmal Kumar,; Kanti Patel,; Rohit Bhoi Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Structure, species composition, and soil properties of a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan Western India, were examined by establishment of 25 plots. The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees. Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 995 stems ha-1 (≥ 3.0 cm DBH); 52% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH. The total basal area was 46.35 m2ha-1, of which Tectona grandis L. contributed 48%. The fo...

  17. Globalization and structural change in the U.S. forest sector: an evolving context for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Ince; Albert Schuler; Henry Spelter; William Luppold

    2007-01-01

    This report examines economic implications for sustainable forest management of globalization and related structural changes in the forest sector of the United States. Globalization has accelerated structural change in the U.S. forest sector, favored survival of larger and more capital-intensive enterprises, and altered historical patterns of resource use.

  18. Preliminary indicators for restoration assessment in riparian reforestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration success in forest ecosystems can be adequately assessed by correct selection of indicators that represent the achievement of established goals. The discriminant analysis technique on indicators selection consists of separation and classification of new observations on pre-defined groups, reducing the number of variables that are discriminant functions linearly dependent of the original variables. This study aims to define an index composed by structural attributes (number of species and individuals planted, height, basal area, number of regenerant species and individuals and chemical and pedological soil attributes to classify riparian reforested environments regarding to restoration taking as reference reforestation around the the Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Eleven variables were used for previous classification of plots in partially restored or unrestored groups and also used for discriminant analysis. Variables selected by the discriminant function generated were: number of species and basal area of planted individuals, number of regenerant species and individuals litter accumulation and soil cation exchange capacity. Compatibility of 98% from previous plot classifications and after index formation, show the representativeness of the selected variables on evaluation of restoration of riparian reforestations.

  19. Economic structure and performance of forest-based industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Laughlin, J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the economic structure, conduct, and performance of industries dependent on the nation's forests that are topics of special importance for research. A major challenge to research involving industrial organization of forest-based industries is to link descriptions of structure, conduct, and industrial performance in ways that facilitate public and private policy making. Not to be overlooked is the need to continue efforts to monitor changes in structure and conduct dimensions at the national level and to conduct baseline studies of industry structure-conduct-performance at regional, state, and local levels. Specifically needed is research that will improve understanding of restructuring within the wood-based industry; definitions of the wood-based industry and segments thereof; linkages between structure and regional economic development; timberland as a managerial and economic variable; structural consequences of technological innovations; corporate strategies as related to performance; structural dimensions in an international setting; and structure and performance of nonwood-based forest industries. Economics research focused in such directions will go far toward improving the manner in which the nation's many forest industries organize and conduct their activities

  20. Linking Vegetation Structure and Spider Diversity in Riparian and Adjacent Habitats in Two Rivers of Central Argentina: An Analysis at Two Conceptual Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griotti, Mariana; Muñoz-Escobar, Christian; Ferretti, Nelson E

    2017-08-01

    The link between vegetation structure and spider diversity has been well explored in the literature. However, few studies have compared spider diversity and its response to vegetation at two conceptual levels: assemblage (species diversity) and ensemble (guild diversity). Because of this, we studied spider diversity in riparian and adjacent habitats of a river system from the Chacoan subregion in central Argentina and evaluated their linkage with vegetation structure at these two levels. To assess vegetation structure, we measured plant species richness and vegetation cover in the herb and shrub - tree layers. We collected spiders for over 6 months by using vacuum netting, sweep netting and pitfall traps. We collected 3,808 spiders belonging to 119 morphospecies, 24 families and 9 guilds. At spider assemblage level, SIMPROF analysis showed significant differences among studied habitats. At spider ensemble level, nevertheless, we found no significant differences among habitats. Concerning the linkage with vegetation structure, BIOENV test showed that spider diversity at either assemblage or ensemble level was not significantly correlated with the vegetation variables assessed. Our results indicated that spider diversity was not affected by vegetation structure. Hence, even though we found a pattern in spider assemblages among habitats, this could not be attributed to vegetation structure. In this study, we show that analyzing a community at two conceptual levels will be useful for recognizing different responses of spider communities to vegetation structure in diverse habitat types. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Evaluation of forest structure, biomass and carbon sequestration in subtropical pristine forests of SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Syed Moazzam; Yiping, Zhang; Zheng, Zheng; Zhiyun, Lu; Guoping, Yang; Liqing, Sha

    2017-03-01

    Very old natural forests comprising the species of Fagaceae (Lithocarpus xylocarpus, Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus hancei) have been prevailing since years in the Ailaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve (AMNR) SW China. Within these forest trees, density is quite variable. We studied the forest structure, stand dynamics and carbon density at two different sites to know the main factors which drives carbon sequestration process in old forests by considering the following questions: How much is the carbon density in these forest trees of different DBH (diameter at breast height)? How much carbon potential possessed by dominant species of these forests? How vegetation carbon is distributed in these forests? Which species shows high carbon sequestration? What are the physiochemical properties of soil in these forests? Five-year (2005-2010) tree growth data from permanently established plots in the AMNR was analysed for species composition, density, stem diameter (DBH), height and carbon (C) density both in aboveground and belowground vegetation biomass. Our study indicated that among two comparative sites, overall 54 species of 16 different families were present. The stem density, height, C density and soil properties varied significantly with time among the sites showing uneven distribution across the forests. Among the dominant species, L. xylocarpus represents 30% of the total carbon on site 1 while C. wattii represents 50% of the total carbon on site 2. The average C density ranged from 176.35 to 243.97 t C ha -1 . The study emphasized that there is generous degree to expand the carbon stocking in this AMNR through scientific management gearing towards conservation of old trees and planting of potentially high carbon sequestering species on good site quality areas.

  2. Riparian landscapes: Linking geodiversity with habitat and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmieleski, Jana; Danzeisen, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Oder valley, biodiversity, geodiversity River landscapes of all scales originally showed a high diversity of structures and habitats at a small spatial entity, such as the stream beds, terrasses, sand and gravel banks. This variety, with a lot of different elements, patches and patterns, represents not only a variety of geoelements or geomorhological features but also a large biodiversity, both of habitats and species. Riparian landscapes are both, a natural as well as a geoheritage, often even a cultural heritage (sustainabe land use practices). Embankments, utilization for agriculture, constructions for navigation, management measures lead to a strong loss of these structures. This impacts the value of the landscape as well ecosystem functions, not only the biodiversity and the geodiversity but also the recreation function or the aesthetic values. A case study from the National Park Lower Oder Valley in the Northeastern part of Germany, wich is also part of a Geopark („Eiszeitland am Oderrand") presents the connections of the diversity of geomorphological features with biodiversity and shows the loss of features (loss of values) due to intensive utilisation by using GIS-analysis and landscape-metrics. The Northern part of the Oder valley (National Park, transnational protection area of Germany and Poland) have been modified by man since centuries but even so remained in near-natural state that allows semi-(natural) stream dynamics. While the Oder's reparian zone is marked by the stream itself, by its bayous, reed beds, periodically flooded wet meadows and by its natural riparian forest the mineral morainic plateaus are marked by semi-natural forests and dry grasslands. Two areas of different degradation states, a) near-natural and wilderness area and b) grassland area will be compared in order to identify: quantity and extent of features, relation of measure and coverage, connectivity with other features, quantity and types of habitats (with

  3. Higher stability in forest-atmosphere exchange observed in a structurally diverse forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrakar, R.; Rayment, M.; Moyano, F.; Herbst, M.; Mund, M.; Knohl, A.

    2016-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that structurally diverse forests have greater stability on exchange processes with the atmosphere compared to forests with less diverse structure. In a case study, we assessed how net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and normalized maximum assimilation (Amax) varied over time in two forests in Germany based on 11 years of continuous eddy flux measurements. The two sites differ in structure as well as in species composition: one (Hainich) is an unmanaged, uneven-aged and heterogeneous mixed beech forest (65% beech), the other (Leinefelde) is a managed, even-aged and homogeneous pure beech stand. The two selected forests are of similar mean ages (about 130 years old) and exposed to similar air temperatures and vapour pressure deficits. Even though Hainich (the unmanaged forest) received higher rainfall (720 ± 134 mm vs 599±166 mm), the soil water availability showed no significant difference between both sites. Based on detailed biomass inventory, trees in Hainich are well distributed in all diameter at breast height (dbh) classes (10 to 90cm dbh) whereas in Leinefelde (the managed forest) trees are mostly confined to dbh classes of 40 to 55 cm. Our results showed a strong difference in inter-annual variability of NEE, which was lower in the unmanaged than in the managed site (coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.13 and 0.27, respectively). The lowest NEE was observed in both sites in 2004, a mast year and a year after the strong summer drought of 2003. The variation in the inter-annual normalized maximum assimilation (Amax) was lower in Hainich (standard deviation of 2.5 compared to 3.9 µmol m-2 s-1). Also, the seasonal course of Amax differed between the two forests which could explain why the mixed forest was more affected by the late summer drought of 2003, despite showing a more conservative carbon budget than the pure stand in the long term. The interannual anomaly in Amax was correlated with fruit production, the latter being larger in

  4. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest,...

  5. From the litter up and the sky down: Perspectives on urban forest structure and eco-hydrological processes (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of the urban forest represents the complex product of local biophysical conditions, socio-economic milieu, people preferences and management with rare counterparts in rural forests. However, urban forest structure, as similarly observed in rural forests, affects key...

  6. Recovery of Forest and Phylogenetic Structure in Abandoned Cocoa Agroforestry in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Samir Gonçalves; Sambuichi, Regina Helena Rosa; Schroth, Götz; Nascimento, Marcelo Trindade; Gomes, José Manoel Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites. Here we compare the vegetation structure and composition of a former cabruca 30-40 years after abandonment with a managed cabruca and mature forest in the Atlantic forest region of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The forest in the abandoned cabruca had recovered a substantial part of its original structure. Abandoned cabruca have a higher density (mean ± CI95 %: 525.0 ± 40.3 stems per ha), basal area (34.0 ± 6.5 m 2 per ha) and species richness (148 ± 11.5 species) than managed cabruca (96.0 ± 17.7; 24.15 ± 3.9 and 114.5 ± 16.0, respectively) but no significant differences to mature forest in density (581.0 ± 42.2), basal area (29.9.0 ± 3.3) and species richness (162.6 ± 15.5 species). Thinning (understory removal) changes phylogenetic structure from evenness in mature forest to clustering in managed cabruca, but after 30-40 years abandoned cabruca had a random phylogenetic structure, probably due to a balance between biotic and abiotic filters at this age. We conclude that abandoned cocoa agroforests present highly favorable conditions for the regeneration of Atlantic forest and could contribute to the formation of an interconnected network of forest habitat in this biodiversity hotspot.

  7. Forest Typification to Characterize the Structure and Composition of Old-growth Evergreen Forests on Chiloe Island, North Patagonia (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Bannister

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Evergreen forest type develops along the Valdivian and North-Patagonian phytogeographical regions of the south-central part of Chile (38° S–46° S. These evergreen forests have been scarcely studied south of 43° S, where there is still a large area made up of old-growth forests. Silvicultural proposals for the Evergreen forest type have been based on northern Evergreen forests, so that the characterization of the structure and composition of southern Evergreen forests, e.g., their typification, would aid in the development of appropriate silvicultural proposals for these forests. Based on the tree composition of 46 sampled plots in old-growth forests in an area of >1000 ha in southern Chiloé Island (43° S, we used multivariate analyses to define forest groups and to compare these forests with other evergreen forests throughout the Archipelago of North-Patagonia. We determined that evergreen forests of southern Chiloé correspond to the North-Patagonian temperate rainforests that are characterized by few tree species of different shade tolerance growing on fragile soils. We discuss the convenience of developing continuous cover forest management for these forests, rather than selective cuts or even-aged management that is proposed in the current legislation. This study is a contribution to forest classification for both ecologically- and forestry-oriented purposes.

  8. Bat activity following restoration prescribed burning in the central Appalachian Upland and riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lauren V.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Muthersbaugh, Michael; Powers, Karen E.

    2018-01-01

    After decades of fire suppression in eastern North America, land managers now are prioritizing prescribed fire as a management tool to restore or maintain fire-adapted vegetation communities. However, in long—fire-suppressed landscapes, such as the central and southern Appalachians, it is unknown how bats will respond to prescribed fire in both riparian and upland forest habitats. To address these concerns, we conducted zero-crossing acoustic surveys of bat activity in burned, unburned, riparian, and non-riparian areas in the central Appalachians, Virginia, USA. Burn and riparian variables had model support (ΔAICc fire differently between upland and riparian forest habitats, but overall, large landscape-level prescribed fire has a slightly positive to neutral impact on all bats species identified at our study site post—fire application.

  9. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  10. Forest restoration: a global dataset for biodiversity and vegetation structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzeilles, Renato; Ferreira, Mariana S; Curran, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Restoration initiatives are becoming increasingly applied around the world. Billions of dollars have been spent on ecological restoration research and initiatives, but restoration outcomes differ widely among these initiatives in part due to variable socioeconomic and ecological contexts. Here, we present the most comprehensive dataset gathered to date on forest restoration. It encompasses 269 primary studies across 221 study landscapes in 53 countries and contains 4,645 quantitative comparisons between reference ecosystems (e.g., old-growth forest) and degraded or restored ecosystems for five taxonomic groups (mammals, birds, invertebrates, herpetofauna, and plants) and five measures of vegetation structure reflecting different ecological processes (cover, density, height, biomass, and litter). We selected studies that (1) were conducted in forest ecosystems; (2) had multiple replicate sampling sites to measure indicators of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure in reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems; and (3) used less-disturbed forests as a reference to the ecosystem under study. We recorded (1) latitude and longitude; (2) study year; (3) country; (4) biogeographic realm; (5) past disturbance type; (6) current disturbance type; (7) forest conversion class; (8) restoration activity; (9) time that a system has been disturbed; (10) time elapsed since restoration started; (11) ecological metric used to assess biodiversity; and (12) quantitative value of the ecological metric of biodiversity and/or vegetation structure for reference and restored and/or degraded ecosystems. These were the most common data available in the selected studies. We also estimated forest cover and configuration in each study landscape using a recently developed 1 km consensus land cover dataset. We measured forest configuration as the (1) mean size of all forest patches; (2) size of the largest forest patch; and (3) edge:area ratio of forest patches. Global analyses of the

  11. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, Michael; Sullivan, Franklin B; Ducey, Mark; Herrick, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001, RMSE = 1.04 m). Tree density was found to have the poorest significant relationship (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.01, RMSE = 153.28 n ha-1). We found a significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1). Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included structural canopy

  12. Estimating Tropical Forest Structure Using a Terrestrial Lidar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Palace

    Full Text Available Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable biometric components and characteristics, which include tree geometry and stand architecture. These structural components are important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying biometric properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar. This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in a predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using a series of multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001, RMSE = 1.04 m. Tree density was found to have the poorest significant relationship (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.01, RMSE = 153.28 n ha-1. We found a significant relationship between basal area and lidar metrics (r2 = 0.75, p < 0.001, RMSE = 3.76 number ha-1. Parameters selected in our models varied, thus indicating the potential relevance of multiple features in canopy profiles and geometry that are related to field-measured structure. Models for biomass estimation included

  13. Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Streams and Riparian Floodplains located within Forested Landscapes of the US Northeast: Impact of Key Floodplain Geomorphic Features on Greenhouse Gas Production in a Forested Watershed in Northern New York State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serchan, S. P.; Vidon, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study measured dissolved greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in interstitial water and stream across various "hotspots" in headwater catchments of Archer Creek watershed, New York, USA. Results indicated that stream water was hyper saturated with methane (CH4), and moderately saturated with carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The values of dissolved CO2 (88.3 μmol/L), dissolved CH4 (1.2 μmol/L), and dissolved N2O (0.02 μmol/L) found in the stream were 5.8, 432, and 2.3 times in excess of atmospheric equilibrium, respectively. Results of dissolved GHG measured in interstitial water across various sites: riparian dry (RZ-Dry), riparian wet (RZ-Wet), riparian mucky (RZ-Mucky), pool with fine textured bed sediments (IS-fine-sedpool), pool with coarse textured bed sediments (IS-coarse-sed-pool), and riffles (Riffle) indicated high variations in the degree of saturation of all three GHG. RZ-Mucky, RZ-Wet, and IS-fine-sedpool sites were hotspots of CH4 and CO2 relative to other sites. RZ-Dry sites were hotspots of N2O. Multiple linear regression models indicated that dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) influenced dissolved CO2 and CH4 at most of the sites. Relationships between dissolved N2O and predictor variables were highly variable across all sites. Patterns of dissolved N2O in relatively oxic RZ-Dry sites (D.O. 5.3 mg/L) were positively correlated with nitrate (NO3) indicating nitrification as a dominant process in N2O production. In contrast, patterns of dissolved N2O were positively correlated with ammonium (NH4+) at RZ-Wet and RZ-Mucky sites where concentrations of D.O. were significantly lower compared to other sites.

  14. Chemical and microbiological properties of an eutrophic Oxisol under riparian forest buffer reforestation and pasture. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas de um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico sob reflorestamento de mata ciliar e pastagem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marise PULITANO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of their ecological importance, riparian forest strips are frequently suppressed to allow greater expansion of arable and urban areas. Agroforestry might be an effective alternative to recompose riparian forests. Soil chemical and microbial properties are important environmental indicators to evaluate the reclamation process. This study tested the hypothesis that, in the course of time, reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil microbial and chemical properties in a riparian forest buffer. Soil samples were collected from three layers (0.0-2.5; 2.5-7.5; 7.5-20 cm in two sectors of a reforested riparian buffer strip in Cananéia Farm, São Paulo state, Brazil, one 18 years old and other 28 years old, and in an adjacent pasture area. The samples were assessed for pHH2O, available P and K, exchangeable, Ca, Mg and Al, H+Al, sum of bases (SB, pH 7.0 CEC, percent base saturation (V, soil organic matter (SOM and light organic matter (LOM. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN were analyzed only in the first layer. The pattern for Ca, Mg, SB and V (all layers was 28-year-old sector = 18-year-old-sector > pasture. The SOM at 0.0-2.5 cm was higher in the 28-year-old sector. The LOM pattern was 28-year-old sector > 18-year-old sector > pasture. MBC did not differ among areas. MBN was significantly higher comparing the 28-year-old sector and the pasture area. The results probably reflected the higher litterfall and the N-richer organic matter in the reforested sectors. Reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil quality, contributing to the ecosystem sustainability. Independentemente de sua importância ecológica, matas ciliares são frequentemente suprimidas e ocupadas por lavouras e cidades. Agroflorestas podem ser eficazes para a recomposição dessas áreas. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas do solo são importantes indicadores ambientais para avaliar o processo de recomposição. Este estudo testou a

  15. Cost structure of and competition for forest-based biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Biomass has become a popular alternative to satisfy expanding energy demand and as a substitute for fossil fuels and phased-out nuclear energy in Europe. The European Union White Paper stipulates that the utilization of biomass shall increase to 1566 TWh by 2010. However it is often overlooked that the forest resources are already, to a large extent, used by the forest industries. When promoting biomass for energy generation the consequences for the forest industries also need to be considered. Sweden is an excellent case study, as there are vast quantities of forest resources, nuclear power is starting to be phased out, there are restrictions on expanding hydropower and the political desire exists to 'set an example' with respect to carbon dioxide emissions. This paper attempts to estimate and analyse the supply of two types of forest resource, namely, roundwood and harvesting residues derived from final harvesting and commercial thinnings. Two separate supply curves are estimated: one for roundwood and one for harvesting residues. The cost structure is based on an economic-engineering approach where the separate cost components are constructed from the lowest cost element into aggregates for labour, capital, materials and overhead costs for each forest resource. The results indicate an unutilized economic supply of 12 TWh of harvesting residues in Sweden. However, after these 12 TWh have been recovered it becomes more profitable to use roundwood for energy purposes than to continue extracting further amounts of harvesting residues

  16. Determining effective riparian buffer width for nonnative plant exclusion and habitat enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin Ferris; Vincent D' Amico; Christopher K. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Nonnative plants threaten native biodiversity in landscapes where habitats are fragmented. Unfortunately, in developed areas, much of the remaining forested habitat occurs in fragmented riparian corridors. Because forested corridors of sufficient width may allow forest interior specializing native species to retain competitive advantage over edge specialist and...

  17. Quantifying urban forest structure, function, and value: the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; David Nowak; Gordon Heisler; Sue Grimmond; Catherine Souch; Rich Grant; Rowan Rowntree

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a review of research in Chicago that linked analyses of vegetation structure with forest functions and values. During 1991, the region's trees removed an estimated 5575 metric tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing worth $9.2 million. Each year they sequester an estimated 315 800 metric tons of carbon. Increasing tree cover 10% or planting...

  18. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  19. Influence of microtopography on soil chemistry and understory riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene M. Unger; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2008-01-01

    The success of riparian forest restoration efforts depends in part on an understanding of the relationship between soil characteristics and vegetation patterns and how these change with site conditions. To examine these relationships for floodplains in northern Missouri, we chose three unchannelized streams as study areas. A sampling grid was established at two plots...

  20. The influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2010-01-01

    Data from ~1500 ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa C. Lawson) stands in the western United States were used to examine the potential influence of compositional and structural diversity on forest productivity. Relative density, height and site quality were combined in a conceptually sound expression of the relationship between growth and growing stock for ponderosa pine-...

  1. Water balance and topography predict fire and forest structure patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; James A. Lutz; C. Alina Cansler; Nicholas A. Povak; Derek J. Churchill; Douglas F. Smith; Jonathan T. Kane; Malcolm P. North

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous topography creates fine-scale environmental mosaics that vary in precipitation, temperature, insolation, and slope position. This mosaic in turn influences fuel accumulation and moisture and forest structure. We studied these the effects of varying environmental conditions across a 27,104 ha landscape within Yosemite National Park, California, USA, on the...

  2. Forest structure, diversity and soil properties in a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Nirmal Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Structure, species composition, and soil properties of a dry tropical forest in Rajasthan Western India, were examined by establishment of 25 plots. The forest was characterized by a relatively low canopy and a large number of small-diameter trees. Mean canopy height for this forest was 10 m and stands contained an average of 995 stems ha-1 (= 3.0 cm DBH; 52% of those stems were smaller than 10 cm DBH. The total basal area was 46.35 m2ha-1, of which Tectona grandis L. contributed 48%. The forest showed high species diversity of trees. 50 tree species (= 3.0 cm DBH from 29 families were identified in the 25 sampling plots. T. grandis (20.81% and Butea monosperma (9% were the dominant and subdominant species in terms of importance value. The mean tree species diversity indices for the plots were 1.08 for Shannon diversity index (H´, 0.71 for equitability index (J´ and 5.57 for species richness index (S´, all of which strongly declined with the increase of importance value of the dominant, T. grandis. Measures of soil nutrients indicated low fertility, extreme heterogeneity. Regression analysis showed that stem density and the dominant tree height were significantly correlated with soil pH. There was a significant positive relationship between species diversity index and soil available P, exchangeable K+, Ca2+ (all p values < 0.001 and a negative relationship with N, C, C:N and C:P ratio. The results suggest that soil properties are major factors influencing forest composition and structure within the dry tropical forest in Rajasthan.

  3. Structural Equation Modeling: Theory and Applications in Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Yih Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem dynamics are driven by a complex array of simultaneous cause-and-effect relationships. Understanding this complex web requires specialized analytical techniques such as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The SEM framework and implementation steps are outlined in this study, and we then demonstrate the technique by application to overstory-understory relationships in mature Douglas-fir forests in the northwestern USA. A SEM model was formulated with (1 a path model representing the effects of successively higher layers of vegetation on late-seral herbs through processes such as light attenuation and (2 a measurement model accounting for measurement errors. The fitted SEM model suggested a direct negative effect of light attenuation on late-seral herbs cover but a direct positive effect of northern aspect. Moreover, many processes have indirect effects mediated through midstory vegetation. SEM is recommended as a forest management tool for designing silvicultural treatments and systems for attaining complex arrays of management objectives.

  4. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 01: forest structure and fire hazard overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Many managers and policymakers guided by the National Environmental Policy Act process want to understand the scientific principles on which they can base fuel treatments for reducing the size and severity of wildfires. These Forest Structure and Fire Hazard fact sheets discuss how to estimate fire hazard, how to visualize fuel treatments, and how the role of...

