WorldWideScience

Sample records for riparian buffer zone

  1. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  2. Nitrogen transformation and retention in riparian buffer zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hefting, Maria Margaretha

    2003-01-01

    Diffuse pollution of nutrients and pesticides from agricultural areas is increasingly recognised as a major problem in water management. Ecotechnological measures as constructed wetlands and riparian buffer zones clearly have an important role in the reduction of diffuse pollution by removing and

  3. Concentrated flow paths in riparian buffer zones of southern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Pankau; J.E. Schoonover; K.W.J. Willard; P.J. Edwards

    2012-01-01

    Riparian buffers in agricultural landscapes should be designed to trap pollutants in overland flow by slowing, filtering, and infiltrating surface runoff entering the buffer via sheet flow. However, observational evidence suggests that concentrated flow is prevalent from agricultural fields. Over time sediment can accumulate in riparian buffers forming berms that...

  4. Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard; James J. Zaczek; Jean C. Mangun; Andrew D. Carver

    2003-01-01

    Soil water nitrate concentrations in giant cane and forest riparian buffer zones along Cypress Creek in southern Illinois were compared to determine if the riparian zones were sources or sinks for nitrogen in the rooting zone. Suction lysimeters were used to collect soil water samples from the lower rooting zone in each of the two vegetation types. The cane riparian...

  5. Riparian buffer zones as pesticide filters of no-till crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Terencio R; Bortolozo, F R; Hansel, F A; Rasera, K; Ferreira, M T

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have pointed to the potential benefits of riparian vegetation as buffer zones for agricultural and industrial pollutants harmful to aquatic ecosystems. However, other studies have called into question its use as an ecological filter, questioning the widths and conditions for which they are effective as a filter. In this work, we have investigated the buffering capacity of the riparian one to retain pesticides in the water-saturated zone, on 27 sites composed by riparian buffer zones with different vegetation structure (woody, shrubs, or grass vegetation) and width (12, 36, and 60 m). Five pesticides were analyzed. The effectiveness of the filtering was largely influenced by the width and vegetation type of the buffer zone. In general, decreasing pesticide removal followed in this order wood > shrubs > grass. The 60 m woody buffer zone was the most effective in the removal of all the pesticides. Only atrazine was detected in this case (0.3 μg L(-1)). Furthermore, a linear correlation (R (2) > 0.97) was observed in their removal for all compounds and buffer zones studied. Thus, preserving the woody vegetation in the riparian zone is important for watershed management and groundwater quality in the no-tillage system in temperate climate.

  6. Microbial community structure across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone in the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, T F; Johnson, P R; Shriner, A D; Matheny, T A; Hunt, P G

    2013-01-01

    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world because of their ability to retain nutrients, prevent soil erosion, protect aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, and filter pollutants. Despite their importance, the microbial community structures of riparian buffer zones remains poorly defined. Our objectives for this study were twofold: first, to characterize the microbial populations found in riparian buffer zone soils; and second, to determine if microbial community structure could be linked to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). To achieve these objectives, we investigated the microbial populations of a riparian buffer zone located downslope of a pasture irrigated with swine lagoon effluent, utilizing DNA sequencing of the 16S rDNA, DEA, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the denitrification genes nirK, nirS, and nosZ. Clone libraries of the 16S rDNA gene were generated from each of twelve sites across the riparian buffer with a total of 986 partial sequences grouped into 654 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The Proteobacteria were the dominant group (49.8% of all OTUs), with the Acidobacteria also well represented (19.57% of all OTUs). Analysis of qPCR results identified spatial relationships between soil series, site location, and gene abundance, which could be used to infer both incomplete and total DEA rates.

  7. Surface runoff water quality in a managed three zone riparian buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, Richard; Sheridan, Joseph M

    2005-01-01

    Managed riparian forest buffers are an important conservation practice but there are little data on the water quality effects of buffer management. We measured surface runoff volumes and nutrient concentrations and loads in a riparian buffer system consisting of (moving down slope from the field) a grass strip, a managed forest, and an unmanaged forest. The managed forest consisted of sections of clear-cut, thinned, and mature forest. The mature forest had significantly lower flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, total Kjeldahl N (TKN), sediment TKN, total N (nitrate + TKN), dissolved molybdate reactive P (DMRP), total P, and chloride. The average buffer represented the conditions along a stream reach with a buffer system in different stages of growth. Compared with the field output, flow-weighted concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, DMRP, and total P decreased significantly within the buffer and flow-weighted concentrations of TKN, total N, and chloride increased significantly within the buffer. All loads decreased significantly from the field to the middle of the buffer, but most loads increased from the middle of the buffer to the sampling point nearest the stream because surface runoff volume increased near the stream. The largest percentage reduction of the incoming nutrient load (at least 65% for all nutrient forms) took place in the grass buffer zone because of the large decrease (68%) in flow. The average buffer reduced loadings for all nutrient species, from 27% for TKN to 63% for sediment P. The managed forest and grass buffer combined was an effective buffer system.

  8. [Retaining and transformation of incoming soil N from highland to adjacent terrestrial water body in riparian buffer zone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-cheng; Yu, Hong-li; Yao, Qin; Han, Zhuang-xing; Qiao, Shu-liang

    2007-11-01

    Highland soil nitrogen can enter adjacent water body via erosion and leaching, being one of the important pollutants in terrestrial water bodies. Riparian buffer zone is a transitional zone between highland and its adjacent water body, and a healthy riparian buffer zone can retain and transform the incoming soil N through physical, biological, and biochemical processes. In this paper, the major pathways through which soil nitrogen enters terrestrial water body and the mechanisms the nitrogen was retained and transformed in riparian buffer zone were introduced systematically, and the factors governing the nitrogen retaining and transformation were analyzed from the aspects of hydrological processes, soil characters, vegetation features, and human activities. The problems existing in riparian buffer zone study were discussed, and some suggestions for the further study in China were presented.

  9. Effects of riparian zone buffer widths on vegetation diversity in southern Appalachian headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2016-01-01

    In mountainous areas such as the southern Appalachians USA, riparian zones are difficult to define. Vegetation is a commonly used riparian indicator and plays a key role in protecting water resources, but adequate knowledge of floristic responses to riparian disturbances is lacking. Our objective was to quantify changes in stand-level floristic diversity of...

  10. Riparian buffer zones on selected rivers in Lower Silesia - an important conservation practice and the management strategy in urban planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Maryna

    2013-09-01

    Buffer zones are narrow strips of land lying along the surface water, covered with appropriately selected vegetation. They separate aquatic ecosystems from the direct impact of agricultural land and reduce the movement of nutrients in the environment. In 2008 the European Commission established requirements for the implementation of buffer strips along water courses. Poland committed to the enforcement of these requirements until 1 January 2012. This was one of the reasons of this study. The subject of the analysis included the following rivers in Lower Silesia: Smortawa, Krynka, Czarna Woda and the selected transects of Ślęza and Nysa Łużycka. Detailed studies were designed to estimate the buffer zones occurring on these watercourses and assess these zones’ structure. This will be used to develop clear criteria for the selection of the width of these zones based on land use land management. It can be used in the implementation of executive acts at different levels of space management. Field research consisted of inventory the extent of riparian buffer strips on selected water courses and photographic documentation. Species composition of the vegetation forming a buffer zone was identified by using Braun-Blanquet method. There was lack of continuity of the riparian buffer zones on investigated rivers. Buffer zones should have carefully formulated definition and width because they are element of the significant ecological value, they perform important environmental protective functions and they are also the subject of Community law.

  11. Biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots in the riparian zone on agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Julien; Truax, Benoit; Gagnon, Daniel; Lambert, France

    2015-05-01

    In many temperate agricultural areas, riparian forests have been converted to cultivated land, and only narrow strips of herbaceous vegetation now buffer many farm streams. The afforestation of these riparian zones has the potential to increase carbon (C) storage in agricultural landscapes by creating a new biomass sink for atmospheric CO2. Occurring at the same time, the storage of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in plant biomass, is an important water quality function that may greatly vary with types of riparian vegetation. The objectives of this study were (1) to compare C, N and P storage in aboveground, belowground and detrital biomass for three types of riparian vegetation cover (9-year-old hybrid poplar buffers, herbaceous buffers and natural woodlots) across four agricultural sites and (2) to determine potential vegetation cover effects on soil nutrient supply rate in the riparian zone. Site level comparisons suggest that 9-year-old poplar buffers have stored 9-31 times more biomass C, 4-10 times more biomass N, and 3-7 times more biomass P than adjacent non managed herbaceous buffers, with the largest differences observed on the more fertile sites. The conversion of these herbaceous buffers to poplar buffers could respectively increase C, N and P storage in biomass by 3.2-11.9 t/ha/yr, 32-124 kg/ha/yr and 3.2-15.6 kg/ha/yr, over 9 years. Soil NO3 and P supply rates during the summer were respectively 57% and 66% lower in poplar buffers than in adjacent herbaceous buffers, potentially reflecting differences in nutrient storage and cycling between the two buffer types. Biomass C ranged 49-160 t/ha in woodlots, 33-110 t/ha in poplar buffers and 3-4 t/ha in herbaceous buffers. Similar biomass C stocks were found in the most productive poplar buffer and three of the four woodlots studied. Given their large and varied biomass C stocks, conservation of older riparian woodlots is equally important for C balance management in farmland. In addition, the

  12. META-ANALYSIS OF NITROGEN REMOVAL IN RIPARIAN BUFFERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer zones, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width may be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrog...

  13. Denitrification gene density across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers are a best management practice used extensively to protect water bodies from agriculturally-generated nitrate pollution. In particular, the biological process of denitrification has been shown to be a sink for this nitrate. Denitrification results in the reduction of nitrate under a...

  14. A method for quantifying and comparing the costs and benefits of alternative riparian zone buffer widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Ethel Wilkerson

    2008-01-01

    We developed a method that can be used to quantify the opportunity costs and ecological benefits of implementing alternative streamside management zones/buffer zone widths. The opportunity costs are computed based on the net value of the timber left behind in the buffer zone, the stump-to-mill logging costs for the logging technology that would have been used to...

  15. Spatial and temporal analysis of the land cover in riparian buffer zones (Areas for Permanent Preservation in Sorocaba City, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Alves

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fundamental role that the riparian vegetation plays in relation to maintenance of the environmental health of a watershed and the necessity of restoring sectors of the buffer zone without natural vegetation, in this paper we investigated what land cover classes occur along the riparian buffer stripes considered Area for Permanent Preservation (APP in the Sorocaba municipality, SP in three periods: 1988, 1995 and 2003. Based on GIS technology and using the drainage network map, the APP stripes (riparian buffer zones map was generated, and this map was overlaid to the land cover map (1988, 1995 and 2003 to provide a land cover map specifically of the riparian buffer zones. The results show that 58.43% of the APPs have no land cover of native vegetation and therefore, need to be reforested, representing 5,400 hectares to be restored.

  16. Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones: Results from thirteen studies across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been growing interest in the capacity of riparian buffer zones to remove nitrate from ground waters moving through them. Riparian zone sediments often contain organic carbon, which favors formation of reducing conditions that can lead to removal of nitrate through denitrification. Over the past decade the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has investigated the transport and fate of nitrate in ground and surface waters in study areas across the United States. In these studies riparian zone efficiency in removing nitrate varied widely as a result of variations in hydrogeologic factors. These factors include (1) denitrification in the up-gradient aquifer due to the presence of organic carbon or other electron donors, (2) long residence times (>50 years) along ground-water flow paths allowing even slow reactions to completely remove nitrate, (3) dilution of nitrate enriched waters with older water having little nitrate, (4) bypassing of riparian zones due to extensive use of drains and ditches, and (5) movement of ground water along deep flow paths below reducing zones. By developing a better understanding of the hydrogeologic settings in which riparian buffer zones are likely to be inefficient we can develop improved nutrient management plans. ?? US Government 2004.

  17. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  18. Effects of riparian buffer width on wood loading in headwater streams after repeated forest thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia I. Burton; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2016-01-01

    Forested riparian buffer zones are used in conjunction with upland forest management, in part, to provide for the recruitment for large wood to streams. Small headwater streams account for the majority of stream networks in many forested regions. Yet, our understanding of how riparian buffer width influences wood dynamics in headwater streams is relatively less...

  19. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  20. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  1. PLANT INVASIONS IN RHODE ISLAND RIPARIAN ZONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vegetation in riparian zones provides valuable wildlife habitat while enhancing instream habitat and water quality. Forest fragmentation, sunlit edges, and nutrient additions from adjacent development may be sources of stress on riparian zones. Landscape plants may include no...

  2. Phosphorus retention in riparian buffers: review of their efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Uusi-Kämppä, Jaana; Hansen, Hans Christian Bruun; Kronvang, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Ground water and surface water interactions are of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical processes governing phosphorus (P) dynamics in riparian buffers. The four most important conceptual hydrological pathways for P losses from and P retention in riparian buffers are reviewed in this paper: (i) The diffuse flow path with ground water flow through the riparian aquifer, (ii) the overland flow path across the riparian buffer with water coming from adjacent agricultural fields, (iii) irrigation of the riparian buffer with tile drainage water from agricultural fields where disconnected tile drains irrigate the riparian buffer, and (iv) inundation of the riparian buffer (floodplain) with river water during short or longer periods. We have examined how the different flow paths in the riparian buffer influence P retention mechanisms theoretically and from empirical evidence. The different hydrological flow paths determine where and how water-borne P compounds meet and interact with iron and aluminum oxides or other minerals in the geochemical cycling of P in the complex and dynamic environment that constitutes a riparian buffer. The main physical process in the riparian buffer-sedimentation-is active along several flow paths and may account for P retention rates of up to 128 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1), while plant uptake may temporarily immobilize up to 15 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Retention of dissolved P in riparian buffers is not as pronounced as retention of particulate P and is often below 0.5 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1). Several studies show significant release of dissolved P (i.e., up to 8 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1)).

  3. Riparian ecosystems and buffers - multiscale structure, function, and management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Richard R. Lowrance

    2006-01-01

    Given the importance of issues related to improved understanding and management of riparian ecosystems and buffers, the American Water Resources Association (AWRA) sponsored a Summer Specialty Conference in June 2004 at Olympic Valley, California, entitled 'Riparian Ecosystems and Buffers: Multiscale Structure, Function, and Management.' The primary objective...

  4. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  5. Buffer Zone, Nicosia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Marie Louise

    2010-01-01

    Images of the United Nations Buffer Zone or Green Line which has partitioned Cyprus since 1974 The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n° 217411.

  6. Function, Design, and Establishment of Riparian Forest Buffers: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia Caldwell

    1999-01-01

    Through the interaction of their soils, hydrology, and biotic communities, riparian forests protect and improve water quality, provide habitat for plants and animals, support aquatic communities, and provide many benefits to humans. Virginia, along with other states in the Chesapeake Bay region, has recognized the importance of riparian forests by implementing a plan to restore forested buffers along streams, rivers, and lakes. This project reviews selected literature on riparian forest bu...

  7. RESEARCH SHOWS IMPORTANCE OF RIPARIAN BUFFERS FOR AQUATIC HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issue: Excess nitrogen from fertilizer, septic tanks, animal feedlots, and runoff from pavement can threaten aquatic ecosystem health. Riparian buffers -- the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands -- are thought to be effective at intercepting and controlling excess ...

  8. Effects of riparian buffers on hydrology of northern seasonal ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell

    2011-01-01

    Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...

  9. Riparian buffer strips as a multifunctional management tool in agricultural landscapes: Introduction to the special collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stutter, M.I.; Chardon, W.J.; Kronvang, B.

    2012-01-01

    Catchment riparian areas are considered key zones to target mitigation measures aimed at interrupting the movement of diffuse substances from agricultural land to surface waters. Hence, unfertilized buffer strips have become a widely studied and implemented “edge of field” mitigation measure assumed

  10. Watershed scale assessment of the impact of forested riparian zones on stream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Webber; K. W. J. Williard; M. R. Whiles; M. L. Stone; J. J. Zaczek; D. K. Davie

    2003-01-01

    Federal and state land management agencies have been promoting forest and grass riparian zones to combat non-point source nutrient and sediment pollution of our nations' waters. The majority of research examining the effectiveness of riparian buffers at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to streams has been conducted at the field scale. This study took a...

  11. Do Riparian Buffers Protect Stream Invertebrate Communities in South American Atlantic Forest Agricultural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, L.; Marrochi, N.; Bonetto, C.; Liess, M.; Buss, D. F.; Vieira da Silva, C.; Chiu, M.-C.; Resh, V. H.

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence and relative importance of insecticides and other agricultural stressors in determining variability in invertebrate communities in small streams in intensive soy-production regions of Brazil and Paraguay. In Paraguay we sampled 17 sites on tributaries of the Pirapó River in the state of Itapúa and in Brazil we sampled 18 sites on tributaries of the San Francisco River in the state of Paraná. The riparian buffer zones generally contained native Atlantic forest remnants and/or introduced tree species at various stages of growth. In Brazil the stream buffer width was negatively correlated with sediment insecticide concentrations and buffer width was found to have moderate importance in mitigating effects on some sensitive taxa such as mayflies. However, in both regions insecticides had low relative importance in explaining variability in invertebrate communities, while various habitat parameters were more important. In Brazil, the percent coverage of soft depositional sediment in streams was the most important agriculture-related explanatory variable, and the overall stream-habitat score was the most important variable in Paraguay streams. Paraguay and Brazil both have laws requiring forested riparian buffers. The ample forested riparian buffer zones typical of streams in these regions are likely to have mitigated the effects of pesticides on stream invertebrate communities. This study provides evidence that riparian buffer regulations in the Atlantic Forest region are protecting stream ecosystems from pesticides and other agricultural stressors. Further studies are needed to determine the minimum buffer widths necessary to achieve optimal protection.

  12. Analysis of microbial populations, denitrification, and nitrous oxide production in riparian buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers are used extensively to protect water bodies from nonpoint source nitrogen pollution. However there is relatively little information on the impact of these buffers on production of nitrous oxide (N2O). In this study, we assessed nitrous oxide production in riparian buffers of the so...

  13. Flow and transport in Riparian Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn

    scenarios with changing conditions for flow (steady state with no flooding or transient with flooding), hydrogeology, denitrification rate, and extent of flooding it is demonstrated how flow paths, residence times, and nitrate removal are affected. With this previous conceptual models on the hydrology......The PhD study presents research results from two re-established Danish riparian zones, Brynemade and Skallebanke, located along Odense River on the island Funen, Denmark. The overall objectives of the PhD study have been to improve the understanding of flow and transport in riparian zones....... The methodology focuses on; construction of field sites along Odense River, understanding flow and transport, and performing numerical/analytical model assessments of flow and transport. An initial 2D simulation study was performed with a conceptual setup based on the Brynemade site. Through a series of 2D model...

  14. Assessment of Vegetation Density and Soil Macrofauna Relationship in Riparian Forest of Karkhe River for the Determination of Rivers Buffer Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH. Gholami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of soil organisms is influenced by the plant cover, thus resulting in a horizontal mosaic of areas subjected to gradients of nutrient availability and microclimatic conditions.This study was conducted to investigate the spatial variability of soil macrofauna in relation to vegetation density in the riparian forest landscape of Karkhe. The vegetation density was determined by calculating the NDVI index. Soil macrofauna were sampled using 200 sampling points along parallel transects (perpendicular to the river. The maximum distance between samples was 0.5 km. Soil macrofauna were extracted from 50 cm×50 cm×25 cm soil monolith by the hand-sorting procedure. Abundance, diversity (Shannon H’ index, richness (Menhinick index and evenness (Sheldon index were calculated. Soil macrofauna and NDVI data were analyzed using geostatistics (variogram in order to describe and quantify the spatial continuity. The variograms were spherical, revealing the presence of spatial autocorrelation. The range of influence was 1724 m for abundance, 1326 m for diversity, 1825 m for richness, 1450 for evenness and 1977 m for NDVI. The kriging maps showed that the NDVI Index and soil macrofauna had spatial variability. The spatial pattern of soil macrofauna abundance and biodiversity were similar to the spatial pattern of vegetation density as shown in the correlation.

  15. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  16. Where should buffers go? modeling riparian habitat connectivity in northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Bentrup; Todd Kellerman

    2004-01-01

    Through many funding programs, riparian buffers are being created on agricultural lands to address significant water quality problems. Society and landowners are demanding many other environmental and social services (e.g., wildlife habitat and income diversification) from this practice. Resource planners therefore need to design riparian buffer systems in the right...

  17. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  18. Influence of Gully Erosion Control on Amphibian and Reptile Communities within Riparian Zones of Channelized Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian zones of streams in northwestern Mississippi have been impacted by agriculture, channelization, channel incision, and gully erosion. Riparian gully formation has resulted in the fragmentation of remnant riparian zones within agricultural watersheds. One widely used conservation practice for...

  19. Imidacloprid sorption and transport in cropland, grass buffer and riparian buffer soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkowski, Laura E.; Goyne, Keith W.; Anderson, Stephen H.; Lerch, Robert N.; Allen, Craig R.; Snow, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of neonicotinoid sorption and transport in soil is critical for determining and mitigating environmental risk associated with the most widely used class of insecticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate mobility and transport of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (ICD) in soils collected from cropland, grass vegetative buffer strip (VBS), and riparian VBS soils. Soils were collected at six randomly chosen sites within grids that encompassed all three land uses. Single-point equilibrium batch sorption experiments were conducted using radio-labeled (14C) ICD to determine solid–solution partition coefficients (Kd). Column experiments were conducted using soils collected from the three vegetation treatments at one site by packing soil into glass columns. Water flow was characterized by applying Br− as a nonreactive tracer. A single pulse of 14C-ICD was then applied, and ICD leaching was monitored for up to 45 d. Bromide and ICD breakthrough curves for each column were simulated using CXTFIT and HYDRUS-1D models. Sorption results indicated that ICD sorbs more strongly to riparian VBS (Kd = 22.6 L kg−1) than crop (Kd = 11.3 L kg−1) soils. Soil organic C was the strongest predictor of ICD sorption (p < 0.0001). The column transport study found mean peak concentrations of ICD at 5.83, 10.84, and 23.8 pore volumes for crop, grass VBS, and riparian VBS soils, respectively. HYDRUS-1D results indicated that the two-site, one-rate linear reversible model best described results of the breakthrough curves, indicating the complexity of ICD sorption and demonstrating its mobility in soil. Greater sorption and longer retention by the grass and riparian VBS soils than the cropland soil suggests that VBS may be a viable means to mitigate ICD loss from agroecosystems, thereby preventing ICD transport into surface water, groundwater, or drinking water resources.

  20. Thinning and riparian buffer configuration effects on down wood abundance in headwater streams in coniferous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Down wood is associated with the function, structure, and diversity of riparian systems. Considerable knowledge has been generated regarding down wood stocks and dynamics in temperate forests, but there are few studies on effects of silvicultural practices and riparian buffer design on down wood, particularly in headwater streams. We analyzed interactive eff ects of...

  1. Identifying Riparian Buffer Effects on Stream 1 Nitrogen in Southeastern Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian areas have long demonstrated their ability to attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale; however, to inform effective nutrient management choices, the impact of riparian buffers on water quality services must be assessed at watershed s...

  2. Riparian buffer and density management influences on microclimate of young headwater forests of Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; David J. Larson; Samuel S. Chan

    2007-01-01

    Thinning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands of the Pacific Northwest, United States. Empirical relationships among riparian functions, silvicultural treatments, and different riparian buffer widths are not well documented for small headwater...

  3. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  8. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 15m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  12. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  13. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  14. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  15. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  18. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody...

  19. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest,...

  20. Spatial Characterization of Riparian Buffer Effects on Sediment Loads from Watershed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding all watershed systems and their interactions is a complex, but critical, undertaking when developing practices designed to reduce topsoil loss and chemical/nutrient transport from agricultural fields. The presence of riparian buffer vegetation in agricultural lands...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - 15m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 15-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the...

  2. Riparian forest buffers mitigate the effects of deforestation on fish assemblages in tropical headwater streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorion, Christopher M; Kennedy, Brian P

    2009-03-01

    Riparian forest buffers may play a critical role in moderating the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream ecosystems, but very few studies have examined the ecological effects of riparian buffers in the tropics. To test the hypothesis that riparian forest buffers can reduce the impacts of deforestation on tropical stream biota, we sampled fish assemblages in lowland headwater streams in southeastern Costa Rica representing three different treatments: (1) forested reference stream reaches, (2) stream reaches adjacent to pasture with a riparian forest buffer averaging at least 15 m in width on each bank, and (3) stream reaches adjacent to pasture without a riparian forest buffer. Land cover upstream from the study reaches was dominated by forest at all of the sites, allowing us to isolate the reach-scale effects of the three study treatments. Fish density was significantly higher in pasture reaches than in forest and forest buffer reaches, mostly due to an increase in herbivore-detritivores, but fish biomass did not differ among reach types. Fish species richness was also higher in pasture reaches than in forested reference reaches, while forest buffer reaches were intermediate. Overall, the taxonomic and trophic structure of fish assemblages in forest and forest buffer reaches was very similar, while assemblages in pasture reaches were quite distinct. These patterns were persistent across three sampling periods during our 15-month study. Differences in stream ecosystem conditions between pasture reaches and forested sites, including higher stream temperatures, reduced fruit and seed inputs, and a trend toward increased periphyton abundance, appeared to favor fish species normally found in larger streams and facilitate a native invasion process. Forest buffer reaches, in contrast, had stream temperatures and allochthonous inputs more similar to forested streams. Our results illustrate the importance of riparian areas to stream ecosystem integrity in the tropics

  3. Riparian zone controls on base cation concentrations in boreal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, J. L. J.; Grabs, T.; Futter, M. N.; Bishop, K. H.; Laudon, H.; Köhler, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    Forest riparian zones are a major in control of surface water quality. Base cation (BC) concentrations, fluxes, and cycling in the riparian zone merit attention because of increasing concern of negative consequences for re-acidification of surface waters from future climate and forest harvesting scenarios. We present a two-year study of BC and silica (Si) flow-weighted concentrations from 13 riparian zones and 14 streams in a boreal catchment in northern Sweden. The Riparian Flow-Concentration Integration Model (RIM) was used to estimate riparian zone flow-weighted concentrations and tested to predict the stream flow-weighted concentrations. Spatial variation in BC and Si concentrations as well as in flow-weighted concentrations was related to differences in Quaternary deposits, with the largest contribution from lower lying silty sediments and the lowest contribution from wetland areas higher up in the catchment. Temporal stability in the concentrations of most elements, a remarkably stable Mg / Ca ratio in the soil water and a homogeneous mineralogy suggest that the stable patterns found in the riparian zones are a result of distinct mineralogical upslope groundwater signals integrating the chemical signals of biological and chemical weathering. Stream water Mg / Ca ratio indicates that the signal is subsequently maintained in the streams. RIM gave good predictions of Ca, Mg, and Na flow-weighted concentrations in headwater streams. The difficulty in modelling K and Si suggests a stronger biogeochemical influence on these elements. The observed chemical dilution effect with flow in the streams was related to variation in groundwater levels and element concentration profiles in the riparian zones. This study provides a first step toward specific investigations of the vulnerability of riparian zones to changes induced by forest management or climate change, with focus on BC or other compounds.

  4. Finite Element Simulation of Total Nitrogen Transport in Riparian Buffer in an Agricultural Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaosheng Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Riparian buffers can influence water quality in downstream lakes or rivers by buffering non-point source pollution in upstream agricultural fields. With increasing nitrogen (N pollution in small agricultural watersheds, a major function of riparian buffers is to retain N in the soil. A series of field experiments were conducted to monitor pollutant transport in riparian buffers of small watersheds, while numerical model-based analysis is scarce. In this study, we set up a field experiment to monitor the retention rates of total N in different widths of buffer strips and used a finite element model (HYDRUS 2D/3D to simulate the total N transport in the riparian buffer of an agricultural non-point source polluted area in the Liaohe River basin. The field experiment retention rates for total N were 19.4%, 26.6%, 29.5%, and 42.9% in 1,3,4, and 6m-wide buffer strips, respectively. Throughout the simulation period, the concentration of total N of the 1mwide buffer strip reached a maximum of 1.27 mg/cm3 at 30 min, decreasing before leveling off. The concentration of total N about the 3mwide buffer strip consistently increased, with a maximum of 1.05 mg/cm3 observed at 60 min. Under rainfall infiltration, the buffer strips of different widths showed a retention effect on total N transport, and the optimum effect was simulated in the 6mwide buffer strip. A comparison between measured and simulated data revealed that finite element simulation could simulate N transport in the soil of riparian buffer strips.

  5. Calculating Buffer Zones: A Guide for Applicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones provide distance between the application block (i.e., edge of the treated field) and bystanders, in order to control pesticide exposure risk from soil fumigants. Distance requirements may be reduced by credits such as tarps.

  6. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  7. Quantifying Phosphorus Retnention in Soils of Riparian Buffers Influenced by Different Land Use Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, B.; Ross, D. S.; Adair, C.; Schroth, A. W.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2017-12-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) loading to freshwater systems can lead to eutrophication, resulting in algal blooms and subsequent fish kills. Lake Champlain, located between Vermont, New York, and Quebec, has historically exhibited negative effects of eutrophication due to P overloading from non-point sources. To reduce P inputs to the Lake, the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources requires and provides guidelines for the management of riparian buffers, which help protect adjacent water bodies from nutrient and sediment runoff. To better understand how phosphorous retention in riparian buffers is influenced by soil wetness and adjacent land use, we explored differences in P content between riparian buffers located in forested and agricultural watersheds. Within each land use type, we focused on two paired riparian buffers with contrasting soil moisture levels (one wet transect and one dry transect). At each of the four sites, soil pits were dug along a transect perpendicular to the streambank and were placed strategically to capture convergent and divergent landscape positions. Soil samples were collected from each horizon within 0-30cm. In each of these samples, we measured orthophosphate, degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS), and trace elements. We investigated the relationship between DPS and aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) concentrations to determine how much of the variability in DPS was explained by Al and Fe concentrations, and compared these relationships between the four riparian buffer sites. We also assessed how these relationships varied with depth in the soil profile. The results of these analyses allow us to identify the characteristics of riparian buffers that promote the most effective P sequestration, which is beneficial to the effective management of riparian areas within the Lake Champlain basin.

  8. Reconnecting tile drainage to riparian buffer hydrology for enhanced nitrate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaynes, D B; Isenhart, T M

    2014-03-01

    Riparian buffers are a proven practice for removing NO from overland flow and shallow groundwater. However, in landscapes with artificial subsurface (tile) drainage, most of the subsurface flow leaving fields is passed through the buffers in drainage pipes, leaving little opportunity for NO removal. We investigated the feasibility of re-routing a fraction of field tile drainage as subsurface flow through a riparian buffer for increasing NO removal. We intercepted an existing field tile outlet draining a 10.1-ha area of a row-cropped field in central Iowa and re-routed a fraction of the discharge as subsurface flow along 335 m of an existing riparian buffer. Tile drainage from the field was infiltrated through a perforated pipe installed 75 cm below the surface by maintaining a constant head in the pipe at a control box installed in-line with the existing field outlet. During 2 yr, >18,000 m (55%) of the total flow from the tile outlet was redirected as infiltration within the riparian buffer. The redirected water seeped through the 60-m-wide buffer, raising the water table approximately 35 cm. The redirected tile flow contained 228 kg of NO. On the basis of the strong decrease in NO concentrations within the shallow groundwater across the buffer, we hypothesize that the NO did not enter the stream but was removed within the buffer by plant uptake, microbial immobilization, or denitrification. Redirecting tile drainage as subsurface flow through a riparian buffer increased its NO removal benefit and is a promising management practice to improve surface water quality within tile-drained landscapes. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Litter Controls Earthworm-Mediated Carbon and Nitrogen Transformations in Soil from Temperate Riparian Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kernecker; Joann K. Whalen; Robert L. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient cycling in riparian buffers is partly influenced by decomposition of crop, grass, and native tree species litter. Nonnative earthworms in riparian soils in southern Quebec are expected to speed the processes of litter decomposition and nitrogen (N) mineralization, increasing carbon (C) and N losses in gaseous forms or via leachate. A 5-month microcosm experiment evaluated the effect of Aporrectodea turgida on the decomposition of 3 litter types (deciduous leaves, reed canarygrass, an...

  10. Nitrate removal in a restored riparian groundwater system: functioning and importance of individual riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Peter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For the design and the assessment of river restoration projects, it is important to know to what extent the elimination of reactive nitrogen (N can be improved in the riparian groundwater. We investigated the effectiveness of different riparian zones, characterized by a riparian vegetation succession, for nitrate (NO3 removal from infiltrating river water in a restored and a still channelized section of the river Thur, Switzerland. Functional genes of denitrification (nirS and nosZ were relatively abundant in groundwater from willow bush and mixed forest dominated zones, where oxygen concentrations remained low compared to the main channel and other riparian zones. After flood events, a substantial decline in NO3 concentration (> 50% was observed in the willow bush zone but not in the other riparian zones closer to the river. In addition, the characteristic enrichment of 15N and 18O in the residual NO3 pool (by up to 22‰ for δ15N and up to 12‰ for δ18O provides qualitative evidence that the willow bush and forest zones were sites of active denitrification and, to a lesser extent, NO3 removal by plant uptake. Particularly in the willow bush zone during a period of water table elevation after a flooding event, substantial input of organic carbon into the groundwater occurred, thereby fostering post-flood denitrification activity that reduced NO3 concentration with a rate of ~21 μmol N l−1 d−1. Nitrogen removal in the forest zone was not sensitive to flood pulses, and overall NO3 removal rates were lower (~6 μmol l−1 d−1. Hence, discharge-modulated vegetation–soil–groundwater coupling was found to be a key driver for riparian NO3 removal. We estimated that

  11. Recovery of the Chaparral Riparian Zone After Wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank W. Davis; Edward A. Keller; Anuja Parikh; Joan Florsheim

    1989-01-01

    After the Wheeler Fire in southern California in July 1985, we monitored sediment deposition and vegetation recovery in a section of the severely burned chaparral riparian zone of the North Fork of Matilija Creek, near Ojai, California. Increased runoff was accompanied by low magnitude debris flows and fluvial transport of gravel, most of which was added to the channel...

  12. Effects of thinning on transpiration by riparian buffer trees in response to advection and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advective energy occurring in edge environments may increase tree water use. In humid agricultural landscapes, advection-enhanced transpiration in riparian buffers may provide hydrologic regulation; however, research in humid environments is lacking. The objectives of this study were to determine ho...

  13. Connecting Seasonal Riparian Buffer Metrics and Nitrogen Concentrations in a Pulse-Driven Agricultural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers have been well studied as best management practices for nutrient reduction at field scales yet their effectiveness for bettering water quality at watershed scales has been difficult to determine. Seasonal dynamics of the stream network are often overlooked when ...

  14. Width of riparian buffer and structure of adjacent plantations influence occupancy of conservation priority birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; T. Bently Wigley; M. Anthony Melchiors; Ronald E. Thill; Philip A. Tappe; Darren A. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity on forest landscapes dominated by plantations has become an increasingly important topic, and opportunities to maintain or enhance biodiversity within these forests need to be recognized and applied. Riparian buffers of mature forest retained along streams in managed forest landscapes offer an opportunity to enhance biodiversity across...

  15. Body Buffer Zone and Proxemics in Blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, John C.; Bahs, Clarence W.

