WorldWideScience

Sample records for riparian forest areas

  1. Linked in: connecting riparian areas to support forest biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Kelly Burnett; Deanna Olson

    2010-01-01

    Many forest-dwelling species rely on both terrestrial and aquatic habitat for their survival. These species, including rare and little-understood amphibians and arthropods, live in and around headwater streams and disperse overland to neighboring headwater streams. Forest management policies that rely on riparian buffer strips and structurebased management—practices...

  2. Effects of changes in the riparian forest on the butterfly community (Insecta: Lepidoptera in Cerrado areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena S.R. Cabette

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preserved riparian vegetation usually has greater environmental complexity than the riparian vegetation modified by human actions. These systems may have a greater availability and diversity of food resources for the species. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of changes on the structure of the riparian forest on species richness, beta diversity and composition of butterfly species in the Cerrado of Mato Grosso. We tested the hypotheses that: (i higher species richness and (ii beta diversity would be recorded in more preserved environments; and (iii species composition would be more homogeneous in disturbed habitats. For hypothesis testing, the riparian vegetation of eight streams were sampled in four periods of the year in a fixed transect of 100 m along the shores. The richness of butterfly species is lower in disturbed than in preserved areas. However, species richness is not affected by habitat integrity. Beta diversity differed among sites, such that preserved sites have greater beta diversity, showing greater variation in species composition. In addition, beta diversity was positively affected by environmental heterogeneity. A total of 23 of the 84 species sampled occurred only in the changed environment, 42 were exclusive to preserved sites and 19 occurred in both environments. The environmental change caused by riparian forest removal drastically affects the butterfly community. Therefore, riparian vegetation is extremely important for butterfly preservation in the Cerrado and may be a true biodiversity oasis, especially during the dry periods, when the biome undergoes water stress and resource supply is more limited.

  3. Do Riparian Buffers Protect Stream Invertebrate Communities in South American Atlantic Forest Agricultural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Marrochi, N.; Bonetto, C.; Liess, M.; Buss, D. F.; Vieira da Silva, C.; Chiu, M.-C.; Resh, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence and relative importance of insecticides and other agricultural stressors in determining variability in invertebrate communities in small streams in intensive soy-production regions of Brazil and Paraguay. In Paraguay we sampled 17 sites on tributaries of the Pirapó River in the state of Itapúa and in Brazil we sampled 18 sites on tributaries of the San Francisco River in the state of Paraná. The riparian buffer zones generally contained native Atlantic forest remnants and/or introduced tree species at various stages of growth. In Brazil the stream buffer width was negatively correlated with sediment insecticide concentrations and buffer width was found to have moderate importance in mitigating effects on some sensitive taxa such as mayflies. However, in both regions insecticides had low relative importance in explaining variability in invertebrate communities, while various habitat parameters were more important. In Brazil, the percent coverage of soft depositional sediment in streams was the most important agriculture-related explanatory variable, and the overall stream-habitat score was the most important variable in Paraguay streams. Paraguay and Brazil both have laws requiring forested riparian buffers. The ample forested riparian buffer zones typical of streams in these regions are likely to have mitigated the effects of pesticides on stream invertebrate communities. This study provides evidence that riparian buffer regulations in the Atlantic Forest region are protecting stream ecosystems from pesticides and other agricultural stressors. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum buffer widths necessary to achieve optimal protection.

  4. Adaptation of the QBR index for use in riparian forests of central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie R. Colwell; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Although high quality riparian forests are an endangered ecosystem type throughout the world, there has been no ecological index to measure the habitat quality of riparian forests in Ohio. The QBR (qualitat del bosc de ribera, or riparian forest quality) index was developed to assess the quality of habitat in Mediterranean forested riparian areas, and we have modified...

  5. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  6. Evaluating the quality of riparian forest vegetation: the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Magdaleno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper presents a novel index, the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index, for assessing the ecological condition of riparian forests. The status of riparian ecosystems has global importance due to the ecological and social benefits and services they provide. The initiation of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE requires the assessment of the hydromorphological quality of natural channels. The Directive describes riparian forests as one of the fundamental components that determine the structure of riverine areas. The RFV index was developed to meet the aim of the Directive and to complement the existing methodologies for the evaluation of riparian forests.Area of study: The RFV index was applied to a wide range of streams and rivers (170 water bodies inSpain.Materials and methods: The calculation of the RFV index is based on the assessment of both the spatial continuity of the forest (in its three core dimensions: longitudinal, transversal and vertical and the regeneration capacity of the forest, in a sampling area related to the river hydromorphological pattern. This index enables an evaluation of the quality and degree of alteration of riparian forests. In addition, it helps to determine the scenarios that are necessary to improve the status of riparian forests and to develop processes for restoring their structure and composition.Main results: The results were compared with some previous tools for the assessment of riparian vegetation. The RFV index got the highest average scores in the basins of northernSpain, which suffer lower human influence. The forests in central and southern rivers got worse scores. The bigger differences with other tools were found in complex and partially altered streams and rivers.Research highlights: The study showed the index’s applicability under diverse hydromorphological and ecological conditions and the main advantages of its application. The utilization of the index allows a

  7. Best management practices for riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Phillips; Lloyd W. Swift; Charles R. Blinn

    2000-01-01

    Forest streams, lakes, and other water bodies create unique conditions along their margins that control and influence transfers of energy, nutrients, and sediments between aquatic and terrestrial systems. These riparian areas are among the most critical features of the landscape because they contain a rich diversity of plants and animals and help to maintain water...

  8. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  9. Riparian area protection and outdoor recreation: lessons from the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Impero Wilson; Troy E. Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2012-01-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan required the US Forest Service (USFS) to shift its management focus to ecological values rather than the utilitarian ones that had dominated forest policy in the region. This article examines the effects of this shift on the USFS's historic mission to provide recreational access to the region's forests. Focusing on six national...

  10. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  11. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia C.; Johnson, James E. (James Eric), 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Discusses riparian forests' ability to support many species of wildlife and explains that the importance of a particular riparian area for wildlife will depend on the size of the area, adjoining land uses, riparian vegetation, features inside the area, and the wildlife species of interest.

  12. Fire history of coniferous riparian forests in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Van de Water; M. North

    2010-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological process in many western U.S. coniferous forests, yet high fuel loads, rural home construction and other factors have encouraged the suppression of most wildfires. Using mechanical thinning and prescribed burning, land managers often try to reduce fuels in strategic areas with the highest fuel loads. Riparian forests, however, are often...

  13. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    declines in the black bear and Florida panther . The extent to which patch size affects animal populations has been most thoroughly investi- gated with... animal communities. Reservoir construction and agricultural practices have eliminated or severely degraded many of the wetlands and riparian areas...oak (Q. falcata), and black oak (Q. velutina), and a variety of hickories, including mockernut (Carya tomentosa), pignut (C. glabra), and shagbark

  14. Survey of vegetation and its diametric distribution in an area of cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest fragment at Dois Irmãos stream in the Area of Environmental Protection (APA of Cafuringa, Federal District, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elias de Paula

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available All individual trees with a diameter at breast height (DBH of over 5cm, as well as the natural succession, were identified in 2,500m2 of the savannah (cerrado sensu stricto area and in 5,000m2 of the “Dois Irmãos” riparian forest vegetation (15º30’19”S and 48º06’18”W. The floristic composition of the cerrado sensu stricto was composed by 100 trees distributed in 25 species, and the riparian forest consisted of 155 trees distributed in 55 species. The natural regeneration was formed with 211 and 287 individuals in the cerrado sensu stricto and riparian forest distributed into 38 and 55 species respectively. The basal areas of the trees occupied 3.40m2.ha-1 in the cerrado sensu stricto and 5.08m2.ha-1 in the riparian forest. The diametric distribution curves for both plant communities, adjusted by the Meyers equation, demonstrated a typical tendency of reversed-J shape with strongly antropic action in the 11 to 17cm diametric classes.

  15. Biodiversity and Phytosociological Studies of Upstream and Downstream Riparian Areas of Pakistan: Special Reference to Taunsa Wildlife Sanctuary and Keti Shah Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arfeen, R. Z.; Saleem, A.; Mirza, S. N.; Tayyab, H. M.; Akmal, M.; Afzal, O.

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan riparian zone mostly belongs to Sindh and Punjab provinces and prone to climatic problems and anthropogenic activities. The research was conduct to estimate and compare the structure and composition of riverine floral diversity in low riparian zone of River Indus. The data was collected from Keti Shah forest and Taunsa wildlife sanctuary. Total 14259 plants/individuals were recorded, which belong to 54 plant species with 18 different families. In Taunsa pre-monsoon survey, total 30 plant species were found with 4476 plants from 16 different families. In Taunsa post-monsoon survey total 3348 individuals were recorded from 20 plant species and 9 families. Similarly, in Keti Shah forest, total 3975 individual were recorded from 22 species and 11 families during the pre-monsoon season and 2460 plants were recorded in post-monsoon season, belonging to 16 species and 10 families. These species mostly belong to Fabaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Asclepiadaceae. Different phytosociological parameters indicate Tamarix dioca, Cynodon dactylon, Desmostachya bipinnata, Imperata cylindrica, Fimbristylis hispidula, Acacia nilotica, Phragmites karka, Tamarix sp. and Saccharum bengalense as dominant species. The biodiversity in upstream and downstream areas were rich in pre-monsoon season in comparison to post-monsoon season in surveyed areas. This study is useful for management of the area in the future as conservation strategies can be made through considering the adaptive tree species in future plantation and endangered species can be conserved. (author)

  16. Function, Design, and Establishment of Riparian Forest Buffers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia Caldwell

    1999-01-01

    Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests protect and improve water quality, provide habitat for plants and animals, support aquatic communities, and provide many benefits to humans. Virginia, along with other states in the Chesapeake Bay region, has recognized the importance of riparian forests by implementing a plan to restore forested buffers along streams, rivers, and lakes. This project reviews selected literature on riparian forest bu...

  17. Avian diversity and feeding guilds in a secondary forest, an oil palm plantation and a paddy field in riparian areas of the kerian river basin, perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Nur Munira; Latip, Nurul Salmi Abdul; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md; Shafie, Nur Juliani; Khairuddin, Nurul Liyana

    2011-12-01

    The diversity and the feeding guilds of birds in three different habitats (secondary forest, oil palm plantation and paddy field) were investigated in riparian areas of the Kerian River Basin (KRB), Perak, Malaysia. Point-count observation and mist-netting methods were used to determine bird diversity and abundance. A total of 132 species of birds from 46 families were recorded in the 3 habitats. Species diversity, measured by Shannon's diversity index, was 3.561, 3.183 and 1.042 in the secondary forest, the paddy field and the oil palm plantation, respectively. The vegetation diversity and the habitat structure were important determinants of the number of bird species occurring in an area. The relative abundance of the insectivore, insectivore-frugivore and frugivore guilds was greater in the forest than in the monoculture plantation. In contrast, the relative abundance of the carnivore, granivore and omnivore guilds was higher in the plantation. The results of the study show that the conversion of forest to either oil palm plantation or paddy fields produced a decline in bird diversity and changes in the distribution of bird feeding guilds.

  18. Biodiversity management approaches for stream-riparian areas: perspectives for Pacific Northwest headwater forests, microclimates, and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Olson; P.D. Anderson; C.A. Frissell; H.H. Welsh; D.F. Bradford

    2007-01-01

    New science insights are redefining stream riparian zones, particularly relative to headwaters, microclimate conditions, and fauna such as amphibians. We synthesize data on these topics, and propose management approaches to target sensitive biota at reach to landscape scales.

  19. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  20. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  4. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  5. SNAG AND LARGE WOODY DEBRIS DYNAMICS IN RIPARIAN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Important components of riparian forests are snags and streamside large woody debris (LWD) because they are functional in maintaining water quality and providing habitat for numerous plants and animals. To effectively manage riparian forests, it is important to understand the dy...

  6. The negative influences of the new brazilian forest code on the conservation of riparian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Normandes Matos da

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available More than one million hectares of riparian forests were degraded or altered in Mato Grosso State (Brazil up to 2009. The aim of the research is to set a comparative scenario to show differences in the quantification of environmental liabilities in riparian forest areas resulting from the change in native vegetation protection rules due to the transition between Laws 4771/65 and 12651/2012. Data collection took place in a marginal stretch of Vermelho River in Rondonópolis County, Mato Grosso State. The following data set was taken into consideration: aerial images derived from unmanned aerial vehicle, Rapid Eye satellite images and orbital images hosted at Google Earth. The spatial resolution of those images was compared. The aerial photos composed a mosaic that was photo-interpreted to generate land use and occupation classes. The riparian forest areas of a rural property were used as parameter, and their environmental situation was compared in 05 meter and 100 meter strips. Thus, by taking into consideration the current rules, 23,501 m2 of area ceased to be an environmental liability within the riparian forest and became a consolidated rural area. According to the previous Forest Code, in a different scenario, that is, in a set of rural properties, the public authority would receive USD 68,600.00 in fines. The new Brazilian Forestry Code of 2012, which replaces the previous one made in 1965, exempts those responsible for rural property from regenerating previously deforested native vegetation - an obligation established by older Forest Code. We have shown that the new Forest Code has diminished the legal responsibility of the rural owners in relation to the maintenance of forest fragments in their properties.

  7. Soil organic carbon in riparian forests, rice fields, and pastures in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia.

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    Hernán Jair Andrade-Castañeda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in the interface between riparian forests and a matrix of rice fields and pastures with organic management. The study took place in Piedras, Tolima, Colombia. Two plots in production (rice and pasture were selected and SOC was estimated in these areas and in the edge and the interior of adjacent riparian forests at a depth of 0 to 20 cm. Bulk density and SOC concentration were quantified between May and July, 2013. Potential change in SOC storage due to land use change among rice fields, pastures, and riparian forests was estimated. The interfaces rice field-riparian forest and pasture-riparian forest stored an average of 65.6 and 61.3 t C/ha, respectively, with no statistical differences (p>0.05. Statistical differences were not detected (p>0.05 between agricultural matrices (rice fields and pastures in any of the variables. The sampling position (matrix and the edge and interior of forests had a significant impact (p<0.05 just in bulk density: 1.7 vs 1.1 vs 1.0 g/cm3 in interior and edge of the riparian forests and the matrix, respectively. SOC was not statistically affected (p>0.05 by the position in the riparian forest-matrix interface. Conversion from riparian forests to rice fields or pastures with organic management is not emitting greenhouse gases, on the contrary, it is increasing SOC in 3.2 t C/ha. 

  8. Developing management strategies for riparian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Hibbs; S. Chan

    2001-01-01

    This talk outlines four principles that are critical to successful management of a riparian area. First, given problems both with defining historic conditions and with returning to them, attaining management goals based on restoration of ecological processes and functions will be far more successful. Second, the management goals for any stream reach must be placed in a...

  9. Quantifying change in riparian ash forests following the introduction of EAB in Michigan and Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2012-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae; EAB) is an introduced beetle that kills ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. While most EAB-related ash mortality has been documented in urban areas, the effects of EAB in forested settings, particularly in riparian forests, are not well known. This study utilizes...

  10. Pavement and riparian forest shape the bird community along an urban river corridor

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    Christopher J.W. McClure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of habitat use by animals within urban-riparian corridors during the breeding season is important for conservation, yet remains understudied. We examined the bird community along an urban-riparian corridor through metropolitan Boise, Idaho and predicted that occupancy of individual species and species richness would be greater in forested areas than in urbanized areas. We surveyed birds throughout the summers of 2009 and 2010 and quantified the m2 of each cover-type within 50-m, 100-m, and 200-m buffers surrounding each survey location using satellite imagery. Occupancy modeling revealed that eight of 14 species analyzed were positively associated with riparian forest, and no species avoided forest. Species richness was negatively associated with the amount of paved surface within 100 m of a survey site with richness declining by more than two species for every hectare of paved surface. Most associations with cover-types–especially riparian forest–were at ⩾100 m. Therefore, the riparian forest within 100 m of a given site along an urban-riparian corridor should be the most important for maintaining species richness.

  11. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. PMID:27699201

  12. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

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    Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  13. Arthropod prey for riparian associated birds in headwater forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Li, Judith; Sobota, Janel; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Headwater riparian areas occupy a large proportion of the land base in Pacific Northwest forests, and thus are ecologically and economically important. Although a primary goal of management along small headwater streams is the protection of aquatic resources, streamside habitat also is important for many terrestrial wildlife species. However, mechanisms underlying the riparian associations of some terrestrial species have not been well studied, particularly for headwater drainages. We investigated the diets of and food availability for four bird species associated with riparian habitats in montane coastal forests of western Oregon, USA. We examined variation in the availability of arthropod prey as a function of distance from stream. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) emergent aquatic insects were a food source for insectivorous birds in headwater riparian areas, and (2) the abundances of aquatic and terrestrial arthropod prey did not differ between streamside and upland areas during the bird breeding season. We found that although adult aquatic insects were available for consumption throughout the study period, they represented a relatively small proportion of available prey abundance and biomass and were present in only 1% of the diet samples from only one of the four riparian-associated bird species. Nonetheless, arthropod prey, comprised primarily of insects of terrestrial origin, was more abundant in streamside than upland samples. We conclude that food resources for birds in headwater riparian areas are primarily associated with terrestrial vegetation, and that bird distributions along the gradient from streamside to upland may be related to variation in arthropod prey availability. Because distinct vegetation may distinguish riparian from upland habitats for riparian-associated birds and their terrestrial arthropod prey, we suggest that understory communities be considered when defining management zones for riparian habitat.

  14. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.

  15. Water use sources of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jianhua; Feng, Qi; Cao, Shengkui; Yu, Tengfei; Zhao, Chunyan

    2014-09-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main body of natural oases in the lower reaches of inland rivers; its growth and distribution are closely related to water use sources. However, how does the desert riparian forest obtains a stable water source and which water sources it uses to effectively avoid or overcome water stress to survive? This paper describes an analysis of the water sources, using the stable oxygen isotope technique and the linear mixed model of the isotopic values and of desert riparian Populus euphratica forests growing at sites with different groundwater depths and conditions. The results showed that the main water source of Populus euphratica changes from water in a single soil layer or groundwater to deep subsoil water and groundwater as the depth of groundwater increases. This appears to be an adaptive selection to arid and water-deficient conditions and is a primary reason for the long-term survival of P. euphratica in the desert riparian forest of an extremely arid region. Water contributions from the various soil layers and from groundwater differed and the desert riparian P. euphratica forests in different habitats had dissimilar water use strategies.

  16. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Hermes de Oliveira Machado Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  17. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Marli Candalaft Alcantara Parra; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ralisch, Ricardo; Universidade Estadual de Londrina/UEL; Ripol, Cristovon Videira; Instituto Paranaense de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural do Paraná/EMATER

    2009-01-01

    Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environment...

  18. A phytosociological study of riparian forests in Benin (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    Floristic ordination and classification of riparian forests in Benin were derived from a comprehensive floristic inventory. TWINSPAN classification and DCA analysis of a data set of 818 plant species and 180 releve's yielded 12 plant communities. Importance of waterways, relief, topography, latitude

  19. Transpirational water loss in invaded and restored semiarid riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgianne W. Moore; M. Keith Owens

    2011-01-01

    The invasive tree, Tamarix sp., was introduced to the United States in the 1800s to stabilize stream banks. The riparian ecosystem adjacent to the middle Rio Grande River in central NewMexico consists of mature cottonwood (Populus fremontii ) gallery forests with a dense Tamarix understory. We hypothesized that Populus would compensate for reduced competition by...

  20. A framework for profiling a lake's riparian area development potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Ciara Schlichting; Dorothy H. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges for managing residential development occur at the interface between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems -in a lake`s riparian area. Land use planners need a framework they can use to identify development hotspots, areas were the next push for development will most likely occur. Lake riparian development profiles provide a framework...

  1. The influence of connectivity in forest patches, and riparian vegetation width on stream macroinvertebrate fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IC Valle

    Full Text Available We assessed two dimensions of stream connectivity: longitudinal (between forest patches along the stream and lateral (riparian vegetation, using macroinvertebrate assemblages as bioindicators. Sites representing different land-uses were sampled in a lowland basin that holds a mosaic of protected areas. Land-use analysis, forest successional stages and riparian zone widths were calculated by the GIS analysis. Macroinvertebrate fauna was strongly affected by land-use. We observed a continuous decrease in the number of sensitive species, %Shredders and IBE-IOC biotic index from the upstream protected area to highly deforested sites, increasing again where the stream crosses a Biological Reserve. When analysing buffer strips, we found aquatic fauna responding to land-use alterations beyond the 30 m riparian corridor (60 m and 100 m wide. We discussed the longitudinal connectivity between forest patches and the riparian vegetation buffer strips necessary to hold high macroinvertebrate diversity. We recommend actions for the increase/maintenance of biodiversity in this and other lowland basins.

  2. High temporal resolution photography for observing riparian area use and grazing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2014, a 2.4 hectare site within the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest in northeastern Arizona, USA was selected to characterize temporal and spatial patterns of riparian area use. Three consecutive 30, 8, and 46 day time periods representing 1) unrestricted access, 2) prescribed cattle use, and 3...

  3. Simulation of Soil Quality with Riparian Forests and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Riparian forests are entrusted with important hydrological functions, such as riparian zone protection, filtering sediments and nutrients and mitigation of the amount of nutrients and xenobiotic molecules from the surrounding agro ecosystems. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0,2 and 0.2-0.4 m and its chemical (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, sum of bases-SB, bases saturation, V%, and aluminum saturation, m%); physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological attributes (basal respiration and microbial biomass) were determined. This work aimed to study the liner method of combining data, figures of merit (FoM), weighing process and the scoring functions developed by Wymore and asses the quality of the soil (SQI) by means of chemical, physical and microbiological soil attributes, employing the additive pondered model for two areas of riparian forest at different stages of ecological succession and an adjacent area cultivated with sugar cane, located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. Some hierarchical functions containing FoMs and their parameters were constructed, and from them weights were assigned to each FoM and parameter, in a way that cluster of structures with the same FoMs and parameters with different weights were formed. These clusters were used to calculate the SQI for all vegetal formations considering two types of soil (Oxisol and Podzol), in that way, the SQI was calculated for each combination of vegetation and soil. The SQIs values were usually higher in the oldest riparian forest, while the recent riparian forest showed the smallest SQI values, for both types of soil. The variation of values within a combination vegetation/soil was also different between all combinations, being that the set of values from the oldest riparian forest presented the lowest amplitude. It was also observed that the Oxisols, regardless of the vegetation, presented higher SQIs

  4. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a...

  5. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  8. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  10. Effects of riparian buffer width on wood loading in headwater streams after repeated forest thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia I. Burton; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2016-01-01

    Forested riparian buffer zones are used in conjunction with upland forest management, in part, to provide for the recruitment for large wood to streams. Small headwater streams account for the majority of stream networks in many forested regions. Yet, our understanding of how riparian buffer width influences wood dynamics in headwater streams is relatively less...

  11. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  12. [Distribution pattern of rare plants along riparian zone and its implication for conservation in Shennongjia area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingxi; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Qinghua

    2002-11-01

    Due to the importance of riparian zone in maintaining and protecting regional biodiversity, more and more ecologists paid their attentions to riparian zone, and had been aware of the important effects of riparian zone in basic study and practical management. In this study, forty sampling belts (10 m x 100 m) parallel to the bank of Xiangxi River at different elevations in Shennongjia area were selected to investigate the riparian vegetation and rare plants. Fourteen species of rare plants were found in riparian zone, accounting for 42.4% of total rare plant species in Shennongjia area. The main distribution range of the fourteen rare plant species was the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest at elevation of 1200-1800 m, where species diversity of plant community was the maximum at the moderate elevation. Fourteen rare plant species could be divided into three groups against the elevation, namely low elevation species group, moderate elevation species group, and high elevation group. In the paper, the authors discussed the reasons forming the distribution pattern of rare plant species, and pointed out the important function of riparian zone on rare plant species protection.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  14. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  15. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  16. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  17. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  18. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  19. PHYTOCOENOSES OF URBAN RIPARIAN FORESTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE LAS OSOBOWICKI FOREST (WROCŁAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Stefańska-Krzaczek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Las Osobowicki forest is remnant riparian woodland of the Odra valley. Floristic data were collected from circular 100m2 plots (with a radius of 5.64m which were systematically chosen in forest communities. Four plant communities were determined within data set. They were represented Fagetalia order and Querco-Fagetea class. Flood prevention caused disappearance of riparian forest species, expansion of common hornbeam and Norway maple expansion and a decrease of species richness. However, spatial distribution of phytocoenoses proves the river influence on the vegetation.

  20. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines tree buffer for this community as only trees and forest. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  1. Cicada emergence in southwestern riparian forest: Influences of wildfire and vegetation composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    2006-01-01

    Annually emerging cicadas are a numerically and ecologically dominant species in Southwestern riparian forests. Humans have altered disturbance regimes that structure these forests such that floods are less common and wildfires occur more frequently than was historically the case. Impacts of these changes on primary consumers such as riparian cicadas are unknown....

  2. Avian nest box selection and nest success in burned and unburned southwestern riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Deborah M. Finch

    2007-01-01

    Riparian forest communities in the southwestern United States were historically structured by a disturbance regime of annual flooding. In recent decades, however, frequency of flooding has decreased and frequency of wildfires has increased. Riparian forests provide important breeding habitat for a large variety of bird species, and the effects of this altered...

  3. Evapotranspiration Rates of Riparian Forests, Platte River, Nebraska, 2002-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Eggemeyer, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) in riparian areas is a poorly understood component of the regional water balance in the Platte River Basin, where competing demands have resulted in water shortages in the ground-water/surface-water system. From April 2002 through March 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Platte River Cooperative Hydrology Study Group, and Central Platte Natural Resources District conducted a micrometeorological study of water and energy balances at two sites in central Nebraska near Odessa and Gothenburg to improve understanding of ET rates and factors affecting them in Platte River riparian forests. A secondary objective of the study was to constrain estimates of ground-water use by riparian vegetation to satisfy ET consumptive demands, a useful input to regional ground-water flow models. Both study sites are located on large islands within the Platte River characterized by a cottonwood-dominated forest canopy on primarily sandy alluvium. Although both sites are typical of riparian forests along the Platte River in Nebraska, the Odessa understory is dominated by deciduous shrubs, whereas the Gothenburg understory is dominated by eastern redcedars. Additionally, seasonal ground-water levels fluctuated more at Odessa than at Gothenburg. The study period of April 2002 through March 2006 encompassed precipitation conditions ranging from dry to wet. This study characterized the components of the water balance in the riparian zone of each site. ET was evaluated from eddy-covariance sensors installed on towers above the forest canopy at a height of 26.1 meters. Precipitation was measured both above and below the forest canopy. A series of sensors measured soil-moisture availability within the unsaturated zone in two different vertical profiles at each site. Changes in ground-water altitude were evaluated from piezometers. The areal footprint represented in the water balance extended up to 800 meters from each tower. During the study, ET was less variable

  4. Floristic composition of the riparian forest in the lower Gramame river, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Farias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p23 Riparian forest has a key ecological and economic significance to productive chains associated with it. This study aimed to conduct a floristic survey of riparian forest stretches in the Gramame river, state of Paraíba, Brazilian Northeast region, and analyze the floristic similarity with Brazilian riparian vegetation fragments. We found 136 species belonging to 106 genera and 43 families. The most representative families were: Fabaceae (19 spp., Cyperaceae (16 spp., and Rubiaceae (11 spp.. The predominant habit was herbaceous and the best represented biological spectrum was camephyte. Regarding the geographic distribution, there was a predominance of widely distributed species associated with the Neotropical province. The distribution patterns have shown a low similarity between areas, and largely distributed species stand out. Similarity analysis pointed out that the area was floristically related to other two coastal areas in the Brazilian Northeast and Southeast regions. Only species typically related to estuarine environments might explain the floristic connections detected.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Portland, Maine - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  6. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  8. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  9. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, Iowa - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  10. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  11. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  12. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  13. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  14. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  15. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  16. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  17. Regeneration of Salicaceae riparian forests in the Northern Hemisphere: A new framework and management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Eduardo; Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; Shafroth, Patrick B; Sher, Anna A; Henry, Annie L; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Corenblit, Dov

    2018-04-25

    Human activities on floodplains have severely disrupted the regeneration of foundation riparian shrub and tree species of the Salicaceae family (Populus and Salix spp.) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Restoration ecologists initially tackled this problem from a terrestrial perspective that emphasized planting. More recently, floodplain restoration activities have embraced an aquatic perspective, inspired by the expanding practice of managing river flows to improve river health (environmental flows). However, riparian Salicaceae species occupy floodplain and riparian areas, which lie at the interface of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems along watercourses. Thus, their regeneration depends on a complex interaction of hydrologic and geomorphic processes that have shaped key life-cycle requirements for seedling establishment. Ultimately, restoration needs to integrate these concepts to succeed. However, while regeneration of Salicaceae is now reasonably well-understood, the literature reporting restoration actions on Salicaceae regeneration is sparse, and a specific theoretical framework is still missing. Here, we have reviewed 105 peer-reviewed published experiences in restoration of Salicaceae forests, including 91 projects in 10 world regions, to construct a decision tree to inform restoration planning through explicit links between the well-studied biophysical requirements of Salicaceae regeneration and 17 specific restoration actions, the most popular being planting (in 55% of the projects), land contouring (30%), removal of competing vegetation (30%), site selection (26%), and irrigation (24%). We also identified research gaps related to Salicaceae forest restoration and discuss alternative, innovative and feasible approaches that incorporate the human component. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identifying spatially integrated floodplains/riparian areas and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floodplain delineation may play an important role in managing wetlands and riparian areas at multiple scales - local, state, and federal. This poster demonstrates multiple GIS-based approaches to delimiting floodplains and contrasts these with observed flooding events from a majo...

  19. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  20. Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) removal and its effect on native plant communities of Riparian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Scott Horn; John W. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Chinese privet is a major invasive shrub within riparian zones throughout the southeastern United States. Weremoved privet shrubs from four riparian forests in October 2005 with a GyrotracH mulching machine or by handfelling with chainsaws and machetes to determine how well these treatments controlled privet and how they affected plant...

  1. Watershed scale assessment of the impact of forested riparian zones on stream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Webber; K. W. J. Williard; M. R. Whiles; M. L. Stone; J. J. Zaczek; D. K. Davie

    2003-01-01

    Federal and state land management agencies have been promoting forest and grass riparian zones to combat non-point source nutrient and sediment pollution of our nations' waters. The majority of research examining the effectiveness of riparian buffers at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to streams has been conducted at the field scale. This study took a...

  2. Dendroclimatic signals deduced from riparian versus upland forest interior pines in North Karelia, Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helama, Samuli; Arentoft, Birgitte W.; Collin-Haubensak, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Radial growth of boreal tree species is only rarely studied in riparian habitats. Here we investigated chronologies of earlywood, latewood, and annual ring widths and blue intensity (BI; a surrogate to latewood density) from riparian lake shore and upland forest interior pines (Pinus sylvestris L...

  3. Thinning and riparian buffer configuration effects on down wood abundance in headwater streams in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Down wood is associated with the function, structure, and diversity of riparian systems. Considerable knowledge has been generated regarding down wood stocks and dynamics in temperate forests, but there are few studies on effects of silvicultural practices and riparian buffer design on down wood, particularly in headwater streams. We analyzed interactive eff ects of...

  4. Riparian buffer and density management influences on microclimate of young headwater forests of Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; David J. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2007-01-01

    Thinning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands of the Pacific Northwest, United States. Empirical relationships among riparian functions, silvicultural treatments, and different riparian buffer widths are not well documented for small headwater...

  5. Potential effects of climate change on riparian areas, wetlands, and groundwater-dependent ecosystems in the Blue Mountains, Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Dwire

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Riparian areas, wetlands, and groundwater-dependent ecosystems, which are found at all elevations throughout the Blue Mountains, comprise a small portion of the landscape but have high conservation value because they provide habitat for diverse flora and fauna. The effects of climate change on these special habitats may be especially profound, due to altered snowpack and hydrologic regimes predicted to occur in the near future. The functionality of many riparian areas is currently compromised by water diversions and livestock grazing, which reduces their resilience to additional stresses that a warmer climate may bring. Areas associated with springs and small streams will probably experience near-term changes, and some riparian areas and wetlands may decrease in size over time. A warmer climate and reduced soil moisture could lead to a transition from riparian hardwood species to more drought tolerant conifers and shrubs. Increased frequency and spatial extent of wildfire spreading from upland forests could also affect riparian species composition. The specific effects of climate change will vary, depending on local hydrology (especially groundwater, topography, streamside microclimates, and current conditions and land use. Keywords: Climate change, Groundwater-dependent ecosystems, Riparian areas, Springs, Wetlands

  6. Coevolution of floodplain and riparian forest dynamics on large, meandering rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Riddle, J. D.; Battles, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    On large meandering rivers, riparian forests coevolve with the floodplains that support them. Floodplain characteristics such as local disturbance regime, deposition rates and sediment texture drive plant community dynamics, which in turn feed back to the abiotic processes. We investigated floodplain and riparian forest coevolution along the along the Sacramento River (California, USA), a large, mediterranean-climate river that has been extensively regulated for 70 years, but whose 160-km middle reach (Red Bluff to Colusa) retains some channel mobility and natural forest stands. Guided by maps of floodplain change over time and current vegetation cover, we conducted an extensive forest inventory and chronosequence analysis to quantify how abiotic conditions and forest structural characteristics such as tree density, basal area and biomass vary with floodplain age. We inventoried 285 fixed-area plots distributed across 19 large point bars within vegetation patches ranging in age from 4 to 107 years. Two successional trajectories were evident: (1) shifting species dominance over time within forested areas, from willow to cottonwood to walnut, boxelder and valley oak; and (2) patches of shrub willow (primarily Salix exigua) that maintained dominance throughout time. Sediment accretion was reduced in the persistent willow plots compared to the successional forest stands, suggesting an association between higher flood energy and arrested succession. Forested stands 40-60 years old were the most extensive across the chronosequence in terms of floodplain area, and supported the highest biomass, species diversity, and functional wildlife habitat. These stands were dominated by Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and reached their maxima in terms of tree size and biomass at age 50 years. The persistent willow stands reached their structural maxima earlier (32 years) and supported lower biomass. Basal area and abundance of large trees decreased in stands >90 years old

  7. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF A 5-YEAR-OLD REHABILITATED RIPARIAN FOREST: IS IT ALREADY SUSTAINABLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Londe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAs important as the establishment of projects of ecological restoration is its assessment post-implementation to know whether the area is becoming self-sustainable or need to be redirected. In this way, this study aimed to know the current situation of a 5-year-old rehabilitated riparian forest,inserted in an anthropogenic impacted region,at the das Velhas River, Minas Gerais State, studying the canopy openness and recruitment of seedlings as plant indicators. 15 plots were allocated in the forest, where hemispherical photographs were taken to analyze the canopy openness and evaluate all seedlings from 0.30 m to 1.30 m height.Canopy openness ranged from 23.7% to 38.8% between seasons and only 192 seedlings were found,from 13 species, five of them exotic and aggressive. Although canopy openness was low, it seems that lateral penetration of light has been favoring the development and dominancy of plants from invasive species, whereas few native ones have been recruited. The exotic/invasive plants may compromise the success of restoration mainly by competition with native planted species. The outcomes evidenced an unsustainability of the riparian forest and the requirement of some management actions to control exotic and invasive plants and ensure the preservation of the area and its ecological roles over time.

  9. INDICATED SPECIES TO RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FORESTS IN SUBWATERSHED OF PEIXE-BOI RIVER, PARÁ STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor do Vale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815736This study aims to indicate native species to be used in the restoration of degraded riparian forests in the subwatershed of Peixe-Boi river. All trees and shrubs with diameter at breast height (DBH > 5 cm were inventoried in ten areas of secondary forest and six areas of igapó forest. The results were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the silviculture of the species was assessed by literature review. In Igapó areas 66 species were found; the areas had low richness and low diversity index of Shannon, when compared with data from the secondary forests. The floristic composition was heterogeneous, and the floristic similarity is higher between areas that are closer geographically. In the secondary forests were found 175 species; the areas showed high abundance of individuals, high species richness, diversity and evenness. Secondary forests were separated according to geographic proximity and age, which is directly linked to the successional stage. The PCA analysis established the ecological importance of 29 tree species; however only ten species had enough silvicultural information. Due to a greater ecological importance and viable silvicultural techniques available in the literature, Carapa guianensis, Pachira aquatica, Spondias mombin, Tapirira guianensis and Virola guianensis are the most suitable species to restore the degraded areas, in association with Inga edulis, Jacaranda copaia, Pseudopiptadenia psilostachya, Simarouba amara and Vismia guianensis of the secondary forests, that can be planted in the borders and in the nearby areas of igapó forests.

  10. Structure, composition and regeneration of riparian forest along an altitudinal gradient in northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Ali Salehi; Seyed Jalil Alavi; Daniel C. Dey

    2017-01-01

    In order to protect and understand the regeneration of riparian forests, it is important to understand the environmental conditions that lead to their vegetation differentiation. We evaluated the structure, composition, density and regeneration of woody species in forests along the river Safaroud in Ramsar forest in northern Iran in relation to elevation, soil...

  11. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it

  12. Benefits of riparian forest for the aquatic ecosystem assessed at a large geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Looy K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claimed benefits of riparian forest cover for the aquatic ecosystem include purification, thermal control, organic matter input and habitat provision, which may improve physicochemical and biotic quality. However, these beneficial effects might be flawed by multiple stressor conditions of intensive agriculture and urbanization in upstream catchments. We examined the relationship between riparian forest cover and physicochemical quality and biotic integrity indices in extensive large scale datasets. Measurements of hydromorphological conditions and riparian forest cover across different buffer widths for 59 × 103 river stretches covering 230 × 103 km of the French river network were coupled with data for physicochemical and biotic variables taken from the national monitoring network. General linear and quantile regression techniques were used to determine responses of physicochemical variables and biological integrity indices for macroinvertebrates and fish to riparian forest cover in selections of intermediate stress for 2nd to 4th order streams. Significant responses to forest cover were found for the nutrient variables and biological indices. According to these responses a 60% riparian forest cover in the 10 m buffer corresponds to good status boundaries for physicochemical and biotic elements. For the 30 m buffer, the observed response suggests that riparian forest coverage of at least 45% corresponds with good ecological status in the aquatic ecosystem. The observed consistent responses indicate significant potential for improving the quality of the aquatic environment by restoring riparian forest. The effects are more substantial in single-stressor environments but remain significant in multi-stressor environments.

  13. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  14. Regeneration of Salicaceae riparian forests in the Northern Hemisphere: A new framework and management tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Eduardo; Martinez-Fernandez, Vanesa; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Sher, Anna A.; Henry, Annie L.; Garofano-Gomez, Virginia; Corenblit, Dov

    2018-01-01

    Human activities on floodplains have severely disrupted the regeneration of foundation riparian shrub and tree species of the Salicaceae family (Populus and Salix spp.) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Restoration ecologists initially tackled this problem from a terrestrial perspective that emphasized planting. More recently, floodplain restoration activities have embraced an aquatic perspective, inspired by the expanding practice of managing river flows to improve river health (environmental flows). However, riparian Salicaceae species occupy floodplain and riparian areas, which lie at the interface of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems along watercourses. Thus, their regeneration depends on a complex interaction of hydrologic and geomorphic processes that have shaped key life-cycle requirements for seedling establishment. Ultimately, restoration needs to integrate these concepts to succeed. However, while regeneration of Salicaceae is now reasonably well-understood, the literature reporting restoration actions on Salicaceae regeneration is sparse, and a specific theoretical framework is still missing. Here, we have reviewed 105 peer-reviewed published experiences in restoration of Salicaceae forests, including 91 projects in 10 world regions, to construct a decision tree to inform restoration planning through explicit links between the well-studied biophysical requirements of Salicaceaeregeneration and 17 specific restoration actions, the most popular being planting (in 55% of the projects), land contouring (30%), removal of competing vegetation (30%), site selection (26%), and irrigation (24%). We also identified research gaps related to Salicaceae forest restoration and discuss alternative, innovative and feasible approaches that incorporate the human component.

  15. Colonization by benthic macroinvertebrates in two artificial substrate types of a Riparian Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Borges dos Santos

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim To analyze the efficiency of organic and inorganic substrates in samples of benthic macroinvertebrates of riparian forests from the Cerrado. Specific objectives (i characterize the ecological succession and taxonomic richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in stream affluent of a riparian forest; (ii analyze the influence of seasonality on the colonization of macroinvertebrates; and (iii determine the effect of the types of artificial substrates on the richness, composition and abundance of the benthic community. Methods Sampling was carried out in the rainy and dry seasons, and we installed in the watercourse two types of substrates: organic (leaf packs and inorganic (bricks, organized in pairs. Six samples per season were done to verify colonization, succession, richness and abundance of benthic community. The substrates were carefully sorted and the organisms were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Results The ecological succession was clearly observed, with the initial occurrence of Chironomidae and Baetidae (considered early colonizers, and a late occurrence of organisms such as Helotrephidae and Trichoptera (considered late colonizers. No significant difference was found in the richness and abundance among the studied seasons (rainy and dry, but the organic substrate was significantly higher than the inorganic substrate for these parameters. Conclusion Organic artificial substrates are more efficient in characterizing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates in the study area, because they are more similar to the conditions of the substrate found naturally in the environment.

  16. Forest Creeks Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Ron Halvorson

    2010-01-01

    This guidebook describes Forest Creeks Research Natural Area, a 164-ha (405-ac) area comprising two geographically distinct canyons and associated drainages. The two units have been established as examples of first- to third-order streams originating within a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) zone. The two riparian areas also represent examples of...

  17. Breeding birds in riparian and upland dry forests of the Cascade Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl; E. Dorsey Burger; Emily K. Drew; John P. Lindsey; Maryellen Haggard; Kent Z. Woodruff

    2007-01-01

    We quantified breeding bird abundance, diversity, and indicator species in riparian and upland dry forests along six third- to fourth-order streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range, Washington, USA. Upland mesic forest on southerly aspects was dominated by open ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  18. Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Salamanders in Riparian Forests: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Clipp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Salamanders and riparian forests are intimately interconnected. Salamanders are integral to ecosystem functions, contributing to vertebrate biomass and complex food webs in riparian forests. In turn, these forests are critical ecosystems that perform many environmental services, facilitate high biodiversity and species richness, and provide habitat to salamander populations. Due to the global decline of amphibians, it is important to understand, as thoroughly and holistically as possible, the roles of environmental parameters and the impact of human activities on salamander abundance and diversity in riparian forests. To determine the population responses of salamanders to a variety of environmental factors and anthropogenic activities, we conducted a review of published literature that compared salamander abundance and diversity, and then summarized and synthesized the data into general patterns. We identify stream quality, leaf litter and woody debris, riparian buffer width, and soil characteristics as major environmental factors influencing salamander populations in riparian forests, describe and explain salamander responses to those factors, and discuss the effects of anthropogenic activities such as timber harvest, prescribed fires, urbanization, road construction, and habitat fragmentation. This review can assist land and natural resource managers in anticipating the consequences of human activities and preparing strategic conservation plans.