  5. Assessment of Different Remote Sensing Data for Forest Structural Attributes Estimation in the Hyrcanian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nourian, N.; Shataee-Joibary, S.; Mohammadi, J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: The objective of the study was the comparative assessment of various spatial resolutions of optical satellite imagery including Landsat-TM, ASTER, and Quickbird data to estimate the forest structure attributes of Hyrcanian forests, Golestan province, northernIran. Material and methods: The 112 square plots with area of0.09 ha were measured using a random cluster sampling method and then stand volume, basal area, and tree stem density were computed using measured data. After geometric and atmospheric corrections of images, the spectral attributes from original and different synthetic bands were extracted for modelling. The statistical modelling was performed using CART algorithm. Performance assessment of models was examined using the unused validation plots by RMSE and bias measures. Main Results: The results showed that model of Quickbird data for stand volume, basal area, and tree stem density had a better performance compared to ASTER and TM data. However, estimations by ASTER and TM imagery had slightly similar results for all three parameters. Research highlights: This study exposed that the high-resolution satellite data are more useful for forest structure attributes estimation in the Hyrcanian broadleaves forests compared with medium resolution images without consideration of images costs. However, regarding to be free of the most medium resolution data such as ASTER and TM,ETM+ or OLI images, these data can be used with slightly similar results. (Author)

  6. Community stand structure of rehabilitated forest at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatma, N. A. H.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Shaharuddin, M. I.; Wickneswari, R.

    2016-11-01

    A descriptive study of species composition, community structure and biomass was conducted in compartment 107, which is a rehabilitated area at Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan. The objective is to determine the forest structure and species composition in a rehabilitated area of Kenaboi FR since enrichment planting had done. A sample plot of 1 hectare was censused and a total of 395 trees with diameter ≥ 5 cm DBH were recorded. A total of 285 individual trees were identified belonging to 20 families and the commonest family was Dipterocarpaceae with 193 individuals. The highest tree density per ha was Shorea acuminata at 33% followed by S. parvifolia, 10% and S. leprosula, 6%. The biggest tree was Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume with a diameter of 101 cm. The total basal area was 34.48 m2/ha, whereby the highest basal area was between 45 - 54.9 cm DBH class that contributed 10.21 m2/ha (30%). The total biomass estimation (above ground and below ground) was 792.57 t/ha. Dipterocarpaceae contributed the highest total biomass at 545.14 t/ha with S. acuminata contributed the highest total biomass of 330.45 t/ha. This study will contribute to the knowledge of regeneration forest especially on how the ecological process restoring the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in rehabilitated forest by practicing the enrichment planting of native species.

  7. Can structural and functional characteristics be used to identify riparian zone width in southern Appalachian headwater catchments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Clinton; James Vose; Jennifer Knoepp; Katherine Elliott; Barbara Reynolds; Stanley Zarnock

    2010-01-01

    We characterized structural and functional attributes along hillslope gradients in headwater catchments. We endeavored to identify parameters that described significant transitions along the hillslope. On each of four catchments, we installed eight 50 m transects perpendicular to the stream. Structural attributes included woody and herbaceous vegetation; woody debris...

  8. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  9. Impacts of participatory forest management on species composition and forest structure in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Meilby, Henrik; Feyisa, Gudina Legese

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the impacts of decentralized forest management on forest conditions in Ethiopian Montane forests. We compared observed densities of different tree species and size categories in forests managed by local forest user groups (FUGs) and the government. We used forest...

  10. Leaf size indices and structure of the peat swamp forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Aribal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf size indices of the tree species in the peatland of Agusan del Sur in Mindanao in Philippines was examined to deduce the variation of forest structure and observed forest zonation.  Using raunkiaer and webb’s leaf size classification, the leaf morphometrics of seven tree species consistently found on the established sampling plots were determined.  The species includes Ternstroemia philippinensis Merr., Polyscias aherniana Merr. Lowry and G.M. Plunkett, Calophyllum sclerophyllum Vesque, Fagraea racemosa Jack, Ilex cymosa Blume, Syzygium tenuirame (Miq. Merr. and Tristaniopsis micrantha Merr. Peter G.Wilson and J.T.Waterh.The LSI were correlated against the variables of the peat physico-chemical properties (such as bulk density, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, total organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, pH; water (pH, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate; and leaf tissue elements (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.  Result showed a decreasing leaf size indices and a three leaf size category consisting of mesophyllous, mesophyllous-notophyllous and microphyllous were observed which corresponds to the structure of vegetation i.e., from the tall-pole forest having the biggest average leaf area of 6,142.29 mm2 to the pygmy forest with average leaf area of 1,670.10 mm2.  Such decreased leaf size indices were strongly correlated to soil nitrogen, acrotelm thickness, peat depth, phosphate in water, nitrogen and phosphorus in the plant tissue.

  11. Forecasting forest development through modeling based on the legacy of forest structure over the past 43 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Z. Baskent

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Sustainable management of forest ecosystems requires comprehensive coverage of data to reflect both the historical legacy and the future development of forests.  This study focuses on analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamics of forests over the past 43 years to help better forecast the future development of forest under various management strategies.Area of study: The area is situated in Karaisalı district of Adana city in the southeastern corner of Turkey.Material and methods: The historical pattern from 1969 to 2012 was assessed with digital forest cover type maps, produced with high resolution aerial photo interpretation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The forest development over the next 120 years was forecasted using ecosystem-based multiple use forest management model (ETÇAP to understand the cause-effect relationships under various management strategies.Main results: The result showed that over the past 43 years while total forest areas decreased about 1194 ha (4%, the productive forest areas increased about 5397 ha (18% with a decrease of degraded forest (5824 ha, 20% and increase of maquis areas (2212 ha, 7%.The forecast of forest development under traditional management strategy resulted in an unsustainable forest due to broken initial age class structure, yet generated more total harvest (11% due to 88% relaxing of even timber flow constraint. While more volume could be harvested under traditional management conditions, the sustainability of future forest is significantly jeopardized.Research highlights: This result trongly implies that it is essential adopting modeling techniques to understand forest dynamics and forecast the future development comprehensively.Keywords: Forest management; simulation; optimization; forest dynamics; land use change.

  12. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  13. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  14. Distribuição espacial de Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae em uma floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Spatial distribution of Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae in a riparian forest, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesadenella cuspidata é uma orquídea terrícola encontrada no interior de florestas no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de seu valor ecológico e ornamental, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia desta espécie. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de M. cuspidata e verificar se há correlação entre o número de indivíduos jovens e adultos em uma floresta ribeirinha. Para o levantamento, foram amostradas 60 parcelas de 16m² cada. Durante agosto e setembro/2001 foram inventariados os indivíduos jovens e adultos das parcelas. Para identificar-se o padrão de distribuição espacial, utilizaram-se o índice de Morisita (MI e a razão de variância/média (R. Foram encontrados 463 indivíduos jovens e 178 adultos. Indivíduos jovens e adultos apresentaram distribuição espacial agrupada, sendo que os adultos (IM = 2,17; R = 4,52 estão mais agrupados que os jovens (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. O coeficiente de correlação linear encontrado r = 0,61, demonstrou que a densidade de indivíduos adultos está altamente relacionada à densidade de indivíduos jovens.Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay is a terrestrial orchid found inside Southern Brazilian forests. In spite of its ecological and ornamental value, little information is aviable on its biology. The aim of this work was the identification of the spatial distribution patterns of M. cuspidata in a riparian forest. We have sampled 60 quadrats of 16m² each. All the young and adult individuals of the quadrats were included. To identify the pattern of spatial distribution, the Morisita Index (MI and the variance/mean Reason (R were used. The linear correlation coefficient was used to verify if there is correlation between populations of the juvenils and adults. From 641 individuals sampled, 463 were juvenils and 178 were adults. Juvenils and adult individuals presented gregarious spatial distribution, but the adults (MI = 2,17; R = 4,52 were more gregarious than the

  15. Spatial variation of dung beetle assemblages associated with forest structure in remnants of southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. The aim of this study is to identify associations between the spatial distribution of dung beetle species and Atlantic Forest structure. The spatial distribution of some dung beetle species was associated with structural forest features. The number of species among the sampling sites ranged widely, and few species were found in all remnant areas. Principal coordinates analysis indicated that species composition, abundance and biomass showed a spatially structured distribution, and these results were corroborated by permutational multivariate analysis of variance. The indicator value index and redundancy analysis showed an association of several dung beetle species with some explanatory environmental variables related to Atlantic Forest structure. This work demonstrated the existence of a spatially structured distribution of dung beetles, with significant associations between several species and forest structure in Atlantic Forest remnants from Southern Brazil. Keywords: Beta diversity, Species composition, Species diversity, Spatial distribution, Tropical forest

  16. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, R R; Toledo, J J

    2016-01-01

    Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  17. Effects of local land-use on riparian vegetation, water quality, and the functional organization of macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Pablo; Bertrán, Carlos; Tapia, Jaime; Hauenstein, Enrique; Peña-Cortés, Fernando; Vergara, Carolina; Cerna, Cindy; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2017-12-31

    Land-use change is a principal factor affecting riparian vegetation and river biodiversity. In Chile, land-use change has drastically intensified over the last decade, with native forests converted to exotic forest plantations and agricultural land. However, the effects thereof on aquatic ecosystems are not well understood. Closing this knowledge gap first requires understanding how human perturbations affect riparian and stream biota. Identified biological indicators could then be applied to determine the health of fluvial ecosystems. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of land-use change on the health of riparian and aquatic ecosystems by assessing riparian vegetation, water quality, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and functional feeding groups. Twenty-one sites in catchment areas with different land-uses (i.e. pristine forests, native forests, exotic forest plantations, and agricultural land) were selected and sampled during the 2010 to 2012 dry seasons. Riparian vegetation quality was highest in pristine forests. Per the modified Macroinvertebrate Family Biotic Index for Chilean species, the best conditions existed in native forests and the worst in agricultural catchments. Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages significantly varied across land-use areas, with forest plantations and agricultural land having high nutrient concentrations, conductivity, suspended solids, and apparent color. Macroinvertebrate assemblage diversity was lowest for agricultural and exotic forest plantation catchments, with notable non-insect representation. Collector-gatherers were the most abundant functional feeding group, suggesting importance independent of land-use. Land-use areas showed no significant differences in functional feeding groups. In conclusion, anthropogenic land-use changes were detectable through riparian quality, water quality, and macroinvertebrate assemblages, but not through functional feeding groups. These data, particularly the

  18. Expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation of Santa Cruz River, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carricarte Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the Los Amaros, the Santa Cruz river, Artemisa, Cuba. The objective was to evaluate how it influences the expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation where the semi-deciduous mesophytic forest (BsdMe predominates. A floristic characterization was performed, identifying the effects of disturbances on the structure and composition of these forests and their relation to human disturbance. A semi-structured interview was applied to all landowners in the study area. Species richness, dominance, basal area, total number of individuals, width of the strip covered by trees and shrubs, and area without vegetation on both banks of the river, respectively were considered as variables. There are differences in the structure and patterns of diversity of the studied forest, as a result of disturbances, with the consequent reduction of species; also anthropogenic disturbances, are the main factors that explain changes in the structure of these forests. They are identified as major species: Cupania macrophylla A. Rich., Roystonea regia HBK O. F. Cook., Guarea guidonia L. Sleumer and Trichilia hirta  L. It is proposed to deepen the effect of the expansion of agriculture into other sectors of the river in interaction with local communities.

  19. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  20. Forest structure following tornado damage and salvage logging in northern Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn Fraver; Kevin J. Dodds; Laura S. Kenefic; Rick Morrill; Robert S. Seymour; Eben Sypitkowski

    2017-01-01

    Understanding forest structural changes resulting from postdisturbance management practices such as salvage logging is critical for predicting forest recovery and developing appropriate management strategies. In 2013, a tornado and subsequent salvage operations in northern Maine, USA, created three conditions (i.e., treatments) with contrasting forest structure:...

  1. Beech forests of Azerbaijan: The modern condition, age structure and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hasanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is a country with low forest cover, only 11.8% of the territory is covered with forests. All forests perform important water-soil-protection functions. In forests, naturally grow 107 species of trees and 328 shrubs species. Despite the fact that there are many species in dendroflora, only 10 tree species have economic value for the forest sector of the country. Beech (31.68%, oak (27.40% and hornbeam (26.01% are growing in 85.09% of forested areas. Beech forests are spread on 327 thousand hectares from 989,5 of total forest lands of he Republic. Beech forests are a source of high-quality wood and beech nuts. All beech forests grow in mountains at heights of 600–800 and 1600–1800 m above the sea level and performing important ecological functions. Until recently there were no problems with natural renewal of the beech forests, but now the regeneration of beech forests is alarming. In recent years, the productivity and density of beech forests decreased substantially, the natural regeneration proceeds unsatisfactorily and, consequently, reduction of beech forests takes place. We have researched 33,8 thousand hectares of beech forests of the Lesser Caucasus, their natural regeneration and made analysis of age structure of forests. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Beech forests, Silviculture, Natural regeneration, Age class

  2. Forecasting forest development through modeling based on the legacy of forest structure over the past 43 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskent, E. Z.; Celik, D. A.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: Sustainable management of forest ecosystems requires comprehensive coverage of data to reflect both the historical legacy and the future development of forests. This study focuses on analyzing the spatio-temporal dynamics of forests over the past 43 years to help better forecast the future development of forest under various management strategies. Area of study: The area is situated in Karaisalt district of Adana city in the southeastern corner of Turkey. Material and methods: The historical pattern from 1969 to 2012 was assessed with digital forest cover type maps, produced with high resolution aerial photo interpretation using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The forest development over the next 120 years was forecasted using ecosystem-based multiple use forest management model (ETCAP) to understand the cause-effect relationships under various management strategies. Main results: The result showed that over the past 43 years while total forest areas decreased about 1,194 ha (4%), the productive forest areas increased about 5,397 ha (18%) with a decrease of degraded forest (5,824 ha, 20%) and increase of maquis areas (2,212 ha, 7%).The forecast of forest development under traditional management strategy resulted in an unsustainable forest due to broken initial age class structure, yet generated more total harvest (11%) due to 88% relaxing of even timber flow constraint. While more volume could be harvested under traditional management conditions, the sustainability of future forest is significantly jeopardized. Research highlights: This result trongly implies that it is essential adopting modeling techniques to understand forest dynamics and forecast the future development comprehensively. (Author)

  3. Multiple Browsers Structure Tree Recruitment in Logged Temperate Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward K Faison

    Full Text Available Historical extirpations have resulted in depauperate large herbivore assemblages in many northern forests. In eastern North America, most forests are inhabited by a single wild ungulate species, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, and relationships between deer densities and impacts on forest regeneration are correspondingly well documented. Recent recolonizations by moose (Alces americanus in northeastern regions complicate established deer density thresholds and predictions of browsing impacts on forest dynamics because size and foraging differences between the two animals suggest a lack of functional redundancy. We asked to what extent low densities of deer + moose would structure forest communities differently from that of low densities of deer in recently logged patch cuts of Massachusetts, USA. In each site, a randomized block with three treatment levels of large herbivores-no-ungulates (full exclosure, deer (partial exclosure, and deer + moose (control was established. After 6-7 years, deer + moose reduced stem densities and basal area by 2-3-fold, Prunus pensylvanica and Quercus spp. recruitment by 3-6 fold, and species richness by 1.7 species (19%. In contrast, in the partial exclosures, deer had non-significant effects on stem density, basal area, and species composition, but significantly reduced species richness by 2.5 species on average (28%. Deer browsing in the partial exclosure was more selective than deer + moose browsing together, perhaps contributing to the decline in species richness in the former treatment and the lack of additional decline in the latter. Moose used the control plots at roughly the same frequency as deer (as determined by remote camera traps, suggesting that the much larger moose was the dominant browser species in terms of animal biomass in these cuts. A lack of functional redundancy with respect to foraging behavior between sympatric large herbivores may explain combined browsing effects that were

  4. Multiple browsers structure tree recruitment in logged temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faison, Edward K.; DeStefano, Stephen; Foster, David R.; Rapp, Joshua M.; Compton, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    Historical extirpations have resulted in depauperate large herbivore assemblages in many northern forests. In eastern North America, most forests are inhabited by a single wild ungulate species, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and relationships between deer densities and impacts on forest regeneration are correspondingly well documented. Recent recolonizations by moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern regions complicate established deer density thresholds and predictions of browsing impacts on forest dynamics because size and foraging differences between the two animals suggest a lack of functional redundancy. We asked to what extent low densities of deer + moose would structure forest communities differently from that of low densities of deer in recently logged patch cuts of Massachusetts, USA. In each site, a randomized block with three treatment levels of large herbivores–no-ungulates (full exclosure), deer (partial exclosure), and deer + moose (control) was established. After 6–7 years, deer + moose reduced stem densities and basal area by 2-3-fold, Prunus pensylvanica and Quercus spp. recruitment by 3–6 fold, and species richness by 1.7 species (19%). In contrast, in the partial exclosures, deer had non-significant effects on stem density, basal area, and species composition, but significantly reduced species richness by 2.5 species on average (28%). Deer browsing in the partial exclosure was more selective than deer + moose browsing together, perhaps contributing to the decline in species richness in the former treatment and the lack of additional decline in the latter. Moose used the control plots at roughly the same frequency as deer (as determined by remote camera traps), suggesting that the much larger moose was the dominant browser species in terms of animal biomass in these cuts. A lack of functional redundancy with respect to foraging behavior between sympatric large herbivores may explain combined browsing effects that were

  5. A dataset of forest biomass structure for Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Usoltsev, Vladimir; Lakyda, Petro; Luo, Yunjian; Vasylyshyn, Roman; Lakyda, Ivan; Myklush, Yuriy; See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Fritz, Steffen; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-05-16

    The most comprehensive dataset of in situ destructive sampling measurements of forest biomass in Eurasia have been compiled from a combination of experiments undertaken by the authors and from scientific publications. Biomass is reported as four components: live trees (stem, bark, branches, foliage, roots); understory (above- and below ground); green forest floor (above- and below ground); and coarse woody debris (snags, logs, dead branches of living trees and dead roots), consisting of 10,351 unique records of sample plots and 9,613 sample trees from ca 1,200 experiments for the period 1930-2014 where there is overlap between these two datasets. The dataset also contains other forest stand parameters such as tree species composition, average age, tree height, growing stock volume, etc., when available. Such a dataset can be used for the development of models of biomass structure, biomass extension factors, change detection in biomass structure, investigations into biodiversity and species distribution and the biodiversity-productivity relationship, as well as the assessment of the carbon pool and its dynamics, among many others.

  6. Changes in forest structure and composition after fire in tropical montane cloud forests near the Andean treeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveras Menor, I.; Malhi, Y.; Salinas, N.; Huaman, V.; Urquiaga-Flores, E.; Kala-Mamani, J.; Quintano-Loaiza, J.A.; Cuba-Torres, I.; Lizarraga-Morales, N.; Roman-Cuesta, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) fires can be a frequent source of disturbance near the treeline. Aims: To identify how forest structure and tree species composition change in response to fire and to identify fire-tolerant species, and determine which traits or characteristics

  7. Tree species distribution and forest structure along environmental gradients in the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    2010-01-01

    Eleven groups of three plots stratified by aspect (windward vs. leeward) and topography (ridge, slope, and ravine) and varying in elevation from 880 to about 1,000 metres were used to sample forest structure and species composition within the dwarf forest of the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Stem density to windward was significantly greater on slopes, andf or all...

  8. A comparison of structural characteristics and ecological factors between forest reserves and managed silver fir - Norway spruce forests in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinšek, A.; Diaci, J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine ecological, floristic and structural differences between the forest stands of managed and unmanaged silver fir - Norway spruce forests (Bazzanio trilobatae-Abietetum albae), twelve sample plots (25x25 m) were established in forest reserves and managed forests. Within the plots, subplots and microplots we conducted phytosociological and pedological surveys, analyses of the stand structure, natural regeneration and estimation of solar radiation. We determined that there are no significant differences in floristic composition and ecological factors between managed forest and forest reserve stands. The only variables that were significantly different were the solar radiation variables (ISF; TSF; DSF), vertical structure (cover indexes (CI)) and stand basal area. Small differences in the composition and the structure of the vegetation indicate that, as far as ecosystematic changes are concerned, managing these forests is not as significant as the soil conditions. Solar radiation had a major influence on natural regeneration. Indirect solar radiation seemed to be more important than direct solar radiation. We found a statistically significant positive correlation between silver fir and Norway spruce regeneration and indirect solar radiation and confirmed that the management of light is a significant factor in the management of regeneration. Another trend that was detected was an increase in the number of beech, which will have quite a large proportion in the upper tree layer of the next generation, especially in forest reserves

  9. Simulating historical disturbance regimes and stand structures in old-forest ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike Hillis; Vick Applegate; Steve Slaughter; Michael G. Harrington; Helen Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest Service land managers, with the collaborative assistance from research, applied a disturbance based restoration strategy to rehabilitate a greatly-altered, high risk Northern Rocky Mountain old-forest ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir stand. Age-class structure and fire history for the site have been documented in two research papers (Arno and others 1995, 1997)....

  10. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Pan; J.M. Chen; R. Birdsey; K. McCullough; L. He; F. Deng

    2011-01-01

    Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a...

  11. Composição florística de florestas estacionais ribeirinhas no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Floristic composition of seasonal riparian forests in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ribeiro Baptista-Maria

    2009-06-01

    time. The floristic survey resulted in 56 families, 184 genera and 307 species. Of the total number of species, 68% were trees, 17% shrubs, 14% lianas and only 1% palms. The Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, represented by 51 (16.6% species, was the most species-rich. These results increase our knowledge of the Mato Grosso do Sul flora and its geographic distribution, thus emphasizing the need for conservation of these riparian forests and providing subsidies for restoration projects of the degraded areas around the conservation unit and permanent protection areas (APPs of regional rivers.

  12. Structural and functional responses of plant communities to climate change-mediated alterations in the hydrology of riparian areas in temperate Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Garssen, Annemarie; Göthe, Emma; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Oddershede, Andrea; Riis, Tenna; van Bodegom, Peter M; Larsen, Søren E; Soons, Merel

    2018-04-01

    The hydrology of riparian areas changes rapidly these years because of climate change-mediated alterations in precipitation patterns. In this study, we used a large-scale in situ experimental approach to explore effects of drought and flooding on plant taxonomic diversity and functional trait composition in riparian areas in temperate Europe. We found significant effects of flooding and drought in all study areas, the effects being most pronounced under flooded conditions. In near-stream areas, taxonomic diversity initially declined in response to both drought and flooding (although not significantly so in all years) and remained stable under drought conditions, whereas the decline continued under flooded conditions. For most traits, we found clear indications that the functional diversity also declined under flooded conditions, particularly in near-stream areas, indicating that fewer strategies succeeded under flooded conditions. Consistent changes in community mean trait values were also identified, but fewer than expected. This can have several, not mutually exclusive, explanations. First, different adaptive strategies may coexist in a community. Second, intraspecific variability was not considered for any of the traits. For example, many species can elongate shoots and petioles that enable them to survive shallow, prolonged flooding but such abilities will not be captured when applying mean trait values. Third, we only followed the communities for 3 years. Flooding excludes species intolerant of the altered hydrology, whereas the establishment of new species relies on time-dependent processes, for instance the dispersal and establishment of species within the areas. We expect that altered precipitation patterns will have profound consequences for riparian vegetation in temperate Europe. Riparian areas will experience loss of taxonomic and functional diversity and, over time, possibly also alterations in community trait responses that may have cascading effects

  13. Composição da avifauna em duas matas ciliares na bacia do rio Jacaré-Pepira, São Paulo, Brasil Bird community composition of two riparian forests at Jacaré-Pepira river, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa de Castro Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A quali-quantitative survey was carried out in two riparian forests fragmente (approximately 40 ha each at Jacaré-Pepira river. Our intention was to characterize its bird community conceming richness, abundance and species occurrence in these areas. The qualitative survey showed 130 species at Santa Elisa (Brotas, São Paulo and 151 at Morro Chato (Dourado, São Paulo, whereas the quantitative survey revealed the presence of 69 and 75 species at Santa Elisa and Morro Chato, respectively. The small size and the isolation might be responsible for the low number of species found. Observing the abundance index values (IPA we realize that there are a few number of species with a high IPA on the one hand, while on the other there is a large number of species with intermediate and low IPA rates. A high detection coefficient (vocalization, low predatoiy rates and competition might have contributed for the higher abundance values found among these species. Furthermore, we have also registered species which are abundant in a fragment, but absent in the other, which might be explained by initial exclusion or local extinction. In spite of the riparian forests being protected by law, its clearing process has not stopped yet. Therefore, the study of this bird community is of uppermost impoitance for the elaboration of both conservation and management projects regarding these areas.

  14. Twentieth-century shifts in forest structure in California: Denser forests, smaller trees, and increased dominance of oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Patrick J; Thorne, James H; Dolanc, Christopher R; Flint, Alan L; Flint, Lorraine E; Kelly, Maggi; Ackerly, David D

    2015-02-03

    We document changes in forest structure between historical (1930s) and contemporary (2000s) surveys of California vegetation through comparisons of tree abundance and size across the state and within several ecoregions. Across California, tree density in forested regions increased by 30% between the two time periods, whereas forest biomass in the same regions declined, as indicated by a 19% reduction in basal area. These changes reflect a demographic shift in forest structure: larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height) have declined, whereas smaller trees (Forest composition in California in the last century has also shifted toward increased dominance by oaks relative to pines, a pattern consistent with warming and increased water stress, and also with paleohistoric shifts in vegetation in California over the last 150,000 y.