    This paper investigates the effect of personal body buffer zones on compositional arrangements staged by novice directors. Relationships between directors' concepts of personal space and their projection of its dimensions into staging are studied through the use of a variety of proximity measures--distance, area angles of approach, and physical…

  16. Breeding Bird Community Continues to Colonize Riparian Buffers Ten Years after Harvest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Pearson

    Full Text Available Riparian ecosystems integrate aquatic and terrestrial communities and often contain unique assemblages of flora and fauna. Retention of forested buffers along riparian habitats is a commonly employed practice to reduce potential negative effects of land use on aquatic systems. However, very few studies have examined long-term population and community responses to buffers, leading to considerable uncertainty about effectiveness of this practice for achieving conservation and management outcomes. We examined short- (1-2 years and long-term (~10 years avian community responses (occupancy and abundance to riparian buffer prescriptions to clearcut logging silvicultural practices in the Pacific Northwest USA. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact experimental approach and temporally replicated point counts analyzed within a Bayesian framework. Our experimental design consisted of forested control sites with no harvest, sites with relatively narrow (~13 m forested buffers on each side of the stream, and sites with wider (~30 m and more variable width unharvested buffer. Buffer treatments exhibited a 31-44% increase in mean species richness in the post-harvest years, a pattern most evident 10 years post-harvest. Post-harvest, species turnover was much higher on both treatments (63-74% relative to the controls (29%. We did not find evidence of local extinction for any species but found strong evidence (no overlap in 95% credible intervals for an increase in site occupancy on both Narrow (short-term: 7%; long-term 29% and Wide buffers (short-term: 21%; long-term 93% relative to controls after harvest. We did not find a treatment effect on total avian abundance. When assessing relationships between buffer width and site level abundance of four riparian specialists, we did not find strong evidence of reduced abundance in Narrow or Wide buffers. Silviculture regulations in this region dictate average buffer widths on small and large permanent streams that

  17. Biomass and volume yield after 6 years in multiclonal hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Julien [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Gagnon, Daniel [Centre d' etude de la foret (CEF), Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Institut des sciences de l' environnement, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, C.P. 8888, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada); Truax, Benoit; Lambert, France [Fiducie de recherche sur la foret des Cantons-de-l' Est, 1 rue Principale, St-Benoit-du-Lac, Quebec (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    In this paper the potential of five hybrid poplar clones (Populus spp.) to provide biomass and wood volume in the riparian zone is assessed in four agroecosystems of southern Quebec (Canada). For all variables measured, significant Site effects were detected. Survival, biomass yield and volume yield were highest at the Bromptonville site. After 6 years of growth, total aboveground biomass production (stems + branches + leaves) reached 112.8 tDM/ha and total leafless biomass production (stems + branches) reached 101.1 tDM/ha at this site, while stem wood volume attained 237.5 m{sup 3}/ha. Yields as low as 14.2 tDM/ha for total biomass and 24.8 m{sup 3}/ha for total stem volume were also observed at the Magog site. Highest yields were obtained on the most fertile sites, particularly in terms of NO{sub 3} supply rate. Mean stem volume per tree was highly correlated with NO{sub 3} supply rate in soils (R{sup 2} = 0.58, p < 0.001). Clone effects were also detected for most of the variables measured. Total aboveground biomass and total stem volume production were high for clone 3729 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) (73.1 tDM/ha and 134.2 m{sup 3}/ha), although not statistically different from clone 915311 (P. maximowiczii x P. balsamifera). However, mean whole-tree biomass (including leaves) was significantly higher for clone 3729 (38.8 kgDM/tree). Multifunctional agroforestry systems such as hybrid poplar riparian buffer strips are among the most sustainable ways to produce a high amount of biomass and wood in a short time period, while contributing to alleviate environmental problems such as agricultural non-point source pollution. (author)

  18. Enhanced transpiration by riparian buffer trees in response to advection in a humid temperate agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Santana, V.; Asbjornsen, H.; Sauer, T.; Isenhart, T.; Schilling, K.; Schultz, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Riparian buffers are designed as management practices to increase infiltration and reduce surface runoff and transport of sediment and nonpoint source pollutants from crop fields to adjacent streams. Achieving these ecosystem service goals depends, in part, on their ability to remove water from the soil via transpiration. In these systems, edges between crop fields and trees of the buffer systems can create advection processes, which could influence water use by trees. We conducted a field study in a riparian buffer system established in 1994 under a humid temperate climate, located in the Corn Belt region of the Midwestern U.S. (Iowa). The goals were to estimate stand level transpiration by the riparian buffer, quantify the controls on water use by the buffer system, and determine to what extent advective energy and tree position within the buffer system influence individual tree transpiration rates. We primarily focused on the water use response (determined with the Heat Ratio Method) of one of the dominant species (Acer saccharinum) and a subdominant (Juglans nigra). A few individuals of three additional species (Quercus bicolor, Betula nigra, Platanus occidentalis) were monitored over a shorter time period to assess the generality of responses. Meteorological stations were installed along a transect across the riparian buffer to determine the microclimate conditions. The differences found among individuals were attributed to differences in species sap velocities and sapwood depths, location relative to the forest edge and prevailing winds and canopy exposure and dominance. Sapflow rates for A. saccharinum trees growing at the SE edge (prevailing winds) were 39% greater than SE interior trees and 30% and 69% greater than NW interior and edge trees, respectively. No transpiration enhancement due to edge effect was detected in the subdominant J. nigra. The results were interpreted as indicative of advection effects from the surrounding crops. Further, significant

  19. Small scale denitrification variability in riparian zones: Results from a high-resolution dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassen, Niklas; Knöller, Kay; Musolff, Andreas; Popp, Felix; Lüders, Tillmann; Stumpp, Christine

    2017-04-01

    denitrification in riparian zones, both in time and space. With these new insights, we are able to improve our understanding of spatial scaling of denitrification processes. This leads to a better prediction and improved management strategies for buffer mechanisms in riparian zones.

  20. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines vegetated buffer for this community as trees and forest and grass and herbaceous. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. EnviroAtlas - Paterson, NJ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. EnviroAtlas defines tree buffer for this community as only trees and forest. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. Riparian zone hydrology and biogeochemistry as a function of stream evolution stage in glaciated landscapes of the US Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, S. P.; Vidon, P.; Walter, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    The management of riparian buffer strips is often regarded as one of the most economical and sustainable methods of managing non-point source pollution and water quality. However, current riparian management often follows a 'one size fits all' design, which fails to recognize the complexity of the many biogeochemical processes that regulate pollutant transformation and retention in these systems. This study addresses two critical gaps in knowledge: (1) How carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and iron cycles interact with one another (rather than individually). (2) How stream channel geometry and evolution regulate these nutrient cycles and greenhouse gas (GHG) dynamics in the near stream zone. This project specifically explores the hydrological and biogeochemical functioning of riparian zones across a gradient of stream meander evolution stages, with the primary goal of understanding and predicting potential interactions between nutrient dynamics in these systems. Key research questions include: (1) How does stream meander curvature affect riparian zone hydrology? (2) How does stream meander curvature influence riparian zone biogeochemistry? (3) What relationships exist among N, P, Fe, and GHG dynamics? We instrumented three riparian sites near Ithaca, NY, with a dense network of wells, piezometers, and static chambers. These sites represent three riparian zones along three evolution stages of stream meanders: an inner meander, a straight stream section, and an outer bend of the stream with an oxbow lake formation. In spring through fall 2011, water samples and gas samples were collected at a tri-weekly bases at each of the three sites. Water samples were analyzed for oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, temperature, FeII/FeIII, nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). GHG fluxes at the soil-atmosphere interface were measured for N2O, CO2, and CH4 gases. We predict that stream curvature will significantly affect groundwater flow

  4. Explaining landholders' decisions about riparian zone management: the role of behavioural, normative, and control beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Terry, Deborah J; Masser, Barbara M; Bordia, Prashant; Hogg, Michael A

    2005-10-01

    Water quality is a key concern in the current global environment, with the need to promote practices that help to protect water quality, such as riparian zone management, being paramount. The present study used the theory of planned behaviour as a framework for understanding how beliefs influence decisions about riparian zone management. Respondents completed a survey that assessed their behavioural, normative, and control beliefs in relation to intentions to manage riparian zones on their property. The results of the study showed that, overall, landholders with strong intentions to manage their riparian zones differed significantly in terms of their beliefs compared to landholders who had weak intentions to manage their riparian zones. Strong intentions to manage riparian zones were associated with a favourable cost-benefit analysis, greater perceptions of normative support for the practice and lower perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede management of riparian zones. It was also evident that willingness to comply with the recommendations of salient referents, beliefs about the benefits of riparian zone management and perceptions of the extent to which barriers would impede riparian zone management were most important for determining intentions to manage riparian zones. Implications for policy and extension practice are discussed.

  5. Assessing critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer planning and riparian restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2009-11-01

    A science-based geographic information system (GIS) approach is presented to target critical source areas in watersheds for conservation buffer placement. Critical source areas are the intersection of hydrologically sensitive areas and pollutant source areas in watersheds. Hydrologically sensitive areas are areas that actively generate runoff in the watershed and are derived using a modified topographic index approach based on variable source area hydrology. Pollutant source areas are the areas in watersheds that are actively and intensively used for such activities as agricultural production. The method is applied to the Neshanic River watershed in Hunterdon County, New Jersey. The capacity of the topographic index in predicting the spatial pattern of runoff generation and the runoff contribution to stream flow in the watershed is evaluated. A simple cost-effectiveness assessment is conducted to compare the conservation buffer placement scenario based on this GIS method to conventional riparian buffer scenarios for placing conservation buffers in agricultural lands in the watershed. The results show that the topographic index reasonably predicts the runoff generation in the watershed. The GIS-based conservation buffer scenario appears to be more cost-effective than the conventional riparian buffer scenarios.

  6. Fit-for-purpose phosphorus management: do riparian buffers qualify in catchments with sandy soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, David; Summers, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Hillslope runoff and leaching studies, catchment-scale water quality measurements and P retention and release characteristics of stream bank and catchment soils were used to better understand reasons behind the reported ineffectiveness of riparian buffers for phosphorus (P) management in catchments with sandy soils from south-west Western Australia (WA). Catchment-scale water quality measurements of 60 % particulate P (PP) suggest that riparian buffers should improve water quality; however, runoff and leaching studies show 20 times more water and 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more P are transported through leaching than runoff processes. The ratio of filterable reactive P (FRP) to total P (TP) in surface runoff from the plots was 60 %, and when combined with leachate, 96 to 99 % of P lost from hillslopes was FRP, in contrast with 40 % measured as FRP at the large catchment scale. Measurements of the P retention and release characteristics of catchment soils (bank soil (bank soils suggest that catchment soils contain more P, are more P saturated and are significantly more likely to deliver FRP and TP in excess of water quality targets than stream bank soils. Stream bank soils are much more likely to retain P than contribute P to streams, and the in-stream mixing of FRP from the landscape with particulates from stream banks or stream beds is a potential mechanism to explain the change in P form from hillslopes (96 to 99 % FRP) to large catchments (40 % FRP). When considered in the context of previous work reporting that riparian buffers were ineffective for P management in this environment, these studies reinforce the notion that (1) riparian buffers are unlikely to provide fit-for-purpose P management in catchments with sandy soils, (2) most P delivered to streams in sandy soil catchments is FRP and travels via subsurface and leaching pathways and (3) large catchment-scale water quality measurements are not good indicators of hillslope P mobilisation and transport

  7. Impacts of Karkheh Dam on Spatial Pattern of Riparian Zones in Karkheh National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective river ecosystem management requires that the existing hydrologic regime be characterized in terms of the natural hydrologic regime and the degree to which the human-altered regime differs from natural conditions. This is known as Range of Variation Approach (RVA and can be used for variation of stream flow, range of variation and appraisal of dam impacts on riparian zones. In this paper, we used 31 hydrologic parameters, classified into five groups, monthly flow indices, extreme flow indices, timing indices, high-flow and low-flow indices, and rate of change, to assess hydrologic regime alteration in downstream of Karkheh dam. For this, purpose the hydrologic parameters of Pay-Pol hydrometric station have been taken. into consideration. As the Riparian ecosystems are highly dependent on and sensitive to variation in the hydrological cycle, the focus of this study was the 50-meter buffer of the Karkheh River. To examine the impacts caused by the variation of hydrologic regime, we tested if this variation and 8 different landscape metrics in the study area are correlated. The results showed that variation of hydrologic regime had a significant impact on the landscape structure of riparian zone in Karkheh downstream and caused isolation in landscape pattern of the woodland cover. Therefore, landscape structure in Karkheh downstream is highly correlated to hydrologic processes of upstream of the river. It can be concluded that an effective water management strategy is keeping safe the ecological condition and integrity of the riparian zone of Karkheh. This happens when all the hydrologic parameters are in the natural range of variation as they were before dam construction.

  8. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  9. EnviroAtlas - Portland, Maine - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  10. EnviroAtlas - Portland, ME - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  11. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  12. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest, Grass & Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  13. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  14. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  15. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  16. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  17. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  18. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  19. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  20. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, Iowa - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  1. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. EnviroAtlas - Phoenix, AZ - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  3. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  4. EnviroAtlas - New York, NY - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  5. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  6. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees and Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  7. EnviroAtlas - Woodbine, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  8. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  9. EnviroAtlas - Milwaukee, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  10. EnviroAtlas - Portland, OR - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (http:/www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  11. EnviroAtlas - Cleveland, OH - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. In this community, forest is defined as Trees & Forest and Woody Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  12. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest and Grass & Herbaceous. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://enviroatlas.epa.gov/EnviroAtlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets)

  13. EnviroAtlas - Pittsburgh, PA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  14. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. Vegetated cover is defined as Trees & Forest, Grass & Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  15. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  16. EnviroAtlas - Durham, NC - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas ) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  17. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area.This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets ).

  18. EnviroAtlas - Tampa, FL - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  19. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the Atlas Area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  20. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - 51m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is forested. Forest is defined as Trees & Forest. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less forested. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  1. EnviroAtlas - Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN - 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of a 51-m riparian buffer that is vegetated. In this community, vegetated cover is defined as Trees and Forest, Grass and Herbaceous, Woody Wetlands, and Emergent Wetlands. There is a potential for decreased water quality in areas where the riparian buffer is less vegetated. The displayed line represents the center of the analyzed riparian buffer. The water bodies analyzed include hydrologically connected streams, rivers, connectors, reservoirs, lakes/ponds, ice masses, washes, locks, and rapids within the EnviroAtlas community area. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  2. Historical land-cover/use in different slope and riparian buffer zones in watersheds of the state of São Paulo, Brazil Cobertura vegetal em diferentes usos do solo e declividades do terreno em bacias hidrográficas do estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marco da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about the land cover of a region it is a key information for several purposes. This paper aimed to elaborate land-cover maps using digital satellite images obtained in 1997 from seven watersheds (Piracicaba, Moji-Guaçu, Alto Paranapanema, Turvo Aguapeí, Peixe, and São José dos Dourados located in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Additionaly, this study evaluated the relationship between land-cover and slopes of the terrain of the seven watersheds. A third objective was to estimate the percentage of riparian vegetation currently remaining along the streams in a 30-meter width buffer zone. Three research questions were posed: i What is the dominant land-cover of these watersheds? ii Is the riparian vegetation well preserved in the 30m width buffer zone? If not, iii what is the dominant land-cover in these areas and what would be the cost of recovering such areas? Pasture was the predominant land-cover, occurring in approximately 50% of the entire study area, while sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum (14% constituted the second most frequent land-cover. Approximately 50% of the area of the seven basins is considered flat (40% or smoothly rolling (10%. The terrain only becomes hillier in the Piracicaba and Alto Paranapanema basins, where a little less than 50% have slopes higher than 8%. The total riparian buffer strip zone occupied an area equivalent to approximately 6,200 km². From this total, only 25% is preserved. Pasture is the main land-cover of the riparian buffer strip zone.Informações sobre mudanças no uso e cobertura do solo são fundamentais para vários propósitos sociais, econômicos e ambientais. O principal objetivo deste estudo foi elaborar mapas de cobertura do solo usando imagens digitais obtidas por satélite no ano de 1997 nas seguintes bacias hidrográficas do Estado de São Paulo: Piracicaba, Moji-Guaçu, Alto Paranapanema, Turvo Aguapeí, Peixe, and São José dos Dourados. Adicionalmente, a

  3. Model analysis of riparian buffer effectiveness for reducing nutrient inputs to streams in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKane, R. B.; M, S.; F, P.; Kwiatkowski, B. L.; Rastetter, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Federal and state agencies responsible for protecting water quality rely mainly on statistically-based methods to assess and manage risks to the nation's streams, lakes and estuaries. Although statistical approaches provide valuable information on current trends in water quality, process-based simulation models are essential for understanding and forecasting how changes in human activities across complex landscapes impact the transport of nutrients and contaminants to surface waters. To address this need, we developed a broadly applicable, process-based watershed simulator that links a spatially-explicit hydrologic model and a terrestrial biogeochemistry model (MEL). See Stieglitz et al. and Pan et al., this meeting, for details on the design and verification of this simulator. Here we apply the watershed simulator to a generalized agricultural setting to demonstrate its potential for informing policy and management decisions concerning water quality. This demonstration specifically explores the effectiveness of riparian buffers for reducing the transport of nitrogenous fertilizers from agricultural fields to streams. The interaction of hydrologic and biogeochemical processes represented in our simulator allows several important questions to be addressed. (1) For a range of upland fertilization rates, to what extent do riparian buffers reduce nitrogen inputs to streams? (2) How does buffer effectiveness change over time as the plant-soil system approaches N-saturation? (3) How can buffers be managed to increase their effectiveness, e.g., through periodic harvest and replanting? The model results illustrate that, while the answers to these questions depend to some extent on site factors (climatic regime, soil properties and vegetation type), in all cases riparian buffers have a limited capacity to reduce nitrogen inputs to streams where fertilization rates approach those typically used for intensive agriculture (e.g., 200 kg N per ha per year for corn in the U

  4. Hydrogeological constraints on riparian buffers for reduction of diffuse pollution: examples from the Bear Creek watershed in Iowa, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, W W; Wineland, T R; Andress, R J; Johnston, D A; Caron, G C; Isenhart, T M; Schultz, R C

    2002-01-01

    Riparian Management Systems (RiMS) have been proposed to minimize the impacts of agricultural production and improve water quality in Iowa in the Midwestern USA. As part of RiMS, multispecies riparian buffers have been shown to decrease nutrient, pesticide, and sediment concentrations in runoff from adjacent crop fields. However, their effect on nutrients and pesticides moving in groundwater beneath buffers has been discussed only in limited and idealized hydrogeologic settings. Studies in the Bear Creek watershed of central Iowa show the variability inherent in hydrogeologic systems at the watershed scale, some of which may be favorable or unfavorable to future implementation of buffers. Buffers may be optimized by choosing hydrogeologic systems where a shallow groundwater flow system channels water directly through the riparian buffer at velocities that allow for processes such as denitrification to occur.

  5. Litter Controls Earthworm-Mediated Carbon and Nitrogen Transformations in Soil from Temperate Riparian Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kernecker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient cycling in riparian buffers is partly influenced by decomposition of crop, grass, and native tree species litter. Nonnative earthworms in riparian soils in southern Quebec are expected to speed the processes of litter decomposition and nitrogen (N mineralization, increasing carbon (C and N losses in gaseous forms or via leachate. A 5-month microcosm experiment evaluated the effect of Aporrectodea turgida on the decomposition of 3 litter types (deciduous leaves, reed canarygrass, and soybean stem residue. Earthworms increased CO2 and N2O losses from microcosms with soybean residue, by 112% and 670%, respectively, but reduced CO2 and N2O fluxes from microcosms with reed canarygrass by 120% and 220%, respectively. Litter type controlled the CO2 flux (soybean ≥ deciduous-mix litter = reed canarygrass > no litter and the N2O flux (soybean ≥ no litter ≥ reed canarygrass > deciduous-mix litter. However, in the presence of earthworms, there was a slight increase in C and N gaseous losses of C and N relative to their losses via leachate, across litter treatments. We conclude that litter type determines the earthworm-mediated decomposition effect, highlighting the importance of vegetation management in controlling C and N losses from riparian buffers to the environment.

  6. RESTORED RIPARIAN BUFFERS AS TOOLS FOR ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION IN THE MAIA PROCESSES, ENDPOINTS, AND MEASURES OF SUCCESS FOR WATER, SOIL, FLORA AND FAUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts, moreover the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  7. Riparian buffer design guidelines for water quality and wildlife habitat functions on agricultural landscapes in the Intermountain West: Appendix C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Buffler

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there is no scientific literature examining appropriate riparian buffer widths for water quality for streams on private agriculturally dominated lands in arid regions of the Intermountain West. The initial step in this research effort was a review of buffer research as documented in the literature in other physiographic regions of the United States. Research...

  8. Water Quality Changes in a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Riparian Buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, D.; Clausen, J.; Kuzovkina, J.

    2016-12-01

    Converting riparian buffers in agricultural areas from annual row crops to short rotation woody crops (SRWCs) grown for biofuel can provide both water quality benefits and a financial incentive for buffer adoption among agricultural producers. A randomized complete block design was used to determine water quality changes resulting from converting plots previously cultivated in corn to SRWC willow (Salix. spp) adjacent to a stream in Storrs, CT. Both overland flow and ground water samples were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN), nitrate + nitrite (NO2+NO3-N), and total phosphorus (TP). Overland flow was also analyzed for suspended solids concentration (SSC). Lower (p = 0.05) concentrations of TN (56%) and TP (61%) were observed in post-coppice surface runoff from willow plots than from corn plots. Shallow ground water concentrations at the edge of willow plots were lower in TN (56%) and NO3+NO2-N (64%), but 35% higher in TP, than at the edge of corn plots. SSC was also lower (72%) in overland flow associated with willow compared to corn. The treatment had no effect on discharge or mass export. These results suggest conversion from corn to a SRWC in a riparian area can provide water quality benefits similar to those observed in restored and established buffers.

  9. Evaluation of methods for delineating riparian zones in a semi-arid montane watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica A. Salo; David M. Theobald; Thomas C. Brown

    2016-01-01

    Riparian zones in semi-arid, mountainous regions provide a disproportionate amount of the available wildlife habitat and ecosystem services. Despite their importance, there is little guidance on the best way to map riparian zones for broad spatial extents (e.g., large watersheds) when detailed maps from field data or high-resolution imagery and terrain data...

  10. Seasonal change detection of riparian zones with remote sensing images and genetic programming in a semi-arid watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkeasorn, Ammarin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Jiahong

    2009-02-01

    Riparian zones are deemed significant due to their interception capability of non-point source impacts and the maintenance of ecosystem integrity region wide. To improve classification and change detection of riparian buffers, this paper developed an evolutionary computational, supervised classification method--the RIparian Classification Algorithm (RICAL)--to conduct the seasonal change detection of riparian zones in a vast semi-arid watershed, South Texas. RICAL uniquely demonstrates an integrative effort to incorporate both vegetation indices and soil moisture images derived from LANDSAT 5 TM and RADARSAT-1 satellite images, respectively. First, an estimation of soil moisture based on RADARSAT-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images was conducted via the first-stage genetic programming (GP) practice. Second, for the statistical analyses and image classification, eight vegetation indices were prepared based on reflectance factors that were calculated as the response of the instrument on LANDSAT. These spectral vegetation indices were then independently used for discriminate analysis along with soil moisture images to classify the riparian zones via the second-stage GP practice. The practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the Choke Canyon Reservoir Watershed (CCRW), South Texas, which is mostly agricultural and range land in a semi-arid coastal environment. To enhance the application potential, a combination of Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and maximum likelihood supervised classification was also performed for spectral discrimination and classification of riparian varieties comparatively. Research findings show that the RICAL algorithm may yield around 90% accuracy based on the unseen ground data. But using different vegetation indices would not significantly improve the final quality of the spectral discrimination and classification. Such practices may lead to the formulation of more effective management strategies

  11. Quantifying Forested Riparian Buffer Ability to Ameliorate Stream Temperature in a Missouri Ozark Border Stream of the Central U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A.; Hubbart, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Riparian buffers play an important role in modulating stream water quality, including temperature. There is a need to better understand riparian form and function to validate and improve contemporary management practices. Further studies are warranted to characterize energy attenuation by forested riparian canopy layers that normally buffer stream temperature, particularly in the central hardwood forest regions of the United States where relationships between canopy density and stream temperature are unknown. To quantify these complex processes, two intensively instrumented hydroclimate stations were installed along two stream reaches of a riparian stream in central Missouri, USA in the winter of 2008. Hydroclimate stations are located along stream reaches oriented in both cardinal directions, which will allow interpolation of results to other orientations. Each station consists of an array of instrumentation that senses the flux of water and energy into and out of the riparian zone. Reference data are supplied from a nearby flux tower (US DOE) located on top of a forested ridge. The study sites are located within a University of Missouri preserved wildland area on the border of the southern Missouri’s Ozark region, an ecologically distinct region in the central United States. Limestone underlies the study area, resulting in a distinct semi-Karst hydrologic system. Vegetation forms a complex, multi-layered canopy extending from the stream edge through the riparian zone and into surrounding hills. Climate is classified as humid continental, with approximate average annual temperature and precipitation of 13.2°C and 970mm, respectively. Preliminary results (summer 2009 data) indicate incoming short-wave radiation is 24.9% higher at the N-S oriented stream reach relative to the E-W oriented reach. Maximum incoming short wave radiation during the period was 64.5% lower at the N-S reach relative to E-W reach. Average air temperature for the E-W reach was 0.3°C lower

  12. VT Data - Zoning Stream Buffers 20081014, Hartford

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — OVERLAY DISTRICT. Models a municipality’s zoning zones and related information. Final boundary determinations must be obtained from the town Zoning Administrator....

  13. Tile Drainage Density Reduces Groundwater Travel Times and Compromises Riparian Buffer Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Keith E; Wolter, Calvin F; Isenhart, Thomas M; Schultz, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    Strategies to reduce nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) pollution delivered to streams often seek to increase groundwater residence time to achieve measureable results, yet the effects of tile drainage on residence time have not been well documented. In this study, we used a geographic information system groundwater travel time model to quantify the effects of artificial subsurface drainage on groundwater travel times in the 7443-ha Bear Creek watershed in north-central Iowa. Our objectives were to evaluate how mean groundwater travel times changed with increasing drainage intensity and to assess how tile drainage density reduces groundwater contributions to riparian buffers. Results indicate that mean groundwater travel times are reduced with increasing degrees of tile drainage. Mean groundwater travel times decreased from 5.6 to 1.1 yr, with drainage densities ranging from 0.005 m (7.6 mi) to 0.04 m (62 mi), respectively. Model simulations indicate that mean travel times with tile drainage are more than 150 times faster than those that existed before settlement. With intensive drainage, less than 2% of the groundwater in the basin appears to flow through a perennial stream buffer, thereby reducing the effectiveness of this practice to reduce stream nitrate loads. Hence, strategies, such as reconnecting tile drainage to buffers, are promising because they increase groundwater residence times in tile-drained watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Density management and riparian buffer study in Western Oregon: Phase 1 results, launch of phase 2 [brochure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2009-01-01

    Can we expedite the development of late-successional forest conditions by applying thinning treatments to young forest stands? What effect will these thinning treatments have on headwater ecosystems? These broad questions lie at the foundation of the Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study (DMS) of western Oregon.

  15. Relationships Between Land Use and Stream Nutrient Concentrations in a Highly Urbanized Tropical Region of Brazil: Thresholds and Riparian Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromboni, F; Dodds, W K

    2017-07-01

    Nutrient enrichment in streams due to land use is increasing globally, reducing water quality and causing eutrophication of downstream fresh and coastal waters. In temperate developed countries, the intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture is a main driver of increasing nutrient concentrations, but high levels and fast rates of urbanization can be a predominant issue in some areas of the developing world. We investigated land use in the highly urbanized tropical State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We collected total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and inorganic nutrient data from 35 independent watersheds distributed across the State and characterized land use at a riparian and entire watershed scales upstream from each sample station, using ArcGIS. We used regression models to explain land use influences on nutrient concentrations and to assess riparian protection relationships to water quality. We found that urban land use was the primary driver of nutrient concentration increases, independent of the scale of analyses and that urban land use was more concentrated in the riparian buffer of streams than in the entire watersheds. We also found significant thresholds that indicated strong increases in nutrient concentrations with modest increases in urbanization reaching maximum nutrient concentrations between 10 and 46% urban cover. These thresholds influenced calculation of reference nutrient concentrations, and ignoring them led to higher estimates of these concentrations. Lack of sewage treatment in concert with urban development in riparian zones apparently leads to the observation that modest increases in urban land use can cause large increases in nutrient concentrations.

  16. Sediment measurement and transport modeling: impact of riparian and filter strip buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriasi, Daniel N; Steiner, Jean L; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2011-01-01

    Well-calibrated models are cost-effective tools to quantify environmental benefits of conservation practices, but lack of data for parameterization and evaluation remains a weakness to modeling. Research was conducted in southwestern Oklahoma within the Cobb Creek subwatershed (CCSW) to develop cost-effective methods to collect stream channel parameterization and evaluation data for modeling in watersheds with sparse data. Specifically, (i) simple stream channel observations obtained by rapid geomorphic assessment (RGA) were used to parameterize the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model stream channel variables before calibrating SWAT for streamflow and sediment, and (ii) average annual reservoir sedimentation rate, measured at the Crowder Lake using the acoustic profiling system (APS), was used to cross-check Crowder Lake sediment accumulation rate simulated by SWAT. Additionally, the calibrated and cross-checked SWAT model was used to simulate impacts of riparian forest buffer (RF) and bermudagrass [ (L.) Pers.] filter strip buffer (BFS) on sediment yield and concentration in the CCSW. The measured average annual sedimentation rate was between 1.7 and 3.5 t ha yr compared with simulated sediment rate of 2.4 t ha yr Application of BFS across cropped fields resulted in a 72% reduction of sediment delivery to the stream, while the RF and the combined RF and BFS reduced the suspended sediment concentration at the CCSW outlet by 68 and 73%, respectively. Effective riparian practices have potential to increase reservoir life. These results indicate promise for using the RGA and APS methods to obtain data to improve water quality simulations in ungauged watersheds. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  17. Phytostabilization of metals by indigenous riparian vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When measured against an ideal hypothetical buffer zone, the buffer zones under investigation varied between intact and severely compromised. Intact riparian zones showed elevated metal concentrations in the soil, yet significantly lower concentrations in the river water compared to areas with insufficient vegetative cover ...

  18. Denitrification Potential, Root Biomass, and Organic Matter in Degraded and Restored Urban Riparian Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrologic changes associated with urbanization often lead to lower water tables and drier, more aerobic soils in riparian zones. These changes reduce the potential for denitrification, an anaerobic microbial process that converts nitrate, a common water pollutant, into nitrogen...

  19. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite considerable heterogeneity over space and time, biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. Recently, these heterogeneous processes have been co...

  20. Deer use of riparian zones and adjacent pine plantations in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micah L. Poteet; Ronald E. Thill; R. Montague Whiting; R. Lee Rayburn

    1996-01-01

    The authors monitored white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use of riparian zones (RZ’s) and adjacent pine plantations of 3 age classes (young, 1 to 3 years old; intermediate, 5 to 7 years old; and older, 9 to 13 years old) using radio telemetry for 2 years on a 1,300 ha study area near Alto, TX. Riparian zones comprised 22.0 percent of the area; young,...

  1. Designing cost efficient buffer zone programs: An application of the FyrisSKZ tool in a Swedish catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, Dennis; Johnsson, Holger; Larsson, Peter; Markensten, Hampus; Persson, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    Riparian buffer zones are the only measure which has been used extensively in Sweden to reduce phosphorus losses from agricultural land. This paper describes how the FyrisSKZ web tool can be used to evaluate allocation scenarios using data from the Svärta River, an agricultural catchment located in central Sweden. Three scenarios are evaluated: a baseline, a uniform 6-m-wide buffer zone in each sub-catchment, and an allocation of areas of buffer zones to sub-catchments based on the average cost of reduction. The total P reduction increases by 30 % in the second scenario compared to the baseline scenario, and the average reduction per hectare increases by 90 % while total costs of the program fall by 32 %. In the third scenario, the average cost per unit of reduction (163 kg P(-1)) is the lowest of the three scenarios (58 % lower than the baseline) and has the lowest total program costs.

  2. Water table monitoring in a mined riparian zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Marques Cordeiro Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to test an easily fabricated tool that assist in the manual installation of piezometers, as well as water table monitor in the research site, located at the Gualaxo do Norte River Watershed, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The tool is made of iron pipes and is a low-cost alternative for shallow groundwater observation wells. The measurements were done in a riparian zone after being gold mined, when vegetation and upper soil layers were removed. The wells were installed in three areas following a transect from the river bank. The method was viable for digging up to its maximum depth of 3 meters in a low resistance soil and can be improved to achieve a better resistance over impact and its maximum depth of perforation. Water table levels varied distinctly according to its depth in each point. It varies most in the more shallow wells in different areas, while it was more stable in the deeper ones. The water table profile reflected the probably profile f the terrain and can be a reference for its leveling in reconstitution of degraded banks where upper layers of the soil were removed. Groundwater monitoring can be also an indicator of the suitability of the substrate for soil reconstitution in terms of the maintenance of an infiltration capacity similar to the original material.

  3. Near-Term Effects of Repeated-Thinning with Riparian Buffers on Headwater Stream Vertebrates and Habitats in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanna H. Olson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of a second-thinning harvest with alternative riparian buffer management approaches on headwater stream habitats and associated vertebrates in western Oregon, USA. Our analyses showed that stream reaches were generally distinguished primarily by average width and depth, along with the percentage of the dry reach length, and secondarily, by the volume of down wood. In the first year post-harvest, we observed no effects of buffer treatment on stream habitat attributes after moderate levels of thinning. One of two “thin-through” riparian treatments showed stronger trends for enlarged stream channels, likely due to harvest disturbances. The effects of buffer treatments on salamanders varied among species and with habitat structure. Densities of Plethodon dunni and Rhyacotriton species increased post-harvest in the moderate-density thinning with no-entry buffers in wider streams with more pools and narrower streams with more down wood, respectively. However, Rhyacotriton densities decreased along streams with the narrowest buffer, 6 m, and P. dunni and Dicamptodon tenebrosus densities decreased in thin-through buffers. Our study supports the use of a 15-m or wider buffer to retain sensitive headwater stream amphibians.

  4. Water sources accessed by arid zone riparian trees in highly saline environments, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costelloe, Justin F; Payne, Emily; Woodrow, Ian E; Irvine, Elizabeth C; Western, Andrew W; Leaney, Fred W

    2008-05-01

    The flow regimes of arid zone rivers are often highly variable, and shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifers can be very saline, thus constraining the availability and quality of the major water sources available to riparian trees-soil water, shallow groundwater and stream water. We have identified water sources and strategies used by riparian trees in more highly saline and arid conditions than previously studied for riparian trees of arid zone rivers. Our research focused on the riparian species Eucalyptus coolabah, one of the major riparian trees of ephemeral arid zone rivers in Australia. The water sources available to this riparian tree were examined using delta(18)O isotope data from xylem, soil water, groundwater and surface water. Additionally, soil chloride and matric potential data were used to infer zones of water availability for root uptake. Despite the saline conditions, the trees used a mixture of soil water and groundwater sources, but they did not use surface water directly. The study identified three strategies used to cope with typically high groundwater and soil water salinities. Firstly, the trees preferentially grow in zones of most frequent flushing by infiltrating streamflow, such as the bank-tops of channels. Secondly, the trees limit water use by having low transpiration rates. Thirdly, the trees are able to extract water at very low osmotic potentials, with water uptake continuing at chloride concentrations of at least 20,000-30,000 mg L(-1).

  5. [Distribution pattern of rare plants along riparian zone and its implication for conservation in Shennongjia area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingxi; Deng, Hongbing; Cai, Qinghua

    2002-11-01

    Due to the importance of riparian zone in maintaining and protecting regional biodiversity, more and more ecologists paid their attentions to riparian zone, and had been aware of the important effects of riparian zone in basic study and practical management. In this study, forty sampling belts (10 m x 100 m) parallel to the bank of Xiangxi River at different elevations in Shennongjia area were selected to investigate the riparian vegetation and rare plants. Fourteen species of rare plants were found in riparian zone, accounting for 42.4% of total rare plant species in Shennongjia area. The main distribution range of the fourteen rare plant species was the mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest at elevation of 1200-1800 m, where species diversity of plant community was the maximum at the moderate elevation. Fourteen rare plant species could be divided into three groups against the elevation, namely low elevation species group, moderate elevation species group, and high elevation group. In the paper, the authors discussed the reasons forming the distribution pattern of rare plant species, and pointed out the important function of riparian zone on rare plant species protection.