  19. Assessing Anthropogenic Influence and Edge Effect Influence on Forested Riparian Buffer Spatial Configuration and Structure: An Example Using Lidar Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Forested riparian buffers (FRB) perform numerous critical ecosystem services. However, globally, FRB spatial configuration and structure have been modified by anthropogenic development resulting in widespread ecological degradation as seen in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. Riparian corridors within developed areas are particularly vulnerable to disturbance given two edges - the naturally occurring stream edge and the matrix edge. Increased edge length predisposes riparian vegetation to "edge effects", characterized by modified physical and environmental conditions at the interface between the forested buffer and the adjacent landuse, or matrix and forest fragment degradation. The magnitude and distance of edge influence may be further influenced by adjacent landuse type and the width of the buffer corridor at any given location. There is a need to quantify riparian buffer spatial configuration and structure over broad geographic extents and within multiple riparian systems in support of ecologically sound management and landuse decisions. This study thus assesses the influence of varying landuse types (agriculture, suburban development and undeveloped) on forested riparian buffer 3-dimensional structure and spatial configuration using high resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data collected within a headwater watershed. Few studies have assessed riparian buffer structure and width contiguously for an entire watershed, an integral component of watershed planning and restoration efforts such as those conducted throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The objectives of the study are to 1) quantify differences in vegetation structure at the stream and matrix influenced riparian buffer edges, compared to the forested interior and 2) assess continuous patterns of changes in vegetation structure throughout the buffer corridor beginning at the matrix edge and ending at the stream within buffers a) of varying width and b) that are adjacent to varying landuse

  20. Novel plant communities limit the effects of a managed flood to restore riparian forests along a large regulated river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D.J.; Andersen, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Dam releases used to create downstream flows that mimic historic floods in timing, peak magnitude and recession rate are touted as key tools for restoring riparian vegetation on large regulated rivers. We analysed a flood on the 5th-order Green River below Flaming Gorge Dam, Colorado, in a broad alluvial valley where Fremont cottonwood riparian forests have senesced and little recruitment has occurred since dam completion in 1962. The stable post dam flow regime triggered the development of novel riparian communities with dense herbaceous plant cover. We monitored cottonwood recruitment on landforms inundated by a managed flood equal in magnitude and timing to the average pre-dam flood. To understand the potential for using managed floods as a riparian restoration tool, we implemented a controlled and replicated experiment to test the effects of artificially modified ground layer vegetation on cottonwood seedling establishment. Treatments to remove herbaceous vegetation and create bare ground included herbicide application (H), ploughing (P), and herbicide plus ploughing (H+P). Treatment improved seedling establishment. Initial seedling densities on treated areas were as much as 1200% higher than on neighbouring control (C) areas, but varied over three orders of magnitude among the five locations where manipulations were replicated. Only two replicates showed the expected seedling density rank of (H+P)>P>H>C. Few seedlings established in control plots and none survived 1 year. Seedling density was strongly affected by seed rain density. Herbivory affected growth and survivorship of recruits, and few survived nine growing seasons. Our results suggest that the novel plant communities are ecologically and geomorphically resistant to change. Managed flooding alone, using flows equal to the pre-dam mean annual peak flood, is an ineffective riparian restoration tool where such ecosystem states are present and floods cannot create new habitat for seedling establishment

  1. Surface runoff generation in a small watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pires Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since an understanding of how runoff is generated is of great importance to soil conservation, to water availability and to the management of a watershed, the objective of this study was to understand the generation of surface runoff in a watershed covered by sugarcane and riparian forest. Nine surface runoff plots were set up, evenly distributed on the lower, middle and upper slopes. The lower portion was covered by riparian forest. We showed that the average surface runoff coefficient along the slope in the present study was higher than in other studies under different land uses. Furthermore, the surface runoff was higher under sugarcane compared to the riparian forest, especially after sugarcane harvesting. Besides land cover, other factors such as the characteristics of rainfall events, relief and physical soil characteristics such as soil bulk density and saturated hydraulic conductivity influenced the surface runoff generation.

  2. Removing Chinese privet from riparian forests still benefits pollinators five years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob R. Hudson; James Hanula; Scott Horn

    2014-01-01

    Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) is an invasive shrub of the Southeastern U.S. that forms dense stands and limits biodiversity. It was removed from heavily infested riparian forests of the Georgia Piedmont in 2005 by mulching machine or chainsaw felling and subsequent herbicide application. Abundance and species richness of bees and butterflies...

  3. Nesting characteristics of mourning doves in central New Mexico: Response to riparian forest change

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2012-01-01

    Riparian forests of the American Southwest are especially prone to changes in composition and structure due to natural and anthropogenic factors. To determine how breeding mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) respond to these changes, we examined nest site use and nest survival in control plots, fuel reduction plots before and after mechanical thinning, and post-wildfire...

  4. Removing an exotic shrub from riparian forests increases butterfly abundance and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Scott Horn

    2011-01-01

    Invasive plants are one of the greatest threats to endangered insect species and a major threat to Lepidoptera in eastern North America. We investigated the effects of the invasive shrub Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) and two methods (mulching or hand-felling) of removing it from riparian forests on butterfly communities and compared them to untreated, heavily...

  5. Rhododendron maximum impacts seed bank composition and richness following Tsuga canadensis loss in riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan M. Cofer; Katherine J. Elliott; Janis K. Bush; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2018-01-01

    Southern Appalachian riparian forests have undergone changes in composition and function from invasive pathogens and pests. Castanea dentata mortality in the 1930s from chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and Tsuga canadensis mortality in the 2000s from the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) have led to the expansion and...

  6. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  7. Flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Makings

    2005-01-01

    The flora of the San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area (SPRNCA) consists of 618 taxa from 92 families, including a new species of Eriogonum and four new State records. The vegetation communities include Chihuahuan Desertscrub, cottonwood-willow riparian corridors, mesquite terraces, sacaton grasslands, rocky outcrops, and cienegas. Species...

  8. Variable density management in riparian reserves: lessons learned from an operational study in managed forests of western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Chan; Paul Anderson; John Cissel; Larry Lateen; Charley Thompson

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale operational study has been undertaken to investigate variable density management in conjunction with riparian buffers as a means to accelerate development of late-seral habitat, facilitate rare species management, and maintain riparian functions in 40-70 year-old headwater forests in western Oregon, USA. Upland variable retention treatments include...

  9. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  10. Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perry, Laura G; Rose, Chanoane A; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dams affect the shifting habitat mosaic of river bottomlands is key for protecting the many ecological functions and related goods and services that riparian forests provide and for informing approaches to riparian ecosystem restoration. We examined the downstream effects of two large dams on patterns of forest composition, structure, and dynamics within different geomorphic contexts and compared them to upstream reference conditions along the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Patterns of riparian vegetation in river segments downstream of the dams were driven largely by channel and bottomland geomorphic responses to a dramatically reduced sediment supply. The river segment upstream of both dams was the most geomorphically dynamic, whereas the segment between the dams was the least dynamic due to substantial channel armoring, and the segment downstream of both dams was intermediate due to some local sediment supply. These geomorphic differences were linked to altered characteristics of the shifting habitat mosaic, including older forest age structure and fewer young Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa stands in the relatively static segment between the dams compared to more extensive early-successional forests (dominated by Alnus rubra and Salix spp.) and pioneer seedling recruitment upstream of the dams. Species composition of later-successional forest communities varied among river segments as well, with greater Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla abundance upstream of both dams, Acer spp. abundance between the dams, and P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa and Thuja plicata abundance below both dams. Riparian forest responses to the recent removal of the two dams on the Elwha River will depend largely on channel and geomorphic adjustments to the release, transport, and deposition of the large volume of sediment formerly stored in the reservoirs, together with changes in large wood dynamics.

  11. Structural and compositional controls on transpiration in 40- and 450-year-old riparian forests in western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Georgianne W; Bond, Barbara J; Jones, Julia A; Phillips, Nathan; Meinzer, Federick C

    2004-05-01

    Large areas of forests in the Pacific Northwest are being transformed to younger forests, yet little is known about the impact this may have on hydrological cycles. Previous work suggests that old trees use less water per unit leaf area or sapwood area than young mature trees of the same species in similar environments. Do old forests, therefore, use less water than young mature forests in similar environments, or are there other structural or compositional components in the forests that compensate for tree-level differences? We investigated the impacts of tree age, species composition and sapwood basal area on stand-level transpiration in adjacent watersheds at the H.J. Andrews Forest in the western Cascades of Oregon, one containing a young, mature (about 40 years since disturbance) conifer forest and the other an old growth (about 450 years since disturbance) forest. Sap flow measurements were used to evaluate the degree to which differences in age and species composition affect water use. Stand sapwood basal area was evaluated based on a vegetation survey for species, basal area and sapwood basal area in the riparian area of two watersheds. A simple scaling exercise derived from estimated differences in water use as a result of differences in age, species composition and stand sapwood area was used to estimate transpiration from late June through October within the entire riparian area of these watersheds. Transpiration was higher in the young stand because of greater sap flux density (sap flow per unit sapwood area) by age class and species, and greater total stand sapwood area. During the measurement period, mean daily sap flux density was 2.30 times higher in young compared with old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees. Sap flux density was 1.41 times higher in young red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) compared with young P. menziesii trees, and was 1.45 times higher in old P. menziesii compared with old western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf

  12. Do invasive riparian Tamarix alter hydrology of riparian areas of arid and semi-arid regions under climate change scenarios?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, M. P.; Acharya, K.; Chen, L.

    2012-12-01

    Competitiveness of riparian invasive species, Tamarix, in arid and semi-arid riparian areas of the southwestern United States under climate change scenario (SRES A2) was investigated. Tamarix has been replacing native vegetation along the riparian corridors of these areas for the past several decades and is thought to alter water balance. Changes in depth to groundwater, soil moisture distribution and flood frequency are critical in survival and growth of a facultative phreatophyte such as Tamarix. In this study, a fully coupled 2d surface flow and 3d subsurface flow hydrologic model, HydroGeoSphere, was used to simulate surface-subsurface hydrology of the lower Virgin River basin (4500 sq. km), located in Nevada, Utah and Arizona. The hydrologic model results, depth to groundwater and soil saturation, were then applied to the species distribution model, Maxent, along with other bioclimatic parameters to asses future Tamarix distribution probability. Simulations were made for the climate scenarios of the end of 21st centry conditions. Depth to groundwater is found to be the most important predictor variable to the Maxent model. Future Tamarix distribution range is not uniform across the basin. It is likely to decrease at lower elevations and increase in some higher elevation areas.

  13. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  14. Comparison of riparian and upland forest stand structure and fuel loads in beetle infested watersheds, southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Robert Hubbard; Roberto Bazan

    2015-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB), spruce beetle (SB), and other insects are altering forest stand structure throughout western North America, and thereby contributing to the heterogeneity of fuel distribution. In forested watersheds, conifer-dominated riparian forests frequently occur as narrow linear features in the landscape mosaic and contribute to...

  15. Abundance and species richness of snakes along the Middle Rio Grande riparian forest in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Howard L. Snell; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    To understand the effects of removal of non-native plants and fuels on wildlife in the riparian forest of the Middle Rio Grande in New Mexico, we monitored snakes from 2000 to 2006 using trap arrays of drift fences, pitfalls, and funnel traps. We recorded 158 captures of 13 species of snakes from 12 study sites. We captured more snakes in funnel traps than in pitfalls...

  16. Riparian soil development linked to forest succession above and below dams along the Elwha River, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perakis, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Riparian forest soils can be highly dynamic, due to frequent fluvial disturbance, erosion, and sediment deposition, but effects of dams on riparian soils are poorly understood. We examined soils along toposequences within three river segments located upstream, between, and downstream of two dams on the Elwha River to evaluate relationships between riparian soil development and forest age, succession, and channel proximity, explore dam effects on riparian soils, and provide a baseline for the largest dam removal in history. We found that older, later-successional forests and geomorphic surfaces contained soils with finer texture and greater depth to cobble, supporting greater forest floor mass, mineral soil nutrient levels, and cation exchange. Forest stand age was a better predictor than channel proximity for many soil characteristics, though elevation and distance from the channel were often also important, highlighting how complex interactions between fluvial disturbance, sediment deposition, and biotic retention regulate soil development in this ecosystem. Soils between the dams, and to a lesser extent below the lower dam, had finer textures and higher mineral soil carbon, nitrogen, and cation exchange than above the dams. These results suggested that decreased fluvial disturbance below the dams, due to reduced sediment supply and channel stabilization, accelerated soil development. In addition, reduced sediment supply below the dams may have decreased soil phosphorus. Soil δ15N suggested that salmon exclusion by the dams had no discernable effect on nitrogen inputs to upstream soils. Recent dam removal may alter riparian soils further, with ongoing implications for riparian ecosystems.

  17. Assessing the Effects of Periodic Flooding on the Population Structure and Recruitment Rates of Riparian Tree Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest stands are subjected to a variety of hydrological stresses as a result of annual fluctuations in water levels during the growing season. Spring floods create additional water-related stress as a result of a major inflow of water that floods riverside land. This exploratory study assesses the impacts of successive floods on tree dynamics and regeneration in an active sedimentation area, while determining the age of the stands using the recruitment rates, tree structure and tree rings based on dendrochronological analysis. Environmental data were also recorded for each vegetation quadrat. In total, 2633 tree stems were tallied throughout the quadrats (200 m2, and tree specimens were analyzed based on the various flood zones. A total of 720 specimens were counted (100 m2 strip to measure natural regeneration. Higher recruitment rates are noted for the no-flood zones and lower rates in active floodplains. During the period of the establishment of tree species, the survival rates are comparable between the flood zones and the no-flood zones. Tree diameter distribution reveals a strong predominance of young trees in flooded areas. Different factors appear to come into play in the dynamics of riparian forest stands, including the disruptions associated with successive flooding.

  18. Evaluating hillslope and riparian contributions to dissolved nitrogen (N) export from a boreal forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M.; Ledesma, José L. J.; Näsholm, Torgny; Laudon, Hjalmar; Sponseller, Ryan A.

    2017-02-01

    Catchment science has long held that the chemistry of small streams reflects the landscapes they drain. However, understanding the contribution of different landscape units to stream chemistry remains a challenge which frequently limits our understanding of export dynamics. For limiting nutrients such as nitrogen (N), an implicit assumption is that the most spatially extensive landscape units (e.g., uplands) act as the primary sources to surface waters, while near-stream zones function more often as sinks. These assumptions, based largely on studies in high-gradient systems or in regions with elevated inputs of anthropogenic N, may not apply to low-gradient, nutrient-poor, and peat-rich catchments characteristic of many northern ecosystems. We quantified patterns of N mobilization along a hillslope transect in a northern boreal catchment to assess the extent to which organic matter-rich riparian soils regulate the flux of N to streams. Contrary to the prevailing view of riparian functioning, we found that near-stream, organic soils supported concentrations and fluxes of ammonium (NH4+) and dissolved organic nitrogen that were much higher than the contributing upslope forest soils. These results suggest that stream N chemistry is connected to N mobilization and mineralization within the riparian zone rather than the wider landscape. Results further suggest that water table fluctuation in near-surface riparian soils may promote elevated rates of net N mineralization in these landscapes.

  19. Phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl (Meliaceae in subtropical riparian forest in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Climate is one of the main factors that affect plant behavior. The phenology of Guarea macrophylla Vahl, which is a small tree used for reforestation of degraded areas, was monitored for 18 months in a riparian forest at the Schmidt Stream, Campo Bom, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Vegetative (leaf fall and leaf flushing and reproductive events were observed, with the latter divided into flowering (flower buds and anthesis and fruiting (unripe, ripening and ripe fruit. Phenological events were related to temperature, photoperiod and precipitation and their seasonality was verified by circular statistical analysis. Vegetative phenophases were continuous; they were not related to climate factors and presented low intensity, emphasizing the perennial aspect of the species. Flowering occurred during spring and summer. Both flower buds and anthesis were related to temperature and photoperiod. Fruiting was constant and went through all stages of development. Unripe fruits developed during the months with the lowest photoperiod and ripen more intensely in winter, on colder days. Ripe fruit became available for dispersal in spring, in times of longer photoperiod and higher temperatures. Except for leaf fall, all other phenological events showed seasonality in their manifestation. The one-month difference between the onsets of the flowering phases observed in this study indicated that local climate changes induced the early occurrence of this phenophase.

  20. Assessment of a subtropical riparian forest focusing on botanical, meteorological, ecological characterization and chemical analysis of rainwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Graeff

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests are heterogeneous environments, in which epiphytes find ideal conditions to develop. These plants absorb the necessary nutrients for survival from the atmosphere, and their occurrence and distribution can be influenced by the quality and quantity of precipitation. The objective of this research was to perform an integrated analysis of botanical, meteorological and chemical precipitation parameters so as to compare them in fragments of the riparian forest in the lower (São Leopoldo-SL and upper (Caraá-CA stretches of the Rio dos Sinos Hydrographic Basin (RSHB, RS, Brazil. Rainwater was chemically analyzed, the community structure of epiphytic ferns was surveyed and the ecological characterization was evaluated through the Rapid Habitat Assessment Protocol (RHAP. The results showed that the chemical composition of rainwater is influenced by the environment of each area. In the upper stretch (CA, for instance, the main contribution is that of marine ions, while in the lower stretch (SL, the most impacting aspects are urbanization and industrialization. Similarly, the results depict a reduction of richness and a simplification of the community structure of epiphytic ferns and their environmental quality according to the RHAP categories, towards the base level of the RSHB. The integrated analysis, in which different methods were applied, proved to be an efficient tool to evaluate environmental quality. This analysis considers that a greater number of biotic and abiotic variables may be applied in different scenarios.

  1. Floodplain forest succession reveals fluvial processes: A hydrogeomorphic model for temperate riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Gregory; Politti, Emilio; Lautsch, Erwin; Benjankar, Rohan; Gill, Karen M; Rood, Stewart B

    2015-09-15

    River valley floodplains are physically-dynamic environments where fluvial processes determine habitat gradients for riparian vegetation. These zones support trees and shrubs whose life stages are adapted to specific habitat types and consequently forest composition and successional stage reflect the underlying hydrogeomorphic processes and history. In this study we investigated woodland vegetation composition, successional stage and habitat properties, and compared these with physically-based indicators of hydraulic processes. We thus sought to develop a hydrogeomorphic model to evaluate riparian woodland condition based on the spatial mosaic of successional phases of the floodplain forest. The study investigated free-flowing and dam-impacted reaches of the Kootenai and Flathead Rivers, in Idaho and Montana, USA and British Columbia, Canada. The analyses revealed strong correspondence between vegetation assessments and metrics of fluvial processes indicating morphodynamics (erosion and shear stress), inundation and depth to groundwater. The results indicated that common successional stages generally occupied similar hydraulic environments along the different river segments. Comparison of the spatial patterns between the free-flowing and regulated reaches revealed greater deviation from the natural condition for the braided channel segment than for the meandering segment. This demonstrates the utility of the hydrogeomorphic approach and suggests that riparian woodlands along braided channels could have lower resilience than those along meandering channels and might be more vulnerable to influences such as from river damming or climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trading Natural Riparian Forests for Urban Shelterbelt Plantations—A Sustainability Assessment of the Kökyar Protection Forest in NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Missall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities at the fringe of the Taklimakan desert in NW China are prone to dust and sand storms with serious consequences for human well-being. The Kökyar Protection Forest was established in the 1980s as an ecological engineering project with the intent of protecting the city of Aksu, NW China, from these impacts. It is designed as a combination of poplar shelterbelts and orchards, irrigated by river water from the Aksu River, the main tributary of the Tarim River. Prevalent literature describes it as an afforestation project for combatting desertification with manifold positive effects for the economic, social, and environmental dimension of sustainable development. This paper sets out to challenge these claims by a sustainability assessment in which the plantation is examined from a broader perspective, embedding it to the wider context of social and environmental problems in South Xinjiang. Methods comprise evapotranspiration calculations, interviews, a socioeconomic household survey, stakeholder dialogues, and literature research. Results affirm its economic sustainability, but see a mixed record for the social sphere. From the nature conservation point of view, it has to be classified as unsustainable because its high irrigation water consumption results in the downstream desiccation and desertification of natural riparian forests along the Tarim River, causing a forest loss in the downstream area twice the size of the forest gain in the upstream area. There is a trade-off between artificial shelterbelt plantations for urban ecosystem services on the one hand side, and natural riparian forests and their biodiversity on the other hand side. The paper recommends restricting agricultural extension, and using locally adapted less water consuming agroforestry schemes to protect urban dwellers from dust stress.

  3. Soil Quality under Riparian Forest at Different Stages of Ecological Succession and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Casagrande, José Carlos; Colato, Alexandre; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2014-05-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the quality of the soil through its chemical, physical and microbiological attributes, using additive pondered model, as well as studying the characteristics of the linear method of combination of data, figures of merit (FoMs), the process of assigning weights and standard score functions, using measurements collected in three areas (two riparian forests and a commercial crop of sugarcane) in two soil types (Oxisol and Podzol) located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4m, and was determined some of its chemical attributes (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, etc.), physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological (microbial biomass and basal respiration). Two models were built, one containing two hierarchical levels of FoMs (Mod1), and another containing three levels (Mod2), in order to try to isolate FoMs highly correlated from each other within a top-level FoM. At FoMs of Mod1 were assigned various combinations of weights, and those of Mod2 were assigned weights from three methods, distribution from fixed value, classification and pair-wise comparison. In the Mod1, in virtually all combinations of weights used, values of Soil Quality Index (SQI) were superior in older forests, while the most recent forest presented the lowest SQI, for both types of soil. The variation of SQI values obtained from the sets of weights used also differed between the combinations tested, with the set of values of the ancient forest showing smaller amplitude. It could also be observed that the sets of values of Oxisol showed higher SQI and lower amplitude in relation to that of Podzol. It was observed that these facts are due mainly to the soil organic matter content (MO), which differs between the vegetations and soil types, and influences many parameters used in the model. Thus, in the structures where MO had

  4. Seeing the Forest through the Trees: Citizen Scientists Provide Critical Data to Refine Aboveground Carbon Estimates in Restored Riparian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Integrating citizen scientists into ecological informatics research can be difficult due to limited opportunities for meaningful engagement given vast data streams. This is particularly true for analysis of remotely sensed data, which are increasingly being used to quantify ecosystem services over space and time, and to understand how land uses deliver differing values to humans and thus inform choices about future human actions. Carbon storage and sequestration are such ecosystem services, and recent environmental policy advances in California (i.e., AB 32) have resulted in a nascent carbon market that is helping fuel the restoration of riparian forests in agricultural landscapes. Methods to inventory and monitor aboveground carbon for market accounting are increasingly relying on hyperspatial remotely sensed data, particularly the use of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technologies, to estimate biomass. Because airborne discrete return LiDAR can inexpensively capture vegetation structural differences at high spatial resolution ( 1000 ha), its use is rapidly increasing, resulting in vast stores of point cloud and derived surface raster data. While established algorithms can quantify forest canopy structure efficiently, the highly complex nature of native riparian forests can result in highly uncertain estimates of biomass due to differences in composition (e.g., species richness, age class) and structure (e.g., stem density). This study presents the comparative results of standing carbon estimates refined with field data collected by citizen scientists at three different sites, each capturing a range of agricultural, remnant forest, and restored forest cover types. These citizen science data resolve uncertainty in composition and structure, and improve allometric scaling models of biomass and thus estimates of aboveground carbon. Results indicate that agricultural land and horticulturally restored riparian forests store similar amounts of aboveground carbon

  5. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper

    2013-01-01

    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  6. Effectiveness monitoring for the aquatic and riparian component of the Northwest Forest Plan: conceptual framework and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; David B. Hohler; David P. Larsen; David E. Busch; Kim Kratz; Keith Reynolds; Karl F. Stein; Thomas Atzet; Polly Hays; Michael. Tehan

    2004-01-01

    An Aquatic and Riparian Effectiveness Monitoring Plan (AREMP) for the Northwest Forest Plan is intended to characterize the ecological condition of watersheds and aquatic ecosystems. So to determine the effectiveness of the Northwest Forest Plan to meet relevant objectives, this report presents the conceptual foundation of options for use in pilot testing and...

  7. Modeling the effects of anadromous fish nitrogen on the carbon balance of riparian forests in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble Stuen, A. J.; Kavanagh, K.; Wheeler, T.

    2010-12-01

    Wild anadromous fish such as Pacific Chinook salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) were once abundant in Idaho, where they deposited their carcasses, rich in marine-derived nutrients (MDN), in the tributaries of the Columbia River. Anadromous fish are believed to have been a historically important nutrient source to the relatively nutrient-poor inland ecosystems of central Idaho, but no longer reach many inland watersheds due to presence of dams. This study investigates the multi-decadal cumulative effect of presence versus absence of anadromous fish nitrogen on net ecosystem exchange (NEE), or net carbon uptake, of riparian forests along historically salmon-bearing streams in the North Fork Boise River watershed, Idaho, in the context of a changing climate. The ecosystem process model BIOME-BGC is used to develop a representative forest ecosystem and predict the impact of decades of addition and continuing absence of MDN on NEE and net primary production (NPP). The study has 2 objectives: 1) to determine whether BIOME-BGC can reasonably simulate the riparian forests of central Idaho. A potentially confounding factor is the complex terrain of the region, particularly regarding soil water: water accumulation in valley bottoms and their riparian zones may lead to discrepancies in soil moisture and productivity of the riparian forest and of the simulations. The model is parameterized using local ecophysiology and site data and validated using field measurements of leaf area and soil moisture. Objective 2): to determine the effects on forest carbon balance and productivity of the presence or ongoing absence of anadromous-fish derived nitrogen. The forest simulation developed in objective 1 is run under two scenarios into the mid-20th century; one continuing without any supplemental nitrogen and one with nitrogen added in levels consistent with estimates of historical deposition by anadromous fish. Both scenarios incorporate warming due to

  8. Effect of organic matter and roots in soil respiration in a Mediterranean riparian areas in Central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Garrido, Laura; Delgado, Juan Antonio; Martinez, Teodora

    2010-05-01

    Soil respiration is one of the largest carbon flux components within terrestrial ecosystems, and small changes in the magnitude of soil respiration could have a large effect on the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere. The main objective is evaluating the factors controlling soil respiration on the global carbon cycle in riparian areas of Henares River. We evaluated total soil respiration as it was affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, root respiration and organic matter in four areas differing in vegetation cover. We specifically assessed the contribution of soil organic matter and fine root biomass (≤1 mm.) in soil carbon dioxide flux. The study area is located on the riverbanks of Henares River where it passes through the municipal term of Alcala de Henares (Madrid) in Central Spain. Measurements were performed in spring and autumn of 2009. The study was conducted on four different types of riparian vegetation: natural Mediterranean riparian forest, reforestation of 1994, reforestation of 1999 and riparian grassland without trees. In each area of study 3, 25x25 m, plots were delimited and within each plot three sampling units of 50x50 cm were selected at random. The temperature of the ground was taken during the measures from respiration using a Multi-thermometer (-50°C - +300°C) at 5 cm depth. The moisture content of the ground was measured at 5 cm of depth with a HH2 Moisture meter (Delta Devices, Cambridge, UK). The measures of respiration of the ground were realised in field by means of LCI portable (LC pro ADC Bioscientific, Ltd. UK) connected to a ground respiration camera. We introduced the camera 3 cm into the soil just after eliminating the vegetation grass of the surface of measurement cutting carefully the aerial part, without damaging the roots. Soil CO2 flux measurements were registered after stabilization. Immediately after CO2 measurements, we obtained soil samples by means of a drill of 2.18 cm of diameter taking samples to 10 cm and

  9. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  10. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  11. Decoupling of dissolved organic matter patterns between stream and riparian groundwater in a headwater forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Susana; Lupon, Anna; Catalán, Núria; Castelar, Sara; Martí, Eugènia

    2018-03-01

    Streams are important sources of carbon to the atmosphere, though knowing whether they merely outgas terrestrially derived carbon dioxide or mineralize terrestrial inputs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is still a big challenge in ecology. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of riparian groundwater (GW) and in-stream processes on the temporal pattern of stream DOM concentrations and quality in a forested headwater stream, and whether this influence differed between the leaf litter fall (LLF) period and the remaining part of the year (non-LLF). The spectroscopic indexes (fluorescence index, biological index, humification index, and parallel factor analysis components) indicated that DOM had an eminently protein-like character and was most likely originated from microbial sources and recent biological activity in both stream water and riparian GW. However, paired samples of stream water and riparian GW showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) concentrations as well as the spectroscopic character of DOM differed between the two compartments throughout the year. A simple mass balance approach indicated that in-stream processes along the reach contributed to reducing DOC and DON fluxes by 50 and 30 %, respectively. Further, in-stream DOC and DON uptakes were unrelated to each other, suggesting that these two compounds underwent different biogeochemical pathways. During the LLF period, stream DOC and DOC : DON ratios were higher than during the non-LLF period, and spectroscopic indexes suggested a major influence of terrestrial vegetation on stream DOM. Our study highlights that stream DOM is not merely a reflection of riparian GW entering the stream and that headwater streams have the capacity to internally produce, transform, and consume DOM.

  12. Hydrology, ecology, and management of riparian areas in the Madrean Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Peter F. Ffolliott; Leonard F. DeBano

    2005-01-01

    Riparian areas in the Madrean Archipelago have historically provided water necessary for people, livestock, and agricultural crops. European settlers were attracted to these areas in the 1880s, where they enjoyed shade and forage for themselves and their livestock and existed on the readily available wildlife and fish. Trees growing along stream banks were harvested...

  13. Methane Fluxes at the Tree Stem, Soil, and Ecosystem-scales in a Cottonwood Riparian Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, L. B.; Nikkel, D. J.; Scherloski, L. M.; Tkach, R. E.; Rood, S. B.

    2017-12-01

    Trees can emit methane to the atmosphere that is produced by microbes inside their decaying stems or by taking up and releasing methane that is produced by microbes in adjacent, anoxic soil layers. The significance of these two methane production pathways for possible net release to the atmosphere depends on the magnitude of simultaneous oxidation of atmospheric methane that occurs in well-aerated, shallow soil zones. In order to quantify the significance of these processes, we made methane flux measurements using the eddy covariance technique at the ecosystem-scale and via chamber-based methods applied on the soil surface and on tree stems in a riparian cottonwood ecosystem in southern Alberta that was dominated by Populus tree species and their natural hybrids. Tree stem methane fluxes varied greatly among individual Populus trees and changed seasonally, with peak growing season average values of 4 nmol m-2 s-1 (tree surface area basis). When scaled to the ecosystem, the tree stem methane emissions (0.9 nmol m-2 s-1, ground area basis) were slightly higher than average soil surface methane uptake rates (-0.8 nmol m-2 s-1). In addition, we observed regular nighttime increases in methane concentration within the forest boundary layer (by 300 nmol mol-1 on average at 22 m height during July). The majority of the methane concentration build-up was flushed from the ecosystem to the well-mixed atmosphere, with combined eddy covariance and air column storage fluxes reaching values of 70-80 nmol m-2 s-1 for approximately one hour after sunrise. Daily average net methane emission rates at the ecosystem-scale were 4.4 nmol m-2 s-1 during July. Additional lab studies demonstrated that tree stem methane was produced via the CO2-reduction pathway, as tissue in the central stem of living Populus trees was being decomposed. This study demonstrated net methane emission from an upland, cottonwood forest ecosystem, resulting from microbe methane production in tree stems that

  14. Effects of groundwater-flow paths on nitrate concentrations across two riparian forest corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater levels, apparent age, and chemistry from field sites and groundwater-flow modeling of hypothetical aquifers collectively indicate that groundwater-flow paths contribute to differences in nitrate concentrations across riparian corridors. At sites in Virginia (one coastal and one Piedmont), lowland forested wetlands separate upland fields from nearby surface waters (an estuary and a stream). At the coastal site, nitrate concentrations near the water table decreased from more than 10 mg/L beneath fields to 2 mg/L beneath a riparian forest buffer because recharge through the buffer forced water with concentrations greater than 5 mg/L to flow deeper beneath the buffer. Diurnal changes in groundwater levels up to 0.25 meters at the coastal site reflect flow from the water table into unsaturated soil where roots remove water and nitrate dissolved in it. Decreases in aquifer thickness caused by declines in the water table and decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients from the uplands to the wetlands indicate that more than 95% of the groundwater discharged to the wetlands. Such discharge through organic soil can reduce nitrate concentrations by denitrification. Model simulations are consistent with field results, showing downward flow approaching toe slopes and surface waters to which groundwater discharges. These effects show the importance of buffer placement over use of fixed-width, streamside buffers to control nitrate concentrations.

  15. Quantifying geomorphic controls on riparian forest dynamics using a linked physical-biological model: implications for river corridor conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, J. C.; Harper, E. B.; Fremier, A. K.; Hayden, M. K.; Battles, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    each patch. Model parameters of tree life-history traits (e.g., dispersal timing) and hydrogeomorphic processes (e.g., sedimentation rate) were determined by field and experimental studies, and aerial LIDAR, with separate range of values for point bar versus floodplain habitats. In most runs, abandoned channels were colonized one third as frequently as point bars, but supported much larger forest patches when colonization was successful (from 15-99% of forest area, depending on point bar success). Independent evaluation of aerial photos confirm that cottonwood forest stands associated with abandoned channels were less frequent (38% of all stands) but more extensive (53% of all forest area) relative to those caused by migrating point bars. Results indicate that changes to the rate and scale of river migration, and particularly channel abandonment, from human and climatic alterations to the flow regime will likely influence riparian corridor-wide tree population structure and forest dynamics, with consequences for the community of organisms that depend on this habitat.

  16. Quantifying Forested Riparian Buffer Ability to Ameliorate Stream Temperature in a Missouri Ozark Border Stream of the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Riparian buffers play an important role in modulating stream water quality, including temperature. There is a need to better understand riparian form and function to validate and improve contemporary management practices. Further studies are warranted to characterize energy attenuation by forested riparian canopy layers that normally buffer stream temperature, particularly in the central hardwood forest regions of the United States where relationships between canopy density and stream temperature are unknown. To quantify these complex processes, two intensively instrumented hydroclimate stations were installed along two stream reaches of a riparian stream in central Missouri, USA in the winter of 2008. Hydroclimate stations are located along stream reaches oriented in both cardinal directions, which will allow interpolation of results to other orientations. Each station consists of an array of instrumentation that senses the flux of water and energy into and out of the riparian zone. Reference data are supplied from a nearby flux tower (US DOE) located on top of a forested ridge. The study sites are located within a University of Missouri preserved wildland area on the border of the southern Missouri’s Ozark region, an ecologically distinct region in the central United States. Limestone underlies the study area, resulting in a distinct semi-Karst hydrologic system. Vegetation forms a complex, multi-layered canopy extending from the stream edge through the riparian zone and into surrounding hills. Climate is classified as humid continental, with approximate average annual temperature and precipitation of 13.2°C and 970mm, respectively. Preliminary results (summer 2009 data) indicate incoming short-wave radiation is 24.9% higher at the N-S oriented stream reach relative to the E-W oriented reach. Maximum incoming short wave radiation during the period was 64.5% lower at the N-S reach relative to E-W reach. Average air temperature for the E-W reach was 0.3°C lower

  17. Variable Width Riparian Model Enhances Landscape and Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.; Spencer, L.

    2017-12-01

    Riparian areas are ecotones that represent about 1% of USFS administered landscape and contribute to numerous valuable ecosystem functions such as wildlife habitat, stream water quality and flows, bank stability and protection against erosion, and values related to diversity, aesthetics and recreation. Riparian zones capture the transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with specific vegetation and soil characteristics which provide critical values/functions and are very responsive to changes in land management activities and uses. Two staff areas at the US Forest Service have coordinated on a two phase project to support the National Forests in their planning revision efforts and to address rangeland riparian business needs at the Forest Plan and Allotment Management Plan levels. The first part of the project will include a national fine scale (USGS HUC-12 digits watersheds) inventory of riparian areas on National Forest Service lands in western United States with riparian land cover, utilizing GIS capabilities and open source geospatial data. The second part of the project will include the application of riparian land cover change and assessment based on selected indicators to assess and monitor riparian areas on annual/5-year cycle basis.This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional nature of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process. The results suggest that incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning can improve riparian protection and restoration. The application of Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) approach can provide the agency Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) with observed riparian area condition on an annual basis and on multiple scales. The use of this model to map moderate to low gradient systems of sufficient width in conjunction with an understanding of the influence of distinctive landscape

  18. Impacts of removing Chinese privet from riparian forests on plant communities and tree growth five years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob R. Hudson; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2014-01-01

    An invasive shrub, Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.), was removed from heavily infested riparian forests in the Georgia Piedmont in 2005 by mulching machine or chainsaw felling. Subsequent herbicide treatment eliminated almost all privet by 2007. Recovery of plant communities, return of Chinese privet, and canopy tree growth were measured on...

  19. Removing an invasive shrub (Chinese privet) increases native bee diversity and abundance in riparian forests of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2011-01-01

    1. Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense Lour.) was removed from riparian forests in the Piedmont of Georgia in November 2005 by mulching with a track-mounted mulching machine or by chainsaw felling. The remaining privet in the herbaceous layer was killed with herbicide in December 2006. 2. Bee (Hymentoptera: Apoidea) abundance, diversity and community similarity in the...

  20. Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Dick L. Fowler

    2010-01-01

    Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the...

  1. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  2. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  3. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sustainability and maintenance of riparian vegetation or restoring of degraded sites is critical to sustain inherent ecosystem function and values. Description of patterns in species assemblages and diversity is an essential step before generating hypotheses in functional ecology. If we want to have information about ecosystem function, soil biodiversity is best considered by focusing on the groups of soil organisms that play major roles in ecosystem functioning when exploring links with provision of ecosystem services. Information about the spatial pattern of soil biodiversity at the regional scale is limited though required, e.g. for understanding regional scale effects of biodiversity on ecosystem processes. The practical consequences of these findings are useful for sustainable management of soils and in monitoring soil quality. Soil macrofauna play significant, but largely ignored roles in the delivery of ecosystem services by soils at plot and landscape scales. One main reason responsible for the absence of information about biodiversity at regional scale is the lack of adequate methods for sampling and analyzing data at this dimension. An adequate approach for the analysis of spatial patterns is a transect study in which samples are taken in a certain order and with a certain distance between samples. Geostatistics provide descriptive tools such as variogram to characterize the spatial pattern of continuous and categorical soil attributes. This method allows assessment of consistency of spatial patterns as well as the scale at which they are expressed. This study was conducted to analyze spatial patterns of soil macrofauna in relation to tree canopy in the riparian forest landscape of Maroon. Materilas and Methods: The study was carried out in the Maroon riparian forest of the southeasternIran (30o 38/- 30 o 39/ N and 50 o 9/- 50 o 10/ E. The climate of the study area is semi-arid. Average yearly rainfall is about 350.04 mm

  4. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  5. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  6. Biomass Carbon Sequestration Potential by Riparian Forest in the Tarim River Watershed, Northwest China: Implication for the Mitigation of Climate Change Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayierjiang Aishan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon management in forests has become the most important agenda of the first half of the 21st century in China in the context of the mitigation of climate change impact. As the main producer of the inland river basin ecosystem in arid region of Northwest China, the desert riparian forest maintains the regional environment and also holds a great significance in regulating the regional/global carbon cycle. In this study, we estimated the total biomass, carbon storage, as well as monetary ecosystem service values of desert riparian Populus euphratica Oliv. in the lower reaches of the Tarim River based on terrestrial forest inventory data within an area of 100 ha (100 plots with sizes of 100 m × 100 m and digitized tree data within 1000 ha (with 10 m × 10 m grid using a statistical model of biomass estimation against tree height (TH and diameter at breast height (DBH data. Our results show that total estimated biomass and carbon storage of P. euphratica within the investigated area ranged from 3.00 to 4317.00 kg/ha and from 1.82 to 2158.73 kg/ha, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship (p < 0.001 between biomass productivity of these forests and distance to the river and groundwater level. Large proportions of biomass (64% of total biomass are estimated within 200 m distance to the river where groundwater is relatively favorable for vegetation growth and biomass production. However, our data demonstrated that total biomass showed a sharp decreasing trend with increasing distance to the river; above 800 m distance, less biomass and carbon storage were estimated. The total monetary value of the ecosystem service “carbon storage” provided by P. euphratica was estimated to be $6.8 × 104 USD within the investigated area, while the average monetary value was approximately $70 USD per ha, suggesting that the riparian forest ecosystem in the Tarim River Basin should be considered a relevant regional carbon sink. The findings of

  7. Initial riparian down wood dynamics in relation to thinning and buffer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Deanna H. Olson; Adrian. Ares

    2013-01-01

    Down wood plays many functional roles in aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Simplifi cation of forest structure and low abundance of down wood in stream channels and riparian areas is a common legacy of historical management in headwater forests west of the Cascade Range in the US northwest. Contemporary management practices emphasize the implementation of vegetation...

  8. Assessing critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer planning and riparian restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2009-11-01

    A science-based geographic information system (GIS) approach is presented to target critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer placement. Critical source areas are the intersection of hydrologically sensitive areas and pollutant source areas in watersheds. Hydrologically sensitive areas are areas that actively generate runoff in the watershed and are derived using a modified topographic index approach based on variable source area hydrology. Pollutant source areas are the areas in watersheds that are actively and intensively used for such activities as agricultural production. The method is applied to the Neshanic River watershed in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The capacity of the topographic index in predicting the spatial pattern of runoff generation and the runoff contribution to stream flow in the watershed is evaluated. A simple cost-effectiveness assessment is conducted to compare the conservation buffer placement scenario based on this GIS method to conventional riparian buffer scenarios for placing conservation buffers in agricultural lands in the watershed. The results show that the topographic index reasonably predicts the runoff generation in the watershed. The GIS-based conservation buffer scenario appears to be more cost-effective than the conventional riparian buffer scenarios.

  9. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  10. The evaluation of the establishment and growth of indigenous trees to restore deforested riparian areas in the Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa / Theo Scholtz

    OpenAIRE

    Scholtz, Theo

    2007-01-01

    The deforestation of riparian areas is a major concern in southern Africa. These areas are characterized as fragile ecosystems which contribute largely to the regional and global biodiversity of the world. It is therefore important to restore these degraded areas along the natural rivers of South Africa to ensure the sustainability and biodiversity of riparian corridors. Riparian areas inside the National Parks of South Africa, and especially in Mapungubwe National Park, have a high esthetica...

  11. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  12. Experimental study on water transport observations of desert riparian forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Zhou, Honghua; Chen, Yapeng; XinmingHao; Fu, Aihong; Ma, Jianxin

    2017-06-01

    Studying the water use processes of desert riparian vegetation in arid regions and analyzing the response and adaptation strategies of plants to drought stress are of great significance for developing ecological restoration measures. Based on field monitoring and test analyses of physiological ecological indicators of dominant species (Populus euphratica and Tamarix chinensis) in the desert riparian forest in the lower reaches of the Tarim River, the water relations of P. euphratica and T. chinensis under drought stress are discussed and some water use strategies put forward. The results show that (1) concerning plant water uptake, desert riparian forests depend mainly on groundwater to survive under long-term water stress. (2) Concerning plant water distribution, the survival of P. euphratica and nearby shallow root plants is mainly due to the hydraulic lift and water redistribution of P. euphratica under drought stress. (3) Concerning plant water transport, P. euphratica sustains the survival of competitive and advantageous branches by improving their ability to acquire water while restraining the growth of inferior branches. (4) Concerning plant transpiration, the sap flow curves of daily variations of P. euphratica and T. chinensis were wide-peak sin and narrower-peak respectively. T. chinensis has better environmental adaptability.

  13. Black-chinned hummingbird nest-site selection and nest survival in response to fuel reduction in a southwestern riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; David L. Hawksworth

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread efforts to avert wildfire by reducing the density of flammable vegetation, little is known about the effects of this practice on the reproductive biology of forest birds. We examined nest-site selection and nest survival of the Black-chinned Hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri) in New Mexico riparian forests treated or not for fuel...