  15. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  16. Tropical forest transitions: structural changes in forest area, composition and landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on tropical forest dynamics focus on the processes of deforestation and forest degradation and its associated ecological impacts; comparatively little attention is given to the emergence of forest transitions. This review gives an overview of forest transitions in the tropics as

  17. Examining conifer canopy structural complexity across forest ages and elevations with LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; Jonathan D. Bakker; Robert J. McGaughey; James A. Lutz; Rolf F. Gersonde; Jerry F. Franklin

    2010-01-01

    LiDAR measurements of canopy structure can be used to classify forest stands into structural stages to study spatial patterns of canopy structure, identify habitat, or plan management actions. A key assumption in this process is that differences in canopy structure based on forest age and elevation are consistent with predictions from models of stand development. Three...

  18. Structure of a forested urban park: implications for strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Andrew A; Sabir, Senna

    2010-11-01

    Informed management of urban parks can provide optimal conditions for tree establishment and growth and thus maximize the ecological and aesthetic benefits that trees provide. This study assesses the structure, and its implications for function, of the urban forest in Allan Gardens, a 6.1 ha downtown park in the City of Toronto, Canada, using the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban Forest Managers (STRATUM). Our goal is to present a framework for collection and analysis of baseline data that can inform a management strategy that would serve to protect and enhance this significant natural asset. We found that Allan Garden's tree population, while species rich (43), is dominated by maple (Acer spp.) (48% of all park trees), making it reliant on very few species for the majority of its ecological and aesthetic benefits and raising disease and pest-related concerns. Age profiles (using size as a proxy) showed a dominance of older trees with an inadequate number of individuals in the young to early middle age cohort necessary for short- to medium-term replacement. Because leaf area represents the single-most important contributor to urban tree benefits modelling, we calculated it separately for every park tree, using hemispheric photography, to document current canopy condition. These empirical measurements were lower than estimates produced by STRATUM, especially when trees were in decline and lacked full canopies, highlighting the importance of individual tree condition in determining leaf area and hence overall forest benefits. Stewardship of natural spaces within cities demands access to accurate and timely resource-specific data. Our work provides an uncomplicated approach to the acquisition and interpretation of these data in the context of a forested urban park. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Hedblom, Marcus; Emilsson, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    be achieved if indicators are derived from existing data. In this study, a model for classifying forest stand structures was developed and tested as an indicator of overall plant species diversity at stand level. The model combines four stand structure parameters: canopy coverage, age of canopy trees, tree...... species composition and canopy stratification. Using data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden and General Linear Mixed Model, plant species diversity (Shannon diversity index, SHDI) and composition (Sørensen-Dice index, SDI) were tested between 26 different stand structure types and nine...... soil classes. The results showed that mature stands with a stratified canopy had the highest plant species diversity across the soil classes, particularly if they comprised mixed coniferous and broadleaved species with a semi-open canopy. In contrast, young (...

  20. Desirable forest structures for a restored Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette L. Dickinson; Rob Addington; Greg Aplet; Mike Babler; Mike Battaglia; Peter Brown; Tony Cheng; Casey Cooley; Dick Edwards; Jonas Feinstein; Paula Fornwalt; Hal Gibbs; Megan Matonis; Kristen Pelz; Claudia Regan

    2014-01-01

    As part of the federal Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program administered by the US Forest Service, the Colorado Front Range Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Project (FR-CFLRP, a collaborative effort of the Front Range Roundtable1 and the US Forest Service) is required to define desired conditions for lower montane ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa...

  1. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  2. Object-oriented classification of forest structure from light detection and ranging data for stand mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia A. Sullivan; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Peter. Schiess

    2009-01-01

    Stand delineation is an important step in the process of establishing a forest inventory and provides the spatial framework for many forest management decisions. Many methods for extracting forest structure characteristics for stand delineation and other purposes have been researched in the past, primarily focusing on high-resolution imagery and satellite data. High-...

  3. Long-term effects of prescribed fire on mixed conifer forest structure in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. Van Mantgem; Nathan L. Stephenson; Eric Knapp; John Barrles; Jon E. Keeley

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of prescribed fire to restore forest conditions is often judged by changes in forest structure within a few years following burning. However, prescribed fire might have longer-term effects on forest structure, potentially changing treatment assessments. We examined annual changes in forest structure in five 1 ha old-growth plots immediately before...

  4. The effects of forest structure on occurrence and abundance of three owl species (Aves: Strigidae in the Central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed G. Barros

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how forest structure affects the occurrence and abundance of three owl species: the crested owl Lophostrix cristata Daudin, 1800, the Amazon pygmy owl Glaucidium hardyi Vielliard, 1990, and the tawny-bellied screech owl Megascops watsonii Cassin, 1849. We surveyed the owls mostly between 07:00 and 11:00 pm from July 2001 to April 2002, in eighteen 8 km transects along trails at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Central Amazon, Brazil. We staked out 50 x 50 m plots where the presence and absence of the owls were recorded. We compared some components of the forest structure between plots where owls were present and plots where they were absent. The spatial variation in these components were related to the occurrence and abundance of the owls using models of multiple logistic and multiple linear regressions analysis, respectively. Lophostrix cristata is rare in many other areas of the Amazon forest, but it was the most abundant in our study area. Lophostrix cristata and G. hardyi were more concentrated along the uplands (central plateau, which divide the reserve into two drainage water-basins. Megascops watsonii was distributed mainly in the southeastern part of the reserve. Glaucidium hardyi was more often found in areas with larger canopy openness. In areas with higher abundance of snags, there was significantly higher occurrence of L. cristata and M. watsonii. Megascops watsonii was also more abundant in areas with higher abundance of forest trees and in areas bearing shallower leaf litter on the forest floor. This study is the first to analyze at large spatial scale the effects of forest structure on neotropical forest top predator nocturnal birds. The results indicate that forest structure can affect the occurrence and abundance of owls in the Amazon forest.

  5. Structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.

    1990-01-01

    Freshwater basin wetlands are found in depressions of various depths, generally in areas where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration or where the depression intersects the water table creating groundwater seeps or springs. Forested basins are those that contain woody vegetation with the potential for reaching tree stature; they do not include woody shrub wetlands. In North America these areas are mainly in the central and eastern region. Pertinent information and reviews on the distribution, floristic composition, structure and dynamics of basin forested wetlands are summarized. The major emphasis is on freshwater wetlands, but data for saltwater wetlands mainly from Florida and tropical America are included. The external factors affecting basin wetlands or the important components of a wetlands energy signature are described as well as the distribution and floristic composition of representative basin wetlands. Sections on structural characteristics, organic matter dynamics, and nutrient cycling comprise the bulk of quantitative information. The effects of disturbances, both natural and human induced, with varying degrees of impact depending upon the intensity and on the part of the ecosystem to which the stressor is applied are evaluated. Examples of stressors in basin wetlands include water impoundment, water diversion, thermal stress from hot water, sedimentation, addition of toxic substances, addition of wastewater, oil spills, and harvesting. 86 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs

  6. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  7. Effects of metals and arsenic on riparian communities in southwest Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, K; Galbraith, H; Lipton, J; Kapustka, L A

    1996-10-01

    : Concentrations of metals and arsenic in floodplain soils of Silver Bow Creek and the upper Clark Fork River in southwest Montana were related to phytotoxic responses by individual plants in laboratory experiments, vegetative community structure and composition in the field and wildlife habitat. Samples collected from barren or very sparsely vegetated mixed mine tailings and alluvium deposits (slickens) in the floodplains along Silver Bow Creek and the Clark Fork River had concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn that were significantly elevated relative to reference sites. Laboratory phytotoxicity tests demonstrated severe and rapid effects of the elevated concentrations of metals and As on hybrid poplar and standard test species (alfalfa, lettuce and wheat): growth inhibition of hybrid poplars was nearly 100% and of standard test species ≥75%. Vegetation community measurements revealed that slickens have replaced riparian forest, shrub, hay fields and pasture land; in doing so, the slickens have reduced both the compositional and structural heterogeneity of the riparian habitat. This reduction in habitat complexity has reduced the capacity of the area to provide a diversity of suitable wildlife habitat.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Populus-Salix stands in a semiarid riparian ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Stutz, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    ??? This study examined the activity, species richness, and species composition of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community of Populus-Salix stands on the Verde River (Arizona, USA), quantified patterns of AMF richness and colonization along complex floodplain gradients, and identified environmental variables responsible for structuring the AMF community. ??? Samples from 61 Populus-Salix stands were analyzed for AMF and herbaceous composition, AMF colonization, gravimetric soil moisture, soil texture, per cent organic matter, pH, and concentrations of nitrate, bicarbonate phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. ??? AMF species richness declined with stand age and distance from and elevation above the channel and was positively related to perennial species cover and richness and gravimetric soil moisture. Distance from and elevation above the active channel, forest age, annual species cover, perennial species richness, and exchangeable potassium concentration all played a role in structuring the AMF community in this riparian area. ??? Most AMF species were found across a wide range of soil conditions, but a subset of species tended to occur more often in hydric areas. This group of riparian affiliate AMF species includes several not previously encountered in the surrounding Sonoran desert. ?? New Phytologist (2006).

  9. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P  0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  10. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  11. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  12. Assessing Riparian Vegetation Condition and Function in Disturbed Sites of the Arid Northwestern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Cornejo-Denman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation or modification of vegetation distribution and structure in arid riparian ecosystems can lead to the loss of ecological function. Mexico has 101,500,000 ha of arid lands, however there is a general lack of information regarding how arid riparian ecosystems are being modified. To assess these modifications, we use eight sites in the San Miguel River (central Sonora to analyze (1 riparian vegetation composition, structure and distribution using field sampling and remote sensing data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV; (2 productivity (proxies, using vegetation indices derived from satellite data; and (3 variability posed by riparian vegetation and vegetation adjacent to riparian habitats. The development of a simple yet informative Anthropogenic-disturbance Index (ADI allowed us to classify and describe each study site. We found sharp differences in vegetation composition and structure between sites due to the absence/presence of obligate-riparian species. We also report significant difference between EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index values for the dry season among vegetation types that develop near the edges of the river but differ in composition, suggesting that land cover changes form obligate-riparian to facultative-riparian species can lead to a loss in potential productivity. Finally, our tests suggest that sites with higher disturbance present lower photosynthetic activity.

  13. Collaborative restoration effects on forest structure in ponderosa pine-dominated forests of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery B. Cannon; Kevin J. Barrett; Benjamin M. Gannon; Robert N. Addington; Mike A. Battaglia; Paula J. Fornwalt; Gregory H. Aplet; Antony S. Cheng; Jeffrey L. Underhill; Jennifer S. Briggs; Peter M. Brown

    2018-01-01

    In response to large, severe wildfires in historically fire-adapted forests in the western US, policy initiatives, such as the USDA Forest Service’s Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), seek to increase the pace and scale of ecological restoration. One required component of this program is collaborative adaptive management, in which monitoring...

  14. Quantifying Boreal Forest Structure and Composition Using UAV Structure from Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Alonzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast extent and inaccessibility of boreal forest ecosystems are barriers to routine monitoring of forest structure and composition. In this research, we bridge the scale gap between intensive but sparse plot measurements and extensive remote sensing studies by collecting forest inventory variables at the plot scale using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV and a structure from motion (SfM approach. At 20 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA subplots in interior Alaska, we acquired overlapping imagery and generated dense, 3D, RGB (red, green, blue point clouds. We used these data to model forest type at the individual crown scale as well as subplot-scale tree density (TD, basal area (BA, and aboveground biomass (AGB. We achieved 85% cross-validation accuracy for five species at the crown level. Classification accuracy was maximized using three variables representing crown height, form, and color. Consistent with previous UAV-based studies, SfM point cloud data generated robust models of TD (r2 = 0.91, BA (r2 = 0.79, and AGB (r2 = 0.92, using a mix of plot- and crown-scale information. Precise estimation of TD required either segment counts or species information to differentiate black spruce from mixed white spruce plots. The accuracy of species-specific estimates of TD, BA, and AGB at the plot scale was somewhat variable, ranging from accurate estimates of black spruce TD (+/−1% and aspen BA (−2% to misallocation of aspen AGB (+118% and white spruce AGB (−50%. These results convey the potential utility of SfM data for forest type discrimination in FIA plots and the remaining challenges to develop classification approaches for species-specific estimates at the plot scale that are more robust to segmentation error.

  15. Mapping forest structure, species gradients and growth in an urban area using lidar and hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huan

    Urban forests play an important role in the urban ecosystem by providing a range of ecosystem services. Characterization of forest structure, species variation and growth in urban forests is critical for understanding the status, function and process of urban ecosystems, and helping maximize the benefits of urban ecosystems through management. The development of methods and applications to quantify urban forests using remote sensing data has lagged the study of natural forests due to the heterogeneity and complexity of urban ecosystems. In this dissertation, I quantify and map forest structure, species gradients and forest growth in an urban area using discrete-return lidar, airborne imaging spectroscopy and thermal infrared data. Specific objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the utility of leaf-off lidar originally collected for topographic mapping to characterize and map forest structure and associated uncertainties, including aboveground biomass, basal area, diameter, height and crown size; (2) to map species gradients using forest structural variables estimated from lidar and foliar functional traits, vegetation indices derived from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery in conjunction with field-measured species data; and (3) to identify factors related to relative growth rates in aboveground biomass in the urban forests, and assess forest growth patterns across areas with varying degree of human interactions. The findings from this dissertation are: (1) leaf-off lidar originally acquired for topographic mapping provides a robust, potentially low-cost approach to quantify spatial patterns of forest structure and carbon stock in urban areas; (2) foliar functional traits and vegetation indices from hyperspectral data capture gradients of species distributions in the heterogeneous urban landscape; (3) species gradients, stand structure, foliar functional traits and temperature are strongly related to forest growth in the urban forests; and (4) high uncertainties in our

  16. Ecological Structure of a Tropical Urban Forest in the Bang Kachao Peninsula, Bangkok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montathip Sommeechai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has changed the structure and function of natural ecosystems, especially floodplain ecosystems in SE Asia. The ecological structure of vegetation stands and the usefulness of satellite images was investigated to characterize a disturbed tropical urban forest located in the Chao Phraya River lower floodplain, Thailand. Nine sample plots were established on the Bang Kachao Peninsula (BKP within 4 tropical forest types in an urban area: rehabilitation forest, home-garden agroforestry, mangrove and park. The tree habitats were beach forest, swamp forest, moist evergreen forest, dry evergreen forest, mangrove forest and abandoned orchard or home-garden. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI values obtained from Landsat 7 satellite images were correlated with plant structure from field surveys. NDVI had the highest relationship with stand factors for number of families, number of species, Shannon-Weiner index and total basal area. Linear regression predicted well the correlation between NDVI and stand factors for families and basal area. NDVI trends reflected urban tropical forest typing and biodiversity, being high in rehabilitation and mangrove forests, moderate in home-gardens and low in parks. We suggest that the application of NDVI for assessments can be useful for future planning, monitoring and management of the BKP and hence may contribute for increasing biodiversity and complexity of these urban forests.

  17. Reconstructing Historical Riparian Conditions of Two River Basins in Eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lynne S.

    2008-09-01

    As land use continues to alter riparian areas, historical information is increasingly needed to help establish reference conditions for monitoring and assessment. I developed and applied a procedure in the John Day and Deschutes river basins of eastern Oregon for synthesizing historical documentary records available across broad spatial areas to reconstruct 19th-century riparian conditions. The study area was stratified by ecoregion and stream physical characteristics to partition regional variability. Three primary data sources—General Land Office survey notes, historical photographs, and written accounts—provided descriptive records, which were grouped by topic to develop common riparian attributes. The number of records for each attribute was tallied by stratum to compare and contrast riparian structure and composition across strata and ecoregions. Detailed descriptions of historical riparian conditions using the original documentary records further illustrated the unique riparian conditions in each stratum. Similarities and differences in historical riparian structure and composition at the stratum and ecoregion levels were evident based on the distributional pattern and numbers of records of attributes across strata. A high number of repeated observations within and among primary data sources helped to corroborate descriptive data. Although these reference data cannot provide the detail needed for rigorous quantitative assessments, they do describe a range of conditions approaching a minimally disturbed condition and provide an important perspective for conducting riparian assessments in highly disturbed regions where least-disturbed reference sites are often poor examples of a desired condition.

  18. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully ... tabulaeformis, the main species of tree for forestation, ... Biomass in different artificial P. tabulaformis stands ..... The change of plant diversity during natural ... elements and stand biomass in forest communities in Hilly Loess.

  19. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  20. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  1. The effects of forest-savanna-grassland gradients on bird communities of Chiquitano Dry Forests domain, in western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Mauricio N; Souza, Edivaldo O DE

    2016-01-01

    Different vegetation types are distributed in mountains according to altitude, topography and soil. The composition and structure of bird communities in these areas can change in relation to the vegetation gradient, with particular communities occupying each habitat type. In this study we present the changes in composition, species richness and bird abundance over the gradient of forests, savannas and altitudinal grasslands of Maciço do Urucum, a mountainous region located in the Chiquitano Dry Forests domain in western Brazil. We recorded 165 bird species through qualitative and quantitative methods. Forested savannas, riparian forests and submontane forests presented the highest richness and abundance of birds, while arboreal savannas and altitudinal grasslands had intermediate and low values, respectively. The bird composition was similar between riparian and submontane forests, while other vegetation types present more dissimilar bird communities. Our results show differences in composition, richness and bird abundance among the vegetation types present at Maciço do Urucum, and highlight an important function of vegetation gradients for the conservation of bird communities in mountains. Additionally, this is the first study of the bird communities in the Brazilian Chiquitano Dry Forests, an important domain in the west of Brazil which has been poorly studied.

  2. Changes in forest structure since 1860 in ponderosa pine dominated forests in the Colorado and Wyoming Front Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike A. Battaglia; Benjamin Gannon; Peter M. Brown; Paula J. Fornwalt; Antony S. Cheng; Laurie S. Huckaby

    2018-01-01

    Management practices since the late 19th century, including fire exclusion and harvesting, have altered the structure of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) dominated forests across the western United States. These structural changes have the potential to contribute to uncharacteristic wildfire behavior and effects. Locally-...

  3. Analysis of the changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in the Black Sea region of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sedat Kele(s); (I)dris Durusoy; Günay Çakir

    2017-01-01

    We used geographical information system to analyze changes in forest ecosystem functions, structure and composition in a typical department of forest man-agement area consisting of four forest management plan-ning units in Turkey. To assess these effects over a 25 year period we compiled data from three forest management plans that were made in 1986, 2001 and 2011. Temporal changes in forest ecosystem functions were estimated based on the three pillars of forest sustainability: eco-nomics, ecology and socio-culture. We assessed a few indicators such as land-use and forest cover, forest types, tree species, development stage, stand age classes, crown closure, growing stock and its increment, and timber bio-mass. The results of the case study suggested a shift in forest values away from economic values toward ecologi-cal and socio-cultural values over last two planning peri-ods. Forest ecosystem structure improved, due mainly to increasing forest area, decreasing non-forest areas (espe-cially in settlement and agricultural areas), forestation on forest openings, rehabilitation of degraded forests, con-version of even-aged forests to uneven-aged forests and conversion of coppice forests to high forests with greater growing stock increments. There were also favorable changes in forest management planning approaches.

  4. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D Rittenhouse

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance.We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States.Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years. Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United

  5. Conservation of forest birds: evidence of a shifting baseline in community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Pidgeon, Anna M; Albright, Thomas P; Culbert, Patrick D; Clayton, Murray K; Flather, Curtis H; Huang, Chengquan; Masek, Jeffrey G; Stewart, Susan I; Radeloff, Volker C

    2010-08-02

    Quantifying changes in forest bird diversity is an essential task for developing effective conservation actions. When subtle changes in diversity accumulate over time, annual comparisons may offer an incomplete perspective of changes in diversity. In this case, progressive change, the comparison of changes in diversity from a baseline condition, may offer greater insight because changes in diversity are assessed over longer periods of times. Our objectives were to determine how forest bird diversity has changed over time and whether those changes were associated with forest disturbance. We used North American Breeding Bird Survey data, a time series of Landsat images classified with respect to land cover change, and mixed-effects models to associate changes in forest bird community structure with forest disturbance, latitude, and longitude in the conterminous United States for the years 1985 to 2006. We document a significant divergence from the baseline structure for all birds of similar migratory habit and nest location, and all forest birds as a group from 1985 to 2006. Unexpectedly, decreases in progressive similarity resulted from small changes in richness (<1 species per route for the 22-year study period) and modest losses in abundance (-28.7 - -10.2 individuals per route) that varied by migratory habit and nest location. Forest disturbance increased progressive similarity for Neotropical migrants, permanent residents, ground nesting, and cavity nesting species. We also documented highest progressive similarity in the eastern United States. Contemporary forest bird community structure is changing rapidly over a relatively short period of time (e.g., approximately 22 years). Forest disturbance and forest regeneration are primary factors associated with contemporary forest bird community structure, longitude and latitude are secondary factors, and forest loss is a tertiary factor. Importantly, these findings suggest some regions of the United States may

  6. Patterns of covariance between forest stand and canopy structure in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew T. Hudak; Warren B. Cohen; S.A. Acker

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, LIDAR (light detection and ranging) has emerged as a powerful tool for remotely sensing forest canopy and stand structure, including the estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Numerous papers have documented the use of LIDAR measurements to predict important aspects of forest stand structure, including aboveground biomass. Other...

  7. Down by the riverside: urban riparian ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Daniel J. Bain; Lawrence E. Band; Kenneth T. Belt; Grace S. Brush; J. Morgan Grove; Richard V. Pouyat; Ian C. Yesilonis; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2003-01-01

    Riparian areas are hotspots of interactions between plants, soil, water, microbes, and people. While urban land use change has been shown to have dramatic effects on watershed hydrology, there has been surprisingly little analysis of its effects on riparian areas. Here we examine the ecology of urban riparian zones, focusing on work done in the Baltimore Ecosystem...

  8. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Quantifying the contribution of riparian soils to the provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sosa, Laura L; Glanville, Helen C; Marshall, Miles R; Prysor Williams, A; Jones, Davey L

    2018-05-15

    Riparian areas, the interface between land and freshwater ecosystems, are considered to play a pivotal role in the supply of regulating, provisioning, cultural and supporting services. Most previous studies, however, have tended to focus on intensive agricultural systems and only on a single ecosystem function. Here, we present the first study which attempts to assess a wide range of ecological processes involved in the provision of the ecosystem service of water quality regulation across a diverse range of riparian typologies. Specifically, we focus on 1) evaluating the spatial variation in riparian soils properties with respect to distance with the river and soil depth in contrasting habitat types; 2) gaining further insights into the underlying mechanisms of pollutant removal (i.e. pesticide sorption/degradation, denitrification, etc.) by riparian soils; and 3) quantify and evaluate how riparian vegetation across different habitat types contribute to the provision of watercourse shading. All the habitats were present within a single large catchment and included: (i) improved grassland, (ii) unimproved (semi-natural) grassland, (iii) broadleaf woodland, (iv) coniferous woodland, and (iv) mountain, heath and bog. Taking all the data together, the riparian soils could be statistically separated by habitat type, providing evidence that they deliver ecosystem services to differing extents. Overall, however, our findings seem to contradict the general assumption that soils in riparian area are different from neighbouring (non-riparian) areas and that they possess extra functionality in terms of ecosystem service provision. Watercourse shading was highly habitat specific and was maximal in forests (ca. 52% shade cover) in comparison to the other habitat types (7-17%). Our data suggest that the functioning of riparian areas in less intensive agricultural areas, such as those studied here, may be broadly predicted from the surrounding land use, however, further research

  10. Characterizing Tropical Forest Structure using Field-based Measurements and a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Ducey, M. J.; Herrick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable components of forest biometric characteristics, one of which is tree architecture. This structural component is important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on statistically significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.87, p information on tropical forest structure.

  11. Monitoring of Forest Structure Dynamics by Means of L-Band SAR Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Cazcarra-Bes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar Tomography (TomoSAR allows the reconstruction of the 3D reflectivity of natural volume scatterers such as forests, thus providing an opportunity to infer structure information in 3D. In this paper, the potential of TomoSAR data at L-band to monitor temporal variations of forest structure is addressed using simulated and experimental datasets. First, 3D reflectivity profiles were extracted by means of TomoSAR reconstruction based on a Compressive Sensing (CS approach. Next, two complementary indices for the description of horizontal and vertical forest structure were defined and estimated by means of the distribution of local maxima of the reconstructed reflectivity profiles. To assess the sensitivity and consistency of the proposed methodology, variations of these indices for different types of forest changes in simulated as well as in real scenarios were analyzed and assessed against different sources of reference data: airborne Lidar measurements, high resolution optical images, and forest inventory data. The forest structure maps obtained indicated the potential to distinguish between different forest stages and the identification of different types of forest structure changes induced by logging, natural disturbance, or forest management.