  6. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers: Effects on Plant and Animal Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Klapproth, Julia C.; Johnson, James E. (James Eric), 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Discusses riparian forests' ability to support many species of wildlife and explains that the importance of a particular riparian area for wildlife will depend on the size of the area, adjoining land uses, riparian vegetation, features inside the area, and the wildlife species of interest.

  7. Water body and riparian buffer strip characteristics in a vineyard area to support aquatic pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Renja; Schulz, Ralf

    2010-10-15

    The implementation of a geodata-based probabilistic pesticide exposure assessment for surface waters in Germany offers the opportunity to base the exposure estimation on more differentiated assumptions including detailed landscape characteristics. Since these characteristics can only be estimated using field surveys, water body width and depth, hydrology, riparian buffer strip width, ground vegetation cover, existence of concentrated flow paths, and riparian vegetation were characterised at 104 water body segments in the vineyard region Palatinate (south-west Germany). Water body segments classified as permanent (n=43) had median values of water body width and depth of 0.9m and 0.06m, respectively, and the determined median width:depth ratio was 15. Thus, the deterministic water body model (width=1m; depth=0.3m) assumed in regulatory exposure assessment seems unsuitable for small water bodies in the study area. Only 25% of investigated buffer strips had a dense vegetation cover (>70%) and allow a laminar sheet flow as required to include them as an effective pesticide runoff reduction landscape characteristic. At 77 buffer strips, bordering field paths and erosion rills leading into the water body were present, concentrating pesticide runoff and consequently decreasing buffer strip efficiency. The vegetation type shrubbery (height>1.5m) was present at 57 (29%) investigated riparian buffer strips. According to their median optical vegetation density of 75%, shrubberies may provide a spray drift reduction of 72±29%. Implementing detailed knowledge in an overall assessment revealed that exposure via drift might be 2.4 and via runoff up to 1.6 fold higher than assumed by the deterministic approach. Furthermore, considering vegetated buffer strips only by their width leads to an underestimation of exposure by a factor of as much as four. Our data highlight that the deterministic model assumptions neither represent worst-case nor median values and therefore cannot

  8. Nitrogen loss from anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to Iron(III) reduction in a riparian zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bangjing; Li, Zhengkui; Qin, Yunbin

    2017-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron(III) reduction (termed Feammox) is a recently discovered pathway of nitrogen cycling. However, little is known about the pathways of N transformation via Feammox process in riparian zones. In this study, evidence for Feammox in riparian zones with or without vegetation cover was demonstrated using isotope tracing technique and high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that Feammox could occur in riparian zones, and demonstrated that N 2 directly from Feammox was dominant Feammox pathway. The Feammox rates in vegetated soil samples was 0.32-0.37 mg N kg -1 d -1 , which is higher than that in un-vegetated soil samples (0.20 mg N kg -1 d -1 ). Moreover, the growth of vegetation led to a 4.99-6.41% increase in the abundance of iron reducing bacteria (Anaeromyxobacter, Pseudomonas and Geobacter) and iron reducing bacteria play an essential role in Feammox process. An estimated loss of 23.7-43.9 kg N ha -1 year -1 was associated with Feammox in the examined riparian zone. Overall, the co-occurrence of ammonium oxidation and iron reduction suggest that Feammox can play an essential role in the pathway of nitrogen removal in riparian zones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for the buffer zone in a plasma accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.A.; Clothiaux, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The existence of an absorbing layer, or buffer zone, of weakly ionized gas between the rear of the projectile and the front of the plasma arc armature in a plasma accelerator has been postulated. In the studies reported here a technique for finding the position of the projectile as a function of time is given and compared to the plasma armature position as determined by inductive probes. Analyses of these signals provide the basis for a description of the in-bore motion of the projectile with respect to the plasma arc armature. The experimental evidence appears to support the existence of a buffer zone

  10. Assessing Anthropogenic Influence and Edge Effect Influence on Forested Riparian Buffer Spatial Configuration and Structure: An Example Using Lidar Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.

    2012-12-01

    Forested riparian buffers (FRB) perform numerous critical ecosystem services. However, globally, FRB spatial configuration and structure have been modified by anthropogenic development resulting in widespread ecological degradation as seen in the Gulf of Mexico and the Chesapeake Bay. Riparian corridors within developed areas are particularly vulnerable to disturbance given two edges - the naturally occurring stream edge and the matrix edge. Increased edge length predisposes riparian vegetation to "edge effects", characterized by modified physical and environmental conditions at the interface between the forested buffer and the adjacent landuse, or matrix and forest fragment degradation. The magnitude and distance of edge influence may be further influenced by adjacent landuse type and the width of the buffer corridor at any given location. There is a need to quantify riparian buffer spatial configuration and structure over broad geographic extents and within multiple riparian systems in support of ecologically sound management and landuse decisions. This study thus assesses the influence of varying landuse types (agriculture, suburban development and undeveloped) on forested riparian buffer 3-dimensional structure and spatial configuration using high resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data collected within a headwater watershed. Few studies have assessed riparian buffer structure and width contiguously for an entire watershed, an integral component of watershed planning and restoration efforts such as those conducted throughout the Chesapeake Bay. The objectives of the study are to 1) quantify differences in vegetation structure at the stream and matrix influenced riparian buffer edges, compared to the forested interior and 2) assess continuous patterns of changes in vegetation structure throughout the buffer corridor beginning at the matrix edge and ending at the stream within buffers a) of varying width and b) that are adjacent to varying landuse

  11. Effects of watershed and riparian zone characteristics on nutrient concentrations in the River Scheldt Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Meynendonckx

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative influence of a set of watershed characteristics on surface water nutrient concentrations was examined in 173 watersheds within two subcatchments (Upper-Scheldt and Nete of the River Scheldt Basin (Flanders, Belgium. Each watershed was described by seasonal rainfall, discharge loading of point sources, morphological characteristics (area, average slope, drainage density, elongation, land use and soil properties (soil texture and drainage. Partial regression analysis revealed that soil drainage variables had the strongest influence on nutrient concentrations. Additional influence was exerted by land use and point source loading variables. Nitrate concentrations were positively correlated with effluent loadings coming from wastewater treatment plants and with the area of agricultural land. Phosphate concentrations were best explained by effluent loadings of industrial point sources and by the area of urban land. Land use close to the river was not a better predictor of nitrate and phosphate concentrations than land use away from the river. This suggests that the mediating impact of riparian zones is rather explained by the hydrologic pathways within the buffer strip.

  12. Stacking and discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Z K

    2000-08-01

    Discontinuous buffers for capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) can be used under less rigid conditions compared to those for isotachophoresis for stacking. They can be prepared simply by modifying the sample itself, either by addition of small inorganic ions, low conductivity diluents, or both, and also by adjusting its pH, meanwhile injecting a large volume on the capillary. Zwitterionic and organic-based buffers such as triethanolamine and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) are well suited for stacking due to their low conductivity, provided the buffer is discontinuous as demonstrated here. A simple mechanism based on discontinuous buffers is described to explain many of the observed stacking types in CZE, pointing out the many similarities to transient isotachophoresis.

  13. Initial riparian down wood dynamics in relation to thinning and buffer width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Deanna H. Olson; Adrian. Ares

    2013-01-01

    Down wood plays many functional roles in aquatic and riparian ecosystems. Simplifi cation of forest structure and low abundance of down wood in stream channels and riparian areas is a common legacy of historical management in headwater forests west of the Cascade Range in the US northwest. Contemporary management practices emphasize the implementation of vegetation...

  14. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian Morten

    2012-01-01

    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received littl...

  15. Challenges of Buffer Zone Management in Cross River National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These developments might be adduced to the low level of awareness of Park laws and buffer zone management policies by these communities. It is therefore recommended that public enlightenment campaigns should be stepped up to educate the populace on the need to abide by the laws and policies governing the Park ...

  16. Effects of Terrestrial Buffer Zones on Amphibians on Golf Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglis, Holly J.; Boone, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of amphibian declines worldwide is habitat destruction or alteration. Public green spaces, such as golf courses and parks, could serve as safe havens to curb the effects of habitat loss if managed in ways to bolster local amphibian communities. We reared larval Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) in golf course ponds with and without 1 m terrestrial buffer zones, and released marked cricket frog metamorphs at the golf course ponds they were reared in. Larval survival of both species was affected by the presence of a buffer zone, with increased survival for cricket frogs and decreased survival for green frogs when reared in ponds with buffer zones. No marked cricket frog juveniles were recovered at any golf course pond in the following year, suggesting that most animals died or migrated. In a separate study, we released cricket frogs in a terrestrial pen and allowed them to choose between mown and unmown grass. Cricket frogs had a greater probability of using unmown versus mown grass. Our results suggest that incorporating buffer zones around ponds can offer suitable habitat for some amphibian species and can improve the quality of the aquatic environment for some sensitive local amphibians. PMID:22761833

  17. The Edinburgh approach to urban heritage : why a buffer zone?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennink, R.H.J.; van Niel, W.; Veldpaus, L.; Pereira Roders, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The architectural ensemble of Old and New Towns of Edinburgh, UNESCO World Heritage since 1995, is among the sites affected by urban development. The absence of a buffer zone is assumed to be one of the causes of the impact and the recently adopted Historic Urban Landscape approach aims to assist on

  18. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocek, P; Gebauer, P; Beckers, J L

    2001-04-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the migration of analytes is strongly deteriorated due to the presence of a system zone. System zones in phthalate buffers may be easily detected by UV detection and manifest themselves as peaks or dips. Peak shape diagrams are advantageously used for the prediction of the migration behavior of system zones in phthalate background electrolyte (BGE) systems at various pH. It is shown that the mobility of the system zone varies strongly with pH, is practically zero at pH values below 4 and above 7, and shows a maximum at pH 5. Thus, the system peak may coincide either with the peaks of various analytes or with the electroosmotic flow (EOF) peak. Experiments are given showing the effects of such coincidences as, e.g., zigzag detection patterns, double EOF peaks, and/or unusually broad peaks/dips. The message of this contribution is to show how to understand the electrophoretic properties of phthalate BGEs that, regardless of possible failure regions, may be successfully used in the analytical practice of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE).

  19. Evapotranspiration Calculation on the Basis of the Riparian Zone Water Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SZILÁGYI, József

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests have a strong influence on groundwater levels and groundwater sustainedstream baseflow. An empirical and a hydraulic version of a new method were developed to calculateevapotranspiration values from riparian zone groundwater levels. The new technique was tested on thehydrometeorological data set of the Hidegvíz Valley (located in Sopron Hills at the eastern foothills ofthe Alps experimental catchment. Evapotranspiration values of this new method were compared tothe Penman-Monteith evapotranspiration values on a half hourly scale and to the White methodevapotranspiration values on a daily scale. Sensitivity analysis showed that the more reliable hydraulicversion of our ET estimation technique is most sensitive (i.e., linearly to the values of the saturatedhydraulic conductivity and specific yield taken from the riparian zone.

  20. Activities and Ecological Role of Adult Aquatic Insects in the Riparian Zone of Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Jackson; Vincent H. Resh

    1989-01-01

    Most adult aquatic insects that emerge from streams live briefly in the nearby riparian zone. Adult activities, such as mating, dispersal, and feeding, influence their distribution in the terrestrial habitat. A study at Big Sulphur Creek, California, has shown that both numbers and biomass of adult aquatic insects are greatest in the near-stream vegetation; however,...

  1. Assessing riparian zone impacts on water and sediment movement: A new approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesstra, S.D.; Kondrlova, E.; Czaika, A.; Seeger, K.M.; Maroulis, J.

    2012-01-01

    The state of river channels and their riparian zones in terms of geomorphology and vegetation has a significant effect on water and sediment transport in headwater catchments. High roughness in natural rivers due to vegetation and geomorphological attributes generate drag on flowing water. This drag

  2. Hot spots and hot moments in riparian zones: Potential for improved water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe Vidon; Craig Allan; Douglas Burns; Tim P. Duval; Noel Gurwick; Shreeram Inamdar; Richard Lowrance; Judy Okay; Durelle Scott; Stephen Sebestyen

    2010-01-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological processes in riparian zones regulate contaminant movement to receiving waters and often mitigate the impact of upland sources of contaminants on water quality. These heterogeneous processes have recently been conceptualized as "hot spots and moments" of retention, degradation, or production. Nevertheless, studies investigating...

  3. The role of near-stream riparian zones in the hydrology of steep upland catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Jeffery J.; McGlynn, B.L.; Kendall, K.; Shanley, J.; Kendall, C.

    1998-01-01

    Surface and subsurface waters were monitored and sampled at various topographic positions in a 40.5-ha headwater catchment to test several hypotheses of runoff generation and stream chemical and isotopic evolution during snowmelt. Transmissivity feedback was observed on the hillslopes during the melt period. Groundwater levels and stream DOC were highly correlated with stream discharge. Hysteresis in the groundwater-streamflow relation suggests that localized water flux from the riparian areas controlled the rising limb and main peak response of the melt hydrograph, whilst hillslope drainage controlled the timing and volume of the falling limb. Lateral flow from upslope positions was detected in the riparian zone.

  4. Modeling the Effects of Hydrogeomorphology and Climactic Factors on Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Riparian Zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Y.; Vidon, P.; Gold, A.; Pradhanang, S. M.; Addy, K.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetated riparian zones are often considered for use as best management practices to mitigate the impacts of agriculture on water quality. However, riparian zones can also be a source of greenhouse gases and their influence on water quality varies depending on landscape hydrogeomorphic characteristics and climate. Methods used to evaluate riparian zone functions include conceptual models, and spatially explicit and process based models (REMM), but very few attempts have been made to connect riparian zone characteristics with function using easily accessible landscape scale data. Here, we present comprehensive statistical models that can be used to assess riparian zone functions with easily obtainable landscape-scale hydrogeomorphic attributes and climate data. Models were developed from a database spanning 88 years and 36 sites. Statistical methods including principal component analysis and stepwise regression were used to reduced data dimensionality and identify significant predictors. Models were validated using additional data collected from scientific literature. The 8 models developed connect landscape characteristics to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and removal (1-4), greenhouse gas emissions (5-7), and water table depth (8). Results show the range of influence that various climate and landscape characteristics have on riparian zone functions, and the tradeoffs that exist with regards to nitrogen, phosphorous, and greenhouse gases. These models will help reduce the need for extensive field measurements and help scientists and land managers make more informed decisions regarding the use of riparian zones for water quality management.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  7. The influence of riparian-hyporheic zone on the hydrological responses in an intermittent stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butturini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Stream and riparian groundwater hydrology has been studied in a small intermittent stream draining a forested catchment for a system representative of a Mediterranean climate. The relationship between precipitation and stream runoff and the interactions between stream water and the surrounding riparian groundwater have been analysed under a wide spectrum of meteorological conditions. The hypothesis that the hydrological condition of the near-stream groundwater compartment can regulate the runoff generation during precipitation events was tested. Stream runoff is characterised by a summer dry period, and precipitation input explained only 25% of runoff variability over the study period (r2 =0.25, d.f.=51, p2=0.80, d.f.=34, p Keywords: riparian zone, groundwater hydrology, runoff, intermittent stream, Mediterranean climate

  8. Response of herbaceous plant community diversity and composition to overstorey harvest within riparian management zones in Northern Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Michelle A. Martin; Brian J. Palik; Jerilynn E. Peck; Charles R. Blinn

    2013-01-01

    Partial timber harvest within riparian management zones (RMZs) may permit active management of riparian forests while protecting stream ecosystems, but impacts on herbaceous communities are poorly understood. We compared herbaceous plant community abundance, diversity and composition in RMZs along small streams in northern Minnesota, USA, among four treatments before...

  9. Determining effective riparian buffer width for nonnative plant exclusion and habitat enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin Ferris; Vincent D' Amico; Christopher K. Williams

    2012-01-01

    Nonnative plants threaten native biodiversity in landscapes where habitats are fragmented. Unfortunately, in developed areas, much of the remaining forested habitat occurs in fragmented riparian corridors. Because forested corridors of sufficient width may allow forest interior specializing native species to retain competitive advantage over edge specialist and...

  10. The intertwining paths of the density managment and riparian buffer study and the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth J. Ruzicka; Deanna H. Olson; Klaus J. Puettmann

    2013-01-01

    Initiated simultaneously, the Density Management and Riparian Buff er Study of western Oregon and the Northwest Forest Plan have had intertwining paths related to federal forest management and policy changes in the Pacifi c Northwest over the last 15 to 20 years. We briefl y discuss the development of the Northwest Forest Plan and how it changed the way forest policy...

  11. The riparian ecosystem management study: response of small mammals to streamside buffers in western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin G. Raphael; Randall J. Wilk

    2013-01-01

    One of the fundamental concepts behind the conservation strategy in the U.S. federal Northwest Forest Plan is the importance of habitat buff ers in providing functional stream and streamside ecosystems. To better understand the importance of riparian buff ers in providing habitat for associated organisms, we investigated responses of small mammals to various streamside...

  12. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  13. Hydrological mediated denitrification in groundwater below a seasonal flooded restored riparian zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jannick Kolbjørn; Engesgaard, Peter; Johnsen, Anders R.

    2017-01-01

    nitrate removal in groundwater primarily by two mechanisms. First, by creating a stagnant flow zone beneath the flooded area thereby increasing the residence time and leaving more time for nitrate removal. Secondly, nitrate removal is increased by enhancing upward flow into the highly reactive organic......A restored riparian zone was characterized to understand the effects of flooding on subsurface hydrological flow paths and nitrate removal in groundwater. Field and laboratory investigations were combined with numerical modeling of dynamic flow and reactive nitrate transport. Flooding enhances...

  14. In Situ Groundwater Denitrification in the Riparian Zone of a Short-Rotation Woody Crop Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, J. B.; Jackson, C. R.; Rau, B.; Pringle, C. M.; Matteson, C.

    2017-12-01

    The southeastern United States has potential to become a major producer of short rotation woody crops (SRWC) for the production of biofuels, but this will require converting to more intensive forest management practices that will increase nitrate (NO3-) loading and alter nitrogen cycling in nearby freshwater ecosystems. Water quality monitoring in an experimental short-rotation woody crop watershed in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina has shown increased concentrations of NO3- in groundwater but no evidence of increased NO3- in riparian groundwater or surface waters. Forested riparian areas established as streamside management zones (SMZ) are known to act as buffers to surface water bodies by mitigating nutrients. The objectives of this study were to quantify denitrification by measuring dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations along groundwater flow paths and analyze relationships between denitrification estimates, nutrients, and water chemistry parameters. A network of piezometers has been established in the Fourmile Experimental Watershed at the Department of Energy - Savannah River Site. Water samples were collected monthly and were analyzed for concentrations of nutrients (temperature, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, dissolved organic carbon) and dissolved gases (N2, Ar, N2O). Preliminary data showed greater dissolved N2O concentrations than dissolved N2 concentrations in groundwater. The ratios of N2O to combined end products of denitrification (N2O / N2O+N2) ranged from 0.33 to 0.99. Mean N2O+N2 concentrations were greater in groundwater samples in the SRWC plot and along the SMZ boundary than along the ephemeral stream within the riparian zone. Correlations between water chemistry parameters and N2 concentrations are indicative of known biogeochemical driving factors of denitrification. Continued monthly sampling will be coupled with analysis of nutrient concentrations (NO3-, NH4+, TN) to help determine transport and processing

  15. Influence of Vegetation Structure on Lidar-derived Canopy Height and Fractional Cover in Forested Riparian Buffers During Leaf-Off and Leaf-On Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, Leah; Day, Rick; Chasmer, Laura; Taylor, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of canopy height (H) and fractional canopy cover (FC) derived from lidar data collected during leaf-on and leaf-off conditions are compared with field measurements from 80 forested riparian buffer plots. The purpose is to determine if existing lidar data flown in leaf-off conditions for applications such as terrain mapping can effectively estimate forested riparian buffer H and FC within a range of riparian vegetation types. Results illustrate that: 1) leaf-off and leaf-on lidar percentile estimates are similar to measured heights in all plots except those dominated by deciduous compound-leaved trees where lidar underestimates H during leaf off periods; 2) canopy height models (CHMs) underestimate H by a larger margin compared to percentile methods and are influenced by vegetation type (conifer needle, deciduous simple leaf or deciduous compound leaf) and canopy height variability, 3) lidar estimates of FC are within 10% of plot measurements during leaf-on periods, but are underestimated during leaf-off periods except in mixed and conifer plots; and 4) depth of laser pulse penetration lower in the canopy is more variable compared to top of the canopy penetration which may influence within canopy vegetation structure estimates. This study demonstrates that leaf-off lidar data can be used to estimate forested riparian buffer canopy height within diverse vegetation conditions and fractional canopy cover within mixed and conifer forests when leaf-on lidar data are not available. PMID:23382966

  16. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    OpenAIRE

    D. Fernández; J. Barquín; M. Álvarez-Cabria; F. J. Peñas

    2012-01-01

    Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological appro...

  17. Protocols for Mapping and Characterizing Land Use/Land Cover in Riparian Zones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Michaela R; Zelt, Ronald B

    2005-01-01

    .... Characterization of riparian systems is critical to a comprehensive understanding of nutrient enrichment effects on stream ecosystems because riparian functions provide an important ecological...

  18. Modeling phosphorus capture by plants growing in a multi-species riparian buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore phosphorus (P) uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126-d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and smooth brome (Bromis inermis L...

  19. Surface modification by preparation of buffer zone in glow-discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Reactive species, energetic particles, and uv radiation in the plasma created by a glow discharge strongly interact with solid surfaces under the influence of the plasma. As a result of the strong interaction, various physical and chemical reactions, unique and advantageous for the surface modification of solid materials, occur on the solid surfaces. The surface modification is carried out through formation of a thin buffering layer on the solid surface. The preparation of a buffer zone on solid surfaces for surface modification is described. Two kinds of a buffer zone are prepared by plasma polymerization, or simultaneous sputter deposition of electrode material with plasma polymerization: a transitional buffer zone and a graded buffer zone. Important factors for preparation of the buffer zone (pre-conditioning of a substrate surface, thin-film deposition, post-treatment of the film, magnetron discharge, energy input, geometry of a substrate and a plasma) are discussed

  20. Surface Water Protection by Productive Buffers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin

    Vegetated riparian buffer zones are a widely recommended best management practice in agriculture for protecting surface and coastal waters from diffuse nutrient pollution. On the background of the EU funded research project NitroEurope (NEU; www.NitroEurope.eu), this study concentrates...... on the mitigation of nitrogen pollution in surface and groundwater, using riparian buffer zones for biomass production. The objectives are to map suitable areas for buffer implementation across the six NEU study landscapes, model tentative N-loss mitigation, calculate biomass production potential and economic...... designed for local conditions could be a way of protecting water quality attractive to many stakeholders....

  1. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocek, P.; Gebauer, P.; Beckers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the

  2. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: Mine Density Active Mines and Mineral Plants in the US

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the mine density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers based on mine plants...

  3. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments Riparian Buffer (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Wildland Fire Perimeters By Year 2000 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the historical fire perimeters within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers based on...

  4. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: 2010 US Census Housing Unit and Population Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the population and housing unit density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers...

  5. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2(Version 2.1) Catchments Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: 2010 US Census Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the road density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers. Attributes of the...

  6. Evaluating social-ecological aspects of buffer zones at the borders of Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelani M. Mannetti; Ulrich Zeller; Karen J. Esler

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the premise that the implementation of a buffer zone around a national park provides opportunities for local communities to become active in the management of such areas. The study focuses on the Etosha National Park in Namibia, where the implementation of a buffer zone has been proposed, since the park fence is a potential barrier for...

  7. Theoretical analysis of recirculation zone and buffer zone in the ADS windowless spallation target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Pan, Chang-zhao; Tong, Jian-fei; Lu, Wen-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Height of recirculation zone is very important in windowless target design. • A theoretical formula for the height is derived based on the Bernoulli equation. • Numerical simulation for the LBE is performed and the height of recirculation zone is also obtained. • The theoretically-derived simulation-predicted recirculation zone heights agree with each other very well and the theoretical derivation is proved to be correct. - Abstract: The thermo-hydraulic analysis including reduction of the height of recirculation zone and stability of the free surface is very important in the design and optimization of ADS windowless spallation targets. In the present study, the Bernoulli equation is used to analyze the entire flow process in the target. Formulae for the height of the recirculation zone and the buffer zone are both obtained explicitly. Furthermore, numerical simulation for the heavy metal lead–bismuth eutectic liquid and vapor with cavitation phase change is also performed, and a novel method to calculate the height of the recirculation zone is put forward. By comparison of the theoretical formulae and numerical results, it is clearly shown that they agree with each other very well, and the heights predicted by the two methods are both determined by their own upstream flow parameters

  8. REMM: The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrance, R.; Altier, L.S.; Williams, R.G.; Inamdar, S.P.; Sheridan, J.M.; Bosch, D.D.; Hubbard, R.K.; Thomas, D.L.

    2000-03-01

    Riparian buffer zones are effective in mitigating nonpoint source pollution and have been recommended as a best management practice (BMP). The Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) has been developed for researchers and natural resource agencies as a modeling tool that can help quantify the water quality benefits of riparian buffers under varying site conditions. Processes simulated in REMM include surface and subsurface hydrology; sediment transport and deposition; carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport, removal, and cycling; and vegetation growth. Management options, such as vegetation type, size of the buffer zone, and biomass harvesting also can be simulated. REMM can be used in conjunction with upland models, empirical data, or estimated loadings to examine scenarios of buffer zone design for a hillslope. Evaluation of REMM simulations with field observations shows generally good agreement between simulated and observed data for groundwater nitrate concentrations and water table depths in a mature riparian forest buffer. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes that influenced the water balance or soil moisture storage affected the streamflow output. Parameter changes that influence either hydrology or rates of nutrient cycling affected total N transport and plant N uptake.

  9. Quantifying the performance of automated GIS-based geomorphological approaches for riparian zone delineation using digital elevation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zone delineation is a central issue for managing rivers and adjacent areas; however, criteria used to delineate them are still under debate. The area inundated by a 50-yr flood has been indicated as an optimal hydrological descriptor for riparian areas. This detailed hydrological information is usually only available for populated areas at risk of flooding. In this work we created several floodplain surfaces by means of two different GIS-based geomorphological approaches using digital elevation models (DEMs, in an attempt to find hydrologically meaningful potential riparian zones for river networks at the river basin scale. Objective quantification of the performance of the two geomorphologic models is provided by analysing coinciding and exceeding areas with respect to the 50-yr flood surface in different river geomorphological types.

  10. Riparian zones attenuate nitrogen loss following bark beetle-induced lodgepole pine mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joel A.; Meixner, Thomas; Harpold, Adrian A.; Reed, David E.; Gutmann, Ethan D.; Gaun, Janelle A.; Brooks, Paul D.

    2016-03-01

    A North American bark beetle infestation has killed billions of trees, increasing soil nitrogen and raising concern for N loss impacts on downstream ecosystems and water resources. There is surprisingly little evidence of stream N response in large basins, which may result from surviving vegetation uptake, gaseous loss, or dilution by streamflow from unimpacted stands. Observations are lacking along hydrologic flow paths connecting soils with streams, challenging our ability to determine where and how attenuation occurs. Here we quantified biogeochemical concentrations and fluxes at a lodgepole pine-dominated site where bark beetle infestation killed 50-60% of trees. We used nested observations along hydrologic flow paths connecting hillslope soils to streams of up to third order. We found soil water NO3 concentrations increased 100-fold compared to prior research at this and nearby southeast Wyoming sites. Nitrogen was lost below the major rooting zone to hillslope groundwater, where dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) increased by 3-10 times (mean 1.65 mg L-1) and NO3-N increased more than 100-fold (3.68 mg L-1) compared to preinfestation concentrations. Most of this N was removed as hillslope groundwater drained through riparian soils, and NO3 remained low in streams. DON entering the stream decreased 50% within 5 km downstream, to concentrations typical of unimpacted subalpine streams (~0.3 mg L-1). Although beetle outbreak caused hillslope N losses similar to other disturbances, up to 5.5 kg ha-1y-1, riparian and in-stream removal limited headwater catchment export to <1 kg ha-1y-1. These observations suggest riparian removal was the dominant mechanism preventing hillslope N loss from impacting streams.

  11. Modeling Phosphorus Capture by Plants Growing in a Multispecies Riparian Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore P uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126 d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. Model estimates of P uptake from pure stands of smooth brome and cottonwood were 18.9 and 24.5 kg ha−1, respectively. Uptake estimates for mixed stands of trees and grasses were intermediate to pure stands. A single factor sensitivity analysis of parameters used to calculate P uptake for each cover type indicated that Imax, k, ro, and Lo were consistently the most responsive to changes ranging from −50% to +100%. Model exploration of P uptake as a function of soil depth interval indicated that uptake was highest in the 0–30 cm intervals, with values ranging from 85% of total for cottonwood to 56% for switchgrass.

  12. Flow Hydrodynamics across Open Channel Flows with Riparian Zones: Implications for Riverbank Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Riverbank vegetation is of high importance both for preserving the form (morphology and function (ecology of natural river systems. Revegetation of riverbanks is commonly used as a means of stream rehabilitation and management of bank instability and erosion. In this experimental study, the effect of different riverbank vegetation densities on flow hydrodynamics across the channel, including the riparian zone, are reported and discussed. The configuration of vegetation elements follows either linear or staggered arrangements as vegetation density is progressively increased, within a representative range of vegetation densities found in nature. Hydrodynamic measurements including mean streamwise velocity and turbulent intensity flow profiles are recorded via acoustic Doppler velocimetry (ADV—both at the main channel and within the riverbank. These results show that for the main channel and the toe of riverbank, turbulence intensity for the low densities (λ ≈ 0 to 0.12 m−1 can increase up to 40% compared the case of high densities (λ = 0.94 to 1.9 m−1. Further analysis of these data allowed the estimation of bed-shear stresses, demonstrating 86% and 71% increase at the main channel and near the toe region, for increasing densities (λ = 0 to 1.9 m−1. Quantifying these hydrodynamic effects is important for assessing the contribution of physically representative ranges of riparian vegetation densities on hydrogeomorphologic feedback.

  13. Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Dick L. Fowler

    2010-01-01

    Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the...

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  17. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    ”. In contrast, the human economic sphere is a space where “the market” rules. Buffer zones exist to help separate and shield “nature” from the human economy and yet establish a link or corridor between society and nature. Therefore buffer zones are expected to combine, embody and fulfill policy objectives...... of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...... the dual purpose of conservation and sustainable livelihoods....

  18. Stacking by electroinjection with discontinuous buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihabi, Zak K

    2002-08-01

    The work presented here demonstrates that electroinjection can be performed using discontinuous buffers, which can result in better stacking than that obtained by hydrodynamic injection. The sample can be concentrated at the tip of the capillary leaving practically the whole capillary for sample separation. This results in several advantages, such as better sample concentration, higher plate number and shorter time of stacking. However, sample introduction by electromigration is suited for samples free or low in salt content. Samples, which are high in salt content, are better introduced by the hydrodynamic injection for stacking by the discontinuous buffers. Different simple methods to introduce the discontinuity in the buffer for electroinjection are discussed.

  19. Delineation of the riparian zone in data-scarce regions using fuzzy membership functions: An evaluation based on the case of the Naryn River in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Florian; Lauermann, Magdalena; Cyffka, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Riparian zones contain important ecosystems with a high biodiversity and relevant ecosystem services. From a process point of view, riparian zones are characterized by the interaction of hydrological, geomorphological and ecological processes. Consequently, their boundary is dynamic and blurred as it depends on not only the local valley morphology but also the hydrological regime. This makes a delineation of riparian zones from digital elevation data a challenging task as it should represent this blurred nature of riparian zone boundaries. While the application of high resolution topography from LIDAR and hydraulic models have become standard in many developed countries, studies and applications in remote areas still commonly rely on the freely available coarse resolution digital elevation models. In this article, we present the delineation of riparian zones from the SRTM-1 elevation model and fuzzy membership functions for the Naryn River in Kyrgyzstan having a length of approximately 700 km. We evaluate the extraction of the underlying channel network as well as the different indicator variables. The maximum user's accuracy for the delineation of riparian zones along the entire Naryn River is 82.14% reflecting the uncertainty arising from the heterogeneity of the riverscape as well as from the quality of the underlying elevation data. Despite the uncertainty, the fuzzy membership approach is considered as an appropriate method for riparian zone delineation as it reflects their dynamic, transitional character and can be used as indicator of connectivity within a riverscape.

  20. A Study on Establishment of Buffer Zone of Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Park, Joo Wan; Ju, Min Su; Kim, Chang Lak; Park, Jin Baek

    2008-01-01

    A new proposed repository has a final capacity of 800,000 drums radioactive waste. Most of foreign repositories have a general practice of segregating control zones which mainly contributes to classification of degree of control, whether it is called buffer zone or not. Domestic regulatory requirements of establishment of buffer zone in a repository are not much different from those of nuclear power plants for operation period, in which satisfactory design objective or performance objective is the most important factor in determination of the buffer zone. The meaning of buffer zone after closure is a minimum requested area which can prevent inadvertent intruders from leading to non-allowable exposure during institutional control period. Safety assessment with drinking well scenario giving rise to the highest probability of exposure among the intruder's actions can verify fulfillment of the buffer zone which is determined by operational safety of the repository. At present. for the repository to be constructed in a few years, the same procedure and concept as described in this paper are applied that can satisfy regulatory requirements and radiological safety as well. However, the capacity of the repository will be stepwise extended upto 800,000 drums, consequently its layout will be varied too. Timely considerations will be necessary for current boundary of the buffer zone which has been established on the basis of 100,000 drums disposal.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Percent Stream Buffer Zone As Natural Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentage of land area within a 30 meter buffer zone along the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) high resolution stream network,...

  2. Directions for Determining Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation with Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffer zones for commodity and food handling structural applications are distributed across numerous tables. This document provides directions for determining the factors to use to identify the correct table for a given application.

  3. Can behaviour buffer the impacts of climate change on an arid-zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Can behaviour buffer the impacts of climate change on an arid-zone bird? ... These could include reduced opportunity for foraging, breeding or territorial defence, each ... We investigated patterns of microclimate use and foraging behaviour by ...