  14. Forest attributes and fuel loads of riparian vs. upland stands in mountain pine beetle infested watersheds, southern Rocky Mountains [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Roberto A. Bazan; Robert Hubbard

    2015-01-01

    Extensive outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB), spruce beetle (SB), and other insects are altering forest stand structure throughout the Western United States, and thereby increasing the natural heterogeneity of fuel distribution. Riparian forests frequently occur as narrow linear features in the landscape mosaic and can contribute to the spatial complexity of...

  15. Riparian restoration in the Southwest: Species selection, propagation, planting methods, and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Dreesen; John Harrington; Tom Subirge; Pete Stewart; Greg Fenchel

    2002-01-01

    Riparian plant communities, though small in overall area, are among the most valuable natural areas in the Southwest. The causes of degradation of southwestern riparian zones range from excessive cattle and elk grazing in montane watersheds to invasive woody exotic species and lack of natural flooding in the cottonwood forests, "bosque," of low elevation...

  16. Effects of Channelisation, Riparian Structure and Catchment Area on Physical Habitats in Small Lowland Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Lauge

    2009-01-01

    Rivers and streams form a longitudinal network in which physical conditions and biological processes change through the river system. Geomorphology, topography, geology and hydraulic conditions change from site to site within the river system, thereby creating a complex network of reaches that ar.......e. a confined and steep valley (V-shaped) is less likely to be used for agricultural production compared to a broad valley. The results are useful to water managers, who seek to identify natural and impacted physical conditions in large river systems....... that are dominated by a hierarchy of physical processes. The complexity is further enhanced by local human alteration of the physical structure, natural processes and alteration of the riparian areas. The aim of the study was to analyse variations in land use and riparian characteristics along small Danish streams...... and to determine the effect of channelisation on physical habitats. Physical stream characteristics were measured in 149 stream small and medium sized Danish streams (catchment area: 0.1 to 67.2 km2). The measured physical parameters included discharge, stream slope, width, depth, current velocity, substrata...

  17. A novel dendrochronological approach reveals drivers of carbon sequestration in tree species of riparian forests across spatiotemporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Isaak; Kowarik, Ingo; Cherubini, Paolo; Cierjacks, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Aboveground carbon (C) sequestration in trees is important in global C dynamics, but reliable techniques for its modeling in highly productive and heterogeneous ecosystems are limited. We applied an extended dendrochronological approach to disentangle the functioning of drivers from the atmosphere (temperature, precipitation), the lithosphere (sedimentation rate), the hydrosphere (groundwater table, river water level fluctuation), the biosphere (tree characteristics), and the anthroposphere (dike construction). Carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass of riparian Quercus robur L. and Fraxinus excelsior L. was modeled (1) over time using boosted regression tree analysis (BRT) on cross-datable trees characterized by equal annual growth ring patterns and (2) across space using a subsequent classification and regression tree analysis (CART) on cross-datable and not cross-datable trees. While C sequestration of cross-datable Q. robur responded to precipitation and temperature, cross-datable F. excelsior also responded to a low Danube river water level. However, CART revealed that C sequestration over time is governed by tree height and parameters that vary over space (magnitude of fluctuation in the groundwater table, vertical distance to mean river water level, and longitudinal distance to upstream end of the study area). Thus, a uniform response to climatic drivers of aboveground C sequestration in Q. robur was only detectable in trees of an intermediate height class and in taller trees (>21.8m) on sites where the groundwater table fluctuated little (≤0.9m). The detection of climatic drivers and the river water level in F. excelsior depended on sites at lower altitudes above the mean river water level (≤2.7m) and along a less dynamic downstream section of the study area. Our approach indicates unexploited opportunities of understanding the interplay of different environmental drivers in aboveground C sequestration. Results may support species-specific and

  18. INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL GROUP COMPOSITION, PLANTATION SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT IN THE RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST ON RESERVOIR SHORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of spacing, arrangement and ecological group composition of planted seedlings on the restoration process of artificial reservoir shores in southeastern Brazil. The assessments were performed 12 years after the settlement of the experiment in which five mixed stand models were tested. First, a general evaluation of the stand was performed when we surveyed the overstory and understory, seed bank and soil for chemical analysis.Then, the restoration indicators survival of planted trees, basal area and density of the tree community, litter accumulated on the soil and canopy closure index were utilized to compare the plantation models and to assess the influence the experimental factors on these parameters. In the general analysis, we found that the studied stand presents low diversity, poor regeneration, and seed bank dominated mostly by one planted exotic tree species and weeds, which may jeopardize the self- maintenance of the stand in the future. The factor that most influenced the models was the ecological group composition with the best performance found for models in which both pioneer and non-pioneer groups were used. Probably, the plantation arrangement and spacing did not have greater influence due to both plant mortality and natural regeneration that has developed to this age. Hence, it is not recommended the use of only pioneer species in the implantation of riparian forest and the proportion of 50% pioneers and 50% non-pioneers using as much species as possible is indicated for areas that might present constraints for the natural regeneration.

  19. Tree mortality in response to typhoon-induced floods and mudslides is determined by tree species, size, and position in a riparian Formosan gum forest in subtropical Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wang, Wei; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Chiu, Ching-An; Kuo, Chu-Chia; Tsai, Shang-Te

    2018-01-01

    Global warming-induced extreme climatic changes have increased the frequency of severe typhoons bringing heavy rains; this has considerably affected the stability of the forest ecosystems. Since the Taiwan 921 earthquake occurred in 21 September 1999, the mountain geology of the Island of Taiwan has become unstable and typhoon-induced floods and mudslides have changed the topography and geomorphology of the area; this has further affected the stability and functions of the riparian ecosystem. In this study, the vegetation of the unique Aowanda Formosan gum forest in Central Taiwan was monitored for 3 years after the occurrence of floods and mudslides during 2009-2011. Tree growth and survival, effects of floods and mudslides, and factors influencing tree survival were investigated. We hypothesized that (1) the effects of floods on the survival are significantly different for each tree species; (2) tree diameter at breast height (DBH) affects tree survival-i.e., the larger the DBH, the higher the survival rate; and (3) the relative position of trees affects tree survival after disturbances by floods and mudslides-the farther trees are from the river, the higher is their survival rate. Our results showed that after floods and mudslides, the lifespans of the major tree species varied significantly. Liquidambar formosana displayed the highest flood tolerance, and the trunks of Lagerstoemia subcostata began rooting after disturbances. Multiple regression analysis indicated that factors such as species, DBH, distance from sampled tree to the above boundary of sample plot (far from the riverbank), and distance from the upstream of the river affected the lifespans of trees; the three factors affected each tree species to different degrees. Furthermore, we showed that insect infestation had a critical role in determining tree survival rate. Our 3-year monitoring investigation revealed that severe typhoon-induced floods and mudslides disturbed the riparian vegetation in the

  20. Tree mortality in response to typhoon-induced floods and mudslides is determined by tree species, size, and position in a riparian Formosan gum forest in subtropical Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Hsy-Yu; Wang, Wei; Tseng, Yen-Hsueh; Chiu, Ching-An; Kuo, Chu-Chia

    2018-01-01

    Global warming-induced extreme climatic changes have increased the frequency of severe typhoons bringing heavy rains; this has considerably affected the stability of the forest ecosystems. Since the Taiwan 921 earthquake occurred in 21 September 1999, the mountain geology of the Island of Taiwan has become unstable and typhoon-induced floods and mudslides have changed the topography and geomorphology of the area; this has further affected the stability and functions of the riparian ecosystem. In this study, the vegetation of the unique Aowanda Formosan gum forest in Central Taiwan was monitored for 3 years after the occurrence of floods and mudslides during 2009–2011. Tree growth and survival, effects of floods and mudslides, and factors influencing tree survival were investigated. We hypothesized that (1) the effects of floods on the survival are significantly different for each tree species; (2) tree diameter at breast height (DBH) affects tree survival–i.e., the larger the DBH, the higher the survival rate; and (3) the relative position of trees affects tree survival after disturbances by floods and mudslides–the farther trees are from the river, the higher is their survival rate. Our results showed that after floods and mudslides, the lifespans of the major tree species varied significantly. Liquidambar formosana displayed the highest flood tolerance, and the trunks of Lagerstoemia subcostata began rooting after disturbances. Multiple regression analysis indicated that factors such as species, DBH, distance from sampled tree to the above boundary of sample plot (far from the riverbank), and distance from the upstream of the river affected the lifespans of trees; the three factors affected each tree species to different degrees. Furthermore, we showed that insect infestation had a critical role in determining tree survival rate. Our 3-year monitoring investigation revealed that severe typhoon-induced floods and mudslides disturbed the riparian vegetation

  1. Water-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the Mediterranean climate zone of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Shaw, Bruce C.; Everson, Colin S.; Clulow, Alistair D.

    2017-09-01

    findings, it was concluded that, annually, the alien stand used nearly 6 times more water per unit area than the indigenous stand (585 mm a-1 compared to 101 mm a-1). This finding indicates that there would be a gain in groundwater recharge and/or streamflow if the alien species are removed from riparian forests and rehabilitated back to their natural state.

  2. Flood impact assessment on the development of Archaia Olympia riparian area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaporti, Christina; Podimata, Marianthi; Yannopoulos, Panayotis

    2013-04-01

    A long list of articles in the literature examines several issues of flood risk management and applications of flood scenarios, taking into consideration the climate changes, as well as decision making tools in flood planning. The present study tries to highlight the conversation concerning flood impacts on the development rate of a riparian area. More specifically, Archaia (Ancient) Olympia watershed was selected as a case study area, since it is considered as a region of special interest and international significance. In addition, Alfeios River, which is the longest river of Peloponnisos Peninsula, passes through the plain of Archaia Olympia. Flood risk scenarios allow scientists and practitioners to understand the adverse effects of flooding on development activities such as farming, tourism etc. and infrastructures in the area such as road and railway networks, Flokas dam and the hydroelectric power plant, bridges, settlements and other properties. Flood risks cause adverse consequences on the region of Archaia Olympia (Ancient Olympic stadium) and Natura 2000 site area. Furthermore, SWOT analysis was used in order to quantify multicriteria and socio-economic characteristics of the study area. SWOT analysis, as a planning method, indicates the development perspective by identifying the strengths, weaknesses, threads and opportunities. Subsequent steps in the process of intergraded River Management Plan of Archaia Olympia could be derived from SWOT analysis. The recognition and analysis of hydro-geomorphological influences on riparian development activities can lead to the definition of hazardous and vulnerability zones and special warning equipment. The former information combined with the use of the spatial database for the catchment area of the River Alfeios, which aims to gather multiple watershed data, could serve in preparing the Management Plan of River Basin District 01 where Alfeios R. belongs. Greece has to fulfill the obligation of implementing River

  3. RESEARCH AND PRACTICE OF UAV REMOTE SENSING IN THE MONITORING AND MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS IN RIPARIAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of UAV remote sensing in the monitoring and management of construction projects in riparian areas through the case study of embankment construction projects’ monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. A three-step approach is proposed to address the problem: data acquisition with UAV, data processing, and monitoring information extraction. The results of the case study demonstrate that UAV remote sensing is capable of providing fast and accurate measurements and calculations for the needs of monitoring of riparian constructions.

  4. Research and Practice of Uav Remote Sensing in the Monitoring and Management of Construction Projects in Riparian Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J.; Gan, Z.; Zhong, L.; Deng, L.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of UAV remote sensing in the monitoring and management of construction projects in riparian areas through the case study of embankment construction projects' monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. A three-step approach is proposed to address the problem: data acquisition with UAV, data processing, and monitoring information extraction. The results of the case study demonstrate that UAV remote sensing is capable of providing fast and accurate measurements and calculations for the needs of monitoring of riparian constructions.

  5. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude`s proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Survey of wildlife, including aquatic mammals, associated with riparian habitat on the Syncrude Canada Ltd. Aurora Mine environmental impact assessment local study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrendi, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A general overview of the wildlife associated with riparian habitats at Syncrude's proposed Aurora Mine, located 70 km northeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta on the east side of the Athabasca River, was presented. The area is underlain by bitumen and is being considered for bitumen extraction and production of synthetic crude oil. Two surveys were conducted with the help of experienced trappers from the community at Fort McKay. One was an aerial survey on November 3, 1995, the other a ground survey on November 29-30, 1995. The two surveys yielded 248 observed tracks on four 500 metre transects. The study area was comprised of boreal forest with natural drainage via Stanley Creek into the Muskeg River and via Fort Creek into the Athabasca River. Beavers, fox, weasel, mink, rabbit, wolf, moose, deer, ptarmigan, sharp-tailed grouse and ruffed grouse, lynx, coyote, river otter and mice were associated with riparian habitat on the study area. There was no sign of muskrat in the study area. It was concluded that in order to develop an understanding of reclamation alternatives for mined areas in the region, future detailed examination of the site should be approached through the integration of traditional ecological knowledge and conventional scientific methodology. 26 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Efeito de um protetor físico na semeadura direta de duas espécies florestais em área de domínio ciliar The effects of a shelter upon seeding of two forest tree species in a riparian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Contro Malavasi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O ensaio avaliou o uso de uma garrafa plástica tipo PET de 2.000 mL como protetor físico na semeadura direta de Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. e Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. em área de domínio ciliar no Oeste do Paraná. Nas semeaduras executadas no outono, inverno e primavera, utilizaram-se quatro sementes pré-embebidas de cada espécie por cova. As avaliações constaram da percentagem acumulada de plântulas vivas por parcela 30 dias após a semeadura (emergência, da percentagem de plântulas vivas 90 dias após a semeadura (sobrevivência e da percentagem de covas por parcela (formada por 15 covas com pelo menos uma plântula viva 90 dias após a semeadura (densidade populacional, assim como da altura e diâmetro do colo das plântulas. A semeadura realizada no outono resultou em 45% de plântulas de timburi vivas 30 dias após a semeadura, enquanto a emergência de plântulas de canafistula (média de 75,5% foi indiferente às épocas de semeadura. O uso do protetor aumentou a emergência de plântulas das espécies estudadas quando semeadas no outono (12% ou no inverno (10%, assim como na sobrevivência da semeadura da primavera, e na densidade populacional nas semeaduras de outono e da primavera em covas semeadas com canafístula.The study compared the effects of a plastic bottle as a shelter on direct spot seeding of two forest species. Four water soaked seeds of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong. (timburi or Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taub. (canafistula were spot seeded in autumn, winter or spring in a riparian area located on the western portion of Parana state, Brazil. Calculation of population variables included accumulative percentage of live germinants 30 days after seeding (emergency, percentage of live seedlings 90 days after seeding (survival, percentage of seeded spots per plot (formed by 15 seeding spots with at least one live seedling (population density, as well as seedling height and

  8. Oldman river dam mitigation program downstream vegetation project report, Volume II: The potential effects of an operating plan for the Oldman River dam on Riparian cottonwood forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Extensive cottonwood (poplar) forests exist in the Oldman River valley downstream of the Oldman River dam. Studies of similar forests in nearby river valleys and elsewhere on the western prairies have found significant declines of some riparian forests following river damming. This investigation was initiated to determine the causes of cottonwood forest decline downstream from existing dams in southern Alberta; inventory the existing river valley forests in the Oldman Basin; establish study sites in the Oldman River forests to monitor changes in forest status following commissioning of the Oldman River dam, and evaluate the probable impact of proposed operating plans for the Oldman River dam and associated water control structures on downstream forests. This report summarizes the progress made in the analyses of the probable effects on the survival of the forests, including a discussion of the hydrological conditions essential for cottonwood forest regeneration and an explanation of the effects of altering these characteristics on riparian forests; the hydrological alterations expected along various river reaches in the Oldman Basin with the implementation of the proposed OD05 Oldman Dam operating plan; and preliminary analyses of the problem impacts of the OD05 operating plan on the cottonwood forests along these reaches.

  9. Solid Waste Management in Recreational Forest Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Charles S.

    The Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, requested the Bureau of Solid Waste Management to conduct a study of National Forest recreation areas to establish waste generation rates for major recreation activities and to determine the cost of solid waste handling for selected Forest Service Districts. This report describes the 1968 solid…

  10. Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966

  11. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  12. Scaling up and error analysis of transpiration for Populus euphratica in a desert riparian forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, J.; Li, W.; Feng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water consumption information of the forest stand is the most important factor for regional water resources management. However, water consumption of individual trees are usually measured based on the limited sample trees , so, it is an important issue how to realize eventual scaling up of data from a series of sample trees to entire stand. Estimation of sap flow flux density (Fd) and stand sapwood area (AS-stand) are among the most critical factors for determining forest stand transpiration using sap flow measurement. To estimate Fd, the various links in sap flow technology have great impact on the measurement of sap flow, to estimate AS-stand, an appropriate indirect technique for measuring each tree sapwood area (AS-tree) is required, because it is impossible to measure the AS-tree of all trees in a forest stand. In this study, Fd was measured in 2 mature P. euphratic trees at several radial depths, 0~10, 10~30mm, using sap flow sensors with the heat ratio method, the relationship model between AS-tree and stem diameter (DBH), growth model of AS-tree were established, using investigative original data of DBH, tree-age, and AS-tree. The results revealed that it can achieve scaling up of transpiration from sample trees to entire forest stand using AS-tree and Fd, however, the transpiration of forest stand (E) will be overvalued by 12.6% if using Fd of 0~10mm, and it will be underestimated by 25.3% if using Fd of 10~30mm, it implied that major uncertainties in mean stand Fd estimations are caused by radial variations in Fd. E will be obviously overvalued when the AS-stand is constant, this result imply that it is the key to improve the prediction accuracy that how to simulate the AS-stand changes in the day scale; They also showed that the potential errors in transpiration with a sample size of approximately ≥30 were almost stable for P.euphrtica, this suggests that to make an allometric equation it might be necessary to sample at least 30 trees.

  13. Difference of stand-scale transpiration between ridge and riparian area in a watershed with Japanese cypress plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, T.; Tsuruta, K.; Komatsu, H.; Shinohara, Y.; Otsuki, K.

    2011-12-01

    Several different methods to assess water use are available, and the sap flux measurement technique is one of the most promising methods, especially in monotonous watershed. Previously, three spatial levels of scaling have been used to obtain bottom-up transpiration estimates based on the sap flux technique: from within-tree to tree, from tree to stand, and from stand to watershed or landscape. Although there are considerable variations that must be taken into account at each step, few studies have examined plot-to-plot variability of stand-scale transpirations. To design optimum sampling method to accurately estimate transpiration at the watershed-scale, it is indispensable to understand heterogeneity of stand-scale transpiration in a forested watershed and the factors determining the heterogeneity. This study was undertaken to clarify differences of stand-scale transpirations within a watershed and the factors determining the differences. To this aim, we conducted sap flux-based transpiration estimates in two plots such as a lower riparian (RZ) and an upper ridge (UZ) zone in a watershed with Japanese cypress plantation, Kyushu, Japan in two years. Tree height and diameter of breast height (DBH) were lager in RZ than those of UZ. The stand sapwood area (As) was lager in RZ than UZ (21.9 cm2h a-1, 16.8 cm2ha-1, respectively). Stand mean sap flux (Js) in RZ was almost same as that of UZ when relatively lower Js, while, Js in RZ was higher than that of UZ when relatively higher Js (i.e., bright days in summer season). Consequently, daily stand-scale transpiration (E), which is the multiple of As and Js, differed by two times between RZ and UZ in summer season. This study found significant heterogeneity of stand-scale transpiration within the watershed and that the differences could be caused by two aspects such as stand structure and sap flux velocity.

  14. Determining effective riparian buffer width for nonnative plant exclusion and habitat enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin Ferris; Vincent D' Amico; Christopher K. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Nonnative plants threaten native biodiversity in landscapes where habitats are fragmented. Unfortunately, in developed areas, much of the remaining forested habitat occurs in fragmented riparian corridors. Because forested corridors of sufficient width may allow forest interior specializing native species to retain competitive advantage over edge specialist and...

  15. Feeding ecology of Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae in a riparian flooded forest of Eastern Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding habits of the midnight catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus collected in rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest (Eastern Amazonia, Brazil were investigated through the different hydrological periods (dry, filing, flood and drawdown. A total of 589 specimens were collected throughout seven samplings between July 2008 and July 2009, of which 74 were young males, 177 adult males, 89 young females and 249 adult females. The diet composition (Alimentary index - Ai% was analyzed by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS and by the analysis of similarity (ANOSIM, which included 37 items grouped into nine categories (Aquatic insects, Other aquatic invertebrates, Arthropods fragment, Fish, Plant fragment, Seeds, Terrestrial insects, Other terrestrial invertebrates, and Terrestrial vertebrates. We also calculated the niche breadth (Levins index and the repletion index (RI%. Differences in the diet composition between hydrological seasons were registered, primarily on diet composition between dry and flood season, but changes related with sex and maturity were not observed. The midnight catfish showed more specialists feeder habit in the flood period (March 2009 and more generalist habits in the dry season (November 2008. The amount of food eaten by A. longimanus based on repletion index (RI%, did not differ significantly from sex and maturity. However, we evidenced differences in RI% when comparing the studied months. These results provide important biological information about the trophic ecology of auchenipterids fish. In view of the higher occurrence of allochthonous items, this research also underpins the importance of riparian forests as critical environments in the maintenance and conservation of wild populations of fish in the Amazon basin.Neste estudo foram investigados os hábitos alimentares do bagre Auchenipterichthys longimanus coletados em rios da Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã (Amazônia Oriental, Brasil ao longo de diferentes

  16. Tennessee's forest land area was stable 1999-2005 but early successional forest area declined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2008-01-01

    A new analysis of the most recent (2005) annualized moving average data for Tennessee indicates that the area of forest land in the State remained stable between 1999 and 2005. Although trends in forest land area vary from region to region within the State, Tennessee neither lost nor gained forest land between 1999 and 2005. However, Tennessee had more than 2.5 times...

  17. Organization of private forest sector in Timok forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Milijic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in form of private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization. Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and construction of forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, size of private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters. 

  18. Assessing the extent and diversity of riparian ecosystems in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M.L.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.; Valdes-Casillas, C.; Erker, J.A.; Reynolds, E.W.; Shafroth, P.B.; Gomez-Limon, E.; Jones, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation of forested riparian ecosystems is of international concern. Relatively little is known of the structure, composition, diversity, and extent of riparian ecosystems in Mexico. We used high- and low-resolution satellite imagery from 2000 to 2006, and ground-based sampling in 2006, to assess the spatial pattern, extent, and woody plant composition of riparian forests across a range of spatial scales for the state of Sonora, Mexico. For all 3rd and higher order streams, river bottomlands with riparian forests occupied a total area of 2,301 km2. Where forested bottomlands remained, on average, 34% of the area had been converted to agriculture while 39% remained forested. We estimated that the total area of riparian forest along the principal streams was 897 km2. Including fencerow trees, the total forested riparian area was 944 km2, or 0.5% of the total land area of Sonora. Ground-based sampling of woody riparian vegetation consisted of 92, 50 m radius circular plots. About 79 woody plant species were noted. The most important tree species, based on cover and frequency, were willow species Salix spp. (primarily S. goodingii and S. bonplandiana), mesquite species Prosopis spp. (primarily P. velutina), and Fremont cottonwood Populus fremontii. Woody riparian taxa at the reach scale showed a trend of increasing diversity from north to south within Sonora. Species richness was greatest in the willow-bald cypress Taxodium distichum var. mexicanum-Mexican cottonwood P. mexicana subsp. dimorphia ecosystem. The non-native tamarisk Tamarix spp. was rare, occurring at just three study reaches. Relatively natural stream flow patterns and fluvial disturbance regimes likely limit its establishment and spread. ?? 2008 Springer Science + Business Media BV.

  19. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

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    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.

  20. Bat activity following restoration prescribed burning in the central Appalachian Upland and riparian habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Lauren V.; Silvis, Alexander; Ford, W. Mark; Muthersbaugh, Michael; Powers, Karen E.

    2018-01-01

    After decades of fire suppression in eastern North America, land managers now are prioritizing prescribed fire as a management tool to restore or maintain fire-adapted vegetation communities. However, in long—fire-suppressed landscapes, such as the central and southern Appalachians, it is unknown how bats will respond to prescribed fire in both riparian and upland forest habitats. To address these concerns, we conducted zero-crossing acoustic surveys of bat activity in burned, unburned, riparian, and non-riparian areas in the central Appalachians, Virginia, USA. Burn and riparian variables had model support (ΔAICc fire differently between upland and riparian forest habitats, but overall, large landscape-level prescribed fire has a slightly positive to neutral impact on all bats species identified at our study site post—fire application.

  1. Implementation of a subcanopy solar radiation model on a forested headwater basin in the Southern Appalachians to estimate riparian canopy density and stream insolation for stream temperature models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belica, L.; Petras, V.; Iiames, J. S., Jr.; Caldwell, P.; Mitasova, H.; Nelson, S. A. C.

    2016-12-01

    Water temperature is a key aspect of water quality and understanding how the thermal regimes of forested headwater streams may change in response to climatic and land cover changes is increasingly important to scientists and resource managers. In recent years, the forested mountain watersheds of the Southeastern U.S. have experienced changing climatic patterns as well as the loss of a keystone riparian tree species and anticipated hydrologic responses include lower summer stream flows and decreased stream shading. Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy to streams and a key parameter in heat-budget models of stream temperature; a decrease in flow volume combined with a reduction in stream shading during summer have the potential to increase stream temperatures. The high spatial variability of forest canopies and the high spatio-temporal variability in sky conditions make estimating the solar radiation reaching small forested headwater streams difficult. The Subcanopy Solar Radiation Model (SSR) (Bode et al. 2014) is a GIS model that generates high resolution, spatially explicit estimates of solar radiation by incorporating topographic and vegetative shading with a light penetration index derived from leaf-on airborne LIDAR data. To evaluate the potential of the SSR model to provide estimates of stream insolation to parameterize heat-budget models, it was applied to the Coweeta Basin in the Southern Appalachians using airborne LIDAR (NCALM 2009, 1m resolution). The LIDAR derived canopy characteristics were compared to current hyperspectral images of the canopy for changes and the SSR estimates of solar radiation were compared with pyranometer measurements of solar radiation at several subcanopy sites during the summer of 2016. Preliminary results indicate the SSR model was effective in identifying variations in canopy density and light penetration, especially in areas associated with road and stream corridors and tree mortality. Current LIDAR data and

  2. Floristics and physiognomy determine migrant landbird response to Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion in riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira A. Walker

    2008-01-01

    I investigated the relative importance of floristics and physiognomy in determining community organization of autumn-migrating landbirds in a riparian corridor in New Mexico invaded by Tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima). All six avian measures were associated with floristics, physiognomy, or both. However, usefulness in predicting migrant parameters...

  3. Riparian ecotone: A functional definition and delineation for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. S Verry; C. A Dolloff; M. E. Manning

    2004-01-01

    We propose a geomorphic basis for defining riparian areas using the term: riparian ecotone, discuss how past definitions fall short, and illustrate how a linked sequence of definition, delineation, and riparian sampling are used to accurately assess riparian resources on the ground. Our riparian ecotone is based on the width of the valley (its floodprone area width)...

  4. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  5. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their influencing factors in the downstream Heihe River basin, China

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    Ding, Jingyi; Zhao, Wenwu; Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Fan, Hao; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Yaping

    2017-05-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main restored vegetation community in Heihe River basin. They provide critical habitats and a variety of ecosystem services in this arid environment. Since desert riparian forests are also sensitive to disturbance, examining the spatial distribution and temporal variation of these forests and their influencing factors is important to determine the limiting factors of vegetation recovery after long-term restoration. In this study, field experiment and remote sensing data were used to determine the spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their relationship with the environmental factors. We classified five types of vegetation communities at different distances from the river channel. Community coverage and diversity formed a bimodal pattern, peaking at the distances of 1000 and 3000 m from the river channel. In general, the temporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) trend from 2000 to 2014 was positive at different distances from the river channel, except for the region closest to the river bank (i.e. within 500 m from the river channel), which had been undergoing degradation since 2011. The spatial distribution of desert riparian forests was mainly influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture, bulk density and soil particle composition). Meanwhile, while the temporal variation of vegetation was affected by both the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture and soil particle composition) and to a lesser extent, the temporal variation of water availability (e.g. annual average and variability of groundwater, soil moisture and runoff). Since surface (0-30 cm) and deep (100-200 cm) soil moisture, bulk density and the annual average of soil moisture at 100 cm obtained from the remote sensing data were regarded as major determining factors of community distribution and temporal variation, conservation measures that protect the soil structure

  6. Spatial and temporal analysis of the land cover in riparian buffer zones (Areas for Permanent Preservation in Sorocaba City, SP, Brazil

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    Sergio Henrique Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fundamental role that the riparian vegetation plays in relation to maintenance of the environmental health of a watershed and the necessity of restoring sectors of the buffer zone without natural vegetation, in this paper we investigated what land cover classes occur along the riparian buffer stripes considered Area for Permanent Preservation (APP in the Sorocaba municipality, SP in three periods: 1988, 1995 and 2003. Based on GIS technology and using the drainage network map, the APP stripes (riparian buffer zones map was generated, and this map was overlaid to the land cover map (1988, 1995 and 2003 to provide a land cover map specifically of the riparian buffer zones. The results show that 58.43% of the APPs have no land cover of native vegetation and therefore, need to be reforested, representing 5,400 hectares to be restored.

  7. Unit area control in California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Hallin

    1951-01-01

    There is a definite distinction between the basic concept of unit area control and the specific techniques or treatments used for specific units. Unit area control as a term was first used in connection with a cutting trial in the sugar pine-fir type; consequently, many foresters think the term refers merely to the technique used in sugar pine management, This is not...

  8. Effects of local land-use on riparian vegetation, water quality, and the functional organization of macroinvertebrate assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Pablo; Bertrán, Carlos; Tapia, Jaime; Hauenstein, Enrique; Peña-Cortés, Fernando; Vergara, Carolina; Cerna, Cindy; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis

    2017-12-31

    Land-use change is a principal factor affecting riparian vegetation and river biodiversity. In Chile, land-use change has drastically intensified over the last decade, with native forests converted to exotic forest plantations and agricultural land. However, the effects thereof on aquatic ecosystems are not well understood. Closing this knowledge gap first requires understanding how human perturbations affect riparian and stream biota. Identified biological indicators could then be applied to determine the health of fluvial ecosystems. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of land-use change on the health of riparian and aquatic ecosystems by assessing riparian vegetation, water quality, benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, and functional feeding groups. Twenty-one sites in catchment areas with different land-uses (i.e. pristine forests, native forests, exotic forest plantations, and agricultural land) were selected and sampled during the 2010 to 2012 dry seasons. Riparian vegetation quality was highest in pristine forests. Per the modified Macroinvertebrate Family Biotic Index for Chilean species, the best conditions existed in native forests and the worst in agricultural catchments. Water quality and macroinvertebrate assemblages significantly varied across land-use areas, with forest plantations and agricultural land having high nutrient concentrations, conductivity, suspended solids, and apparent color. Macroinvertebrate assemblage diversity was lowest for agricultural and exotic forest plantation catchments, with notable non-insect representation. Collector-gatherers were the most abundant functional feeding group, suggesting importance independent of land-use. Land-use areas showed no significant differences in functional feeding groups. In conclusion, anthropogenic land-use changes were detectable through riparian quality, water quality, and macroinvertebrate assemblages, but not through functional feeding groups. These data, particularly the

  9. GIS applications in riparian management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie Christman; Douglas W. Shaw; Charles L. Spann; Penny Luehring

    1996-01-01

    GIS was used to prioritize watersheds for treatment needs across the USDA Forest Service Southwestern Region. Factors in this analysis included soil condition, riparian habitat, population centers and mining sites.

  10. Assessment of Vegetation Density and Soil Macrofauna Relationship in Riparian Forest of Karkhe River for the Determination of Rivers Buffer Zone

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    SH. Gholami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of soil organisms is influenced by the plant cover, thus resulting in a horizontal mosaic of areas subjected to gradients of nutrient availability and microclimatic conditions.This study was conducted to investigate the spatial variability of soil macrofauna in relation to vegetation density in the riparian forest landscape of Karkhe. The vegetation density was determined by calculating the NDVI index. Soil macrofauna were sampled using 200 sampling points along parallel transects (perpendicular to the river. The maximum distance between samples was 0.5 km. Soil macrofauna were extracted from 50 cm×50 cm×25 cm soil monolith by the hand-sorting procedure. Abundance, diversity (Shannon H’ index, richness (Menhinick index and evenness (Sheldon index were calculated. Soil macrofauna and NDVI data were analyzed using geostatistics (variogram in order to describe and quantify the spatial continuity. The variograms were spherical, revealing the presence of spatial autocorrelation. The range of influence was 1724 m for abundance, 1326 m for diversity, 1825 m for richness, 1450 for evenness and 1977 m for NDVI. The kriging maps showed that the NDVI Index and soil macrofauna had spatial variability. The spatial pattern of soil macrofauna abundance and biodiversity were similar to the spatial pattern of vegetation density as shown in the correlation.

  11. FOREST AREA DERIVATION FROM SENTINEL-1 DATA

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    A. Dostálová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently launched Sentinel-1A provides the high resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data with very high temporal coverage over large parts of European continent. Short revisit time and dual polarization availability supports its usability for forestry applications. The following study presents an analysis of the potential of the multi-temporal dual-polarization Sentinel-1A data for the forest area derivation using the standard methods based on Otsu thresholding and K-means clustering. Sentinel-1 data collected in winter season 2014-2015 over a test area in eastern Austria were used to derive forest area mask with spatial resolution of 10m and minimum mapping unit of 500 m2. The validation with reference forest mask derived from airborne full-waveform laser scanning data revealed overall accuracy of 92 % and kappa statistics of 0.81. Even better results can be achieved when using external mask for urban areas, which might be misclassified as forests when using the introduced approach based on SAR data only. The Sentinel-1 data and the described methods are well suited for forest change detection between consecutive years.

  12. Influence of microtopography on soil chemistry and understory riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irene M. Unger; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2008-01-01

    The success of riparian forest restoration efforts depends in part on an understanding of the relationship between soil characteristics and vegetation patterns and how these change with site conditions. To examine these relationships for floodplains in northern Missouri, we chose three unchannelized streams as study areas. A sampling grid was established at two plots...

  13. Tree mortality in mature riparian forest: Implications for Fremont cottonwood conservation in the American southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Mature tree mortality rates are poorly documented in desert riparian woodlands. I monitored deaths and calculated annual survivorship probability (Ps) in 2 groups of large (27–114 cm DBH), old (≥40 years old) Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii Wats.) in a stand along the free-flowing Yampa River in semiarid northwestern Colorado. Ps = 0.993 year-1 in a group (n = 126) monitored over 2003–2013, whereas Ps = 0.985 year-1 in a group (n = 179) monitored over the same period plus 3 earlier years (2000–2003) that included drought and a defoliating insect outbreak. Assuming Ps was the same for both groups during the 10-year postdrought period, the data indicate that Ps = 0.958 year-1 during the drought. I found no difference in canopy dieback level between male and female survivors. Mortality was equal among size classes, suggesting Ps is independent of age, but published longevity data imply that either Ps eventually declines with age or, as suggested in this study, periods with high Ps are interrupted by episodes of increased mortality. Stochastic population models featuring episodes of low Ps suggest a potential for an abrupt decline in mature tree numbers where recruitment is low. The modeling results have implications for woodland conservation, especially for relictual stands along regulated desert rivers.

  14. Soil water content drives spatiotemporal patterns of CO2 and N2O emissions from a Mediterranean riparian forest soil

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    S. Poblador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones play a fundamental role in regulating the amount of carbon (C and nitrogen (N that is exported from catchments. However, C and N removal via soil gaseous pathways can influence local budgets of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and contribute to climate change. Over a year, we quantified soil effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O from a Mediterranean riparian forest in order to understand the role of these ecosystems on catchment GHG emissions. In addition, we evaluated the main soil microbial processes that produce GHG (mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification and how changes in soil properties can modify the GHG production over time and space. Riparian soils emitted larger amounts of CO2 (1.2–10 g C m−2 d−1 than N2O (0.001–0.2 mg N m−2 d−1 to the atmosphere attributed to high respiration and low denitrification rates. Both CO2 and N2O emissions showed a marked (but antagonistic spatial gradient as a result of variations in soil water content across the riparian zone. Deep groundwater tables fueled large soil CO2 effluxes near the hillslope, while N2O emissions were higher in the wet zones adjacent to the stream channel. However, both CO2 and N2O emissions peaked after spring rewetting events, when optimal conditions of soil water content, temperature, and N availability favor microbial respiration, nitrification, and denitrification. Overall, our results highlight the role of water availability on riparian soil biogeochemistry and GHG emissions and suggest that climate change alterations in hydrologic regimes can affect the microbial processes that produce GHG as well as the contribution of these systems to regional and global biogeochemical cycles.

  15. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  16. Riparian Forest Buffers - Function for Protection and Enhancement of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Welsch

    1991-01-01

    Streamside forests are crucial to the protection and enhancement of the water resources of the Eastern United States. They are extremely complex ecosystems that help provide optimum food and habitat for stream communities as well as being useful in mitigating or controlling nonpoint source pollution (NPS). Used as a component of an integrated management system...

  17. Runoff water quality from a sierran upland forest, transition ecotone, and riparian wet meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    High concentrations of inorganic N, P, and S have been reported in overland and litter interflow within forested uplands of the Tahoe basin and surrounding watersheds. In this study we compared runoff nutrient concentration and load as well as soil nutrient fluxes at three watershed locations; an up...

  18. Incorporating climate change and exotic species into forecasts of riparian forest distribution.

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    Dana H Ikeda

    Full Text Available We examined the impact climate change (CC will have on the availability of climatically suitable habitat for three native and one exotic riparian species. Due to its increasing prevalence in arid regions throughout the western US, we predicted that an exotic species, Tamarix, would have the greatest increase in suitable habitat relative to native counterparts under CC. We used an ecological niche model to predict range shifts of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, Salix exigua and Tamarix, from present day to 2080s, under five general circulation models and one climate change scenario (A1B. Four major findings emerged. 1 Contrary to our original hypothesis, P. fremontii is projected to have the greatest increase in suitable habitat under CC, followed closely by Tamarix. 2 Of the native species, S. gooddingii and S. exigua showed the greatest loss in predicted suitable habitat due to CC. 3 Nearly 80 percent of future P. fremontii and Salix habitat is predicted to be affected by either CC or Tamarix by the 2080s. 4 By the 2080s, 20 percent of S. gooddingii habitat is projected to be affected by both Tamarix and CC concurrently, followed by S. exigua (19 percent and P. fremontii (13 percent. In summary, while climate change alone will negatively impact both native willow species, Tamarix is likely to affect a larger portion of all three native species' distributions. We discuss these and other results in the context of prioritizing restoration and conservation efforts to optimize future productivity and biodiversity. As we are accounting for only direct effects of CC and Tamarix on native habitat, we present a possible hierarchy of effects- from the direct to the indirect- and discuss the potential for the indirect to outweigh the direct effects. Our results highlight the need to account for simultaneous challenges in the face of CC.

  19. Water body and riparian buffer strip characteristics in a vineyard area to support aquatic pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Renja; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-10-15

    The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n=43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9m and 0.06m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width=1m; depth=0.3m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (>70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height>1.5m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72±29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot

  20. The Role of Phytodiversity in Riparian Alder Forests in Supporting the Provision of Ecosystem Services

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    Mariničová Patrícia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nature, ecosystems and biodiversity provide human society with many benefits known as ecosystem services. Functional diversity is an important aspect of biodiversity. In this paper, we applied inductive approach to the identification, mapping and evaluation of ecosystem services of the Aegopodio-Alnetum glutinosae community in Tribeč Mts. The results from 2015 show that the alder floodplain forest represents one of the most productive forest ecosystems with seasonal maximum production of 59.03 g m−2, species diversity of N0 = 40 and functional diversity of FD = 10. The forage potential of this community is medium, the melliferous potential is high and the therapeutic potential was estimated as extremely rich in medicinal plants. From the functional groups for providing ecosystem services, woody plants and hemicryptophytes play the most significant role.

  1. Functional species traits of carabid beetles living in two riparian alder forests of the Sila plateau subject to different disturbance factors (Coleoptera: Carabidae

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    Antonio Mazzei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied carabid beetle assemblages found in riparian black alder forests in the Sila plateau (Southern Apennines. These carabid assemblages are characterized by a high incidence of endemic small-sized, low dispersal, highly stenotopic (hygrophilic, and trophycally specialized species. To evaluate the influence of anthropogenic disturbance on these insects, we compared carabid assemblage of an old undisturbed forest (65-170y, wilderness landscape with that of a younger, partly grazed stand (40-60y, cropland landscape. The carabid assemblage of the disturbed stand was characterized by a higher number of species, but showed a lower incidence of zoophagous specialists and brachypterous beetles, with many species probably coming from an adjacent cropland. However, the disturbed stand maintains almost 80% of the core species found in the older forest, which suggests that these insects are not particularly sensitive to disturbance factors represented by periodic wood harvesting and extensive cattle grazing.

  2. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra-Rivas, Isabel; Castro-Díez, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna). Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  3. Comparing the Sexual Reproductive Success of Two Exotic Trees Invading Spanish Riparian Forests vs. a Native Reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cabra-Rivas

    Full Text Available A widely accepted hypothesis in invasion ecology is that invasive species have higher survival through the early stages of establishment than do non-invasive species. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the sexual reproductive success of the invasive trees Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle and Robinia pseudoacacia L. is higher than that of the native Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., all three species coexisting within the riparian forests of Central Spain. We compared different stages of the early life cycle, namely seed rain, seed infestation by insects, seed removal by local fauna, seed germination under optimal conditions and seedling abundance between the two invasive trees and the native, in order to assess their sexual reproductive success. The exotic species did not differ from the native reference (all three species displaying high seed rain and undergoing seed losses up to 50% due to seed removal by the local fauna. Even if the exotic R. pseudoacacia showed a high percentage of empty and insect-parasited seeds along with a low seedling emergence and the exotic A. altissima was the species with more viable seeds and of higher germinability, no differences were found regarding these variables when comparing them with the native F. angustifolia. Unsuitable conditions might have hampered either seedling emergence and survival, as seedling abundance in the field was lower than expected in all species -especially in R. pseudoacacia-. Our results rather suggest that the sexual reproductive success was not higher in the exotic trees than in the native reference, but studies focusing on long-term recruitment would help to shed light on this issue.

  4. Restoration of areas degraded by alluvial sand mining: use of soil microbiological activity and plant biomass growth to assess evolution of restored riparian vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venson, Graziela R; Marenzi, Rosemeri C; Almeida, Tito César M; Deschamps-Schmidt, Alexandre; Testolin, Renan C; Rörig, Leonardo R; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-01

    River or alluvial sand mining is causing a variety of environmental problems in the Itajaí-açú river basin in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil). When this type of commercial activity degrades areas around rivers, environmental restoration programs need to be executed. In this context, the aim of this study was to assess the evolution of a restored riparian forest based on data on the soil microbial activity and plant biomass growth. A reference site and three sites with soil degradation were studied over a 3-year period. Five campaigns were performed to determine the hydrolysis of the soil enzyme fluorescein diacetate (FDA), and the biomass productivity was determined at the end of the studied period. The variation in the enzyme activity for the different campaigns at each site was low, but this parameter did differ significantly according to the site. Well-managed sites showed the highest biomass productivity, and this, in turn, showed a strong positive correlation with soil enzyme activity. In conclusion, soil enzyme activity could form the basis for monitoring and the early prediction of the success of vegetal restoration programs, since responses at the higher level of biological organization take longer, inhibiting the assessment of the project within an acceptable time frame.