  12. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  13. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  14. Theory, methods and tools for determining environmental flows for riparian vegetation: Riparian vegetation-flow response guilds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, D.M.; Scott, M.L.; Leroy, Poff N.; Auble, G.T.; Lytle, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian vegetation composition, structure and abundance are governed to a large degree by river flow regime and flow-mediated fluvial processes. Streamflow regime exerts selective pressures on riparian vegetation, resulting in adaptations (trait syndromes) to specific flow attributes. Widespread modification of flow regimes by humans has resulted in extensive alteration of riparian vegetation communities. Some of the negative effects of altered flow regimes on vegetation may be reversed by restoring components of the natural flow regime. 2. Models have been developed that quantitatively relate components of the flow regime to attributes of riparian vegetation at the individual, population and community levels. Predictive models range from simple statistical relationships, to more complex stochastic matrix population models and dynamic simulation models. Of the dozens of predictive models reviewed here, most treat one or a few species, have many simplifying assumptions such as stable channel form, and do not specify the time-scale of response. In many cases, these models are very effective in developing alternative streamflow management plans for specific river reaches or segments but are not directly transferable to other rivers or other regions. 3. A primary goal in riparian ecology is to develop general frameworks for prediction of vegetation response to changing environmental conditions. The development of riparian vegetation-flow response guilds offers a framework for transferring information from rivers where flow standards have been developed to maintain desirable vegetation attributes, to rivers with little or no existing information. 4. We propose to organise riparian plants into non-phylogenetic groupings of species with shared traits that are related to components of hydrologic regime: life history, reproductive strategy, morphology, adaptations to fluvial disturbance and adaptations to water availability. Plants from any river or region may be grouped

  15. Tree Diversity and Structure of Andaman Giant Evergreen Forests, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajkumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated tree diversity in ‘giant evergreen forest’ of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which falls within the Indo-Burma hot spot of biodiversity in the world. A one hectare square plot was established in sites Kalapahad (KP and Macarthy Valley (MV of Middle Andamans, in which all trees ≥ 30 cm girth at breast height (gbh were enumerated. Tree diversity totaled 105 species that belonged to 63 genera and 49 families. Site MV harboured ~10% greater species richness than KP. Species diversity indices did not vary much between the two sites. In the two sites, there were 1311 individuals of trees (579 ha-1 in KP and 732 in MV. The stand basal area was nearly equal in both the sites (KP- 45.59 m2 ha-1; MV- 47.93 m2 ha-1. Thirteen tree species (12.38% were strict endemics to Andamans. Ten species recorded are rare to the flora of these islands. The two sites are distinctly dominated by two different plant families; Dipterocarpaceae in KP and Myristicaceae in MV. Most of the species were common to central and lower region of Myanmar and Indian mainland. The forest stand structure exhibited a typical reverse-J shape, but site MV had double the density of stems in the lower tree size class than that of KP. The voluminous dipterocarps contributed more to the total above-ground live biomass. The need to preserve these species- and endemics- rich, fragile island forests, prioritized for biodiversity conservation, is emphasized.

  16. Forest stand structure, productivity, and age mediate climatic effects on aspen decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Because forest stand structure, age, and productivity can mediate the impacts of climate on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality, ignoring stand-scale factors limits inference on the drivers of recent sudden aspen decline. Using the proportion of aspen trees that were dead as an index of recent mortality at 841 forest inventory plots, we examined the relationship of this mortality index to forest structure and climate in the Rocky Mountains and Intermountain Western United States. We found that forest structure explained most of the patterns in mortality indices, but that variation in growing-season vapor pressure deficit and winter precipitation over the last 20 years was important. Mortality index sensitivity to precipitation was highest in forests where aspen exhibited high densities, relative basal areas, quadratic mean diameters, and productivities, whereas sensitivity to vapor pressure deficit was highest in young forest stands. These results indicate that the effects of drought on mortality may be mediated by forest stand development, competition with encroaching conifers, and physiological vulnerabilities of large trees to drought. By examining mortality index responses to both forest structure and climate, we show that forest succession cannot be ignored in studies attempting to understand the causes and consequences of sudden aspen decline.

  17. Presence of riparian vegetation increases biotic condition of fish assemblages in two Brazilian reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fabio Cop; Souza, Ursulla Pereira; Petrere Junior2, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The riparian vegetation in lakes and reservoirs is source of course wood structures such as trunks and branches and is used as sheltering, spawning and foraging habitats for fishes. The reduction of these submerged structures can thus, affect the composition and structure of fish assemblages in reservoirs. Aim To evaluate the influence of riparian vegetation on the biotic condition of fish assemblage by adapting the Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index (RFAI) to two reservoirs in the Upp...

  18. Patterns of forest phylogenetic community structure across the United States and their possible forest health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Frank H. Koch

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of phylogenetic relationships among co-occurring tree species offers insights into the ecological organization of forest communities from an evolutionary perspective and, when employed regionally across thousands of plots, can assist in forest health assessment. Phylogenetic clustering of species, when species are more closely related than expected by...

  19. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  20. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  1. Insights on Forest Structure and Composition from Long-Term Research in the Luquillo Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2017-01-01

    The science of ecology fundamentally aims to understand species and their relation to the environment. At sites where hurricane disturbance is part of the environmental context, permanent forest plots are critical to understand ecological vegetation dynamics through time. An overview of forest structure and species composition from two of the longest continuously measured tropical forest plots is presented. Long-term measurements, 72 years at the leeward site, and 25 years at windward site, o...

  2. Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Marquardt; Hailemariam Temesgen; Paul D. Anderson; Bianca. Eskelson

    2012-01-01

    Six sampling alternatives were examined for their ability to quantify selected attributes of snags and hardwoods in conifer-dominated riparian areas of managed headwater forests in western Oregon. Each alternative was simulated 500 times at eight headwater forest locations based on a 0.52-ha square stem map. The alternatives were evaluated based on how well they...

  3. Density management and riparian buffer study in Western Oregon: Phase 1 results, launch of phase 2 [brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    Can we expedite the development of late-successional forest conditions by applying thinning treatments to young forest stands? What effect will these thinning treatments have on headwater ecosystems? These broad questions lie at the foundation of the Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study (DMS) of western Oregon.

  4. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S.; Fyllas, N. M.; Baker, T. R.; Paiva, R.; Quesada, C. A.; Santos, A. J. B.; Schwarz, M.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2012-02-01

    Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS) obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species) located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax), seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA), foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx). Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies. Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient concentrations and reductions in foliar [C]. Leaf and leaflet area and ΦLS were less responsive to the environment than ρx. Thus, although genetically determined foliar traits such as those associated with leaf

  5. Thrown object testing of forest machine operator protective structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.E. Taylor; M.W. Veal; R.B. Rummer

    2003-01-01

    High-speed chains or rotating disks are commonly used to cut and process trees during forest harvesting operations. Mechanical failure or fatigue of these tools can lead to a potentially hazardous situation where fragments of chain or sawteeth are thrown through the operator enclosures on forest machines. This poster presentation discusses the development and...

  6. Forecasting Urban Forest Ecosystem Structure, Function, and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. N. Steenberg; Andrew A. Millward; David J. Nowak; Pamela J. Robinson; Alexis Ellis

    2016-01-01

    The benefits derived from urban forest ecosystems are garnering increasing attention in ecological research and municipal planning. However, because of their location in heterogeneous and highly-altered urban landscapes, urban forests are vulnerable and commonly suffer disproportionate and varying levels of stress and disturbance. The objective of this study is to...

  7. Using structural sustainability for forest health monitoring and triage: Case study of a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonusponderosae)-impacted landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan A. Cale; Jennifer G. Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin; Jose F. Negron; John D. Castello

    2016-01-01

    Heavy disturbance-induced mortality can negatively impact forest biota, functions, and services by drastically altering the forest structures that create stable environmental conditions. Disturbance impacts on forest structure can be assessed using structural sustainability - the degree of balance between living and dead portions of a tree population’s size-...

  8. Functional community structure of African monodominant Gilbertiodendron dewevrei forest influenced by local environmental filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Elizabeth; Verbeeck, Hans; Hufkens, Koen; Van de Perre, Frederik; Doetterl, Sebastian; Baert, Geert; Beeckman, Hans; Boeckx, Pascal; Huygens, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Monodominant patches of forest dominated by Gilbertiodendron dewevrei are commonly found in central African tropical forests, alongside forests with high species diversity. Although these forests are generally found sparsely distributed along rivers, their occurrence is not thought to be (clearly) driven by edaphic conditions but rather by trait combinations of G. dewevrei that aid in achieving monodominance. Functional community structure between these monodominant and mixed forests has, however, not yet been compared. Additionally, little is known about nondominant species in the monodominant forest community. These two topics are addressed in this study. We investigate the functional community structure of 10 one-hectare plots of monodominant and mixed forests in a central region of the Congo basin, in DR Congo. Thirteen leaf and wood traits are measured, covering 95% (basal area weighted) of all species present in the plots, including leaf nutrient contents, leaf isotopic compositions, specific leaf area, wood density, and vessel anatomy. The trait-based assessment of G. dewevrei shows an ensemble of traits related to water use and transport that could be favorable for its location near forest rivers. Moreover, indications have been found for N and P limitations in the monodominant forest, possibly related to ectomycorrhizal associations formed with G. dewevrei . Reduced leaf N and P contents are found at the community level for the monodominant forest and for different nondominant groups, as compared to those in the mixed forest. In summary, this work shows that environmental filtering does prevail in the monodominant G. dewevrei forest, leading to lower functional diversity in this forest type, with the dominant species showing beneficial traits related to its common riverine locations and with reduced soil N and P availability found in this environment, both coregulating the tree community assembly.

  9. [Soil meso- and micro-fauna community structures in different urban forest types in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi Ke; Wang, Juan Juan; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang; Zheng, Wen Jing; You, Wen Hui

    2016-07-01

    Soil meso- and micro-fauna of four urban forest types in Shanghai were investigated in four months which include April 2014, July 2014, October 2014 and January 2015. A total of 2190 soil fauna individuals which belong to 6 phyla, 15 classes and 22 groups were collected. The dominant groups were Nematoda and Arcari, accounting for 56.0% and 21.8% of the total in terms of individual numbers respectively. The common groups were Enchytraeidae, Rotatoria, Collembola and Hymenoptera and they accounted for 18.7% of the total in terms of individual numbers. There was a significant difference (PMetasequoia glyptostroboides forest, the smallest in Cinnamomum camphora forest. The largest groupe number was found in near-nature forest, the smallest was found in M. glyptostroboides forest. There was obvious seasonal dynamics in each urban forest type and green space which had larger density in autumn and larger groupe number in summer and autumn. In soil profiles, the degree of surface accumulation of soil meso- and micro-fauna in C. camphora forest was higher than in other forests and the vertical distribution of soil meso- and micro-fauna in near-nature forest was relatively homogeneous in four layers. Density-group index was ranked as: near-nature forest (6.953)> C. camphora forest (6.351)> Platanus forest (6.313)>M. glyptostroboides forest (5.910). The community diversity of soil fauna in each vegetation type could be displayed preferably by this index. It could be inferred through redundancy analysis (RDA) that the soil bulk density, organic matter and total nitrogen were the main environmental factors influencing soil meso- and micro-fauna community structure in urban forest. The positive correlations occurred between the individual number of Arcari, Enchytraeidae and soil organic matter and total nitrogen, as well as between the individual number of Diptera larvae, Rotatoria and soil water content.

  10. Forest structure, stand composition, and climate-growth response in montane forests of Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Schwartz

    Full Text Available Montane forests of western China provide an opportunity to establish baseline studies for climate change. The region is being impacted by climate change, air pollution, and significant human impacts from tourism. We analyzed forest stand structure and climate-growth relationships from Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve in northwestern Sichuan province, along the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau. We conducted a survey to characterize forest stand diversity and structure in plots occurring between 2050 and 3350 m in elevation. We also evaluated seedling and sapling recruitment and tree-ring data from four conifer species to assess: 1 whether the forest appears in transition toward increased hardwood composition; 2 if conifers appear stressed by recent climate change relative to hardwoods; and 3 how growth of four dominant species responds to recent climate. Our study is complicated by clear evidence of 20(th century timber extraction. Focusing on regions lacking evidence of logging, we found a diverse suite of conifers (Pinus, Abies, Juniperus, Picea, and Larix strongly dominate the forest overstory. We found population size structures for most conifer tree species to be consistent with self-replacement and not providing evidence of shifting composition toward hardwoods. Climate-growth analyses indicate increased growth with cool temperatures in summer and fall. Warmer temperatures during the growing season could negatively impact conifer growth, indicating possible seasonal climate water deficit as a constraint on growth. In contrast, however, we found little relationship to seasonal precipitation. Projected warming does not yet have a discernible signal on trends in tree growth rates, but slower growth with warmer growing season climates suggests reduced potential future forest growth.

  11. Stand structure and dead wood characterization in cork forest of Calabria region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreca L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The cork forests are one the most interesting forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean area. Their distribution and ecological characteristics have undergone a significant transformation after the significant changes following the development and establishment of agricultural crops. Currently, only a few stands, which survive in hard to reach places, prove the wide spread distribution of this species was also in the recent past. This study describes the stand structure of some cork forests in Calabria region (southern Italy. In order, to characterize the vertical structure Latham index has been applied, while for the description of the horizontal distribution NBSI group indices has been used. Detailed surveys on dead wood were also conducted determining the occurring volume and its decay stage according to the decay classes system proposed by Hunter. The aim of this study is to provide guidelines for sustainable management of cork forests, improving and promoting the structural complexity and functional efficiency of these forest stands.

  12. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lundström

    Full Text Available A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV, a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1 only considering present values, (2 giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3 applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4 only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for

  13. Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Swedish boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Lena [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    1998-12-31

    The main aim of this work has been to elucidate the species composition and community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with mature trees and naturally regenerated seedlings in natural boreal forests in Sweden. Further, the effects of disturbances, such as wildfire and nitrogen inputs, were studied. Sporocarp surveys, morphological stratification and DNA-based analyses of mycorrhizas were used to describe the mycorrhizal fungal communities. In addition, a reference database useful for identifying individual mycorrhizas was developed based on analyses of sporocarp tissue. Overall, the species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi was at least 30 to 40 times higher than that of their host trees. Naturally regenerated seedlings were colonized by the ectomycorrhizal fungal species present in the mycelial network of the old trees, indicating that the species composition will remain about the same provided that the host does not disappear. Wildfire, disturbing the fungal continuum, caused a shift in the frequencies of ectomycorrhizal fungi rather than a change in species composition. Nitrogen addition did not have any detectable effect on the abundance or species richness of mycorrhizas, but led to a decrease in sporocarp production. In all the studies, there was little resemblance between the species composition of sporocarps and that of mycorrhizas. The ITS-RFLP reference database was very useful in identifying single mycorrhizas, and proved to be a powerful tool for species identification of unknown mycorrhizas 76 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  15. [Distribution pattern of rare plants along riparian zone and its implication for conservation in Shennongjia area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingxi; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Qinghua

    2002-11-01

    Due to the importance of riparian zone in maintaining and protecting regional biodiversity, more and more ecologists paid their attentions to riparian zone, and had been aware of the important effects of riparian zone in basic study and practical management. In this study, forty sampling belts (10 m x 100 m) parallel to the bank of Xiangxi River at different elevations in Shennongjia area were selected to investigate the riparian vegetation and rare plants. Fourteen species of rare plants were found in riparian zone, accounting for 42.4% of total rare plant species in Shennongjia area. The main distribution range of the fourteen rare plant species was the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest at elevation of 1200-1800 m, where species diversity of plant community was the maximum at the moderate elevation. Fourteen rare plant species could be divided into three groups against the elevation, namely low elevation species group, moderate elevation species group, and high elevation group. In the paper, the authors discussed the reasons forming the distribution pattern of rare plant species, and pointed out the important function of riparian zone on rare plant species protection.

  16. Mapping urban forest structure and function using hyperspectral imagery and lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Alonzo; Joseph P. McFadden; David J. Nowak; Dar A. Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Cities measure the structure and function of their urban forest resource to optimize forest managementand the provision of ecosystem services. Measurements made using plot sampling methods yield useful results including citywide or land-use level estimates of species counts, leaf area, biomass, and air pollution reduction. However, these quantities are statistical...

  17. Estimating Canopy Structure in an Amazon Forest from Laser Range Finder and IKONOS Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Michael Palace; Michael Keller; Rodrigo Pereira Jr.; Jose N. M. Silva; Johan C. Zweede

    2002-01-01

    Canopy structural data can be used for biomass estimation and studies of carbon cycling, disturbance, energy balance, and hydrological processes in tropical forest ecosystems. Scarce information on canopy dimensions reflects the difficulties associated with measuring crown height, width, depth, and area in tall, humid tropical forests. New field and spaceborne...

  18. Simulated nitrogen deposition affects community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in northern hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda T.A. Van Diepen; Erik Lilleskov; Kurt S. Pregitzer

    2011-01-01

    Our previous investigation found elevated nitrogen deposition caused declines in abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with forest trees, but little is known about how nitrogen affects the AMF community composition and structure within forest ecosystems. We hypothesized that N deposition would lead to significant changes in the AMF community...

  19. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest...

  20. Insights on Forest Structure and Composition from Long-Term Research in the Luquillo Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2017-01-01

    The science of ecology fundamentally aims to understand species and their relation to the environment. At sites where hurricane disturbance is part of the environmental context, permanent forest plots are critical to understand ecological vegetation dynamics through time. An overview of forest structure and species composition from two of the longest continuously...

  1. Disturbance and productivity interactions mediate stability of forest composition and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher D. O' Connor; Donald A. Falk; Ann M. Lynch; Thomas W. Swetnam; Craig P. Wilcox

    2017-01-01

    Fire is returning to many conifer-dominated forests where species composition and structure have been altered by fire exclusion. Ecological effects of these fires are influenced strongly by the degree of forest change during the fire-free period. Response of fire-adapted species assemblages to extended fire-free intervals is highly variable, even in communities with...

  2. Remotely sensed measurements of forest structure and fuel loads in the Pinelands of New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Skowronski; Kenneth Clark; Ross Nelson; John Hom; Matt Patterson

    2007-01-01

    We used a single-beam, first return profiling LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements of canopy height, intensive biometric measurements in plots, and Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to quantify forest structure and ladder fuels (defined as vertical fuel continuity between the understory and canopy) in the New Jersey Pinelands. The LIDAR data were...

  3. Great Basin Research and Management Project: Restoring and maintaining riparian ecosystem integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers

    2000-01-01

    The Great Basin Research and Management Project was initiated in 1994 by the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station’s Ecology, Paleoecology, and Restoration of Great Basin Watersheds Project to address the problems of stream incision and riparian ecosystem degradation in central Nevada. It is a highly interdisciplinary project that is being conducted in...

  4. The riparian ecosystem management study: response of small mammals to streamside buffers in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin G. Raphael; Randall J. Wilk

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts behind the conservation strategy in the U.S. federal Northwest Forest Plan is the importance of habitat buff ers in providing functional stream and streamside ecosystems. To better understand the importance of riparian buff ers in providing habitat for associated organisms, we investigated responses of small mammals to various streamside...

  5. Riparian influences on the biophysical characteristics of seston in headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Elliott; Robert J. Naiman; Peter A. Bisson

    2004-01-01

    Suspended particles (seston) in streams are an important source of nutrition for many invertebrates, forming a strong trophic link between plant and animal production. In forested regions the management of riparian corridors may alter alloehthonous and autochthonous contributions to streams, ultimately changing the biophysical characteristics of seston. This article...

  6. High temporal resolution photography for observing riparian area use and grazing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, a 2.4 hectare site within the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in northeastern Arizona, USA was selected to characterize temporal and spatial patterns of riparian area use. Three consecutive 30, 8, and 46 day time periods representing 1) unrestricted access, 2) prescribed cattle use, and 3...

  7. Riparian ecotone: A functional definition and delineation for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. S Verry; C. A Dolloff; M. E. Manning

    2004-01-01

    We propose a geomorphic basis for defining riparian areas using the term: riparian ecotone, discuss how past definitions fall short, and illustrate how a linked sequence of definition, delineation, and riparian sampling are used to accurately assess riparian resources on the ground. Our riparian ecotone is based on the width of the valley (its floodprone area width)...

  8. Logging impacts on forest structure and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera (Fabaceae) dominated tropical rain forest (Talamanca, Costa Rica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar J; Rocha, Oscar J

    2014-03-01

    The factors that determine the existence of tropical forests dominated by a single species (monodominated forests) have been the subject of debate for a long time. It has been hypothesized that the low frequency of disturbances in monodominated forests and the tolerance to shade of the monodominant species are two important factors explaining the prolonged dominance of a single species. We determined the role of these two factors by examining the effects of logging activities on the floristic composition and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera dominated forest in Southeastern Costa Rica. We determined the floristic composition for trees > or = 2.5cm DBH and the associated recruitment, survival and mortality of tree canopy seedlings in two sites logged two (L-02) and 12 years (L-12) prior to sampling and an unlogged forest (ULF). Our results showed that L-02 stands had lower species richness (25 species) than the L-12 and ULF stands (49 and 46 species, respectively). As expected, we found significant logging effects on the canopy structure of the altered forests, particularly when comparing the L-02 and the ULF stands. Seedling density was higher in ULF (0.96 seedlings/ m2) than in the L-02 and L-12 stands (0.322 and 0.466 seedlings/m2, respectively). However, seedling mortality was higher in the ULF stands (54%) than in the L-02 (26%) and L-12 (15%) stands. P. macroloba in L-02 was the only species with abundant regeneration under P. copaifera in L-02 stand, where it accounted for 35% of the seedlings. Despite the reduction in seedling abundance observed after logging, P. copaifera seems to maintain large seedling populations in these forests, suggesting that this species maintains its dominance after logging disturbances. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that the regeneration of monodominant species is not likely to occur under heavily disturbed canopy conditions.

  9. Logging impacts on forest structure and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera (Fabaceae dominated tropical rain forest (Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J. Valverde-Barrantes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The factors that determine the existence of tropical forests dominated by a single species (monodominated forests have been the subject of debate for a long time. It has been hypothesized that the low frequency of disturbances in monodominated forests and the tolerance to shade of the monodominant species are two important factors explaining the prolonged dominance of a single species. We determined the role of these two factors by examining the effects of logging activities on the floristic composition and seedling dynamics in a Prioria copaifera dominated forest in Southeastern Costa Rica. We determined the floristic composition for trees ≥2.5cm DBH and the associated recruitment, survival and mortality of tree canopy seedlings in two sites logged two (L-02 and 12 years (L-12 prior to sampling and an unlogged forest (ULF. Our results showed that L-02 stands had lower species richness (25 species than the L-12 and ULF stands (49 and 46 species, respectively. As expected, we found significant logging effects on the canopy structure of the altered forests, particularly when comparing the L-02 and the ULF stands. Seedling density was higher in ULF (0.96 seedlings/m² than in the L-02and L-12 stands (0.322 and 0.466 seedlings/m², respectively. However, seedling mortality was higher in the ULF stands (54% than in the L-02 (26% and L-12 (15% stands. P. macroloba in L-02 was the only species with abundant regeneration under P. copaifera in L-02 stand, where it accounted for 35% of the seedlings. Despite the reduction in seedling abundance observed after logging, P. copaifera seems to maintain large seedling populations in these forests, suggesting that this species maintains its dominance after logging disturbances. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that the regeneration of monodominant species is not likely to occur under heavily disturbed canopy conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1: 347-357. Epub 2014 March 01.

  10. Traditional silvopastoral management and its effects on forest stand structure in northern Zagros, Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valipour, Ahmad; Plieninger, Tobias; Shakeri, Zahed

    2014-01-01

    and to investigate the effects of these practices on forest stand structure. To understand how the traditional forest management system works, empirical survey methods, in particular face to face interviews and participation in traditional practices have been employed. In general, local livelihoods depend on three......Oak forests of Iran are managed for soil conservation, water quality and other non-market ecosystem services. Nationalization policies in 1963 implied shifts from private ownership and informal traditional management to public ownership and state forest management. In spite of the nationalization......, informal practices and conventional ownership have been continued which has caused considerable conflicts between local people and the state forest administration. The aim of the study was to systematically gather the components of traditional silvopastoral management in these oak forests...

  11. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 03: visualizing forest structure and fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The software described in this fact sheet provides managers with tools for visualizing forest and fuels information. Computer-based landscape simulations can help visualize stand and landscape conditions and the effects of different management treatments and fuel changes over time. These visualizations can assist forest planning by considering a range of management...