  4. Controls on denitrification potential in nitrate-rich waterways and riparian zones of an irrigated agricultural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Alex J; Groffman, Peter M; Cadenasso, Mary L

    2018-02-21

    Denitrification, the microbial conversion of NO 3 - to N gases, is an important process contributing to whether lotic and riparian ecosystems act as sinks for excess NO 3 - from agricultural activities. Though agricultural waterways and riparian zones have been a focus of denitrification research for decades, almost none of this research has occurred in the irrigated agricultural settings of arid and semi-arid climates. In this study, we conducted a broad survey of denitrification potential in riparian soils and channel sediment from 79 waterway reaches in the irrigated agricultural landscape of California's Central Valley. With this approach, we sought to capture the wide range of variation that arose from diverse waterway management and fluctuating flow conditions, and use this variation to identify promising management interventions. We explored associations of denitrification potentials with surface water NO 3 - -N, organic matter, flow conditions, vegetation cover, near-channel riparian bank slope, and channel geomorphic features using generalized linear mixed models. We found strong associations of sediment denitrification potentials with reach flow conditions, which we hypothesize was the result of variation in microbial communities' tolerance to dry-wet cycles. Denitrification potentials in riparian soils, in contrast, did not appear affected by flow conditions, but instead were associated with organic matter, vegetation cover, and bank slope in the riparian zone. These results suggest a strong need for further work on how denitrification responds to varying flow conditions and dry-wet cycles in non-perennial lotic ecosystems. Our findings also demonstrate that denitrifier communities respond to key features of waterway management, which can therefore be leveraged to control denitrification through a variety of management actions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Dynamics and mitigation of six pesticides in a "Wet" forest buffer zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeport, Elodie; Richard, Benjamin; Chaumont, Cédric; Margoum, Christelle; Liger, Lucie; Gril, Jean-Joël; Tournebize, Julien

    2014-04-01

    Pesticide pollution is one of the main current threats on water quality. This paper presents the potential and functioning principles of a "Wet" forest buffer zone for reducing concentrations and loads of glyphosate, isoproturon, metazachlor, azoxystrobin, epoxiconazole, and cyproconazole. A tracer injection experiment was conducted in the field in a forest buffer zone at Bray (France). A fine time-scale sampling enabled to illustrate that interactions between pesticides and forest buffer substrates (soil and organic-rich litter layer), had a retarding effect on molecule transfer. Low concentrations were observed for all pesticides at the forest buffer outlet thus demonstrating the efficiency of "Wet" forest buffer zone for pesticide dissipation. Pesticide masses injected in the forest buffer inlet directly determined concentration peaks observed at the outlet. Rapid and partially reversible adsorption was likely the major process affecting pesticide transfer for short retention times (a few hours to a few days). Remobilization of metazachlor, isoproturon, desmethylisoproturon, and AMPA was observed when non-contaminated water flows passed through the forest buffer. Our data suggest that pesticide sorption properties alone could not explain the complex reaction mechanisms that affected pesticide transfer in the forest buffer. Nevertheless, the thick layer of organic matter litter on the top of the forest soil was a key parameter, which enhanced partially reversible sorption of pesticide, thus retarded their transfer, decreased concentration peaks, and likely increased degradation of the pesticides. Consequently, to limit pesticide pollution transported by surface water, the use of already existing forest areas as buffer zones should be equally considered as the most commonly implemented grass buffer strips.

  6. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boček, Petr; Gebauer, Petr; Beckers, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2001), s. 1106-1111 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031103; GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA ČR GA203/01/0401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : phthalate buffer * system peaks * electromigration dispersion Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001

  7. The adsorption/desorption of phosphorus in freshwater sediments from buffer zones: the effects of sediment concentration and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Du, Yun; Du, Chao; Xu, Meng; Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2016-01-01

    Riparian buffer zones adjacent to reservoirs and lakes protect aquatic ecosystems from polluted surface runoff. Sediments, collected from the buffer zones of Danjiangkou Reservoir (SR) and Honghu Lake (SL) in an ecologically fragile region in central China, were evaluated to reveal their phosphorus-adsorbing/desorbing properties and storage capacities. A nonlinear regression method was used to fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic and the modified crossover-type Langmuir isotherm models to the experimental data. It is shown that the adsorption of phosphorus onto the studied sediments followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic expression. The modified crossover-type Langmuir isotherm model was found to be a suitable method for describing adsorption/desorption processes in the experimental sediments. The maximum adsorption capacities (Q m), partitioning coefficients (K p), native adsorbed exchangeable phosphorus (NAP), and equilibrium phosphorus concentration (EPC0) were subsequently obtained for the experimental sediments. The effects of sediment concentration and pH were also investigated by batch experiments and Fourier transformation infrared and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The adsorption/desorption characteristics of different phosphate species on the sediments from reservoir and lake buffer zones were identified.

  8. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds – a review of the scientific literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone

  9. Primavera Ring. Management perspectives on La Primavera forest buffer zone, from the cultural landscapes approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Alcocer Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current article intends to high light the need to implement a buffer zone for La Primavera Forest,  Biosphere reserve MaB UNESCO in Guadalajara, Jalisco. The criteria to develop this transition zone is based on understanding this territory as a Cultural Landscape. Seeking common ground between Biosphere Reserves and Cultural Landscapes criteria to organize the management and development of the buffer zone. To understand the opponents of city development and forest preservation as complementary elements, a paradigm shift is needed. This is an applied research from the ITESO, and it is structured as a Think Tank that involves society, government and academy.

  10. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Peifang Wang; Lingxiao Ren; Chao Wang; Jin Qian; Jun Hou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River). Va...

  11. Influence of buffer zone concentrations on efficiency in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, D; Kolb, S; Welsch, T

    2001-05-04

    The potential of counter pressure-moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC) was investigated in this work. Plate numbers of homologous omega-phenylalcohols were measured in a two-plug PF-MEKC system varying the concentrations and hence the ionic strengths of the background buffer compared to the sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing separation buffer and the counter pressure on the cathodic buffer reservoir. It was observed that plate numbers are strongly influenced by both the buffer concentrations and the counter pressure. Highest plate numbers were obtained with a buffer system where the concentrations are adjusted such that the electroosmotic flow velocities in both zones are equal. Differences in the local electroosmotic flow velocities of the zones caused by different buffer concentrations are responsible for tremendously reduced plate numbers. The efficiency drop is explained in several models by the formation of an intersegmental pressure which produces a parabolically shaped laminar flow component in both zones. Thus, the electroosmotic plug-like flow profile is distorted and the efficiency is reduced. The effect of counter pressure on efficiency turned out to be very complex in dependence on the buffer system applied.

  12. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-09

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission.

  13. Beyond buffer zone protection: a comparative study of park and buffer zone products' importance to villagers living inside Royal Chitwan National Park and to villagers living in its buffer zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straede, Steffen; Treue, Thorsten

    2006-02-01

    Even after 30 years of strict de jure protection, today's de facto extraction of products from Nepal's Royal Chitwan National Park (RCNP) and their great economic importance to local households suggests that this reality should be explicitly internalised in managing this world heritage park. Several studies have quantified local people's use of protected areas and estimated the value of such areas to them. However, few studies incorporate economic analyses to investigate the effect of management interventions on local communities' resource use and collection behaviour. In Nepal, buffer zones and especially buffer zone community forestry are seen as means to define and demarcate places, where local people may legally extract goods that are either identical to or relevant substitutes for products that are collected in protected areas. The intention is to resolve park-people conflicts over resource use. This article presents the findings of an in-depth study of the importance of natural resources to the livelihoods of 18 households. One village was located inside RCNP with no realistic alternatives to Park resources, while the other is located in the buffer zone with equal distance to the Park, a national forest and their community forest. For each household, the collection of products, allocation of time, and purchase and sale of goods were recorded daily through 12 consecutive months and economic values were calculated on the basis of local market prices and recorded quantities. The study shows that products from RCNP are of great importance to the livelihoods of local people. Furthermore, we find that products collected in the national forest substitute products from the Park, while the substitution effect of the community forest is small. Accordingly, the study illustrates that, irrespective of buffer zone community forestry, there is still a gap between local people's need for supplementing natural resources and their rights to satisfy them on a legal basis

  14. Water and vapor transfer in vadose zone of Gobi desert and riparian in the hyper arid environment of Ejina, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, C.; Yu, J.; Sun, F.; Liu, X.

    2015-12-01

    To reveal how water and vapor transfer in vadose zone affect evapotranspiration in Gobi desert and riparian in hyper arid region is important for understanding eco-hydrological process. Field studies and numerical simulations were imported to evaluate the water and vapor movement processes under non isothermal and lower water content conditions. The soil profiles (12 layers) in Gobi desert and riparian sites of Ejina were installed with sensors to monitor soil moisture and temperature for 1 year. The meteorological conditions and water table were measured by micro weather stations and mini-Divers respectively in the two sites. Soil properties, including particles composition, moisture, bulk density, water retention curve, and saturated hydraulic conductivity of two site soil profiles, was measured. The observations showed that soil temperatures for the two sites displayed large diurnal and seasonal fluctuations. Temperature gradients with depth resulted in a downward in summer and upward in winter and became driving force for thermal vapor movement. Soil moistures in Gobi desert site were very low and varied slowly with time. While the soil moistures in riparian site were complicated due to root distribution but water potentials remained uniform with time. The hydrus-1D was employed to simulate evapotranspiration processes. The simulation results showed the significant difference of evaporation rate in the Gobi desert and riparian sites.

  15. Revegetation of the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir leads to increased soil bacterial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qingshui; Li, Changxiao; Yang, Wenhang; Song, Hong; Ma, Peng; Wang, Chaoying; Schneider, Rebecca L; Morreale, Stephen J

    2018-06-06

    As one of the most active components in soil, bacteria can affect soil physicochemical properties, its biological characteristics, and even its quality and health. We characterized dynamics of the soil bacterial diversity in planted (with Taxodium distichum) and unplanted soil in the riparian zone of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR), in southwestern China, in order to accurately quantify the changes in long-term soil bacterial community structure after revegetation. Measurements were taken annually in situ in the TGDR over the course of 5 years, from 2012 to 2016. Soil chemical properties and bacterial diversity were analyzed in both the planted and unplanted soil. After revegetation, the soil chemical properties in planted soil were significantly different than in unplanted soil. The effects of treatment, time, and the interaction of both time and treatment had significant impacts on most diversity indices. Specifically, the bacterial community diversity indices in planted soil were significantly higher and more stable than that in unplanted soil. The correlation analyses indicated that the diversity indices correlated with the pH value, organic matter, and soil available nutrients. After revegetation in the riparian zone of the TGDR, the soil quality and health is closely related to the observed bacterial diversity, and a higher bacterial diversity avails the maintenance of soil functionality. Thus, more reforestation should be carried out in the riparian zone of the TGDR, so as to effectively mitigate the negative ecological impacts of the dam. Vegetating the reservoir banks with Taxodium distichum proved successful, but planting mixed stands of native tree species could promote even higher riparian soil biodiversity and improved levels of ecosystem functioning within the TGDR.

  16. Potential for long-term transfer of dissolved organic carbon from riparian zones to streams in boreal catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, José L J; Grabs, Thomas; Bishop, Kevin H; Schiff, Sherry L; Köhler, Stephan J

    2015-08-01

    Boreal regions store most of the global terrestrial carbon, which can be transferred as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to inland waters with implications for both aquatic ecology and carbon budgets. Headwater riparian zones (RZ) are important sources of DOC, and often just a narrow 'dominant source layer' (DSL) within the riparian profile is responsible for most of the DOC export. Two important questions arise: how long boreal RZ could sustain lateral DOC fluxes as the sole source of exported carbon and how its hydromorphological variability influences this role. We estimate theoretical turnover times by comparing carbon pools and lateral exports in the DSL of 13 riparian profiles distributed over a 69 km(2) catchment in northern Sweden. The thickness of the DSL was 36 ± 18 (average ± SD) cm. Thus, only about one-third of the 1-m-deep riparian profile contributed 90% of the lateral DOC flux. The 13 RZ exported 8.7 ± 6.5 g C m(-2) year(-1) , covering the whole range of boreal stream DOC exports. The variation could be explained by local hydromorphological characteristics including RZ width (R(2) = 0.90). The estimated theoretical turnover times were hundreds to a few thousands of years, that is there is a potential long-lasting supply of DOC. Estimates of net ecosystem production in the RZ suggest that lateral fluxes, including both organic and inorganic C, could be maintained without drawing down the riparian pools. This was supported by measurements of stream DO(14) C that indicated modern carbon as the predominant fraction exported, including streams disturbed by ditching. The transfer of DOC into boreal inland waters from new and old carbon sources has a major influence on surface water quality and global carbon balances. This study highlights the importance of local variations in RZ hydromorphology and DSL extent for future DOC fluxes under a changing climate. © 2015 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. From soil water to surface water – how the riparian zone controls element transport from a boreal forest to a stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lidman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Boreal headwaters are often lined by strips of highly organic soils, which are the last terrestrial environment to leave an imprint on discharging groundwater before it enters a stream. Because these riparian soils are so different from the Podzol soils that dominate much of the boreal landscape, they are known to have a major impact on the biogeochemistry of important elements such as C, N, P and Fe and the transfer of these elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. For most elements, however, the role of the riparian zone has remained unclear, although it should be expected that the mobility of many elements is affected by changes in, for example, pH, redox potential and concentration of organic carbon as they are transported through the riparian zone. Therefore, soil water and groundwater was sampled at different depths along a 22 m hillslope transect in the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden using soil lysimeters and analysed for a large number of major and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr and other parameters such as sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC. The results showed that the concentrations of most investigated elements increased substantially (up to 60 times as the water flowed from the uphill mineral soils and into the riparian zone, largely as a result of higher TOC concentrations. The stream water concentrations of these elements were typically somewhat lower than in the riparian zone, but still considerably higher than in the uphill mineral soils, which suggests that riparian soils have a decisive impact on the water quality of boreal streams. The degree of enrichment in the riparian zone for different elements could be linked to the affinity for organic matter, indicating that the pattern with strongly elevated concentrations in riparian soils is typical for organophilic substances. One likely explanation is that the

  18. Nitrous oxide emission hotspots and acidic soil denitrification in a riparian buffer zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential of 296 CO2 equivalents and is involved in the depletion of the ozone layer. Through studies on emission sources it was revealed that natural and agricultural soils are important sources of N2O emissions and are responsible for

  19. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  20. Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Flury, Bastian; Viviano, Gaetano; Thakuri, Sudeep; Khanal, Sanjay Nath; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Kafle, Kumud Raj; Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Ghimire, Narayan Prasad; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Chaudhary, Gyanendra; Giannino, Francesco; Carteni, Fabrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Salerno, Franco

    2010-01-01

    The problem of supporting decision- and policy-makers in managing issues related to solid waste and water quality was addressed within the context of a participatory modeling framework in the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal. We present the main findings of management-oriented

  1. The use of staggered scheme and an absorbing buffer zone for computational aeroacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    1995-01-01

    Various problems from those proposed for the Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA) workshop were studied using second and fourth order staggered spatial discretizations in conjunction with fourth order Runge-Kutta time integration. In addition, an absorbing buffer zone was used at the outflow boundaries. Promising results were obtained and provide a basis for application of these techniques to a wider variety of problems.

  2. Variable Width Riparian Model Enhances Landscape and Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.; Spencer, L.

    2017-12-01

    Riparian areas are ecotones that represent about 1% of USFS administered landscape and contribute to numerous valuable ecosystem functions such as wildlife habitat, stream water quality and flows, bank stability and protection against erosion, and values related to diversity, aesthetics and recreation. Riparian zones capture the transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with specific vegetation and soil characteristics which provide critical values/functions and are very responsive to changes in land management activities and uses. Two staff areas at the US Forest Service have coordinated on a two phase project to support the National Forests in their planning revision efforts and to address rangeland riparian business needs at the Forest Plan and Allotment Management Plan levels. The first part of the project will include a national fine scale (USGS HUC-12 digits watersheds) inventory of riparian areas on National Forest Service lands in western United States with riparian land cover, utilizing GIS capabilities and open source geospatial data. The second part of the project will include the application of riparian land cover change and assessment based on selected indicators to assess and monitor riparian areas on annual/5-year cycle basis.This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional nature of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process. The results suggest that incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning can improve riparian protection and restoration. The application of Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) approach can provide the agency Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) with observed riparian area condition on an annual basis and on multiple scales. The use of this model to map moderate to low gradient systems of sufficient width in conjunction with an understanding of the influence of distinctive landscape

  3. [Transportation and risk assessment of heavy metal pollution in water-soil from the Riparian Zone of Daye Lake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-quan; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Quan-fa; Li, Qiong; Xiao, Wen-sheng; Wang, Yong-kui; Zhang, Jian-chun; Gai, Xi-guang

    2015-01-01

    Each 20 water samples and soil samples (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm) were collected from the riparian zone of Daye Lake in dry season during March 2013. Heavy metals (Cu, Ph, Cd, Zn) have been detected by flame atomic absorption spectrometric (FAAS). The results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in the water were 7.14, 25.94, 15.72 and 37.58 microg x L(-1), respectively. The concentration of Cu was higher than the five degree of the surface water environment quality standard. The average concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn in soil(0-10 cm) were 108.38, 53.92, 3.55, 139.26 mg x kg(-1) in soil (10-20 cm) were 93.00, 51.72, 2.08, 171.00 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The Cd concentrations were higher than the three grade value of the national soil environment quality standard. The transportation of Pb from soil to water was relatively stable, and Zn was greatly influenced by soil property and the surrounding environment from soil to water. The transformation of heavy metal in west riparian zone was higher than that of east riparian zone. The potential environmental risk was relatively high. Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn were dominated by residue fraction of the modified BCR sequential extraction method. The overall migration order of heavy metal element was: Pb > Cu > Cd > Zn. There were stronger transformation and higher environmental pollution risk of Cu, Pb. The index of assessment and potential ecological risk coefficient indicated that heavy metal pollution in soil (0-10 cm) was higher than the soil (10-20 cm), Cd was particularly serious.

  4. 30 CFR 761.15 - Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for waiving the prohibition on surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. 761.15 Section 761.15... surface coal mining operations within the buffer zone of an occupied dwelling. (a) This section does not...

  5. Kajian Tanah di Kawasan Penyangga (Buffer Zone) Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser Kecamatan Sei Bingei Kabupaten LangkatBerdasarkan Toposekuen

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson

    2012-01-01

    Penelitian dilaksanakan di daerah penyangga (buffer zone) Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser tepatnya di daerah Pamah Semilir Keeamatan Sei Bingei Kabupaten Langkat. Tujuan Penelitian ini adalah untuk mengklasifIkasikan tanah yang terdapat di kawasan penyangga (buffer zone) Taman Nasional Gunung Leuser pada toposekuen menurut Soil Taxonomy USDA 1998 sampai tingkat sub grup. 950303003

  6. Using fluorescent dyes as proxies to study herbicide removal by sorption in buffer zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, Jeanne; Dagès, Cécile; Voltz, Marc

    2017-04-01

    The performance of buffer zones for removing pesticides from runoff water varies greatly according to landscape settings, hydraulic regime, and system design. Evaluating the performance of buffers for a range of pesticides and environmental conditions can be very expensive. Recent studies suggested that the fluorescent dyes uranine and sulforhodamine B could be used as cost-effective surrogates of herbicides to evaluate buffer performance. However, while transformation mechanisms in buffers have been extensively documented, sorption processes of both dyes have rarely been investigated. In this study, we measured the adsorption, desorption, and kinetic sorption coefficients of uranine and sulforhodamine B for a diverse range of buffer zone materials (soils, litters, plants) and compared the adsorption coefficients (Kd) to those of selected herbicides. We also compared the global sorption capacity of 6 ditches, characterized by varying proportions of the aforementioned materials, between both dyes and a set of four herbicides using the sorption-induced pesticide retention indicator (SPRI). We found that both the individual Kd of uranine for the diverse buffer materials and the global sorption capacity of the ditches are equivalent to those of the herbicides diuron, isoproturon, and metolachlor. The Kd of sulforhodamine B on plants and soils are equivalent to those of glyphosate, and the global sorption capacities of the ditches are equivalent for both molecules. Hence, we demonstrate for the first time that uranine can be used as a proxy of moderately hydrophobic herbicides to evaluate the performance of buffer systems, whereas sulforhodamine B can serve as a proxy for more strongly sorbing herbicides.

  7. Geomorphic controls on Great Basin riparian vegetation at the watershed and process zone scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake Meneken Engelhardt

    2009-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems supply valuable resources in all landscapes, but especially in semiarid regions such as the Great Basin of the western United States. Over half of Great Basin streams are thought to be in poor ecological condition and further deterioration is of significant concern to stakeholders. A thorough understanding of how physical processes acting at...

  8. [Relationship between groundwater quality index of nutrition element and organic matter in riparian zone and water quality in river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-Shan, Xu; Tong-Qian, Zhao; Hong-Q, Meng; Zong-Xue, Xu; Chao-Hon, Ma

    2011-04-01

    Riparian zone hydrology is dominated by shallow groundwater with complex interactions between groundwater and surface water. There are obvious relations of discharge and recharge between groundwater and surface water. Flood is an important hydrological incident that affects groundwater quality in riparian zone. By observing variations of physical and chemical groundwater indicators in riparian zone at the Kouma section of the Yellow River Wetland, especially those took place in the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, relationship between the groundwater quality in riparian zone and the flood water quality in the river is studied. Results show that there will be great risk of nitrogen, phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and organic matter permeating into the groundwater if floodplain changes into farmland. As the special control unit of nitrogen pollution between rivers and artificial wetlands, dry fanning areas near the river play a very important role in nitrogen migration between river and groundwater. Farm manure as base fertilizer may he an important source of phosphorus leak and loss at the artificial wetlands. Phosphorus leaks into the groundwater and is transferred along the hydraulic gradient, especially during the period of regulation for water and sediment at the Xiaolangdi Reservoir. The land use types and farming systems of the riparian floodplain have a major impact on the nitrate nitrogen contents of the groundwater. Nitrogen can infiltrate and accumulate quickly at anaerobic conditions in the fish pond area, and the annual nitrogen achieves a relatively balanced state in lotus area. In those areas, the soil is flooded and at anaerobic condition in spring and summer, nitrogen infiltrates and denitrification significantly, but soil is not flooded and at aerobic condition in the autumn and winter, and during these time, a significant nitrogen nitrification process occurs. In the area between 50 m and 200 m from the river

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  12. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  14. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  15. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  16. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  17. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  18. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  3. River food web response to large-scale riparian zone manipulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Timothy Wootton

    Full Text Available Conservation programs often focus on select species, leading to management plans based on the autecology of the focal species, but multiple ecosystem components can be affected both by the environmental factors impacting, and the management targeting, focal species. These broader effects can have indirect impacts on target species through the web of interactions within ecosystems. For example, human activity can strongly alter riparian vegetation, potentially impacting both economically-important salmonids and their associated river food web. In an Olympic Peninsula river, Washington state, USA, replicated large-scale riparian vegetation manipulations implemented with the long-term (>40 yr goal of improving salmon habitat did not affect water temperature, nutrient limitation or habitat characteristics, but reduced canopy cover, causing reduced energy input via leaf litter, increased incident solar radiation (UV and PAR and increased algal production compared to controls. In response, benthic algae, most insect taxa, and juvenile salmonids increased in manipulated areas. Stable isotope analysis revealed a predominant contribution of algal-derived energy to salmonid diets in manipulated reaches. The experiment demonstrates that riparian management targeting salmonids strongly affects river food webs via changes in the energy base, illustrates how species-based management strategies can have unanticipated indirect effects on the target species via the associated food web, and supports ecosystem-based management approaches for restoring depleted salmonid stocks.

  4. Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Baas; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Daniel Markewitz; Jacqueline E. Mohan

    2017-01-01

    The critical role streamside riparian zones play in mitigating the movement of nitrogen (N) and other elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems could be threatened by residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Many studies have investigated the influence of agriculture on N loading to streams but less is known about the impacts of residential...

  5. Simultaneous determination of phenylethanoid glycosides and aglycones by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuqing; Gao, Ruibin; Yang, Yan; Guo, Mei; Ni, Jingman; Zhao, Liang

    2014-03-15

    Although the separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis (CE) is much higher than that of other chromatographic methods, it is sometimes difficult to adequately separate the complex ingredients in biological samples. This article describes how one effective and simple way to develop the separation efficiency in CE is to add some modifiers to the running buffer. The suitable running buffer modifier β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was explored to fast and completely separate four phenylethanoid glycosides and aglycones (homovanillyl alcohol, hydroxytyrosol, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamic acid, and caffeic acid) in Lamiophlomis rotata (Lr) and Cistanche by capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet (UV) detection. It was found that when β-CD was used as running buffer modifier, a baseline separation of the four analytes could be accomplished in less than 20 min and the detection limits were as low as 10(-3) mg L(-1). Other factors affecting the CE separation, such as working potential, pH value and ionic strength of running buffer, separation voltage, and sample injection time, were investigated extensively. Under the optimal conditions, a successful practical application on the determination of Lr and Cistanche samples confirmed the validity and practicability of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous determination of flavonoids in chrysanthemum by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan; Dong, Shuqing; Chi, Langzhu; He, Pingang; Wang, Qingjiang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2008-08-15

    Despite the separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis (CE) is much higher than other chromatographic methods, it is sometimes difficult to perfectly separate the complex ingredients in biological samples. One possible and simple way to develop the separation effect in CE is to add some modifiers in the running buffer. In this paper, the suitable running buffer modifiers were explored to simultaneously separate and detect six typical flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin) which are the main active ingredients in chrysanthemum by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD). It was found that when beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and the mixture of methanol and ethanol were used as running buffer modifiers, a baseline separation of the six analytes could be accomplished in less than 20 min and the detection limits were as low as 10(-7) or 10(-8)gm l(-1). Other factors affecting the CZE separation, such as working potential, pH value and ionic strength of running buffer, separation voltage and sample injection time were extensively investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a successful practical application on the determination of chrysanthemum samples confirmed the validity and practicability of this method.

  7. Defining context-specific scenarios to design vegetated buffer zones that limit pesticide transfer via surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carluer, N; Lauvernet, C; Noll, D; Munoz-Carpena, R

    2017-01-01

    When used in addition to environmentally friendly cultural practices, buffer zones can limit the water transfer of pollutants, in particular pesticides, towards water resources. The choice of the buffer zones' type and positioning, considering water pathways and flow components, is crucial. When this choice has been performed, buffer zones dimensions must still be optimized, according to the environment characteristics, which strongly influence their effectiveness. This article presents a method and its associated tools, including VFSMOD model, which aim at optimizing vegetative buffer zones (VFS) sizes, by simulating their transfer mitigation effectiveness. A first application of this methodology is illustrated on a small agricultural watershed in Brittany. A second application, based on the simulation of a large number of scenarios, leads to the elaboration of nomograms. They allow optimizing VFS size in a simpler way from the user's point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cascade-pond System Health Assessment Based on Macroinvertebrate Indices and Its Relationship with Impervious Cover and Aquatic Buffer Zone in Urbanized Catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Faris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cascade-pond system consists of six ponds located at Universitas Indonesia Campus, Depok. Its catchment area is dominated by high density urban area with moderate to high imperviousness. Some of riparian buffers surrounds six ponds are also occupied by high imperviousness that may lead some ecohydrological problems i.e. water quality degradation, declining freshwater biodiversity and food web changes. The aim of this study is assessing the current state of cascade-pond system health. The assessment of macroinvertebrate indices is based on SingScore that have been developed by Public Utilities Board of Singapore for macroinvertebrate biotic index. Impervious cover data is obtained from high-resolution imageries and processed using ArcGIS 10.5. Qualitative statistics methods, Chi-squared test describes the relationship of macroinvertebrate indices with catchment area imperviousness and aquatic buffer zone. The health assessment based on macroinvertebrates indices shows that the lower ponds are relatively healthier than the upper one. There is also any significant relationship between macroinvertebrate indices with impervious cover based on chi square test and cross tabulation analysis.

  9. The importance of riparian zones on stream carbon and nitrogen export in a temperate, agricultural dominated landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfart, T; Exbrayat, J F; Schelde, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    The surrounding landscape of a stream has crucial impacts on the aquatic environment. This study pictures the hydro-biogeochemical situation of the Tyrebaekken creek catchment in central Jutland, Denmark. The intensively managed agricultural landscape is dominated by rotational croplands. One...... northern and one southern stream run through the catchment before converging to form a second order brook. The small catchments mainly consist of sandy soil types besides organic soils along the riparian zone of the streams. The aim of the study was to characterise the relative influence of soil type...... and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were measured and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated for each grabbed sample. Electro-conductivity, pH and flow velocity were measured during sampling. Statistical analyses showed significant differences between the northern, southern and converged...

  10. Methane emission in a specific riparian-zone sediment decreased with bioelectrochemical manipulation and corresponded to the microbial community dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot S. Friedman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria are widespread in terrestrial ecosystems, especially in anaerobic soils and sediments. Thermodynamically, dissimilatory metal reduction is more favorable than sulfate reduction and methanogenesis but less favorable than denitrification and aerobic respiration. It is critical to understand the complex relationships, including the absence or presence of terminal electron acceptors, that govern microbial competition and coexistence in anaerobic soils and sediments, because subsurface microbial processes can effect greenhouse gas emissions from soils, possibly resulting in impacts at the global scale. Here, we elucidated the effect of an inexhaustible, ferrous-iron and humic-substance mimicking terminal electron acceptor by deploying potentiostatically poised electrodes in the sediment of a very specific stream riparian zone in Upstate New York state. At two sites within the same stream riparian zone during the course of six weeks in the spring of 2013, we measured CH4 and N2/N2O emissions from soil chambers containing either poised or unpoised electrodes, and we harvested biofilms from the electrodes to quantify microbial community dynamics. At the upstream site, which had a lower vegetation cover and highest soil temperatures, the poised electrodes inhibited CH4 emissions by ~45% (when normalized to remove temporal effects. CH4 emissions were not significantly impacted at the downstream site. N2/N2O emissions were generally low at both sites and were not impacted by poised electrodes. We did not find a direct link between bioelectrochemical treatment and microbial community membership; however, we did find a correspondence between environment/function and microbial community dynamics.

  11. Riparian Habitat Management for Mammals on Corps of Engineers Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Chester

    2002-01-01

    .... This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian ecosystems to mammals, discusses regional variation in mammal communities characteristic of riparian zones, identifies potential impacts...

  12. Noise-driven cooperative dynamics between vegetation and topography in riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesipa, Riccardo; Camporeale, Carlo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Riparian ecosystems exhibit complex biotic and abiotic dynamics, where the triad vegetation-sediments-stream determines the eco-geomorphological features of the river landscape. Random fluctuations of the water stage are a key trait of this triad, and a number of behaviors of the fluvial environment can be understood only taking into consideration the role of noise. In fact, in a given plot, vegetation biomass can grow (if the stage is below the plot elevation) or decay (if the stage is above the plot elevation). As a result, biomass exhibits significant temporal variations. In this framework, the capability of vegetation to alter the transect topography (namely, the plot elevation) is crucial. Vegetation can increase the plot elevation by a number of mechanisms (trapping of water- and wind-transported sediment particles, production of organic soil, stabilization of the soil surface). The increment of plot elevation induces the reduction of the plot-specific magnitude, frequency and duration of floods. These more favorable plot-specific hydrological conditions, in turn, induce an increment of biomass. Moreover, the higher the vegetation biomass, the higher the plot elevation increment induced by these mechanisms. In order to elucidate how the stochastically varying water stage and the vegetation-induced topographic alteration shape the bio-morphological characteristics of riparian transects, a stochastic model that takes into account the main links between vegetation, sediments and the stream was adopted. In particular, the capability of vegetation to alter the plot topography was emphasized. In modeling such interactions, the minimalistic approach was pursued. The complex vegetation-sediments-stream interactions were modeled by a set of state-depended stochastic eco-hydraulic equations. The probability density function of vegetation biomass was then analytically evaluated in any transect plot. This pdf strongly depends on the vegetation-topography feedback. We

  13. Contrasting patterns of groundwater evapotranspiration in grass and tree dominated riparian zones of a temperate agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchithanantham, Sanjayan; Wilson, Henry F.; Glenn, Aaron J.

    2017-06-01

    Consumptive use of shallow groundwater by phreatophytic vegetation is a significant part of the water budget in many regions, particularly in riparian areas. The influence of vegetation type on groundwater level fluctuations and evapotranspiration has rarely been quantified for contrasting plant communities concurrently although it has implications for downstream water yield and quality. Hourly groundwater evapotranspiration (ETG) rates were estimated for grass and tree riparian vegetation in southwestern Manitoba, Canada using two modified White methods. Groundwater table depth was monitored in four 21 m transects of five 3 m deep monitoring wells in the riparian zone of a stream reach including tree (Acer negundo; boxelder) and grass (Bromus inermis; smooth brome) dominated segments. The average depths to the groundwater table from the surface were 1.4 m and 1 m for the tree and grass segments, respectively, over the two-year study. During rain free periods of the growing season ETG was estimated for a total of 70 days in 2014 and 79 days in 2015 when diurnal fluctuations were present in groundwater level. Diurnal groundwater level fluctuations were observed during dry periods under both segments, however, ETG was significantly higher (p < 0.001) under trees compared to grass cover in 2014 (a wet year with 72% higher than normal growing season precipitation) and 2015 (a drier year with 15% higher than normal growing season precipitation). The two methods used to estimate ETG produced similar daily and seasonal values for the two segments. In 2014, total ETG was approximately 50% (148 mm) and 100% (282-285 mm) of reference evapotranspiration (ETref, 281 mm) for the grass and tree segments, respectively. In 2015, total ETG was approximately 40% (106-127 mm) and 120% (369-374 mm) of ETref (307 mm) for the grass and tree segments, respectively. Results from the study show the tree dominated portions of the stream reach consumed approximately 2.4 ML ha-1 yr-1 more

  14. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Mikaela J.; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C.

    2016-08-01

    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world—in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km2 of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km2 of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  15. Conservation Beyond Park Boundaries: The Impact of Buffer Zones on Deforestation and Mining Concessions in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Mikaela J; Naughton-Treves, Lisa C

    2016-08-01

    Many researchers have tested whether protected areas save tropical forest, but generally focus on parks and reserves, management units that have internationally recognized standing and clear objectives. Buffer zones have received considerably less attention because of their ambiguous rules and often informal status. Although buffer zones are frequently dismissed as ineffective, they warrant attention given the need for landscape-level approaches to conservation and their prevalence around the world-in Peru, buffer zones cover >10 % of the country. This study examines the effectiveness of buffer zones in the Peruvian Amazon to (a) prevent deforestation and (b) limit the extent of mining concessions. We employ covariate matching to determine the impact of 13 buffer zones on deforestation and mining concessions from 2007 to 2012. Despite variation between sites, these 13 buffer zones have prevented ~320 km(2) of forest loss within their borders during the study period and ~1739 km(2) of mining concessions, an outcome associated with the special approval process for granting formal concessions in these areas. However, a closer look at the buffer zone around the Tambopata National Reserve reveals the difficulties of controlling illegal and informal activities. According to interviews with NGO employees, government officials, and community leaders, enforcement of conservation is limited by uncertain institutional responsibilities, inadequate budgets, and corruption, although formal and community-based efforts to block illicit mining are on the rise. Landscape-level conservation not only requires clear legal protocol for addressing large-scale, formal extractive activities, but there must also be strategies and coordination to combat illegal activities.

  16. Modelagem da retenção de herbicidas em zonas ripárias Modeling of herbicide retention in riparian zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra P. de Pinho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a retenção de atrazina e picloram, transportados via escoamento superficial, em zona ripária. Para isto, simulou-se um escoamento superficial, contendo uma mistura de caulinita, atrazina e picloram, dentro de zonas ripárias estabelecidas ao longo de plantações de pinheiros do Nordeste do Estado da Geórgia, EUA. Cinco parcelas foram instaladas dentro de zonas ripárias, apresentando declividades diferentes (2, 5, 10, 15 e 20%. Os efeitos da umidade do solo e da presença do horizonte O na retenção dos dois herbicidas foram avaliados. Um modelo exponencial, comumente utilizado na estimativa de redução da DBO e de nutrientes em tratamento por escoamento superficial, foi empregado na estimativa de redução de herbicidas e caulinita em zonas ripárias. O modelo possibilitou estimar com razoável precisão, a remoção de caulinita e atrazina da mistura em escoamento ao longo de zonas ripárias de 10 m de comprimento. Em geral, a declividade foi o parâmetro que apresentou melhor correlação com a retenção dos contaminantes presentes na mistura em escoamento na zona ripária. O horizonte O, mais espesso nas maiores declividades, favoreceu tanto a sedimentação da caulinita como a adsorção da atrazina.This work aimed to investigate the retention of atrazine and picloram, carried by surface flow, in riparian zones. The surface flow, containing a mixture of both herbicides and kaolin, was then simulated within riparian zones established in pine plantations in north-eastern Georgia, USA. Five plots were established within riparian zones, each with a different slope (2, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. The influence of the initial moisture and of the O horizon condition in herbicide retention was analyzed. An exponential model, commonly used for the estimate of biochemical demand of oxygen (BOD and nutrients attenuation in overland flow treatment, was used to estimate the attenuation of kaolin and

  17. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ(13)C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m(-2)⋅y(-1). Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of quasi-isoelectric buffers to limit protein adsorption in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitevin, Martine; Hammad, Karim; Ayed, Ichraf; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Peltre, Gabriel; Descroix, Stephanie

    2008-08-01

    The use of quasi-isoelectric buffers consisting of narrow pH cuts of carrier ampholytes (NC) has been investigated to limit protein adsorption on capillary walls during capillary zone electrophoresis experiments. To quantify protein adsorption on the silica surface, a method derived from that of Towns and Regnier has been developed. alpha-Lactalbumin (14 kDa, pI 4.8) and alpha-chymotrypsinogen A (25 kDa, pI 9.2) have been used as model proteins. Acidic narrow pH cuts of carrier ampholytes (NC, pH 3.0) obtained from fractionation of Serva 4-9 carrier ampholytes were used as BGE in bare-silica capillaries, and allowed to decrease significantly protein adsorption, as compared to experiments performed with classical formate buffer. The use of NC as BGE appeared to be as efficient as the use of polydimethylacrylamide coating to prevent protein adsorption. This increase of protein recovery when using NC was attributed to the interaction of carrier ampholytes with the silica surface, leading to a shielding of the capillary wall.