  5. Down by the riverside: urban riparian ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Daniel J. Bain; Lawrence E. Band; Kenneth T. Belt; Grace S. Brush; J. Morgan Grove; Richard V. Pouyat; Ian C. Yesilonis; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2003-01-01

    Riparian areas are hotspots of interactions between plants, soil, water, microbes, and people. While urban land use change has been shown to have dramatic effects on watershed hydrology, there has been surprisingly little analysis of its effects on riparian areas. Here we examine the ecology of urban riparian zones, focusing on work done in the Baltimore Ecosystem...

  6. Forest loss in protected areas and intact forest landscapes : A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H.; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A.

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest

  7. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Wild and Natural Areas 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The wild and natural areas layer was derived from the state forest boundary coverage which is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and...

  8. RICHNESS AND FLORISTIC COMPOSITION OF THE FERN COMMUNITY IN RIPARIAN FOREST OF THE RIVER ‘CADEIA’, IN RIO GRANDE DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanete Teresinha Mallmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813327The present study analyzed richness and specific composition of the fern community in fragments fromthe riparian forest of river ‘Cadeia’, under different levels of human impact, in Santa Maria do Herval, RioGrande do Sul state, Brazil. An amount of 120 sample units were delimited, equitably distributed in threefragments (FI, II and III in which all species were surveyed and the richness was recorded. The floristiccomposition among fragments was compared using Jaccard’s index and spatial distribution of units wasevaluated through multidimensional scaling. Richness data were presented in the form of rarefaction curvesbased on samples and non-parametric diversity estimators. A total of 40 species were found, belonging to13 families. The greater floristic similarity was between FI and FII. Sample units from FI formed the mostdefined grouping and they had more exclusive species than the others. The rarefaction curve for the totalsampling almost reached the asymptote and estimators indicated a maximum of 45 species, which meansthat the majority of species was surveyed at the study site. A decreasing gradient of mean richness per unitwas observed as the urbanization increased in the matrix habitat of the fragments. These results form a database to be used in management, conservation and reforestation measures in degraded riparian forests. Theycan be directly compared to results from other studies that used rarefaction and richness estimators, whichis not possible to do with many of the surveys accomplished in Brazil so far.

  9. Large-Scale Mapping of Carbon Stocks in Riparian Forests with Self-Organizing Maps and the k-Nearest-Neighbor Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhard Suchenwirth

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the machine learning tools being used in recent years for environmental applications such as forestry, self-organizing maps (SOM and the k-nearest neighbor (kNN algorithm have been used successfully. We applied both methods for the mapping of organic carbon (Corg in riparian forests due to their considerably high carbon storage capacity. Despite the importance of floodplains for carbon sequestration, a sufficient scientific foundation for creating large-scale maps showing the spatial Corg distribution is still missing. We estimated organic carbon in a test site in the Danube Floodplain based on RapidEye remote sensing data and additional geodata. Accordingly, carbon distribution maps of vegetation, soil, and total Corg stocks were derived. Results were compared and statistically evaluated with terrestrial survey data for outcomes with pure remote sensing data and for the combination with additional geodata using bias and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE. Results show that SOM and kNN approaches enable us to reproduce spatial patterns of riparian forest Corg stocks. While vegetation Corg has very high RMSEs, outcomes for soil and total Corg stocks are less biased with a lower RMSE, especially when remote sensing and additional geodata are conjointly applied. SOMs show similar percentages of RMSE to kNN estimations.

  10. Arboreous vegetation of an alluvial riparian forest and their soil relations: Porto Rico island, Paraná river, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos João Batista

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of alluvial deposits in floodplains forms islands and sandbanks. Deposits frequently accumulate at the river margins and on islands with consequent side growths. One of these sandbanks which started to form in 1952 annexed an area of 12.4ha to the Porto Rico island (53masculine15?W and 22masculine45?S. At present a forest fragment of approximately 2.0 ha exists in this place. The structural analysis of arboreous vegetation of this fragment showed a floristic gradient related to the physical and chemical variations of the substratum. High density of pioneer species associated to the absence of recruitment of new individuals of these and other successional categories indicated that the forest was impaired in its succession process. This fact could be associated with constant disturbances caused by cattle in the area.

  11. Perceptions of environmental change and use of traditional knowledge to plan riparian forest restoration with relocated communities in Alcântara, Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celentano, Danielle; Rousseau, Guillaume Xavier; Engel, Vera Lex; Façanha, Cristiane Lima; Oliveira, Elivaldo Moreira de; Moura, Emanoel Gomes de

    2014-01-27

    Riparian forests provide ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being. The Pepital River is the main water supply for Alcântara (Brazil) and its forests are disappearing. This is affecting water volume and distribution in the region. Promoting forest restoration is imperative. In deprived regions, restoration success depends on the integration of ecology, livelihoods and traditional knowledge (TEK). In this study, an interdisciplinary research framework is proposed to design riparian forest restoration strategies based on ecological data, TEK and social needs. This study takes place in a region presenting a complex history of human relocation and land tenure. Local populations from seven villages were surveyed to document livelihood (including 'free-listing' of agricultural crops and homegarden tree species). Additionally, their perceptions toward environmental changes were explored through semi-structured interviews (n = 79). Ethnobotanical information on forest species and their uses were assessed by local-specialists (n = 19). Remnants of conserved forests were surveyed to access ecological information on tree species (three plots of 1,000 m2). Results included descriptive statistics, frequency and Smith’s index of salience of the free-list results. The local population depends primarily on slash-and-burn subsistence agriculture to meet their needs. Interviewees showed a strong empirical knowledge about the environmental problems of the river, and of their causes, consequences and potential solutions. Twenty-four tree species (dbh > 10 cm) were found at the reference sites. Tree density averaged 510 individuals per hectare (stdv = 91.6); and 12 species were considered the most abundant (density > 10ind/ha). There was a strong consensus among plant-specialists about the most important trees. The species lists from reference sites and plant-specialists presented an important convergence. Slash-and-burn agriculture is the main source of livelihood

  12. Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Marquardt; Hailemariam Temesgen; Paul D. Anderson; Bianca. Eskelson

    2012-01-01

    Six sampling alternatives were examined for their ability to quantify selected attributes of snags and hardwoods in conifer-dominated riparian areas of managed headwater forests in western Oregon. Each alternative was simulated 500 times at eight headwater forest locations based on a 0.52-ha square stem map. The alternatives were evaluated based on how well they...

  13. Spectral discrimination of giant reed (Arundo donax L.): A seasonal study in riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Aguiar, Francisca C.; Silva, João M. N.; Ferreira, Maria Teresa; Pereira, José M. C.

    2013-06-01

    The giant reed (Arundo donax L.) is amongst the one hundred worst invasive alien species of the world, and it is responsible for biodiversity loss and failure of ecosystem functions in riparian habitats. In this work, field spectroradiometry was used to assess the spectral separability of the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation and from the common reed, a native similar species. The study was conducted at different phenological periods and also for the giant reed stands regenerated after mechanical cutting (giant reed_RAC). A hierarchical procedure using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Classification and Regression Trees (CART) was used to select the minimum number of optimal bands that discriminate the giant reed from the adjacent vegetation. A new approach was used to identify sets of wavelengths - wavezones - that maximize the spectral separability beyond the minimum number of optimal bands. Jeffries Matusita and Bhattacharya distance were used to evaluate the spectral separability using the minimum optimal bands and in three simulated satellite images, namely Landsat, IKONOS and SPOT. Giant reed was spectrally separable from the adjacent vegetation, both at the vegetative and the senescent period, exception made to the common reed at the vegetative period. The red edge region was repeatedly selected, although the visible region was also important to separate the giant reed from the herbaceous vegetation and the mid infrared region to the discrimination from the woody vegetation. The highest separability was obtained for the giant reed_RAC stands, due to its highly homogeneous, dense and dark-green stands. Results are discussed by relating the phenological, morphological and structural features of the giant reed stands and the adjacent vegetation with their optical traits. Weaknesses and strengths of the giant reed spectral discrimination are highlighted and implications of imagery selection for mapping purposes are argued based on present results.

  14. Quantifying the contribution of riparian soils to the provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sosa, Laura L; Glanville, Helen C; Marshall, Miles R; Prysor Williams, A; Jones, Davey L

    2018-05-15

    Riparian areas, the interface between land and freshwater ecosystems, are considered to play a pivotal role in the supply of regulating, provisioning, cultural and supporting services. Most previous studies, however, have tended to focus on intensive agricultural systems and only on a single ecosystem function. Here, we present the first study which attempts to assess a wide range of ecological processes involved in the provision of the ecosystem service of water quality regulation across a diverse range of riparian typologies. Specifically, we focus on 1) evaluating the spatial variation in riparian soils properties with respect to distance with the river and soil depth in contrasting habitat types; 2) gaining further insights into the underlying mechanisms of pollutant removal (i.e. pesticide sorption/degradation, denitrification, etc.) by riparian soils; and 3) quantify and evaluate how riparian vegetation across different habitat types contribute to the provision of watercourse shading. All the habitats were present within a single large catchment and included: (i) improved grassland, (ii) unimproved (semi-natural) grassland, (iii) broadleaf woodland, (iv) coniferous woodland, and (iv) mountain, heath and bog. Taking all the data together, the riparian soils could be statistically separated by habitat type, providing evidence that they deliver ecosystem services to differing extents. Overall, however, our findings seem to contradict the general assumption that soils in riparian area are different from neighbouring (non-riparian) areas and that they possess extra functionality in terms of ecosystem service provision. Watercourse shading was highly habitat specific and was maximal in forests (ca. 52% shade cover) in comparison to the other habitat types (7-17%). Our data suggest that the functioning of riparian areas in less intensive agricultural areas, such as those studied here, may be broadly predicted from the surrounding land use, however, further research

  15. Comparative analysis of harmonized forest area stimates for European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Lucia Maria; Strobl, P.; Miguel-Ayanz, J. San

    2011-01-01

    Harmonized forest area information provides an important basis for environmental modelling and policy-making at both national and international levels. Traditionally, this information has been provided by national forest inventory statistics but is now increasingly complemented with remote sensing...

  16. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  17. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  18. A model-based approach to estimating forest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts

    2006-01-01

    A logistic regression model based on forest inventory plot data and transformations of Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite imagery was used to predict the probability of forest for 15 study areas in Indiana, USA, and 15 in Minnesota, USA. Within each study area, model-based estimates of forest area were obtained for circular areas with radii of 5 km, 10 km, and 15 km and...

  19. Structural and functional responses of plant communities to climate change-mediated alterations in the hydrology of riparian areas in temperate Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Garssen, Annemarie; Göthe, Emma; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Oddershede, Andrea; Riis, Tenna; van Bodegom, Peter M; Larsen, Søren E; Soons, Merel

    2018-04-01

    The hydrology of riparian areas changes rapidly these years because of climate change-mediated alterations in precipitation patterns. In this study, we used a large-scale in situ experimental approach to explore effects of drought and flooding on plant taxonomic diversity and functional trait composition in riparian areas in temperate Europe. We found significant effects of flooding and drought in all study areas, the effects being most pronounced under flooded conditions. In near-stream areas, taxonomic diversity initially declined in response to both drought and flooding (although not significantly so in all years) and remained stable under drought conditions, whereas the decline continued under flooded conditions. For most traits, we found clear indications that the functional diversity also declined under flooded conditions, particularly in near-stream areas, indicating that fewer strategies succeeded under flooded conditions. Consistent changes in community mean trait values were also identified, but fewer than expected. This can have several, not mutually exclusive, explanations. First, different adaptive strategies may coexist in a community. Second, intraspecific variability was not considered for any of the traits. For example, many species can elongate shoots and petioles that enable them to survive shallow, prolonged flooding but such abilities will not be captured when applying mean trait values. Third, we only followed the communities for 3 years. Flooding excludes species intolerant of the altered hydrology, whereas the establishment of new species relies on time-dependent processes, for instance the dispersal and establishment of species within the areas. We expect that altered precipitation patterns will have profound consequences for riparian vegetation in temperate Europe. Riparian areas will experience loss of taxonomic and functional diversity and, over time, possibly also alterations in community trait responses that may have cascading effects

  20. Forest Loss in Protected Areas and Intact Forest Landscapes: A Global Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Matias; Kummu, Matti; Makkonen, Marika; Mulligan, Mark; Verburg, Peter H; Jalava, Mika; Räsänen, Timo A

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the high importance of forests, global forest loss has remained alarmingly high during the last decades. Forest loss at a global scale has been unveiled with increasingly finer spatial resolution, but the forest extent and loss in protected areas (PAs) and in large intact forest landscapes (IFLs) have not so far been systematically assessed. Moreover, the impact of protection on preserving the IFLs is not well understood. In this study we conducted a consistent assessment of the global forest loss in PAs and IFLs over the period 2000-2012. We used recently published global remote sensing based spatial forest cover change data, being a uniform and consistent dataset over space and time, together with global datasets on PAs' and IFLs' locations. Our analyses revealed that on a global scale 3% of the protected forest, 2.5% of the intact forest, and 1.5% of the protected intact forest were lost during the study period. These forest loss rates are relatively high compared to global total forest loss of 5% for the same time period. The variation in forest losses and in protection effect was large among geographical regions and countries. In some regions the loss in protected forests exceeded 5% (e.g. in Australia and Oceania, and North America) and the relative forest loss was higher inside protected areas than outside those areas (e.g. in Mongolia and parts of Africa, Central Asia, and Europe). At the same time, protection was found to prevent forest loss in several countries (e.g. in South America and Southeast Asia). Globally, high area-weighted forest loss rates of protected and intact forests were associated with high gross domestic product and in the case of protected forests also with high proportions of agricultural land. Our findings reinforce the need for improved understanding of the reasons for the high forest losses in PAs and IFLs and strategies to prevent further losses.

  1. Forested infiltration areas (FIA; principles, experiences, perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mezzalira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates the origin and the main features of a Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR measure known as Forested Infiltration Area (FIA, conceived by Veneto Agricoltura in 2007 and currently implemented at 7 pilot sites over the Vicenza Upper Plain in the Veneto region, with the financial and technical support of several public and private partners. In particular the outputs of the first recharge season (2013-2014 of two demonstrative FIA are presented and discussed (plants realized in 2013 by Consorzio di Bonifica Brenta within the framework of the Life Project AQUOR. The main peculiarities of the FIA measures are the multifunctionality guaranteed by the integration of hydraulic and biologic aspects, the high environmental compatibility and the friendly design and management.

  2. Riparian responses to extreme climate and land-use change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension). Riparian data were extracted by planimetric analysis of high spatial-resolution Word Imagery Layer (ESRI). Hydrological, climatic and land-use variables were obtained from available datasets and generated with process-based modeling using current climate data (2008-2014), while also considering the high-end RCP8.5 climate-change and "Icarus" socio-economic scenarios for the 2046-2065 time slice. Our results show that hydrological and land-use changes strongly influence future projections of riparian connectivity and complexity, albeit to diverse degrees and with differing effects. A harsh reduction in average flows may impair riparian zones while an increase in extreme rain events may benefit connectivity by promoting hydrologic dynamics with the surrounding floodplains. The expected increase in broad-leaved woodlands and mixed forests may enhance the riparian galleries by reducing the agricultural pressure on the area in the vicinity of the river. According to our results, 63% of river segments in the Tâmega basin exhibited a moderate risk of functionality loss, 16% a high risk, and 21% no risk. Weaknesses and strengths of the method are highlighted and results are discussed based on a resilience perspective with regard to riparian ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Ashley A; Crow, Gary; Legesse, Getahun; Veira, Douglas M; Bullock, Paul R; González, Luciano A; Dubois, Melanie; Ominski, Kim H

    2014-10-29

    A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris), Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW) with or without natural barriers on (i) amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP), (ii) watering location (OSW or stream), and (iii) animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture-which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size-was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT), OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR), and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR). Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002), 2 (p = 0.1116), and 3 (p natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well as the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area.

  4. Riparian planning in Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, R.; Prakoso, E.; Sadali, M. I.; Yusuf, M. G.

    2018-04-01

    Riparian is a potential for slums in urban areas. The city of Yogyakarta is passed by three rivers namely Code, Gajahwong, and Winongo, crossing the city. Riparian in the three rivers are potential for slum if the area is not well managed. This paper is based on the survey results of the structured interview with the people living in the riparian area in Yogyakarta City. They were 75 respondents from the three riparian. The result shows that several reasons why people prefer to remain living in the area are limited spaces and high land price in the city as well as inherited from their parents. The facts that there are still several problems related to the condition of settlement environment in the riparian, i.e., The condition of densely-populated areas, limited availability of land, and limited public spaces. Efforts that can be done to solve problems related to the riparian planning are anticipating disasters like flood and landslide, paying attention to densely-populated and unwell-planned areas, and handling garbage that has been abandoned into the river. The program expected by those living along both riversides is intended to give priorities on providing some aid for those whose houses are not in good condition, controlling buildings without a permit, and building a dike along the river. Efficiency can be made by making use of the space adequately between the one for settlement and the other one for open-green space for both aesthetic and economic purposes.

  5. Harmonizing estimates of forest land area from national-level forest inventory and satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie Ruefenacht; Mark D. Nelson; Mark Finco

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of forest land area are derived both from national-level forest inventories and satellite image-based map products. These estimates can differ substantially within subregional extents (e.g., states or provinces) primarily due to differences in definitions of forest land between inventory- and image-based approaches. We present a geospatial modeling approach...

  6. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D; Swetnam, Ruth D; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2)), but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  8. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2, but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan. We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks. Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337, Nature Reserves (six out of 12 and Game Parks (24 out of 26 were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  9. Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerson A. Müller

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crepuscular activity of culicids (Diptera, Culicidae in the peridomicile and in the remaining riparian forest in Tibagi river, State of Paraná, Brazil. Human-attracted mosquitoes were collected for one hour, around sunset time (half hour before and half after, from April to December 2006, in two environments (riparian forest and near houses, in Tibagi river basin, Palmeira municipality, State of Paraná. Seven-hundred forty-nine mosquitoes, belonging to 13 species, were collected. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42.86% and Psorophora discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40.59% were the most frequent species. No significant differences between quantities of Ps. champerico (t = -0.792; d.f. = 16; p = 0.43 and Ps. discrucians (t = 0.689; d.f. = 16; p = 0.49 obtained in riparian forest and near houses were observed, indicating similar conditions for crepuscular activity of these species in both environments. Psorophora champerico and Ps. discrucians responded (haematophagic activity to environmental stimuli associated with the twilight hours differently in distinct habitats studied. The former species is registered for the first time in the Atlantic forest biome.Atividade crepuscular de culicídeos (Diptera, Culicidae no peridomicílio e remanescentes de matas ciliares do Rio Tibagi. Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Mosquitos atraídos por humanos foram coletados por uma hora em torno do crepúsculo vespertino (meia hora antes e meia hora depois, de abril a dezembro de 2006, em dois locais (mata ciliar e peridomicílio na bacia do Rio Tibagi, município de Palmeira, Estado do Paraná. Foram capturados 749 mosquitos distribuídos em 13 espécies. Psorophora champerico Dyar & Knab, 1906 (42,86% e Ps. discrucians (Walker, 1856 (40,59% foram as espécies mais freqüentes. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas entre as médias de indivíduos capturados entre os pontos de mata ciliar e peridomicílio para Ps. champerico (t = -0,792; g.l. = 16; p = 0

  10. ANALYSIS OF GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE OF PLANTS Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir. D.C. IN FLOODING FOR THE RECOVERY OF THE RIPARIAN FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812349In order to select species for using in the restoration of riparian forests on the banks of the Sao FranciscoRiver, in the state of Sergipe, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and gas exchange ofplants Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir. D.C., subject to flooding conditions in the nursery. The experimentwas conducted at Forest Nursery, Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS,the municipality of São Cristóvão, (11 º 01 'S latitude and 37 º 12' longitude W, altitude 20 m , stateof Sergipe, Brazil, from October 2006 to January 2007 under ambient conditions. We used a completelyrandomized design (CRD, factorial (2x7, two treatments (control - T0, plants at field capacity and flooded- T1 and days after flooding (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days. To simulate the condition of flooding,the plants were placed in plastic pots of black color with a volume of 5 L and more substrate. Followingthese pots were attached to pots with a volume of 10 L, which was added water until it reaches a waterdepth of 5 cm above the top of the plants. The control plants kept in pots with a volume of 5 L substratemaintained at field capacity. In non-destructive variables were used four replicates per treatment evaluatedevery fifteen days, where each replicate consists of six plants, totaling 24. Destructive variables used were4 replicates per treatment, determined biweekly from 15 days after flooding, where each replicate consistsof a plant totaling 24 plants. Therefore, 48 plants were used per treatment. The non-destructive variableswere height, diameter and number of leaves. While the destructive variables analyzed were dry weight ofroots, dry weight of shoots and dry weight of root / shoot ratio. In addition, we carried out analysis of gasexchange on a monthly basis and evaluated twelve plants per treatment, with two sampling leaves, fullyexpanded, per plant. The biometric variables were

  11. SHRUBBY TREE COMPONENT OF RIPARIAN CORRIDORS IN RESTORATION AND NATURAL REMAINING AREAS OF MATRIX FORESTRY, RIO NEGRINHO, SC STATE

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    Eliziane Carla Scariot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814578The aim of this study was to analyze the shrubby tree component in riparian corridors in restoration process and natural remainders in a matrix forestry. We identified the richness, diversity, dispersal and pollination syndromes of the individuals and estimate the floristic similarity. The study was conducted at the producing farm of Pinus spp. wood Santa Alice, located in Rio Negrinho city, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. We adopted the center-quarter method for survey the shrubby tree component in four sample groups: CA (advanced stage of riparian corridors vegetation, CR (riparian corridors in restoration, MA (advanced stage of natural remaining, MI (intermediate stage of natural remaining. We found the highest richness and diversity index in MA and CR. Regarding the number of individuals, the dispersal and pollination syndromes predominant in all sample groups were zoochory and zoophilia. CR and CA had the highest percentage of floristic similarity while MA and MI did not form clusters. The sample group CR has composition, richness and diversity more similar to CA. This indicates that the restoration of riparian zones has conditions to rescue the components and the interactions of an ecological community.

  12. Trends of forest area and population and the impact of population on forest area per hectare in Serbia without APS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic changes throughout history have shaped the attitude towards the forest and most significant ones are changes in terms of population. Over the centuries population and population density have had a significant impact on deforestation and the reduction of forest areas. Therefore, it is important to check what kind of trends are concerned and how population growth affects forest areas, forest cover and forest area per capita. These elements are important for assessing the direction, intensity of activity and the degree of success in the implementation of all forest policy measures in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanja klimatskih promena i njihovog uticaja na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat, br. 43007/16-III: Socio-ekonomski razvoj, ublažavanje i adaptacija na klimatske promene

  13. US Forest Service Region 3 Wilderness Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains a feature class depicting National Forest System land parcels that have a Congressionally designated boundary. Examples include National...

  14. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A; Deal, Robert L; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions--Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  15. Protected Areas: Mixed Success in Conserving East Africa's Evergreen Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D.; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Platts, Philip J.; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa ...

  16. Composição da avifauna em duas matas ciliares na bacia do rio Jacaré-Pepira, São Paulo, Brasil Bird community composition of two riparian forests at Jacaré-Pepira river, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa de Castro Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A quali-quantitative survey was carried out in two riparian forests fragmente (approximately 40 ha each at Jacaré-Pepira river. Our intention was to characterize its bird community conceming richness, abundance and species occurrence in these areas. The qualitative survey showed 130 species at Santa Elisa (Brotas, São Paulo and 151 at Morro Chato (Dourado, São Paulo, whereas the quantitative survey revealed the presence of 69 and 75 species at Santa Elisa and Morro Chato, respectively. The small size and the isolation might be responsible for the low number of species found. Observing the abundance index values (IPA we realize that there are a few number of species with a high IPA on the one hand, while on the other there is a large number of species with intermediate and low IPA rates. A high detection coefficient (vocalization, low predatoiy rates and competition might have contributed for the higher abundance values found among these species. Furthermore, we have also registered species which are abundant in a fragment, but absent in the other, which might be explained by initial exclusion or local extinction. In spite of the riparian forests being protected by law, its clearing process has not stopped yet. Therefore, the study of this bird community is of uppermost impoitance for the elaboration of both conservation and management projects regarding these areas.

  17. The assessment of environmentally sensitive forest road construction in Calabrian pine forest areas of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunay, Metin

    2006-07-01

    Forest road construction by bulldozers in Calabrian Pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests on mountainous terrain of Turkey causes considerable damage to the environment and the forest standing alongside the road. This situation obliges a study of environmentally sound road construction in Turkey. This study was carried out in 4 sample sites of Antalya Forest Directorate in steep (34-50% gradient) and very steep terrain (51-70% gradient) conditions with bulldozer and excavator machine and direct damages to forest during road construction was determined, including forest area losses and damages to downhill trees in mountainous areas. It was determined that in steep terrain when excavators were used, less forest area (22.16%) was destroyed compared to bulldozers and 26.54% less area in very steep terrain. The proportion of damage on trees where bulldozer worked was nearly twofold higher than excavator was used. The results of this research show that the environmentally sensitive techniques applied for the road construction projects are considerably superior to the traditional use of bulldozers on steep slopes. The environmentally sound forest road construction by use of excavator must be considered an appropriate and reliable solution for mountainous terrain where areas of sensitive forest ecosystems are to be opened up.

  18. 75 FR 54542 - Special Areas; Roadless Area Conservation; Applicability to the National Forests in Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... between 8 a.m. and 8 p.m., Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The.../Restoration; and 14 acres of Forest Plan Special Area to Primitive. The FPSA classification will be removed in.../Restoration. Smith Creek Roadless Area: Change 14 acres of Forest Plan Special Area to Primitive. Correction...

  19. Effectiveness of Africa's tropical protected areas for maintaining forest cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, J N; De Vos, A; Ament, J M; Cumming, G S

    2017-06-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forests. Tropical forests house a substantial portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are heavily affected by anthropogenic activity. We analyzed park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control sites. Although significant geographical variation existed among parks, the majority of African parks had significantly less forest loss within their boundaries (e.g., Mahale Park had 34 times less forest loss within its boundary) than control sites. Accessibility was a significant driver of forest loss. Relatively inaccessible areas had a higher probability (odds ratio >1, p < 0.001) of forest loss but only in ineffective parks, and relatively accessible areas had a higher probability of forest loss but only in effective parks. Smaller parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks (T = -2.32, p < 0.05), and older parks less effectively prevented forest loss inside park boundaries than younger parks (F 2,154 = -4.11, p < 0.001). Our analyses, the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrated the complexity of factors (such as geographical variation, accessibility, and park size and age) influencing the ability of a park to curb forest loss within its boundaries. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. VT Green Mountain National Forest National Recreation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset includes National Recreation Areas (NRAs) designated by Congress on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) as of 2006. There are...

  1. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  2. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Rawluk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris, Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW with or without natural barriers on (i amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP, (ii watering location (OSW or stream, and (iii animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture—which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size—was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT, OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR, and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR. Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002, 2 (p = 0.1116, and 3 (p < 0.0001 at the Killarney site compared to cattle in 3NOBARR at the same site. Cattle in 2BARR at the Souris site spent more time in the RP in Period 1 (p < 0.0001 and less time in Period 2 (p = 0.0002 compared to cattle in 3NOBARR. Cattle did use the OSW, but not exclusively, as watering at the stream was still observed. The observed inconsistency in the effectiveness of the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well

  3. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  4. Changes in soil organic matter compositrion after introduction of riparian vegetation on shores of hydroelectric reservoires (Southeast of Brazil)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcantara, de F.A.; Buurman, P.; Curi, N.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Lagen, van B.; Meijer, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    This work is part of a research program with the general objective of evaluating soil sustainability in areas surrounding hydroelectric reservoirs, which have been planted with riparian forest. The specific aims were: (i) to assess if and how the soil organic matter (SOM) chemical composition has

  5. Monitoring Bird Populations in Relation to Fuel Loads and Fuel Treatments in Riparian Woodlands with Tamarisk and Russian Olive Understories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; June Galloway; David Hawksworth

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, wild fire events in riparian bosque (forested) areas along the Middle Rio Grande between Elephant Butte and Albuquerque have increased dramatically owing to flood suppression and accumulation of dead wood and exotic Tamarisk and Russian olive. This problem culminated in a large wild fire in July 1993 that resulted in the evacuation of hundreds of...

  6. Human uses of forested watersheds and riparian corridors: hazard mitigation as an ecosystem service, with examples from Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Humans have long favored settlement along rivers for access to water supply for drinking and agriculture, for transport corridors, and for food sources. Additionally, settlement in or near montane forests include benefits such as food sources, wood supply, esthetic values, and high quality water resources derived from watersheds where upstream human disturbance and environmental degradation is generally reduced. However, the advantages afforded by these riparian and montane settings pose episodic risks for communities located there as floods, landslides, and wildfires cause loss of life, destroy infrastructure, and damage or destroy crops. A basic understanding of flood probability and magnitude as well as hillslope stability by residents in these environments can mitigate these risks. Early humans presumably developed some degree of knowledge about these risks by means of their long periods of occupation in these environments and their observations of seasonal and storm rainfall patterns and river discharge, which became more refined as agriculture developed over the past 10,000 years. Modern global urbanization, particularly in regions of rapid economic growth, has resulted in much of this "organic" knowledge being lost, as rural populations move into megacities, many of which encroach on floodplains and mountain fronts. Moreover, the most likely occupants of these hazardous locations are often economically constrained, increasing their vulnerabity. Effective stewardship of river floodplains and upstream montane forests yields a key ecosystem service, which in addition to the well-known services, ie. water, hydroelectric energy, etc., provides a risk mitigation service, by reducing hazard and vulnerability. Puerto Rico, Panama, and Venezuela illustrate a range of practices and results, providing useful examples for planners and land use managers.

  7. Seasonal estimates of riparian evapotranspiration using remote and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D.C.; Scott, R.; Qi, J.; Goff, B.; Unkrich, C.L.; Moran, M.S.; Williams, D.; Schaeffer, S.; Snyder, K.; MacNish, R.; Maddock, T.; Pool, D.; Chehbouni, A.; Cooper, D.I.; Eichinger, W.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.; Kerr, Y.; Marsett, R.; Ni, W.

    2000-01-01

    In many semi-arid basins during extended periods when surface snowmelt or storm runoff is absent, groundwater constitutes the primary water source for human habitation, agriculture and riparian ecosystems. Utilizing regional groundwater models in the management of these water resources requires accurate estimates of basin boundary conditions. A critical groundwater boundary condition that is closely coupled to atmospheric processes and is typically known with little certainty is seasonal riparian evapotranspiration ET). This quantity can often be a significant factor in the basin water balance in semi-arid regions yet is very difficult to estimate over a large area. Better understanding and quantification of seasonal, large-area riparian ET is a primary objective of the Semi-Arid Land-Surface-Atmosphere (SALSA) Program. To address this objective, a series of interdisciplinary experimental Campaigns were conducted in 1997 in the San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona. The riparian system in this basin is primarily made up of three vegetation communities: mesquite (Prosopis velutina), sacaton grasses (Sporobolus wrightii), and a cottonwood (Populus fremontii)/willow (Salix goodingii) forest gallery. Micrometeorological measurement techniques were used to estimate ET from the mesquite and grasses. These techniques could not be utilized to estimate fluxes from the cottonwood/willow (C/W) forest gallery due to the height (20-30 m) and non-uniform linear nature of the forest gallery. Short-term (2-4 days) sap flux measurements were made to estimate canopy transpiration over several periods of the riparian growing season. Simultaneous remote sensing measurements were used to spatially extrapolate tree and stand measurements. Scaled C/W stand level sap flux estimates were utilized to calibrate a Penman-Monteith model to enable temporal extrapolation between Synoptic measurement periods. With this model and set of measurements, seasonal riparian vegetation water use

  8. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton. Bray

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Community forests and protected areas have each been proposed as strategies to stop deforestation. These management strategies should be regarded as hypotheses to be evaluated for their effectiveness in particular places. We evaluated the community-forestry hypothesis and the protected-area hypothesis in community forests with commercial timber production and strict protected areas in the Maya Forest of Guatemala and Mexico. From land-use and land cover change (LUCC maps derived from satellite images, we compared deforestation in 19 community forests and 11 protected areas in both countries in varying periods from 1988 to 2005. Deforestation rates were higher in protected areas than in community forests, but the differences were not significant. An analysis of human presence showed similar deforestation rates in inhabited protected areas and recently inhabited community forests, but the differences were not significant. There was also no significant difference in deforestation between uninhabited protected areas, uninhabited community forests, and long-inhabited community forests. A logistic regression analysis indicated that the factors correlated with deforestation varied by country. Distance to human settlements, seasonal wetlands, and degree and length of human residence were significant in Guatemala, and distance to previous deforestation and tropical semideciduous forest were significant in Mexico. Varying contexts and especially colonization histories are highlighted as likely factors that influence different outcomes. Poorly governed protected areas perform no better as a conservation strategy than poorly governed community forests with recent colonists in active colonization fronts. Long-inhabited extractive communities perform as well as uninhabited strict protected areas under low colonization pressure. A review of costs and benefits suggests that community forests may generate more local income with lower costs. Small sample sizes

  9. Chemical and microbiological properties of an eutrophic Oxisol under riparian forest buffer reforestation and pasture. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas de um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico sob reflorestamento de mata ciliar e pastagem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marise PULITANO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of their ecological importance, riparian forest strips are frequently suppressed to allow greater expansion of arable and urban areas. Agroforestry might be an effective alternative to recompose riparian forests. Soil chemical and microbial properties are important environmental indicators to evaluate the reclamation process. This study tested the hypothesis that, in the course of time, reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil microbial and chemical properties in a riparian forest buffer. Soil samples were collected from three layers (0.0-2.5; 2.5-7.5; 7.5-20 cm in two sectors of a reforested riparian buffer strip in Cananéia Farm, São Paulo state, Brazil, one 18 years old and other 28 years old, and in an adjacent pasture area. The samples were assessed for pHH2O, available P and K, exchangeable, Ca, Mg and Al, H+Al, sum of bases (SB, pH 7.0 CEC, percent base saturation (V, soil organic matter (SOM and light organic matter (LOM. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN were analyzed only in the first layer. The pattern for Ca, Mg, SB and V (all layers was 28-year-old sector = 18-year-old-sector > pasture. The SOM at 0.0-2.5 cm was higher in the 28-year-old sector. The LOM pattern was 28-year-old sector > 18-year-old sector > pasture. MBC did not differ among areas. MBN was significantly higher comparing the 28-year-old sector and the pasture area. The results probably reflected the higher litterfall and the N-richer organic matter in the reforested sectors. Reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil quality, contributing to the ecosystem sustainability. Independentemente de sua importância ecológica, matas ciliares são frequentemente suprimidas e ocupadas por lavouras e cidades. Agroflorestas podem ser eficazes para a recomposição dessas áreas. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas do solo são importantes indicadores ambientais para avaliar o processo de recomposição. Este estudo testou a

  10. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  11. SELECTIVE FORAGING ON WOODY SPECIES BY THE BEAVER CASTOR FIBER, AND ITS IMPACT ON A RIPARIAN WILLOW FOREST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NOLET, BA; HOEKSTRA, A; OTTENHEIM, MM

    1994-01-01

    Beavers were re-introduced in the Biesbosch, The Netherlands, a wood dominated by willows Salix spp. Conservationists expected that herbivory by beavers would enhance succession to a mixed broad-leaved forest. Willows formed the staple food of the beavers, but they removed only 1.4% of the standing

  12. Linking stream flow and groundwater to avian habitat in a desert riparian system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M; Bateman, Heather L

    2012-10-01

    Increasing human populations have resulted in aggressive water development in arid regions. This development typically results in altered stream flow regimes, reduced annual flow volumes, changes in fluvial disturbance regimes, changes in groundwater levels, and subsequent shifts in ecological patterns and processes. Balancing human demands for water with environmental requirements to maintain functioning ecosystems requires quantitative linkages between water in streams and ecosystem attributes. Streams in the Sonoran Desert provide important habitat for vertebrate species, including resident and migratory birds. Habitat structure, food, and nest-building materials, which are concentrated in riparian areas, are provided directly or indirectly by vegetation. We measured riparian vegetation, groundwater and surface water, habitat structure, and bird occurrence along Cherry Creek, a perennial tributary of the Salt River in central Arizona, USA. The purpose of this work was to develop an integrated model of groundwater-vegetation-habitat structure and bird occurrence by: (1) characterizing structural and provisioning attributes of riparian vegetation through developing a bird habitat index (BHI), (2) validating the utility of our BHI through relating it to measured bird community composition, (3) determining the riparian plant species that best explain the variability in BHI, (4) developing predictive models that link important riparian species to fluvial disturbance and groundwater availability along an arid-land stream, and (5) simulating the effects of changes in flow regime and groundwater levels and determining their consequences for riparian bird communities. Riparian forest and shrubland vegetation cover types were correctly classified in 83% of observations as a function of fluvial disturbance and depth to water table. Groundwater decline and decreased magnitude of fluvial disturbance caused significant shifts in riparian cover types from riparian forest to

  13. Riparian vegetation structure under desertification scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário Fernandes, M.; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Riparian areas are responsible for many ecological and ecosystems services, including the filtering function, that are considered crucial to the preservation of water quality and social benefits. The main goal of this study is to quantify and understand the riparian variability under desertification scenario(s) and identify the optimal riparian indicators for water scarcity and droughts (WS&D), henceforth improving river basin management. This study was performed in the Iberian Tâmega basin, using riparian woody patches, mapped by visual interpretation on Google Earth imagery, along 130 Sampling Units of 250 m long river stretches. Eight riparian structural indicators, related with lateral dimension, weighted area and shape complexity of riparian patches were calculated using Patch Analyst extension for ArcGis 10. A set of 29 hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were computed, by a water modelling system (MOHID), using monthly meteorological data between 2008 and 2014. Land-use classes were also calculated, in a 250m-buffer surrounding each sampling unit, using a classification based system on Corine Land Cover. Boosted Regression Trees identified Mean-width (MW) as the optimal riparian indicator for water scarcity and drought, followed by the Weighted Class Area (WCA) (classification accuracy =0.79 and 0.69 respectively). Average Flow and Strahler number were consistently selected, by all boosted models, as the most important explanatory variables. However, a combined effect of hidrogeomorphology and land-use can explain the high variability found in the riparian width mainly in Tâmega tributaries. Riparian patches are larger towards Tâmega river mouth although with lower shape complexity, probably related with more continuous and almost monospecific stands. Climatic, hydrological and land use scenarios, singly and combined, were used to quantify the riparian variability responding to these changes, and to assess the loss of riparian

  14. Comparison of leaf-on and leaf-off ALS data for mapping riparian tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslier, Marianne; Ba, Antoine; Hubert-Moy, Laurence; Dufour, Simon

    2017-10-01

    Forest species composition is a fundamental indicator of forest study and management. However, describing forest species composition at large scales and of highly diverse populations remains an issue for which remote sensing can provide significant contribution, in particular, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data. Riparian corridors are good examples of highly valuable ecosystems, with high species richness and large surface areas that can be time consuming and expensive to monitor with in situ measurements. Remote sensing could be useful to study them, but few studies have focused on monitoring riparian tree species using ALS data. This study aimed to determine which metrics derived from ALS data are best suited to identify and map riparian tree species. We acquired very high density leaf-on and leaf-off ALS data along the Sélune River (France). In addition, we inventoried eight main riparian deciduous tree species along the study site. After manual segmentation of the inventoried trees, we extracted 68 morphological and structural metrics from both leaf-on and leaf-off ALS point clouds. Some of these metrics were then selected using Sequential Forward Selection (SFS) algorithm. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification results showed good accuracy with 7 metrics (0.77). Both leaf-on and leafoff metrics were kept as important metrics for distinguishing tree species. Results demonstrate the ability of 3D information derived from high density ALS data to identify riparian tree species using external and internal structural metrics. They also highlight the complementarity of leaf-on and leaf-off Lidar data for distinguishing riparian tree species.

  15. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC carbon fluxes (ELULCC. The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016 with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999 and Hansis et al. (2015. We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross, above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  16. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Yue, Chao; Gasser, Thomas; Peng, Shushi; Bastos, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) carbon fluxes (ELULCC). The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data) and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016) with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999) and Hansis et al. (2015). We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years) vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross), above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  17. Monetary Valuation of Natural Forest Habitats in Protected Areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pechanec, V.; Machar, I.; Štěrbová, Lenka; Prokopová, Marcela; Kilianová, H.; Chobot, K.; Cudlín, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2017), č. článku 427. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : mapping ecosystem services * environmental services * biodiversity conservation * ecological resilience * valuing biodiversity * floodplain forests * economic valuation * cost-effectiveness * management * payments * monetary value of forest biodiversity * Natura 2000 * special area of conservation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  18. Are riparian forest reserves sources of invertebrate biodiversity spillover and associated ecosystem functions in oil palm landscapes?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gray, C. L.; Simmons, B. I.; Fayle, Tom Maurice; Mann, D. J.; Slade, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 194, Feb 01 (2016), s. 176-183 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-32302S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09427S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ecosystem function * forest fragments * tropical agriculture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320715301956

  19. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Laurance; D.C. Useche; J. Rendeiro; and others NO-VALUE; Ariel Lugo

    2012-01-01

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon1–3. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment...

  20. Polimorfismo molecular em Lonchocarpus cultratus (Fabaceae de áreas ripárias de reflorestamento natural no alto rio Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1596 Molecular polymorphism in Lonchocarpus cultratus (Fabaceae from riparian areas of natural reforesting in Upper Paraná River, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1596

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léia Carolina Lucio

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available No Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, Lonchocarpus cultratus (Vell. A.M.G. Azevedo e H.C. Lima é uma espécie arbórea importante para o reflorestamento natural, incluindo áreas ripárias. Em florestas regeneradas, diferentemente de florestas não perturbadas, esta espécie tem sido observada como agregados de plantas semelhantes entre si, ao ponto de ter sido formulada a hipótese de serem clones. Em um estudo prévio, brotamento de raízes foi observado em L. cultratus, em uma floresta afetada pelo fogo. No presente estudo, análises de polimorfismo de RAPD revelaram alta diversidade genética entre as plantas de agregados de L. cultratus, em uma floresta ripária afetada pelo fogo, no alto rio Paraná. Os dados permitem sugerir que reprodução sexual tem sido a usual estratégia reprodutiva de colonização de L. cultratus, nesta área de reflorestamento naturalLonchocarpus cultratus (Vell. A.M.G. Azevedo and H.C. Lima is an important plant species in areas of natural reforesting in South and Southeastern Brazil, including riparian areas. This arboreous species seems to reproduce by seeds in undisturbed forests. In regenerating forests, however, L. cultratus has been observed mostly as patches of aggregates, consisting of highly similar plants, resembling clones. Sprouting from root buds had been previously observed in L. cultratus in a forest affected by fire. In the present study, RAPD polymorphism revealed high genetic diversity among plants from L. cultratus aggregates in a natural restoring riparian forest affected by fires, in the Upper Paraná River, Brazil. These data allow the suggestion that sexual reproduction has been the L. cultratus usual reproductive strategy to colonize the reforesting riparian area

  1. The Importance and Future Condition of Western Riparian Ecosystems as Migratory Bird Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Skagen; Rob Hazlewood; Michael L. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Riparian forests have long been considered important habitats for breeding western landbirds, and growing evidence reinforces their importance during the migratory period as well. Extensive modification of natural flow regimes, grazing, and forest clearing along many rivers in the western U.S. have led to loss and simplification of native riparian forests and to...