  12. A comparison of photointerpretation and ground measurements of forest structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biging, G.S.; Congalton, R.G.; Murphy, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    Traditional forest inventory methods are compared with photointerpreted results. The accuracy of photointerpretation for forest-type classification is assessed in test locations in northern California. If the accuracy of photointerpretation is not sufficiently high, then the traditional practice of comparing satellite classification to photointerpretation is not justified. If this hypothesis is true, it is speculated that spectral analysis of advanced digital satellite data (SPOT and TM) can be used in conjunction with ancillary ground data to produce forest classifications of the same or better accuracy than by traditional photointerpretation techniques. Results of the accuracy assessment of three levels of classification - species, size class, and density - are presented in tables. 5 refs

  13. Fragmentation increases wind disturbance impacts on forest structure and carbon stocks in a western Amazonian landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Naomi B; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Bedka, Kristopher M; Fernandes, Katia; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel A

    2017-09-01

    Tropical second-growth forests could help mitigate climate change, but the degree to which their carbon potential is achieved will depend on exposure to disturbance. Wind disturbance is common in tropical forests, shaping structure, composition, and function, and influencing successional trajectories. However, little is known about the impacts of extreme winds on second-growth forests in fragmented landscapes, though these ecosystems are often located in mosaics of forest, pasture, cropland, and other land cover types. Indirect evidence suggests that fragmentation increases risk of wind damage in tropical forests, but no studies have found such impacts following severe storms. In this study, we ask whether fragmentation and forest type (old vs. second growth) were associated with variation in wind damage after a severe convective storm in a fragmented production landscape in western Amazonia. We applied linear spectral unmixing to Landsat 8 imagery from before and after the storm, and combined it with field observations of damage to map wind effects on forest structure and biomass. We also used Landsat 8 imagery to map land cover with the goals of identifying old- and second-growth forest and characterizing fragmentation. We used these data to assess variation in wind disturbance across 95,596 ha of forest, distributed over 6,110 patches. We find that fragmentation is significantly associated with wind damage, with damage severity higher at forest edges and in edgier, more isolated patches. Damage was also more severe in old-growth than in second-growth forests, but this effect was weaker than that of fragmentation. These results illustrate the importance of considering landscape context in planning tropical forest restoration and natural regeneration projects. Assessments of long-term carbon sequestration potential need to consider spatial variation in disturbance exposure. Where risk of extreme winds is high, minimizing fragmentation and isolation could increase

  14. Floristic structure and biomass distribution of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmughavel, P.; Zheng Zheng; Sha Liqing; Cao Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China). Dept. of Forest Ecology

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study the forest community structure, tree species diversity and biomass production of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. The community structure showed a diversified species composition and supported many species of economic significance. This tropical rain forest in closely related to Malaysian forests. The biomass and its distribution were studied using standard regression analysis and the clear-cut method for shrubs and herbs. The total biomass was 360.9 t/ha and its allocation in different layers was: tree layer 352.5 t/ha, shrub layer 4.7 t/ha, liana 3.1 t/ha and herb layer 0.5 t/ha. Most of the biomass was concentrated in the trees: stem 241.2 t/ha, root 69.6 t/ha, branch 37.2 t/ha and leaves 4.3 t/ha. The DBH class allocation of the tree biomass was concentrated in the middle DBH class. The biomass of six DBH classes from 20 to 80 cm was 255.4 t/ha. There are twenty-six species with biomass over 0.5% of the total biomass of the tree layer, and three species with biomass over 5%, i.e., Pometia tomentosa, Barringtonia macrostachya (5.4%) and Terminalia myriocarpa (5.2%). Data on stem, branch, leaves and root of the individual tree species were used to develop regression models. D{sup 2}H was found to be the best estimator of the biomass in this tropical rain forest. However, higher biomass figures have been reported from tropical forests elsewhere e.g., 415-520 t/ha in the tropical forests of Cambodia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests, and the tropical moist logged moist evergreen-high, medium, and low yield forests of Sri Lanka. In some forests, lower accumulation of biomass was reported, e.g., 10-295 t/ha in the tropical moist forests of Bangladesh, the tropical moist dense forest of Cambodia, the tropical dry forests of India, the tropical moist forests of Peninsular-Malaysia, the tropical moist mixed dipterocarp forests of Sarawak-Malaysia, the tropical evergreen forests of

  15. Remnant trees affect species composition but not structure of tropical second-growth forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Manette E; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2-3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests ("control plots"). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields.

  16. Seasonal estimates of riparian evapotranspiration using remote and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D.C.; Scott, R.; Qi, J.; Goff, B.; Unkrich, C.L.; Moran, M.S.; Williams, D.; Schaeffer, S.; Snyder, K.; MacNish, R.; Maddock, T.; Pool, D.; Chehbouni, A.; Cooper, D.I.; Eichinger, W.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Kerr, Y.; Marsett, R.; Ni, W.

    2000-01-01

    In many semi-arid basins during extended periods when surface snowmelt or storm runoff is absent, groundwater constitutes the primary water source for human habitation, agriculture and riparian ecosystems. Utilizing regional groundwater models in the management of these water resources requires accurate estimates of basin boundary conditions. A critical groundwater boundary condition that is closely coupled to atmospheric processes and is typically known with little certainty is seasonal riparian evapotranspiration ET). This quantity can often be a significant factor in the basin water balance in semi-arid regions yet is very difficult to estimate over a large area. Better understanding and quantification of seasonal, large-area riparian ET is a primary objective of the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program. To address this objective, a series of interdisciplinary experimental Campaigns were conducted in 1997 in the San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona. The riparian system in this basin is primarily made up of three vegetation communities: mesquite (Prosopis velutina), sacaton grasses (Sporobolus wrightii), and a cottonwood (Populus fremontii)/willow (Salix goodingii) forest gallery. Micrometeorological measurement techniques were used to estimate ET from the mesquite and grasses. These techniques could not be utilized to estimate fluxes from the cottonwood/willow (C/W) forest gallery due to the height (20-30 m) and non-uniform linear nature of the forest gallery. Short-term (2-4 days) sap flux measurements were made to estimate canopy transpiration over several periods of the riparian growing season. Simultaneous remote sensing measurements were used to spatially extrapolate tree and stand measurements. Scaled C/W stand level sap flux estimates were utilized to calibrate a Penman-Monteith model to enable temporal extrapolation between Synoptic measurement periods. With this model and set of measurements, seasonal riparian vegetation water use

  17. LBA-ECO TG-07 Forest Structure Measurements for GLAS Validation: Santarem 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of a GLAS (the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) forest structure validation survey conducted in Santarem and Sao Jorge, Para...

  18. Composition and Structure of Forest Fire Refugia: What Are the Ecosystem Legacies across Burned Landscapes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett W. Meigs

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Locations within forest fires that remain unburned or burn at low severity—known as fire refugia—are important components of contemporary burn mosaics, but their composition and structure at regional scales are poorly understood. Focusing on recent, large wildfires across the US Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington, our research objectives are to (1 classify fire refugia and burn severity based on relativized spectral change in Landsat time series; (2 quantify the pre-fire composition and structure of mapped fire refugia; (3 in forested areas, assess the relative abundance of fire refugia and other burn severity classes across forest composition and structure types. We analyzed a random sample of 99 recent fires in forest-dominated landscapes from 2004 to 2015 that collectively encompassed 612,629 ha. Across the region, fire refugia extent was substantial but variable from year to year, with an annual mean of 38% of fire extent and range of 15–60%. Overall, 85% of total fire extent was forested, with the other 15% being non-forest. In comparison, 31% of fire refugia extent was non-forest prior to the most recent fire, highlighting that mapped refugia do not necessarily contain tree-based ecosystem legacies. The most prevalent non-forest cover types in refugia were vegetated: shrub (40%, herbaceous (33%, and crops (18%. In forested areas, the relative abundance of fire refugia varied widely among pre-fire forest types (20–70% and structural conditions (23–55%. Consistent with fire regime theory, fire refugia and high burn severity areas were inversely proportional. Our findings underscore that researchers, managers, and other stakeholders should interpret burn severity maps through the lens of pre-fire land cover, especially given the increasing importance of fire and fire refugia under global change.

  19. How do riparian woody seedlings survive seasonal drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, John C; Battles, John J

    2010-11-01

    In semi-arid regions, a major population limitation for riparian trees is seedling desiccation during the dry season that follows annual spring floods. We investigated the stress response of first-year pioneer riparian seedlings to experimental water table declines (0, 1 and 3 cm day(-1)), focusing on the three dominant cottonwood and willows (family Salicaceae) in California's San Joaquin Basin. We analyzed growth and belowground allocation response to water stress, and used logistic regression to determine if these traits had an influence on individual survival. The models indicate that high root growth (>3 mm day(-1)) and low shoot:root ratios (water-use efficiency for surviving water stress. Both S. gooddingii and sandbar willow (S. exigua) reduced leaf size from controls, whereas Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) sustained a 29% reduction in specific leaf area (from 13.4 to 9.6 m(2) kg(-1)). The functional responses exhibited by Goodding's willow, the more drought-tolerant species, may play a role in its greater relative abundance in dry regions such as the San Joaquin Basin. This study highlights the potential for a shift in riparian forest composition. Under a future drier climate regime or under reduced regulated river flows, our results suggest that willow establishment will be favored over cottonwood.

  20. Object-based semi-automatic approach for forest structure characterization using lidar data in heterogeneous Pinus sylvestris stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Pascual; A. Garcia-Abril; L.G. Garcia-Montero; S. Martin-Fernandez; W.B. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two-stage approach for characterizing the structure of Pinus sylvestris L. stands in forests of central Spain. The first stage was to delimit forest stands using eCognition and a digital canopy height model (DCHM) derived from lidar data. The polygons were then clustered into forest structure types based on the DCHM data...

  1. Structure and development of old-growth, unmanaged second-growth, and extended rotation Pinus resinosa forests in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Silver; Anthony W. D' Amato; Shawn Fraver; Brian J. Palik; John B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    The structure and developmental dynamics of old-growth forests often serve as important baselines for restoration prescriptions aimed at promoting more complex structural conditions in managed forest landscapes. Nonetheless, long-term information on natural patterns of development is rare for many commercially important and ecologically widespread forest types....

  2. Coordination of physiological and structural traits in Amazon forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Patiño

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many plant traits covary in a non-random manner reflecting interdependencies associated with "ecological strategy" dimensions. To understand how plants integrate their structural and physiological investments, data on leaf and leaflet size and the ratio of leaf area to sapwood area (ΦLS obtained for 1020 individual trees (encompassing 661 species located in 52 tropical forest plots across the Amazon Basin were incorporated into an analysis utilising existing data on species maximum height (Hmax, seed size, leaf mass per unit area (MA, foliar nutrients and δ13C, and branch xylem density (ρx.

    Utilising a common principal components approach allowing eigenvalues to vary between two soil fertility dependent species groups, five taxonomically controlled trait dimensions were identified. The first involves primarily cations, foliar carbon and MA and is associated with differences in foliar construction costs. The second relates to some components of the classic "leaf economic spectrum", but with increased individual leaf areas and a higher ΦLS newly identified components for tropical tree species. The third relates primarily to increasing Hmax and hence variations in light acquisition strategy involving greater MA, reductions in ΦLS and less negative δ13C. Although these first three dimensions were more important for species from high fertility sites the final two dimensions were more important for low fertility species and were associated with variations linked to reproductive and shade tolerance strategies.

    Environmental conditions influenced structural traits with ρx of individual species decreasing with increased soil fertility and higher temperatures. This soil fertility response appears to be synchronised with increases in foliar nutrient

  3. Episodic Canopy Structural Transformations and Biological Invasion in a Hawaiian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. Balzotti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The remaining native forests on the Hawaiian Islands have been recognized as threatened by changing climate, increasing insect outbreak, new deadly pathogens, and growing populations of canopy structure-altering invasive species. The objective of this study was to assess long-term, net changes to upper canopy structure in sub-montane forests on the eastern slope of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawai‘i, in the context of continuing climate events, insect outbreaks, and biological invasion. We used high-resolution multi-temporal Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data to quantify near-decadal net changes in forest canopy height and gap distributions at a critical transition between alien invaded lowland and native sub-montane forest at the end of a recent drought and host-specific insect (Scotorythra paludicola outbreak. We found that sub-montane forests have experienced a net loss in average canopy height, and therefore structure and aboveground carbon stock. Additionally, where invasive alien tree species co-dominate with native trees, the upper canopy structure became more homogeneous. Tracking the loss of forest canopy height and spatial variation with airborne LiDAR is a cost-effective way to monitor forest canopy health, and to track and quantify ecological impacts of invasive species through space and time.

  4. Regional-Scale Drivers of Forest Structure and Function in Northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mark A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Anderson, Christopher B.; Martin, Roberta E.; Knapp, David E.; Tupayachi, Raul; Perez, Eneas; Elespuru, Nydia; Alonso, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared) imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest. PMID:25793602

  5. Regional-scale drivers of forest structure and function in northwestern Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Higgins

    Full Text Available Field studies in Amazonia have found a relationship at continental scales between soil fertility and broad trends in forest structure and function. Little is known at regional scales, however, about how discrete patterns in forest structure or functional attributes map onto underlying edaphic or geological patterns. We collected airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data and VSWIR (Visible to Shortwave Infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements over 600 km2 of northwestern Amazonian lowland forests. We also established 83 inventories of plant species composition and soil properties, distributed between two widespread geological formations. Using these data, we mapped forest structure and canopy reflectance, and compared them to patterns in plant species composition, soils, and underlying geology. We found that variations in soils and species composition explained up to 70% of variation in canopy height, and corresponded to profound changes in forest vertical profiles. We further found that soils and plant species composition explained more than 90% of the variation in canopy reflectance as measured by imaging spectroscopy, indicating edaphic and compositional control of canopy chemical properties. We last found that soils explained between 30% and 70% of the variation in gap frequency in these forests, depending on the height threshold used to define gaps. Our findings indicate that a relatively small number of edaphic and compositional variables, corresponding to underlying geology, may be responsible for variations in canopy structure and chemistry over large expanses of Amazonian forest.

  6. Developing rapid methods for analyzing upland riparian functions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity. These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to information on functions and values, regulators have very specific needs that include: an analysis at the site scale, low cost, usability, and inclusion of policy interpretations. To meet these needs a rapid method has been developed that uses a multi-criteria decision matrix to categorize riparian areas in Washington State, USA. Indicators are used to identify the potential of the site to provide a function, the potential of the landscape to support the function, and the value the function provides to society. To meet legal needs fixed boundaries for assessment units are established based on geomorphology, the distance from "Ordinary High Water Mark" and different categories of land uses. Assessment units are first classified based on ecoregions, geomorphic characteristics, and land uses. This simplifies the data that need to be collected at a site, but it requires developing and calibrating a separate model for each "class." The approach to developing methods is adaptable to other locations as its basic structure is not dependent on local conditions.

  7. Changes in Mauna Kea Dry Forest Structure 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Brinck, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the structure of the subalpine vegetation of Palila Critical Habitat on the southwestern slope of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai‘i, were analyzed using 12 metrics of change in māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) and naio (Myoporum sandwicense) trees surveyed on plots in 2000 and 2014. These two dominant species were analyzed separately, and changes in their structure indicated changes in the forest’s health. There was a significant increase in māmane minimum crown height (indicating a higher ungulate “browse line”), canopy area, canopy volume, percentage of trees with ungulate damage, and percentage of dead trees. No significant changes were observed in māmane maximum crown height, proportion of plots with trees, sapling density, proportion of plots with saplings, or the height distribution of trees. The only significant positive change was for māmane tree density. Significantly negative changes were observed for naio minimum crown height, tree height, canopy area, canopy volume, and percentage of dead trees. No significant changes were observed in naio tree density, proportion of plots with trees, proportion of plots with saplings, or percentage of trees with ungulate damage. Significantly positive changes were observed in naio sapling density and the height distribution of trees. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of māmane vs. naio trees in the survey area. The survey methods did not allow us to distinguish among potential factors driving these changes for metrics other than the percentage of trees with ungulate damage. Continued ungulate browsing and prolonged drought are likely the factors contributing most to the observed changes in vegetation, but tree disease or insect infestation of māmane, or naio, and competition from alien grasses and other weeds could also be causing or exacerbating the impacts to the forest. Although māmane tree density has increased since 2000, this study also demonstrates that efforts by managers

  8. Temperate forest impacts on maritime snowpacks across an elevation gradient: An assessment of the snow surface energy balance and airborne lidar derived forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, T. R.; Nolin, A. W.

    2016-12-01

    Temperate forests modify snow evolution patterns both spatially and temporally relative to open areas. Dense, warm forests both impede snow accumulation through increased canopy snow interception and increase sub-canopy longwave energy inputs onto the snow surface. These process modifications vary in magnitude and duration depending on climatic, topographic and forest characteristics. Here we present results from a four year study of paired forested and open sites at three elevations, Low - 1150 m, Mid - 1325 m and High - 1465 m. Snowpacks are deeper and last up to 3-4 weeks longer at the Low and Mid elevation Open sites relative to the adjacent Forest sites. Conversely, at the High Forest site, snow is retained 2-4 weeks longer than the Open site. This change in snowpack depth and persistence is attributed to deposition patterns at higher elevations and forest structure differences that alter the canopy interception efficiency and the sub-canopy energy balance. Canopy interception efficiency (CIE) in the Low and Mid Forest sites, over the duration of the study were 79% and 76% of the total event snowfall, whereas CIE was 31% at the High Forest site. Longwave radiation in forested environments is the primary energy component across each elevation band due to the warm winter environment and forest presence, accounting for 82%, 88%, and 59% of the energy balance at the Low, Mid, and High Forest sites, respectively. High wind speeds in the High elevation Open site significantly increases the turbulent energy and creates preferential snowfall deposition in the nearby Forest site. These results show the importance of understanding the effects of forest cover on sub-canopy snowpack evolution and highlight the need for improved forest cover model representation to accurately predict water resources in maritime forests.

  9. Predicting temperate forest stand types using only structural profiles from discrete return airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedrigo, Melissa; Newnham, Glenn J.; Coops, Nicholas C.; Culvenor, Darius S.; Bolton, Douglas K.; Nitschke, Craig R.

    2018-02-01

    Light detection and ranging (lidar) data have been increasingly used for forest classification due to its ability to penetrate the forest canopy and provide detail about the structure of the lower strata. In this study we demonstrate forest classification approaches using airborne lidar data as inputs to random forest and linear unmixing classification algorithms. Our results demonstrated that both random forest and linear unmixing models identified a distribution of rainforest and eucalypt stands that was comparable to existing ecological vegetation class (EVC) maps based primarily on manual interpretation of high resolution aerial imagery. Rainforest stands were also identified in the region that have not previously been identified in the EVC maps. The transition between stand types was better characterised by the random forest modelling approach. In contrast, the linear unmixing model placed greater emphasis on field plots selected as endmembers which may not have captured the variability in stand structure within a single stand type. The random forest model had the highest overall accuracy (84%) and Cohen's kappa coefficient (0.62). However, the classification accuracy was only marginally better than linear unmixing. The random forest model was applied to a region in the Central Highlands of south-eastern Australia to produce maps of stand type probability, including areas of transition (the 'ecotone') between rainforest and eucalypt forest. The resulting map provided a detailed delineation of forest classes, which specifically recognised the coalescing of stand types at the landscape scale. This represents a key step towards mapping the structural and spatial complexity of these ecosystems, which is important for both their management and conservation.

  10. Riparian Habitat Management for Mammals on Corps of Engineers Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Chester

    2002-01-01

    .... This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian ecosystems to mammals, discusses regional variation in mammal communities characteristic of riparian zones, identifies potential impacts...

  11. Forest Structure Affects Soil Mercury Losses in the Presence and Absence of Wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Peter S; Darbyshire, Robyn L; Bormann, Bernard T; Morrissette, Brett A

    2015-11-03

    Soil is an important, dynamic component of regional and global mercury (Hg) cycles. This study evaluated how changes in forest soil Hg masses caused by atmospheric deposition and wildfire are affected by forest structure. Pre and postfire soil Hg measurements were made over two decades on replicate experimental units of three prefire forest structures (mature unthinned, mature thinned, clear-cut) in Douglas-fir dominated forest of southwestern Oregon. In the absence of wildfire, O-horizon Hg decreased by 60% during the 14 years after clearcutting, possibly the result of decreased atmospheric deposition due to the smaller-stature vegetative canopy; in contrast, no change was observed in mature unthinned and thinned forest. Wildfire decreased O-horizon Hg by >88% across all forest structures and decreased mineral-soil (0 to 66 mm depth) Hg by 50% in thinned forest and clear-cut. The wildfire-associated soil Hg loss was positively related to the amount of surface fine wood that burned during the fire, the proportion of area that burned at >700 °C, fire severity as indicated by tree mortality, and soil C loss. Loss of soil Hg due to the 200,000 ha wildfire was more than four times the annual atmospheric Hg emissions from human activities in Oregon.

  12. Amazonian landscapes and the bias in field studies of forest structure and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, David C; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Anderson, Christopher B; Martin, Roberta E; Sinca, Felipe; Tupayachi, Raul

    2014-12-02

    Tropical forests convert more atmospheric carbon into biomass each year than any terrestrial ecosystem on Earth, underscoring the importance of accurate tropical forest structure and biomass maps for the understanding and management of the global carbon cycle. Ecologists have long used field inventory plots as the main tool for understanding forest structure and biomass at landscape-to-regional scales, under the implicit assumption that these plots accurately represent their surrounding landscape. However, no study has used continuous, high-spatial-resolution data to test whether field plots meet this assumption in tropical forests. Using airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) acquired over three regions in Peru, we assessed how representative a typical set of field plots are relative to their surrounding host landscapes. We uncovered substantial mean biases (9-98%) in forest canopy structure (height, gaps, and layers) and aboveground biomass in both lowland Amazonian and montane Andean landscapes. Moreover, simulations reveal that an impractical number of 1-ha field plots (from 10 to more than 100 per landscape) are needed to develop accurate estimates of aboveground biomass at landscape scales. These biases should temper the use of plots for extrapolations of forest dynamics to larger scales, and they demonstrate the need for a fundamental shift to high-resolution active remote sensing techniques as a primary sampling tool in tropical forest biomass studies. The potential decrease in the bias and uncertainty of remotely sensed estimates of forest structure and biomass is a vital step toward successful tropical forest conservation and climate-change mitigation policy.

  13. Composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest respond to spatial climatic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingli; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Guangsheng; Xiao, Chunwang

    2014-01-01

    Although some studies have indicated that climate changes can affect Pinus koraiensis mixed forest, the responses of composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forests to climatic changes are unknown and the key climatic factors controlling the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest are uncertain. Field survey was conducted in the natural Pinus koraiensis mixed forests along a latitudinal gradient and an elevational gradient in Northeast China. In order to build the mathematical models for simulating the relationships of compositional and structural attributes of the Pinus koraiensis mixed forest with climatic and non-climatic factors, stepwise linear regression analyses were performed, incorporating 14 dependent variables and the linear and quadratic components of 9 factors. All the selected new models were computed under the +2°C and +10% precipitation and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenarios. The Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month were observed to be key climatic factors controlling the stand densities and total basal areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Increased summer temperatures and precipitations strongly enhanced the stand densities and total basal areas of broadleaf trees but had little effect on Pinus koraiensis under the +2°C and +10% precipitation scenario and +4°C and +10% precipitation scenario. These results show that the Max Temperature of Warmest Month, Mean Temperature of Warmest Quarter and Precipitation of Wettest Month are key climatic factors which shape the composition and structure of Pinus koraiensis mixed forest. Although the Pinus koraiensis would persist, the current forests dominated by Pinus koraiensis in the region would all shift and become broadleaf-dominated forests due to the dramatic increase of broadleaf trees under the future global warming and increased precipitation.