  19. Determination of recombinant hirudin structural deviants by capillary zone electrophoresis augmented with buffer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönges, Reiner; Brazel, Dieter

    2002-12-06

    The polypeptide hirudin is a potent and specific thrombin inhibitor used in anticoagulant therapy and naturally occurring in medicinal leech. Using gene-technology methods, recombinant (r) hirudin can be produced on a large scale. Purity evaluation of the synthesized r-hirudin is essential to monitor co-expressed structural deviants and degradation products before therapeutic use. Although the well established RP-HPLC analysis appears to be the method of choice, in the case of r-hirudin baseline separation of the structural deviants is not necessarily achieved. Capillary zone electrophoresis augmented with buffer additives was used as a complementary technique to separate r-hirudin successfully from several similar species, in order to provide characterization information, as well as performing purity control and stability studies.

  20. Heed the head: buffer benefits along headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Deanna (Dede) Olson

    2015-01-01

    Since the Northwest Forest Plan implemented riparian buffers along non-fish bearing streams in 1994, there have been questions about how wide those buffers need to be to protect aquatic and riparian resources from upland forest management activities. The Density Management and Riparian Buffer Study of western Oregon, also initiated in 1994, examines the effects of...

  1. Evaluation of buffer zone effectiveness in mitigating the risks associated with agricultural runoff in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A M; Julien, G; Ernst, W R; Cook, A; Doe, K G; Jackman, P M

    2011-02-01

    To minimize the risk posed by runoff from row crops, Prince Edward Island introduced buffer legislation in 2000. The legislation mandates 10-m and 20-m buffers, respectively, for moderate sloped (i.e. 5%) agricultural fields that border streams. Since 2001, Environment Canada has been evaluating the effectiveness of various buffer widths on operational farms in reducing toxicity and contaminant concentrations in runoff. Sample collectors, placed in 44 fields at the field edge (0m), 10m and at distances out to 30m, collected overland flow following rainfall-induced runoff events. Samples were collected within 24 hours of an event and analysed for seven pesticides (endosulfan, chlorothalonil, carbofuran, linuron, metribuzin, metalaxyl, mancozeb), water quality parameters and Daphnia magna toxicity. The 10-m buffer required for moderate sloped fields was effective at reducing contaminant concentrations but not always to less than lethal concentrations to Daphnia magna. Limited data beyond 10m for fields of both slope types precluded making recommendations on a suitable buffer width for shallow sloped fields and evaluating the effectiveness of 20-m buffers for steep sloped fields. When paired data were combined and statistically tested for all fields, the studied pesticides underwent a 52-98% and 68-100% reduction in aqueous and particulate concentrations within 10m and 30m, respectively. In addition, by 10m, soluble phosphorus, nitrate-nitrogen and total suspended solids were reduced by 34%, 38% and 64%, respectively. Results suggest buffer zones on operational farms are capable of achieving contaminant reductions comparable to those reported for controlled experiments. Inconsistent siting of sample collectors beyond 10m limited the evaluation of the effects of field slope and buffer width on buffer effectiveness on working farms. Future studies on buffer efficiency on operational farms should focus on building the data set beyond 10m and evaluating load reductions

  2. BOOK REVIEW: STITCHING THE BUFFER ZONE. LANDSCAPES, SOUNDS AND TRANS-EXPERIENCES ALONG THE CYPRUS GREEN LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grichting Solder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The launch of the book “Stitching the Buffer Zone” accompanied an exhibition of the same name at the Artos Gallery in Nicosia, Cyprus. Organized by the ARTos Foundation, the exhibition was part of a larger event entitled “Does Europe exist?” which took place from 1–15 November 2012 within the Cyprus presidency of the EU Council. Stitching the Buffer Zone was a collective exhibit which featured the works and installations of architects and urbanists Anna Grichting Solder, Maria Costi de Castrillo, Stephanie Keszi and Georgia Frangoudi and included models, plans, videos and installations illustrating the design scenarios and architectural and landscapes concepts for the future transformation of the Cyprus Buffer Zone.

  3. Determinants of farmers’ willingness to participate in subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zones - a choice experiment study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Oersted

    2011-01-01

    Danish farmers have been far less interested in agri-environmental subsidy schemes (AES) than anticipated. In order to examine how to improve the appeal of such schemes, a choice experiment was conducted concerning 444 Danish farmers’ preferences for subsidy schemes for pesticide-free buffer zone...

  4. Predicted buffer zones to protect temporary pond invertebrates from ground-based insecticide applications against desert locusts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Gadji, B.; Dia, D.

    2000-01-01

    To estimate safe downwind distances (i.e. buffer zone widths) for temporary ponds from ULV-treatments with current locust insecticides, experimental trials with two ground-based sprayers, the hand-held Micro-Ulva® and the vehicle-mounted Ulva-Mast® X15 Mark I, were conducted with fenitrothion

  5. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  6. Can one invasion lead to another? Niche space and the future of Southwestern U.S. riparian zones

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Reynolds; David Cooper

    2009-01-01

    Background/Question/Methods: Invasive species are increasingly problematic world-wide. Scientists working to understand why invasive species are successful must first understand the processes of invasion. Invasion facilitation and empty niche exploitation are key processes that have not been well-studied in species rich ecosystems such as riparian areas. In the southwestern United States (U.S.) two prominent invaders of riparian habitats are the exotic woody plant species tamarisk (Tamarix ra...

  7. Using biodiversity of diatoms to identify hydrological connectivity in the hillslope-riparian zone-stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, C. E.; Martínez-Carreras, N.; Ector, L.; Hlubikova, D.; Frentress, J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Hoffmann, L.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, there have been increasingly calls for new eco-hydrological approaches to answer questions on water source and connectivity in the landscape. Diatoms are one of the most common and diverse algal groups, and offer the potential for the identification of reproducible flow patterns and a link to underlying watershed behaviour. Our preliminary investigations on the potential for terrestrial diatoms to detect the onset/cessation of surface runoff suggested that diatoms can contribute to confirm or reject the existence of a surface runoff component in total runoff, thereby helping to constrain assumptions made on a potential surface runoff component in a conventional tracer based hydrograph separation. Our investigations currently focus on the Attert River basin (Luxembourg, Europe) and the HJ Andrews experimental forest (Oregon, USA). Here we show results from the schistose Weierbach experimental catchment (0.45 km2), located in the Attert River basin. Ordination analysis revealed a clear distinction between communities belonging to the river bed substrate and the riparian zone. Drift samples corresponding to stream water show a mixed composition of diatoms stemming from the river bed substrate and the riparian zone. Ongoing investigations focus on the composition of hillslope communities. In winter, long-lasting low intensity rainfall events generate a two-tailed hydrograph response of the Weierbach, consisting in an immediate reaction to precipitation, followed by a delayed and much more significant rise of the hydrograph. For these events, mixing diagrams (SiO2 & Absorbance) suggest a substantial contribution of the soil water component to total runoff, with groundwater and especially overland flow remaining insignificant. Terrestrial diatom abundance appeared to be very sensitive to incident precipitation (rising to +/- 15% of the total diatom population), suggesting a rapid connectivity between the soil surface and the stream. In summer, short and

  8. Down by the riverside: urban riparian ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter M. Groffman; Daniel J. Bain; Lawrence E. Band; Kenneth T. Belt; Grace S. Brush; J. Morgan Grove; Richard V. Pouyat; Ian C. Yesilonis; Wayne C. Zipperer

    2003-01-01

    Riparian areas are hotspots of interactions between plants, soil, water, microbes, and people. While urban land use change has been shown to have dramatic effects on watershed hydrology, there has been surprisingly little analysis of its effects on riparian areas. Here we examine the ecology of urban riparian zones, focusing on work done in the Baltimore Ecosystem...

  9. EnviroAtlas - Percent Stream Buffer Zone As Natural Land Cover for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percentage of land area within a 30 meter buffer zone along the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) high resolution stream network, and along water bodies such as lakes and ponds that are connected via flow to the streams, that is classified as forest land cover, modified forest land cover, and natural land cover using the 2006 National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) for each Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit hydrological unit (HUC) in the conterminous United States. This dataset was produced by the US EPA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  10. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Junchao; Wang, Thanh; Han, Shanlong; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ 13 C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m −2 ⋅y −1 . Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial

  11. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Junchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Thanh, E-mail: bswang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Han, Shanlong [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ{sup 13}C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m{sup −2}⋅y{sup −1}. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the

  12. Presence and patterns of alkaline phosphatase activity and phosphorus cycling in natural riparian zones under changing nutrient conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifang Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an important limiting nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and knowledge of P cycling is fundamental for reducing harmful algae blooms and other negative effects in water. Despite their importance, the characteristics of P cycling under changing nutrient conditions in shallow lakes were poorly investigated. In this study, in situ incubation experiments were conducted in a natural riparian zone in the main diversion channel used for water transfer into Lake Taihu (Wangyu River. Variations in microbial biomass, dissolved P fractions (organic and inorganic, and alkaline phosphatase activity (bulk APA and specific APA were determined after incubation with and without the addition of P and nitrogen (N (4 total water treatments: +P, +N, +NP, and control. Experiments were conducted during two seasons (late spring and early fall to account for natural differences in nutrient levels that may occur in situ. Our results demonstrated that low levels of DRP may not necessarily indicate P limitation. Phytoplankton exhibited “serial N limitation with P stress” in May, such that chlorophyll a (Chl a increased significantly with N addition, while the limiting nutrient shifted to P in October and phytoplankton biomass increased with P addition. Phytoplankton contributed greatly to APA production and was significantly influenced by P bioavailability, yet high levels of bulk APA were also not necessarily indicative of P limitation. In contrast to phytoplankton, bacteria were less P stressed. As a consequence of enhanced utilization of dissolved reactive P (DRP and dissolved organic P (DOP, +N treatment elevated APA significantly. By contrast, APA could be repressed to low values and phytoplankton converted a large portion of DRP to DOP with P addition. But this was not consistent with bacteria APA (bact-APA in the absence or presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass. The correlation between bulk APA and DRP was good at separate sites and discrepant

  13. How to increase the effectiveness of AES by knowing farmer perceptions -a choice experiment on pesticide free buffer zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2010-01-01

      Danish farmers have been far less interested in agri-environmental subsidy schemes than anticipated. We use choice experiments to estimate 486 Danish farmers' preferences for a number of policy relevant schemecharacteristics. Subsidy schemes for pesticide free buffer zones along hedgerows...... management restrictions (choice of buffer zone width, using fertilizer, and reduced administrative burden). As a novelty, the administrative burden is captured by estimating how farmers value costless assistance to the actual application. For example, our model estimates indicate that an average farmer...... is willing to give up 120 Euros per hectare per year for changing a 5 year contract to a one year contract. However, whether a shorter contract is preferable from a societal point of view still depends on the environmental costs of reducing the contract length....

  14. Efficacy of buffer zones in disconnecting roads and streams in the coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. III Grace; E. Davis

    2010-01-01

    Established forest BMPs rely heavily on the forest floor to disconnect upslope activities from stream systems. Optimizing the buffer length required to negate the storm runoff contribution of upslope activities has been a point of interest for soil scientist, hydrologist, and conservation professionals for the last century. Minimum buffer lengths have been recommended...

  15. Evaluation of sampling methods to quantify abundance of hardwoods and snags within conifer-dominated riparian zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Marquardt; Hailemariam Temesgen; Paul D. Anderson; Bianca. Eskelson

    2012-01-01

    Six sampling alternatives were examined for their ability to quantify selected attributes of snags and hardwoods in conifer-dominated riparian areas of managed headwater forests in western Oregon. Each alternative was simulated 500 times at eight headwater forest locations based on a 0.52-ha square stem map. The alternatives were evaluated based on how well they...

  16. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part II. Practical impact in capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneš, Martin; Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tesařová, Eva; Dubský, Pavel; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    This article elucidates the practical impact of the complexation of buffer constituents with complexation agents on electrophoretic results, namely, complexation constant determination, system peak development, and proper separation of analytes. Several common buffers, which were selected based on the pH study in Part I of this paper series (Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tošner, Z.; Beneš, M.; Tesařová, E.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem., 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac4013804); e.g., CHES, MES, MOPS, Tricine were used to demonstrate behavior of such complex separation systems. We show that the value of a complexation constant determined in the interacting buffers environment depends not only on the analyte and complexation agent but it is also substantially affected by the type and concentration of buffer constituents. As a result, the complexation parameters determined in the interacting buffers cannot be regarded as thermodynamic ones and may provide misleading information about the strength of complexation of the compound of interest. We also demonstrate that the development of system peaks in interacting buffer systems significantly differs from the behavior known for noncomplexing systems, as the mobility of system peaks depends on the concentration and type of neutral complexation agent. Finally, we show that the use of interacting buffers can totally ruin the results of electrophoretic separation because the buffer properties change as the consequence of the buffer constituents' complexation. As a general conclusion, the interaction of buffer constituents with the complexation agent should always be considered in any method development procedures.

  17. INFLUENCE OF BORATE BUFFERS ON THE ELECTROPHORETIC BEHAVIOR OF HUMIC SUBSTANCES IN CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of tetrahydroxyborate ions on the electrophoretic mobility of humic acids was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Depending on the molarity of borate ions in the separation buffer, the humic acids exhibit electropherograms with sharp peaks consistently exte...

  18. Atrazine transport within a coastal zone in Southeastern Puerto Rico: a sensitivity analysis of an agricultural field model and riparian zone management model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality models are used to predict effects of conservation practices to mitigate the transport of herbicides to water bodies. We used two models - the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) and the Riparian Ecosystem Management Model (REMM) to predict the movement of atrazine from ...

  19. Influence of Soils, Riparian Zones, and Hydrology on Nutrients, Herbicides, and Biological Relations in Midwestern Agricultural Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S.

    2001-12-01

    Chemical, biological, and habitat conditions were characterized in 70 streams in the upper Mississippi River basin during August 1997, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The study was designed to evaluate algal and macroinvertebrate responses to high agricultural intensity in relation to nonpoint sources of nutrients and herbicides, characteristics of basin soils, wooded-riparian vegetation, and hydrology. Concentrations and forms of nutrients, herbicides and their metabolites, and seston constituents varied significantly with regional differences in soil properties, ground and surface water relations, density of riparian trees, and precedent rainfall-runoff conditions. Dissolved nitrate concentrations were relatively low in streams with high algal productivity; however, nitrate concentrations increased with basin water yield, which was associated with the regional distribution of rainfall during the month prior to the study. Stream productivity and respiration were positively correlated with seston (phytoplankton) chlorophyll concentrations, which were significantly larger in streams in areas with poorly drained soils and low riparian-tree density. Concentrations of dissolved phosphorus were low in streams where periphyton biomass was high. Periphyton biomass was relatively larger in streams with clear water and low abundance of macroinvertebrates that consume algae. Periphyton biomass decreased rapidly with modest increases in the abundance of scrapers such as snails and certain mayfly taxa. Differences in dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, stream velocity, and precedent hydrologic conditions explained much of the variance in macroinvertebrate community structure. The overall number of macroinvertebrate species and number of mayfly, caddisfly, and stonefly (EPT) taxa that are sensitive to organic enrichment were largest in streams with moderate periphyton biomass, in areas with moderately-well drained soils

  20. The effect of ochre applied to buffer zones on soluble phosphorus retention during combined surface and subsurface flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibiandehkordi, R.; Quinton, J.; Surridge, B.

    2012-12-01

    Despite invention of a wide range of mitigating measures, diffuse phosphorus (P) pollution from agricultural lands still remains a major threat to the water resources. Thus, reducing P inputs along with improving the effectiveness of current best management practices (BMPs) is necessary to avoid eutrophication. Buffer zones are considered to be among the BMPs to control diffuse P pollution. However, these features are less effective in controlling soluble P loss with a retention range of -71 to +95% which is generally governed by the process of infiltration. Moreover, the soil in buffer strip system can be saturated over a course of time thereby enriching surface and subsurface runoff with soluble P. The aim of this study is to evaluate effectiveness of ochre applied to buffer strips in reducing the loss of soluble P during coupled surface and subsurface flow conditions. Batch experiments showed a maximum P retention capacity of 17.2 g kg-1 for ochre collected from a mine water treatment plant in Capehouse, UK without any risk of P desorption or releasing trace elements to the environment. The preliminarily results of flume experiments confirms the suitability of ochre to be used as a soil amendment in conjunction with buffer strips for tackling soluble P loss.

  1. Buffer zone income dynamics for the sub-district producer community: Implications for rural off-farm income, income inequality and the development of household agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Taruvinga, Amon; Mushunje, Abbyssinia

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the role of buffer zones in household welfare in Zimbabwe by using primary household level data collected between November and December 2010 from communities that share boundaries with Nyatana Game Park. The descriptive statistics suggest that the contribution of buffer zone activities to household income may be significant, with a positive correlation to household agricultural income for communities that reside inside or close to the Park. Using the Gini decomposition app...

  2. Riparian Raptors on USACE Projects: Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    2000-01-01

    ...) reservoir operations. For management purposes, these raptors are considered riparian generalists because they inhabit the riparian zones surrounding streams and lakes of Corps projects but may seasonally use adjacent...

  3. Riparian Raptors on USACE Projects: Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma A; Wolters, M. S

    2000-01-01

    ...) reservoir operations. For management purposes, these raptors are considered riparian generalists because they inhabit riparian zones surrounding streams and lakes on Corps project lands but may seasonally use adjacent...

  4. Proposing buffer zones and simple technical solutions for safeguarding river water quality and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podimata, M. V.; Bekri, E. S.; Yannopoulos, P. C.

    2012-04-01

    Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60, but a practical necessity for the safeguarding of public health and ecosystem health, in general. The present study aims at developing a simple methodology for assessing spatial distribution characteristics of pollution in Erymanthos catchment. Pollution loads at various sites in Erymanthos watershed were illustrated with Geographical Information System (GIS). Flow rates of Erymanthos River were also taken into consideration. Based on previous studies, in situ river discharges have been compared to simulated discharges in order to calibrate the rainfall-runoff model ENNS which can then predict future scenarios regarding the river flow rates with consideration of climate change effects. The goal of this study is to detect the pertinent points and suggest a) suitable buffer zones in areas with high pollution risk and b) simple technical works in order to prevent the main channel of Erymanthos River from direct polluting discharges. The above systems could also act supportively in groundwater enrichment, forest protection and soil erosion prevention. Authors believe that the results of the study could assist authorities and engineers to design and develop strategies of improving river water quality and safeguarding public health. The proposed measures may be applicable to other catchments as well.

  5. Study of flow profile distortions and efficiency in counter pressure moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography in relation to the relative buffer zone lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, Daniela; Welsch, Thomas

    2002-06-25

    The influence of the relative buffer zone lengths on the efficiency was investigated in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation additive. Varying relative zone lengths were obtained by applying identical initial separation zone lengths but different total lengths of the capillaries. Plate numbers of a homologous series of omega-phenylalcohols were measured to indicate the effect of both a changing relative zone length during the run and a counter pressure applied on the cathodic buffer reservoir. The magnitude and the course of these plate numbers are discussed on the basis of models for flow profile superposition and flow profile deformation which are caused by an intersegmental pressure arising at the boundary between the two buffer zones with different electroosmotic flow velocities. Calculation of the intersegmental pressure and of the resulting laminar flow components in the buffer zones on the basis of some equations for electroosmotic and hydrodynamic flow supported the interpretation that a long background buffer zone should be avoided

  6. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, Andrea E; Anderson, Dean P; Coleman, Morgan; Thomson, Caroline; Cross, Martin L; Pech, Roger P

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  7. Quasi-isoelectric buffers for protein analysis in a fast alternative to conventional capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioli, Paolo; Mendieta, Martha E; Sebastiano, Roberto; Citterio, Attilio; Peltre, Gabriel; Busnel, Jean-Marc; Descroix, Stephanie; Candiano, Giovanni; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2006-03-20

    Two different approaches are here reported for obtaining ultra-narrow pI cuts from 2-pH unit wide carrier ampholyte ranges, as commercially available, for use as quasi-isoelectric buffers in capillary electrophoresis separations of proteins. One of them uses multicompartment electrolyzers endowed with isoelectric membranes (Immobiline technology); the other employs the Rotofor equipment. Although the first approach results in more precise pI cuts, the latter technique is much faster, easier to handle and permits the immediate collection of 20 fractions in a single run. This results in ultra-narrow, ca. 0.1-pH unit intervals, uniformly spaced apart along the original wider gradient utilized for the fractionation. It is here shown that such quasi-isoelectric buffers, especially those in the pH 8-9 interval, have the unique property of coating the silica wall, thus preventing interaction of the proteins with the silica surface, that would otherwise totally disrupt the separation. On the contrary, such a shielding is not obtained in control, non isoelectric buffers (such as phosphate), that give very poor separations in uncoated capillaries. It is hypothesized that such a unique shielding effect is due to the oligo-amino backbone of the carrier ampholytes, typically composed (in the Vesterberg's synthetic approach) of 4-6 nitrogens spaced apart by ethylene moieties. Although such oligoprotic buffers should bear, in the isoelectric state, just one positive and one negative charge, they might be transiently ionized upon contact with the silanols, thus inducing a cooperative binding to the silica wall.

  8. Effect of Buffers on Aqueous Solute-Exclusion Zones around Ion-Exchange Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian-ming; Wexler, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Interaction between charged surfaces in aqueous solution is a fundamental feature of colloid science. Theoretically, surface potential falls to half its value at a distance equal to a Debye length, which is typically on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers. This potential prevents colloids from aggregating. On the other hand, long-range surface effects have been frequently reported. Here we report additional long-range effects. We find that charged latex particles in buffer solutions are uniformly excluded from several-hundred-micron-thick shells surrounding ion-exchange beads. Exclusion is observed whether the beads are charged similarly or oppositely to the particles. Hence, electrostatic interactions between bead and microsphere do not cause particle exclusion. Rather, exclusion may be the consequence of water molecules re-orienting to produce a more ordered structure, which then excludes the particles. PMID:19185312

  9. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Food Chain Transfer Studies for Phytoremediation Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.

    2009-04-01

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking water standards for groundwater (8 picocuries/L) by as much as a factor of 1000 at several locations within the Hanford 100-N Area and along the 100-N Area Columbia River shoreline). Phytoextraction, a managed remediation technology in which plants or integrated plant/rhizosphere systems are employed to phytoextract and/or sequester 90Sr, is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River as part of a treatment train that includes an apatite barrier to immobilize groundwater transport of 90Sr. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua) to extract 90Sr from the vadose zone soil and aquifer sediments (phytoextraction) and filter 90Sr (rhizofiltration) from the shallow groundwater along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. The stem and foliage of coyote willows accumulating 90Sr may present not only a mechanism to remove the contaminant but also can be viewed as a source of nutrition for natural herbivores, therefore becoming a potential pathway for the isotope to enter the riparian food chain. Engineered barriers such as large and small animal fencing constructed around the field plot will control the intrusion of deer, rodents, birds, and humans. These efforts, however, will have limited effect on mobile phytophagous insects. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the potential for food chain transfer by insects prior to placement of the remediation technology at 100-N. Insect types include direct consumers of the sap or liquid content of the plants vascular system (xylem and phloem) by aphids as well as those that would directly consume the plant foliage such as the larvae (caterpillars) of Lepidoptera species. Heavy infestations of aphids feeding on the stems and leaves of willows growing in 90Sr-contaminated soil can accumulate a small amount (~0.15 ± 0.06%) of the total label removed from the soil by

  10. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  11. Estimating Above-Ground Biomass in Sub-Tropical Buffer Zone Community Forests, Nepal, Using Sentinel 2 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Pandit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of above-ground biomass (AGB is important for the sustainable management of forests, especially buffer zone (areas within the protected area, where restrictions are placed upon resource use and special measure are undertaken to intensify the conservation value of protected area areas with a high dependence on forest products. This study presents a new AGB estimation method and demonstrates the potential of medium-resolution Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI data application as an alternative to hyperspectral data in inaccessible regions. Sentinel-2 performance was evaluated for a buffer zone community forest in Parsa National Park, Nepal, using field-based AGB as a dependent variable, as well as spectral band values and spectral-derived vegetation indices as independent variables in the Random Forest (RF algorithm. The 10-fold cross-validation was used to evaluate model effectiveness. The effect of the input variable number on AGB prediction was also investigated. The model using all extracted spectral information plus all derived spectral vegetation indices provided better AGB estimates (R2 = 0.81 and RMSE = 25.57 t ha−1. Incorporating the optimal subset of key variables did not improve model variance but reduced the error slightly. This result is explained by the technically-advanced nature of Sentinel-2, which includes fine spatial resolution (10, 20 m and strategically-positioned bands (red-edge, conducted in flat topography with an advanced machine learning algorithm. However, assessing its transferability to other forest types with varying altitude would enable future performance and interpretability assessments of Sentinel-2.

  12. Spatial distribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers in the littoral buffer zone of a nitrogen-rich lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Zhu, Guibing; Ye, Lei; Feng, Xiaojuan; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Yin, Chengqing

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution and diversity of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers (AOA and AOB) were evaluated targeting amoA genes in the gradient of a littoral buffer zone which has been identified as a hot spot for N cycling. Here we found high spatial heterogeneity in the nitrification rate and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the five sampling sites. The bacterial amoA gene was numerically dominant in most of the surface soil but decreased dramatically in deep layers. Higher nitrification potentials were detected in two sites near the land/water interface at 4.4-6.1 microg NO(2-)-N/(g dry weight soil x hr), while only 1.0-1.7 microg NO(2-)-N/(g dry weight soil x hr) was measured at other sites. The potential nitrification rates were proportional to the amoA gene abundance for AOB, but with no significant correlation with AOA. The NH4+ concentration was the most determinative parameter for the abundance of AOB and potential nitrification rates in this study. Higher richness in the surface layer was found in the analysis of biodiversity. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the bacterial amoA sequences in surface soil were affiliated with the genus of Nitrosopira while the archaeal sequences were almost equally affiliated with Candidatus 'Nitrososphaera gargensis' and Candidatus 'Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii'. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB indicated that bacteria may play a more important role in nitrification in the littoral buffer zone of a N-rich lake.

  13. The influence of connectivity in forest patches, and riparian vegetation width on stream macroinvertebrate fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IC Valle

    Full Text Available We assessed two dimensions of stream connectivity: longitudinal (between forest patches along the stream and lateral (riparian vegetation, using macroinvertebrate assemblages as bioindicators. Sites representing different land-uses were sampled in a lowland basin that holds a mosaic of protected areas. Land-use analysis, forest successional stages and riparian zone widths were calculated by the GIS analysis. Macroinvertebrate fauna was strongly affected by land-use. We observed a continuous decrease in the number of sensitive species, %Shredders and IBE-IOC biotic index from the upstream protected area to highly deforested sites, increasing again where the stream crosses a Biological Reserve. When analysing buffer strips, we found aquatic fauna responding to land-use alterations beyond the 30 m riparian corridor (60 m and 100 m wide. We discussed the longitudinal connectivity between forest patches and the riparian vegetation buffer strips necessary to hold high macroinvertebrate diversity. We recommend actions for the increase/maintenance of biodiversity in this and other lowland basins.

  14. Sediment Dynamics Within Buffer Zone and Sinkhole Splay Areas Under Extreme Soil Disturbance Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E; Crim, Jackie F; Williard, Karl W J; Groninger, John W; Zaczek, James J; Pattumma, Klairoong

    2015-09-01

    Sedimentation dynamics were assessed in sinkholes within training areas at Ft. Knox Military Installation, a karst landscape subjected to decades of tracked vehicle use and extreme soil disturbance. Sinkholes sampled were sediment-laden and behaved as intermittent ponds. Dendrogeomorphic analyses were conducted using willow trees (Salix spp.) located around the edge of 18 sinkholes to estimate historical sedimentation rates, and buried bottles were installed in 20 sinkholes at the center, outer edge, and at the midpoint between the center and edge to estimate annual sedimentation rates. Sedimentation data were coupled with vegetation characteristics of sinkhole buffers to determine relationships among these variables. The dendrogeomorphic method estimated an average accumulation rate of 1.27 cm year(-1) translating to a sediment loss rate of 46.1 metric ton year(-1) from the training areas. However, sediment export to sinkholes was estimated to be much greater (118.6 metric ton year(-1)) via the bottle method. These data suggest that the latter method provided a more accurate estimate since accumulation was greater in the center of sinkholes compared to the periphery where dendrogeomorphic data were collected. Vegetation data were not tightly correlated with sedimentation rates, suggesting that further research is needed to identify a viable proxy for direct measures of sediment accumulation in this extreme deposition environment. Mitigation activities for the sinkholes at Ft. Knox's tank training area, and other heavily disturbed karst environments where extreme sedimentation exists, should consider focusing on flow path and splay area management.

  15. Assessing Movements of Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in Relation to Depopulated Buffer Zones for the Management of Wildlife Tuberculosis in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Byrom

    Full Text Available In New Zealand, managing the threat of bovine tuberculosis (TB to livestock includes population reduction of potentially infectious wildlife, primarily the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula. Population control is often targeted on forested buffer zones adjacent to farmland, in order to limit movements of possums across the buffer and reduce the risk of disease transmission to livestock. To assess the effectiveness of buffers in protecting livestock we analysed GPS telemetry data from possums located in untreated forest adjacent to buffers, and used these data to characterise patterns of movement that could lead to possums reaching farmland during the season when most dispersal occurs. Analyses of movement data showed that the direction of dispersal by sub-adult and adult possums and the extent of long exploratory movements were not biased toward forest buffers, even though these provided vacant habitat as suitable for possums as untreated forest. Instead, dispersal and exploratory movements were uncommon even for sub-adult possums and such events typically lasted <10 days. Dispersing possums settled predominantly in river valleys. A simulation model was developed for the 3-6-month dispersal season; it demonstrated a probability of <0.001 that an infected possum, originating from a low-density population with low disease prevalence in untreated forest, would move across 3 km of recently controlled forest buffer to reach farmland. Our results indicate short-term reduction in the risk of TB transmission from possums to livestock in New Zealand by the use of depopulated buffer zones, while acknowledging that the threat of disease spread from untreated forest is likely to increase over time as possum population density and, potentially, TB prevalence among those possums, increase in the buffer zone.

  16. Diffusional mass transport phenomena in the buffer material and damaged zone of a borehole wall in an underground nuclear fuel waste vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of the geometry of the borehole and the characteristics of the damaged borehole rock wall on the movement of the radionuclides from an underground nuclear waste vault have been studied. The results show that radionuclide transport will occur mainly through the buffer into the damaged zone of the borehole wall. As the degree of facturing of the damaged zone increases, the total radionuclide flux will increase up to a limit which can be approximated by a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. For large degrees of fracturing of the damaged zone, an increase in the radial buffer material thickness will decrease the total flux, whereas, for small degrees of fracturing, an increase in the radial buffer thickness may slightly increase the total flux. Increasing the vertical buffer thickness will significantly decrease the total flux when the degree of fracturing of the damaged zone is small. An increase in the vertical extent of the damaged zone will cause an increase in total flux

  17. SOIL NITROUS OXIDE, NITRIC OXIDE, AND AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM A RECOVERING RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM IN SOUTHERN APPALACHIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents two years of seasonal nitric oxide, ammonia, and nitrous oxide trace gas fluxes measured in a recovering riparian zone with cattle excluded and in an adjacent riparian zone grazed by cattle. In the recovering riparian zone, average nitric oxide, ammonia, and ni...

  18. Chemical elements in Leucaena leucocephala leaves of riparian zones of the municipality of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Lira, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala can be found in several riparian ecosystems, acting as one of the main invasive and harmful species for the forest restoration of the permanent preservation areas. It has also been studied for the phytoremediation of some chemical elements, due to their potential accumulation of chemical substances. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the accumulation of chemical elements in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala trees by Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Samples of leaves were collected in eight samples from riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, during the dry and rainy season. After collection, washing with water and drying in a forced circulation oven, the samples were comminuted and encapsulated in polyethylene capsules and subjected to a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN / CNEN. Thermal neutron flux monitoring was performed by Ni-Cr alloy fragments with known concentrations of the chemical monitors elements. After measurements of radioactivity induced by HPGe detectors, the concentrations of the chemical elements were calculated by the k0 method using the Quantu computer program. Certified reference materials were also analyzed for quality assurance of the analytical procedure. The results indicated high concentrations of La and lanthanoids (Ce, Eu, Sm, Tb and Yb) in leaves of L. leucocephala in both periods analyzed. It was possible to observe a decrease in the concentrations of the chemical elements in the rainy season, probably associated to the washing of the geological material deposited on the leaves of the trees by the rains, except for K, Mo, Rb, Sb and Zn, whose values remained or increased in the leaves collected during the rainy season. Considering the constant leaf production, L. leucocephala can greatly affect the cycling of chemical elements due to its accumulation capacity demonstrated by this

  19. In-capillary determination of creatinine with electrophoretically mediated microanalysis: characterization of the effects of reagent zone and buffer conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Philip E; Schildt, Derek C; Strein, Timothy G

    2009-01-02

    Previous work has demonstrated proof-of-concept for carrying out the clinically useful Jaffe reaction between creatinine and picrate within a capillary tube using electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA). Here, it is shown that careful control of reagent plug length as well as concentration and pH of the background electrolyte (BGE) can result in a marked improvement in the sensitivity of this assay. Increasing the length of the picrate reagent zone is shown to give rise to as much as a 3-4-fold enhancement, and increasing the concentration and/or pH of the borate buffer also results in an additional, albeit modest, improvement in sensitivity. Interestingly, borate BGE concentrations approaching 100mM give rise to an unexplained drop in reaction efficiency, an effect which can be avoided by utilizing lower borate concentration with higher pH. The improvements appear to primarily minimize electrodispersion of the picrate reagent, allowing higher picrate concentration in the reaction zone. The same conditions also appear to minimize the electrodispersion of the in-line product as well. With optimized EMMA parameters, the sensitivity of the in-line Jaffe chemistry can be enhanced to an extent that there is no need for the two capillary "high sensitivity" detection system required in previous work. Using optimized conditions, three different human serum samples spanning the expected clinical range of creatinine concentrations were successfully analyzed. Overall, this work illustrates the importance of systematically characterizing the conditions under which EMMA analyses are carried out.