  2. Flooding Regime Impacts on Radiation, Evapotranspiration, and Latent Energy Fluxes over Groundwater-Dependent Riparian Cottonwood and Saltcedar Forests

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    James Cleverly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation and energy balances are key drivers of ecosystem water and carbon cycling. This study reports on ten years of eddy covariance measurements over groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs in New Mexico, USA, to compare the role of drought and flooding on radiation, water, and energy budgets of forests differing in species composition (native cottonwood versus nonnative saltcedar and flooding regime. After net radiation (700–800 W m−2, latent heat flux was the largest energy flux, with annual values of evapotranspiration exceeding annual precipitation by 250–600%. Evaporative cooling dominated the energy fluxes of both forest types, although cottonwood generated much lower daily values of sensible heat flux (<−5 MJ m−2 d−1. Drought caused a reduction in evaporative cooling, especially in the saltcedar sites where evapotranspiration was also reduced, but without a substantial decline in depth-to-groundwater. Our findings have broad implications on water security and the management of native and nonnative vegetation within semiarid southwestern North America. Specifically, consideration of the energy budgets of GDEs as they respond to fluctuations in climatic conditions can inform the management options for reducing evapotranspiration and maintaining in-stream flow, which is legally mandated as part of interstate and international water resources agreements.

  3. Riparian adaptive management symposium: a conversation between scientists and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas F. Ryan; John M. Calhoun

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, land managers and policy makers discussed whether riparian (stream side) forest management and policy for state, federal and private lands in western Washington are consistent with current science. Answers were mixed: some aspects of riparian policy and management have a strong basis in current science, while other aspects may not. Participants agreed that...

  4. A hierarchical spatial framework for forest landscape planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Bettinger; Marie Lennette; K. Norman Johnson; Thomas A. Spies

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical spatial framework for large-scale, long-term forest landscape planning is presented along with example policy analyses for a 560,000 ha area of the Oregon Coast Range. The modeling framework suggests utilizing the detail provided by satellite imagery to track forest vegetation condition and for representation of fine-scale features, such as riparian...

  5. Influences of watershed geomorphology on extent and composition of riparian vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake M. Engelhardt; Peter J. Weisberg; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2011-01-01

    Watershed (drainage basin) morphometry and geology were derived from digital data sets (DEMs and geologic maps). Riparian corridors were classified into five vegetation types (riparian forest, riparian shrub, wet/mesic meadow, dry meadow and shrub dry meadow) using high-resolution aerial photography. Regression and multivariate analyses were used to relate geomorphic...

  6. From soil water to surface water – how the riparian zone controls element transport from a boreal forest to a stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lidman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Boreal headwaters are often lined by strips of highly organic soils, which are the last terrestrial environment to leave an imprint on discharging groundwater before it enters a stream. Because these riparian soils are so different from the Podzol soils that dominate much of the boreal landscape, they are known to have a major impact on the biogeochemistry of important elements such as C, N, P and Fe and the transfer of these elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. For most elements, however, the role of the riparian zone has remained unclear, although it should be expected that the mobility of many elements is affected by changes in, for example, pH, redox potential and concentration of organic carbon as they are transported through the riparian zone. Therefore, soil water and groundwater was sampled at different depths along a 22 m hillslope transect in the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden using soil lysimeters and analysed for a large number of major and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr and other parameters such as sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC. The results showed that the concentrations of most investigated elements increased substantially (up to 60 times as the water flowed from the uphill mineral soils and into the riparian zone, largely as a result of higher TOC concentrations. The stream water concentrations of these elements were typically somewhat lower than in the riparian zone, but still considerably higher than in the uphill mineral soils, which suggests that riparian soils have a decisive impact on the water quality of boreal streams. The degree of enrichment in the riparian zone for different elements could be linked to the affinity for organic matter, indicating that the pattern with strongly elevated concentrations in riparian soils is typical for organophilic substances. One likely explanation is that the

  7. Floristic and phytosociological description of a riparian forest and the relationship with the edaphic environment in Caiuá Ecological Station - Paraná - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysias Vellozo da Costa Filho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationship in soil physical and chemical properties of soil, floristic and phytosociological association of semi-deciduous riparian forest of the Paranapanema River (R and Rosana Reservoir (Re in the Caiuá Ecological Station were evaluated. Aerial photography and satellite image were used to determine the forest cover and to locate 15 transects 50 x 30m (1500m²,which were used to sample trees with diameters at breast height (DBH>15 cm. R contained 1487 individuals from 33 families, 64 genders and 73 species. The Shannon-weaver index (H' was 3.318. Re contained 1146 individuals from 35 families, 72 genders and 85 species and the H' was 3.755. There was a statistically significant difference (PDas análises das propriedades física e química dos solos, da florística e da fítossociológica da vegetação arbórea de fragmentos da floresta estacional semidecidual localizados às margens do Rio Paranapanema (R e do Reservatório de Rosana (Re na Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (22°41'S e 52°55'W, verificou-se as correlações vegetação x solo. Utilizou-se fotografias aéreas e imagens de satélite para determinar a similaridade da cobertura florestal e alocar 15 transectos de 50m x 30m (1500m² cada, amostrou-se os indivíduos com perímetro a altura do peito (PAP 15 cm. No R amostrou-se 1487 indivíduos, de 33 famílias, 64 gêneros e 73 espécies e índice de Shannon-weaver (H' de 3,318. No Re registrou-se 1146 indivíduos de 35 famílias, 72 gêneros e 85 espécies e H' de 3,755. Os resultados mostraram ambientes estatisticamente diferentes e efetiva correlação entre os atributos físicos do solo e os Valores de Importância (VI ordenados pela Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA.

  8. Processos hidrológicos em diferentes modelos de plantio de restauração de mata ciliar em região de cerrado. Hydrological processes in different riparian forest restoration models in cerrado domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baldo de GÊNOVA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A restauração de florestas ciliares temsido recomendada como a melhor estratégiavisando à proteção dos recursos hídricos e àrecuperação da biodiversidade. No entanto, quasenada se conhece sobre o papel hidrológico dasflorestas plantadas e seus efeitos protetores.O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisarcomparativamente alguns modelos de plantio demata ciliar em região de cerrado, para verificar sediferem quanto ao seu papel na interceptação daágua das chuvas e em sua influência na umidadedo solo, com reflexos sobre a função protetora dafloresta. Foram coletados, durante cinco meses,dados pluviométicos no interior de quatro modelosde plantio aos dezessete anos (um plantio mistocom espécies de cerrado e três plantios puros,com Pinus elliottii, Tapirira guianensis eAnadenanthera falcata e em área aberta paracomparação. Para análises de umidade, foramcoletadas amostras compostas da camada superficialdo solo (0 a 20 cm em cada uma das parcelas.Houve variação na porcentagem da água daschuvas interceptada pelas copas entre os diferentesmodelos, com o maior valor no plantio puro deTapirira guianensis (30,8%, espécie latifoliadaperenifólia e com a maior densidade de árvores.No outro extremo, o plantio de Anadenantherafalcata, uma espécie caducifólia de folhas muitopequenas, reteve apenas 12,5% da água daschuvas. A umidade do solo, como era esperado,foi inversamente proporcional à interceptação.Não se observou correlação entre a biomassaflorestal e a interceptação ou umidade do solo.Riparian forest restoration has beenreported as the most efficient strategy to protectwater resources and to recover biodiversity.However, few is known about the hydrologicalfunctioning of the planted forests and theirprotective effect. Some different riparian forestrestoration models were analized 17 years afterplanting, to verify the hypothesis that differentforest structure and composition are correlated todifferent hydrological

  9. Quantifying Phosphorus Retnention in Soils of Riparian Buffers Influenced by Different Land Use Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, B.; Ross, D. S.; Adair, C.; Schroth, A. W.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) loading to freshwater systems can lead to eutrophication, resulting in algal blooms and subsequent fish kills. Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, has historically exhibited negative effects of eutrophication due to P overloading from non-point sources. To reduce P inputs to the Lake, the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources requires and provides guidelines for the management of riparian buffers, which help protect adjacent water bodies from nutrient and sediment runoff. To better understand how phosphorous retention in riparian buffers is influenced by soil wetness and adjacent land use, we explored differences in P content between riparian buffers located in forested and agricultural watersheds. Within each land use type, we focused on two paired riparian buffers with contrasting soil moisture levels (one wet transect and one dry transect). At each of the four sites, soil pits were dug along a transect perpendicular to the streambank and were placed strategically to capture convergent and divergent landscape positions. Soil samples were collected from each horizon within 0-30cm. In each of these samples, we measured orthophosphate, degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS), and trace elements. We investigated the relationship between DPS and aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations to determine how much of the variability in DPS was explained by Al and Fe concentrations, and compared these relationships between the four riparian buffer sites. We also assessed how these relationships varied with depth in the soil profile. The results of these analyses allow us to identify the characteristics of riparian buffers that promote the most effective P sequestration, which is beneficial to the effective management of riparian areas within the Lake Champlain basin.

  10. Dinâmica de populações de Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae em mata ciliar, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brasil Population dynamics of Euglossina (Hymenoptera, Apidae in riparian forest, Urbano Santos, Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. de Carvalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Machos de Euglossina foram coletados por meio de iscas-odores de benzoato de benzila, eucaliptol, eugenol, salicilato de metila, vanilina, durante um ano em área de mata ciliar, no município de Urbano Santos, Maranhão. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente, entre 8 h e 16 h, totalizando 96 horas de amostragem. Foram amostrados 283 indivíduos, 4 gêneros e 16 espécies. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 foi o gênero mais abundante, seguido por Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 e Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. As espécies mais freqüentes foram Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 e Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol foi a essência mais atrativa. As maiores freqüências de visitas ocorreram no período da manhã e a maior diversidade de espécies ocorreu no período chuvoso.Males of Euglossina bees were collected in benzil benzoate, eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate and vanillin scent baits, during one year in a riparian forest area, located in the municipality of Urbano Santos, Maranhão. The collections were carried out monthly, between 8 am and 4 pm, totalling 96 hours of sampling, resulting in 283 individuals, 4 genera and 16 species. Euglossa Latreille, 1802 was the most abundant genus, followed by Eufriesea Cockerell, 1909, Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841 and Exaerete Hoffmannsegg, 1817. The most frequent species were Euglossa modestior (Dressler, 1982, Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758, Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804, Exaerete smaragdina (Guérin-Menéville, 1845, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 and Euglossa gaianii (Dressler, 1982. Eucaliptol was the most attractive chemical bait. The highest frequencies of visits were in the morning and the highest diversity of species occurred in the rainy period.

  11. Selection criteria for forested natural areas in New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; Mariko Yamasaki; Marie-Louise Smith; David T. Funk

    1994-01-01

    The selection of forested natural areas for research and educational purposes is discussed. Five factors are important: sufficient size; representation of typical communities and sites; documented disturbance histories; acceptable current condition in terms of age, tree size, and successional stage; and administrative feasibility.

  12. Animal water balance drives top-down effects in a riparian forest-implications for terrestrial trophic cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2016-08-17

    Despite the clear importance of water balance to the evolution of terrestrial life, much remains unknown about the effects of animal water balance on food webs. Based on recent research suggesting animal water imbalance can increase trophic interaction strengths in cages, we hypothesized that water availability could drive top-down effects in open environments, influencing the occurrence of trophic cascades. We manipulated large spider abundance and water availability in 20 × 20 m open-air plots in a streamside forest in Arizona, USA, and measured changes in cricket and small spider abundance and leaf damage. As expected, large spiders reduced both cricket abundance and herbivory under ambient, dry conditions, but not where free water was added. When water was added (free or within moist leaves), cricket abundance was unaffected by large spiders, but spiders still altered herbivory, suggesting behavioural effects. Moreover, we found threshold-type increases in herbivory at moderately low soil moisture (between 5.5% and 7% by volume), suggesting the possibility that water balance may commonly influence top-down effects. Overall, our results point towards animal water balance as an important driver of direct and indirect species interactions and food web dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, William S.; Armour, C.L.; Booth, G.D.; Bryant, M.; Bufford, J.L.; Cuplin, P.; Jensen, S.; Lienkaemper, G.W.; Minshall, G.W.; Monsen, S.T.; Nelson, R.L.; Sedell, J.R.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Riparian area planning and management is a major national issues today--something that should have been the case a century ago. A century of additive effects of land use has resulted in major impacts on many riparian stream habitats and their fisheries, wildlife, and domestic livestock use. Before scientists can evaluate the influences of various land and water uses on riparian environments, they must first understand these environments. This means being able to detect and measure with confidence the natural and artificial variation and instantaneous conditions of the riparian habitat. These conditions must then be related to the production capability of riparian habitat and any extraneous factors affecting this production potential.

  14. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Laurance, William F; Useche, D. Carolina; Rendeiro, Julio; Kalka, Margareta; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sloan, Sean P; Laurance, Susan G; Campbell, Mason; Abernethy, Kate; Alvarez, Patricia; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Ashton, Peter; Benitez-Malvido, Julieta; Blom, Allard; Bobo, Kadiri S

    2012-01-01

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon(1-3). With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment and other environmental stresses(4-9). As pressures mount, it is vital to know whether existing reserves can sustain their bi...

  15. Evaluation of the riparian forest state program in Pitangueiras county, Parana / Avaliação do programa estadual “Mata Ciliar” no município de Pitangueiras, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovon Videira Ripol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest restoration is fundamental for maintenance of vegetable, animal and human life. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a Riparian Forest state program in the enlargement of the riparian forests in Pitangueiras county, state of Paraná, in the period of 2004 to 2006. Concerning the riparian reforestation, it was ansewered the reasons that convinced the farmers to join the program, the main difficulties found in its execution, and their views on environmental preservation and law. The results by means of interviews with the farmers and county leaders. It was concluded that the reparian forest state program was efficient due to the partner ship between Pitangueiras City Hall, Government Department of Environment and Coffee Farmer Association. The installation of a native tree nursery in Pitangueiras offered plants to farmers at the opportune period for planting; the farmers have conscience about the necessity of planting riparing forests; and is necessary to do a public policy to include the farmers in the carbon credict projects created with the riparian forest restoration.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjeric

  16. Socioeconomic Collapse of Rural Areas, Atlantic Forest Transition and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R. F. B. D.; Batistella, M.; Moran, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Centuries of human pressure over the Atlantic Forest has led the biome to encompass only 11.7 percent of forest remnants. On the other hand, natural regeneration has explained forest cover increase in specific regions since the 1960s as an outcome of land use policies, environmental legislation, agricultural modernization, economic development, and landscape biophysical conditions. We analyze Forest Transition (FT) pathways for the Paraíba Valley region, São Paulo State, Brazil looking for more sustainable relationships between land use and natural land cover. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Valley's farms were responsible for providing the largest portion of the state's wealth. Nowadays, the Valley contributes with only 6% to the state's gross product and the share of rural activities is now insignificant. Between 1962 and 2011, forest cover area increased from 225 to 446 thousand hectares. Rural household survey was conducted in three municipalities (n=90, thirty in each municipality). To select the municipalities among the thirty-four present in the Paraíba Valley, we applied the modified Thompson Tau technique to detect outlier values for three selected variables: natural forest cover, eucalyptus plantation cover, and municipal revenue. The outliers were discharged and the municipality with the best performance (maximum value) for each variable was selected. Based on the rural household surveys and GIS analysis of satellite imagery classifications, topography and hydrology variables, we conclude that the diminished land use pressure in the Paraíba Valley is allowing the regeneration of forest cover. Over the observed period, the FT was strongly influenced by the unsuitable topography for agriculture (steep slopes) and the economic urban development since the 1960s. However, more recently (2000s), FT is more affected by the vicinity of eucalyptus plantations, the active role of local communities denouncing illegal environmental threats (e

  17. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells

  18. A comparison of soil-moisture loss from forested and clearcut areas in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Troendle

    1970-01-01

    Soil-moisture losses from forested and clearcut areas were compared on the Fernow Experimental Forest. As expected, hardwood forest soils lost most moisture while revegetated clearcuttings, clearcuttings, and barren areas lost less, in that order. Soil-moisture losses from forested soils also correlated well with evapotranspiration and streamflow.

  19. Effects of satellite image spatial aggregation and resolution on estimates of forest land area

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Nelson; R.E. McRoberts; G.R. Holden; M.E. Bauer

    2009-01-01

    Satellite imagery is being used increasingly in association with national forest inventories (NFIs) to produce maps and enhance estimates of forest attributes. We simulated several image spatial resolutions within sparsely and heavily forested study areas to assess resolution effects on estimates of forest land area, independent of other sensor characteristics. We...

  20. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  1. How do riparian woody seedlings survive seasonal drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, John C; Battles, John J

    2010-11-01

    In semi-arid regions, a major population limitation for riparian trees is seedling desiccation during the dry season that follows annual spring floods. We investigated the stress response of first-year pioneer riparian seedlings to experimental water table declines (0, 1 and 3 cm day(-1)), focusing on the three dominant cottonwood and willows (family Salicaceae) in California's San Joaquin Basin. We analyzed growth and belowground allocation response to water stress, and used logistic regression to determine if these traits had an influence on individual survival. The models indicate that high root growth (>3 mm day(-1)) and low shoot:root ratios (water-use efficiency for surviving water stress. Both S. gooddingii and sandbar willow (S. exigua) reduced leaf size from controls, whereas Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) sustained a 29% reduction in specific leaf area (from 13.4 to 9.6 m(2) kg(-1)). The functional responses exhibited by Goodding's willow, the more drought-tolerant species, may play a role in its greater relative abundance in dry regions such as the San Joaquin Basin. This study highlights the potential for a shift in riparian forest composition. Under a future drier climate regime or under reduced regulated river flows, our results suggest that willow establishment will be favored over cottonwood.

  2. Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA to Assess Genetic Diversity and Structure of Natural Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae Populations in Riparian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evânia Galvão Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability in two natural populations of Calophyllum brasiliense located along two different rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using RAPD molecular markers. Eighty-two polymorphic fragments were amplified using 27 primers. The values obtained for Shannon index (I were 0.513 and 0.530 for the populations located on the margins of the Rio Grande and Rio das Mortes, respectively, demonstrating the high genetic diversity in the studied populations. Nei’s genetic diversity (He was 0.341 for the Rio Grande population and 0.357 for the Rio das Mortes population. These results were not significantly different between populations and suggest a large proportion of heterozygote individuals within both populations. AMOVA showed that 70.42% of the genetic variability is found within populations and 29.58% is found among populations (ФST=0.2958. The analysis of kinship coefficients detected the existence of family structures in both populations. Average kinship coefficients between neighboring individuals were 0.053 (P<0.001 in Rio das Mortes and 0.040 (P<0.001 in Rio Grande. This could be due to restricted pollen and seed dispersal and the history of anthropogenic disturbance in the area. These factors are likely to contribute to the relatedness observed among these genotypes.

  3. 76 FR 37059 - Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Siuslaw National Forest; Oregon; Oregon Dunes NRA Management Area 10 (C) Route and Area Designation AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... (C) today are not designated routes. This has in turn led to greater and unnecessary impacts to...

  4. Spatial overlap between environmental policy instruments and areas of high conservation value in forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne; Søgaard, Gunnhild; Rusch, Graciela M; Barton, David N

    2014-01-01

    In order to safeguard biodiversity in forest we need to know how forest policy instruments work. Here we use a nationwide network of 9400 plots in productive forest to analyze to what extent large-scale policy instruments, individually and together, target forest of high conservation value in Norway. We studied both instruments working through direct regulation; Strict Protection and Landscape Protection, and instruments working through management planning and voluntary schemes of forest certification; Wilderness Area and Mountain Forest. As forest of high conservation value (HCV-forest) we considered the extent of 12 Biodiversity Habitats and the extent of Old-Age Forest. We found that 22% of productive forest area contained Biodiversity Habitats. More than 70% of this area was not covered by any large-scale instruments. Mountain Forest covered 23%, while Strict Protection and Wilderness both covered 5% of the Biodiversity Habitat area. A total of 9% of productive forest area contained Old-Age Forest, and the relative coverage of the four instruments was similar as for Biodiversity Habitats. For all instruments, except Landscape Protection, the targeted areas contained significantly higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas not targeted by these instruments. Areas targeted by Strict Protection had higher proportions of HCV-forest than areas targeted by other instruments, except for areas targeted by Wilderness Area which showed similar proportions of Biodiversity Habitats. There was a substantial amount of spatial overlap between the policy tools, but no incremental conservation effect of overlapping instruments in terms of contributing to higher percentages of targeted HCV-forest. Our results reveal that although the current policy mix has an above average representation of forest of high conservation value, the targeting efficiency in terms of area overlap is limited. There is a need to improve forest conservation and a potential to cover this need by better

  5. Forest Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_FORREST33)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This layer designates areas with potential for forest conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest land cover patches that are at least 75 meters...

  6. USDA Forest Service Roadless Areas: Potential Biodiversity Conservation Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby Loucks

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2001, approximately 23 x 106 ha of land in the U.S. National Forest System were slated to remain roadless and protected from timber extraction under the Final Roadless Conservation Rule. We examined the potential contributions of these areas to the conservation of biodiversity. Using GIS, we analyzed the concordance of inventoried roadless areas (IRAs with ecoregion-scale biological importance and endangered and imperiled species distributions on a scale of 1:24,000. We found that more than 25% of IRAs are located in globally or regionally outstanding ecoregions and that 77% of inventoried roadless areas have the potential to conserve threatened, endangered, or imperiled species. IRAs would increase the conservation reserve network containing these species by 156%. We further illustrate the conservation potential of IRAs by highlighting their contribution to the conservation of the grizzly bear (Ursos arctos, a wide-ranging carnivore. The area created by the addition of IRAs to the existing system of conservation reserves shows a strong concordance with grizzly bear recovery zones and habitat range. Based on these findings, we conclude that IRAs belonging to the U.S. Forest Service are one of the most important biotic areas in the nation, and that their status as roadless areas could have lasting and far-reaching effects for biodiversity conservation.

  7. Comparative assessment of soil contamination by lead and heavy metals in riparian and agricultural areas (southern Québec, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Laurent, Diane; Hähni, Marlies; St-Laurent, Julien; Baril, Francis

    2010-08-01

    Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C(10)-C(50)), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg(-1) (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg(-1) (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg(-1) (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg(-1)) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg(-1) (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg(-1), and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  8. Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Baril

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50, PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As, 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb. These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1 in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5. Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail.

  9. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  10. Applying four principles of headwater system aquatic biology to forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Danehy; Sherri L. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    Headwater systems, including the channel and the adjacent riparian forest, are a dominant landscape feature in forested watersheds, draining most of the watershed area, and comprising the majority of channel length in drainage networks. Being at the upper extent of watersheds, these systems are smaller and steeper than large streams, and create microhabitats that...

  11. Composição florística de florestas estacionais ribeirinhas no estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Floristic composition of seasonal riparian forests in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Ribeiro Baptista-Maria

    2009-06-01

    time. The floristic survey resulted in 56 families, 184 genera and 307 species. Of the total number of species, 68% were trees, 17% shrubs, 14% lianas and only 1% palms. The Fabaceae family (Leguminosae, represented by 51 (16.6% species, was the most species-rich. These results increase our knowledge of the Mato Grosso do Sul flora and its geographic distribution, thus emphasizing the need for conservation of these riparian forests and providing subsidies for restoration projects of the degraded areas around the conservation unit and permanent protection areas (APPs of regional rivers.

  12. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  13. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANTO SANTOSA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Santosa Y, Purnamasari I, Wahyuni I. 2017. Comparison of butterfly diversity in forested area and oil palm plantation. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 7: 104-109. Land use change from the forested area into oil palm monoculture plantations was suspected to have reduced the number of biodiversities, including butterfly. In addressing such issues, this research was conducted from March to April 2016 in PT. Mitra Unggul Pusaka oil palm plantation of Riau Province and the forest area around the plantation. Data were collected from secondary forest and High Conservation Value representing forest areas, and oil palm plantations representing non-forest areas (young-growth oil palm and old-growth oil palm simultaneously using 3 repetitions with time search method for 3 hours (8-10 pm. The results showed that there were 30 species (117 individuals found belonging to five families, i.e.: Papilionidae (3 species, Nymphalidae (17 species, Pieridae (5 species, Lycaenidae (4 species, and Hesperidae (1 species. Species richness was greater in a forested area (Dmg=7.35 than in non-forested areas (Dmg=3.16. Based on the Similarity Index, 50% of the species in forested area were also found in non-forested areas. Therefore, it could be concluded that butterfly diversity in forested areas was higher than non-forested areas (oil palms.

  14. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    river’s edge. Less than two weeks later (March 21), the river began the spring rise. Periodic (daily) or continuous flooding occurred at the site over the next 3 to 4 months. River levels at times were over the top of the enclosure’s fence. This same pattern was repeated for the next 2 years. It was however evident that even submerged for part, or all of the day, that the plants continued to flourish. There were no indications of herbivory or animal tracks observed within the plot although animals were present in the area. Biomass production over the three years followed a typical growth curve with a yield of about 1 kg for the first year when the trees were establishing themselves, 4 kg for the second, and over 20 kg for the third when the trees were entering the exponential phase of growth. On a metric Ton per hectare (mT/ha) basis this would be 0.2 mT/ha in 2007, 0.87 mT/ha in 2008, and 4.3 mT/ha in 2009. Growth curve extrapolation predicts 13.2 mT/ha during a fourth year and potentially 29.5 mT/ha following a fifth year. Using the observed Ca and Sr concentrations found in the plant tissues, and Sr CR’s calculated from groundwater analysis, projected biomass yields suggest the trees could prove effective in removing the contaminant from the 100-NR-2 riparian zone.

  15. Legal Mechanisms for Protecting Riparian Resource Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton L.; Lord, Eric

    1992-04-01

    Riparian resources include the borders of rivers, lakes, ponds, and potholes. These border areas are very important for a number of reasons, including stream channel maintenance, flood control, aesthetics, erosion control, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water quality maintenance. These diverse functions are not well protected by law or policy. We reviewed law and policies regarding endangered species habitat designation, land use planning, grazing management, water allocation, takings, and federal permits and licenses, along with the roles of federal, state, and local governments. We discuss the politics of implementing these policies, focusing on the difficulties in changing entrenched water and land use practices. Our review indicates a lack of direct attention to riparian ecosystem issues in almost all environmental and land use programs at every level of government. Protection of riparian resource values requires a means to integrate existing programs to focus on riparian zones.

  16. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  17. Metal concentrations in urban riparian sediments along an urbanization gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Bain; Ian D. Yesilonis; Richard V. Pouyat

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization impacts fluvial systems via a combination of changes in sediment chemistry and basin hydrology. While chemical changes in urban soils have been well characterized, similar surveys of riparian sediments in urbanized areas are rare. Metal concentrations were measured in sediments collected from riparian areas across the urbanization gradient in Baltimore, MD...

  18. Remote sensing techniques in monitoring areas affected by forest fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagianni, Aikaterini Ch.; Lazaridou, Maria A.

    2017-09-01

    Forest fire is a part of nature playing a key role in shaping ecosystems. However, fire's environmental impacts can be significant, affecting wildlife habitat and timber, human settlements, man-made technical constructions and various networks (road, power networks) and polluting the air with emissions harmful to human health. Furthermore, fire's effect on the landscape may be long-lasting. Monitoring the development of a fire occurs as an important aspect at the management of natural hazards in general. Among the used methods for monitoring, satellite data and remote sensing techniques can be proven of particular importance. Satellite remote sensing offers a useful tool for forest fire detection, monitoring, management and damage assessment. Especially for fire scars detection and monitoring, satellite data derived from Landsat 8 can be a useful research tool. This paper includes critical considerations of the above and concerns in particular an example of the Greek area (Thasos Island). This specific area was hit by fires several times in the past and recently as well (September 2016). Landsat 8 satellite data are being used (pre and post fire imagery) and digital image processing techniques are applied (enhancement techniques, calculation of various indices) for fire scars detection. Visual interpretation of the example area affected by the fires is also being done, contributing to the overall study.

  19. Problems of growing forests in estrangement and population relocation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudolij, V.N.; Podkur, P.N.; Davydov, N.N.; Mikhalkov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    It has been concluded that the process of growth and normal development of single-stratum pine tress at the age from 20 to 40 depends on their density. Under conditions of thick forest interspecific competition and fight for space sharpen. Within the estrangement area unfavorable trends in growth and evolution have been disclosed at the age above 30. Growing of pines without care results in suppression of growth; some morphological changes in the trunk form have been observed. Such an uncontrolled mode of growing can lead to physiological weakening of the tress. 8 refs.; 4 tabs

  20. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Leaf area index was estimated in an 18 ha plot at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. The plot was adjacent to the...

  1. LBA-ECO CD-04 Leaf Area Index, km 83 Tower Site, Tapajos National Forest, Brazil

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Leaf area index was estimated in an 18 ha plot at the logged forest tower site, km 83, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil. The plot was adjacent to the eddy flux...

  2. Forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using general model-based decomposition for polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nghia Pham; Zou, Bin; Cai, Hongjun; Wang, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of forest parameters over mountain forest areas using polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) images is one of the greatest interests in remote sensing applications. For mountain forest areas, scattering mechanisms are strongly affected by the ground topography variations. Most of the previous studies in modeling microwave backscattering signatures of forest area have been carried out over relatively flat areas. Therefore, a new algorithm for the forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using the general model-based decomposition (GMBD) for PolInSAR image is proposed. This algorithm enables the retrieval of not only the forest parameters, but also the magnitude associated with each mechanism. In addition, general double- and single-bounce scattering models are proposed to fit for the cross-polarization and off-diagonal term by separating their independent orientation angle, which remains unachieved in the previous model-based decompositions. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated with simulated data from PolSARProSim software and ALOS-PALSAR spaceborne PolInSAR datasets over the Kalimantan areas, Indonesia. Experimental results indicate that forest height could be effectively estimated by GMBD.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest, Grass & Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  4. Sustaining Jamaica's forests: The protected areas resource conservation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Philip R.; Beatley, Timothy

    1995-07-01

    This study examines Jamaica's attempt to protect a tropical forest reserve. The biophysical setting, and the types and magnitude of forest development pressures are reviewed. Next, Jamaica's approach to developing new land-use strategies and compatible environmental protection and economic development programs are examined. Finally, the practical and theoretical implications by which institutions can be designed to encourage planning for sustainable development are reviewed. The implications suggest how to provide an appropriate mix of cooperation and market competition, by which people acting in their own interests accomplish socially equitable economic development, while protecting the environment for the benefit of future generations. The experience illustrates that effective long-term protection of natural areas requires the building of local relationships and support, the development of local economic activities supportive of conservation, the defining of clear boundaries, and significant monitoring and enforcement. Long-term protection of the Blue and John Crow mountains, and other important natural areas of Jamaica, will also require the development of a workable and enforceable system of land-use planning for the island, and adjustments to the economic incentive structure so that sustainable, nonextractive uses of natural capital are placed on equal footing with other economic uses (e.g., coffee production).

  5. An economic model of international wood supply, forest stock and forest area change

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood supply, the link between roundwood removals and forest resources, is an important component of forest sector models. This paper develops a model of international wood supply within the structure of the spatial equilibrium Global Forest Products Model. The wood supply model determines, for each country, the annual forest harvest, the annual change of forest stock...

  6. The Performance of Forestry Human Resources in Licensing Forest Utilization, The Lease of Forest Area, and The Release of Forest Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtjahjawilasa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Performance assesment includes the quantity and quality measurements of individual or group works within organization in carrying out duties and functions. It is based on norms, standard operational procedure (SOP, and specified criteria in an organization. Factors affecting quality and quantity of individual performance in an organization are skills, experience, ability, competence, willingness, energy, technology, leadership, compensation, clarity of purpose, and security. This study aims to identify and analyze the performance of forestry human resources (HR related to licensing forest utilization, releasing forest area, and leasing forest area. The results of the study are: (1 the performance of forestry HR in licensing forest utilization was relatively still poor; (2 the structure (rules, norms, cultural cognitive of forestry HR was unclear and is not well developed; and (3 the culture of learning organization, including personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, team learning, and system thinking is still insufficient and needs to be developed at the ministerial, provincial, and district/city levels. Some suggestions for improving the performance of forestry HR are: (1 establishing an appraisal team/task force of forestry HR performance; (2 developing commitment for high quality service at the bureaucratic elites and their highest level networks; and (3 considering the development of one stop licensing supported by online system to promote transparency and public accountability.

  7. Importance of riparian remnants for frog species diversity in a highly fragmented rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mendoza, Clara; Pineda, Eduardo

    2010-12-23

    Tropical forests undergo continuous transformation to other land uses, resulting in landscapes typified by forest fragments surrounded by anthropogenic habitats. Small forest fragments, specifically strip-shaped remnants flanking streams (referred to as riparian remnants), can be particularly important for the maintenance and conservation of biodiversity within highly fragmented forests. We compared frog species diversity between riparian remnants, other forest fragments and cattle pastures in a tropical landscape in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. We found similar species richness in the three habitats studied and a similar assemblage structure between riparian remnants and forest fragments, although species composition differed by 50 per cent. Frog abundance was halved in riparian remnants compared with forest fragments, but was twice that found in pastures. Our results suggest that riparian remnants play an important role in maintaining a portion of frog species diversity in a highly fragmented forest, particularly during environmentally stressful (hot and dry) periods. In this regard, however, the role of riparian remnants is complementary, rather than substitutive, with respect to the function of other forest fragments within the fragmented forest.

  8. Prediction of forest fires occurrences with area-level Poisson mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubeta, Miguel; Lombardía, María José; Marey-Pérez, Manuel Francisco; Morales, Domingo

    2015-05-01

    The number of fires in forest areas of Galicia (north-west of Spain) during the summer period is quite high. Local authorities are interested in analyzing the factors that explain this phenomenon. Poisson regression models are good tools for describing and predicting the number of fires per forest areas. This work employs area-level Poisson mixed models for treating real data about fires in forest areas. A parametric bootstrap method is applied for estimating the mean squared errors of fires predictors. The developed methodology and software are applied to a real data set of fires in forest areas of Galicia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Baas; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Daniel Markewitz; Jacqueline E. Mohan

    2017-01-01

    The critical role streamside riparian zones play in mitigating the movement of nitrogen (N) and other elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems could be threatened by residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Many studies have investigated the influence of agriculture on N loading to streams but less is known about the impacts of residential...

  10. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  11. Small-area estimation of forest attributes within fire boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Frescino; G. Moisen; K. Adachi; J. Breidt

    2014-01-01

    Wildfires are gaining more attention every year as they burn more frequently, more intensely, and across larger landscapes. Generating timely estimates of forest resources within fire perimeters is important for land managers to quickly determine the impact of fi res on U.S. forests. The U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program needs tools to...

  12. KNOWLEDGE AND EXPECTATIONS OF THE COMMUNITIES ON CHANGE IN FOREST AREA DESIGNATION IN INDRAGIRI HILIR REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuncoro Ariawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in forest area may include changes in forest designation through exchange process and release of forest areas such as for plantation and industry. The changes will have direct impact on the community, especially those adjacent to the changed forest areas. The study was conducted to find out knowledge and expectations of forest communities as a result of changing in forest areas in Indragiri Hilir Regency, Riau Province.The data were collected by using community interview method. Respondents were selected by purposive random sampling. The results showed that community's knowledge to the forest, benefits and consequences of forest destruction is negative, while community's knowledge to the existence oil palm companies is positive. This is because community awareness on the forest is still low. The community generally agree if forest area that become oil palm plantations be released from forest area designation, and they expect increase in their income. This is motivated by the fact that the land that had been cultivated for coconut plantations is no longer productive, due to frequent sea water intrusion. Cooperation with company is expected to help the communities build embankments on lands affected by seawater intrusion so that the land can be reused

  13. Tropical forest transitions: structural changes in forest area, composition and landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersum, K.F.

    2014-01-01

    Most studies on tropical forest dynamics focus on the processes of deforestation and forest degradation and its associated ecological impacts; comparatively little attention is given to the emergence of forest transitions. This review gives an overview of forest transitions in the tropics as

  14. Nematodes inhabit soils of forest and clear-cut areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo; George Yelenosky

    1960-01-01

    Nematodes are present in all forest soils, but their effects on forest trees are not known. The known destructive nature of these worms on other woody crops suggests that they may also be involved in causing some of the unexplainable losses in vigor and mortality of forest trees.

  15. Preliminary indicators for restoration assessment in riparian reforestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nogueira dos Reis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The restoration success in forest ecosystems can be adequately assessed by correct selection of indicators that represent the achievement of established goals. The discriminant analysis technique on indicators selection consists of separation and classification of new observations on pre-defined groups, reducing the number of variables that are discriminant functions linearly dependent of the original variables. This study aims to define an index composed by structural attributes (number of species and individuals planted, height, basal area, number of regenerant species and individuals and chemical and pedological soil attributes to classify riparian reforested environments regarding to restoration taking as reference reforestation around the the Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Eleven variables were used for previous classification of plots in partially restored or unrestored groups and also used for discriminant analysis. Variables selected by the discriminant function generated were: number of species and basal area of planted individuals, number of regenerant species and individuals litter accumulation and soil cation exchange capacity. Compatibility of 98% from previous plot classifications and after index formation, show the representativeness of the selected variables on evaluation of restoration of riparian reforestations.

  16. The Finnish multisource national forest inventory: small-area estimation and map production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkki Tomppo

    2009-01-01

    A driving force motivating development of the multisource national forest inventory (MS-NFI) in connection with the Finnish national forest inventory (NFI) was the desire to obtain forest resource information for smaller areas than is possible using field data only without significantly increasing the cost of the inventory. A basic requirement for the method was that...

  17. An Application of BLM's Riparian Inventory Procedure to Rangeland Riparian Resources in the Kern and Kaweah River Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gradek; Lawrence Saslaw; Steven Nelson

    1989-01-01

    The Bakersfield District of the Bureau of Land Management conducted an inventory of rangeland riparian systems using a new method developed by a Bureau-wide task force to inventory, monitor and classify riparian areas. Data on vegetation composition were collected for 65 miles of streams and entered into a hierarchical vegetation classification system. Ratings of...

  18. Mixed Effectiveness of Africa's Tropical Protected Areas for Maintaining Forest Cover: Insights from a Global Forest Change Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, A.; Bowker, J.; Ament, J.; Cumming, G.

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of parks for forest conservation is widely debated in Africa, where increasing human pressure, insufficient funding, and lack of management capacity frequently place significant demands on forest habitats. Tropical forests house a significant portion of the world's remaining biodiversity and are being heavily impacted by anthropogenic activity. We used Hansen et al.'s (2013) global forest change dataset to analyse park effectiveness at the individual (224 parks) and national (23 countries) level across Africa by comparing the extent of forest loss (as a proxy for deforestation) inside parks to matched unprotected control samples. We found that, although significant geographical variation exists between parks, the majority of African parks experienced significantly lower deforestation within their boundaries. Accessibility was a significant driver of deforestation, with less accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in ineffective parks and more accessible areas having a higher probability of forest loss in effective parks. Smaller parks were less effective at preventing forest loss inside park boundaries than larger parks, and older parks were less effective than younger parks. Our analysis, which is the first individual and national assessment of park effectiveness across Africa, demonstrates the complexity of factors influencing the ability of a park to curb deforestation within its boundaries and highlights the potential of web-based remote sensing technology in monitoring protected area effectiveness.

  19. Development of Tropical Lowland Peat Forest Phasic Community Zonations in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area, West Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tarmizi Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging observations of auger profiles (Tarmizi, 2014 indicate a vertical, downwards, general decrease of peat humification levels with depth in a tropical lowland peat forest in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area in the region of West Sarawak (Malaysia. Based on pollen analyses and field observations, the studied peat profiles can be interpreted as part of a progradation deltaic succession. Continued regression of sea levels, gave rise to the development of peat in a transitional mangrove to floodplain/floodbasin environment, followed by a shallow, topogenic peat depositional environment with riparian influence at approximately 2420 ± 30 years B.P. (until present time. The inferred peat vegetational succession reached Phasic Community I at approximately 2380 ± 30 years B.P. and followed by Phasic Community II at approximately 1780 ± 30 years B.P., towards the upper part of the present, ombrogenic, peat profile. Observations of the presence of large, hollow, Shorea type trees, supports that successive vegetational zonation of the tropical lowland peat dome may have reached Phasic Community II. Some pollen types were found that are also known to occur in the inferred vegetational zonation of Phasic Community III and IV or higher. Pollen analyses indicate that estuarine and deltaic, brackish to saline water influence may have gradually ceased at approximately 0.5 m below the lithological boundary between peat and underlying soil (floodplain deposit in the tropical lowland peat basin.

  20. Riparian landscapes: Linking geodiversity with habitat and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmieleski, Jana; Danzeisen, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Oder valley, biodiversity, geodiversity River landscapes of all scales originally showed a high diversity of structures and habitats at a small spatial entity, such as the stream beds, terrasses, sand and gravel banks. This variety, with a lot of different elements, patches and patterns, represents not only a variety of geoelements or geomorhological features but also a large biodiversity, both of habitats and species. Riparian landscapes are both, a natural as well as a geoheritage, often even a cultural heritage (sustainabe land use practices). Embankments, utilization for agriculture, constructions for navigation, management measures lead to a strong loss of these structures. This impacts the value of the landscape as well ecosystem functions, not only the biodiversity and the geodiversity but also the recreation function or the aesthetic values. A case study from the National Park Lower Oder Valley in the Northeastern part of Germany, wich is also part of a Geopark („Eiszeitland am Oderrand") presents the connections of the diversity of geomorphological features with biodiversity and shows the loss of features (loss of values) due to intensive utilisation by using GIS-analysis and landscape-metrics. The Northern part of the Oder valley (National Park, transnational protection area of Germany and Poland) have been modified by man since centuries but even so remained in near-natural state that allows semi-(natural) stream dynamics. While the Oder's reparian zone is marked by the stream itself, by its bayous, reed beds, periodically flooded wet meadows and by its natural riparian forest the mineral morainic plateaus are marked by semi-natural forests and dry grasslands. Two areas of different degradation states, a) near-natural and wilderness area and b) grassland area will be compared in order to identify: quantity and extent of features, relation of measure and coverage, connectivity with other features, quantity and types of habitats (with

  1. Forest Conservation Opportunity Areas - Conservative Model (ECO_RES.COA_FORREST66)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This layer designates areas with potential for forest conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest land cover patches that area at least 395 meters away from roads and away from patch edges. OAs were modeled by creating distance grids using the National Land Cover Database and the Census Bureau's TIGER road files.

  2. Width of riparian buffer and structure of adjacent plantations influence occupancy of conservation priority birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; T. Bently Wigley; M. Anthony Melchiors; Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Darren A. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity on forest landscapes dominated by plantations has become an increasingly important topic, and opportunities to maintain or enhance biodiversity within these forests need to be recognized and applied. Riparian buffers of mature forest retained along streams in managed forest landscapes offer an opportunity to enhance biodiversity across...

  3. Post-wildfire recovery of riparian vegetation during a period of water scarcity in the southwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Max Smith; Deborah M. Finch; Christian Gunning; Roy Jemison; Jeffrey F. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fires occur with increasing frequency in southwestern riparian forests, yet little is known about the effects of fire on populations of native and exotic vegetation. From 2003 to 2006, we monitored recovering woody vegetation in wildfire sites in the bosque (riparian forest) along the Middle Rio Grande of central New Mexico, USA. To examine recovery potential...