  14. Landscape-scale changes in forest canopy structure across a partially logged tropical peat swamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedeux, B. M. M.; Coomes, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forest canopy structure is strongly influenced by environmental factors and disturbance, and in turn influences key ecosystem processes including productivity, evapotranspiration and habitat availability. In tropical forests increasingly modified by human activities, the interplay between environmental factors and disturbance legacies on forest canopy structure across landscapes is practically unexplored. We used airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to measure the canopy of old-growth and selectively logged peat swamp forest across a peat dome in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, and quantified how canopy structure metrics varied with peat depth and under logging. Several million canopy gaps in different height cross-sections of the canopy were measured in 100 plots of 1 km2 spanning the peat dome, allowing us to describe canopy structure with seven metrics. Old-growth forest became shorter and had simpler vertical canopy profiles on deeper peat, consistent with previous work linking deep peat to stunted tree growth. Gap size frequency distributions (GSFDs) indicated fewer and smaller canopy gaps on the deeper peat (i.e. the scaling exponent of Pareto functions increased from 1.76 to 3.76 with peat depth). Areas subjected to concessionary logging until 2000, and illegal logging since then, had the same canopy top height as old-growth forest, indicating the persistence of some large trees, but mean canopy height was significantly reduced. With logging, the total area of canopy gaps increased and the GSFD scaling exponent was reduced. Logging effects were most evident on the deepest peat, where nutrient depletion and waterlogged conditions restrain tree growth and recovery. A tight relationship exists between canopy structure and peat depth gradient within the old-growth tropical peat swamp forest. This relationship breaks down after selective logging, with canopy structural recovery, as observed by ALS, modulated by environmental conditions. These findings improve our

  15. Geographical variation in soil bacterial community structure in tropical forests in Southeast Asia and temperate forests in Japan based on pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Natsumi; Iwanaga, Hiroko; Charles, Suliana; Diway, Bibian; Sabang, John; Chong, Lucy; Nanami, Satoshi; Kamiya, Koichi; Lum, Shawn; Siregar, Ulfah J; Harada, Ko; Miyashita, Naohiko T

    2017-09-12

    Geographical variation in soil bacterial community structure in 26 tropical forests in Southeast Asia (Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore) and two temperate forests in Japan was investigated to elucidate the environmental factors and mechanisms that influence biogeography of soil bacterial diversity and composition. Despite substantial environmental differences, bacterial phyla were represented in similar proportions, with Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria the dominant phyla in all forests except one mangrove forest in Sarawak, although highly significant heterogeneity in frequency of individual phyla was detected among forests. In contrast, species diversity (α-diversity) differed to a much greater extent, being nearly six-fold higher in the mangrove forest (Chao1 index = 6,862) than in forests in Singapore and Sarawak (~1,250). In addition, natural mixed dipterocarp forests had lower species diversity than acacia and oil palm plantations, indicating that aboveground tree composition does not influence soil bacterial diversity. Shannon and Chao1 indices were correlated positively, implying that skewed operational taxonomic unit (OTU) distribution was associated with the abundance of overall and rare (singleton) OTUs. No OTUs were represented in all 28 forests, and forest-specific OTUs accounted for over 70% of all detected OTUs. Forests that were geographically adjacent and/or of the same forest type had similar bacterial species composition, and a positive correlation was detected between species divergence (β-diversity) and direct distance between forests. Both α- and β-diversities were correlated with soil pH. These results suggest that soil bacterial communities in different forests evolve largely independently of each other and that soil bacterial communities adapt to their local environment, modulated by bacterial dispersal (distance effect) and forest type. Therefore, we conclude that the biogeography of soil bacteria communities described here is non

  16. Fuels planning: Managing forest structure to reduce fire hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Morris C. Johnson; James K. Agee; Theresa B. Jain; Donald McKenzie; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the 20th century, low intensity fires burned regularly in most arid to semiarid forest ecosystems, with ignitions caused by lightning and humans (e.g., Baisan and Swetnam 1997, Allen et al. 2002, Hessl et al. 2004). Low intensity fires controlled regeneration of fire sensitive (e.g., grand fir [Abies grandis]) species (Arno and Allison-Bunnell 2002), promoted...

  17. Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in Mediterranean Spanish black pine(Pinus nigra Ar. ssp. salzmannii) Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Borja, M E; Hedo, J; Cerdá, A; Candel-Pérez, D; Viñegla, B

    2016-08-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effects that stand age and forest structure have on microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and nutrient content. Thirty forest compartments were randomly selected at the Palancares y Agregados managed forest area (Spain), supporting forest stands of five ages; from 100 to 80years old to compartments with trees that were 19-1years old. Forest area ranging from 80 to 120years old and without forest intervention was selected as the control. We measured different soil enzymatic activities, soil respiration and nutrient content (P, K, Na, Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ca) in the top cm of 10 mineral soils in each compartment. Results showed that the lowest forest stand age and the forest structure created by management presented lower values of organic matter, soil moisture, water holding capacity and litterfall and higher values of C/N ratio in comparison with the highest forest stand age and the related forest structure, which generated differences in soil respiration and soil enzyme activities. The forest structure created by no forest management (control plot) presented the highest enzymatic activities, soil respiration, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Results did not show a clear trend in nutrient content comparing all the experimental areas. Finally, the multivariate PCA analysis clearly clustered three differentiated groups: Control plot; from 100 to 40years old and from 39 to 1year old. Our results suggest that the control plot has better soil quality and that extreme forest stand ages (100-80 and 19-1years old) and the associated forest structure generates differences in soil parameters but not in soil nutrient content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost-effective age structure and geographical distribution of boreal forest reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Johanna; Ohman, Karin; Perhans, Karin; Rönnqvist, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lena; Bugman, Harald

    2011-02-01

    1. Forest reserves are established to preserve biodiversity, and to maintain natural functions and processes. Today there is heightened focus on old-growth stages, with less attention given to early successional stages. The biodiversity potential of younger forests has been overlooked, and the cost-effectiveness of incorporating different age classes in reserve networks has not yet been studied.2. We performed a reserve selection analysis in boreal Sweden using the Swedish National Forest Inventory plots. Seventeen structural variables were used as biodiversity indicators, and the cost of protecting each plot as a reserve was assessed using the Heureka system. A goal programming approach was applied, which allowed inclusion of several objectives and avoided a situation in which common indicators affected the result more than rare ones. The model was limited either by budget or area.3. All biodiversity indicators were found in all age classes, with more than half having the highest values in ages ≥ 100 years. Several large-tree indicators and all deadwood indicators had higher values in forests 0-14 years than in forests 15-69 years.4. It was most cost-effective to protect a large proportion of young forests since they generally have a lower net present value compared to older forests, but still contain structures of importance for biodiversity. However, it was more area-effective to protect a large proportion of old forests since they have a higher biodiversity potential per area.5. The geographical distribution of reserves selected with the budget-constrained model was strongly biassed towards the north-western section of boreal Sweden, with a large proportion of young forest, whereas the area-constrained model focussed on the south-eastern section, with dominance by the oldest age class.6.Synthesis and applications. We show that young forests with large amounts of structures important to biodiversity such as dead wood and remnant trees are cheap and cost

  19. Evapotranspiration Calculation on the Basis of the Riparian Zone Water Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZILÁGYI, József

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests have a strong influence on groundwater levels and groundwater sustainedstream baseflow. An empirical and a hydraulic version of a new method were developed to calculateevapotranspiration values from riparian zone groundwater levels. The new technique was tested on thehydrometeorological data set of the Hidegvíz Valley (located in Sopron Hills at the eastern foothills ofthe Alps experimental catchment. Evapotranspiration values of this new method were compared tothe Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration values on a half hourly scale and to the White methodevapotranspiration values on a daily scale. Sensitivity analysis showed that the more reliable hydraulicversion of our ET estimation technique is most sensitive (i.e., linearly to the values of the saturatedhydraulic conductivity and specific yield taken from the riparian zone.

  20. The influence of riparian-hyporheic zone on the hydrological responses in an intermittent stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Stream and riparian groundwater hydrology has been studied in a small intermittent stream draining a forested catchment for a system representative of a Mediterranean climate. The relationship between precipitation and stream runoff and the interactions between stream water and the surrounding riparian groundwater have been analysed under a wide spectrum of meteorological conditions. The hypothesis that the hydrological condition of the near-stream groundwater compartment can regulate the runoff generation during precipitation events was tested. Stream runoff is characterised by a summer dry period, and precipitation input explained only 25% of runoff variability over the study period (r2 =0.25, d.f.=51, p2=0.80, d.f.=34, p Keywords: riparian zone, groundwater hydrology, runoff, intermittent stream, Mediterranean climate

  1. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakaran, A. D.; Williams, T. M.; Ssegane, H.; Amatya, D. M.; Song, B.; Trettin, C. C.

    2014-03-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over 30 years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds - a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic change in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of evapotranspiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  2. DIVERSITY, STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS AND NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN THE FOREST RESERVE OF BONEPOUPA (DOUALA, CAMEROON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Kamdem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812363In order to come up with a sustainable use of forest ecosystems in Cameroon, its vegetal diversity has been inventoried; the plant potentials and the structural parameters were studied in the forest reserve of Bonepoupa. Ten non-continuous plots of 200 m² were done and the materialization of the lines was done with a topofil put at the centre of the field with ropes at 5 m each of the topofil. In addition, ninety people were interviewed in order to know the potential use of species in this region. Up to 172 individuals with Diameter at Breast Height (DBH ≥ 5 cm divided into 27 species, 25 genera and 18 families were inventoried and the coefficient of abundance-dominance was determined. The diversity index of Shannon (H’ was H’1 = 4.17 ± 0.45 with H’1max = 4.75 and the evenness was R1 = 0.88. Taking into account herbaceous species, H’ determined by the coefficient of abundance-dominance was H’2 = 4.74 ± 0.56 with H’2max = 5.70 and the evenness  was  R2 = 0.83. The  total  basal  area  was 19.69 m2/ha and the density was 860 individuals/ha. These results indicate that herbaceous significantly modifies the value of the diversity index and that forest reserve of Bonepoupa is experiencing a problem of conservation which is due to a lack of its appropriate management. The knowledge of non-timber forest products and their use as food as well as medicinal resources by local population might be helpful for the sustainable management of resources in this forest reserve.

  3. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: Forest Loss By Year 2001 to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the characterization of global forest extent and change by year from 2001 through 2013 within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and...

  4. Stand Structure, Productivity and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Oak Dominated Forests in Kumaun Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Bijendra Lal; L.S. Lodhiyal

    2016-01-01

    Present study deals with stand structure, biomass, productivity and carbon sequestration in oak dominated forests mixed with other broad leaved tree species. The sites of studied forests were located in Nainital region between 29058’ N lat. and 79028’ E long at 1500-2150 m elevation. Tree density of forests ranged from 980-1100 ind.ha-1. Of this, oak trees shared 69-97%. The basal area of trees was 31.81 to 63.93 m2 ha-1. R. arboreum and Q. floribunda shared maximum basal area 16.45 and 16.32...

  5. Quantifying Phosphorus Retnention in Soils of Riparian Buffers Influenced by Different Land Use Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, B.; Ross, D. S.; Adair, C.; Schroth, A. W.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) loading to freshwater systems can lead to eutrophication, resulting in algal blooms and subsequent fish kills. Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, has historically exhibited negative effects of eutrophication due to P overloading from non-point sources. To reduce P inputs to the Lake, the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources requires and provides guidelines for the management of riparian buffers, which help protect adjacent water bodies from nutrient and sediment runoff. To better understand how phosphorous retention in riparian buffers is influenced by soil wetness and adjacent land use, we explored differences in P content between riparian buffers located in forested and agricultural watersheds. Within each land use type, we focused on two paired riparian buffers with contrasting soil moisture levels (one wet transect and one dry transect). At each of the four sites, soil pits were dug along a transect perpendicular to the streambank and were placed strategically to capture convergent and divergent landscape positions. Soil samples were collected from each horizon within 0-30cm. In each of these samples, we measured orthophosphate, degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS), and trace elements. We investigated the relationship between DPS and aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations to determine how much of the variability in DPS was explained by Al and Fe concentrations, and compared these relationships between the four riparian buffer sites. We also assessed how these relationships varied with depth in the soil profile. The results of these analyses allow us to identify the characteristics of riparian buffers that promote the most effective P sequestration, which is beneficial to the effective management of riparian areas within the Lake Champlain basin.

  6. Regional factors rather than forest type drive the community structure of soil living oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.

  7. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  8. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  9. The Riparianness of a Desert Herpetofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Lowe

    1989-01-01

    Within the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert subdivisions of the North American Desert in the U.S., more than half of 143 total amphibian and reptilian species perform as riparian and/or wetland taxa. For the reptiles, but not the amphibians, there is a significant inverse relationship between riparianness (obligate through preferential and facultative to...

  10. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  11. Power and Conflict in Adaptive Management: Analyzing the Discourse of Riparian Management on Public Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Arnold

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive collaborative management emphasizes stakeholder engagement as a crucial component of resilient social-ecological systems. Collaboration among diverse stakeholders is expected to enhance learning, build social legitimacy for decision making, and establish relationships that support learning and adaptation in the long term. However, simply bringing together diverse stakeholders does not guarantee productive engagement. Using critical discourse analysis, we examined how diverse stakeholders negotiated knowledge and power in a workshop designed to inform adaptive management of riparian livestock grazing on a National Forest in the southwestern USA. Publicly recognized as a successful component of a larger collaborative effort, we found that the workshop effectively brought together diverse participants, yet still restricted dialogue in important ways. Notably, workshop facilitators took on the additional roles of riparian experts and instructors. As they guided workshop participants toward a consensus view of riparian conditions and management recommendations, they used their status as riparian experts to emphasize commonalities with stakeholders supportive of riparian grazing and accentuate differences with stakeholders skeptical of riparian grazing, including some Forest Service staff with power to influence management decisions. Ultimately, the management plan published one year later did not fully adopt the consensus view from the workshop, but rather included and acknowledged a broader diversity of stakeholder perspectives. Our findings suggest that leaders and facilitators of adaptive collaborative management can more effectively manage for productive stakeholder engagement and, thus, social-ecological resilience if they are more tentative in their convictions, more critical of the role of expert knowledge, and more attentive to the knowledge, interests, and power of diverse stakeholders.

  12. Extinction threshold for spatial forest dynamics with height structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Domingo, Josep L; Saldaña, Joan

    2011-05-07

    We present a pair-approximation model for spatial forest dynamics defined on a regular lattice. The model assumes three possible states for a lattice site: empty (gap site), occupied by an immature tree, and occupied by a mature tree, and considers three nonlinearities in the dynamics associated to the processes of light interference, gap expansion, and recruitment. We obtain an expression of the basic reproduction number R(0) which, in contrast to the one obtained under the mean-field approach, uses information about the spatial arrangement of individuals close to extinction. Moreover, we analyze the corresponding survival-extinction transition of the forest and the spatial correlations among gaps, immature and mature trees close to this critical point. Predictions of the pair-approximation model are compared with those of a cellular automaton. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using structured decision making with landowners to address private forest management and parcelization: balancing multiple objectives and incorporating uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige F. B. Ferguson; Michael J. Conroy; John F. Chamblee; Jeffrey Hepinstall-Cymerman

    2015-01-01

    Parcelization and forest fragmentation are of concern for ecological, economic, and social reasons. Efforts to keep large, private forests intact may be supported by a decision-making process that incorporates landowners’ objectives and uncertainty. We used structured decision making (SDM) with owners of large, private forests in Macon County, North Carolina....

  14. Long-term impacts of prescribed fire on stand structure, growth, mortality, and individual tree vigor in Pinus resinosa forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer S. Scherer; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Brian J. Palik; Matthew B. Russell

    2016-01-01

    Prescribed fire is increasingly being viewed as a valuable tool for mitigating the ecological consequences of long-term fire suppression within fire-adapted forest ecosystems. While the use of burning treatments in northern temperate conifer forests has at times received considerable attention, the long-term (>10 years) effects on forest structure and...

  15. Changes in forest species composition and structure after stand-replacing wildfire in the mountains of southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald D. Quinn; Lin Wu

    2005-01-01

    A wildfire in the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona apparently altered the long-term structure of the forest. The pre-fire canopy forest, which had not burned for 100 years, was an even mixture of Arizona pines and Rocky Mountain Douglas-firs. A decade later the new forest was numerically dominated by quaking aspen seedlings in clumps separated by persistent...

  16. A Prospectus on Restoring Late Successional Forest Structure to Eastside Pine Ecosystems Through Large-Scale, Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Zack; William F. Laudenslayer; Luke George; Carl Skinner; William Oliver

    1999-01-01

    At two different locations in northeast California, an interdisciplinary team of scientists is initiating long-term studies to quantify the effects of forest manipulations intended to accelerate andlor enhance late-successional structure of eastside pine forest ecosystems. One study, at Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest, uses a split-plot, factorial, randomized block...

  17. Early-seral stand age and forest structural changes in public and private forestlands in Western Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L Deal; Sharon Stanton; Matthew Betts; Zhiqiang. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Federal forests in the Pacific Northwest region have undergone exceptional changes in management over the past 20 years, and these changes have led to a reduction in regional timber production and significant changes in the management and current age structure of forests. Public lands include large areas of older forests with relatively little younger early-seral...

  18. How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity nesting birds in African cork oak forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

  19. Structure, disturbance, and change in the bristlecone pine forests of Colorado, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.

    1992-01-01

    To analyze trends in the structure of forests dominated by Colorado bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Bailey) the author sampled size class structures, collected environmental data, and determined the approximate year of origin of these forests at 65 sites scattered throughout the range of P. aristata in Colorado. Cluster analysis and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) were used to identify major trends in the size class data. The size class data suggest that P. aristata is a long-lived species that primarily regenerates following fires. The DCA results suggest that (1) the major trend in variation in structure was related to time since disturbance, and (2) Populus tremuloides Michx. is present as numerous small stems in some of the P. aristata forests regardless of the age of these forests, a role for P. tremuloides that is at odds with the traditional view of this tree as primarily a seral species in the Rocky Mountains. Many P. aristata stands originated near A.D. 1900 and between A.D. 1625 and 1700. These were warm, dry periods that might have promoted fires, and they were also periods when sunspot numbers were low. The Southern Oscillation Index did not correlate with times of abundant stand origins. Although many P. aristata forests are over 500 yr old, these forests do not appear to be stable or unchanging

  20. Seven decades of change in forest structure and composition in Pinus resinosa forests in northern Minnesota, USA: Comparing managed and unmanaged conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian D. Young; Anthony W. D' Amato; Christel C. Kern; Douglas N. Kastendick; Brian J. Palik

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of long-term patterns of forest structural and compositional development is critical for anticipating management outcomes and developing appropriate silvicultural strategies for restoring complex forest conditions. In most cases, this information comes from stand-level assessments; however, the impacts and outcomes of management and other disturbances...

  1. Structural and climatic determinants of demographic rates of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vayreda, Jordi; Retana, Javier

    2011-06-01

    The demographic rates of tree species typically show large spatial variation across their range. Understanding the environmental factors underlying this variation is a key topic in forest ecology, with far-reaching management implications. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) covers large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, the Iberian Peninsula being its southwestern distribution limit. In recent decades, an increase in severe droughts and a densification of forests as a result of changes in forest uses have occurred in this region. Our aim was to use climate and stand structure data to explain mortality and growth patterns of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula. We used data from 2392 plots dominated by Scots pine, sampled for the National Forest Inventory of Spain. Plots were sampled from 1986 to 1996 (IFN2) and were resampled from 1997 to 2007 (IFN3), allowing for the calculation of growth and mortality rates. We fitted linear models to assess the response of growth and mortality rates to the spatial variability of climate, climatic anomalies, and forest structure. Over the period of approximately 10 years between the IFN2 and IFN3, the amount of standing dead trees increased 11-fold. Higher mortality rates were related to dryness, and growth was reduced with increasing dryness and temperature, but results also suggested that effects of climatic stressors were not restricted to dry sites only. Forest structure was strongly related to demographic rates, suggesting that stand development and competition are the main factors associated with demography. In the case of mortality, forest structure interacted with climate, suggesting that competition for water resources induces tree mortality in dry sites. A slight negative relationship was found between mortality and growth, indicating that both rates are likely to be affected by the same stress factors. Additionally, regeneration tended to be lower in plots with higher mortality. Taken together, our results

  2. Using Landsat-derived disturbance history (1972-2010) to predict current forest structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk Pflugmacher; Warren B. Cohen; Robert E. Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Lidar is currently the most accurate method for remote estimation of forest structure, but it has limited spatial and temporal coverage. Conversely, Landsat data are more widely available, but exhibit a weaker relationship with structure under medium to high leaf area conditions. One potentially valuable means of enhancing the relationship between Landsat reflectance...

  3. Amazon Forests Maintain Consistent Canopy Structure and Greenness During the Dry Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Nagol, Jyoteshwar; Carabajal, Claudia C.; Rosette, Jacqueline; Palace, Michael; Cook, Bruce D.; Vermote, Eric F.; Harding, David J.; North, Peter R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonality of sunlight and rainfall regulates net primary production in tropical forests. Previous studies have suggested that light is more limiting than water for tropical forest productivity, consistent with greening of Amazon forests during the dry season in satellite data.We evaluated four potential mechanisms for the seasonal green-up phenomenon, including increases in leaf area or leaf reflectance, using a sophisticated radiative transfer model and independent satellite observations from lidar and optical sensors. Here we show that the apparent green up of Amazon forests in optical remote sensing data resulted from seasonal changes in near-infrared reflectance, an artefact of variations in sun-sensor geometry. Correcting this bidirectional reflectance effect eliminated seasonal changes in surface reflectance, consistent with independent lidar observations and model simulations with unchanging canopy properties. The stability of Amazon forest structure and reflectance over seasonal timescales challenges the paradigm of light-limited net primary production in Amazon forests and enhanced forest growth during drought conditions. Correcting optical remote sensing data for artefacts of sun-sensor geometry is essential to isolate the response of global vegetation to seasonal and interannual climate variability.

  4. Forest biomass, canopy structure, and species composition relationships with multipolarization L-band synthetic aperture radar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sader, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of forest biomass, canopy structure, and species composition on L-band synthetic aperature radar data at 44 southern Mississippi bottomland hardwood and pine-hardwood forest sites was investigated. Cross-polarization mean digital values for pine forests were significantly correlated with green weight biomass and stand structure. Multiple linear regression with five forest structure variables provided a better integrated measure of canopy roughness and produced highly significant correlation coefficients for hardwood forests using HV/VV ratio only. Differences in biomass levels and canopy structure, including branching patterns and vertical canopy stratification, were important sources of volume scatter affecting multipolarization radar data. Standardized correction techniques and calibration of aircraft data, in addition to development of canopy models, are recommended for future investigations of forest biomass and structure using synthetic aperture radar.

  5. Floristic composition and structural diversity of ibodi monkey forest, ibodi, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilehin, K. E.; Olajide, O. S.; Ademayowa, O.; Olusanya, O.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the floristic composition and vegetation structure among different physiognomies in Ibodi Monkey forest, Ibodi, Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria. It also assessed the effects of anthropogenic activities on the forest with a view to providing detailed information on the floristic composition structure and diversity of species of the standing vegetation of the forest.Seven plots of 25 m x 25 m dimension were established within three physiognomies in the forest; Regrowth forest (RF), Tree fallow (TF) and Cocoa plantation. (CP) A total of 209 individual woody species were encountered in the seven plots. The highest density of woody species was found in the RF (1483), followed by CP (1072) and TF (792). The basal area in CP was the highest (21.44) while RF had the lowest (2.5567) with TF having an intermediate value (6.283). Crown area also indicated that RF had the highest cover while TF had the lowest crown area. Shannon-Wiener, Evenness, Richness indices followed the order RF > TF > CP. Similarity index was highest between CP and TF and lowest between RF and CP. The study concluded that Ibodi monkey forest has been influenced by human disturbance in form of selective logging of economic species, agriculture (shifting cultivation) and seasonal bush burning. (author)

  6. Floristic and structural analysis of premontane humid forests in Amalfi (Antioquia, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza Cortes, William; Toro Murillo, Juan Lazaro; Lores Medina, Angelica

    2009-01-01

    The floristic composition and the structure of a humid hill forest were determined. The forest is located in the northernmost area of the Colombian Central Mountain Range. The methodology proposed by ISA-JAUM was employed in this study, from a 0.1 ha sample. Moreover, plant material was collected from clear spots, stubbles and grasslands. A total of 421 vascular plants species were found. Two hundred and thirty eight of these come from the 0.1 ha sample and only 150 had DBH> 2.5 cm, which highlights the benefits of the sample method employed, since it was possible to record a large number of epiphytic and herbaceous elements in the forest. In general, the composition matches what was previously reported in similar areas. The families Melastomataceae (32), Lauraceae (31), Rubiaceae (29) and Araceae (15) were the ones holding the largest number of species. New chorological records for the state of Antioquia were reported in this study; for instance, Colombobalanus excelsa (Fagaceae). High density of individuals (388) was found at structural level. The patterns of height and diametrical classes followed the typical distribution of disetaneous tropical forests, in which the largest amount of individuals occur in the lowest classes and few species with individuals having the greatest diameters and heights account for the major ecological weight in the forest. Despite the great diversity documented, these forests are currently subject to an intensive process of fragmentation and loss of coverage.

  7. Extra-zonal beech forests in Tuscany: structure, diversity and synecologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viciani D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the structural, synecological and floristic diversity features of beech-dominated forest communities in four major areas of the Antiapenninic Tyrrhenian system in Tuscany: Metalliferous hills, mountains to the south of Mt. Amiata, volcanic area of the upper Lente valley and Mt. Cetona. These are relict woodlands of Holo-Pleistocene origin with a special ecological and conservation value due to their extrazonal location in lowland submediterranean areas. Results show substantial among-area differences in structure, synecology and plant species composition, but in general a potential for coppices to reach the tall forest stage, as demonstrated by the old-growth stands of Pietraporciana and Sassoforte. Compared with montane Apenninic beechwoods, the relatively rich flora of the studied communities include thermophilous species with a southern Apennine-Balkan distribution, making their syntaxonomical position unclear. Closer affinities are found with the calcicolous Beech Forests of the association and with the silicicolous ones of the . Based on the Natura 2000 system, all the examined communities belong to the priority Habitat “Apennine beech forests with and ” (code: 9210*. Due their relict nature, these biotopes appear vulnerable to climate changes and to a production-oriented forest management. Criteria of naturalistic silviculture should instead promote the dynamic development of these communities towards tall forests and their natural regeneration.