  20. Chemical and microbiological properties of an eutrophic Oxisol under riparian forest buffer reforestation and pasture. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas de um Latossolo Vermelho eutrófico sob reflorestamento de mata ciliar e pastagem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Marise PULITANO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Regardless of their ecological importance, riparian forest strips are frequently suppressed to allow greater expansion of arable and urban areas. Agroforestry might be an effective alternative to recompose riparian forests. Soil chemical and microbial properties are important environmental indicators to evaluate the reclamation process. This study tested the hypothesis that, in the course of time, reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil microbial and chemical properties in a riparian forest buffer. Soil samples were collected from three layers (0.0-2.5; 2.5-7.5; 7.5-20 cm in two sectors of a reforested riparian buffer strip in Cananéia Farm, São Paulo state, Brazil, one 18 years old and other 28 years old, and in an adjacent pasture area. The samples were assessed for pHH2O, available P and K, exchangeable, Ca, Mg and Al, H+Al, sum of bases (SB, pH 7.0 CEC, percent base saturation (V, soil organic matter (SOM and light organic matter (LOM. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC and nitrogen (MBN were analyzed only in the first layer. The pattern for Ca, Mg, SB and V (all layers was 28-year-old sector = 18-year-old-sector > pasture. The SOM at 0.0-2.5 cm was higher in the 28-year-old sector. The LOM pattern was 28-year-old sector > 18-year-old sector > pasture. MBC did not differ among areas. MBN was significantly higher comparing the 28-year-old sector and the pasture area. The results probably reflected the higher litterfall and the N-richer organic matter in the reforested sectors. Reforestation by means of agroforestry improved soil quality, contributing to the ecosystem sustainability. Independentemente de sua importância ecológica, matas ciliares são frequentemente suprimidas e ocupadas por lavouras e cidades. Agroflorestas podem ser eficazes para a recomposição dessas áreas. Propriedades químicas e microbiológicas do solo são importantes indicadores ambientais para avaliar o processo de recomposição. Este estudo testou a

  1. Analysis of drugs of forensic interest with capillary zone electrophoresis/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on the use of non-volatile buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardo, Rossella; Mikšík, Ivan; Aturki, Zeineb; Sorio, Daniela; Seri, Catia; Fanali, Salvatore; Tagliaro, Franco

    2012-02-01

    The present work is aimed at investigating the influence of the background electrolyte composition and concentration on the separation efficiency and resolution and mass spectrometric detection of illicit drugs in a capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (CZE-ESI-TOF MS) system. The effect of phosphate, borate and Tris buffers on the separation and mass spectrometry response of a mixture of 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methadone, cocaine, morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine was studied, in comparison with a reference ammonium formate separation buffer. Inorganic non-volatile borate and Tris buffers proved hardly suitable for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) analysis, but quite unexpectedly ammonium phosphate buffers showed good separation and ionization performances for all the analytes tested. Applications of this method to real samples of hair from drug addicts are also provided. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Analytical characterization of heparin by capillary zone electrophoresis with conductivity detection and polymeric buffer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikus, Peter; Valásková, Iva; Havránek, Emil

    2004-11-15

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the analytical characterization of intact (high-molecular-weight) heparin was developed. For the first time, a hydrodynamically closed CZE separation system with conductivity detector was used for the separation, detection and quantitation of this highly sulfated, linear polysaccharide. Glycine (25mM) adjusted to pH 9.0 by bis-Tris-propane served as the running electrolyte system. Polymeric additives, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), dextran (DEX), were used to improve the separation selectivity as they strongly retarded the heparin macromolecule while they did not practically influence comigrating inorganic anions. The proposed electrophoretic method was successfully validated. It was convenient for the sensitive, simple, rapid and reproducible assay of heparin in raw materials and isotonic saline. Here, the use of the conductivity detector was advantageous as it allowed heparin to be analyzed without a sample pretreatment. The CZE method should be an alternative to the pharmacopoeial conventional gel electrophoresis having used in the quality control of heparin so far. In addition, it should be convenient to quantitative estimation of heparin present in a preparation used, e.g., as the chiral selector in CE separations.

  3. Ground Tilt Time Delays between Kilauea Volcano's Summit and East Rift Zone Caused by Magma Reservoir Buffering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, M. M.; Patrick, M. R.; Anderson, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    A cyclic pattern of ground deformation, called a deflation-inflation (DI) cycle, is commonly observed at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai`i. These cycles are an important part of Kilauea's eruptive activity because they directly influence the level of the summit lava lake as well as the effusion rate (and resulting lava flow hazard) at the East Rift Zone eruption site at Pu`u `O`o. DI events normally span several days, and are measured both at the summit and at Pu`u `O`o cone (20 km distance). Signals appear first at the summit and are then observed at Pu`u `O`o after an apparent delay of between 0.5 and 10 hours, which has been previously interpreted as reflecting magma transport time. We propose an alternate explanation, in which the apparent delay is an artifact of buffering by the small magma reservoir thought to exist at Pu`u `O`o. Simple Poiseuille flow modeling demonstrates that this apparent delay can be reproduced by the changing balance of inflow (from the summit) and outflow (to surface lava flows) at the Pu`u `O`o magma reservoir. The apparent delay is sensitive to the geometry of the conduit leaving Pu`u `O`o, feeding surface lava flows. We demonstrate how the reservoir buffering is quantitatively equivalent to a causal low-pass filter, which explains both the apparent delay as well as the smoothed, skewed nature of the signal at Pu`u `O`o relative to the summit. By comparing summit and Pu`u `O`o ground tilt signals over an extended time period, it may be possible to constrain the changing geometry of the shallow magmatic system through time.

  4. Riparian vegetation structure under desertification scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário Fernandes, M.; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, M. Teresa

    2015-04-01

    Riparian areas are responsible for many ecological and ecosystems services, including the filtering function, that are considered crucial to the preservation of water quality and social benefits. The main goal of this study is to quantify and understand the riparian variability under desertification scenario(s) and identify the optimal riparian indicators for water scarcity and droughts (WS&D), henceforth improving river basin management. This study was performed in the Iberian Tâmega basin, using riparian woody patches, mapped by visual interpretation on Google Earth imagery, along 130 Sampling Units of 250 m long river stretches. Eight riparian structural indicators, related with lateral dimension, weighted area and shape complexity of riparian patches were calculated using Patch Analyst extension for ArcGis 10. A set of 29 hydrological, climatic, and hydrogeomorphological variables were computed, by a water modelling system (MOHID), using monthly meteorological data between 2008 and 2014. Land-use classes were also calculated, in a 250m-buffer surrounding each sampling unit, using a classification based system on Corine Land Cover. Boosted Regression Trees identified Mean-width (MW) as the optimal riparian indicator for water scarcity and drought, followed by the Weighted Class Area (WCA) (classification accuracy =0.79 and 0.69 respectively). Average Flow and Strahler number were consistently selected, by all boosted models, as the most important explanatory variables. However, a combined effect of hidrogeomorphology and land-use can explain the high variability found in the riparian width mainly in Tâmega tributaries. Riparian patches are larger towards Tâmega river mouth although with lower shape complexity, probably related with more continuous and almost monospecific stands. Climatic, hydrological and land use scenarios, singly and combined, were used to quantify the riparian variability responding to these changes, and to assess the loss of riparian

  5. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  6. Acetonitrile as a buffer additive for free zone capillary electrophoresis separation and characterization of maize (Zeamays L. ) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, S R; Lookhart, G L; Bietz, J A

    2000-02-01

    An improved method for separating and characterizing maize (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) storage proteins by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) was developed. Previous electrophoretic methods for analyzing these proteins required high concentrations of urea to maintain protein solubility during separation. To overcome disadvantages of urea, we developed a FZCE method that mimicked reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in that it used high levels of acetonitrile (ACN) at low pH. The optimized FZCE buffer system consisted of 80 mM phosphate-glycine buffer, nominal pH 2.5, containing 60% ACN and a cellulose derivative to dynamically coat capillary walls. Resolution was similar to or higher than that previously achieved by FZCE buffers utilizing 8 M urea as a buffer additive. ACN concentrations of at least 50% were necessary to achieve acceptable separations; this ACN concentration is approximately that necessary to extract these storage proteins. ACN was equally effective as traditional ethanol solvents and 8 M urea for solubilizing maize and sorghum proteins. The ACN-based FZCE buffer system gave high repeatability (buffers. This FZCE method may be applicable for the analysis of other hydrophobic proteins without the use of urea.

  7. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  8. Chiral separation of synthetic vicinal diol compounds by capillary zone electrophoresis with borate buffer and beta-cyclodextrin as buffer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Yang, Xingbin; Jiang, Ru; Sun, Xiaoli; Liu, Wenmin; Zhang, Shengyong

    2006-05-01

    The investigation on capillary electrophoretic enantioseparation of six synthetic compounds containing vicinal diol groups has been undertaken to acquire the optimum conditions using native beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) as chiral selector and borate as a background electrolyte. The separation was carried out in an uncoated capillary (58.5 cm x 75 microm i.d., effective length 48.5 cm) and the effects of several important factors were investigated in detail. The results showed that beta-CD as a chiral selector exhibited good enantioselectivity and that the enantioseparation was greatly influenced by the structure of the diols, the borate concentration and the buffer pH. The optimum performance was obtained for the chiral vicinal diols under the conditions of 200 mM borate buffer of pH 9.8 containing 1.7% beta-CD at an applied voltage of 15 kV and a capillary temperature of 20 degrees C. Under the conditions, four diols were baseline separated with fast analysis time and the good theoretical plate numbers (above 10 x 10(4)) and favorable migration-time reproducibilities (RSDs below 3.0%) were obtained. The separation results were satisfactory.

  9. Riparian Raptors on USACE Projects: Red-Shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Wilma

    2000-01-01

    ...) reservoir operations. For management purposes, these raptors are considered riparian generalists because they inhabit the riparian zones surrounding streams and lakes on Corps project lands but may seasonally use adjacent...

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease control and eradication in the Bicol Surveillance Buffer Zone of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A; Freeman, P G; Abila, R; Benigno, C; Verin, B; Nim, V; Cameron, A

    2011-10-01

    Following the onset of an epidemic of foot and mouth disease (FMD) commencing in 1994 and affecting mainly pigs in the Philippines, a National Plan for the Control and Eradication of the disease was initiated. A disease surveillance buffer zone in the southern Luzon region of Bicol was established to protect the Visayas and Mindanao from infection and enable eventual elimination of the disease in Luzon. With achievement of Office International Epizooties (OIE)-certified FMD freedom with vaccination in the Philippines now imminent, the four components of the disease control strategy are reviewed, including quarantine and animal movement controls, strategic vaccination, surveillance and disease investigation, and enhanced public awareness with school on the air radio programmes. Although numbers of outbreaks declined following widespread vaccination, evaluation of serological responses in vaccinates suggested low levels of immune protection. The cessation of outbreaks was considered more likely a result of animal movement controls, improved surveillance and emergency response capability, and reduction in FMD-risk behaviours by livestock owners, particularly through efforts to enhance public awareness of biosecurity measures by the training of traders, livestock industry personnel and both commercial and smallholder farmers. A two-stage random sampling serosurveillance strategy enabled identification of residual infection that was not detected through opportunistic sampling and negative incident reporting. Intensive investigations of FMD outbreaks, particularly in Albay province in 1999, enabled improved understanding of the risk factors involved in disease transmission and implementation of appropriate interventions. The findings from this review are offered to assist development of FMD control and eradication programmes in other countries in south-east Asia that are now being encouraged to support the OIE goal of FMD freedom with vaccination by 2020. © 2011

  11. The Minorca Basin: a buffer zone between the Valencia and Liguro-Provençal Basins (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellen, Romain; Aslanian, Daniel; Rabineau, Marina; Leroux, Estelle; Gorini, Christian; Silenziario, Carmine; Blanpied, Christian; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2017-04-01

    NE-SW Neogene blocks rotation proposed in earlier studies are therefore questioned (Pellen et al., 2016). A better kinematic understanding of the NW Mediterranean area is possible through the study of the South Balearic margin and Algerian basins. Pellen, R., Aslanian, D., Rabineau, M., Leroux, E., Gorini, C., Silenzario, C., Blanpied, C., Rubino J-L., 2016. The Minorca Basin: a buffer zone between Valencia and Provençal Basins, Terra Nova. doi: 10.1111/ter.12215

  12. The genus Crataegus L. in the western part of the buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park (Slovakia, in accordance with recent morphological and systematic recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Turisová

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The work contains results of investigation on the genus Crataegus L., conducted in 2011 ‑ 2012 on the area of the western part of the buffer zone of the Low Tatras National Park. Analysing various features, including the morphometric ones, occurrence of six native species, among them three species of hybrid origin, were confirmed in the investigated area. Comparative analysis of leaves morphology of the hybrid hawthorns and their original parental forms was carried out.

  13. The Solar Dynamic Buffer Zone (SDBZ) curtain wall: Validation and design of a solar air collector curtain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Russell Corey

    Given the increases in both the environmental and economic costs of energy, there is a need to design and building more sustainable and low-energy building systems now. Curtain wall assemblies show great promise---the spandrel panels within them can be natural solar collectors. By using a Solar Dynamic Buffer Zone (SDBZ) in the spandrel cavity, solar energy can be efficiently gathered using the movement of air. There is a need for a numerical model capable of predicting performance of an SDBZ Curtain Wall system. This research designed, constructed and quantified a prototype SDBZ curtain wall system through by experimental testing in a laboratory environment. The laboratory experiments focussed on three main variables: air flow through the system, incoming radiation and collector surface type. Results from the experimental testing were used to validate a one-dimensional numerical model of the prototype. Results from this research show a SDBZ curtain wall system as an effective means of reducing building heating energy consumption through the preheating of incoming exterior ventilation air during the heating season in cold climates. The numerical model showed good correlation with experimental results at higher operating flows and at lower flows when using an apparent velocity at the heat transfer boundary layer. A seasonal simulation for Toronto, ON predicted energy savings of 205 kWh/m2 with an average seasonal efficiency of 28%. This is considered in the upper range when compared to other solar air collectors. Given the lack of published literature for similar systems, this research acts to introduce a simple, innovative approach to collect solar energy that would otherwise be lost to the exterior using already existing components within a curtain wall. Specifically, the research has provided: results from experiments and simulation, a first generation numerical model, aspects of design and construction of the SDBZ curtain wall and specific directions for further

  14. Influence of ignored and well-known zone distortions on the separation performance of proteins in capillary free zone electrophoresis with special reference to analysis in polyacrylamide-coated fused silica capillaries in various buffers. I. Theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjertén, Stellan; Mohabbati, Sheila; Westerlund, Douglas

    2004-10-22

    Distortion of the starting zone upon its electrophoretic migration toward the detection window gives rise to both symmetrical zones caused by diffusion, sedimentation in the horizontal section of the capillary and the curvature of the capillary, and asymmetrical zones having their origin in Joule heating, sedimentation in the vertical section of the capillary, pH and conductivity differences between the sample zone and the surrounding buffer, solute adsorption onto the capillary wall, and association-dissociation of complexes between the analyte and a buffer constituent or between analytes. Interestingly and importantly a theoretical study shows that moderate pH and conductivity differences as well as adsorption and all of the above interactions when they are characterized by a fast on/off kinetics do not increase the zone broadening (or only slightly), because the sharpening of one boundary of the zone is about the same as the broadening of the other boundary. In addition the peak symmetry caused by a conductivity difference is in most experiments counteracted by a pH difference. The experimentally determined plate numbers in the absence of electroosmosis exceeded one million per meter in some experiments (Part II). These plate numbers are among the highest reported [Z. Zhao, A. Malik, M.L. Lee, Anal. Chem. 65 (1993) 2747; M. Gilges, K. Kleemiss, G. Schomburg, Anal. Chem. 66 (1994) 2038; H. Wan, M. Ohman, L.G. Blomberg, J. Chromatogr. A 924 (2001) 591 (plate numbers determined in the presence of electroosmosis may be higher, although the width of the zone in the capillary may be larger) [p. 680 in S. Hjertén, Electrophoresis 11 (1990) 665]). Capillary free zone electrophoresis is perhaps the only separation method, which, under optimum conditions, gives a plate number not far from the theoretical limit. A prerequisite for this high performance is that the polyacrylamide-coated capillary is washed with 2 M HCl between the runs and stored in water over night (Part

  15. Legal Mechanisms for Protecting Riparian Resource Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton L.; Lord, Eric

    1992-04-01

    Riparian resources include the borders of rivers, lakes, ponds, and potholes. These border areas are very important for a number of reasons, including stream channel maintenance, flood control, aesthetics, erosion control, fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, and water quality maintenance. These diverse functions are not well protected by law or policy. We reviewed law and policies regarding endangered species habitat designation, land use planning, grazing management, water allocation, takings, and federal permits and licenses, along with the roles of federal, state, and local governments. We discuss the politics of implementing these policies, focusing on the difficulties in changing entrenched water and land use practices. Our review indicates a lack of direct attention to riparian ecosystem issues in almost all environmental and land use programs at every level of government. Protection of riparian resource values requires a means to integrate existing programs to focus on riparian zones.

  16. Does tree harvesting in riparian areas increase stream sedimentation and turbidity - world-wide experience relative to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary, D.; Smethurst, P.; Petrone, K.

    2009-04-01

    A typical improved-pasture property in the high-rainfall zone of Australia contains 0.5-2.0 km of waterways per 100 ha. Nationwide, some 25-30 million ha of improved pasture contains about 100,000 km of streams, of which about 75% are currently un-buffered and contributing to soil and water degradation. Farmers and natural resource managers are considering ways to enhance environmental outcomes at farm and catchment scales using stream-side buffers of trees and other perennial vegetation. Benefits of buffers include improved water quality, biodiversity, carbon sequestration and aesthetics. Lack of sound information and funding for establishing and managing buffer zones is hindering wide-scale adoption of this practice. Stream-side areas of farms are generally highly productive (wet and nutrient-rich) and contain a high biodiversity, but they are also high-risk zones for soil and water values and stock safety. Development of options based on a balance between environmental and economic outcomes would potentially promote wider adoption. Australian codes of forest practice currently discourage or prevent harvesting of trees in streamside buffers. These codes were developed exclusively for large-scale native forests and industrial-scale plantations, and were applicable to farm forestry as now required. In countries including USA and Germany trees in stream-side buffers are harvested using Best Management Practices. Trees may grow at a faster rate in riparian zones and provide a commercial return, but the impacts of tree establishment and harvesting on water yield and quality must be evaluated. However, there have been few designed experiments investigating this problem. Australia has recently initiated studies to explore the use of high-value timber species and associated vegetation in riparian zones to improve water quality, particularly suspended sediment. Preliminary information from the Yan Yan Gurt Catchment in Victoria indicate that forested riparian strips can

  17. Riparian Habitat Management for Reptiles and Amphibians on Corps of Engineers Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickerson, Dena

    2001-01-01

    ... important taxonomic groups such as reptiles and amphibians. This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian habitat at Corps projects for reptiles and amphibians, identifies riparian zone functions and habitat characteristics, provides examples of representative taxa and regional comparisons, and describes impacts of riparian habitat modification.

  18. Corrosion Effects on the Fatigue Crack Propagation of Giga-Grade Steel and its Heat Affected Zone in pH Buffer Solutions for Automotive Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation test was conducted of giga-grade steel and its heat affected zone in pH buffer solutions, and the results were compared with model predictions. Pure corrosion effect on fatigue crack propagation, particularly, in corrosive environment was evaluated by means of the modified Forman equation. As shown in results, the average corrosion rate determined from the ratio of pure corrosion induced crack length to entire crack length under a cycle load were 0.11 and 0.37 for base metal and heat affected zone, respectively, with load ratio of 0.5, frequency of 0.5 and pH 10.0 environment. These results demonstrate new interpretation methodology for corrosion fatigue crack propagation enabling the pure corrosion effects on the behavior to be determined.

  19. Assessing the Influence of the Automobile Traffic on the Amphibians and Reptiles in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve “Srebarna” (NE Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently the problem of the effects of the road network and traffic on the amphibians and reptiles in Bulgaria is poorly studied. During the period March 2002 - March 2004 in the Buffer Zone of Biosphere Reserve "Srebarna" (NE Bulgaria were built two anti-fire roads from the eastern and western side of the lake in area of grasslands of semi-steppe type, typical for north-eastern Bulgaria. The aim of the constructed roads is to provide access for fire vehicles to areas in and around the reserve. The current study aims to provide data on the impact of road traffic and the newly constructed road network and another previously existing road on the amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve "Srebarna". For the entire period of study in the three studied road sections a total of 15 dead specimens of amphibians belonging to 4 species (Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis and 70 dead specimens of reptiles belonging to 8 species (Emys orbicularis, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis tauricus, Podarcis muralis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca and Dolichophis caspius were recorded. Several “hot spots”, where most cadavers were recorded are well described and possible conservation measures are discussed.

  20. Assessment of the perceived effects and management challenges of Mikania micrantha invasion in Chitwan National Park buffer zone community forest, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Akriti

    2017-04-01

    The effects of invasion by Mikania micrantha in the buffer zone of Chitwan National Park (CNP) of Nepal are well documented; however the studies were confined to appraising the perception of household and did not assess the changes in livelihood activities after the invasion. This study presents the effects of invasion of M. micrantha on the livelihood of buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park; hence addressing the gap in information and shows the complex effect of M. micrantha on rural livelihood. The study used a questionnaire survey to 170 households in the CNP of Nepal. The results indicate that the invasion of M. micrantha have negative effects on the community livelihood in the study area. Basic forest products such as fodder and fuel wood have become scarce as a result of reduction in the native plants. Also the spread of M. micrantha is creating impassable copse that destroy wildlife abode and jungle paths resulting into animals to shift their habitat to core area thereby reducing tourism revenues. Therefore, the study concludes that invasion of M. micrantha directly or indirectly is modifying the rural household livelihoods and a quick action is stipulated. Hence, a higher level body like the Ministry of Forestry or Department of National Park and Wildlife Conservation needs to take care of issues related to alien species. Correspondingly, it is also very important that people are aware and educated about alien species and their effects.

  1. A Review of Effectiveness of Vegetative Buffers on Sediment Trapping in Agricultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been growing recognition of the importance of riparian buffers between agricultural fields and waterbodies. Riparian buffers play an important role in mitigating the impacts of land use activities on water quality and aquatic ecosystems. However, eval...

  2. Water-use dynamics of an alien-invaded riparian forest within the Mediterranean climate zone of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Shaw, Bruce C.; Everson, Colin S.; Clulow, Alistair D.

    2017-09-01

    In South Africa, the invasion of riparian forests by alien trees has the potential to affect the country's limited water resources. Tree water-use measurements have therefore become an important component of recent hydrological studies. It is difficult for South African government initiatives, such as the Working for Water (WfW) alien clearing program, to justify alien tree removal and implement rehabilitation unless hydrological benefits are known. Consequently, water use within a riparian forest along the Buffeljags River in the Western Cape of South Africa was monitored over a 3-year period. The site consisted of an indigenous stand of Western Cape afrotemperate forest adjacent to a large stand of introduced Acacia mearnsii. The heat ratio method of the heat pulse velocity sap flow technique was used to measure the sap flow of a selection of indigenous species in the indigenous stand, a selection of A. mearnsii trees in the alien stand and two clusters of indigenous species within the alien stand. The indigenous trees in the alien stand at Buffeljags River showed significant intraspecific differences in the daily sap flow rates varying from 15 to 32 L day-1 in summer (sap flow being directly proportional to tree size). In winter (June), this was reduced to only 7 L day-1 when limited energy was available to drive the transpiration process. The water use in the A. mearnsii trees showed peaks in transpiration during the months of March 2012, September 2012 and February 2013. These periods had high average temperatures, rainfall and high daily vapor pressure deficits (VPDs - average of 1.26 kPa). The average daily sap flow ranged from 25 to 35 L in summer and approximately 10 L in the winter. The combined accumulated daily sap flow per year for the three Vepris lanceolata and three A. mearnsii trees was 5700 and 9200 L, respectively, clearly demonstrating the higher water use of the introduced Acacia trees during the winter months. After spatially upscaling the

  3. Mammal Hunting in the Special Use Zone and Buffer Tingo Maria National Park, Huánuco, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorella Nasha Gonzales Guillén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Between the months of August to November 2011 were conducted 42 semi-structured interviews to assess the hunting of mammals in areas of special purpose (ZUE and buffer (ZA National Park Tingo María surveys. The results indicate that 43% of the population practiced hunting as a secondary activity, the main smallholder agriculture. The methodology used for hunting are the "tramperas" while the hunting is often 2-3 times a month. Hunting is more common after the wet season, it is selective and responds to the taste of meat that an economic need. Among the most hunted mammals include agouti Dasyprocta sp. and picuro Cuniculus paca, while animals higher biomass as the peccary Pecari tajacu are rare in the area, so it is recommended to increase the control of hunting of vulnerable species in the villages which are inside and in the vicinity of the Park.

  4. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  5. Chiral separation of methoxamine and lobeline in capillary zone electrophoresis using ethylbenzene-deactivated fused-silica capillary columns and cyclodextrins as buffer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M V

    2002-08-01

    The complete chiral separation of methoxamine and lobeline was achieved by capillary zone electrophoresis on an ethylbenzene-deactivated fused-silica capillary column and with cyclodextrins (CDs) as buffer additives. Among the CDs investigated in this study, i.e. alpha-CD, beta-CD, dimethyl-beta-CD, hydroxypropyl-beta-CD and gamma-CD, all the three beta-type CDs showed chiral recognition on the two drugs investigated. Under the investigated conditions, the baseline chiral separation of methoxamine can be achieved with 90 mM Tris-H3PO4 (pH 2.5) containing 11.5 mM of the three beta-type CDs, with dimethyl-beta-CD giving the best resolution, whereas the baseline chiral separation of lobeline can be realized by using 90 mM Tris-H3PO4 buffer (pH 2.5) containing 5.8 mM dimethyl-beta-CD or 29.5 mM hydroxypropyl-beta-CD.

  6. Transferable integrons of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the gut of a wild boar in the buffer zone of a national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokracka, Joanna; Koczura, Ryszard; Kaznowski, Adam

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of integron-bearing Gram-negative bacteria in the gut of a wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) shot in the buffer zone of a national park. Five Gram-negative strains of Escherichia coli, Serratia odorifera, Hafnia alvei and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated. Four of these strains had class 2 integrase (intI2), and one harbored class 1 integrase (intI1). The integron-positive strains were multiresistant, i.e., resistant to at least three unrelated antibiotics. All of the integrons were transferred to E. coli J-53 (Rif(R)) in a conjugation assay. The results showed that a number of multiresistant, integron-containing bacterial strains of different genera may inhabit a single individual of a wild animal, allowing the possibility of transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes.

  7. Water quality modeling based on landscape analysis: Importance of riparian hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Grabs

    2010-01-01

    Several studies in high-latitude catchments have demonstrated the importance of near-stream riparian zones as hydrogeochemical hotspots with a substantial influence on stream chemistry. An adequate representation of the spatial variability of riparian-zone processes and characteristics is the key for modeling spatiotemporal variations of stream-water quality. This...

  8. Plant species distribution in relation to water-table depth and soil redox potential in montane riparian meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; J. Boone Kauffman; John E. Baham

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of riparian plant species is largely driven by hydrologic and soil variables, and riparian plant communities frequently occur in relatively distinct zones along streamside elevational and soil textural gradients. In two montane meadows in northeast Oregon, USA, we examined plant species distribution in three riparian plant communities¡ªdefined as wet,...

  9. Role of Remote Sensing and Geographyc Information System Mapping for Protected Areas Land Rice Field Subak, Buffer Zones, and Area Conversion (Case Studies In Gianyar Regency, Bali Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, Indayati; Netera Subadiyasa, N.

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of rice fields in Bali 2579 ha/year, Law Number 41 of 2009 [1] and five of Government Regulation (GR), mandates the Local Government (LG) has a Regional Regulation (RR) or Rule Regent/Mayor, on the protection of agricultural land sustainable food (PALSF). Yet none provincial government of Bali has PALSF; although Subak as world cultural heritage. Similarly, Gianyar regency development strategy directed to integrate agriculture with tourism. Landsat 8 images, Word View Coverage 2015 Gianyar district and ArcGIS 10.3 software used for of rice field mapping and zoning of land protection Subak. Ten thematic maps (watersheds, land use, irrigation, relief/slope, rainfall, spatial planning, land suitability, productivity, the distance from downtown) as a variable parameter, weighted and balanced numerically. Numerical classification agricultura land using for the overlay menu and reselek. The total value of >125 as rice need to be protected, 100-125 value for buffer zone, and the value of 100, 50-100 and development of the region downstream to the access road Ida Bagus Matera (Jln. Province / national) in the coastal areas of Gianyar.

  10. Design of suitable carrier buffer for free-flow zone electrophoresis by charge-to-mass ratio and band broadening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Zhi; Yang, Ying; He, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Guo-Qing; Fan, Liu-Yin; Xiao, Hua; Li, Shan; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2016-09-01

    In this work, charge-to-mass ratio (C/M) and band broadening analyses were combined to provide better guidance for the design of free-flow zone electrophoresis carrier buffer (CB). First, the C/M analyses of hemoglobin and C-phycocyanin (C-PC) under different pH were performed by CLC Protein Workbench software. Second, band dispersion due to the initial bandwidth, diffusion, and hydrodynamic broadening were discussed, respectively. Based on the analyses of the C/M and band broadening, a better guidance for preparation of free-flow zone electrophoresis CB was obtained. Series of experiments were performed to validate the proposed method. The experimental data showed high accordance with our prediction allowing the CB to be prepared easily with our proposed method. To further evaluate this method, C-PC was purified from crude extracts of Spirulina platensis with the selected separation condition. Results showed that C-PC was well separated from other phycobiliproteins that have similar physicochemical properties, and analytical grade product with purity up to 4.5 (A620/A280) was obtained. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Abundance of western red-backed salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) in the Washington Coast Range after headwater stream-buffer manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Wilk; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs; Martin G. Raphael

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of forest riparian alternative tree buffer designs on Western Red-backed Salamanders (Plethodon vehiculum) along headwater stream banks in managed forests of the Washington Coast Range. We used pit trap live removals in early autumn to estimate relative abundances of surface-active salamanders before and after 3 levels of riparian buffer...

  12. Linked in: connecting riparian areas to support forest biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Kelly Burnett; Deanna Olson

    2010-01-01

    Many forest-dwelling species rely on both terrestrial and aquatic habitat for their survival. These species, including rare and little-understood amphibians and arthropods, live in and around headwater streams and disperse overland to neighboring headwater streams. Forest management policies that rely on riparian buffer strips and structurebased management—practices...

  13. Plant Growth and Phosphorus Uptake of Three Riparian Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian buffers can significantly reduce sediment-bound phosphorus (P) entering surface water, but control of dissolved P inputs is more challenging. Because plant roots remove P from soil solution, it follows that plant uptake will reduce dissolved P losses. We evaluated P uptake of smooth bromegr...

  14. Riparian Sediment Delivery Ratio: Stiff Diagrams and Artifical Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods are used to estimate sediment transport through riparian buffers and grass jilters with the sediment delivery ratio having been the most widely applied. The U.S. Forest Service developed a sediment delivery ratio using the stiff diagram and a logistic curve to int...

  15. Development of a four-zone carousel process packed with metal ion-imprinted polymer for continuous separation of copper ions from manganese ions, cobalt ions, and the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution used as eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Se-Hee; Park, Chanhun; Yi, Sung Chul; Kim, Dukjoon; Mun, Sungyong

    2011-08-19

    A three-zone carousel process, in which Cu(II)-imprinted polymer (Cu-MIP) and a buffer solution were employed as adsorbent and eluent respectively, has been developed previously for continuous separation of Cu²⁺ (product) from Mn²⁺ and Co²⁺ (impurities). Although this process was reported to be successful in the aforementioned separation task, the way of using a buffer solution as eluent made it inevitable that the product stream included the buffer-related metal ions (i.e., the constituent metal ions of the buffer solution) as well as copper ions. For a more perfect recovery of copper ions, it would be necessary to improve the previous carousel process such that it can remove the buffer-related metal ions from copper ions while maintaining the previous function of separating copper ions from the other 2 impure heavy-metal ions. This improvement was made in this study by proposing a four-zone carousel process based on the following strategy: (1) the addition of one more zone for performing the two-step re-equilibration tasks and (2) the use of water as the eluent of the washing step in the separation zone. The operating conditions of such a proposed process were determined on the basis of the data from a series of single-column experiments. Under the determined operating conditions, 3 runs of carousel experiments were carried out. The results of these experiments revealed that the feed-loading time was a key parameter affecting the performance of the proposed process. Consequently, the continuous separation of copper ions from both the impure heavy-metal ions and the buffer-related metal ions could be achieved with a purity of 91.9% and a yield of 92.8% by using the proposed carousel process based on a properly chosen feed-loading time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Luciana M.; Taffs, Kathryn; Stokes, Debra; Sanders, Christian J.; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Amora-Nogueira, Leonardo; Marotta, Humberto

    2018-01-01

    Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers). A sediment accumulation rate of ˜ 4 mm yr-1 for the previous ˜ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m-2 yr-1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC) burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer) during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer) during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in the floodplain of the Amazon Basin.

  17. Insects of the riparian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrence J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes life histories, defoliation problems and other activities of insects associated with forest tree species growing along high elevation streams and river banks. In addition, examples of insects and diseases associated with lower elevation riparian areas are given.

  18. Effect of forest harvesting best management practices on coarse woody debris distribution in stream and riparian zones in three Appalachian watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. McClure; R. K. Kolka; A. White

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of coarse woody debris (CWD) was analyzed in three Appalachian watersheds in eastern Kentucky, eighteen years after harvest. The three watersheds included an unharvested control (Control), a second watershed with best management practices (BMPs) applied that included a 15.2 m unharvested zone near the stream (BMP watershed), and a third watershed that...

  19. Urban Runoff: Model Ordinances for Aquatic Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic Buffers serve as natural boundaries between local waterways and existing development. The model and example ordinaces below provide suggested language or technical guidance designed to create the most effective stream buffer zones possible.

  20. Buffer mass test - Buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.

    1982-08-01

    Commercial Na bentonite (MX-80) is the clay component of the buffer material in the heater holes as well of the tunnel backfill. Important characteristics are the clay content, liquid limit, X-ray diffraction pattern, water content, and degree of granulation. The ballast material consists of quartz-rich sand and feldspar-rich filler. The preparation of highly compacted bentonite for the near-field isolation of the canister was made by using isostatic compaction technique. The resulting dense bentonite core was cut into regularly shaped blocks which were arranged around each heater and lowered as one unit - heavily instrumented - in the respective deposition holes. For three of the six holes a narrow slot was left open between the bentonite stack and the rock; for the remaining ones a wider slot was chosen with a fill of soft bentonite powder. Both arrangements are expected to yield an ultimate bulk density which is sufficiently high to fulfil the requirement of a negligible permeability and a sufficient swelling pressure as well as heat conductivity, which are the essential parameters. The tunnel backfill, which consists of a mixture of suitably graded ballast material and MX-80 powder, has a considerably lower swelling pressure and heat conductivity, and a higher permeability, all these parameters still within the requirements of the KBS 2 concept. The various zones with different bentonite/sand ratios and the technique to apply them are described in the final part of the report. (Author)

  1. Common occurrence of a unique Cryptosporidium ryanae variant in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaoyu; Karna, Sandeep Raj; Dearen, Theresa K; Singh, Dinesh Kumar; Adhikari, Lekh Nath; Shrestha, Aruna; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-04-30

    There are very few studies on the diversity and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species in zebu cattle and water buffaloes in developing countries. In this study, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequence analyses of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene were used to genotype Cryptosporidium specimens from 12 zebu cattle calves, 16 water buffalo calves, and four swamp deer (Cervus duvaucelii) collected from the buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park, Nepal. All Cryptosporidium specimens from cattle and buffaloes belonged to Cryptosporidium ryanae, whereas those from deer belonged to Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. Comparison of the SSU rRNA gene sequences obtained with those from earlier studies has identified a nucleotide substitution unique to all C. ryanae isolates from Nepal, in addition to some sequence heterogeneity among different copies of the gene. The finding of the dominance of a unique C. ryanae variant in both zebu cattle and water buffaloes in Nepal indicates that there is unique cryptosporidiosis transmission in bovine animals in the study area, and cross-species transmission of some Cryptosporidium spp. can occur between related animal species sharing the same habitats. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin in Swertia mussotii Franch by capillary zone electrophoresis with running buffer modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruibin; Wang, Litao; Yang, Yan; Ni, Jingman; Zhao, Liang; Dong, Shuqing; Guo, Mei

    2015-03-01

    The method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with direct UV detection was developed for the determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin. and then for the first time successfully applied to the analysis of four analytes in Swertia mussotii Franch and its preparations. Various factors affecting the CZE procedure were investigated and optimized, and the optimal conditions were: 50 × 10(-3) mol/L borate-phosphate buffer (pH 9.5) with 5.0 × 10(-3) mol/L β-cyclodextrin, 15 kV separation voltage, 20 °C column temperature, 250 nm detection wavelength and 5 s electrokinetic injection time (voltage 20 psi). Under the conditions, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin could be determined within the test ranges with a good correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.9991). The limits of detection for conditions, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin were 0.3415, 0.2003, 0.0062 and 0.2538 µg/mL, respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were no more than 4.72%. This procedure provided a convenient, sensitive and accurate method for simultaneous determination of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and apigenin in S. mussotii Franch. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Variable density management in riparian reserves: lessons learned from an operational study in managed forests of western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel Chan; Paul Anderson; John Cissel; Larry Lateen; Charley Thompson

    2004-01-01

    A large-scale operational study has been undertaken to investigate variable density management in conjunction with riparian buffers as a means to accelerate development of late-seral habitat, facilitate rare species management, and maintain riparian functions in 40-70 year-old headwater forests in western Oregon, USA. Upland variable retention treatments include...