  4. MILDLY-DAMAGED FOREST AREAS IN BOREAL FORESTS OF THE WORLD. THE ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT, IMPOTANCE AND PROBABLE FUTURE OF THE CONCEPT OF MILDLY-DAMAGED FOREST AREAS WITH REGARD TO BOREAL FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Zhuravleva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The most important environmental goals at the global level, relating to forests, are conservation of biological diversity in the natural environment of its habitat and preservation of the environmental role (especially regarding the climate of forests. Major forest areas, not fragmented by infrastructure and preserving the diversity of relationships between landscape elements, are of crucial importance for solution of both these problems. Since many decisions, concerning conservation and management, are taken at inter-regional and inter-state levels or within the framework of various international processes, it is important to have clear and uniform criteria for identification of such areas. The article deals with occurrence, development and current state of the most common concepts of allocation thereof – the concept of mildly-damaged forest areas, based on the use of remote sensing data, especially images from Landsat satellites. The article substantiates a necessity of further development and update of the concept of intact forest landscapes: unification of approaches to their identification near northern boundaries of forests, adjustment of approaches to registering impacts of forest fires in the context of global climate change and land-use practices, adaption to new public data of remote sensing of the Earth.

  5. Individual tree detection in intact forest and degraded forest areas in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E. G.; Jorge, A.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Gasparini, K.

    2017-12-01

    The State of Mato Grosso - MT has the second largest area with degraded forest among the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Land use and land cover change processes that occur in this region cause the loss of forest biomass, releasing greenhouse gases that contribute to the increase of temperature on earth. These degraded forest areas lose biomass according to the intensity and magnitude of the degradation type. The estimate of forest biomass, commonly performed by forest inventory through sample plots, shows high variance in degraded forest areas. Due to this variance and complexity of tropical forests, the aim of this work was to estimate forest biomass using LiDAR point clouds in three distinct forest areas: one degraded by fire, another by selective logging and one area of intact forest. The approach applied in these areas was the Individual Tree Detection (ITD). To isolate the trees, we generated Canopy Height Models (CHM) images, which are obtained by subtracting the Digital Elevation Model (MDE) and the Digital Terrain Model (MDT), created by the cloud of LiDAR points. The trees in the CHM images are isolated by an algorithm provided by the Quantitative Ecology research group at the School of Forestry at Northern Arizona University (SILVA, 2015). With these points, metrics were calculated for some areas, which were used in the model of biomass estimation. The methodology used in this work was expected to reduce the error in biomass estimate in the study area. The cloud points of the most representative trees were analyzed, and thus field data was correlated with the individual trees found by the proposed algorithm. In a pilot study, the proposed methodology was applied generating the individual tree metrics: total height and area of the crown. When correlating 339 isolated trees, an unsatisfactory R² was obtained, as heights found by the algorithm were lower than those obtained in the field, with an average difference of 2.43 m. This shows that the

  6. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands and Riparian Areas in the Ozark Mountains Region of Arkansas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klimas, Charles V; Murray, Elizabeth O; Langston, Henry; Pagan, Jody; Witsell, Theo; Foti, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    .... The Hydrogeomorphic Approach is a collection of concepts and methods for developing functional indices and subsequently using them to assess the capacity of a wetland to perform functions relative...

  7. REMM: The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrance, R.; Altier, L.S.; Williams, R.G.; Inamdar, S.P.; Sheridan, J.M.; Bosch, D.D.; Hubbard, R.K.; Thomas, D.L.

    2000-03-01

    Riparian buffer zones are effective in mitigating nonpoint source pollution and have been recommended as a best management practice (BMP). The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) has been developed for researchers and natural resource agencies as a modeling tool that can help quantify the water quality benefits of riparian buffers under varying site conditions. Processes simulated in REMM include surface and subsurface hydrology; sediment transport and deposition; carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport, removal, and cycling; and vegetation growth. Management options, such as vegetation type, size of the buffer zone, and biomass harvesting also can be simulated. REMM can be used in conjunction with upland models, empirical data, or estimated loadings to examine scenarios of buffer zone design for a hillslope. Evaluation of REMM simulations with field observations shows generally good agreement between simulated and observed data for groundwater nitrate concentrations and water table depths in a mature riparian forest buffer. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes that influenced the water balance or soil moisture storage affected the streamflow output. Parameter changes that influence either hydrology or rates of nutrient cycling affected total N transport and plant N uptake.

  8. Stream channel designs for riparian and wet meadow rangelands in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Jemison; Daniel G. Neary

    2000-01-01

    Inappropriate land uses have degraded wetland and riparian ecosystems throughout the Southwestern United States. In 1996, the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico implemented a channel relocation project, as part of a road improvement project, to determine the feasibility of restoring wet meadow and riparian ecosystems degraded by inappropriately located roads and...

  9. Where are the forests in the United States "not disturbed" over a quarter century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Zhao, F. A.; Goward, S. N.; Schleeweis, K.; Michaelis, A.; Masek, J. G.; Dungan, J. L.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G.; Rishmawi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Forests provide many important ecosystem services. Logging, fire, and other disturbances can disrupt or even diminish the provision of these services. Although many map products and inventory data can be used to estimate the total forested area in the United States, it is not clear how much of the country's forest remained undisturbed in recent decades. Through the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, we have mapped both disturbed and undisturbed forests over the conterminous United States (CONUS) using sub-annual time series of Landsat observations. The results revealed that 33.6% of the land area of CONUS had forest cover during some or all of the years between 1986 and 2010. About two thirds of the nation's forests remained undisturbed during the 25-year period. Most of these undisturbed forests were distributed in western and northern parts of the eastern US. The percentage of undisturbed forest in the southeastern states were lower, about 50% or less. In these states, much of the undisturbed forest was distributed along riparian zones or in protected areas, including national parks and national forests. In the northeastern and western US, riparian zones did not have a significantly higher proportion of undisturbed forests than non-riparian areas. While most protected areas had a high percentage of undisturbed forests, some of them had lower percentages than the average values of their surrounding regions. Topography may also have played a role in keeping forests "undisturbed". Many ecoregions in the western and northern US had a substantially higher percentage of undisturbed forests at high elevations than at low elevations.

  10. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ...;and investigations, committee meetings, agency decisions and rulings, #0;delegations of authority...-wildfire threats to human safety, property and critical natural or cultural resources on National Forest... efforts to improve cost efficiencies. These cost issues affect the Forest Service BAER program since...

  11. Joint simulation of regional areas burned in Canadian forest fires: A Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen Magnussen

    2009-01-01

    Areas burned annually in 29 Canadian forest fire regions show a patchy and irregular correlation structure that significantly influences the distribution of annual totals for Canada and for groups of regions. A binary Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) is constructed for the purpose of joint simulation of regional areas burned in forest fires. For each year the MCMC...

  12. Forest Conservation Opportunity Areas - Liberal Model (ECO_RES.COA_FORREST33)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This layer designates areas with potential for forest conservation. These are areas of natural or semi-natural forest land cover patches that are at least 75 meters away from roads and away from patch edges. OAs were modeled by creating distance grids using the National Land Cover Database and the Census Bureau's TIGER roads files.

  13. An optimization approach to selecting research natural areas in National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie A. Snyder; Lucy E. Tyrrell; Robert G. Haight

    1999-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service has a long-established program to identify areas in national forests for designation as protected Research Natural Areas (RNAs). One of the goals is to protect high quality examples of regional ecosystems for the purposes of maintaining biological diversity, conducting nonmanipulative research and monitoring, and fostering education. When RNA...

  14. Identifying forest lands in urban areas in the Central Hardwood Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Rachel Riemann Hershey; Philip Kern

    1997-01-01

    Forests in urban areas are an important component of urban and suburban environments. They provide places for recreation and environmental education, wildlife habitat for species adapted to living near humans, contribute to general human physical and psychological health. Knowing how much and what type of forest exists in urban areas provides critical baseline data for...

  15. Urbanization in the US: land use trends, impacts on forest area, projections, and policy considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph Alig

    2010-01-01

    Since World War II, socio-economic drivers of US urbanization such as population totals and personal income levels have increased substantially. Human land use is the primary force driving changes in forest ecosystem attributes including forest area, which is the focus of this paper. The percentage of the US population residing in urban areas is higher than that in...

  16. Capability of integrated MODIS imagery and ALOS for oil palm, rubber and forest areas mapping in tropical forest regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-05-07

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions.

  17. Opportunity costs of implementing forest plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bruce; Keller, Mary Anne; Schlosberg, Andrew J.; Vlahovich, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Intellectual concern with the National Forest Management Act of 1976 has followed a course emphasizing the planning aspects of the legislation associated with the development of forest plans. Once approved, however, forest plans must be implemented. Due to the complex nature of the ecological systems of interest, and the multiple and often conflicting desires of user clientele groups, the feasibility and costs of implementing forest plans require immediate investigation. For one timber sale on the Coconino National Forest in Arizona, forest plan constraints were applied and resulting resource outputs predicted using the terrestrial ecosystem analysis and modeling system (TEAMS), a computer-based decision support system developed at the School of Forestry, Northern Arizona University, With forest plan constraints for wildlife habitat, visual diversity, riparian area protection, and soil and slope harvesting restrictions, the maximum timber harvest obtainable was reduced 58% from the maximum obtainable without plan constraints.

  18. Effect of the riparian vegetation removal on the trophic network of Neotropical stream fish assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sartori Manoel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of the diet of fish is an important tool to assess different levels of environmental degradation, since the availability of food in the environment is a key factor for the fish occurrence. The removal of riparian vegetation usually degrades environmental quality, as this vegetation has an important role in providing energy to the ecosystem. This study investigates the effects of the removal of riparian vegetation on the fish assemblage trophic network. The study was carried out in two stretches of a southeastern Brazilian stream, one in a forest fragment and another in a pasture, during the wet and dry seasons of 2014. We analyzed the items consumed by each fish species using the frequency of occurrence and area of each item, which were combined to calculate the alimentary index, which was used to determine the food niche overlap of the fish and the specialization index of the trophic network. Aquatic Hexapoda, vegetal debris and organic matter dominated the trophic network of the two stretches. We detected higher values of food niche overlap in the forested stretch and more complex trophic networks in the pasture stretch. We found few seasonal variations in the items consumed and calculated indices in both stretches studied. The presence of grass on the banks in the pasture stretch and the importation of food resources from the upstream area may have provided a higher diversity of resources and consequently showed a more complex trophic network when compared to the forested stretch.

  19. Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

    1995-09-01

    We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results.

  20. Phytostabilization of metals by indigenous riparian vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When measured against an ideal hypothetical buffer zone, the buffer zones under investigation varied between intact and severely compromised. Intact riparian zones showed elevated metal concentrations in the soil, yet significantly lower concentrations in the river water compared to areas with insufficient vegetative cover ...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest, Grass & Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  3. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines vegetated buffer for this community as trees and forest and grass and herbaceous. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  4. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  5. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  6. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees and Forest, Grass and Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. Multiscale remote sensing analysis to monitor riparian and upland semiarid vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen

    The health of natural vegetation communities is of concern due to observed changes in the climatic-hydrological regime and land cover changes particularly in arid and semiarid regions. Monitoring vegetation at multi temporal and spatial scales can be the most informative approach for detecting change and inferring causal agents of change and remediation strategies. Riparian communities are tightly linked to annual stream hydrology, ground water elevations and sediment transport. These processes are subject to varying magnitudes of disturbance overtime and are candidates for multi-scale monitoring. My first research objective focused on the response of vegetation in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, to reduced base flows and climate change. I addressed the correlation between riparian vegetation and hydro-climate variables during the last three decades in one of the remaining undammed rivers in the southwestern U.S. Its riparian forest is threatened by the diminishing base flows, attributed by different studies either to increases in evapotranspiration (ET) due to conversion of grasslands to mesquite shrublands in the adjacent uplands, or to increased regional groundwater pumping to serve growing populations in surrounding urban areas and or to some interactions of those causes. Landsat 5 imagery was acquired for pre- monsoon period, when riparian trees had leafed out but before the arrival of summer monsoon rains in July. The result has showed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from both Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) had significant decreases which positively correlated to river flows, which decreased over the study period, and negatively correlated with air temperatures, which have increased by about 1.4°C from 1904 to the present. The predictions from other studies that decreased river flows could negatively impact the riparian forest were supported by this study. The pre-monsoon Normalized Different Vegetation

  8. Protected Areas: Mixed Success in Conserving East Africa’s Evergreen Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Marion; Burgess, Neil D.; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Platts, Philip J.; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and ‘leakage’ (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL) was estimated at −9.3% (17,167 km2), but varied between countries (range: −0.9% to −85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan). We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks). Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337), Nature Reserves (six out of 12) and Game Parks (24 out of 26) were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa’s forest conservation efforts. PMID:22768074

  9. 36 CFR 293.16 - Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions governing the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Superior National Forest, Minnesota. 293.16 Section 293.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS...

  10. Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Spies, Thomas A; Pabst, Robert

    2017-07-01

    While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of neighboring old-growth forests to assess the magnitude and scale of harvest edge influence in a forest landscape of western Oregon, USA. We used lidar data and forest plot measurements to construct 30-m resolution live tree basal area maps in lower and middle elevation mature and old-growth forests. We assessed how edge influence on total, upper canopy, and lower canopy basal area varied across this forest landscape as a function of harvest characteristics (i.e., harvest size and age) and topographic conditions in the unharvested area. Upper canopy, lower canopy, and total basal area increased with distance from harvest edge and elevation. Forests within 75 m of harvest edges (20% of unharvested forests) had 4% to 6% less live tree basal area compared with forest interiors. An interaction between distance from harvest edge and elevation indicated that elevation altered edge influence in this landscape. We observed a positive edge influence at low elevations (800 m). Surprisingly, we found no or weak effects of harvest age (13-60 yr) and harvest area (0.2-110 ha) on surrounding unharvested forest basal area, implying that edge influence was relatively insensitive to the scale of disturbance and multi-decadal recovery processes. Our study indicates that the edge influence of past clearcutting on the structure of neighboring uncut old-growth forests is widespread and persistent. These indirect and diffuse legacies of historical timber harvests complicate forest management decision-making in old-growth forest landscapes by broadening the traditional view of stand boundaries. Furthermore, the consequences

  11. Using fractal analysis in modeling the dynamics of forest areas and economic impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pintilii, Radu Daniel; Andronache, Ion; Diaconu, Daniel Constantin

    2017-01-01

    This study uses fractal analysis to quantify the spatial changes of forest resources caused by an increase of deforested areas. The method introduced contributes to the evaluation of forest resources being under significant pressure from anthropogenic activities. The pressure on the forest...... resources has been analyzed for Maramures, County, one of the most deforested counties in Romania. In order to evaluate this, the deforested areas were calculated for the period of 2001-2014, by using the Global Forest Change 2000-2014 database. The Fractal Fragmentation Index (FFI) and Fixed Grid 2D...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest,...

  13. Riparian trees as common denominators across the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riparian tree species, growing under different conditions of water availability, can ... leaf area and increasing wood density correlating with deeper groundwater levels. ... and Sanddrifskloof Rivers (South Africa) under reduced flow conditions.

  14. Mapping forest structure, species gradients and growth in an urban area using lidar and hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huan

    Urban forests play an important role in the urban ecosystem by providing a range of ecosystem services. Characterization of forest structure, species variation and growth in urban forests is critical for understanding the status, function and process of urban ecosystems, and helping maximize the benefits of urban ecosystems through management. The development of methods and applications to quantify urban forests using remote sensing data has lagged the study of natural forests due to the heterogeneity and complexity of urban ecosystems. In this dissertation, I quantify and map forest structure, species gradients and forest growth in an urban area using discrete-return lidar, airborne imaging spectroscopy and thermal infrared data. Specific objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the utility of leaf-off lidar originally collected for topographic mapping to characterize and map forest structure and associated uncertainties, including aboveground biomass, basal area, diameter, height and crown size; (2) to map species gradients using forest structural variables estimated from lidar and foliar functional traits, vegetation indices derived from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery in conjunction with field-measured species data; and (3) to identify factors related to relative growth rates in aboveground biomass in the urban forests, and assess forest growth patterns across areas with varying degree of human interactions. The findings from this dissertation are: (1) leaf-off lidar originally acquired for topographic mapping provides a robust, potentially low-cost approach to quantify spatial patterns of forest structure and carbon stock in urban areas; (2) foliar functional traits and vegetation indices from hyperspectral data capture gradients of species distributions in the heterogeneous urban landscape; (3) species gradients, stand structure, foliar functional traits and temperature are strongly related to forest growth in the urban forests; and (4) high uncertainties in our

  15. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  16. Solar radiation in forest and pasture areas in the Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feitosa, J.R.P.; Costa, R.F. da; Fisch, G.; Souza, S.S. de; Nobre, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    The average daytime behavior of the global incident radiation (Rg) over grassland (NS) and forest (RJ) in Rondonia State during dry and wet seasons were analyzed. The data set originated from the ABRACOS Project’s automatic meteorological stations in years 1992 through 1996. Results showed that incident radiation is smaller in pasture than in forest (17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 pasture versus 18.3M Jm -2 dia -1 forest) during the dry season. In the wet season, incident radiation is smaller than dry season, with 16.9MJ m -2 dia -1 for pasture and 17.1MJ m -2 dia -1 for forest. Atmospheric transmittance in pasture was smaller than forest (0.58 versus 0.66) in the dry season. This difference is equivalent a reduction of 2.8M Jm -2 dia -1 in the surface incident radiation. In the wet season the transmittances were 0.52 for the pasture and 0.50 for the forest. (author) [pt

  17. Estimating forest biomass and identifying low-intensity logging areas using airborne scanning lidar in Antimary State Forest, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...

  18. Water quality, biodiversity, and codes of practice in relation to harvesting forest plantations in streamside management zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Philip J. Smethurst; Brenda Baillie; Kevin C. Petrone

    2011-01-01

    Streamside management zones (SMZs) are special landscape units that include riparian areas and adjacent lands that mitigate the movement of sediment, nutrients and other chemicals from upland forest and agricultural management areas into streams. The size, shape, and management of SMZs are governed by various combinations of economic, ecological, and regulatory factors...

  19. Quantifying scaling effects on satellite-derived forest area estimates for the conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; L.S. Heath; M.J. Ducey; J.E. Smith

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the scaling effects on forest area estimates for the conterminous USA using regression analysis and the National Land Cover Dataset 30m satellite-derived maps in 2001 and 1992. The original data were aggregated to: (1) broad cover types (forest vs. non-forest); and (2) coarser resolutions (1km and 10 km). Standard errors of the model estimates were 2.3%...

  20. Monitoring air quality with lichens: A comparison between mapping in forest sites and in open areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policnik, Helena; Simoncic, Primoz; Batic, Franc

    2008-01-01

    Four different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping were used for the assessment of air quality in the region under the influence of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (Salek Valley, Slovenia). Three methods were based on the presence of different lichen species (VDI, EU and ICP-Forest), the fourth on a frequency and coverage assessment of different growth forms of epiphytic lichens, e.g. crustose, foliose and fruticose (SI). A comparison of the results from the assessment of air quality between forest sites (ICP-Forest, SI) and open areas (VDI, EU and SI), obtained by the different methods of epiphytic lichen mapping, is presented in the contribution. Data showed that lichen species richness is worse in forest sites in comparison with open areas. From the data obtained it can be concluded that epiphytic lichen mapping in open areas is a better method for the assessment of air pollution in a given area than mapping in forest sites. The species-based methods in open areas are more powerful and useful for air quality assessment in polluted research areas than the SI and ICP-Forest methods. - The mapping of epiphytic lichens in open areas is more suitable for air quality assessment than mapping in forest sites in the Salek Valley, Slovenia

  1. Viscosity changes of riparian water controls diurnal fluctuations of stream-flow and DOC concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in stream-flow are commonly explained as being triggered by the daily evapotranspiration cycle in the riparian zone, leading to stream flow minima in the afternoon. While this trigger effect must necessarily be constrained by the extent of the growing season of vegetation, we here show evidence of daily stream flow maxima in the afternoon in a small headwater stream during the dormant season. We hypothesize that the afternoon maxima in stream flow are induced by viscosity changes of riparian water that is caused by diurnal temperature variations of the near surface groundwater in the riparian zone. The patterns were observed in the Weierbach headwater catchment in Luxembourg. The catchment is covering an area of 0.45 km2, is entirely covered by forest and is dominated by a schistous substratum. DOC concentration at the outlet of the catchment was measured with the field deployable UV-Vis spectrometer spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH) with a high frequency of 15 minutes over several months. Discharge was measured with an ISCO 4120 Flow Logger. During the growing season, stream flow shows a frequently observed diurnal pattern with discharge minima in the afternoon. During the dormant season, a long dry period with daily air temperature amplitudes of around 10 ° C occurred in March and April 2014, with discharge maxima in the afternoon. The daily air temperature amplitude led to diurnal variations in the water temperature of the upper 10 cm of the riparian zone. Higher riparian water temperatures cause a decrease in water viscosity and according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, the volumetric flow rate is inversely proportional to viscosity. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the viscosity changes of water, we calculated higher flow rates of near surface groundwater through the riparian zone into the stream in the afternoon which explains the stream flow maxima in the afternoon. With the start of the growing season, the viscosity

  2. Forecasting Areas Vulnerable to Forest Conversion in the Tam Dao National Park Region, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Dang Khoi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tam Dao National Park (TDNP is a remaining primary forest that supports some of the highest levels of biodiversity in Vietnam. Forest conversion due to illegal logging and agricultural expansion is a major problem that is hampering biodiversity conservation efforts in the TDNP region. Yet, areas vulnerable to forest conversion are unknown. In this paper, we predicted areas vulnerable to forest changes in the TDNP region using multi-temporal remote sensing data and a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN with a Markov chain model (MLPNN-M. The MLPNN-M model predicted increasing pressure in the remaining primary forest within the park as well as on the secondary forest in the surrounding areas. The primary forest is predicted to decrease from 18.03% in 2007 to 15.10% in 2014 and 12.66% in 2021. Our results can be used to prioritize locations for future biodiversity conservation and forest management efforts. The combined use of remote sensing and spatial modeling techniques provides an effective tool for monitoring the remaining forests in the TDNP region.

  3. Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Streams and Riparian Floodplains located within Forested Landscapes of the US Northeast: Impact of Key Floodplain Geomorphic Features on Greenhouse Gas Production in a Forested Watershed in Northern New York State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serchan, S. P.; Vidon, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study measured dissolved greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in interstitial water and stream across various "hotspots" in headwater catchments of Archer Creek watershed, New York, USA. Results indicated that stream water was hyper saturated with methane (CH4), and moderately saturated with carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The values of dissolved CO2 (88.3 μmol/L), dissolved CH4 (1.2 μmol/L), and dissolved N2O (0.02 μmol/L) found in the stream were 5.8, 432, and 2.3 times in excess of atmospheric equilibrium, respectively. Results of dissolved GHG measured in interstitial water across various sites: riparian dry (RZ-Dry), riparian wet (RZ-Wet), riparian mucky (RZ-Mucky), pool with fine textured bed sediments (IS-fine-sedpool), pool with coarse textured bed sediments (IS-coarse-sed-pool), and riffles (Riffle) indicated high variations in the degree of saturation of all three GHG. RZ-Mucky, RZ-Wet, and IS-fine-sedpool sites were hotspots of CH4 and CO2 relative to other sites. RZ-Dry sites were hotspots of N2O. Multiple linear regression models indicated that dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) influenced dissolved CO2 and CH4 at most of the sites. Relationships between dissolved N2O and predictor variables were highly variable across all sites. Patterns of dissolved N2O in relatively oxic RZ-Dry sites (D.O. 5.3 mg/L) were positively correlated with nitrate (NO3) indicating nitrification as a dominant process in N2O production. In contrast, patterns of dissolved N2O were positively correlated with ammonium (NH4+) at RZ-Wet and RZ-Mucky sites where concentrations of D.O. were significantly lower compared to other sites.

  4. Edaphic, salinity, and stand structural trends in chronosequences of native and non-native dominated riparian forests along the Colorado River, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarix spp. are introduced shrubs that have become among the most abundant woody plants growing along western North American rivers. We sought to empirically test the long-held belief that Tamarix actively displaces native species through elevating soil salinity via salt exudation. We measured chemical and physical attributes of soils (e.g., salinity, major cations and anions, texture), litter cover and depth, and stand structure along chronosequences dominated by Tamarix and those dominated by native riparian species (Populus or Salix) along the upper and lower Colorado River in Colorado and Arizona/California, USA. We tested four hypotheses: (1) the rate of salt accumulation in soils is faster in Tamarix-dominated stands than stands dominated by native species, (2) the concentration of salts in the soil is higher in mature stands dominated by Tamarix compared to native stands, (3) soil salinity is a function of Tamarix abundance, and (4) available nutrients are more concentrated in native-dominated stands compared to Tamarix-dominated stands. We found that salt concentration increases at a faster rate in Tamarix-dominated stands along the relatively free-flowing upper Colorado but not along the heavily-regulated lower Colorado. Concentrations of ions that are known to be preferentially exuded by Tamarix (e.g., B, Na, and Cl) were higher in Tamarix stands than in native stands. Soil salt concentrations in older Tamarix stands along the upper Colorado were sufficiently high to inhibit germination, establishment, or growth of some native species. On the lower Colorado, salinity was very high in all stands and is likely due to factors associated with floodplain development and the hydrologic effects of river regulation, such as reduced overbank flooding, evaporation of shallow ground water, higher salt concentrations in surface and ground water due to agricultural practices, and higher salt concentrations in fine-textured sediments derived from naturally saline

  5. An Illustration of Generalised Arma (garma) Time Series Modeling of Forest Area in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Thulasyammal Ramiah; Shitan, Mahendran

    Forestry is the art and science of managing forests, tree plantations, and related natural resources. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allow forests to continue a sustainable provision of environmental supplies and services. Forest area is land under natural or planted stands of trees, whether productive or not. Forest area of Malaysia has been observed over the years and it can be modeled using time series models. A new class of GARMA models have been introduced in the time series literature to reveal some hidden features in time series data. For these models to be used widely in practice, we illustrate the fitting of GARMA (1, 1; 1, δ) model to the Annual Forest Area data of Malaysia which has been observed from 1987 to 2008. The estimation of the model was done using Hannan-Rissanen Algorithm, Whittle's Estimation and Maximum Likelihood Estimation.

  6. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  7. Atmospheric heavy metal input to forest soils in rural areas of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Kemp, Kaare

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric bulk deposition of heavy metals (HM) was measured from 1972/73 to the present time at five to ten forest sites in rural areas of Denmark. From 1979, HM in aerosols were measured at one to four forest sites. On the basis of these long-term continuous measurements, the atmospheric inputs...

  8. Small area estimation in forests affected by wildfire in the Interior West

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. G. Moisen; J. A. Blackard; M. Finco

    2004-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been placed on estimating amount and characteristics of forests affected by wildfire in the Interior West. Data collected by FIA is intended for estimation over large geographic areas and is too sparse to construct sufficiently precise estimates within burn perimeters. This paper illustrates how recently built MODISbased maps of forest/nonforest and...

  9. A history of forest entomology in the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain areas, 1901 to 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm M. Furniss

    2007-01-01

    This account spans the time from A.D. Hopkins' trip to the Black Hills, SD, in 1901 to my retirement in 1982. The focus is on personnel and the work of the Division of Forest Insect Investigations, USDA, and the Forest Service experiment stations in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain areas. Information for the Intermountain and Northern Rocky Mountain station...

  10. Epiphytic bromeliad communities in secondary and mature forest in a tropical premontane area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cascante Marin, A.M.; Wolf, J.H.D.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; den Nijs, J.C.M.; Sanahuja, O.; Duran Apuy, A.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the differences in species richness, community composition, population structure and within-tree location of epiphytic bromeliads in contiguous secondary and mature forests in a premontane area in Costa Rica. Diversity in the mature forest was highest, and the communities differed in

  11. Modeling grain-size dependent bias in estimating forest area: a regional application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    A better understanding of scaling-up effects on estimating important landscape characteristics (e.g. forest percentage) is critical for improving ecological applications over large areas. This study illustrated effects of changing grain sizes on regional forest estimates in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan of the USA using 30-m land-cover maps (1992 and 2001)...

  12. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Luciana M.; Taffs, Kathryn; Stokes, Debra; Sanders, Christian J.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo; Marotta, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers). A sediment accumulation rate of ˜ 4 mm yr-1 for the previous ˜ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m-2 yr-1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC) burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer) during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer) during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in the floodplain of the Amazon Basin.

  13. Effects of Construction of the Digital Multipurpose Range Complex (DMPRC) on Riparian and Stream Ecosystems at Fort Benning, Georgia. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    root dynamics in riparian forests. Soil Science Society of America 69(3):729-737. Houser, J. N., P. J. Mulholland, and K. O. Maloney. 2006. Upland...Forested Wetlands, D. M. Amatya and J. Nettles (eds). New Bern, NC. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, St. Joseph, MI...primary productivity, vegetation composition, structure, and fine root dynamics in riparian forests. Kelly O. Maloney, Ph.D. in Biological Sciences

  14. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  15. Keystone Species, Forest and Landscape: A Model to Select Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Daniela Barbosa da Silva; Gardon, Fernando Ravanini; Meyer, João Frederico da Costa Azevedo; Santos, Rozely Ferreira dos

    2017-06-01

    The selection of forest fragments for conservation is usually based on spatial parameters as forest size and canopy integrity. This strategy assumes that chosen fragments present high conservation status, ensuring biodiversity and ecological functions. We argue that a well-preserved forest fragment that remains connected by the landscape structure, does not necessarily hold attributes that ensure the presence of keystone species. We also discuss that the presence of keystone species does not always mean that it has the best conditions for its occurrence and maintenance. We developed a model to select areas in forest landscapes to be prioritized for protection based on suitability curves that unify and compare spatial indicators of three categories: forest fragment quality, landscape quality, and environmental conditions for the occurrence of a keystone species. We use a case study to compare different suitability degrees for Euterpe edulis presence, considered an important functional element in Atlantic Forest (São Paulo, Brazil) landscapes and a forest resource for local people. The results show that the identification of medium or advanced stage fragments as singular indicator of forest quality does not guarantee the existence or maintenance of this keystone species. Even in some well-preserved forest fragments, connected to others and with palm presence, the reverse J-shaped distribution of the population size structure is not sustained and these forests continue to be threatened due to human disturbances.

  16. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  17. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  18. Mammal indicator species for protected areas and managed forests in a landscape conservation area in northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep K. Mathur; Harish Kumar; John F. Lehmkuhl; Anshuman Tripathi; Vishwas B. Sawarkar; Rupak. De

    2010-01-01

    There is a realization that managed forests and other natural areas in the landscape matrix can and must make significant contributions to biodiversity conservation. Often, however, there are no consistent baseline vegetation or wildlife data for assessing the status of biodiversity elements across protected and managed areas for conservation planning, nor is there a...

  19. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurence, W. F.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 489, č. 7415 (2012), s. 290-294 ISSN 0028-0836 Grant - others:NSF grant(AU) RCN-0741956 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biodiversity * tropical forest * collapse Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 38.597, year: 2012 http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/pdf/nature11318.pdf

  20. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  1. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  2. Identifying Priority Areas for Conservation: A Global Assessment for Forest-Dependent Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M.; Donald, Paul F.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000–2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  3. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme M Buchanan

    Full Text Available Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species, we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005 included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing

  4. Identifying priority areas for conservation: a global assessment for forest-dependent birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Graeme M; Donald, Paul F; Butchart, Stuart H M

    2011-01-01

    Limited resources are available to address the world's growing environmental problems, requiring conservationists to identify priority sites for action. Using new distribution maps for all of the world's forest-dependent birds (60.6% of all bird species), we quantify the contribution of remaining forest to conserving global avian biodiversity. For each of the world's partly or wholly forested 5-km cells, we estimated an impact score of its contribution to the distribution of all the forest bird species estimated to occur within it, and so is proportional to the impact on the conservation status of the world's forest-dependent birds were the forest it contains lost. The distribution of scores was highly skewed, a very small proportion of cells having scores several orders of magnitude above the global mean. Ecoregions containing the highest values of this score included relatively species-poor islands such as Hawaii and Palau, the relatively species-rich islands of Indonesia and the Philippines, and the megadiverse Atlantic Forests and northern Andes of South America. Ecoregions with high impact scores and high deforestation rates (2000-2005) included montane forests in Cameroon and the Eastern Arc of Tanzania, although deforestation data were not available for all ecoregions. Ecoregions with high impact scores, high rates of recent deforestation and low coverage by the protected area network included Indonesia's Seram rain forests and the moist forests of Trinidad and Tobago. Key sites in these ecoregions represent some of the most urgent priorities for expansion of the global protected areas network to meet Convention on Biological Diversity targets to increase the proportion of land formally protected to 17% by 2020. Areas with high impact scores, rapid deforestation, low protection and high carbon storage values may represent significant opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation, for example through Reducing Emissions from

  5. Canopy area of large trees explains aboveground biomass variations across neotropical forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Victoria; Saatchi, Sassan; Clark, David B.; Keller, Michael; Vincent, Grégoire; Ferraz, António; Espírito-Santo, Fernando; d'Oliveira, Marcus V. N.; Kaki, Dahlia; Chave, Jérôme

    2018-06-01

    Large tropical trees store significant amounts of carbon in woody components and their distribution plays an important role in forest carbon stocks and dynamics. Here, we explore the properties of a new lidar-derived index, the large tree canopy area (LCA) defined as the area occupied by canopy above a reference height. We hypothesize that this simple measure of forest structure representing the crown area of large canopy trees could consistently explain the landscape variations in forest volume and aboveground biomass (AGB) across a range of climate and edaphic conditions. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a unique dataset of high-resolution airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) and ground inventory data in nine undisturbed old-growth Neotropical forests, of which four had plots large enough (1 ha) to calibrate our model. We found that the LCA for trees greater than 27 m (˜ 25-30 m) in height and at least 100 m2 crown size in a unit area (1 ha), explains more than 75 % of total forest volume variations, irrespective of the forest biogeographic conditions. When weighted by average wood density of the stand, LCA can be used as an unbiased estimator of AGB across sites (R2 = 0.78, RMSE = 46.02 Mg ha-1, bias = -0.63 Mg ha-1). Unlike other lidar-derived metrics with complex nonlinear relations to biomass, the relationship between LCA and AGB is linear and remains unique across forest types. A comparison with tree inventories across the study sites indicates that LCA correlates best with the crown area (or basal area) of trees with diameter greater than 50 cm. The spatial invariance of the LCA-AGB relationship across the Neotropics suggests a remarkable regularity of forest structure across the landscape and a new technique for systematic monitoring of large trees for their contribution to AGB and changes associated with selective logging, tree mortality and other types of tropical forest disturbance and dynamics.

  6. TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS OF FOREST CHANGES IN NORTHERN AREA OF CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS, CHINA FROM LANDSAT TM IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information from integrated Landsat TM/ETM images and geographic information systems (GIS, using dynamic model, landscape indices and temporal trajectory analysis, spatio-temporal changes in forest in the northern area of Changbai Mountains were investigated in the past 20 years. The results showed that the forests decreased by 141461 ha at the annual decrease rate of 0.19% from 1986 to 2006. The numbers of forest patch increased, while the patch size of forest land declined. Forestland experienced the process of substantial fragmentation. Close forest showed a net reduction of 13.3×104ha. The typical trajectories of forest changes included forestland-forestland-cropland, forestland-cropland-cropland, forestland-forestland-grassland and forestland-cropland-built-up land. The total area of human-induced change is 1.7 times than that of natural change in the study area. Population, cropland area and gross domestic product increased significantly as forests decreased.

  7. Data in support of environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987–2007 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire frequency and size are two important parameters describing fire characteristics. Exploring the spatial variation of fire characteristics and understanding the environmental controls are indispensable to fire prediction and sustainable forest landscape management. To illustrate the spatial variation of forest fire characteristics over China and to quantitatively determine the relative contribution of each of the environmental controls to this variation, forest fire characteristic data (mean number of forest fires and mean burned forest area and environmental data (climate, land use, vegetation type and topography at provincial level were derived. These data sets can potentially serve as a foundation for future studies relating to fire risk assessment, carbon emission by forest fires, and the impact of climate change on fire characteristics. This data article contains data related to the research article entitled “Environmental controls on the characteristics of mean number of forest fires and mean forest area burned (1987–2007 in China” by chang et al. [1].

  8. Using small area estimation and Lidar-derived variables for multivariate prediction of forest attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Mauro; Vicente Monleon; H. Temesgen

    2015-01-01

    Small area estimation (SAE) techniques have been successfully applied in forest inventories to provide reliable estimates for domains where the sample size is small (i.e. small areas). Previous studies have explored the use of either Area Level or Unit Level Empirical Best Linear Unbiased Predictors (EBLUPs) in a univariate framework, modeling each variable of interest...

  9. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  10. Development of a Methodology for Predicting Forest Area for Large-Area Resource Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Cooke

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southcm Research Station, appointed a remote-sensing team to develop an image-processing methodology for mapping forest lands over large geographic areds. The team has presented a repeatable methodology, which is based on regression modeling of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Landsat Thematic...

  11. Annual Dynamics of Forest Areas in South America during 2007-2010 at 50-m Spatial Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Xiao, X.; Dong, J.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Doughty, R.; Chen, Y.; Zou, Z.; Moore, B., III

    2017-12-01

    The user community has an urgent need for high accuracy tropical forest distribution and spatio-temporal changes since tropical forests are facing defragmentation and persistent clouds. In this study, we selected South America as a hotspot and presented a robust approach to map annual forests during 2007-2010 based on the coupled greenness-relevant MOD13Q1 NDVI and structure/biomass-relevant ALOS PALSAR time series data. We analyzed the consistency and uncertainty among eight major forest maps at continental, country, and pixel scales. The 50-m PALSAR/MODIS forest area in South America was about 8.63×106 km2 in 2010. Large differences in total forest area (8.2×106 km2-12.7×106 km2) existed among these forest products. Forest products generated under a similar forest definition had similar or even larger variation than those generated under differing forest definitions. One needs to consider leaf area index as an adjusting factor and use much higher threshold values in the VCF datasets to estimate forest cover. Analyses of PALSAR/MODIS forest maps showed a relatively small and equivalent rate of loss (3.2×104 km2 year-1) in net forest cover to that of FAO FRA (3.3×104 km2 year-1). PALSAR/MODIS forest maps showed that more and more deforestation occurred in the intact forest areas. The rate of forest loss (1.95×105 km2 year-1) was higher than that of Global Forest Watch (0.81×105 km2 year-1). Caution should be used when using the different forest maps to analyze forest loss and make policies regarding forest ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation.

  12. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  13. Distribuição espacial de Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae em uma floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Spatial distribution of Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae in a riparian forest, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesadenella cuspidata é uma orquídea terrícola encontrada no interior de florestas no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de seu valor ecológico e ornamental, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia desta espécie. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de M. cuspidata e verificar se há correlação entre o número de indivíduos jovens e adultos em uma floresta ribeirinha. Para o levantamento, foram amostradas 60 parcelas de 16m² cada. Durante agosto e setembro/2001 foram inventariados os indivíduos jovens e adultos das parcelas. Para identificar-se o padrão de distribuição espacial, utilizaram-se o índice de Morisita (MI e a razão de variância/média (R. Foram encontrados 463 indivíduos jovens e 178 adultos. Indivíduos jovens e adultos apresentaram distribuição espacial agrupada, sendo que os adultos (IM = 2,17; R = 4,52 estão mais agrupados que os jovens (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. O coeficiente de correlação linear encontrado r = 0,61, demonstrou que a densidade de indivíduos adultos está altamente relacionada à densidade de indivíduos jovens.Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay is a terrestrial orchid found inside Southern Brazilian forests. In spite of its ecological and ornamental value, little information is aviable on its biology. The aim of this work was the identification of the spatial distribution patterns of M. cuspidata in a riparian forest. We have sampled 60 quadrats of 16m² each. All the young and adult individuals of the quadrats were included. To identify the pattern of spatial distribution, the Morisita Index (MI and the variance/mean Reason (R were used. The linear correlation coefficient was used to verify if there is correlation between populations of the juvenils and adults. From 641 individuals sampled, 463 were juvenils and 178 were adults. Juvenils and adult individuals presented gregarious spatial distribution, but the adults (MI = 2,17; R = 4,52 were more gregarious than the

  14. A GENERAL ASSESSMENT OF CLIMATE, SOIL STRUCTURE, FOREST AREAS, GROWING STOCK AND SOME FORESTRY APPLICATIONS OF ARTVIN REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksek, Turan; Ölmez, Zafer

    2011-01-01

    Artvin is located in the North Eastern Blacksea region of Turkey. Forests of Artvin are spread out from cool climate zone to cold climate zone. Artvin has approximately 390471 ha of forests, which is consist of 276883 ha (70.91%) natural forest and 113588 (29.09 %) coppice forests. Forest area covering 54.77% of total land of Artvin. Most of species of forests (natural and coppice forests) areconiferous trees, such as Picea ssp., Pinus ssp., Juniperus ssp. and broaded leaves such as Quercus s...

  15. Using Tree Detection Algorithms to Predict Stand Sapwood Area, Basal Area and Stocking Density in Eucalyptus regnans Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Jaskierniak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Managers of forested water supply catchments require efficient and accurate methods to quantify changes in forest water use due to changes in forest structure and density after disturbance. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR data with as few as 0.9 pulses m−2, we applied a local maximum filtering (LMF method and normalised cut (NCut algorithm to predict stocking density (SDen of a 69-year-old Eucalyptus regnans forest comprising 251 plots with resolution of the order of 0.04 ha. Using the NCut method we predicted basal area (BAHa per hectare and sapwood area (SAHa per hectare, a well-established proxy for transpiration. Sapwood area was also indirectly estimated with allometric relationships dependent on LiDAR derived SDen and BAHa using a computationally efficient procedure. The individual tree detection (ITD rates for the LMF and NCut methods respectively had 72% and 68% of stems correctly identified, 25% and 20% of stems missed, and 2% and 12% of stems over-segmented. The significantly higher computational requirement of the NCut algorithm makes the LMF method more suitable for predicting SDen across large forested areas. Using NCut derived ITD segments, observed versus predicted stand BAHa had R2 ranging from 0.70 to 0.98 across six catchments, whereas a generalised parsimonious model applied to all sites used the portion of hits greater than 37 m in height (PH37 to explain 68% of BAHa. For extrapolating one ha resolution SAHa estimates across large forested catchments, we found that directly relating SAHa to NCut derived LiDAR indices (R2 = 0.56 was slightly more accurate but computationally more demanding than indirect estimates of SAHa using allometric relationships consisting of BAHa (R2 = 0.50 or a sapwood perimeter index, defined as (BAHaSDen½ (R2 = 0.48.

  16. Riparian landscape management in the midstream of Ciliwung River as supporting Water Sensitive Cities program with priority of productive landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviandi, T. U. Z.; Kaswanto, R. L.; Arifin, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, Ciliwung River is facing problem of the settlement occupation in its riparian zones. This phenomenon caused ecological damage in riparian, so it can aggravate the disaster of annual flooding in Jakarta. As an effort to control this catastrophe, riparian landscape management of Ciliwung River is needed. Based on its topography, Ciliwung River is divided into three segments, there are the upstream, the midstream, and the downstream. Data shows that riparian in the midstream is the largest area, it covers more than 60% of the total riparian area. This segment is very important to be managed in order to reduce runoff towards the downstream. The method used was comparing many standards to get the ideal riparian width in the midstream, which is 50 m for urban areas and 100 m for outside the urban areas. Next method was analyzing spatially to get riparian landscape characteristic of Ciliwung River. The result showed that 37.11% of riparian zones in the midstream had occupied by settlement. Analysis of riparian function and utilization had held by using Analytical Hierarchy Process. Priority of riparian function in the midstream of Ciliwung River is production. This can be realized with the plan of community garden or inland fisheries. Riparian landscape management in the midstream aims to support the food consumption diversification, and maximize the function of water catchment and water retention in order to support the program of Water Sensitive Cities.