  8. Effect of the degree of anthropization in the structure, at three sites fragmented evergreen piedmont forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gabriel Sánchez Villacis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian Amazon is recognized worldwide for its extraordinary megadiversity and multiplicity of forest goods and services. However, the inadequate practices of extractive use of non-timber forest products, the clearing of extensive areas of forests for the development of oil activity and the unsustainable use of timber as economic sustenance of communities have led to structural and functional changes In ecosystems. The study was carried out in three sites of a degraded evergreen forest of the eastern Amazon (Mera, Shell and Puyo in order to evaluate the effect of the degree of intervention on the forest structure. A floristic inventory was carried out with 60 plots of 25 x 25 m2 and tree species ≥ 2.5 cm d1.30 and species in natural regeneration phase with h <2 m were measured. We found 35 families, 65 genera, 101 species and 2 298 individuals, with Arecaceae, Fabaceae and Moraceae being the most representative botanical families. The degree of anthropization was highly modified where Mera was the best state of conservation. It was evidenced a low floristic diversity with patterns of alteration in the vertical and horizontal structure, distinguished phytosociologically by two strata in the sites of Shell and Puyo and by three in Mera, indicator of structural changes.

  9. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

    2013-09-01

    The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  10. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in eastern Brazilian Amazonian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEANDRO VALLE FERREIRA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  11. Aboveground Biomass and Carbon in a South African Mistbelt Forest and the Relationships with Tree Species Diversity and Forest Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvanus Mensah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass and carbon stocks are key information criteria to understand the role of forests in regulating global climate. However, for a bio-rich continent like Africa, ground-based measurements for accurate estimation of carbon are scarce, and the variables affecting the forest carbon are not well understood. Here, we present the first biomass study conducted in South Africa Mistbelt forests. Using data from a non-destructive sampling of 59 trees of four species, we (1 evaluated the accuracy of multispecies aboveground biomass (AGB models, using predictors such as diameter at breast height (DBH, total height (H and wood density; (2 estimated the amount of biomass and carbon stored in the aboveground compartment of Mistbelt forests and (3 explored the variation of aboveground carbon (AGC in relation to tree species diversity and structural variables. We found significant effects of species on wood density and AGB. Among the candidate models, the model that incorporated DBH and H as a compound variable (DBH2 × H was the best fitting. AGB and AGC values were highly variable across all plots, with average values of 358.1 Mg·ha−1 and 179.0 Mg·C·ha−1, respectively. Few species contributed 80% of AGC stock, probably as a result of selection effect. Stand basal area, basal area of the ten most important species and basal area of the largest trees were the most influencing variables. Tree species richness was also positively correlated with AGC, but the basal area of smaller trees was not. These results enable insights into the role of biodiversity in maintaining carbon storage and the possibilities for sustainable strategies for timber harvesting without risk of significant biomass decline.

  12. Forest Structure Characterization Using Jpl's UAVSAR Multi-Baseline Polarimetric SAR Interferometry and Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott; Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns forest remote sensing using JPL's multi-baseline polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data. It presents exemplary results and analyzes the possibilities and limitations of using SAR Tomography and Polarimetric SAR Interferometry (PolInSAR) techniques for the estimation of forest structure. Performance and error indicators for the applicability and reliability of the used multi-baseline (MB) multi-temporal (MT) PolInSAR random volume over ground (RVoG) model are discussed. Experimental results are presented based on JPL's L-band repeat-pass polarimetric interferometric UAVSAR data over temperate and tropical forest biomes in the Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, and in the La Amistad Park, Panama and Costa Rica. The results are partially compared with ground field measurements and with air-borne LVIS lidar data.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Relationships of Old-Growth and Secondary Forests in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; George R. Parker; Eric J. Gustafson

    1997-01-01

    We examined the spatial pattern of forests in Indiana to: (1) determine the extent, connectivity and percent edge of all forests, (2) examine the change in connectivity among these forests if all riparian zones were replanted to forest or other native vegetation, (3) determine the location, spatial dispersion and percent edge of current old-growth forest remnants, (4)...

  14. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannicci, S.; Burrows, Damien; Fratini, Sara

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic...... processes acting from the bottom-up, while, at ecosystem level, the outwelling hypothesis stated that mangroves primary production was removed via tidal action and carried to adjacent nearshore ecosystems where it fuelled detrital based food-webs. The sesarmid crabs were the first macrofaunal taxon...... to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about...

  15. Faunal impact on vegetation structure and ecosystem function in mangrove forests: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannicci, S.; Burows, D.; Fratini, S.

    2008-01-01

    The last 20 years witnessed a real paradigm shift concerning the impact of biotic factors on ecosystem functions as well as on vegetation structure of mangrove forests. Before this small scientific revolution took place, structural aspects of mangrove forests were viewed to be the result of abiotic...... processes acting from the bottom-up, while, at ecosystem level, the outwelling hypothesis stated that mangroves primary production was removed via tidal action and carried to adjacent nearshore ecosystems where it fuelled detrital based food-webs. The sesarmid crabs were the first macrofaunal taxon...... to be considered a main actor in mangrove structuring processes, thanks to a number of studies carried out in the Indo-Pacific forests in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Following these classical papers, a number of studies on Sesarmidae feeding and burrowing ecology were carried out, which leave no doubts about...

  16. Structural breakdown of specialized plant-herbivore interaction networks in tropical forest edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ximenes Pinho

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore relationships are essential for ecosystem functioning, typically forming an ecological network with a compartmentalized (i.e. modular structure characterized by highly specialized interactions. Human disturbances can favor habitat generalist species and thus cause the collapse of this modular structure, but its effects are rarely assessed using a network-based approach. We investigate how edge proximity alters plant-insect herbivore networks by comparing forest edge and interior in a large remnant (3.500 ha of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Given the typical dominance of pioneer plants and generalist herbivores in edge-affected habitats, we test the hypothesis that the specialized structure of plant-herbivore networks collapse in forest edges, resulting in lower modularity and herbivore specialization. Despite no differences in the number of species and interactions, the network structure presented marked differences between forest edges and interior. Herbivore specialization, modularity and number of modules were significantly higher in forest interior than edge-affected habitats. When compared to a random null model, two (22.2% and eight (88.8% networks were significantly modular in forest edge and interior, respectively. The loss of specificity and modularity in plant-herbivore networks in forest edges may be related to the loss of important functions, such as density-dependent control of superior plant competitors, which is ultimately responsible for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Our results support previous warnings that focusing on traditional community measures only (e.g. species diversity may overlook important modifications in species interactions and ecosystem functioning.

  17. The Influence of Salmon Recolonization on Riparian Communities in the Cedar River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, J.; Clipp, H.; Kiffney, P.

    2016-02-01

    Salmon are a valuable resource throughout the Pacific Northwest, but increasing human activity is degrading coastal ecosystems and threatening local salmon populations. Salmon conservation efforts often focus on habitat restoration, including the re-colonization of salmon into historically obstructed areas such as the Cedar River in Washington, USA. However, to assess the long term implications of salmon re-colonization on a landscape scale, it is critical to consider not only the river ecosystem but also the surrounding riparian habitat. Although prior studies suggest that salmon alter riparian food web dynamics, the riparian community on the Cedar River has not yet been characterized. To investigate possible connections between salmon and the riparian habitat after 12 years of re-colonization, we surveyed riparian spider communities along a gradient of salmon inputs (g/m2). In 10-m transects along the banks of the river, we identified spiders and spider webs, collected prey from webs, and characterized nearby aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. We found that the density of aquatic macroinvertebrates, as well as the density of spider prey, both had significant positive relationships with salmon inputs, supporting the hypothesis that salmon provide energy and nutrients for both aquatic and riparian food webs. We also found that spider diversity significantly decreased with salmon inputs, potentially due to confounding factors such as stream gradient or vegetation structure. Although additional information is needed to fully understand this relationship, the significant connection between salmon inputs and spider diversity is compelling motivation for further studies regarding the link between aquatic and riparian systems on the Cedar River. Understanding the connections between salmon and the riparian community is critical to characterizing the long term, landscape-scale implications of sustainable salmon management in the Pacific Northwest.

  18. Insights on Forest Structure and Composition from Long-Term Research in the Luquillo Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The science of ecology fundamentally aims to understand species and their relation to the environment. At sites where hurricane disturbance is part of the environmental context, permanent forest plots are critical to understand ecological vegetation dynamics through time. An overview of forest structure and species composition from two of the longest continuously measured tropical forest plots is presented. Long-term measurements, 72 years at the leeward site, and 25 years at windward site, of stem density are similar to initial and pre-hurricane values at both sites. For 10 years post-hurricane Hugo (1989, stem density increased at both sites. Following that increase period, stem density has remained at 1400 to 1600 stems/ha in the leeward site, and at 1200 stems/ha in the windward site. The forests had similar basal area values before hurricane Hugo in 1989, but these sites are following different patterns of basal area accumulation. The leeward forest site continues to accumulate and increase basal area with each successive measurement, currently above 50 m2/ha. The windward forest site maintains its basal area values close to an asymptote of 35 m2/ha. Currently, the most abundant species at both sites is the sierra palm. Ordinations to explore variation in tree species composition through time present the leeward site with a trajectory of directional change, while at the windward site, the composition of species seems to be converging to pre-hurricane conditions. The observed differences in forest structure and composition from sites differently affected by hurricane disturbance provide insight into how particular forest characteristics respond at shorter or longer time scales in relation to previous site conditions and intensity of disturbance effects.

  19. Taxonomic and compositional differences of ground-dwelling arthropods in riparian habitats in Glen Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara; Cobb, Neil S.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Higgins, Jacob; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2017-01-01

    The disturbance history, plant species composition, productivity, and structural complexity of a site can exert bottom-up controls on arthropod diversity, abundance, and trophic structure. Regulation alters the hydrology and disturbance regimes of rivers and affects riparian habitats by changing plant quality parameters. Fifty years of regulation along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam has created a no-analog, postdam “lower” riparian zone close to the water's edge that includes tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), a nonnative riparian shrub. At the same time, the predam “upper” facultative riparian zone has persisted several meters above the current flood stage. In summer 2009, we used pitfall traps within these 2 riparian zones that differ in plant composition, productivity, and disturbance frequency to test for differences in arthropod community (Hymenoptera, Arachnida, and Coleoptera) structure. Arthropod community structure differed substantially between the 2 zones. Arthropod abundance and species richness was highest in the predam upper riparian zone, even though there was a greater amount of standing plant biomass in the postdam lower riparian zone. Omnivore abundance was proportionately greater in the upper riparian zone and was associated with lower estimated productivity values. Predators and detritivores were proportionately greater in the postdam lower riparian zone. In this case, river regulation may create habitats that support species of spiders and carabid beetles, but few other species that are exclusive to this zone. The combined richness found in both zones suggests a small increase in total richness and functional diversity for the Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River.

  20. Surface runoff water quality in a managed three zone riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, Richard; Sheridan, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    Managed riparian forest buffers are an important conservation practice but there are little data on the water quality effects of buffer management. We measured surface runoff volumes and nutrient concentrations and loads in a riparian buffer system consisting of (moving down slope from the field) a grass strip, a managed forest, and an unmanaged forest. The managed forest consisted of sections of clear-cut, thinned, and mature forest. The mature forest had significantly lower flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl N (TKN), sediment TKN, total N (nitrate + TKN), dissolved molybdate reactive P (DMRP), total P, and chloride. The average buffer represented the conditions along a stream reach with a buffer system in different stages of growth. Compared with the field output, flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, DMRP, and total P decreased significantly within the buffer and flow-weighted concentrations of TKN, total N, and chloride increased significantly within the buffer. All loads decreased significantly from the field to the middle of the buffer, but most loads increased from the middle of the buffer to the sampling point nearest the stream because surface runoff volume increased near the stream. The largest percentage reduction of the incoming nutrient load (at least 65% for all nutrient forms) took place in the grass buffer zone because of the large decrease (68%) in flow. The average buffer reduced loadings for all nutrient species, from 27% for TKN to 63% for sediment P. The managed forest and grass buffer combined was an effective buffer system.

  1. Potential effects of climate change on riparian areas, wetlands, and groundwater-dependent ecosystems in the Blue Mountains, Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Dwire

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Riparian areas, wetlands, and groundwater-dependent ecosystems, which are found at all elevations throughout the Blue Mountains, comprise a small portion of the landscape but have high conservation value because they provide habitat for diverse flora and fauna. The effects of climate change on these special habitats may be especially profound, due to altered snowpack and hydrologic regimes predicted to occur in the near future. The functionality of many riparian areas is currently compromised by water diversions and livestock grazing, which reduces their resilience to additional stresses that a warmer climate may bring. Areas associated with springs and small streams will probably experience near-term changes, and some riparian areas and wetlands may decrease in size over time. A warmer climate and reduced soil moisture could lead to a transition from riparian hardwood species to more drought tolerant conifers and shrubs. Increased frequency and spatial extent of wildfire spreading from upland forests could also affect riparian species composition. The specific effects of climate change will vary, depending on local hydrology (especially groundwater, topography, streamside microclimates, and current conditions and land use. Keywords: Climate change, Groundwater-dependent ecosystems, Riparian areas, Springs, Wetlands

  2. Forest acclimation to increasing drought: structural and functional changes

    OpenAIRE

    Barbeta i Margarit, Adrià

    2015-01-01

    El canvi climàtic està reduint la precipitació i canviant-ne els patrons temporals en algunes regions com la conca mediterrània, cosa que s'intensificarà en les pròximes dècades. En els últims anys, hi hagut un augment en els casos de declivi forestal atribuït a la sequera. Aquests declivis comporten defoliació de capçada i mortalitat i acostumen a ser provocats per un sol episodi. Tanmateix, també s'han relacionat canvis a gran escala en la composició i l'estructura dels boscos amb l'augment...

  3. Changes in soil organic matter compositrion after introduction of riparian vegetation on shores of hydroelectric reservoires (Southeast of Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcantara, de F.A.; Buurman, P.; Curi, N.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Lagen, van B.; Meijer, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work is part of a research program with the general objective of evaluating soil sustainability in areas surrounding hydroelectric reservoirs, which have been planted with riparian forest. The specific aims were: (i) to assess if and how the soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition has

  4. Influence of flooding and landform properties on riparian plant communities in an old-growth northern hardwood watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Charles Goebel; Kurt S. Pregitzer; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    In most forested landscapes, the organization of plant communities across stream valleys is thought to be regulated by a complex set of interactions including flooding, landform properties, and vegetation. However, few studies have directly examined the relative influence of frequent and infrequent flooding, as well as landform properties, on riparian plant community...

  5. Monitoring Bird Populations in Relation to Fuel Loads and Fuel Treatments in Riparian Woodlands with Tamarisk and Russian Olive Understories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; June Galloway; David Hawksworth

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, wild fire events in riparian bosque (forested) areas along the Middle Rio Grande between Elephant Butte and Albuquerque have increased dramatically owing to flood suppression and accumulation of dead wood and exotic Tamarisk and Russian olive. This problem culminated in a large wild fire in July 1993 that resulted in the evacuation of hundreds of...

  6. Effects of forest conversion on the assemblages' structure of aquatic insects in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago R.N. Bertaso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of forest conversion to agricultural land uses on assemblages of aquatic insects were analyzed in subtropical streams. Organisms and environmental variables were collected in six low-order streams: three streams located in a forested area, and three in areas converted to agricultural land uses. We expected that the aquatic insects' assemblage attributes would be significantly affected by forest conversion, as well as by environmental variables. Streams in converted areas presented lower species richness, abundance and proportion of sensitive insect taxa. The ANOSIM test evidenced strong difference in EPT assemblage structure between streams of forested and converted areas. The ISA test evidenced several EPT genera with high specificity to streams in forested areas and only one genus related to streams in converted areas. Thus, the impacts of the conversion of forested area to agricultural land uses have significantly affected the EPT assemblages, while environmental variables were not affected. We suggest that the effects detected can be influenced by two processes related to vegetation cover: i lower input of allochthonous material, and ii increased input of fine sediments in streams draining converted areas.

  7. Long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of two stands of an Atlantic Tropical Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Écio Souza; Carvalho, Warley Augusto Caldas; Santos, Rubens Manoel; Gastauer, Markus; Garcia, Paulo Oswaldo; Fontes, Marco Aurélio Leite; Coelho, Polyanne Aparecida; Moreira, Aline Martins; Menino, Gisele Cristina Oliveira; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to report the long-term monitoring of diversity and structure of the tree community in a protected semideciduous Atlantic Forest in the South of Minas Gerais State, Southeast Brazil. The study was conducted in two stands (B and C), each with 26 and 38 10 m x 30 m plots. Censuses of stand B were conducted in 2000, 2005 and 2011, and stand C in 2001, 2006 and 2011. In both stands, the most abundant and important species for biomass accumulation over the inventories were trees larger than 20 cm of diameter, which characterize advanced successional stage within the forest. The two surveyed stands within the studied forest presented differences in structure, diversity and species richness over the time.

  8. Estimating tropical forest structure using LIDAR AND X-BAND INSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Treuhaft, R. N.; Keller, M. M.; Sullivan, F.; Roberto dos Santos, J.; Goncalves, F. G.; Shimbo, J.; Neumann, M.; Madsen, S. N.; Hensley, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are considered the most structurally complex of all forests and are experiencing rapid change due to anthropogenic and climatic factors. The high carbon stocks and fluxes make understanding tropical forests highly important to both regional and global studies involving ecosystems and climate. Large and remote areas in the tropics are prime targets for the use of remotely sensed data. Radar and lidar have previously been used to estimate forest structure, with an emphasis on biomass. These two remote sensing methods have the potential to yield much more information about forest structure, specifically through the use of X-band radar and waveform lidar data. We examined forest structure using both field-based and remotely sensed data in the Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. We measured multiple structural parameters for about 70 plots in the field within a 25 x 15 km area that have TanDEM-X single-pass horizontally and vertically polarized radar interferometric data. High resolution airborne lidar were collected over a 22 sq km portion of the same area, within which 33 plots were co-located. Preliminary analyses suggest that X-band interferometric coherence decreases by about a factor of 2 (from 0.95 to 0.45) with increasing field-measured vertical extent (average heights of 7-25 m) and biomass (10-430 Mg/ha) for a vertical wavelength of 39 m, further suggesting, as has been observed at C-band, that interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is substantially more sensitive to forest structure/biomass than SAR. Unlike InSAR coherence versus biomass, SAR power at X-band versus biomass shows no trend. Moreover, airborne lidar coherence at the same vertical wavenumbers as InSAR is also shown to decrease as a function of biomass, as well. Although the lidar coherence decrease is about 15% more than the InSAR, implying that lidar penetrates more than InSAR, these preliminary results suggest that X-band InSAR may be useful for structure and

  9. Rapid Assessments of Amazon Forest Structure and Biomass Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Messinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs can provide new ways to measure forests and supplement expensive or labor-intensive inventory methods. Forest carbon, a key uncertainty in the global carbon cycle and also important for carbon conservation programs, is typically monitored using manned aircraft or extensive forest plot networks to estimate aboveground carbon density (ACD. Manned aircraft are only cost-effective when applied to large areas (>100,000 ha, while plot networks are most effective for total C stock estimation across large areas, not for quantifying spatially-explicit variation. We sought to develop an effective method for frequent and accurate ACD estimation at intermediate scales (100–100,000 ha that would be sensitive to small-scale disturbance. Using small UAVs, we collected imagery of 516 ha of lowland forest in the Peruvian Amazon. We then used a structure-from-motion (SFM approach to create a 3D model of forest canopy. Comparing SFM- and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived estimates of canopy height and ACD, we found that SFM estimates of top-of-canopy height (TCH and ACD were highly correlated with previous LiDAR estimates (r = 0.86–0.93 and r = 0.73–0.94 for TCH and ACD, respectively, at 0.1–4 ha grain sizes, with r = 0.92 for ACD determination at the 1 ha scale, despite SFM and LiDAR measurements being separated by two years in a dynamic forest. SFM and LiDAR estimates of mean TCH and mean ACD were highly similar, differing by only 0.4% and 0.04%, respectively, within mature forest. The technique allows inexpensive, near-real-time monitoring of ACD for ecological studies, payment for ecosystem services (PES ventures, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+, forestry enterprises, and governance.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of a Riparian Vegetation Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Nones

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of two main parameters used in a mathematic model able to evaluate the effects of changing hydrology on the growth of riparian vegetation along rivers and its effects on the cross-section width. Due to a lack of data in existing literature, in a past study the schematization proposed here was applied only to two large rivers, assuming steady conditions for the vegetational carrying capacity and coupling the vegetal model with a 1D description of the river morphology. In this paper, the limitation set by steady conditions is overcome, imposing the vegetational evolution dependent upon the initial plant population and the growth rate, which represents the potential growth of the overall vegetation along the watercourse. The sensitivity analysis shows that, regardless of the initial population density, the growth rate can be considered the main parameter defining the development of riparian vegetation, but it results site-specific effects, with significant differences for large and small rivers. Despite the numerous simplifications adopted and the small database analyzed, the comparison between measured and computed river widths shows a quite good capability of the model in representing the typical interactions between riparian vegetation and water flow occurring along watercourses. After a thorough calibration, the relatively simple structure of the code permits further developments and applications to a wide range of alluvial rivers.

  11. Effects of creating two forest structures and using prescribed fire on coarse woody debris in northeastern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C. C. Uzoh; Carl N. Skinner

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the dynamics of coarse woody debris (CWD) in forests that were originally characterized by frequent, low-moderate intensity fires. We investigated effects of prescribed burning at the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest in northeastern California following creation of two stand structure conditions: 1) high structural diversity (HiD) that included...

  12. Mapping wildland fuels and forest structure for land management: a comparison of nearest neighbor imputation and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth B. Pierce; Janet L. Ohmann; Michael C. Wimberly; Matthew J. Gregory; Jeremy S. Fried

    2009-01-01

    Land managers need consistent information about the geographic distribution of wildland fuels and forest structure over large areas to evaluate fire risk and plan fuel treatments. We compared spatial predictions for 12 fuel and forest structure variables across three regions in the western United States using gradient nearest neighbor (GNN) imputation, linear models (...

  13. Legal Mechanisms for Protecting Riparian Resource Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton L.; Lord, Eric

    1992-04-01

    Riparian resources include the borders of rivers, lakes, ponds, and potholes. These border areas are very important for a number of reasons, including stream channel maintenance, flood control, aesthetics, erosion control, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water quality maintenance. These diverse functions are not well protected by law or policy. We reviewed law and policies regarding endangered species habitat designation, land use planning, grazing management, water allocation, takings, and federal permits and licenses, along with the roles of federal, state, and local governments. We discuss the politics of implementing these policies, focusing on the difficulties in changing entrenched water and land use practices. Our review indicates a lack of direct attention to riparian ecosystem issues in almost all environmental and land use programs at every level of government. Protection of riparian resource values requires a means to integrate existing programs to focus on riparian zones.

  14. Detecting forest structure and biomass with C-band multipolarization radar - Physical model and field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Walter E.; Paris, Jack F.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of C-band radar (4.75 GHz) to discriminate features of forest structure, including biomass, is tested using a truck-mounted scatterometer for field tests on a 1.5-3.0 m pygmy forest of cypress (Cupressus pygmaea) and pine (Pinus contorta ssp, Bolanderi) near Mendocino, CA. In all, 31 structural variables of the forest are quantified at seven sites. Also measured was the backscatter from a life-sized physical model of the pygmy forest, composed of nine wooden trees with 'leafy branches' of sponge-wrapped dowels. This model enabled independent testing of the effects of stem, branch, and leafy branch biomass, branch angle, and moisture content on radar backscatter. Field results suggested that surface area of leaves played a greater role in leaf scattering properties than leaf biomass per se. Tree leaf area index was strongly correlated with vertically polarized power backscatter (r = 0.94; P less than 0.01). Field results suggested that the scattering role of leaf water is enhanced as leaf surface area per unit leaf mass increases; i.e., as the moist scattering surfaces become more dispersed. Fog condensate caused a measurable rise in forest backscatter, both from surface and internal rises in water content. Tree branch mass per unit area was highly correlated with cross-polarized backscatter in the field (r = 0.93; P less than 0.01), a result also seen in the physical model.