  4. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-07-11

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY

  5. The evaluation of forest small-scale specially protected areas and their buffer zones in examples of the region Tišnov, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Rebrošová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the eight forest small-scale specially protected areas (nature reserves: Babí lom, Břenčák, Krnovec, Slunná, Sokolí skála, and Nature monuments: Březina, Květnice, Zlobice of the total area of 382 ha of the region Tišnov. The evaluation used two methodologies and results of were compared. From the outcomes obtained show that almost all the territories are in good (50% or moderate (37.5% status and quality of care is good in most cases (75%. The highest degree of care achieves is in a nature reserve Břenčák, which is generally excellent. The lowest recorded level of care, average, is in a natural monument Slunná. The poor condition or unsatisfactory of care were not found. Of the total area of protected areas and their areas of buffer zones is an average 24% affected by negative events. The most common reason for this effect is a landscape managed by intensive agriculture. Among the most invasive species belongs to Impatiens parviflora DC.; Impatiens glandulifera Royle. These are forming a continuous herb stand. In the trees stand is the most occurrences from invasive species Robinia pseudoacacia L. After comparing the summary results of the two methodologies can be concluded that the findings of both evaluate are very similar. The best current state is in natural reserve Břenčák and the worst state is in natural monument Květnice. Methodologies are different from each other. The methods for evaluate of forest small-scale protected areas were tested as suitable. One method, but should be somewhat modified.

  6. Enhanced analysis of triterpenes, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in Prunella vulgaris L. by capillary zone electrophoresis with the addition of running buffer modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Zhang, Qing-Feng

    2008-12-12

    A cyclodextrin-modified capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the separation and determination of three isomeric compounds (ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid), caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin. Without the addition of beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and methanol, the separation of these analytes was poorly resolved. These eight compounds, however, were well separated from each other within 20 min with a borax running buffer (40 mM of borax, pH 9.4) containing 2mM beta-CD and 4% (v/v) methanol at the voltage of 25 kV, temperature of 25 degrees C and detection wavelength of 210 nm. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of migration time ranged from 0.16 to 0.74% while those of the peak area ratios ranged from 2.17 to 4.61% for six determinations of the analytes at concentration of 10 and 25 microg mL(-1). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves of the analytes were all >0.998, and the recoveries were from 96.8 to 103.6%. The method was successfully applied to determine these bioactive components in the samples of Prunella vulgaris L. and its beverage drink products. Our results reveal that only the isomeric compounds and rosmarinic acid could be detected in the spikes of P. vulgaris L.; other components were either too low to be detected or not present while only rosmarinic acid was detected in the beverage products.

  7. Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense) removal and its effect on native plant communities of Riparian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Hanula; Scott Horn; John W. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Chinese privet is a major invasive shrub within riparian zones throughout the southeastern United States. Weremoved privet shrubs from four riparian forests in October 2005 with a GyrotracH mulching machine or by handfelling with chainsaws and machetes to determine how well these treatments controlled privet and how they affected plant...

  8. Riparian restoration in the Southwest: Species selection, propagation, planting methods, and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Dreesen; John Harrington; Tom Subirge; Pete Stewart; Greg Fenchel

    2002-01-01

    Riparian plant communities, though small in overall area, are among the most valuable natural areas in the Southwest. The causes of degradation of southwestern riparian zones range from excessive cattle and elk grazing in montane watersheds to invasive woody exotic species and lack of natural flooding in the cottonwood forests, "bosque," of low elevation...

  9. Considerações sobre a legislação correlata à zona-tampão de unidades de conservação no Brasil Interpretation of the legislation about buffer zones of protected areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia De Luca Vitalli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Zonas tampão são áreas ao redor de unidades de conservação, sujeitas a normas específicas, que visam mitigar impactos sobre os ecossistemas protegidos. Analisamos os instrumentos jurídicos que tratam dessas zonas no Brasil e consideramos que podem ser classificadas como limitações ao exercício do direito de propriedade, cabendo aos gestores das unidades de conservação, juntamente com os órgãos licenciadores, indicar quais atividades devem ser submetidas ao licenciamento ambiental para que possam ser instaladas ao redor de unidades de conservação.Buffer zones are areas around natural reserves under special laws, aiming at minimizing threats to the protected ecosystems. After analyzing the Brazilian legislation concerning the subject, we interpret buffer zones as a sort of limitation to the property rights. It is in the hands of the managers of protected areas, together with the licensing institutions, to indicate which activities are potentially of great impact and must have an environmental license to be permitted in the buffer zone of protected areas.

  10. Riparian landscape management in the midstream of Ciliwung River as supporting Water Sensitive Cities program with priority of productive landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviandi, T. U. Z.; Kaswanto, R. L.; Arifin, H. S.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, Ciliwung River is facing problem of the settlement occupation in its riparian zones. This phenomenon caused ecological damage in riparian, so it can aggravate the disaster of annual flooding in Jakarta. As an effort to control this catastrophe, riparian landscape management of Ciliwung River is needed. Based on its topography, Ciliwung River is divided into three segments, there are the upstream, the midstream, and the downstream. Data shows that riparian in the midstream is the largest area, it covers more than 60% of the total riparian area. This segment is very important to be managed in order to reduce runoff towards the downstream. The method used was comparing many standards to get the ideal riparian width in the midstream, which is 50 m for urban areas and 100 m for outside the urban areas. Next method was analyzing spatially to get riparian landscape characteristic of Ciliwung River. The result showed that 37.11% of riparian zones in the midstream had occupied by settlement. Analysis of riparian function and utilization had held by using Analytical Hierarchy Process. Priority of riparian function in the midstream of Ciliwung River is production. This can be realized with the plan of community garden or inland fisheries. Riparian landscape management in the midstream aims to support the food consumption diversification, and maximize the function of water catchment and water retention in order to support the program of Water Sensitive Cities.

  11. River water infiltration enhances denitrification efficiency in riparian groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth, Nico; Musolff, Andreas; Knöller, Kay; Kaden, Ute S; Keller, Toralf; Werban, Ulrike; Fleckenstein, Jan H

    2018-03-01

    Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other. In this study, we present the evaluation of hydrochemical and isotopic data from a 2-year sampling period of river water and groundwater in the riparian zone along a 3rd order river in Central Germany. Based on bi- and multivariate statistics (Spearman's rank correlation and partial least squares regression) we can show, that highest rates for oxygen consumption and denitrification in the riparian aquifer occur where the fraction of infiltrated river water and at the same time groundwater temperature, are high. River discharge and depth to groundwater are additional explanatory variables for those reaction rates, but of minor importance. Our data and analyses suggest that at locations in the riparian aquifer, which show significant river water infiltration, heterotrophic microbial reactions in the riparian zone may be fueled by bioavailable organic carbon derived from the river water. We conclude that interactions between rivers and riparian groundwater are likely to be a key control of nitrate removal and should be considered as a measure to mitigate high nitrate exports from agricultural catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluorescence imaging of sample zone narrowing and dispersion in a glass microchip: the effects of organic solvent (acetonitrile)-salt mixtures in the sample matrix and surfactant micelles in the running buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhijian; Lee, Yi-kuen; Fang, Qun; Huie, Carmen W

    2006-03-01

    A mismatch in the EOF velocities between the sample zone and running buffer region is known to generate pressure-driven, parabolic flow profile of the sample plug in electrokinetic separation systems. In the present study, video fluorescence microscopy was employed to capture real-time dynamics of the sample plug (containing fluorescein as the probe molecule) in a discontinuous conductivity system within a glass microchip, in which the sample matrix consisted of a mixture of ACN and salt (NaCl), and the running buffer contained sodium cholate (SC) micelles as the pseudo-stationary phase (i.e., performing "ACN stacking" in the mode of MEKC). Upon application of the separation voltage, the video images revealed that zone narrowing and broadening of the probe molecules occurred as the sample plug headed toward the cathode during the initial time period, probably resulting in part from the stacking/sweeping, and destacking of the SC micelles at the boundaries between the sample zone and running buffer. Interestingly, a second sample zone narrowing event can be observed as the sample plug moved further toward the cathode, which could be attributed to the sweeping of the slower moving probe molecules by the faster moving SC micelles that originated from the anode. This phenomenon was studied as a function of pH, sample plug length, as well as the concentration of organic solvent and salt in the sample matrix. The data suggested that the presence of large amounts of an organic solvent (such as ACN or methanol) and salts in the sample matrix not only induces sample dispersion due to the formation of a pressure-driven (hydrodynamic) flow, but may also lead to the formation of a double sample zone narrowing phenomenon by altering the local EOF dynamics within the separation system.

  13. Release of dissolved phosphorus from riparian wetlands: Evidence for complex interactions among hydroclimate variability, topography and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sen; Gruau, Gérard; Dupas, Rémi; Rumpel, Cornélia; Crème, Alexandra; Fovet, Ophélie; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Jeanneau, Laurent; Humbert, Guillaume; Petitjean, Patrice

    2017-11-15

    In agricultural landscapes, establishment of vegetated buffer zones in riparian wetlands (RWs) is promoted to decrease phosphorus (P) emissions because RWs can trap particulate P from upslope fields. However, long-term accumulation of P risks the release of dissolved P, since the unstable hydrological conditions in these zones may mobilize accumulated particulate P by transforming it into a mobile dissolved P species. This study evaluates how hydroclimate variability, topography and soil properties interact and influence this mobilization, using a three-year dataset of molybdate-reactive dissolved P (MRDP) and total dissolved P (TDP) concentrations in soil water from two RWs located in an agricultural catchment in western France (Kervidy-Naizin), along with stream P concentrations. Two main drivers of seasonal dissolved P release were identified: i) soil rewetting during water-table rise after dry periods and ii) reductive dissolution of soil Fe (hydr)oxides during prolonged water saturation periods. These mechanisms were shown to vary greatly in space (according to topography) and time (according to intra- and interannual hydroclimate variability). The concentration and speciation of the released dissolved P also varied spatially depending on soil chemistry and local topography. Comparison of sites revealed a similar correlation between soil P speciation (percentage of organic P ranging from 35-70%) and the concentration and speciation of the released P (MRDP from topography and soil chemistry must be considered to decrease the risk of remobilizing legacy soil P when establishing riparian buffer zones in agricultural landscapes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Denitrification controls in urban riparian soils: implications for reducing urban nonpoint source nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangjie; Chen, Zhenlou; Lou, Huanjie; Wang, Dongqi; Deng, Huanguang; Wang, Chu

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to thoroughly analyze the influences of environmental factors on denitrification processes in urban riparian soils. Besides, the study was also carried out to identify whether the denitrification processes in urban riparian soils could control nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in urban areas. The denitrification rates (DR) over 1 year were measured using an acetylene inhibition technique during the incubation of intact soil cores from six urban riparian sites, which could be divided into three types according to their vegetation. The soil samples were analyzed to determine the soil organic carbon (SOC), soil total nitrogen (STN), C/N ratio, extractable NO3 (-)-N and NH4 (+)-N, pH value, soil water content (SWC), and the soil nitrification potential to evaluate which of these factors determined the final outcome of denitrification. A nitrate amendment experiment further indicated that the riparian DR was responsive to added nitrate. Although the DRs were very low (0.099 ~ 33.23 ng N2O-N g(-1) h(-1)) due to the small amount of nitrogen moving into the urban riparian zone, the spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification differed significantly. The extractable NO3 (-)-N proved to be the dominant factor influencing the spatial distribution of denitrification, whereas the soil temperature was a determinant of the seasonal DR variation. The six riparian sites could also be divided into two types (a nitrate-abundant and a nitrate-stressed riparian system) according to the soil NO3 (-)-N concentration. The DR in nitrate-abundant riparian systems was significantly higher than that in the nitrate-stressed riparian systems. The DR in riparian zones that were covered with bushes and had adjacent cropland was higher than in grass-covered riparian sites. Furthermore, the riparian DR decreased with soil depth, which was mainly attributed to the concentrated nitrate in surface soils. The DR was not associated with the SOC, STN, C/N ratio, and

  15. The occurrence of Papaver rhoeas L. in agrocenoses of the buffer zone of the Roztocze national Park compared to other regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czesława Trąba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to determine the environmental amplitude as well as the optimal conditions for the vegetation of Papaver rhoeas in the agrocoenoses of the Roztocze National Park's buffer zone, as compared to other Polish regions. The analysis is based on certain habitat and anthropogenic factors. Based on the author's own research and the data quoted in the literature, it has been found that Papaver rhoeas occurs in the associations and communities of the Caucalidion and Aperion alliances accompanying cereal and rape crops as well as in the Polygono-Chenopodion and Panico-Setarion alliances accompanying root crops. Papaver rhoeas demonstrates a large environmental scale, as its presence has been noted in low- and highlands, in foothills, in river valleys as well as on slopes. Moreover, it teams up with various types of soils (of a wide range of acidity, moisture as well as trophic and thermal conditions and complexes. Papaver rhoeas occurs most often and in the largest numbers in winter crops in the Lathyro-Melandrietum and Caucalidio-Scandicetum association which belongs to the Caucalidion alliance and in the Consolido-Brometum, Vicietum tetraspermae papaveretosum and V. t. consolidetosum association from the Aperion alliance. As far as root crops are considered, Papaver rhoeas shows up in the Lamio-Veronicetum politae association from the Polygono- Chenopodion alliance. It prefers chalky and Jurassic rendzinas containing CaCO3 and other fertile loam and loess soils which belong to wheat complexes, with their pH ranging from slightly acid to alkaline (Eutric Vertisols, chernozem, brown soil, alluvial soil and which are moderately moist, warm, medium-rich in nitrogen and with good soil biological activity. In the foothill areas, it dominates on alluvial soils in the river valleys; rarely has it been spotted on the slopes. Papaver rhoeas rarely occurs on the lightest sandy soils of the weak and very weak rye complexes and weak cereal

  16. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  17. Rhizosphere dynamics of two riparian plant species from the water fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir, P.R. China - pH, oxygen and LMWOA monitoring during short flooding events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Christina M.; Schurr, Ulrich; Zeng, Bo; Höltkemeier, Agnes; Kuhn, Arnd J.

    2010-05-01

    Since the construction of the Three Gorges Dam at the Yangtze River in China, the reservoir management created a new 30m water fluctuation zone 45-75m above the original water level. Only species well adapted to long-time flooding (up to several months) will be able to vegetate the river banks and replace the original vegetation. To investigate how common species of the riverbanks cope with submergence, Alternanthera philoxeroides Mart. and Arundinella anomala Steud., two flooding resistant riparian species, have been examined in a rhizotron environment. Short-time (2 days waterlogging, 2 days flooding, 2 days recovery) flooding cycles in the original substrate and long time (14 days waterlogging, flooding, recovery) flooding cycles, in original substrate and sterile glass bead substrate, have been simulated in floodable two-way access rhizotrons. Oxygen- and pH-sensitive foils (planar optodes, PreSens) automatically monitored root reaction in a confined space (2cm2 each) on the backside of the rhizotron, while soil solution samples were taken 2 times a day from the other side of the rhizotron at the corresponding area through filter and steel capillaries. The samples were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis for low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA, i.e. oxalic, formic, succinic, malic, acetic, glyoxylic, lactic and citric acid). Results show diurnal rhythms of rhizospheric acidification for both species in high resolution, combined with oxygen entry into the root surrounding during waterlogged state. Flooding caused stronger acidification in the rhizosphere, that were however not accompanied by increased occurrence of LMWOA except for acetic and glyoxylic acid. First results from longer flooding periods show stable diurnal rhythms during waterlogging, but no strongly increased activity during the flooding event. Performance of the two species is not hampered by being waterlogged, and they follow a silencing strategy during a longer phase of anoxia without

  18. A baseline classification of riparian woodland plant communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plots were placed along a gradient from the main water body to the drier fringe of the riparian zone. Plant species present in each plot were recorded with their estimated percentage cover using the Braun–Blanquet cover abundance scale. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to determine vegetation communities.

  19. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: Facility Registry Services (FRS) : Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) , National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) , and Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the estimated density of georeferenced sites within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian...

  20. Taxonomic and compositional differences of ground-dwelling arthropods in riparian habitats in Glen Canyon, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara; Cobb, Neil S.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Higgins, Jacob; Yackulic, Charles B.

    2017-01-01

    The disturbance history, plant species composition, productivity, and structural complexity of a site can exert bottom-up controls on arthropod diversity, abundance, and trophic structure. Regulation alters the hydrology and disturbance regimes of rivers and affects riparian habitats by changing plant quality parameters. Fifty years of regulation along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam has created a no-analog, postdam “lower” riparian zone close to the water's edge that includes tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), a nonnative riparian shrub. At the same time, the predam “upper” facultative riparian zone has persisted several meters above the current flood stage. In summer 2009, we used pitfall traps within these 2 riparian zones that differ in plant composition, productivity, and disturbance frequency to test for differences in arthropod community (Hymenoptera, Arachnida, and Coleoptera) structure. Arthropod community structure differed substantially between the 2 zones. Arthropod abundance and species richness was highest in the predam upper riparian zone, even though there was a greater amount of standing plant biomass in the postdam lower riparian zone. Omnivore abundance was proportionately greater in the upper riparian zone and was associated with lower estimated productivity values. Predators and detritivores were proportionately greater in the postdam lower riparian zone. In this case, river regulation may create habitats that support species of spiders and carabid beetles, but few other species that are exclusive to this zone. The combined richness found in both zones suggests a small increase in total richness and functional diversity for the Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River.

  1. Analysis of drugs of forensic interest with capillary zone electrophoresis/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on the use of non-volatile buffers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gottardo, R.; Mikšík, Ivan; Aturki, Z.; Sorio, D.; Seri, C.; Fanali, S.; Tagliaro, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2012), s. 599-606 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * drugs of abuse * non-volatile buffer * CE-MS Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.261, year: 2012

  2. Buffers Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramette, Richard W.

    1998-11-01

    In 1989 JCE Software published The Acid-Base Package: A Collection of Useful Programs for Proton Transfer Systems (Ramette, R. W. J. Chem. Educ. Software 1989, 2B No. 2). This DOS program has been fully upgraded by the same author to the world of Windows 95. Buffers Plus takes advantage of a modern user interface and offers many new options not possible in the original version.

  3. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  4. Riparian shrub buffers reduce surface water pollutant loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. A. Geyer; C. Barden; K. Mankin; D. Devlin

    2003-01-01

    Surface water resources in Kansas often contain concentrations of pesticides, nutrients, and sediments that are of concern to local citizens. The United States Geological Survey reported in 1999 that 97 percent of streams and 82 percent of lakes in Kansas would not fully support all uses as designated by state statutes (U.S. Geological Survey 1999). Bacteria and...

  5. Development of a novel running buffer for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in human serum by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyado, Takashi; Nagai, Hidenori; Takeda, Sahori; Saito, Keiitsu; Fukushi, Keiichi; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Wakida, Shin-ichi; Niki, Etsuo

    2003-10-03

    In order to improve NO2- peak height and obtain a convenient buffer system for the assay of nitrogen monooxide metabolites, we developed a novel running buffer for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in human serum by capillary electrophoresis. The addition of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride to the running buffer resulted in high-speed separation using reverse electroosmotic flow. Highly sensitive determination was also achieved using stacking with 10-fold diluted sample solutions. The samples were injected hydrodynamically for 100 s into a 50 cm x 75 microm I.D. capillary. The separation voltage was 10 kV (negative polarity). UV detection was performed at 214 nm. We obtained complete separation of nitrite and nitrate in deproteinized human serum within 6 min with optimum analytical conditions. Linear calibration curves for nitrite and nitrate for both peak height and peak area were obtained with standard addition method. The limits of detection obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for nitrite and nitrate were 4.1 and 2.0 microM, while the values of relative standard deviation of peak height were 2.4 and 2.6%, respectively.

  6. Historic carbon burial spike in an Amazon floodplain lake linked to riparian deforestation near Santarém, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sanders

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Forests along the Amazon Basin produce significant quantities of organic material, a portion of which is deposited in floodplain lakes. Deforestation in the watershed may then have potentially important effects on the carbon fluxes. In this study, a sediment core was extracted from an Amazon floodplain lake to examine the relationship between carbon burial and changing land cover and land use. Historical records from the 1930s and satellite data from the 1970s were used to calculate deforestation rates between 1930 to 1970 and 1970 to 2010 in four zones with different distances from the margins of the lake and its tributaries (100, 500, 1000 and 6000 m buffers. A sediment accumulation rate of  ∼ 4 mm yr−1 for the previous  ∼ 120 years was determined from the 240+239Pu signatures and the excess 210Pb method. The carbon burial rates ranged between 85 and 298 g C m−2 yr−1, with pulses of high carbon burial in the 1950s, originating from the forest vegetation as indicated by δ13C and δ15N signatures. Our results revealed a potentially important spatial dependence of the organic carbon (OC burial in Amazon lacustrine sediments in relation to deforestation rates in the catchment. These deforestation rates were more intense in the riparian vegetation (100 m buffer during the period 1930 to 1970 and the larger open water areas (500, 1000 and 6000 m buffer during 1970 to 2010. The continued removal of vegetation from the interior of the forest was not related to the peak of OC burial in the lake, but only the riparian deforestation which peaked during the 1950s. Therefore, this supports the conservation priority of riparian forests as an important management practice for Amazon flooded areas. Our findings suggest the importance of abrupt and temporary events in which some of the biomass released by deforestation, especially restricted to areas along open water edges, might reach the depositional environments in

  7. Áreas prioritárias ao restabelecimento da conectividade estrutural entre fragmentos florestais da Zona de Amortecimento da Estação Ecológica de Ribeirão Preto. Priority areas to restoration of structural connectivity between forest fragments of Buffer Zone of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Mouro VARANDA

    2015-06-01

    . In order to subsidize the forest restoration actions, a map of priority areas was generated for the reestablishment of the connectivity between the fragments of BF. The considered criteria for the production of the map were: the structure and configuration of the landscape, the conservation status of the remnant and the Brazilian legislation. The results demonstrate the urgency to achieve actions to restore the connectivity of Buffer Zone in EERP, demonstrating the high degree of fragmentation and degradation of this area. The methodology used to determine the areas of priority for the connectivity was comprehensive and resulted in a reliable and realistic map. The generated map indicates that the actions of forest restoration in BZ of Ribeirão Preto Ecological Station should be focused on two strategies: forest corridors and enrichment of the fragments, prioritizing the restoration of riparian forests. These procedures would act as facilitators for the structural connectivity between the green areas nearby the streams present in BF and so minimizing the impact of the edge effects. The generated result has the approval of all those directly or indirectly involved with the management of the protected area and its BF, it is also an excellent tool to assist management and should be used in future projects of restoration in partnership with the landowners.

  8. Benefits of riparian forest for the aquatic ecosystem assessed at a large geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Looy K.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Claimed benefits of riparian forest cover for the aquatic ecosystem include purification, thermal control, organic matter input and habitat provision, which may improve physicochemical and biotic quality. However, these beneficial effects might be flawed by multiple stressor conditions of intensive agriculture and urbanization in upstream catchments. We examined the relationship between riparian forest cover and physicochemical quality and biotic integrity indices in extensive large scale datasets. Measurements of hydromorphological conditions and riparian forest cover across different buffer widths for 59 × 103 river stretches covering 230 × 103 km of the French river network were coupled with data for physicochemical and biotic variables taken from the national monitoring network. General linear and quantile regression techniques were used to determine responses of physicochemical variables and biological integrity indices for macroinvertebrates and fish to riparian forest cover in selections of intermediate stress for 2nd to 4th order streams. Significant responses to forest cover were found for the nutrient variables and biological indices. According to these responses a 60% riparian forest cover in the 10 m buffer corresponds to good status boundaries for physicochemical and biotic elements. For the 30 m buffer, the observed response suggests that riparian forest coverage of at least 45% corresponds with good ecological status in the aquatic ecosystem. The observed consistent responses indicate significant potential for improving the quality of the aquatic environment by restoring riparian forest. The effects are more substantial in single-stressor environments but remain significant in multi-stressor environments.

  9. Riparian Habitat - Product of 2 riparian habitat workshops

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — In two riparian habitat workshops held between 2001 and 2002, scientists and managers identified the need for determining the scope of a consistent and acceptable...

  10. Nitrogen removal and microbial communities in a three-stage system simulating a riparian environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Zhixin; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-01

    The riparian zone is an active interface for nitrogen removal, in which nitrogen transformations by microorganisms have not been valued. In this study, a three-stage system was constructed to simulate the riparian zone environments, and nitrogen removal as well as the microbial community was investigated in this 'engineered riparian system'. The results demonstrated that stage 1 of this system accounted for 41-51 % of total nitrogen removal. Initial ammonium loading and redox potential significantly impacted the nitrogen removal performances. Stages 1 and 2 were both composed of an anoxic/oxic (A/O) zone and an anaerobic column. The A/O zone removed most of the ammonium load (6.8 g/m(2)/day), while the anaerobic column showed a significant nitrate removal rate (11.1 g/m(2)/day). Molecular biological analysis demonstrated that bacterial diversity was high in the A/O zones, where ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria accounted for 8.42 and 3.32 % of the bacterial population, respectively. The denitrifying bacteria Acidovorax sp. and the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosospira/Nitrosomonas were the predominant microorganisms in this engineered riparian system. This three-stage system was established to achieve favorable nitrogen removal and the microbial community in the system was also retained. This investigation should deepen our understanding of biological nitrogen removal in engineered riparian zones.

  11. Riparian Habitat - San Joaquin River

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The immediate focus of this study is to identify, describe and map the extent and diversity of riparian habitats found along the main stem of the San Joaquin River,...

  12. GIS applications in riparian management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie Christman; Douglas W. Shaw; Charles L. Spann; Penny Luehring

    1996-01-01

    GIS was used to prioritize watersheds for treatment needs across the USDA Forest Service Southwestern Region. Factors in this analysis included soil condition, riparian habitat, population centers and mining sites.

  13. Explaining linkages (and lack of) between riparian vegetation biodiversity and geomorphic complexity in restored streams of northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polvi, Lina; Maher Hasselquist, Eliza; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-05-01

    plots at three elevations above the low water stage (0, 40, and 80 cm) along five transects; additionally, we determined which species were present within the entire riparian zone (60 m long reach, up to 80 cm elevation). Three metrics of biodiversity were calculated on the plot level (richness, Shannon's diversity index, and evenness); only richness could be examined at the reach scale. There are significant relationships between riparian vegetation biodiversity and the overall complexity gradient at the medium elevation and, based on some metrics, at the low elevation. However, these relationships are not fully explanatory or always linear, explaining up to ~40% of the variability and often being logarithmic. We conclude that reach-scale restoration of increasing complexity in a catchment without significant land-use impacts can have positive effects on biodiversity. However, there are several limiting factors in addition to channel complexity that affect the recovery of riparian zones after restoration: the potential complexity of a reach based on large-scale controls, time since restoration—which is a disturbance in itself, buffer distance to timber harvesting, distance and connectivity to colonist sources, and upland species (e.g., spruce trees) that have managed to colonize when the riparian zone was separated from the channel.

  14. Biodiversity management approaches for stream-riparian areas: perspectives for Pacific Northwest headwater forests, microclimates, and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Olson; P.D. Anderson; C.A. Frissell; H.H. Welsh; D.F. Bradford

    2007-01-01

    New science insights are redefining stream riparian zones, particularly relative to headwaters, microclimate conditions, and fauna such as amphibians. We synthesize data on these topics, and propose management approaches to target sensitive biota at reach to landscape scales.

  15. Riparian planning in Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, R.; Prakoso, E.; Sadali, M. I.; Yusuf, M. G.

    2018-04-01

    Riparian is a potential for slums in urban areas. The city of Yogyakarta is passed by three rivers namely Code, Gajahwong, and Winongo, crossing the city. Riparian in the three rivers are potential for slum if the area is not well managed. This paper is based on the survey results of the structured interview with the people living in the riparian area in Yogyakarta City. They were 75 respondents from the three riparian. The result shows that several reasons why people prefer to remain living in the area are limited spaces and high land price in the city as well as inherited from their parents. The facts that there are still several problems related to the condition of settlement environment in the riparian, i.e., The condition of densely-populated areas, limited availability of land, and limited public spaces. Efforts that can be done to solve problems related to the riparian planning are anticipating disasters like flood and landslide, paying attention to densely-populated and unwell-planned areas, and handling garbage that has been abandoned into the river. The program expected by those living along both riversides is intended to give priorities on providing some aid for those whose houses are not in good condition, controlling buildings without a permit, and building a dike along the river. Efficiency can be made by making use of the space adequately between the one for settlement and the other one for open-green space for both aesthetic and economic purposes.

  16. Riparian erosion vulnerability model based on environmental features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero-Acosta, Alejandra; Chu, Maria L; Guzman, Jorge A; Starks, Patrick J; Moriasi, Daniel N

    2017-12-01

    Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology to identify areas along the riparian zone that are susceptible to erosion. The methodology was developed by integrating the physically-based watershed model MIKE-SHE, to simulate water movement, and a habitat suitability model, MaxEnt, to quantify the probability of presences of elevation changes (i.e., erosion) across the watershed. The presences of elevation changes were estimated based on two LiDAR-based elevation datasets taken in 2009 and 2012. The changes in elevation were grouped into four categories: low (0.5 - 0.7 m), medium (0.7 - 1.0 m), high (1.0 - 1.7 m) and very high (1.7 - 5.9 m), considering each category as a studied "species". The categories' locations were then used as "species location" map in MaxEnt. The environmental features used as constraints to the presence of erosion were land cover, soil, stream power index, overland flow, lateral inflow, and discharge. The modeling framework was evaluated in the Fort Cobb Reservoir Experimental watershed in southcentral Oklahoma. Results showed that the most vulnerable areas for erosion were located at the upper riparian zones of the Cobb and Lake sub-watersheds. The main waterways of these sub-watersheds were also found to be prone to streambank erosion. Approximatively 80% of the riparian zone (streambank

  17. Influence of ignored and well-known zone distortions on the separation performance of proteins in capillary free zone electrophoresis with special reference to analysis in polyacrylamide-coated fused silica capillaries in various buffers. II. Experimental studies at acidic pH with on-line enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohabbati, Sheila; Hjertén, Stellan; Westerlund, Douglas

    2004-10-22

    The separation of acidic and basic model proteins was studied in capillary free zone electrophoresis in a polyacrylamide-coated, electroosmosis-free capillary at pH below their isoelectric points (pI) using various buffers at pH 2.7-4.8 with UV detection at 200 nm. The separation performance was significantly dependent on the coating quality, which may even differ within the same batch of capillaries. In addition, a washing step with 2 M HCl and the storage of the capillary in distilled water was essential for the performance. For high efficiency and resolution the choice of buffer constituents was extremely important which is discussed in quantitative terms in Part I. The most promising buffers were ammonium acetate and ammonium hydroxyacetate at pH 4 (ionic strengths: 0.12 and 0.15 M, respectively) with plate numbers up to 1,700,000 plates/m, corresponding to a zone width (2sigma) of only 1 mm in a capillary with 40 cm effective length, when the injected samples were dissolved in a 10-fold diluted background electrolyte (BGE), a zone even narrower than those obtained in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the characteristic feature of which is remarkably thin zones. In the experiment giving this plate number, the calculated variance for longitudinal diffusion was larger than all the other calculated variances (those for the width of the starting zone, Joule heating, sedimentation and the curvature of the capillary). Interestingly, the effect of capillary curvature was significant. In addition, the sum of all other imaginable variances (corresponding to various types of slow on/off kinetics and hyper-sharp peaks) was in the most successful experiments only 28-50% of the variance for longitudinal diffusion. One hundred- to two hundred-fold dilution of the BGE improved the detection limits and provided high precision in both migration times and peak areas with ammonium hydroxyacetate and ammonium acetate as background electrolytes. However, that high dilution

  18. Principles for Establishing Ecologically Successful Riparian Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principles for establishing riparian areas. Riparian areas are three‐dimensional ecotones of interaction that include terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, that extend down into the groundwater, up above the canopy, outward across the floodplain.

  19. Pavement and riparian forest shape the bird community along an urban river corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J.W. McClure

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of habitat use by animals within urban-riparian corridors during the breeding season is important for conservation, yet remains understudied. We examined the bird community along an urban-riparian corridor through metropolitan Boise, Idaho and predicted that occupancy of individual species and species richness would be greater in forested areas than in urbanized areas. We surveyed birds throughout the summers of 2009 and 2010 and quantified the m2 of each cover-type within 50-m, 100-m, and 200-m buffers surrounding each survey location using satellite imagery. Occupancy modeling revealed that eight of 14 species analyzed were positively associated with riparian forest, and no species avoided forest. Species richness was negatively associated with the amount of paved surface within 100 m of a survey site with richness declining by more than two species for every hectare of paved surface. Most associations with cover-types–especially riparian forest–were at ⩾100 m. Therefore, the riparian forest within 100 m of a given site along an urban-riparian corridor should be the most important for maintaining species richness.

  20. [Floristic composition and distribution of the Andean subtropical riparian forests of Lules River, Tucuman, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirombra, Martín G; Mesa, Leticia M

    2010-03-01

    We studied the floristic composition and distribution of the riparian forest of two hydrographical systems in a subtropical Andean region. Using uni and multivariate techniques, we tested the hypotheses that a differentiable riparian forest exists, composed by native vegetation typical of the Yungas phytogeographical province, and that the distribution of vegetation varied significantly with geomorphologic characteristics. Parallel transects along the water courses were used to collect presence-absence data of vegetation in eleven sites. Detrended Correspondence Analysis defined a group of common riparian species for the studied area (Solanum riparium, Phenax laevigatus, Tipuana tipu, Cestrum parqui, Carica quercifolia, Acacia macracantha, Celtis iguanaea, Juglans australis, Pisoniella arborescens, Baccharis salicifolia, Cinnamomum porphyrium and Eugenia uniflora) and identified two reference sites. The distribution of the riparian vegetation varied significantly with the geomorphic characteristics along the studied sites. Riparian habitats were composed by native and exotic species. A distinct riparian flora, different in structure and function from adjacent terrestrial vegetation, could not be identified. Riparian species were similar to the adjacent terrestrial strata. These species would not be limited by the proximity to the river. Anthropogenic impacts were important factors regulating the introduction and increase of exotic vegetation. The lack of regulation of some activities in the zone could cause serious problems in the integrity of this ecosystem.

  1. Germination timing and rate of locally collected western wheatgrass and smooth brome grass: the role of collection site and light sensitivity along a riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ecological integrity of riparian areas is reduced by biological plant invaders like smooth brome grass (Bromus inermis). Smooth brome actively invades recently disturbed riparian zones by its high seed production and fast seedling establishment. Restoring native perennial grasses to these regio...