  17. Ecophysiology of riparian cottonwood and willow before, during, and after two years of soil water removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K R; Bush, S E; Ehleringer, J R

    2010-03-01

    Riparian cottonwood/willow forest assemblages are highly valued in the southwestern United States for their wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and watershed protection. Yet these forests are under considerable threat from climate change impacts on water resources and land-use activities to support human enterprise. Stream diversions, groundwater pumping, and extended drought have resulted in the decline of cottonwood/willow forests along many riparian corridors in the Southwest and, in many cases, the replacement of these forests with less desirable invasive shrubs and trees. Nevertheless, ecophysiological responses of cottonwood and willow, along with associated ecohydrological feedbacks of soil water depletion, are not well understood. Ecophysiological processes of mature Fremont cottonwood and coyote willow stands were examined over four consecutive growing seasons (2004-2007) near Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The tree stands occurred near the inlet of a reservoir that was drained in the spring of 2005 and remained empty until mid-summer of 2006, effectively removing the primary water source for most of two growing seasons. Stem sap flux density (Js) in cottonwood was highly correlated with volumetric soil moisture (theta) in the upper 60 cm and decreased sevenfold as soil moisture dropped from 12% to 7% after the reservoir was drained. Conversely, Js in willow was marginally correlated with 0 and decreased by only 25% during the same period. Opposite patterns emerged during the following growing season: willow had a lower whole-plant conductance (kt) in June and higher leaf carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) than cottonwood in August, whereas k(t) and delta13C were otherwise similar between species. Water relations in both species recovered quickly from soil water depletion, with the exception that sapwood area to stem area (As:Ast) was significantly lower in both species after the 2007 growing season compared to 2004. Results suggest that cottonwood has a greater

  18. Study of the malaria situation in forested foothill and nearby plain areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, L; Ye, H

    1991-12-01

    A longitudinal demographic-parasitological survey on malaria was conducted at 10 weekly intervals starting from September in one foothill village with the population of 1,095 and one epidemiologically comparable plain village with the population of 962 in Kyauktaga township, Bago division, 120 miles north of Yangon. The objective was to describe and analyse the current malaria situation in a forested foothill area and an adjacent plain area. Ten weekly blood film collections for malaria parasite examination, six monthly sera collections on filter paper for serological examination from the whole study population and ten weekly splenic measurements from 2-9 year children were done. The malaria parasite rate in the foothill area was invariably higher than that in the plain area in all age groups throughout the study period. Moreover, the parasite rate decreased with the increase in distance from the forested foothill area indicating that the deep forest malaria may have some influence on the foothill villages. The total age specific parasite rate in foothill villages was found to be highest in the 5-8 year age group and decreased as the age advanced which may be due to the increasing immunity. The study revealed the presence of local transmission in the foothill village. From these data it is evident that new village sites should be chosen at least 5 miles away from the forest fringe and the malaria control measures in the plain area should utilize chemoprophylaxis and effective chemotherapy focusing on the people who travel into the forest.

  19. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  20. Post-wildfire natural restoration of riparian vegetation under stable hydro-geomorphic conditions: Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires are common to the Mediterranean region due to its defined dry season and long historical anthropogenic activities. Most of post-wildfire studies focus on mountains areas and thus refer to the hill-slope and its physical characteristics, e.g. morphology, length, angles, and aspect; its soil characteristics, e.g. type, infiltration rate, repellency; and its vegetative covers, e.g. planted trees vs. natural forest or native vs. exotic vegetation. In contrary there is very limited literature focusing on ecological and hydro-geomorphic aspects of post-wildfire of riparian vegetation / zone probably because of its negligible burned area relative to the spread of the fire, sometimes, over the whole watershed area. The limited literature on the topic is surprising given the fact that riparian vegetation zone has been acknowledged as a unique and important habitat supporting rich biodiversity. Herein we report on a wildfire event occurred on October 14th 2009 in a river section of Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel. The wildfire although was limited in its area (only 3 hectare) extended over the channel alone from bank to bank and thus provide a unique case study of completely burn down of riparian vegetation, mainly dense stands of Common Red (Australis Phragmites. Therefore a detailed study of this event provides an opportunity to tackle one of the basics questions which is determining the rate of natural restoration process that act at the immediate time after the wildfire event occurred. This type of information is most valuable to professional and stakeholders for better management of post-fire riparian zones. The results of the study suggest that under stable conditions, i.e. no major flood events occurred; disturbance time was short and ranged over 200 days due to, almost, immediate recovery of the riparian vegetation. However the re-growth of the riparian vegetation was not even but rather deferential and more complex then reported in the literature

  1. LITTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT ADDITION IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS IN SANTA MARIA DE JETIBÁ, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished on Espíndula Farm, Santa Maria de Jetibá (ES, with the objective of evaluating the litter and nutrients deposition in areas with different succession stadiums. Two areas were selected with different vegetable coverings, defined as: (SF Secondary Forest, with about 25 ha of area, corresponding to an old area of cassava cultivation with about 50 years in process of ecological succession and where today there is a secondary forest and an Old Secondary Forest (OSF corresponding to a forest area that has just been submitted to a selective wood extraction for use of the farm itself. In each one of vegetal areas, approximately 0.1 ha was delimited and in these ten conical collectors were randomized distributed. The litter collections were accomplished monthly from November 2003 to October 2005. After drying, the material was stratified and the total contributed and the contribution of the different fractions, and the nutritious addition were evaluated. It was not verified significant differences among the total of litter deposited among the areas, being the highest production values observed in the summer, 5.70 Mg ha-1 (SF and 5.73 Mg ha-1(OSF, possibly due to the winds and rain mechanical action. The fraction of higher contribution was the foliar, corresponding to 74.62% for the SF area and 69.46% for the OSF area

  2. Predicting long-term streamflow variability in moist eucalypt forests using forest growth models and a sapwood area index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskierniak, D.; Kuczera, G.; Benyon, R.

    2016-04-01

    A major challenge in surface hydrology involves predicting streamflow in ungauged catchments with heterogeneous vegetation and spatiotemporally varying evapotranspiration (ET) rates. We present a top-down approach for quantifying the influence of broad-scale changes in forest structure on ET and hence streamflow. Across three catchments between 18 and 100 km2 in size and with regenerating Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis forest, we demonstrate how variation in ET can be mapped in space and over time using LiDAR data and commonly available forest inventory data. The model scales plot-level sapwood area (SA) to the catchment-level using basal area (BA) and tree stocking density (N) estimates in forest growth models. The SA estimates over a 69 year regeneration period are used in a relationship between SA and vegetation induced streamflow loss (L) to predict annual streamflow (Q) with annual rainfall (P) estimates. Without calibrating P, BA, N, SA, and L to Q data, we predict annual Q with R2 between 0.68 and 0.75 and Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) between 0.44 and 0.48. To remove bias, the model was extended to allow for runoff carry-over into the following year as well as minor correction to rainfall bias, which produced R2 values between 0.72 and 0.79, and NSE between 0.70 and 0.79. The model under-predicts streamflow during drought periods as it lacks representation of ecohydrological processes that reduce L with either reduced growth rates or rainfall interception during drought. Refining the relationship between sapwood thickness and forest inventory variables is likely to further improve results.

  3. Methodological issues in implementing a sustainable forest management plan in remote mountain areas - The Karakorum (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Efrem

    2014-01-01

    Based on a practical case-study, the Central Karakorum National Park - Gilgit-Baltistan - Pakistan, the aim of the thesis is to present a methodological framework for promoting the sustainable forest management in mountain areas characterized by remoteness, difficulties of access and where few data are available. Forest resources of Karakorum Mountains assume an essential role for the livelihoods of local communities, heavily dependent on wood for heating, cooking and construction purposes...

  4. Changes in the forest ecosystems in areas impacted by aridization in south-western Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Pravalie, Remus; Sîrodoev, Igor; Peptenatu, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background In the past few decades, global climate change has accentuated the intensification of aridization in South-Western Romania, with direct and indirect consequences on the quality of forest ecosystems. In addition to qualitative deterioration, the quantitative changes brought about by intensive anthropic deforestation have created the conditions for a decline in the size of forest areas on vast tracts of land. The paper aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in the f...

  5. Efficiency of protected areas in Amazon and Atlantic Forest conservation: A spatio-temporal view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral-Souza, Thadeu; Vancine, Maurício Humberto; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S.

    2018-02-01

    The Amazon and Atlantic Forest are considered the world's most biodiverse biomes. Human and climate change impacts are the principal drivers of species loss in both biomes, more severely in the Atlantic Forest. In response to species loss, the main conservation action is the creation of protected areas (PAs). Current knowledge and research on the PA network's conservation efficiency is scarce, and existing studies have mainly considered a past temporal view. In this study, we tested the efficiency of the current PA network to maintain climatically stable areas (CSAs) across the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. To this, we used an ecological niche modeling approach to biome and paleoclimatic simulations. We propose three categories of conservation priority areas for both biomes, considering CSAs, PAs and intact forest remnants. The biomes vary in their respective PA networks' protection efficiency. Regarding protect CSAs, the Amazon PA network is four times more efficient than the Atlantic Forest PA network. New conservation efforts in these two forest biomes require different approaches. We discussed the conservation actions that should be taken in each biome to increase the efficiency of the PA network, considering both the creation and expansion of PAs as well as restoration programs.

  6. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.

  7. Environment and forest regeneration in the Illinois Valley area of southwestern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Minore; Joseph N. Graham; Edward W. Murray

    1984-01-01

    Multiple regression analyses were used to relate environmental factors to forest regeneration on clearcut and partial cut areas managed by the Bureau of Land Management in the Illinois Valley area southwest of Grants Pass, Oregon. Difficulty of regenerating clearcuttings at elevations between 3,000 and 4,900 feet (914 and 1 494 m) increased with increases in soil...

  8. A practical and automated approach to large area forest disturbance mapping with remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Ozdogan

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe a set of procedures that automate forest disturbance mapping using a pair of Landsat images. The approach is built on the traditional pair-wise change detection method, but is designed to extract training data without user interaction and uses a robust classification algorithm capable of handling incorrectly labeled training data. The steps in this procedure include: i creating masks for water, non-forested areas, clouds, and cloud shadows; ii identifying training pixels whose value is above or below a threshold defined by the number of standard deviations from the mean value of the histograms generated from local windows in the short-wave infrared (SWIR difference image; iii filtering the original training data through a number of classification algorithms using an n-fold cross validation to eliminate mislabeled training samples; and finally, iv mapping forest disturbance using a supervised classification algorithm. When applied to 17 Landsat footprints across the U.S. at five-year intervals between 1985 and 2010, the proposed approach produced forest disturbance maps with 80 to 95% overall accuracy, comparable to those obtained from traditional approaches to forest change detection. The primary sources of mis-classification errors included inaccurate identification of forests (errors of commission, issues related to the land/water mask, and clouds and cloud shadows missed during image screening. The approach requires images from the peak growing season, at least for the deciduous forest sites, and cannot readily distinguish forest harvest from natural disturbances or other types of land cover change. The accuracy of detecting forest disturbance diminishes with the number of years between the images that make up the image pair. Nevertheless, the relatively high accuracies, little or no user input needed for processing, speed of map production, and simplicity of the approach make the new method especially practical for

  9. From leaf to basin: evaluating the impacts of introduced plant species on evapotranspiration fluxes from riparian ecosystems in the southwestern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S.; Nagler, P. L.; Morino, K.; Burtch, K.; Dennison, P. E.; Glenn, E. P.; Ehleringer, J.

    2010-12-01

    Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of introduced plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. The question of whether these invasive species have had or will have impacts on water resources is currently under intense debate. We identify a framework for assessing when and where introduced riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semi-arid river systems. We focus on three introduced plant systems that currently dominate southwestern U.S. riparian forests: tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). Our framework focuses on two main criteria: 1) the ecophysiological traits that promote establishment of invasive species across environmental gradients, and 2) an assessment of how hydrologic fluxes are altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales. The framework identifies when and where introduced species should have the highest potential impact on the water cycle. This framework will assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given limited economic resources.

  10. Expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation of Santa Cruz River, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Carricarte Rodríguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the Los Amaros, the Santa Cruz river, Artemisa, Cuba. The objective was to evaluate how it influences the expansion of the agricultural frontier on riparian vegetation where the semi-deciduous mesophytic forest (BsdMe predominates. A floristic characterization was performed, identifying the effects of disturbances on the structure and composition of these forests and their relation to human disturbance. A semi-structured interview was applied to all landowners in the study area. Species richness, dominance, basal area, total number of individuals, width of the strip covered by trees and shrubs, and area without vegetation on both banks of the river, respectively were considered as variables. There are differences in the structure and patterns of diversity of the studied forest, as a result of disturbances, with the consequent reduction of species; also anthropogenic disturbances, are the main factors that explain changes in the structure of these forests. They are identified as major species: Cupania macrophylla A. Rich., Roystonea regia HBK O. F. Cook., Guarea guidonia L. Sleumer and Trichilia hirta  L. It is proposed to deepen the effect of the expansion of agriculture into other sectors of the river in interaction with local communities.

  11. Effects of reintroduced beaver (Castor canadensis) on riparian bird community structure along the upper San Pedro River, southeastern Arizona and northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn E.; van Riper, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Chapter 1.—We measured bird abundance and richness along the upper San Pedro River in 2005 and 2006, in order to document how beavers (Castor canadensis) may act as ecosystem engineers after their reintroduction to a desert riparian area in the Southwestern United States. In areas where beavers colonized, we found higher bird abundance and richness of bird groups, such as all breeding birds, insectivorous birds, and riparian specialists, and higher relative abundance of many individual species—including several avian species of conservation concern. Chapter 2.—We conducted bird surveys in riparian areas along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona (United States) and northern Sonora (Mexico) in order to describe factors influencing bird community dynamics and the distribution and abundance of species, particularly those of conservation concern. These surveys were also used to document the effects of the ecosystem-altering activities of a recently reintroduced beavers (Castor canadensis). Chapter 3.—We reviewed Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nest records and investigated the potential for future breeding along the upper San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona, where in July 2005 we encountered the southernmost verifiable nest attempt for the species. Continued conservation and management of the area’s riparian vegetation and surface water has potential to contribute additional breeding sites for this endangered Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Given the nest record along the upper San Pedro River and the presence of high-density breeding sites to the north, the native cottonwood-willow forests of the upper San Pedro River could become increasingly important to E. t. extimus recovery, especially considering the anticipated effect of the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda carinulata) on riparian habitat north of the region.

  12. Use of middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of a boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, D.S. [Kingston Univ., Surrey (United Kingdom). Centre for Earth and Environmental Science Research, School of Geography; Wicks, T. E.; Curran, P.J. [Southampton Univ., Southampton, Hampshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    2000-06-01

    Reflected radiation recorded by satellite sensors is a common procedure to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) of boreal forest. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), derived from measurements of visible and near infrared radiation were commonly used to estimate LAI. But research in tropical forest has shown that LAI is more closely related to radiation of middle infrared wavelengths than that of visible wavelengths. This research calculated a vegetation index (VI3) using radiation from vegetation recorded at near and middle infrared wavelengths. In the case of boreal forest, VI3 and LAI displayed a closer relationship than NDVI and LAI. Also, the use of VI3 explained approximately 76 per cent of the variation in field estimates of LAI, versus approximately 46 per cent for NDVI. The authors concluded that consideration should be given to information provided by middle infrared radiation to estimate the leaf area index of boreal forest. The research area was located in the Southern Study Area (SSA) of the BOReal Ecosystem-Atmospher Study (BOREAS), situated on the southern edge of the Canadian boreal forest, 40 km north of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan. 1 tab., 4 figs., 46 refs.

  13. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  14. Mechanisms of Forest Restoration in Landslide Treatment Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chang Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation after a landslide facilitates competition between herbaceous plants and arborous plants. Tangible variations in grassland areas in regions susceptible to landslides can only be found within collections of trees. A landslide area in the Sule Watershed was investigated. Relative illuminance results reveal that the Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth biomass in this landslide area increases with relative illuminance. A comparison of regions with tree islands indicates that the size of the grassland areas decreased and the number of tree islands increased during 2005–2010. Furthermore, a germination experiment in a soil-seed bank indicates that more woody plant species exist around the tree island than in other areas in the landslide region. Trees in a tree island change the micro-climate of the landslide region, and they gather as many nutrients and as much moisture as possible, enabling vegetation to expand around the tree island. Additionally, the area with Rhodes grass and its biomass declined annually in the tree island region. Investigation results show that tree islands and soil-seed banks are suited to reforestation in landslide regions. The pioneering research will assist regional landslide management in Taiwan.

  15. Forested wetland area and distribution: A forest and paper industry policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubensky, M.M.; Berg, R.S.; Berry, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    The policy statement from the 1988 National Wetlands Policy Forum included the amorphous and ambiguous phase no overall net loss of the nation's remaining wetlands base. To industry and thousands of non-industrial landowners, timber production represents a major function of wetlands. The authors cover historical aspects of wetlands protection, the controversial and politicized issue of wetlands delineation, proposed revisions to the wetlands criteria, regulatory issues related to the US Corp of Engineers and EPA, and compensatory mitigation. A package of economic incentives, education, and favorable tax treatment to encourage landowners to maintain their forested wetlands is suggested. 5 refs

  16. Spatial Aggregation of Forest Songbird Territories and Possible Implications for Area Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Bourque

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Habitat area requirements of forest songbirds vary greatly among species, but the causes of this variation are not well understood. Large area requirements could result from advantages for certain species when settling their territories near those of conspecifics. This phenomenon would result in spatial aggregations much larger than single territories. Species that aggregate their territories could show reduced population viability in highly fragmented forests, since remnant patches may remain unoccupied if they are too small to accommodate several territories. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1 to seek evidence of territory clusters of forest birds at various spatial scales, lags of 250-550 m, before and after controlling for habitat spatial patterns; and (2 to measure the relationship between spatial autocorrelation and apparent landscape sensitivity for these species. In analyses that ignored spatial variation of vegetation within remnant forest patches, nine of the 17 species studied significantly aggregated their territories within patches. After controlling for forest vegetation, the locations of eight out of 17 species remained significantly clustered. The aggregative pattern that we observed may, thus, be indicative of a widespread phenomenon in songbird populations. Furthermore, there was a tendency for species associated with higher forest cover to be more spatially aggregated [ERRATUM].

  17. Mapping forest tree species over large areas with partially cloudy Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlej, K.; Radeloff, V.

    2017-12-01

    Forests provide numerous services to natural systems and humankind, but which services forest provide depends greatly on their tree species composition. That makes it important to track not only changes in forest extent, something that remote sensing excels in, but also to map tree species. The main goal of our work was to map tree species with Landsat imagery, and to identify how to maximize mapping accuracy by including partially cloudy imagery. Our study area covered one Landsat footprint (26/28) in Northern Wisconsin, USA, with temperate and boreal forests. We selected this area because it contains numerous tree species and variable forest composition providing an ideal study area to test the limits of Landsat data. We quantified how species-level classification accuracy was affected by a) the number of acquisitions, b) the seasonal distribution of observations, and c) the amount of cloud contamination. We classified a single year stack of Landsat-7, and -8 images data with a decision tree algorithm to generate a map of dominant tree species at the pixel- and stand-level. We obtained three important results. First, we achieved producer's accuracies in the range 70-80% and user's accuracies in range 80-90% for the most abundant tree species in our study area. Second, classification accuracy improved with more acquisitions, when observations were available from all seasons, and is the best when images with up to 40% cloud cover are included. Finally, classifications for pure stands were 10 to 30 percentage points better than those for mixed stands. We conclude that including partially cloudy Landsat imagery allows to map forest tree species with accuracies that were previously only possible for rare years with many cloud-free observations. Our approach thus provides important information for both forest management and science.

  18. A Global Analysis of Deforestation in Moist Tropical Forest Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklen, B D; Kalamandeen, M; Galbraith, D; Gloor, E; Spracklen, D V

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) have been established to conserve tropical forests, but their effectiveness at reducing deforestation is uncertain. To explore this issue, we combined high resolution data of global forest loss over the period 2000-2012 with data on PAs. For each PA we quantified forest loss within the PA, in buffer zones 1, 5, 10 and 15 km outside the PA boundary as well as a 1 km buffer within the PA boundary. We analysed 3376 tropical and subtropical moist forest PAs in 56 countries over 4 continents. We found that 73% of PAs experienced substantial deforestation pressure, with >0.1% a(-1) forest loss in the outer 1 km buffer. Forest loss within PAs was greatest in Asia (0.25% a(-1)) compared to Africa (0.1% a(-1)), the Neotropics (0.1% a(-1)) and Australasia (Australia and Papua New Guinea; 0.03% a(-1)). We defined performance (P) of a PA as the ratio of forest loss in the inner 1 km buffer compared to the loss that would have occurred in the absence of the PA, calculated as the loss in the outer 1 km buffer corrected for any difference in deforestation pressure between the two buffers. To remove the potential bias due to terrain, we analysed a subset of PAs (n = 1804) where slope and elevation in inner and outer 1 km buffers were similar (within 1° and 100 m, respectively). We found 41% of PAs in this subset reduced forest loss in the inner buffer by at least 25% compared to the expected inner buffer forest loss (P<0.75). Median performance (P) of subset reserves was 0.87, meaning a reduction in forest loss within the PA of 13%. We found PAs were most effective in Australasia (P = 0.16), moderately successful in the Neotropics (P = 0.72) and Africa (p = 0.83), but ineffective in Asia (P = 1). We found many countries have PAs that give little or no protection to forest loss, particularly in parts of Asia, west Africa and central America. Across the tropics, the median effectiveness of PAs at the national level improved with gross domestic product per

  19. 76 FR 3015 - Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AC93 Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order; Closure of National Forest System Lands To Protect Privacy of Tribal Activities AGENCY... regarding special closures to provide for closure of National Forest System lands to protect the privacy of...

  20. Landsat time series and lidar as predictors of live and dead basal area across five bark beetle-affected forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; Andrew T. Hudak; Robert E. Kennedy; Arjan J. H. Meddens

    2014-01-01

    Bark beetle-caused tree mortality affects important forest ecosystem processes. Remote sensing methodologies that quantify live and dead basal area (BA) in bark beetle-affected forests can provide valuable information to forest managers and researchers. We compared the utility of light detection and ranging (lidar) and the Landsat-based detection of trends in...

  1. First direct landscape-scale measurement of tropical rain forest Leaf Area Index, a key driver of global primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Clark; Paulo C. Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Deborah A. Clark; Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Leaf Area Index (leaf area per unit ground area, LAI) is a key driver of forest productivity but has never previously been measured directly at the landscape scale in tropical rain forest (TRF). We used a modular tower and stratified random sampling to harvest all foliage from forest floor to canopy top in 55 vertical transects (4.6 m2) across 500 ha of old growth in...

  2. Radiocaesium levels in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataruch, F.; Klansek, E.; Schoenhofer, F.

    1996-01-01

    A report is given on the course of radiocaesium contamination in roe deer and wild boar in two large forest areas in Austria. In autumn 1987 and winter 1987/88 radiocaesium levels rose to values higher than those recorded in 1986 in these regions. The reason for this increase was the very specific feeding selection of roe deer in these forest areas resulting in the ingestion of an unusual high amount of blueberries, ferns and mushrooms. An explanation for the changes of wild boar's contamination has not been found yet, but possible reasons are discussed. (author)

  3. Legal ecotones: A comparative analysis of riparian policy protection in the Oregon Coast Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie, Brett A; Santelmann, Mary V; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Duncan, Sally L

    2017-07-15

    Waterways of the USA are protected under the public trust doctrine, placing responsibility on the state to safeguard public resources for the benefit of current and future generations. This responsibility has led to the development of management standards for lands adjacent to streams. In the state of Oregon, policy protection for riparian areas varies by ownership (e.g., federal, state, or private), land use (e.g., forest, agriculture, rural residential, or urban) and stream attributes, creating varying standards for riparian land-management practices along the stream corridor. Here, we compare state and federal riparian land-management standards in four major policies that apply to private and public lands in the Oregon Coast Range. We use a standard template to categorize elements of policy protection: (1) the regulatory approach, (2) policy goals, (3) stream attributes, and (4) management standards. All four policies have similar goals for achieving water-quality standards, but differ in their regulatory approach. Plans for agricultural lands rely on outcome-based standards to treat pollution, in contrast with the prescriptive policy approaches for federal, state, and private forest lands, which set specific standards with the intent of preventing pollution. Policies also differ regarding the stream attributes considered when specifying management standards. Across all policies, 25 categories of unique standards are identified. Buffer widths vary from 0 to ∼152 m, with no buffer requirements for streams in agricultural areas or small, non-fish-bearing, seasonal streams on private forest land; narrow buffer requirements for small, non-fish-bearing perennial streams on private forest land (3 m); and the widest buffer requirements for fish-bearing streams on federal land (two site-potential tree-heights, up to an estimated 152 m). Results provide insight into how ecosystem concerns are addressed by variable policy approaches in multi-ownership landscapes, an

  4. Integrating remote sensing and forest inventory data for assessing forest blowdown in the boundary waters canoe area wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; W. Keith Moser

    2007-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program conducts strategic inventories of our Nation's forest resources. There is increasing need to assess effects of forest disturbance from catastrophic events, often within geographic extents not typically addressed by strategic forest inventories. One such event occurred within the Boundary...

  5. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  6. Urban users of wildland areas as forest fire risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1979-01-01

    A telephone survey of 1500 households in metropolitan Los Angeles and San Francisco was made to (1) determine extent of wildland use by residents of the two metropolitan areas, reasons for non-use, and the characteristics of users; (2) describe and analyze activities, knowledge, and attitudes of users which may contribute to their fire risk; and (3) assess selected...

  7. Use of stable nitrogen isotope signatures of riparian macrophytes as an indicator of anthropogenic N inputs to river ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzu, Ayato; Miyajima, Toshihiro; Tayasu, Ichiro; Yoshimizu, Chikage; Hyodo, Fujio; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Nakano, Takanori; Wada, Eitaro; Fujita, Noboru; Nagata, Toshi

    2008-11-01

    Deterioration of aquatic ecosystems resulting from enhanced anthropogenic N loading has become an issue of increasing concern worldwide, and methods are needed to trace sources of N in rivers. Because nitrate from sewage is enriched in 15N relative to nitrate from natural soils, delta(15)N values of stream nitrate (delta(15)Nnitrate) should be an appropriate index of anthropogenic N loading to rivers, as should the delta(15)N values of riparian plants (delta(15)Nplant) because they are consumers of nitrate. We determined the delta(15)N values of stream nitrate and six species of riparian macrophytes in 31 rivers in the Lake Biwa Basin in Japan. We then tested the correlation between these values and various land-use parameters, including the percentage of land used for residential and agricultural purposes as well as for natural areas. These delta(15)N values were significantly positively correlated with land use (%) that had a high N load (i.e., residential or agricultural use) and significantly negatively correlated with forest (%). These findings indicate that delta(15)N values of stream nitrate and riparian plants might be good indicators of anthropogenic inputs of nitrogen.

  8. Tree Diversity Enhances Stand Carbon Storage but Not Leaf Area in a Subtropical Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Izaguirre, Nadia; Chi, Xiulian; Baruffol, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2016-01-01

    Research about biodiversity-productivity relationships has focused on herbaceous ecosystems, with results from tree field studies only recently beginning to emerge. Also, the latter are concentrated largely in the temperate zone. Tree species diversity generally is much higher in subtropical and tropical than in temperate or boreal forests, with reasons not fully understood. Niche overlap and thus complementarity in the use of resources that support productivity may be lower in forests than in herbaceous ecosystems, suggesting weaker productivity responses to diversity change in forests. We studied stand basal area, vertical structure, leaf area, and their relationship with tree species richness in a subtropical forest in south-east China. Permanent forest plots of 30 x 30 m were selected to span largely independent gradients in tree species richness and secondary successional age. Plots with higher tree species richness had a higher stand basal area. Also, stand basal area increases over a 4-year census interval were larger at high than at low diversity. These effects translated into increased carbon stocks in aboveground phytomass (estimated using allometric equations). A higher variability in tree height in more diverse plots suggested that these effects were facilitated by denser canopy packing due to architectural complementarity between species. In contrast, leaf area was not or even negatively affected by tree diversity, indicating a decoupling of carbon accumulation from leaf area. Alternatively, the same community leaf area might have assimilated more C per time interval in more than in less diverse plots because of differences in leaf turnover and productivity or because of differences in the display of leaves in vertical and horizontal space. Overall, our study suggests that in species-rich forests niche-based processes support a positive diversity-productivity relationship and that this translates into increased carbon storage in long-lived woody

  9. Identifying Riparian Buffer Effects on Stream 1 Nitrogen in Southeastern Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian areas have long demonstrated their ability to attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale; however, to inform effective nutrient management choices, the impact of riparian buffers on water quality services must be assessed at watershed s...

  10. Variability in estimated runoff in a forested area based on different cartographic data sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragoso, L.; Quirós, E.; Durán-Barroso, P.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: The goal of this study is to analyse variations in curve number (CN) values produced by different cartographic data sources in a forested watershed, and determine which of them best fit with measured runoff volumes. Area of study: A forested watershed located in western Spain. Material and methods: Four digital cartographic data sources were used to determine the runoff CN in the watershed. Main results: None of the cartographic sources provided all the information necessary to determine properly the CN values. Our proposed methodology, focused on the tree canopy cover, improves the achieved results. Research highlights: The estimation of the CN value in forested areas should be attained as a function of tree canopy cover and new calibrated tables should be implemented in a local scale.

  11. Resource communication: Variability in estimated runoff in a forested area based on different cartographic data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fragoso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The goal of this study is to analyse variations in curve number (CN values produced by different cartographic data sources in a forested watershed, and determine which of them best fit with measured runoff volumes. Area of study: A forested watershed located in western Spain. Material and methods: Four digital cartographic data sources were used to determine the runoff CN in the watershed. Main results: None of the cartographic sources provided all the information necessary to determine properly the CN values. Our proposed methodology, focused on the tree canopy cover, improves the achieved results. Research highlights: The estimation of the CN value in forested areas should be attained as a function of tree canopy cover and new calibrated tables should be implemented in a local scale.

  12. Threats from urban expansion, agricultural transformation and forest loss on global conservation priority areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Atte; Di Minin, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Including threats in spatial conservation prioritization helps identify areas for conservation actions where biodiversity is at imminent risk of extinction. At the global level, an important limitation when identifying spatial priorities for conservation actions is the lack of information on the spatial distribution of threats. Here, we identify spatial conservation priorities under three prominent threats to biodiversity (residential and commercial development, agricultural expansion, and forest loss), which are primary drivers of habitat loss and threaten the persistence of the highest number of species in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, and for which spatial data is available. We first explore how global priority areas for the conservation of vertebrate (mammals, birds, and amphibians) species coded in the Red List as vulnerable to each threat differ spatially. We then identify spatial conservation priorities for all species vulnerable to all threats. Finally, we identify the potentially most threatened areas by overlapping the identified priority areas for conservation with maps for each threat. We repeat the same with four other well-known global conservation priority area schemes, namely Key Biodiversity Areas, Biodiversity Hotspots, the global Protected Area Network, and Wilderness Areas. We find that residential and commercial development directly threatens only about 4% of the global top 17% priority areas for species vulnerable under this threat. However, 50% of the high priority areas for species vulnerable to forest loss overlap with areas that have already experienced some forest loss. Agricultural expansion overlapped with ~20% of high priority areas. Biodiversity Hotspots had the greatest proportion of their total area under direct threat from all threats, while expansion of low intensity agriculture was found to pose an imminent threat to Wilderness Areas under future agricultural expansion. Our results

  13. The role of urban forest to reduce rain acid in urban industrial areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, B.; Agustiarni, Y.; Hidayati; Basyuni, M.

    2018-03-01

    Urban forest has many functions mainly on improving the quality of the urban environment. One of the functions is to increase pH and reduce dangerous chemical content. The aim of the research is to find out the role of vegetation density of urban forest around the industrial area in reducing the acid rain. The condition of land cover was classified into four classes which are dense, medium, sparse and open area. The water of the throughfall and stemflow was taken from each type of land cover except in the open area. Parameters measured in this study are water acidity (pH), anion content (SO4 2- and NO3 -), cation content (Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4 +) and electrical conductivity (EC). The results indicated that urban forest vegetation was able to increase the pH of rain water from 5.42 which is in an open area without vegetation to be 7.13 and 7.32 in dense and moderate vegetation cover by throughfall mechanism, respectively. Rain water acidity also decreased through stemflow mechanism with a pH ranged from 5.92 - 6.43. Urban forest vegetation decreased sulfate content (SO42-) from 528.67 mg/l in open area to 44 - 118 mg/l by throughfall mechanism and ranged from 90 to 366.67 mg/l through stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation significantly decreased the rainwater nitrate content from 27 mg/l to 0.03 - 0.70 mg/l through the mechanism of throughfall and between 1.53 - 8.82 mg/l through the stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation also increased the concentration of cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) compared with open areas. Urban forest vegetation showed increased the electrical conductivity (EC) from 208.12 μmhos/cm to 344.67 - 902.17 μmhos/cm through the through fall mechanism and 937.67 - 1058.70 μmhos/cm through the stemflow mechanism. The study suggested that urban forests play a significant role in reducing rainwater acidity and improving the quality of rainwater that reached the soil surface.

  14. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  15. Natural fertility and heavy metals in the soil in border areas of Atlantic Forest located in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    Regina Márcia Longo2, Deborah Regina Mendes2, Admilson Irio Ribeiro31 Part of the project funded by the Foundation of the State of São Paulo Research - Brazil (FAPESP - process 2012 / 14423-8)2 Pontifícal Catholic University of Campinas - Brazil; email: regina.longo@puc-campinas.edu.br 3 Paulista State University (UNESP-Sorocaba - Brazil)Due to the disorderly growth of cities, especially in tropical areas, it is observed that the destruction or fragmentation of natural ecosystems has presented itself as one of the great problems of the present time. The forest fragments, although important for the maintenance of microclimate, genetic variety and species diversity, are increasingly impacted due to the activities that are developed in their environment. The present work had as main objective to quantify the level of natural fertility and the presence of heavy metals in the soil in border areas of a forest remnant located in an urban area in the city of Campinas / SP - Brazil in order to verify possible interferences of the anthropic actions carried out in adjacent areas. Soil composite samples were collected at 40 points equidistant at 200 m along the edge. In the samples were determined the contents of: pH (CaCl2); organic matter (OM); phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), base sum (SB) and percentage saturation of bases in addition to heavy metals lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni). The results indicated that the nutritional quality of the soil was adequate for the tropical regions. In relation to micronutrients, high levels of copper, zinc and manganese were observed. Regarding the metals, it was observed that iron was the one that accused the most irregularities along the edge, while the lead had higher indices for all the edges evaluated. In general, the presented results indicated that the forest remnant presents its border areas under external pressures, presenting several factors of

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with Populus-Salix stands in a semiarid riparian ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Vanessa B.; Stromberg, J.C.; Stutz, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    ??? This study examined the activity, species richness, and species composition of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community of Populus-Salix stands on the Verde River (Arizona, USA), quantified patterns of AMF richness and colonization along complex floodplain gradients, and identified environmental variables responsible for structuring the AMF community. ??? Samples from 61 Populus-Salix stands were analyzed for AMF and herbaceous composition, AMF colonization, gravimetric soil moisture, soil texture, per cent organic matter, pH, and concentrations of nitrate, bicarbonate phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. ??? AMF species richness declined with stand age and distance from and elevation above the channel and was positively related to perennial species cover and richness and gravimetric soil moisture. Distance from and elevation above the active channel, forest age, annual species cover, perennial species richness, and exchangeable potassium concentration all played a role in structuring the AMF community in this riparian area. ??? Most AMF species were found across a wide range of soil conditions, but a subset of species tended to occur more often in hydric areas. This group of riparian affiliate AMF species includes several not previously encountered in the surrounding Sonoran desert. ?? New Phytologist (2006).

  17. Trends in dynamics of forest upper boundary in high mountains of northern Baikal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Voronin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial-temporal variability of the upper boundary of the forest on the north-western coast of Lake Baikal (Baikal and Upper Angara Ridges are performed on the base of the analysis of forests renewal processes and of the dynamics of larch radial increment in the ecotone of the forest upper boundary and out of it. The presence of a large amount of well-developed uplands and circuses with considerable heights drops in the structure of mountain system favours formation of interrupted boundary between forest and subgoltsy belt. The timber stand of the upper forest boundary in the studied area is represented by Daurian larch. Three tree-ring chronologies of larch are obtained. The longest chronology is obtained for mountain taiga belt of Baikal Ridge and is as long as 460 years. Since 1980ies, a sustainable trend of increase of radial trees growth is observed. It is observed the most distinctly in trees of the upper forest boundary on the Baikal Ridge. There is advancing of trees species into subgoltsy belt and into mountain tundra, which depends, respectively, on slopes heights, exposition and tilting, on sites of growth of concrete cenoses. Modern peculiarity of the vegetation of the studied area is presence of abundant viable larch undergrowth (from 2–3 to 25 y.o. and fir in the ecotone of upper forest boundary and in subgoltsy belt, as well as appearing of single specimens of spruce. Main undergrowth mass (2/3 is presented by trees aged in average 15–25 y.o., i.e., they appeared in late 1980ies. Due to increase of snow cover thickness in winter, the trees young growth obtained great protection from freezing resulting in the increase of ability of young growth to live up to elder age.

  18. Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Alan E; MacDonald, Ewan A; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; Paula, Rogério C; Nijhawan, Sahil; Malhi, Y; MacDonald, David W

    2014-04-01

    A major question in global environmental policy is whether schemes to reduce carbon pollution through forest management, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), can also benefit biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. We identified municipalities in Brazil that are priorities for reducing rates of deforestation and thus preserving carbon stocks that are also conservation targets for the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) and biodiversity in general. Preliminary statistical analysis showed that municipalities with high biodiversity were positively associated with high forest carbon stocks. We used a multicriteria decision analysis to identify municipalities that offered the best opportunities for the conservation of forest carbon stocks and biodiversity conservation under a range of scenarios with different rates of deforestation and carbon values. We further categorized these areas by their representativeness of the entire country (through measures such as percent forest cover) and an indirect measure of cost (number of municipalities). The municipalities that offered optimal co-benefits for forest carbon stocks and conservation were termed REDDspots (n = 159), and their spatial distribution was compared with the distribution of current and proposed REDD projects (n = 135). We defined REDDspots as the municipalities that offer the best opportunities for co-benefits between the conservation of forest carbon stocks, jaguars, and other wildlife. These areas coincided in 25% (n = 40) of municipalities. We identified a further 95 municipalities that may have the greatest potential to develop additional REDD+ projects while also targeting biodiversity conservation. We concluded that REDD+ strategies could be an efficient tool for biodiversity conservation in key locations, especially in Amazonian and Atlantic Forest biomes. ©2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Multivariate Analysis of Some Pine Forested Areas of Azad Kashmir-Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, T.Z.; Liu, Y.; Li, Q.; Malik, S.A.; Ahmed, M.; Siddiqui, M.F.; Khan, Z.U.

    2016-01-01

    Floristic composition and communities in Azad Kashmir area of Pakistan were studied by using multivariate analysis. Quantitative sampling from thirty one sites was carried out in different coniferous forests of Azad Kashmir in order to analyze the effects of past earthquakes and landslides on vegetation of these areas. Though coniferous forests were highly disturbed either naturally or anthropogenic activities, therefore sampling was preferred to those forests which were near fault line. Trees were sampled using Point Centered Quarter (PCQ) method. Results of cluster analysis (using Ward's method) yielded six groups dominated by different conifer species. Group I and V were dominated by Pinus wallichiana while this species was co-dominant in group III. Other groups showed the dominance of different conifer species i.e. Cedrus deodara, Pinus roxburghii, Picea smithiana and Abies pindrow. Both the cluster analysis and ordination techniques (by two dimensional non-metric multidimensional scaling) classify and ordinate the structure of various groups indicating interrelationship among different species. The groups of trees were readily be superimposed on NMS ordination axes; they were well classified and well separated out in ordination. The present research revealed that these forests had diverse and asymmetric structure due to natural anthropogenic disturbances and overgrazing, which were key factors in addition to natural disturbances. However, some of the forests showed considerably stable structure due to less human interference. (author)

  20. Amazon forest carbon dynamics predicted by profiles of canopy leaf area and light environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. C. Stark; V. Leitold; J. L. Wu; M. O. Hunter; C. V. de Castilho; F. R. C. Costa; S. M. McMahon; G. G. Parker; M. Takako Shimabukuro; M. A. Lefsky; M. Keller; L. F. Alves; J. Schietti; Y. E. Shimabukuro; D. O. Brandao; T. K. Woodcock; N. Higuchi; P. B de Camargo; R. C. de Oliveira; S. R. Saleska

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forest structural variation across heterogeneous landscapes may control above-ground carbon dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that canopy structure (leaf area and light availability) – remotely estimated from LiDAR – control variation in above-ground coarse wood production (biomass growth). Using a statistical model, these factors predicted biomass growth...

  1. Roadless area-intensive management tradeoffs on the Sierra National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Hrubes; Kent P. Connaughton; Robert W. Sassaman

    1979-01-01

    This hypothesis was tested by a linear programing model: Roadless areas on the Sierra National Forest precluded from planned future development would be candidates for wilderness designation, and the associated loss in present and future timber harvests could be offset by investing in more intensive management. The results of this simulation test suggest that levels of...

  2. Taxonomy and remote sensing of leaf mass per area (LMA) in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory P. Asner; Roberta E. Martin; Raul Tupayachi; Ruth Emerson; Paola Martinez; Felipe Sinca; George V.N. Powell; S. Joseph Wright; Ariel E. Lugo

    2011-01-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is a trait of central importance to plant physiology and ecosystem function, but LMA patterns in the upper canopies of humid tropical forests have proved elusive due to tall species and high diversity. We collected top-of-canopy leaf samples from 2873 individuals in 57 sites spread across the Neotropics, Australasia, and Caribbean and Pacific...

  3. Urban Forest Health: Identifying Issues and Needs within the Northeastern Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    1998-01-01

    Street trees and forested areas in cities, towns and communities are more than amenities. Besides beauty, trees provide many practical benefits such as shade from summer sun, protection from winter wind, habitat for wildlife, reduced water, air and noise pollution, increased property values, and revitalized tourism and local business trade. But perhaps the greatest...

  4. Prevalence of geohelminths in savana and forest areas of Cote d'Ivore

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of geohelminths in savana and forest areas of Cote d'Ivore. Y G Yapi, O J Briet, P Vounatsou. Abstract. No Abstract. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 25 (2) 2006: pp. 124-125. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  5. Current and historical forest conditions and disturbance regimes in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Parker; Charles M. Ruffner

    2004-01-01

    We review the historical and current status of forests in the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Native American people influenced the vegetation through fire and agricultural clearing across the region until the early 1800s when European settlers arrived. Clearing of the land for agriculture peaked in the early 1900s after which badly eroded land was...

  6. Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from the burning of forest products near large urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean A. Hegg; Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs; Charles A. Brock; Phillip J. Riggan

    1987-01-01

    Airborne measuremens of trace gases and particles in the smoke from a prescribed burn of forest products in the Los Angeles basin show significantly higher emissions of NOx, SO2, and particulate NO3 than do measurements in smokes from the burning of biomass in rural areas. It is postulated that the...