  15. Structure, richness and composition of arboreal plants in a cloud thinning forest of Tolima (Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo Kurmen, Juan Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Structure, richness, and floristic composition of the woody elements of the selective logging forest of the Vereda Dantas, (Ibague, Tolima, Colombia), where studied in a 0.1 ha plot sampled for all individuals ≥2.5 cm dbh. the forest is characterized by scarcity of lianas and hemiepiphytic, absence of typical families of the Colombian cloud forests between 2000 and 2500 m (Araceae, Ericaceae, Myrtaceae, Meliaceae and Aquifoliaceae), and richness increment of the Sabiaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Compared to others cloud forest from the Colombian Andes and the Neotropic, it has, fewer individuals (237 individuals ≥2.5 cm dbh per 0.1 ha) and more large trees (39.7% of individuals ≥10 cm dbh per 0.1 ha). The forest has a lower woody species richness (75 species ≥2.5 cm dbh per 0.1 ha). Apparently, the effects of selective timber extraction on structure, richness, and floristic composition are decrease floristic richness and density of individuals, decrease of lianas density and richness, and more individuals of secondary species, likes: Hedyosmum goudotianum Slms-Laubach var. goudatianum, Miconia resima Naud, and Palicourea calophlebia Standl.

  16. Analysis of the temporal variation of the structure of a montane forest with historical of fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bonillo Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural dynamic rates of an shrubs-tree component of a seasonal semideciduous upper montane forest, in Mantiqueira Mountain between 2002 and 2008. We calculated the rates of dynamic according to the number of surviving, dead individuals and recruits, as well as the rates of dynamic for gain and loss of basal area. We verified the spatial differences among the rates along the vegetation gradient parallel to ground elevation. We also studied the correlations between the rates and biotic (initial numbers of trees and initial basal area and abiotic parameters (altimetric quota. We verified that recruitment was higher than mortality, and the gain of basal area was higher than the loses. This result suggests that the forest is expanding, with gain in number of individuals and in basal area. Normally, this result characterizes forests in recuperation after some disturbance. The community sectors (basis, middle and top of hillside didn’t show any differences in terms of dynamic rates. In general, there were few significant correlations between biotic and abiotic parameters and the dynamic rates. The increase of density and basal area, the similarity of dynamic rates among the sectors and the low correlation between parameters and the dynamic of forest’s structure point out that the forest burning occurred in 90’s could be, nowadays, interfering directly in dynamic rates of forest.

  17. LANDIS PRO: a landscape model that predicts forest composition and structure changes at regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen J. Wang; Hong S. He; Jacob S. Fraser; Frank R. Thompson; Stephen R. Shifley; Martin A. Spetich

    2014-01-01

    LANDIS PRO predicts forest composition and structure changes incorporating species-, stand-, and landscape-scales processes at regional scales. Species-scale processes include tree growth, establishment, and mortality. Stand-scale processes contain density- and size-related resource competition that regulates self-thinning and seedling establishment. Landscapescale...

  18. Genetic structure and diversity of the black and rufous sengiin Tanzanian coastal forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabuni, C. A.; Van Houtte, N.; Gryseels, S.; Maganga, S. L. S.; Makundi, R. H.; Leirs, H.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 300, č. 4 (2016), s. 305-313 ISSN 0952-8369 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Rhynchocyon petersi * vulnerable * conservation genetics * coastal forests * Beamys hindei * genetic structure * genetic diversity * habitat fragmentation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2016

  19. Visual simulations of forest wildlife habitat structure, change, and landscape context in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Anna M. Lester; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    2007-01-01

    Visualization is a powerful tool for depicting projections of forest structure and landscape conditions, for communicating habitat management practices, and for providing a landscape context to private landowners and to those concerned with public land management. Recent advances in visualization technology, especially in graphics quality, ease of use, and relative...

  20. Modeling the Influence of Forest Structure on Microsite Habitat Use by Snowshoe Hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Fuller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus is an important prey species for many Carnivora and has strong influences on community structure and function in northern forests. An understanding of within-stand (microsite forest structural characteristics that promote high use by hares is important to provide forest management guidelines. We measured forest structural characteristics at the microsite-scale in north-central Maine and used an information-theoretic modeling approach to infer which characteristics were most strongly associated with use by hares during winter. We measured overwinter hare pellet density to model relationships among microsite-scale vegetation structure and hare use. Overwinter pellet density was positively associated with live stem cover (3 × coniferous saplings + deciduous saplings and negatively associated with overstory canopy closure; the two variables explained 71% of the variation in microsite use by hares. The highest pellet densities were in grids with canopy closure 22,000 stems/ha. Silvicultural practices that create dense areas of conifer and deciduous saplings should receive high within-stand use by hares in winter. These conditions can be achieved by promoting the release of advanced regeneration and reducing overstory cover to encourage establishment of shade-intolerant species; clearcutting is one such silvicultural prescription to achieve these conditions.

  1. Structure and resilience of fungal communities in Alaskan boreal forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Lee Taylor; Ian C. Herriott; Kelsie E. Stone; Jack W. McFarland; Michael G. Booth; Mary Beth Leigh

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines molecular analyses of soil fungi within the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research program. We examined community structure in three studies in mixed upland, black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) forests and examined taxa involved in cellulose...

  2. Changes in microbial community structure following herbicide (glyphosate) additions to forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice W. Ratcliff; Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate applied at the recommended field rate to a clay loam and a sandy loam forest soil resulted in few changes in microbial community structure. Total and culturable bacteria, fungal hyphal length, bacterial:fungal biomass, carbon utilization profiles (BIOLOG), and bacterial and fungal phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were unaffected 1, 3, 7, or 30 days...

  3. Managed forest landscape structure and avian species richness in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Loehle; T. Bently Wigley; Scott Rutzmoser; John A. Gerwin; Patrick D. Keyser; Richard A. Lancia; Christopher J. Reynolds; Ronald E. Thill; Robert Weih; Don White; Petra Bohall Wood

    2005-01-01

    Forest structural features at the stand scale (e.g., snags, stem density, species composition) and habitat attributes at larger spatial scales (e.g., landscape pattern, road density) can influence biological diversity and have been proposed as indicators in sustainable forestry programs. This study investigated relationships between such factors and total richness of...

  4. The structure, function and value of urban forests in California communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Qingfu Xiao; Natalie S. van Doorn; John de Goede; Jacquelyn Bjorkman; Allan Hollander; Ryan M. Boynton; James F. Quinn; James H. Thorne

    2017-01-01

    This study used tree data from field plots in urban areas to describe forest structure in urban areas throughout California. The plot data were used with numerical models to calculate several ecosystem services produced by trees. A series of transfer functions were calculated to scale-up results from the plots to the landscape using urban tree canopy (UTC) mapped at 1-...

  5. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas C. Morton; Jeremy Rubio; Bruce D. Cook; Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry; Marcos Longo; Hyeungu Choi; Maria Hunter; Michael Keller

    2016-01-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART...

  6. A Multi-temporal Analysis of Logging Impacts on Tropical Forest Structure Using Airborne Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M. M.; Pinagé, E. R.; Duffy, P.; Longo, M.; dos-Santos, M. N.; Leitold, V.; Morton, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The long-term impacts of selective logging on carbon cycling and ecosystem function in tropical-forests are still uncertain. Despite improvements in selective logging detection using satellite data, quantifying changes in forest structure from logging and recovery following logging is difficult using orbital data. We analyzed the dynamics of forest structure comparing logged and unlogged forests in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon (Paragominas Municipality, Pará State) using small footprint discrete return airborne lidar data acquired in 2012 and 2014. Logging operations were conducted at the 1200 ha study site from 2006 through 2013 using reduced impact logging techniques—management practices that minimize canopy and ground damage compared to more common conventional logging. Nevertheless, logging still reduced aboveground biomass by 10% to 20% in logged areas compared to intact forests. We aggregated lidar point-cloud data at spatial scales ranging from 50 m to 250 m and developed a binomial classification model based on the height distribution of lidar returns in 2012 and validated the model against the 2014 lidar acquisition. We accurately classified intact and logged forest classes compared with field data. Classification performance improved as spatial resolution increased (AUC = 0.974 at 250 m). We analyzed the differences in canopy gaps, understory damage (based on a relative density model), and biomass (estimated from total canopy height) of intact and logged classes. As expected, logging greatly increased both canopy gap formation and understory damage. However, while the area identified as canopy gap persisted for at least 8 years (from the oldest logging treatments in 2006 to the most recent lidar acquisition in 2014), the effects of ground damage were mostly erased by vigorous understory regrowth after about 5 years. The rate of new gap formation was 6 to 7 times greater in recently logged forests compared to undisturbed forests. New gaps opened at a

  7. Presence of riparian vegetation increases biotic condition of fish assemblages in two Brazilian reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cop Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The riparian vegetation in lakes and reservoirs is source of course wood structures such as trunks and branches and is used as sheltering, spawning and foraging habitats for fishes. The reduction of these submerged structures can thus, affect the composition and structure of fish assemblages in reservoirs. Aim To evaluate the influence of riparian vegetation on the biotic condition of fish assemblage by adapting the Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index (RFAI to two reservoirs in the Upper Paranapanema river basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. Methods The RFAI was adapted from metrics related to the functional characteristics and composition of fish assemblages through a protocol of metric selection and validation, and to its response to the presence of riparian vegetation. Results The final RFAI was composed by nine metrics, been lower in sites without riparian vegetation as consequence of the predominance of larger individuals and the percent of piscivorous and detritivorous fishes. Conclusions These results suggest that increasing shore habitat complexity in reservoirs by maintaining riparian vegetation increases fish biotic integrity.

  8. Application of Lidar remote sensing to the estimation of forest canopy and stand structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsky, Michael Andrew

    A new remote sensing instrument, SLICER (Scanning Lidar Imager of Canopies by Echo Recovery), has been applied to the problem of remote sensing the canopy and stand structure of two groups of deciduous forests, Tulip Poplar-Oak stands in the vicinity of Annapolis, MD. and bottomland hardwood stands near Williamston, NC. The ability of the SLICER instrument to remotely sense the vertical distribution of canopy structure (Canopy Height Profile), bulk canopy transmittance, and several indices of canopy height has been successfully validated using twelve stands with coincident field and SLICER estimates of canopy structure. Principal components analysis has been applied to canopy height profiles from both field sites, and three significant factors were identified, each closely related to the amount of foliage in a recognizable layer of the forest, either understory, midstory, or overstory. The distribution of canopy structure to these layers is significantly correlated with the size and number of stems supporting them. The same layered structure was shown to apply to both field and SLICER remotely sensed canopy height profiles, and to apply to SLICER remotely sensed canopy profiles from both the bottomland hardwood stands in the coastal plain of North Carolina, and to mesic Tulip-Poplars stands in the upland coastal plain of Maryland. Linear regressions have demonstrated that canopy and stand structure are correlated to both a statistically significant and useful degree. Stand age and stem density is more highly correlated to stand height, while stand basal area and aboveground biomass are more closely related to a new measure of canopy structure, the quadratic mean canopy height. A geometric model of canopy structure has been shown to explain the differing relationships between canopy structure and stand basal area for stands of Eastern Deciduous Forest and Douglas Fir Forest.

  9. The importance of forest structure for carbon fluxes of the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödig, Edna; Cuntz, Matthias; Rammig, Anja; Fischer, Rico; Taubert, Franziska; Huth, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Precise descriptions of forest productivity, biomass, and structure are essential for understanding ecosystem responses to climatic and anthropogenic changes. However, relations between these components are complex, in particular for tropical forests. We developed an approach to simulate carbon dynamics in the Amazon rainforest including around 410 billion individual trees within 7.8 million km2. We integrated canopy height observations from space-borne LIDAR in order to quantify spatial variations in forest state and structure reflecting small-scale to large-scale natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Under current conditions, we identified the Amazon rainforest as a carbon sink, gaining 0.56 GtC per year. This carbon sink is driven by an estimated mean gross primary productivity (GPP) of 25.1 tC ha‑1 a‑1, and a mean woody aboveground net primary productivity (wANPP) of 4.2 tC ha‑1 a‑1. We found that successional states play an important role for the relations between productivity and biomass. Forests in early to intermediate successional states are the most productive, and woody above-ground carbon use efficiencies are non-linear. Simulated values can be compared to observed carbon fluxes at various spatial resolutions (>40 m). Notably, we found that our GPP corresponds to the values derived from MODIS. For NPP, spatial differences can be observed due to the consideration of forest successional states in our approach. We conclude that forest structure has a substantial impact on productivity and biomass. It is an essential factor that should be taken into account when estimating current carbon budgets or analyzing climate change scenarios for the Amazon rainforest.

  10. Landscape structure, groundwater dynamics, and soil water content influence soil respiration across riparian-hillslope transitions in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent J. Pacific; Brian L. McGlynn; Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Daniel L. Welsch; Howard E. Epstein

    2011-01-01

    Variability in soil respiration at various spatial and temporal scales has been the focus of much research over the last decade aimed to improve our understanding and parameterization of physical and environmental controls on this flux. However, few studies have assessed the control of landscape position and groundwater table dynamics on the spatiotemporal variability...

  11. Mangrove forest composition and structure in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Tom; Cunningham, Sarah L; Guzmán, Héctor M; Mair, James M; Guevara, José M; Betts, Tanja

    2010-09-01

    Mangrove forest is an important ecosystem that provides many services, but in Panama, as in other countries, they are under threat due to a variety of human activities. Nowadays, large areas of mangroves continue to be lost without been described and lack of management strategies. This study focused on the mangrove structure in the two largest islands, Isla del Rey and Isla San Jose, of Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA), Pacific Panama. Assessment of Landsat satellite imagery revealed loss of mangroves in the LPA of 965ha in the period 1974-1986, and 248ha in the period 1986-2000. The majority of the loss (>77%) from the two study islands was due to timber extraction and agricultural development. In May 2006, permanent plots following the CARICOMP protocol were established at two sites on Isla del Rey (R1 and R2) and one site on Isla San Jose (SJ) where standardized metrics such as species, height and diameter at breast height of adult trees and seedlings were recorded. Forest structure differed at the three sites, although R1 and R2 were most similar. At R1, Laguncularia racemosa was the important species and R2 was dominated by Pelliciera rhizophorae. Examination of the forest structure and classified imagery indicated that these sites are spatially dynamic and appear to be rejuvenating. The forest structure would indicate that the sites have been growth-limited previously by human activities and possibly by other factors. SJ was dominated by Rhizophora mangle and appears to have a mature forest with large adult trees and few seedlings. It does not appear to have shown the same extent of spatial regrowth as the other two sites between 1986 and 2000 and is relatively static. The establishment of permanent plots and monitoring will be useful as part of the management plan, as the LPA shows a variety of mangrove structures and could be subject to further coastal development.

  12. Structure of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) under external stress in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibrans, Alexander C; Sevegnani, Lúcia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Schorn, Lauri A; Sobral, Marcos G; de Gasper, André L; Lingner, Débora V; Brogni, Eduardo; Klemz, Guilherme; Godoy, Marcela B; Verdi, Marcio

    2011-09-01

    This study is part of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina, conceived to evaluate forest resources, species composition and structure of forest remnants, providing information to update forest conservation and land use policy in Southern Brazilian State of Santa Catarina (95 000 km2). In accordance to the Brazilian National Forest Inventory (IFN-BR), the inventory applies systematic sampling, with 440 clusters containing four crosswise 1 000m2 plots (20 x 50m) each, located on a 10 x 10km grid overlaid to land use map based on classification of SPOT-4 images from 2005. Within the sample units, all woody individuals of the main stratum (DBH > or = 10cm) are measured and collected (fertile and sterile), if not undoubtedly identified in field. Regeneration stratum (height > 1.50m; DBH Floristic sampling includes collection of all fertile trees, shrubs and herbs within the sample unit and in its surroundings. This study performs analysis based on 92 clusters measured in 2008 within an area of 32320km2 of mixed ombrophyllous forests with Araucaria angustifolia located at the state's high plateau (500m to 1 560m above sea level at 26 degrees 00'-28 degrees 30' S and 49 degrees 13'-51 degrees 23' W). Mean density (DBH > or = 10cm) is 578 individuals/ha (ranging from 85/ha to 1 310/ha), mean species richness in measured remnants is 35 (8 to 62), Shannon and Wiener diversity index (H') varies between 1.05 and 3.48. Despite high total species diversity (364 Magnoliophyta, five Coniferophyta and one tree fern) and relatively high mean basal area (25.75m2/ha, varying from 3.87 to 68.85m2/ha), the overwhelming majority of forest fragments are considered highly impacted and impoverished, mostly by logging, burning and extensive cattle farming, turning necessary more efficient protection measures. Basal area was considered an appropriate indicator for stand quality and conservation status.

  13. Edge Detection from RGB-D Image Based on Structured Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the fundamental problem in computer vision: edge detection. We propose a new edge detector using structured random forests as the classifier, which can make full use of RGB-D image information from Kinect. Before classification, the adaptive bilateral filter is used for the denoising processing of the depth image. As data sources, information of 13 channels from RGB-D image is computed. In order to train the random forest classifier, the approximation measurement of the information gain is used. All the structured labels at a given node are mapped to a discrete set of labels using the Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. NYUD2 dataset is used to train our structured random forests. The random forest algorithm is used to classify the RGB-D image information for extracting the edge of the image. In addition to the proposed methodology, the quantitative comparisons of different algorithms are presented. The results of the experiments demonstrate the significant improvements of our algorithm over the state of the art.

  14. Effects of model choice and forest structure on inventory-based estimations of Puerto Rican forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Maria Del Rocio; Suarez Rozo

    2005-01-01

    Total aboveground live tree biomass in Puerto Rican lower montane wet, subtropical wet, subtropical moist and subtropical dry forests was estimated using data from two forest inventories and published regression equations. Multiple potentially-applicable published biomass models existed for some forested life zones, and their estimates tended to diverge with increasing...

  15. Effect of forest structural change on carbon storage in a coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiangrong; Yu, Mukui; Wu, Tonggui

    2013-01-01

    Forest structural change affects the forest's growth and the carbon storage. Two treatments, thinning (30% thinning intensity) and underplanting plus thinning, are being implemented in a coastal Metasequoia glyptostroboides forest shelterbelt in Eastern China. The vegetation carbon storage significantly increased in the underplanted and thinned treatments compared with that in the unthinned treatment (P 0.05). The soil light fraction organic carbon (LFOC) was significantly higher at the 0-15 cm soil layer in the thinned and underplanted stands compared with that in the unthinned stand (P < 0.05). The soil respiration of the underplanted treatment was significantly higher than that of the unthinned treatment only in July (P < 0.05). This study concludes that 30% thinning and underplanting after thinning could be more favorable to carbon sequestration for M. glyptostroboides plantations in the coastal areas of Eastern China.

  16. Water quality and fish dynamics in forested wetlands associated with an oxbow lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Caroline S.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Kroger, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Forested wetlands represent some of the most distinct environments in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Depending on season, water in forested wetlands can be warm, stagnant, and oxygen-depleted, yet may support high fish diversity. Fish assemblages in forested wetlands are not well studied because of difficulties in sampling heavily structured environments. During the April–July period, we surveyed and compared the water quality and assemblages of small fish in a margin wetland (forested fringe along a lake shore), contiguous wetland (forested wetland adjacent to a lake), and the open water of an oxbow lake. Dissolved-oxygen levels measured hourly 0.5 m below the surface were higher in the open water than in either of the forested wetlands. Despite reduced water quality, fish-species richness and catch rates estimated with light traps were greater in the forested wetlands than in the open water. The forested wetlands supported large numbers of fish and unique fish assemblages that included some rare species, likely because of their structural complexity. Programs developed to refine agricultural practices, preserve riparian zones, and restore lakes should include guidance to protect and reestablish forested wetlands.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Changes in Structure for a Mediterranean Urban Forest: Santiago, Chile 2002 to 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Escobedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on how urban forest ecosystems in South America and Mediterranean climates change across both space and time. This study statistically and spatially analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of Santiago, Chile’s urban forest using tree and plot-level data from permanent plots from 2002 to 2014. We found mortality, ingrowth, and tree cover remained stable over the analysis period and similar patterns were observed for basal area (BA and biomass. However, tree cover increased, and was greater in the highest socioeconomic stratum neighborhoods while it dropped in the medium and low strata. Growth rates for the five most common tree species averaged from 0.12 to 0.36 cm·year−1. Spatially, tree biomass and BA were greater in the affluent, northeastern sections of the city and in southwest peri-urban areas. Conversely, less affluent central, northwest, and southern areas showed temporal losses in BA and biomass. Overall, we found that Santiago’s urban forest follows similar patterns as in other parts of the world; affluent areas tend to have more and better managed urban forests than poorer areas, and changes are primarily influenced by social and ecological drivers. Nonetheless, care is warranted when comparing urban forest structural metrics measured with similar sampling-monitoring approaches across ecologically disparate regions and biomes.

  18. Lidar observed seasonal variation of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    Both light and water are important environmental factors governing tree growth. Responses of tropical forests to their changes are complicated and can vary substantially across different spatial and temporal scales. Of particular interest is the dry-season greening-up of Amazon forests, a phenomenon undergoing considerable debates whether it is real or a "light illusion" caused by artifacts of passive optical remote sensing techniques. Here we analyze seasonal dynamic patterns of vertical canopy structure in the Amazon forests using lidar observations from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat). We found that the net greening of canopy layer coincides with the wet-to-dry transition period, and its net browning occurs mostly at the late dry season. The understory also shows a seasonal cycle, but with an opposite variation to canopy and minimal correlation to seasonal variations in rainfall or radiation. Our results further suggest a potential interaction between canopy layers in the light regime that can optimize the growth of Amazon forests during the dry season. This light regime variability that exists in both spatial and temporal domains can better reveal the dry-season greening-up phenomenon, which appears less obvious when treating the Amazon forests as a whole.

  19. Strong spatial structure, Pliocene diversification and cryptic diversity in the Neotropical dry forest spider Sicarius cariri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Ivan L F; Oliveira, Ubirajara; Santos, Fabrício R; Vidigal, Teofânia H D A; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian Caatinga is part of the seasonally dry tropical forests, a vegetation type disjunctly distributed throughout the Neotropics. It has been suggested that during Pleistocene glacial periods, these dry forests had a continuous distribution, so that these climatic shifts may have acted as important driving forces of the Caatinga biota diversification. To address how these events affected the distribution of a dry forest species, we chose Sicarius cariri, a spider endemic to the Caatinga, as a model. We studied the phylogeography of one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene and reconstructed the paleodistribution of the species using modelling algorithms. We found two allopatric and deeply divergent clades within S. cariri, suggesting that this species as currently recognized might consist of more than one independently evolving lineage. Sicarius cariri populations are highly structured, with low haplotype sharing among localities, high fixation index and isolation by distance. Models of paleodistribution, Bayesian reconstructions and coalescent simulations suggest that this species experienced a reduction in its population size during glacial periods, rather than the expansion expected by previous hypotheses on the paleodistribution of dry forest taxa. In addition to that, major splits of intraspecific lineages of S. cariri took place in the Pliocene. Taken together, these results indicate S. cariri has a complex diversification history dating back to the Tertiary, suggesting the history of dry forest taxa may be significantly older than previously thought. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of variations in taxonomic diversity, forest structure, and aboveground biomass using remote sensing along an altitudinal gradient in tropical montane forest of Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, C. M.; Saatchi, S. S.; Clark, D.; Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J.; Gillespie, T. W.; Rovzar, C. M.; Andelman, S.

    2012-12-01

    This research sought to understand how alpha and beta diversity of plants vary and relate to the three-dimensional vegetation structure and aboveground biomass along environmental gradients in the tropical montane forests of Braulio Carrillo National Park in Costa Rica. There is growing evidence that ecosystem structure plays an important role in defining patterns of species diversity and along with abiotic factors (climate and edaphic) control the phenotypic and functional variations across landscapes. It is well documented that strong subdivisions at local and regional scales are found mainly on geologic or climate gradients. These general determinants of biodiversity are best demonstrated in regions with natural gradients such as tropical montane forests. Altitudinal gradients provide a landscape scale changes through variations in topography, climate, and edaphic conditions on which we tested several theoretical and biological hypotheses regarding drivers of biodiversity. The study was performed by using forest inventory and botanical data from nine 1-ha plots ranging from 100 m to 2800 m above sea level and remote sensing data from airborne lidar and radar sensors to quantify variations in forest structure. In this study we report on the effectiveness of relating patterns of tree taxonomic alpha diversity to three-dimensional structure of a tropical montane forest using lidar and radar observations of forest structure and biomass. We assessed alpha and beta diversity at the species, genus, and family levels utilizing datasets provided by the Terrestrial Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network. Through the comparison to active remote sensing imagery, our results show that there is a strong relationship between forest 3D-structure, and alpha and beta diversity controlled by variations in abiotic factors along the altitudinal gradient. Using spatial analysis with the aid of remote sensing data, we find distinct patterns along the environmental gradients