  7. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  8. Use of a forest sapwood area index to explain long-term variability in mean annual evapotranspiration and streamflow in moist eucalypt forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Richard G.; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Jaskierniak, Dominik; Kuczera, George; Haydon, Shane R.

    2015-07-01

    Mean sapwood thickness, measured in fifteen 73 year old Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis stands, correlated strongly with forest overstorey stocking density (R2 0.72). This curvilinear relationship was used with routine forest stocking density and basal area measurements to estimate sapwood area of the forest overstorey at various times in 15 research catchments in undisturbed and disturbed forests located in the Great Dividing Range, Victoria, Australia. Up to 45 years of annual precipitation and streamflow data available from the 15 catchments were used to examine relationships between mean annual loss (evapotranspiration estimated as mean annual precipitation minus mean annual streamflow), and sapwood area. Catchment mean sapwood area correlated strongly (R2 0.88) with catchment mean annual loss. Variation in sapwood area accounted for 68% more variation in mean annual streamflow than precipitation alone (R2 0.90 compared with R2 0.22). Changes in sapwood area accounted for 96% of the changes in mean annual loss observed after forest thinning or clear-cutting and regeneration. We conclude that forest inventory data can be used reliably to predict spatial and temporal variation in catchment annual losses and streamflow in response to natural and imposed disturbances in even-aged forests. Consequently, recent advances in mapping of sapwood area using airborne light detection and ranging will enable high resolution spatial and temporal mapping of mean annual loss and mean annual streamflow over large areas of forested catchment. This will be particularly beneficial in management of water resources from forested catchments subject to disturbance but lacking reliable long-term (years to decades) streamflow records.

  9. Reconstructing Historical Riparian Conditions of Two River Basins in Eastern Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Lynne S.

    2008-09-01

    As land use continues to alter riparian areas, historical information is increasingly needed to help establish reference conditions for monitoring and assessment. I developed and applied a procedure in the John Day and Deschutes river basins of eastern Oregon for synthesizing historical documentary records available across broad spatial areas to reconstruct 19th-century riparian conditions. The study area was stratified by ecoregion and stream physical characteristics to partition regional variability. Three primary data sources—General Land Office survey notes, historical photographs, and written accounts—provided descriptive records, which were grouped by topic to develop common riparian attributes. The number of records for each attribute was tallied by stratum to compare and contrast riparian structure and composition across strata and ecoregions. Detailed descriptions of historical riparian conditions using the original documentary records further illustrated the unique riparian conditions in each stratum. Similarities and differences in historical riparian structure and composition at the stratum and ecoregion levels were evident based on the distributional pattern and numbers of records of attributes across strata. A high number of repeated observations within and among primary data sources helped to corroborate descriptive data. Although these reference data cannot provide the detail needed for rigorous quantitative assessments, they do describe a range of conditions approaching a minimally disturbed condition and provide an important perspective for conducting riparian assessments in highly disturbed regions where least-disturbed reference sites are often poor examples of a desired condition.

  10. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  11. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  12. Identifying grain-size dependent errors on global forest area estimates and carbon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation will improve our...

  13. Ecohydrological consequences of non-native riparian vegetation in the southwestern United States: A review from an ecophysiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.

    2011-07-01

    Protecting water resources for expanding human enterprise while conserving valued natural habitat is among the greatest challenges of the 21st century. Global change processes such as climate change and intensive land use pose significant threats to water resources, particularly in arid regions where potential evapotranspiration far exceeds annual rainfall. Potentially compounding these shortages is the progressive expansion of non-native plant species in riparian areas along streams, canals and rivers in geographically arid regions. This paper sets out to identify when and where non-native riparian plant species are likely to have the highest potential impact on hydrologic fluxes of arid and semiarid river systems. We develop an ecophysiological framework that focuses on two main criteria: (1) examination of the physiological traits that promote non-native species establishment and persistence across environmental gradients, and (2) assessment of where and to what extent hydrologic fluxes are potentially altered by the establishment of introduced species at varying scales from individual plants, to small river reaches, to entire river basins. We highlight three non-native plant species that currently dominate southwestern United States riparian forests. These include tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia), and Russian knapweed (Acroptilon repens). As with other recent reviews, we suspect that in many cases the removal of these, and other non-native species will have little or no impact on either streamflow volume or groundwater levels. However, we identify potential exceptions where the expansion of non-native plant species could have significant impact on ecohydrologic processes associated with southwestern United States river systems. Future research needs are outlined that will ultimately assist land managers and policy makers with restoration and conservation priorities to preserve water resources and valued riparian habitat given

  14. Spatial and temporal patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth within the area of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Kennedy; Zhiqiang Yang; Warren B. Cohen; Eric Pfaff; Justin Braaten; Peder. Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Understanding fine-grain patterns of forest disturbance and regrowth at the landscape scale is critical for effective management, particularly in forests in western Washington, Oregon, and California, U.S., where the policy known as the Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) was imposed in 1994 over > 8 million ha of forest in an effort to balance environmental and economic...

  15. Leaf Area Index (LAI Estimation of Boreal Forest Using Wide Optics Airborne Winter Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stenberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A new simple airborne method based on wide optics camera is developed for leaf area index (LAI estimation in coniferous forests. The measurements are carried out in winter, when the forest floor is completely snow covered and thus acts as a light background for the hemispherical analysis of the images. The photos are taken automatically and stored on a laptop during the flights. The R2 value of the linear regression of the airborne and ground based LAI measurements was 0.89.

  16. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P  0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  17. Phase I Forest Area Estimation Using Landsat TM and Iterative Guided Spectral Class Rejection: Assessment of Possible Training Data Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Scrivani; Randolph H. Wynne; Christine E. Blinn; Rebecca F. Musy

    2001-01-01

    Two methods of training data collection for automated image classification were tested in Virginia as part of a larger effort to develop an objective, repeatable, and low-cost method to provide forest area classification from satellite imagery. The derived forest area estimates were compared to estimates derived from a traditional photo-interpreted, double sample. One...

  18. Estimating Large Area Forest Carbon Stocks—A Pragmatic Design Based Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Haywood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reducing uncertainty in forest carbon estimates at local and regional scales has become increasingly important due to the centrality of the terrestrial carbon cycle in issues of climate change. In Victoria, Australia, public natural forests extend over 7.2 M ha and constitute a significant and important carbon stock. Recently, a wide range of approaches to estimate carbon stocks within these forests have been developed and applied. However, there are a number of data and estimation limitations associated with these studies. In response, over the last five years, the State of Victoria has implemented a pragmatic plot-based design consisting of pre-stratified permanent observational units located on a state-wide grid. Using the ground sampling grid, we estimated aboveground and belowground carbon stocks (including soil to 0.3 m depth in both National Parks and State Forests, across a wide range of bioregions. Estimates of carbon stocks and associated uncertainty were conducted using simple design based estimators. We detected significantly more carbon in total aboveground and belowground components in State Forests (408.9 t ha−1, 95% confidence interval 388.8–428.9 t ha−1 than National Parks (267.6 t ha−1, 251.9–283.3 t ha−1. We were also able to estimate forest carbon stocks (and associated uncertainty for 21 strata that represent all of Victoria’s bioregions and public tenures. It is anticipated that the lessons learnt from this study may support the discussion on planning and implementing low cost large area forest carbon stock sampling in other jurisdictions.

  19. Dynamic model of forest area on flood zone of Padang City, West Sumatra Province-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, Indang; Iswandi, U.

    2018-05-01

    The flood disaster has caused many harm to human life, and the change of watershed characteristic is one of the factors causing the flood disaster. The increase of deforestation due to the increase of water causes the occurrence of flood disaster in the rainy season. The research objective was to develop a dynamic model of forest on flood hazard zone using powersim 10.1. In model development, there are three scenarios: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic. The study shows that in Padang there are about 13 percent of high flood hazard zones. Deforestation of 4.5 percent/year is one cause that may increased the flooding intensity in Padang. There will be 14 percent of total forest area when management policy of forest absence in 2050.

  20. Land related grievances shape tropical forest-cover in areas affected by armed-conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Buritica, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Armed-conflicts often occur in tropical areas considered to be of high ‘conservation-value’, termed as such for their biodiversity or carbon-storage functions. Despite this important overlap, few studies have assessed how forest-biomass is affected by armed-conflicts. Thus, in this paper we develop...... a multinomial logit model to examine how outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage, armed-conflict and deforestation rates are linked to social, institutional and economic factors. We use Colombia as a case study because of its protracted armed-conflict, high forest-cover, sustained deforestation......-ownership disputes, the Colombian government might uphold their international climate change commitments via reducing deforestation and hence forest based carbon emissions, while pursuing their national security objective via undermining opportunities for guerrilla groups to operate....

  1. Spatial Pattern of Populus euphratica Forest Change as Affected by Water Conveyance in the Lower Tarim River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhong Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To restore declining species, including Populus euphratica and other riparian communities, in the river ecosystem of the lower Tarim River, the ecological water conveyance project (EWCP, as a part of an integrated water resource management plan, was implemented in 2000. The EWCP aims to schedule and manage the water resources in the upper reaches and transfer water to the lower reaches by a series of intermittent water deliveries. The delivered water flows along a modified river channel and nourishes riparian communities by river overflow flooding. Since it began, it has caused a fierce debate over the response of riparian vegetation to the water conveyance scheme. This study focuses on the lower Tarim River, where Populus euphratica forests have undergone watering, due to the EWCP. Twelve Landsat sensor images and one IKONOS satellite imagery acquired between 1999 and 2009 were used to monitor the change in Populus euphratica forests. Bi-temporal change detection and temporal trajectory analysis were employed to represent the spatial pattern of the forest change. Field investigations were used to analyze the driving forces behind forest change from the perspectives of anthropogenic activities and natural forces. The results showed that Populus euphratica forest have been declining in area, which implies that ecological risks have been increased during the watering process. However, forests areas have increased in the regions where the water supply is abundant, and vice versa.

  2. Resilient landscapes in Mediterranean urban areas: Understanding factors influencing forest trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomao, Antonio; Quatrini, Valerio; Corona, Piermaria; Ferrara, Agostino; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Salvati, Luca

    2017-07-01

    Urban and peri-urban forests are recognized as basic elements for Nature-Based Solutions (NBS), as they preserve and may increase environmental quality in urbanized contexts. For this reason, the amount of forest land per inhabitant is a pivotal efficiency indicator to be considered in the sustainable governance, land management, planning and design of metropolitan areas. The present study illustrates a multivariate analysis of per-capita forest area (PFA) in mainland Attica, the urban region surrounding Athens, Greece. Attica is considered a typical case of Mediterranean urbanization where planning has not regulated urban expansion and successive waves of spontaneous growth have occurred over time. In such a context, an analysis of factors that can affect landscape changes in terms of PFA may inform effective strategies for the sustainable management of socio-ecological local systems in light of the NBS perspective. A total of 26 indicators were collected per decade at the municipal scale in the study area with the aim to identify the factors most closely associated to the amount of PFA. Indicators of urban morphology and functions have been considered together with environmental and topographical variables. In Attica, PFA showed a progressive decrease between 1960 and 2010. In particular, PFA progressively declined (1980, 1990) along fringe areas surrounding Athens and in peri-urban districts experiencing dispersed expansion of residential settlements. Distance from core cities and from the seacoast, typical urban functions (e.g., multiple use of buildings and per capita built-up area) and percentage of agricultural land-use in each municipality are the variables most associated with high PFA. In recent years, some municipalities have shown an expansion of forest cover, mainly due to land abandonment and forest recolonization. Findings from this case study have allowed us to identify priorities for NBS at metropolitan level aimed at promoting more sustainable

  3. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in riparian soils: model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, A; Batlle-Aguilar, J; Barry, D A

    2012-07-01

    The quality of riparian soils and their ability to buffer contaminant releases to aquifers and streams are connected intimately to moisture content and nutrient dynamics, in particular of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). A multi-compartment model-named the Riparian Soil Model (RSM)-was developed to help investigate the influence and importance of environmental parameters, climatic factors and management practices on soil ecosystem functioning in riparian areas. The model improves existing tools, in particular regarding its capability to simulate a wide range of temporal scales, from days to centuries, along with its ability to predict the concentration and vertical distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM). It was found that DOM concentration controls the amount of soil organic matter (SOM) stored in the soil as well as the respiration rate. The moisture content was computed using a detailed water budget approach, assuming that within each time step all the water above field capacity drains to the layer underneath, until it becomes fully saturated. A mass balance approach was also used for nutrient transport, whereas the biogeochemical reaction network was developed as an extension of an existing C and N turnover model. Temperature changes across the soil profile were simulated analytically, assuming periodic temperature changes in the topsoil. To verify the consistency of model predictions and to illustrate its capabilities, a synthetic but realistic soil profile in a deciduous forest was simulated. Model parameters were taken from the literature, and model predictions were consistent with experimental observations for a similar scenario. Modelling results stressed the importance of environmental conditions on SOM cycling in soils. The mineral and organic C and N stocks fluctuate at different time scales in response to oscillations in climatic conditions and vegetation inputs/uptake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Water uptake in woody riparian phreatophytes of the southwestern United States: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.E.; Ingraham, N.L.; Smith, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Alluvial forest associations are often dominated by woody phreatophytes, plants that are tightly linked to aquifers for water uptake. Anthropogenic hydrological alterations (e.g., water impoundment or diversion) are of clear importance to riparian ecosystem function. Because decreased frequency of flooding and depression of water tables may, in effect, sever riparian plants from their natural water sources, research was undertaken to determine water uptake patterns for the dominant native and introduced woody taxa of riparian plant communities of the southwestern United States. At floodplain study sites along the Bill Williams and lower Colorado Rivers (Arizona, USA), naturally occurring D and 18 O were used to distinguish among potential water sources. Isotopic ratios from potential uptake locations were compared to water extracted from the dominant woody taxa of the study area (Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima) to elucidate patterns of water absorption. Isotopic composition of water obtained from sapwood cores did not differ significantly from heartwood or branch water, suggesting that heartwood water exchange, stem capacitance, and phloem sap mixing may be inconsequential in actively transpiring Salix and Populus. There was evidence for close hydrologic linkage of river, ground, and soil water during the early part of the growing season. Surface soils exhibited D enrichment due to cumulative exposure to evaporation as the growing season progressed. Isotopic ratios of water extracted from Populus and Salix did not exhibit isotopic enrichment and were not significantly different from groundwater or saturated soil water sources, indicating a phreatophytic uptake pattern. Associations of isotopic ratios with water relations parameters indicated high levels of canopy evaporation and possible use of moisture from unsaturated alluvial soils in addition to groundwater in Tamarix. (author)

  5. Carbon stock and turnover in riparian soils under lowland rainforest transformation systems on Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Nina; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-04-01

    In many tropical areas, rainforests are being cleared in order to exploit timber and other forest products as well as plant crops for food, feed and fuel use. The determinants of different patterns of deforestation and the roles of resulting transformation systems of tropical riparian rainforests for ecological functions have yet received little attention in scientific research. Especially C stocks in riparian zones are strongly affected by climate and land use changes that lead to changes in water regime and ground water level drops. We investigated the effects of land transformations in riparian ecosystems of Sumatra, on soil C content, stocks and decomposability at the landscape scale. We compare C losses in transformation systems and rainforests and estimate the contribution of soil erosion and organic matter mineralization. Further, these losses are related to changing water level and temperature increase along increasing distance to the stream. This approach is based on changing δ13C values of SOC in the topsoil as compared to those in subsoil. The shift of δ13C of SOC in the topsoil from the linear regression calculated by δ13C value with log(SOC) in the topsoil represents the modification of the C turnover rate in the top soil. Erosion is estimated by the shift of the δ13C value of SOC in the subsoil under plantations. Further, the δ13C and δ15N soil profiles and their comparison with litter of local vegetation, can be used to estimate the contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous organics to soil C stocks. Preliminary results show strong increase of erosive losses, increased decomposition with land-use transformation and decrease of C stocks with decreasing water table.

  6. RESPONSE OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN AUSTRALIA"S LARGEST RIVER BASIN TO INTER AND INTRA-ANNUAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND FLOODING AS QUANTIFIED WITH LANDSAT AND MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Broich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Australia is a continent subject to high rainfall variability, which has major influences on runoff and vegetation dynamics. However, the resulting spatial-temporal pattern of flooding and its influence on riparian vegetation has not been quantified in a spatially explicit way. Here we focused on the floodplains of the entire Murray-Darling Basin (MDB, an area that covers over 1M km2, as a case study. The MDB is the country’s primary agricultural area with scarce water resources subject to competing demands and impacted by climate change and more recently by the Millennium Drought (1999–2009. Riparian vegetation in the MDB floodplain suffered extensive decline providing a dramatic degradation of riparian vegetation. We quantified the spatial-temporal impact of rainfall, temperature and flooding patters on vegetation dynamics at the subcontinental to local scales and across inter to intra-annual time scales based on three decades of Landsat (25k images, Bureau of Meteorology data and one decade of MODIS data. Vegetation response varied in space and time and with vegetation types, densities and location relative to areas frequently flooded. Vegetation degradation trends were observed over riparian forests and woodlands in areas where flooding regimes have changed to less frequent and smaller inundation extents. Conversely, herbaceous vegetation phenology followed primarily a ‘boom’ and ‘bust’ cycle, related to inter-annual rainfall variability. Spatial patters of vegetation degradation changed along the N-S rainfall gradient but flooding regimes and vegetation degradation patterns also varied at finer scale, highlighting the importance of a spatially explicit, internally consistent analysis and setting the stage for investigating further cross-scale relationships. Results are of interest for land and water management decisions. The approach developed here can be applied to other areas globally such as the Nile river basin and

  7. Changes in Area of Timberland in the United States, 1952-2040, By Ownership, Forest Type, Region, and State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Allg; William G. Hohenstein; Brian C. Murray; Robert G. Haight

    1990-01-01

    Area change projections for timberland in the United Steats are provided by region, State, ownership, and forest type.Total timberland area is projected to drop by 21 million acres or 4 percent by the year 2040.

  8. An annotated list of the flora of the Bisley Area Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico 1987 to 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus Danilo Chinea; Renee J. Beymer; Carlos Rivera; Ines Sastre de Jeses; F.N. Scatena

    1993-01-01

    Known species of plants, including bryophytes and ferns, are listed for the area of the Bisley experimental watershed area, a subtropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains of northeastern Puerto Rico.

  9. Valuation of Forest Resources in Watershed Areas: Selected Applications in Makiling Forest Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco, Herminia A.; Espiritu, Nena O.

    1999-01-01

    The valuation of resources found in the watershed area is important in assessing the impacts of changes in the watershed. While the change will have positive impacts which are short-term in nature, there are long-term environmental damages associated with economic benefits. This paper gives a rational judgment on the soundness of such changes through cost and benefit analysis. The watershed approach is utilized to capture the effects that are relevant in the analysis.

  10. The effects of forest-savanna-grassland gradients on bird communities of Chiquitano Dry Forests domain, in western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Mauricio N; Souza, Edivaldo O DE

    2016-01-01

    Different vegetation types are distributed in mountains according to altitude, topography and soil. The composition and structure of bird communities in these areas can change in relation to the vegetation gradient, with particular communities occupying each habitat type. In this study we present the changes in composition, species richness and bird abundance over the gradient of forests, savannas and altitudinal grasslands of Maciço do Urucum, a mountainous region located in the Chiquitano Dry Forests domain in western Brazil. We recorded 165 bird species through qualitative and quantitative methods. Forested savannas, riparian forests and submontane forests presented the highest richness and abundance of birds, while arboreal savannas and altitudinal grasslands had intermediate and low values, respectively. The bird composition was similar between riparian and submontane forests, while other vegetation types present more dissimilar bird communities. Our results show differences in composition, richness and bird abundance among the vegetation types present at Maciço do Urucum, and highlight an important function of vegetation gradients for the conservation of bird communities in mountains. Additionally, this is the first study of the bird communities in the Brazilian Chiquitano Dry Forests, an important domain in the west of Brazil which has been poorly studied.

  11. Biodiversity of Coreoidea and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) from Atlantic forest protected areas. Insights into their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellapé, Gimena; Colpo, Karine D; Melo, María C; Montemayor, Sara I; Dellapé, Pablo M

    2018-01-01

    Although the majority of threatened species are likely to be tropical insects, knowledge of the diversity, ecological role and impact of insect biodiversity loss on ecosystem processes is very limited. Specimens belonging to four families of Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Alydidae and Rhopalidae, were collected from a protected area in the Paraná Forest, the largest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest, in Argentina. The assemblages were characterized and the biodiversity estimated, and they were compared with the assemblages found in five other protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In our study area, Pentatomidae had the greatest richness and diversity; Coreidae was the second most diverse family, with highest sampling deficit, highest percentage of singletons, and lowest inventory completeness; and Rhopalidae was the best sampled family with asymptotic rarefaction curves. We explored the application of the Species Conservation Importance index, following four criteria, to evaluate the relative importance of the pentatomid species studied and its usefulness for assigning conservation values to areas. We found similar Site Conservation Values among the six areas and noted that the use of criteria was limited by the lack of information, being crucial to increase the knowledge of most of the species.

  12. Predicting forested catchment evapotranspiration and streamflow from stand sapwood area and Aridity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the water balance of ungauged catchments has been the subject of decades of research. An extension of the fundamental problem of estimating the hydrology is then understanding how do changes in catchment attributes affect the water balance component? This is a particular issue in forest hydrology where vegetation exerts such a strong influence on evapotranspiration (ET), and consequent streamflow (Q). Given the primacy of trees in the water balance, and the potential for change to species and density through logging, fire, pests and diseases and drought, methods that directly relate ET/Q to vegetation structure, species, and stand density are very powerful. Plot studies on tree water use routinely use sapwood area (SA) to calculate transpiration and upscale to the stand/catchment scale. Recent work in south eastern Australian forests have found stand-wide SA to be linearly correlated (R2 = 0.89) with long term mean annual loss (P-Q), and hence, long term mean annual catchment streamflow. Robust relationships can be built between basal area (BA), tree density and stand SA. BA and density are common forest inventory measurements. Until now, no research has related the fundamental stand attribute of SA to streamflow. The data sets include catchments that have been thinned and with varying age classes. Thus far these analyses have been for energy limited systems in wetter forest types. SA has proven to be a more robust biometric than leaf area index which varies seasonally. That long term ET/Q is correlated with vegetation conforms to the Budyko framework. Use of a downscaled (20 m) Aridity Index (AI) has shown distinct correlations with stand SA, and therefore T. Structural patterns at a the hillslope scale not only correlate with SA and T, but also with interception (I) and forest floor evaporation (Es). These correlations between AI and I and Es have given R2 > 0.8. The result of these studies suggest an ability to estimate mean annual ET fluxes at sub

  13. The effects of site, supplemental food, and age on survivorship of Carolina Chickadees and implications for dispersal through- riparian corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, P.F.; Grubb, T.G.

    2000-01-01

    Few studies have examined survivorship of animals in forest fragments differing in size, and none has used appropriate mark-recapture analysis techniques taking into account probability of recapture. Using Program MARK, a flexible mark-recapture software package, we estimated annual survival rates of Carolina Chickadees over a 5-yr period in a fragmented landscape in Ohio. The probability of survival was related to site (riparian woodland or woodlot area) and increased with the presence of supplemental food. While there was little evidence for an age difference in apparent survival in woodlots, young birds appeared to survive less well in forested river corridors. This last result was quite likely due, at least in part, to age-specific dispersal, suggesting that river corridors function as important dispersal routes for young birds.

  14. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein Maung Wint

    1993-01-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  15. Vital statistics of the union of Myanmar, land use, forest and cover area, annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wint, Sein Maung

    1993-10-01

    Statistical data of net area sown, fallow land, culturable wasteland, reserved forest and forest area (1) by category; (2) by state and division; (3) by forest type; (4) by forest function; (5) by working circle of the Union of Myanmar are shown. Statistical data showing annual allowable cut of teak and other hardwoods by state/division can also be seen. Myanmar forest and woodland area together with other 17 countries of the world are included for comparison

  16. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  17. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  18. Using the Normalized Differential Wetness Index to Scale Leaf Area Index, Create Three-Dimensional Classification Maps, and Scale Seasonal Evapotranspiration Depletions in Canopies Along the Middle Rio Grande Riparian CorridorCorridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, D. E.; Cleverly, J. R.; Dahm, C. N.; Coonrod, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    This research creates temporally and spatially explicit data layers of vegetation, leaf area index (LAI), three dimensional (3D) vegetation classification maps, and seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) depletions along the middle Rio Grande riparian corridor. The first part of this work produces two dimensional (2D) classification maps of native and non-native canopy vegetation using temporal patterns and the decision tree classifier in ENVI 4.0 (Research Systems Inc. Boulder, Colorado). The second part of this work correlates the normalized differential wetness index (NDWI) with field measurements of plant area index (PAI), stem area index (SAI), and leaf area index (LAI) using the LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA) (LICOR Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska). SAI is measured in winter to capture only branches and stems. PAI is measured during the growing season. Field measurements taken within 10 days of image capture dates provide adequate correlations though the closer the dates the better the correlation. LAI represents the surface area of active green leafy vegetation. NDWI correlates with both PAI and estimated LAI in both Tamarisk chinensis and Populus deltoides ssp. Wislizeni sites better than the more traditional normalized differential vegetation index (NDVI). This study also suggests that winter PCA measurements approximate SAI which should be subtracted from PAI in woody vegetation like T. chinensis and Salix exigua stands. The results show that correcting for leaf geometry by multiplying T. chinensis areas with cylindrical cladophylls by pi and the remaining flat leaf vegetation by two yields the best relationship between NDWI and total LAI. The 2Dclassification maps can be placed on top of relief maps of LAI to produce 3D classification maps. The final part of this research scales ET from four 3D eddy covariance towers located in two T. chinensis and two P. deltoides study sites. ET is regressed with LAI, percent daylight (PD), and average hourly incoming net

  19. Recreational potential as an indicator of accessibility control in protected mountain forest areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz DUDEK

    2017-01-01

    The article presents research findings related to recreational use of forests located in protected mountainous areas with forestage of over 80%.The study was designed to identify recreational potential of the Carpathian national parks (Bieszczady National Park,Babia Góra National Park,Gorce National Park and Magura National Park;southern Poland) and to compare these findings with the actual number of visitors.The information received on the recreational potential of parks is important from the point of view of protection of natural resources and the financial situation of the parks.The calculated ratio may be an effective tool of management for park administration,that allows to reconcile statutory social and protective functions of national parks.The study determined the recreational potential of the forests with the use of recreational valorisation method designed for areas with varied terrain,and the evaluated factors included the stands of trees with their habitat and land relief.The permissible number of national park visitors,expressed as manhour/ha/year ranges from 19.31 in Bieszczady National Park (BG:19° 35′ E,49° 35′ N) to 32.06 in in Bieszczady National Park (B:22° 40′ E,49° 10′ N).In 3 out of 4 investigated parks,Magnra National Park (M:21°25′ E,49° 30′ N),Gorce National Park (G:20° 10′ E,49° 35′ N),B) recreation carrying capacity was not exceeded,whether or not the strictly protected area is taken into account.Only in BG was the recreation carrying capacity exceeded by nearly 24%,or by 85% if the strictly protected area is excluded from tourism-related exploitation.The presented procedure for monitoring access to mountain forests in national parks,from the viewpoint of natural resources conservation,can be applied in other mountainous areas covered with forests and exposed to tourist and recreational traffic,and in forests facing particular risk of recreational damage,e.g.in urban and suburban forests growing in areas

  20. Effects of metals and arsenic on riparian communities in southwest Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, K; Galbraith, H; Lipton, J; Kapustka, L A

    1996-10-01

    : Concentrations of metals and arsenic in floodplain soils of Silver Bow Creek and the upper Clark Fork River in southwest Montana were related to phytotoxic responses by individual plants in laboratory experiments, vegetative community structure and composition in the field and wildlife habitat. Samples collected from barren or very sparsely vegetated mixed mine tailings and alluvium deposits (slickens) in the floodplains along Silver Bow Creek and the Clark Fork River had concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn that were significantly elevated relative to reference sites. Laboratory phytotoxicity tests demonstrated severe and rapid effects of the elevated concentrations of metals and As on hybrid poplar and standard test species (alfalfa, lettuce and wheat): growth inhibition of hybrid poplars was nearly 100% and of standard test species ≥75%. Vegetation community measurements revealed that slickens have replaced riparian forest, shrub, hay fields and pasture land; in doing so, the slickens have reduced both the compositional and structural heterogeneity of the riparian habitat. This reduction in habitat complexity has reduced the capacity of the area to provide a diversity of suitable wildlife habitat.

  1. The Potential of Sentinel Satellites for Burnt Area Mapping and Monitoring in the Congo Basin Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Verhegghen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the recently launched Sentinel-2 (S2 optical satellite and the active radar Sentinel-1 (S1 satellite supported by active fire data from the MODIS sensor were used to detect and monitor forest fires in the Congo Basin. In the context of a very strong El Niño event, an unprecedented outbreak of fires was observed during the first months of 2016 in open forests formations in the north of the Republic of Congo. The anomalies of the recent fires and meteorological situation compared to historical data show the severity of the drought. Burnt areas mapped by the S1 SAR and S2 Multi Spectral Instrument (MSI sensors highlight that the fires occurred mainly in Marantaceae forests, characterized by open tree canopy cover and an extensive tall herbaceous layer. The maps show that the origin of the fires correlates with accessibility to the forest, suggesting an anthropogenic origin. The combined use of the two independent and fundamentally different satellite systems of S2 and S1 captured an extent of 36,000 ha of burnt areas, with each sensor compensating for the weakness (cloud perturbations for S2, and sensitivity to ground moisture for S1 of the other.

  2. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  3. Changes in the forest ecosystems in areas impacted by aridization in south-western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravalie, Remus; Sîrodoev, Igor; Peptenatu, Daniel

    2014-01-06

    In the past few decades, global climate change has accentuated the intensification of aridization in South-Western Romania, with direct and indirect consequences on the quality of forest ecosystems. In addition to qualitative deterioration, the quantitative changes brought about by intensive anthropic deforestation have created the conditions for a decline in the size of forest areas on vast tracts of land. The paper aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative changes in the forest ecosystems in South-Western Romania, changes due to the synergic context of the global climate changes and the anthropic pressures of the past three decades. In order to capture the evolution of aridization in the study area, specific aridization indexes have been calculated, such as the De Martonne index and the UNEP aridity index. 1990 and 2011 satellite images have been used in order to quantify the qualitative changes. The results obtained indicated that, in the past two decades, the quality of the biomass declined as a result of the increase in the climatic aridity conditions (De Martonne si UNEP aridity index, indicating in the last decades, annual values under 15 mm/°C, and under 0.5 mm/mm, that means that the values situated under these thresholds, describe arid and semi-arid climate conditions). Also, the uncontrolled logging across vast surfaces caused the loss of forest ecosystems by 7% in the overall study area, during the last three decades. The severe effects of aridization meant, first of all, a significant decline in the quality of the ecosystem services supplied by forests. In the absence of viable actions to correct the present situation, the extremely undesirable consequences of an ecological and social nature will arise in the near future.

  4. Regional mapping of forest canopy water content and biomass using AIRSAR images over BOREAS study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatchi, Sasan; Rignot, Eric; Vanzyl, Jakob

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, monitoring vegetation biomass over various climate zones has become the primary focus of several studies interested in assessing the role of the ecosystem responses to climate change and human activities. Airborne and spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems provide a useful tool to directly estimate biomass due to its sensitivity to structural and moisture characteristics of vegetation canopies. Even though the sensitivity of SAR data to total aboveground biomass has been successfully demonstrated in many controlled experiments over boreal forests and forest plantations, so far, no biomass estimation algorithm has been developed. This is mainly due to the fact that the SAR data, even at lowest frequency (P-band) saturates at biomass levels of about 200 tons/ha, and the structure and moisture information in the SAR signal forces the estimation algorithm to be forest type dependent. In this paper, we discuss the development of a hybrid forest biomass algorithm which uses a SAR derived land cover map in conjunction with a forest backscatter model and an inversion algorithm to estimate forest canopy water content. It is shown that unlike the direct biomass estimation from SAR data, the estimation of water content does not depend on the seasonal and/or environmental conditions. The total aboveground biomass can then be derived from canopy water content for each type of forest by incorporating other ecological information. Preliminary results from this technique over several boreal forest stands indicate that (1) the forest biomass can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, and (2) the saturation level of the SAR signal can be enhanced by separating the crown and trunk biomass in the inversion algorithm. We have used the JPL AIRSAR data over BOREAS southern study area to test the algorithm and to generate regional scale water content and biomass maps. The results are compared with ground data and the sources of errors are discussed. Several SAR

  5. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential ( n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) ( p Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  6. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  7. Soil and water acidification of forest soils in the low-polluted area of Schoenbuch forest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flegr, M.; Monn, L.

    1990-01-01

    At a comparatively low atmospheric pollution load of two wood-covered catchment areas the coniferous forest stand is characterized by increased material depositons and large element concentrations in the main root space. This leads to accumulation of acidifying agents and heavy metals in the seepage water. The heavy metals which pass into the recipients with the displaced soil solution determine most of the dispersion of dissolved heavy metals in the plateau landscape. On the other hand, the fraction of heavy metals bound to airborne particulates predominates in the valley landscape because of the stronger relief and the resulting sediment transport. In the shallow groundwaters, the sulfates and nitrate concentrations are much higher than in the deeper ground waters. (orig.) [de

  8. Forestry best management practices relationships with aquatic and riparian fauna: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Brooke M.; Aust, W. Michael; Barrett, Scott M.; Ford, W. Mark; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Schilling, Erik B.; Wigley, T. Bently; Bolding, M. Chad

    2017-01-01

    Forestry best management practices (BMPs) were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1) a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2) data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3) forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs) are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4) stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5) SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  9. Forestry Best Management Practices Relationships with Aquatic and Riparian Fauna: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke M. Warrington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1 a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2 data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3 forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4 stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5 SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  10. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorea, Jose G.

    2003-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10 6 km 2 in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable

  11. Fish are central in the diet of Amazonian riparians: should we worry about their mercury concentrations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorea, Jose G

    2003-07-01

    The Amazon rain forest extends over an area of 7.8x10(6)km(2) in nine countries. It harbors a diverse human population distributed in dense cities and isolated communities with extreme levels of infrastructure. Amazonian forest people, either autochthons or frontier riparians (ribeirinhos) living in isolated areas, share the same environment for survival and nutritional status. The peculiarities of the hydrological cycle determine disease patterns, agricultural conditions, and food availability. Feeding strategies depend heavily on cassava products and fish. These two foods carry toxic substances such as linamarin (naturally present in cassava) and monomethyl mercury (MMHg) (bioconcentrated in fish flesh) that cause neurotoxic diseases in other parts of the world but not in Amazonia, where neurotoxic cases of food origin are rare and not related to these staples. While cassava detoxification processes may partly explain its safe consumption, the Hg concentrations in Amazonian fish are within traditionally safe limits for this population and contribute to an important metabolic interaction with cassava. The gold rush of the 1970s and 1980s brought large-scale environmental disruption and physical destruction of ecosystems at impact points, along with a heavy discharge of metallic Hg. The discharged Hg has not yet impacted on MMHg concentrations in fish or in hair of fish consumers. Hair Hg concentration, used as a biomarker of fish consumption, indicates that the Amazonian riparians are acquiring an excellent source of protein carrying important nutrients, the lack of which could aggravate their existing health problems. Therefore, in a scenario of insufficient health services and an unhealthy environment, food habits based on fish consumption are part of a successful survival strategy and recommendations for changes are not yet justifiable.

  12. Spatial and seasonal variations of leaf area index (LAI) in subtropical secondary forests related to floristic composition and stand characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjuan; Xiang, Wenhua; Pan, Qiong; Zeng, Yelin; Ouyang, Shuai; Lei, Pifeng; Deng, Xiangwen; Fang, Xi; Peng, Changhui

    2016-07-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important parameter related to carbon, water, and energy exchange between canopy and atmosphere and is widely applied in process models that simulate production and hydrological cycles in forest ecosystems. However, fine-scale spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors have yet to be fully understood in Chinese subtropical forests. We used hemispherical photography to measure LAI values in three subtropical forests (Pinus massoniana-Lithocarpus glaber coniferous and evergreen broadleaved mixed forests, Choerospondias axillaris deciduous broadleaved forests, and L. glaber-Cyclobalanopsis glauca evergreen broadleaved forests) from April 2014 to January 2015. Spatial heterogeneity of LAI and its controlling factors were analysed using geostatistical methods and the generalised additive models (GAMs) respectively. Our results showed that LAI values differed greatly in the three forests and their seasonal variations were consistent with plant phenology. LAI values exhibited strong spatial autocorrelation for the three forests measured in January and for the L. glaber-C. glauca forest in April, July, and October. Obvious patch distribution pattern of LAI values occurred in three forests during the non-growing period and this pattern gradually dwindled in the growing season. Stem number, crown coverage, proportion of evergreen conifer species on basal area basis, proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis, and forest types affected the spatial variations in LAI values in January, while stem number and proportion of deciduous species on basal area basis affected the spatial variations in LAI values in July. Floristic composition, spatial heterogeneity, and seasonal variations should be considered for sampling strategy in indirect LAI measurement and application of LAI to simulate functional processes in subtropical forests.

  13. A Basal Area Increment-Based Approach of Site Productivity Evaluation for Multi-Aged and Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of forest site productivity are essential for environmental planning and forest management. In this study, we developed a new productivity index, hereafter termed basal area potential productivity index (BAPP, to estimate site productivity for irregular and complex forests characterized by multi-aged, multi-species, and multi-layer stands. We presented the biological relevance of BAPP with its computational details. We also compared BAPP against basal area realized productivity (BARP in order to verify the practicability and reliability of BAPP. Time-series data of the national forest inventory on 1912 permanent sample plots that were located in two main forest types and consisted of oak-dominated mixed forests and other broadleaf forests in northeast China were used to demonstrate the application of BAPP. The results showed that the value of BAPP for each sample plot was larger than or equal to the corresponding BARP value for each forest type. For appropriately managed stands with relatively better site conditions, the values of both BARP and BAPP were almost identical. The values of the difference between BAPP and BARP could therefore be used to effectively assess forest site productivity. Meanwhile, BAPP also provides much reliable and valuable information that can aid decision-making in forest management.

  14. Streblidae (Diptera) on bats (Chiroptera) in an area of Atlantic Forest, state of Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Dias, Renan Medeiros; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Because of the few records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of Atlantic Forest, in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, known as the Tinguá region. Thirteen species were added to the list of Streblidae in the state of Rio de Janeiro, of which two were new records for Brazil. Thirty-one species have now been reported this state.

  15. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Beaudrot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes

  16. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Ahumada, Jorge A; O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R; Willig, Michael R; Winarni, Nurul L; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world's species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3-8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  17. Mapping Forest Canopy Height Across Large Areas by Upscaling ALS Estimates with Freely Available Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Wilkes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Operational assessment of forest structure is an on-going challenge for land managers, particularly over large, remote or inaccessible areas. Here, we present an easily adopted method for generating a continuous map of canopy height at a 30 m resolution, demonstrated over 2.9 million hectares of highly heterogeneous forest (canopy height 0–70 m in Victoria, Australia. A two-stage approach was utilized where Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS derived canopy height, captured over ~18% of the study area, was used to train a regression tree ensemble method; random forest. Predictor variables, which have a global coverage and are freely available, included Landsat Thematic Mapper (Tasselled Cap transformed, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Difference Vegetation Index time series, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data and other ancillary datasets. Reflectance variables were further processed to extract additional spatial and temporal contextual and textural variables. Modeled canopy height was validated following two approaches; (i random sample cross validation; and (ii with 108 inventory plots from outside the ALS capture extent. Both the cross validation and comparison with inventory data indicate canopy height can be estimated with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of ≤ 31% (~5.6 m at the 95th percentile confidence interval. Subtraction of the systematic component of model error, estimated from training data error residuals, rescaled canopy height values to more accurately represent the response variable distribution tails e.g., tall and short forest. Two further experiments were carried out to test the applicability and scalability of the presented method. Results suggest that (a no improvement in canopy height estimation is achieved when models were constructed and validated for smaller geographic areas, suggesting there is no upper limit to model scalability; and (b training data can be captured over a small

  18. Standardized Assessment of Biodiversity Trends in Tropical Forest Protected Areas: The End Is Not in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Boekee, Kelly; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Eichberg, David; Espinosa, Santiago; Fegraus, Eric; Fletcher, Christine; Gajapersad, Krisna; Hallam, Chris; Hurtado, Johanna; Jansen, Patrick A.; Kumar, Amit; Larney, Eileen; Lima, Marcela Guimarães Moreira; Mahony, Colin; Martin, Emanuel H.; McWilliam, Alex; Mugerwa, Badru; Ndoundou-Hockemba, Mireille; Razafimahaimodison, Jean Claude; Romero-Saltos, Hugo; Rovero, Francesco; Salvador, Julia; Santos, Fernanda; Sheil, Douglas; Spironello, Wilson R.; Willig, Michael R.; Winarni, Nurul L.; Zvoleff, Alex; Andelman, Sandy J.

    2016-01-01

    Extinction rates in the Anthropocene are three orders of magnitude higher than background and disproportionately occur in the tropics, home of half the world’s species. Despite global efforts to combat tropical species extinctions, lack of high-quality, objective information on tropical biodiversity has hampered quantitative evaluation of conservation strategies. In particular, the scarcity of population-level monitoring in tropical forests has stymied assessment of biodiversity outcomes, such as the status and trends of animal populations in protected areas. Here, we evaluate occupancy trends for 511 populations of terrestrial mammals and birds, representing 244 species from 15 tropical forest protected areas on three continents. For the first time to our knowledge, we use annual surveys from tropical forests worldwide that employ a standardized camera trapping protocol, and we compute data analytics that correct for imperfect detection. We found that occupancy declined in 22%, increased in 17%, and exhibited no change in 22% of populations during the last 3–8 years, while 39% of populations were detected too infrequently to assess occupancy changes. Despite extensive variability in occupancy trends, these 15 tropical protected areas have not exhibited systematic declines in biodiversity (i.e., occupancy, richness, or evenness) at the community level. Our results differ from reports of widespread biodiversity declines based on aggregated secondary data and expert opinion and suggest less extreme deterioration in tropical forest protected areas. We simultaneously fill an important conservation data gap and demonstrate the value of large-scale monitoring infrastructure and powerful analytics, which can be scaled to incorporate additional sites, ecosystems, and monitoring methods. In an era of catastrophic biodiversity loss, robust indicators produced from standardized monitoring infrastructure are critical to accurately assess population outcomes and identify

  19. Mapping Burned Areas in Tropical Forests Using a Novel Machine Learning Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Varun Mithal; Guruprasad Nayak; Ankush Khandelwal; Vipin Kumar; Ramakrishna Nemani; Nikunj C. Oza

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel machine-learning framework on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) data to map burned areas over tropical forests of South America and South-east Asia. The RAPT (RAre Class Prediction in the absence of True labels) framework is able to build data adaptive classification models using noisy training labels. It is particularly suitable when expert annotated training samples are difficult to obtain as in the case of wild fires in the ...

  20. Nitrogen transformation and retention in riparian buffer zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hefting, Maria Margaretha

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of nutrients and pesticides from agricultural areas is increasingly recognised as a major problem in water management. Ecotechnological measures as constructed wetlands and riparian buffer zones clearly have an important role in the reduction of diffuse pollution by removing and