  2. Riparian responses to extreme climate and land-use change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Rosário; Segurado, Pedro; Jauch, Eduardo; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2016-11-01

    Climate change will induce alterations in the hydrological and landscape patterns with effects on riparian ecotones. In this study we assess the combined effect of an extreme climate and land-use change scenario on riparian woody structure and how this will translate into a future risk of riparian functionality loss. The study was conducted in the Tâmega catchment of the Douro basin. Boosted Regression Trees (BRTs) were used to model two riparian landscape indicators related with the degree of connectivity (Mean Width) and complexity (Area Weighted Mean Patch Fractal Dimension). Riparian data were extracted by planimetric analysis of high spatial-resolution Word Imagery Layer (ESRI). Hydrological, climatic and land-use variables were obtained from available datasets and generated with process-based modeling using current climate data (2008-2014), while also considering the high-end RCP8.5 climate-change and "Icarus" socio-economic scenarios for the 2046-2065 time slice. Our results show that hydrological and land-use changes strongly influence future projections of riparian connectivity and complexity, albeit to diverse degrees and with differing effects. A harsh reduction in average flows may impair riparian zones while an increase in extreme rain events may benefit connectivity by promoting hydrologic dynamics with the surrounding floodplains. The expected increase in broad-leaved woodlands and mixed forests may enhance the riparian galleries by reducing the agricultural pressure on the area in the vicinity of the river. According to our results, 63% of river segments in the Tâmega basin exhibited a moderate risk of functionality loss, 16% a high risk, and 21% no risk. Weaknesses and strengths of the method are highlighted and results are discussed based on a resilience perspective with regard to riparian ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Arthropod prey for riparian associated birds in headwater forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan C.; Li, Judith; Sobota, Janel; Jenkins, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Headwater riparian areas occupy a large proportion of the land base in Pacific Northwest forests, and thus are ecologically and economically important. Although a primary goal of management along small headwater streams is the protection of aquatic resources, streamside habitat also is important for many terrestrial wildlife species. However, mechanisms underlying the riparian associations of some terrestrial species have not been well studied, particularly for headwater drainages. We investigated the diets of and food availability for four bird species associated with riparian habitats in montane coastal forests of western Oregon, USA. We examined variation in the availability of arthropod prey as a function of distance from stream. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that (1) emergent aquatic insects were a food source for insectivorous birds in headwater riparian areas, and (2) the abundances of aquatic and terrestrial arthropod prey did not differ between streamside and upland areas during the bird breeding season. We found that although adult aquatic insects were available for consumption throughout the study period, they represented a relatively small proportion of available prey abundance and biomass and were present in only 1% of the diet samples from only one of the four riparian-associated bird species. Nonetheless, arthropod prey, comprised primarily of insects of terrestrial origin, was more abundant in streamside than upland samples. We conclude that food resources for birds in headwater riparian areas are primarily associated with terrestrial vegetation, and that bird distributions along the gradient from streamside to upland may be related to variation in arthropod prey availability. Because distinct vegetation may distinguish riparian from upland habitats for riparian-associated birds and their terrestrial arthropod prey, we suggest that understory communities be considered when defining management zones for riparian habitat.

  4. Effect of NaOH on large-volume sample stacking of haloacetic acids in capillary zone electrophoresis with a low-pH buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chuanhong; Zhu, Lingyan; Ang, Chay Hoon; Lee, Hian Kee

    2003-06-01

    Large-volume sample stacking (LVSS) is an effective on-capillary sample concentration method in capillary zone electrophoresis, which can be applied to the sample in a low-conductivity matrix. NaOH solution is commonly used to back-extract acidic compounds from organic solvent in sample pretreatment. The effect of NaOH as sample matrix on LVSS of haloacetic acids was investigated in this study. It was found that the presence of NaOH in sample did not compromise, but rather help the sample stacking performance if a low pH background electrolyte (BGE) was used. The sensitivity enhancement factor was higher than the case when sample was dissolved in pure water or diluted BGE. Compared with conventional injection (0.4% capillary volume), 97-120-fold sensitivity enhancement in terms of peak height was obtained without deterioration of separation with an injection amount equal to 20% of the capillary volume. This method was applied to determine haloacetic acids in tap water by combination with liquid-liquid extraction and back-extraction into NaOH solution. Limits of detection at sub-ppb levels were obtained for real samples with direct UV detection.

  5. Radionuclide transport along a boreal hill slope - elevated soil water concentrations in riparian forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidman, Fredrik; Boily, Aasa; Laudon, Hjalmar [Dept. of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Koehler, Stephan J. [Dept. of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7050, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    The transport of radionuclides from forest ecosystems and out into surface waters is a crucial process for understanding the long-term fate of radionuclides in the boreal landscape. Boreal forests are typically dominated by podzol soils, but the streams draining the forests are often lined by highly organic, often peat-like soils, which the radionuclides must pass through in order to reach the stream. This so-called riparian zone therefore represents a fundamentally different biogeochemical environment than ordinary forest soils, e.g. by exhibiting significantly lower pH and higher concentrations of organic colloids, which significantly can affect the mobility of many radionuclides. Since the riparian zone is the last terrestrial environment that the groundwater is in contact with before it enters the stream, previous research has demonstrated its profound impact on the stream water chemistry. Hence, the riparian soils should also be important for the transport and accumulation of radionuclides. Therefore, soil water was sampled using suction lysimeters installed at different depths along a 22 m long forested hill slope transect in northern Sweden, following the flow pathway of the groundwater from the uphill podzol to the riparian zone near the stream channel. The analyses included a wide range of hydrochemical parameters and many radiologically important elements, e.g. U, Th, Ni, C, Sr, Cs, REEs and Cl. The sampling was repeated ten times throughout a year in order to also capture the temporal variability of the soil water chemistry. The water chemistry of the investigated transect displayed a remarkable change as the groundwater approached the stream channel. Strongly increased concentrations of many elements were observed in the riparian soils. For instance, the concentrations of Th were more than 100 times higher than in the riparian zone than in the uphill forest, suggesting that the riparian zone may be a hotspot for radionuclide accumulation. The reason

  6. Responses of riparian reptile communities to damming and urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephanie D.; Guzy, Jacquelyn C.; Price, Steven J.; Halstead, Brian J.; Eskew, Evan A.; Dorcas, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Various anthropogenic pressures, including habitat loss, threaten reptile populations worldwide. Riparian zones are critical habitat for many reptile species, but these habitats are also frequently modified by anthropogenic activities. Our study investigated the effects of two riparian habitat modifications-damming and urbanization-on overall and species-specific reptile occupancy patterns. We used time-constrained search techniques to compile encounter histories for 28 reptile species at 21 different sites along the Broad and Pacolet Rivers of South Carolina. Using a hierarchical Bayesian analysis, we modeled reptile occupancy responses to a site's distance upstream from dam, distance downstream from dam, and percent urban land use. The mean occupancy response by the reptile community indicated that reptile occupancy and species richness were maximized when sites were farther upstream from dams. Species-specific occupancy estimates showed a similar trend of lower occupancy immediately upstream from dams. Although the mean occupancy response of the reptile community was positively related to distance downstream from dams, the occupancy response to distance downstream varied among species. Percent urban land use had little effect on the occupancy response of the reptile community or individual species. Our results indicate that the conditions of impoundments and subsequent degradation of the riparian zones upstream from dams may not provide suitable habitat for a number of reptile species.

  7. Riparian ecotone: A functional definition and delineation for resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. S Verry; C. A Dolloff; M. E. Manning

    2004-01-01

    We propose a geomorphic basis for defining riparian areas using the term: riparian ecotone, discuss how past definitions fall short, and illustrate how a linked sequence of definition, delineation, and riparian sampling are used to accurately assess riparian resources on the ground. Our riparian ecotone is based on the width of the valley (its floodprone area width)...

  8. Management and Area-wide Evaluation of Water Conservation Zones in Agricultural Catchments for Biomass Production, Water Quality and Food Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Global land and water resources are under threat from both the agricultural and urban development to meet increased demand for food and from the resulting degradation of the environment. Poor crop yields due to water stress is one of the main reasons for the prevailing hunger and rural poverty in parts of the world. The Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s particularly in Latin America and Asia resulted in increased agricultural production and depended partly on water management. In the future, most food will still need to come from rain-fed agriculture. Water conservation zones in agricultural catchments, particularly in rainfed areas, play an important role in the capture and storage of water and nutrients from farmlands and wider catchments, and help improve crop production in times of need in these areas. Water conservation zones are considered to be an important part of water resource management strategies that have been developed to prevent reservoir siltation, reduce water quality degradation, mitigate flooding, enhance groundwater recharge and provide water for farming. In addition to making crop production possible in dry areas, water conservation zones minimize soil erosion, improve soil moisture status through capillary rise and enhance soil fertility and quality. These water conservation zones include natural and constructed wetlands (including riparian wetlands), farm ponds and riparian buffer zones. The management of water conservation zones has been a challenge due to the poor understanding of the relationship between upstream land use and the functions of these zones and their internal dynamics. Knowledge of sources and sinks of water and redefining water and nutrient budgets for water conservation zones are important for optimizing the capture, storage and use of water and nutrients in agricultural landscapes. The overall objective of this coordinated research project (CRP) was to assess and enhance ecosystem services provided by wetlands, ponds

  9. Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors Influencing Salamanders in Riparian Forests: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah L. Clipp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Salamanders and riparian forests are intimately interconnected. Salamanders are integral to ecosystem functions, contributing to vertebrate biomass and complex food webs in riparian forests. In turn, these forests are critical ecosystems that perform many environmental services, facilitate high biodiversity and species richness, and provide habitat to salamander populations. Due to the global decline of amphibians, it is important to understand, as thoroughly and holistically as possible, the roles of environmental parameters and the impact of human activities on salamander abundance and diversity in riparian forests. To determine the population responses of salamanders to a variety of environmental factors and anthropogenic activities, we conducted a review of published literature that compared salamander abundance and diversity, and then summarized and synthesized the data into general patterns. We identify stream quality, leaf litter and woody debris, riparian buffer width, and soil characteristics as major environmental factors influencing salamander populations in riparian forests, describe and explain salamander responses to those factors, and discuss the effects of anthropogenic activities such as timber harvest, prescribed fires, urbanization, road construction, and habitat fragmentation. This review can assist land and natural resource managers in anticipating the consequences of human activities and preparing strategic conservation plans.

  10. Favorable fragmentation: river reservoirs can impede downstream expansion of riparian weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Stewart B; Braatne, Jeffrey H; Goater, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    River valleys represent biologically rich corridors characterized by natural disturbances that create moist and barren sites suitable for colonization by native riparian plants, and also by weeds. Dams and reservoirs interrupt the longitudinal corridors and we hypothesized that this could restrict downstream weed expansion. To consider this "reservoir impediment" hypothesis we assessed the occurrences and abundances of weeds along a 315-km river valley corridor that commenced with an unimpounded reach of the Snake River and extended through Brownlee, Oxbow, and Hells Canyon reservoirs and dams, and downstream along the Snake River. Sampling along 206 belt transects with 3610 quadrats revealed 16 noxious and four invasive weed species. Ten weeds were upland plants, with Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) restricted to the upstream reaches, where field morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis) was also more common. In contrast, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) was more abundant below the dams, and medusahead wildrye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) occurred primarily along the reservoirs. All seven riparian species were abundant in the upstream zones but sparse or absent below the dams. This pattern was observed for the facultative riparian species, poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) and perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium), the obligate riparian, yellow nut sedge (Cyperus esculentus), the invasive perennial, reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and three invasive riparian trees, Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), false indigo (Amorpha fruticosa), and tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). The hydrophyte purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) was also restricted to the upstream zone. These longitudinal patterns indicate that the reservoirs have impeded the downstream expansion of riparian weeds, and this may especially result from the repetitive draw-down and refilling of Brownlee Reservoir that imposes a lethal combination of drought and flood stress. The dams and

  11. Groundwater management institutions to protect riparian habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Patricia; Colby, Bonnie

    2004-12-01

    Groundwater pumping affects riparian habitat when it causes the water table to drop beyond the reach of riparian plants. Riparian habitat provides services that are not directly traded in markets, as is the case with many environmental amenities. There is no direct market where one may buy or sell the mix of services provided by a riparian corridor. The objective of this article is to review groundwater management mechanisms and assess their strengths and weaknesses for preserving the ecological integrity of riparian areas threatened by groundwater pumping. Policy instruments available to those concerned with the effects of groundwater pumping on riparian areas fall into three broad categories: (1) command and control (CAC), (2) incentive-based economic instruments, and (3) cooperative/suasive strategies. The case of the San Pedro River illustrates multiple and overlapping strategies applied in an ongoing attempt to reverse accumulating damage to a riparian ecosystem. Policy makers in the United States can choose among a broad menu of policy options to protect riparian habitat from groundwater pumping. They can capitalize on the clarity of command-and-control strategies, the flexibility and less obtrusive nature of incentive-based economic strategies, and the benefits that collaborative efforts can bring in the form of mutual consideration. While collaborative problem solving and market-based instruments are important policy tools, experience indicates that a well-formulated regulatory structure to limit regional groundwater pumping is an essential component of an effective riparian protection strategy.

  12. DECISION TOOL FOR RIPARIAN ECOSYSTEM MANAGMENT IN THE MID-ATLANTIC HIGHLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Canaan Valley Highlands of the Mid-Atlantic, riparian zone restoration has been identified as a critical watershed management practice not only for the ecosystem services provided but also for the potential socioeconomic growth from environmental investment and job creatio...

  13. Effects of groundwater-flow paths on nitrate concentrations across two riparian forest corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiran, Gary K.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater levels, apparent age, and chemistry from field sites and groundwater-flow modeling of hypothetical aquifers collectively indicate that groundwater-flow paths contribute to differences in nitrate concentrations across riparian corridors. At sites in Virginia (one coastal and one Piedmont), lowland forested wetlands separate upland fields from nearby surface waters (an estuary and a stream). At the coastal site, nitrate concentrations near the water table decreased from more than 10 mg/L beneath fields to 2 mg/L beneath a riparian forest buffer because recharge through the buffer forced water with concentrations greater than 5 mg/L to flow deeper beneath the buffer. Diurnal changes in groundwater levels up to 0.25 meters at the coastal site reflect flow from the water table into unsaturated soil where roots remove water and nitrate dissolved in it. Decreases in aquifer thickness caused by declines in the water table and decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients from the uplands to the wetlands indicate that more than 95% of the groundwater discharged to the wetlands. Such discharge through organic soil can reduce nitrate concentrations by denitrification. Model simulations are consistent with field results, showing downward flow approaching toe slopes and surface waters to which groundwater discharges. These effects show the importance of buffer placement over use of fixed-width, streamside buffers to control nitrate concentrations.

  14. VT Data - Zoning 20070306, Marlboro

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Zoning districts, Marlboro, Vermont. Surface water buffer overlay is in a separate shapefile. Data were originally created by WRC in 2005. Marlboro's zoning bylaw...

  15. Ecological assessment of riparian forests in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present research deals with the flora, phytosociology and ecology of riparian forests. The overall objective of this research is to contribute to a better knowledge of the flora, diversity and ecology of riparian forests in

  16. Tamarisk coalition - native riparian plant materials program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy Kolegas

    2012-01-01

    The Tamarisk Coalition (TC), a nonprofit organization dedicated to riparian restoration in the western United States, has created a Native Plant Materials Program to address the identified need for native riparian plant species for use in revegetation efforts on the Colorado Plateau. The specific components of the Native Plant Materials Program include: 1) provide seed...

  17. The Riparianness of a Desert Herpetofauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Lowe

    1989-01-01

    Within the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert subdivisions of the North American Desert in the U.S., more than half of 143 total amphibian and reptilian species perform as riparian and/or wetland taxa. For the reptiles, but not the amphibians, there is a significant inverse relationship between riparianness (obligate through preferential and facultative to...

  18. Viscosity changes of riparian water controls diurnal fluctuations of stream-flow and DOC concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in stream-flow are commonly explained as being triggered by the daily evapotranspiration cycle in the riparian zone, leading to stream flow minima in the afternoon. While this trigger effect must necessarily be constrained by the extent of the growing season of vegetation, we here show evidence of daily stream flow maxima in the afternoon in a small headwater stream during the dormant season. We hypothesize that the afternoon maxima in stream flow are induced by viscosity changes of riparian water that is caused by diurnal temperature variations of the near surface groundwater in the riparian zone. The patterns were observed in the Weierbach headwater catchment in Luxembourg. The catchment is covering an area of 0.45 km2, is entirely covered by forest and is dominated by a schistous substratum. DOC concentration at the outlet of the catchment was measured with the field deployable UV-Vis spectrometer spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH) with a high frequency of 15 minutes over several months. Discharge was measured with an ISCO 4120 Flow Logger. During the growing season, stream flow shows a frequently observed diurnal pattern with discharge minima in the afternoon. During the dormant season, a long dry period with daily air temperature amplitudes of around 10 ° C occurred in March and April 2014, with discharge maxima in the afternoon. The daily air temperature amplitude led to diurnal variations in the water temperature of the upper 10 cm of the riparian zone. Higher riparian water temperatures cause a decrease in water viscosity and according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, the volumetric flow rate is inversely proportional to viscosity. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the viscosity changes of water, we calculated higher flow rates of near surface groundwater through the riparian zone into the stream in the afternoon which explains the stream flow maxima in the afternoon. With the start of the growing season, the viscosity

  19. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  20. Effects of drought on birds and riparian vegetation in the Colorado River Delta, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Nagler, Pamela L.; Carrillo-Guererro, Yamilett K.; Glenn, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    The riparian corridor in the delta of the Colorado River in Mexico supports internationally important bird habitat. The vegetation is maintained by surface flows from the U.S. and Mexico and by a high, non-saline aquifer into which the dominant phreatophytic shrubs and trees are rooted. We studied the effects of a regional drought on riparian vegetation and avian abundance and diversity from 2002 to 2007, during which time surface flows were markedly reduced compared to the period from 1995 to 2002. Reduced surface flows led to a reduction in native tree cover but an increase in shrub cover, mostly due to an increase in Tamarix spp., an introduced halophytic shrub, and a reduction in Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii trees. However, overall vegetation cover was unchanged at about 70%. Overall bird density and diversity were also unchanged, but riparian-obligate species tended to decrease in abundance, and generalist species increased. Although reduction in surface flows reduced habitat value and negatively impacted riparian-obligate bird species, portions of the riparian zone exhibited resilience. Surface flows are required to reduce soil salt levels and germinate new cohorts of native trees, but the main source of water supporting this ecosystem is the aquifer, derived from underflows from irrigated fields in the U.S. and Mexico. The long-term prospects for delta riparian habitats are uncertain due to expected reduced flows of river water from climate change, and land use practices that will reduce underflows to the riparian aquifer and increase salinity levels. Active restoration programs would be needed if these habitats are to be preserved for the future.

  1. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  2. Organellar Calcium Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Daniel; Michalak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ca2+ is an important intracellular messenger affecting many diverse processes. In eukaryotic cells, Ca2+ storage is achieved within specific intracellular organelles, especially the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum, in which Ca2+ is buffered by specific proteins known as Ca2+ buffers. Ca2+ buffers are a diverse group of proteins, varying in their affinities and capacities for Ca2+, but they typically also carry out other functions within the cell. The wide range of organelles containing Ca2+ and the evidence supporting cross-talk between these organelles suggest the existence of a dynamic network of organellar Ca2+ signaling, mediated by a variety of organellar Ca2+ buffers. PMID:21421925

  3. Effect of emergent aquatic insects on bat foraging in a riparian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Dai; Murakami, Masashi; Nakano, Shigeru; Aoi, Toshiki

    2006-11-01

    1. Riparian zones serve several ecological functions for bats. They provide a source of prey and likely provide favourable structural habitats and shelter from predators. Many studies have shown that bats use the space above streams, ponds or riparian vegetation as feeding habitat. These studies, however, have never distinguished between the effects of habitat structure and prey availability on the foraging activities of bats. Such effects can only be distinguished by an experimental approach. We predicted that bat activity along a stream is influenced by the number of emerged aquatic insects. 2. We evaluated the response of terrestrial consumers, insectivorous bats, to changes in the abundance of emergent aquatic insects by conducting a manipulative field experiment. In a deciduous riparian forest in Japan, aquatic insect flux from the stream to the riparian zone was controlled with an insect-proof cover over a 1.2 km stream reach. 3. We estimated the abundance of emergent aquatic and flying terrestrial arthropods near the treatment and control reaches using Malaise traps. The foraging activity of bats was evaluated in both treatment and control reaches using ultrasonic detectors. 4. The insect-proof cover effectively reduced the flux of emergent aquatic insects to the riparian zone adjacent to the treatment reach. Adjacent to the control reach, adult aquatic insect biomass was highest in spring, and then decreased gradually. Terrestrial insect biomass increased gradually during the summer at both treatment and control reaches. 5. Foraging activity of bats was correlated with insect abundance. In spring, foraging activity of bats at the control reach was significantly greater than at the treatment reach, and increased at both sites with increasing terrestrial insect abundance. 6. Our result suggests that the flux of aquatic insects emerging from streams is one of the most important factors affecting the distribution of riparian-foraging bats. As is the case with

  4. Forestry best management practices relationships with aquatic and riparian fauna: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Brooke M.; Aust, W. Michael; Barrett, Scott M.; Ford, W. Mark; Dolloff, C. Andrew; Schilling, Erik B.; Wigley, T. Bently; Bolding, M. Chad

    2017-01-01

    Forestry best management practices (BMPs) were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1) a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2) data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3) forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs) are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4) stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5) SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  5. Forestry Best Management Practices Relationships with Aquatic and Riparian Fauna: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke M. Warrington

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs were developed to minimize water pollution from forestry operations by primarily addressing sediment and sediment transport, which is the leading source of pollution from silviculture. Implementation of water quality BMPs may also benefit riparian and aquatic wildlife, although wildlife benefits were not driving forces for BMP development. Therefore, we reviewed literature regarding potential contributions of sediment-reducing BMPs to conservation of riparian and aquatic wildlife, while realizing that BMPs also minimize thermal, nutrient, and chemical pollution. We reached five important conclusions: (1 a significant body of research confirms that forestry BMPs contribute to the protection of water quality and riparian forest structure; (2 data-specific relationships between forestry BMPs and reviewed species are limited; (3 forestry BMPs for forest road construction and maintenance, skid trails, stream crossings, and streamside management zones (SMZs are important particularly for protection of water quality and aquatic species; (4 stream crossings should be carefully selected and installed to minimize sediment inputs and stream channel alterations; and (5 SMZs promote retention of older-age riparian habitat with benefits extending from water bodies to surrounding uplands. Overall, BMPs developed for protection of water quality should benefit a variety of riparian and aquatic species that are sensitive to changes in water quality or forest structure.

  6. Environmental tolerance of an invasive riparian tree and its potential for continued spread in the southwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L.V.; Cooper, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Exotic plant invasion may be aided by facilitation and broad tolerance of environmental conditions, yet these processes are poorly understood in species-rich ecosystems such as riparian zones. In the southwestern United States (US) two plant species have invaded riparian zones: tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrids) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). We addressed the following questions: (1) is Russian olive able to tolerate drier and shadier conditions than cottonwood and tamarisk? (2) Can tamarisk and cottonwood facilitate Russian olive invasion? Location: Arid riparian zones, southwestern US. Methods: We analyzed riparian tree seedling requirements in a controlled experiment, performed empirical field studies, and analyzed stable oxygen isotopes to determine the water sources used by Russian olive. Results: Russian olive survival was significantly higher in dense shade and low moisture conditions than tamarisk and cottonwood. Field observations indicated Russian olive established where flooding cannot occur, and under dense canopies of tamarisk, cottonwood, and Russian olive. Tamarisk and native riparian plant species seedlings cannot establish in these dry, shaded habitats. Russian olive can rely on upper soil water until 15 years of age, before utilizing groundwater. Conclusions: We demonstrate that even though there is little evidence of facilitation by cottonwood and tamarisk, Russian olive is able to tolerate dense shade and low moisture conditions better than tamarisk and cottonwood. There is great potential for continued spread of Russian olive throughout the southwestern US because large areas of suitable habitat exist that are not yet inhabited by this species. ?? 2010 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  7. A Buffer Management Issue in Designing SSDs for LFSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaegeuk; Seol, Jinho; Maeng, Seungryoul

    This letter introduces a buffer management issue in designing SSDs for log-structured file systems (LFSs). We implemented a novel trace-driven SSD simulator in SystemC language, and simulated several SSD architectures with the NILFS2 trace. From the results, we give two major considerations related to the buffer management as follows. (1) The write buffer is used as a buffer not a cache, since all write requests are sequential in NILFS2. (2) For better performance, the main architectural factor is the bus bandwidth, but 332MHz is enough. Instead, the read buffer makes a key role in performance improvement while caching data. To enhance SSDs, accordingly, it is an effective way to make efficient read buffer management policies, and one of the examples is tracking the valid data zone in NILFS2, which can increase the data hit ratio in read buffers significantly.

  8. Evaluating hillslope and riparian contributions to dissolved nitrogen (N) export from a boreal forest catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M.; Ledesma, José L. J.; Näsholm, Torgny; Laudon, Hjalmar; Sponseller, Ryan A.

    2017-02-01

    Catchment science has long held that the chemistry of small streams reflects the landscapes they drain. However, understanding the contribution of different landscape units to stream chemistry remains a challenge which frequently limits our understanding of export dynamics. For limiting nutrients such as nitrogen (N), an implicit assumption is that the most spatially extensive landscape units (e.g., uplands) act as the primary sources to surface waters, while near-stream zones function more often as sinks. These assumptions, based largely on studies in high-gradient systems or in regions with elevated inputs of anthropogenic N, may not apply to low-gradient, nutrient-poor, and peat-rich catchments characteristic of many northern ecosystems. We quantified patterns of N mobilization along a hillslope transect in a northern boreal catchment to assess the extent to which organic matter-rich riparian soils regulate the flux of N to streams. Contrary to the prevailing view of riparian functioning, we found that near-stream, organic soils supported concentrations and fluxes of ammonium (NH4+) and dissolved organic nitrogen that were much higher than the contributing upslope forest soils. These results suggest that stream N chemistry is connected to N mobilization and mineralization within the riparian zone rather than the wider landscape. Results further suggest that water table fluctuation in near-surface riparian soils may promote elevated rates of net N mineralization in these landscapes.

  9. Contrasted response of colloidal, organic and inorganic dissolved phosphorus forms during rewetting of dried riparian soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Sen; Gruau, Gérard; Malique, François; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Petitjean, Patrice; Bouhnik-Le Coz, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetated buffer strip (RVBS) are currently used to protect surface waters from phosphorus (P) emissions because of their ability to retain P-enriched soil particles. However, this protection role may be counterbalanced by the development in these zones of conditions able to trigger the release of highly mobile dissolved or colloidal P forms. Rewetting after drying is one of these conditions. So far, the potential sources of P mobilized during rewetting after drying are not clearly identified, nor are clearly identified the chemical nature of the released dissolved P species, or the role of the soil P speciation on these forms. In this study, two riparian soils (G and K) showing contrasting soil P speciation (65% of inorganic P species in soil G, as against 70% of organic P) were submitted to three successive dry/wet cycles in the laboratory. Conventional colorimetric determination of P concentrations combined with ultrafiltration, and measurements of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents using ICP-MS and TOC analyzers, respectively, were used to study the response of the different P forms to rewetting after drying and also their release kinetics during soil leaching. For both soils, marked P release peaks were observed at the beginning of each wet cycles, with the organic-rich K soils giving, however, larger peaks than the inorganic one (G soil). For both soils also, concentrations in molybdate reactive P (MRP) remained quite constant throughout each leaching episode, contrary to the molybdate unreactive P (MUP) concentrations which were high immediately after rewetting and then decreased rapidly during leaching. A speciation change was observed from the beginning to the end of all leaching cycles. Colloidal P was found to be a major fraction of the total P immediately after rewetting (up to 50-70%) and then decreased to the end of each wet cycle where most of the eluted P was true dissolved inorganic P. Colloidal

  10. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation

  11. Effects of increased flooding on riparian vegetation: Field experiments simulating climate change along five European lowland streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garssen, Annemarie G; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Riis, Tenna; Raven, Bart M; Hoffman, Carl Christian; Verhoeven, Jos T A; Soons, Merel B

    2017-08-01

    In many parts of the world, the magnitude and frequency of cold-season precipitation are expected to increase in the near future. This will result in an increased magnitude and duration of winter and spring flooding by rain-fed streams and rivers. Such climate-driven increases in flooding are likely to affect riparian plant communities, but future vegetation changes are hard to predict due to current lack of data. To fill this knowledge gap, we experimentally modified the hydrology of five streams across three countries in north-western Europe during late winter/early spring over a period of 3 years. We assessed the responses in riparian plant species richness, biomass, plant-available nitrogen and phosphorus and seed deposition to increased flooding depth (+18 cm on average at the lowest positions along the riparian gradient) and prolonged flooding duration (6 weeks on average). After 3 years of increased flooding, there was an overall decline in riparian species richness, while riparian plant biomass increased. Extractable soil nitrogen and phosphorus also increased and are likely to have contributed to the increased biomass. Increased flooding resulted in the arrival of more seeds of additional species to the riparian zone, thereby potentially facilitating the shifts in riparian plant species composition we observed. The results of our concerted experimental effort demonstrate that changes in stream riparian plant communities can occur rapidly following increased winter flooding, leading to strong reductions in plant species diversity. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Estimating riparian and agricultural evapotranspiration by reference crop evapotranspiration and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nguyen, Uyen; Scott, Russell; Doody, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Dryland river basins frequently support both irrigated agriculture and riparian vegetation and remote sensing methods are needed to monitor water use by both crops and natural vegetation in irrigation districts. We developed an algorithm for estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa) based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor on the EOS-1 Terra satellite and locally-derived measurements of reference crop ET (ETo). The algorithm was calibrated with five years of ETa data from three eddy covariance flux towers set in riparian plant associations on the upper San Pedro River, Arizona, supplemented with ETa data for alfalfa and cotton from the literature. The algorithm was based on an equation of the form ETa = ETo [a(1 − e−bEVI) − c], where the term (1 − e−bEVI) is derived from the Beer-Lambert Law to express light absorption by a canopy, with EVI replacing leaf area index as an estimate of the density of light-absorbing units. The resulting algorithm capably predicted ETa across riparian plants and crops (r2 = 0.73). It was then tested against water balance data for five irrigation districts and flux tower data for two riparian zones for which season-long or multi-year ETa data were available. Predictions were within 10% of measured results in each case, with a non-significant (P = 0.89) difference between mean measured and modeled ETa of 5.4% over all validation sites. Validation and calibration data sets were combined to present a final predictive equation for application across crops and riparian plant associations for monitoring individual irrigation districts or for conducting global water use assessments of mixed agricultural and riparian biomes.

  13. Estimating Riparian and Agricultural Actual Evapotranspiration by Reference Evapotranspiration and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dryland river basins frequently support both irrigated agriculture and riparian vegetation and remote sensing methods are needed to monitor water use by both crops and natural vegetation in irrigation districts. We developed an algorithm for estimating actual evapotranspiration (ETa based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS sensor on the EOS-1 Terra satellite and locally-derived measurements of reference crop ET (ETo. The algorithm was calibrated with five years of ETa data from three eddy covariance flux towers set in riparian plant associations on the upper San Pedro River, Arizona, supplemented with ETa data for alfalfa and cotton from the literature. The algorithm was based on an equation of the form ETa = ETo [a(1 − e−bEVI − c], where the term (1 − e−bEVI is derived from the Beer-Lambert Law to express light absorption by a canopy, with EVI replacing leaf area index as an estimate of the density of light-absorbing units. The resulting algorithm capably predicted ETa across riparian plants and crops (r2 = 0.73. It was then tested against water balance data for five irrigation districts and flux tower data for two riparian zones for which season-long or multi-year ETa data were available. Predictions were within 10% of measured results in each case, with a non-significant (P = 0.89 difference between mean measured and modeled ETa of 5.4% over all validation sites. Validation and calibration data sets were combined to present a final predictive equation for application across crops and riparian plant associations for monitoring individual irrigation districts or for conducting global water use assessments of mixed agricultural and riparian biomes.

  14. Stream hydrology limits recovery of riparian ecosystems after wolf reintroduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin N; Hobbs, N Thompson; Cooper, David J

    2013-04-07

    Efforts to restore ecosystems often focus on reintroducing apex predators to re-establish coevolved relationships among predators, herbivores and plants. The preponderance of evidence for indirect effects of predators on terrestrial plant communities comes from ecosystems where predators have been removed. Far less is known about the consequences of their restoration. The effects of removal and restoration are unlikely to be symmetrical because removing predators can create feedbacks that reinforce the effects of predator loss. Observational studies have suggested that the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park initiated dramatic restoration of riparian ecosystems by releasing willows from excessive browsing by elk. Here, we present results from a decade-long experiment in Yellowstone showing that moderating browsing alone was not sufficient to restore riparian zones along small streams. Instead, restoration of willow communities depended on removing browsing and restoring hydrological conditions that prevailed before the removal of wolves. The 70-year absence of predators from the ecosystem changed the disturbance regime in a way that was not reversed by predator reintroduction. We conclude that predator restoration may not quickly repair effects of predator removal in ecosystems.

  15. Effects of flow regulation and fragmentation by dams on riparian flora in boreal rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Roland

    2000-01-01

    The object of this thesis is to evaluate the effects of river regulation on riparian flora in boreal rivers, and to increase the understanding of the processes causing patterns in species diversity. Comparisons of free-flowing and regulated rivers showed that regulated rivers have fewer plant species and less plant cover per 200-m-stretch of river margin. Regulated river-margins were less species-rich compared to free-flowing rivers irrespective of the type of regulated water level regime, except for unimpounded reaches downstream of dams. Species with good dispersal capacity (wind-dispersed or long-floating species) were least affected by regulation, showing that the ability to recolonize after local extinction is an important character. The temporal development of river-margin vegetation in regulated rivers was studied by investigating differently-old reservoirs and impoundments. Plant-species richness along storage reservoirs increased during the first 30-40 years following damming, but declined thereafter. Both species richness and plant cover remained impoverished compared to free-flowing rivers about 70 years after regulation. Along run-of-river impoundments, plant species richness and cover peaked after 10-20 years. In the long run, riparian species richness was lower, but riparian species density did not differ, compared to free-flowing rivers. Dams fragment the riparian flora. Adjacent run-of-river impoundments developed different riparian floras, probably because dams are barriers to the dispersal of species with poor floating ability. This shows that dams disrupt the ecological continuity not only for the river channel, but also for the adjoining riparian corridor. The number of species and genera were similar between river margins along boreal free-flowing rivers in Europe and North America. The riparian floras shared few species but many genera and families. The regional species pools were similar-sized and composed of species with similar traits, and

  16. Buffer design 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvankoski, M.

    2013-08-01

    Posiva's spent nuclear fuel disposal is based on the KBS-3V concept and on the characteristics of the Olkiluoto site. In this concept single canisters containing spent nuclear fuel surrounded by a bentonite buffer are emplaced in individual vertical boreholes drilled in the floor of deposition tunnels in bedrock at about 420 m depth below ground level. Disk type bentonite blocks are installed at the bottom of the hole and on the top of the disposal canister. Ring type bentonite blocks surround the canisters. This report describes the detailed design of the buffer for a KBS-3V repository. The report presents the design basis, the reference design, and summarises the performance analyses carried out for the design. This report addresses aspects concerning the manufacture, quality control, mechanical strength, chemical resistance, thermal dimensioning, handling of buffer components and material ageing phenomena including the effect of radiation. Interaction of buffer and other engineered barriers are included in the study. The long-term evolution of the repository and its effective drivers are considered if they have an impact on the buffer performance but operational safety aspects are also included because they may affect long-term safety. (orig.)

  17. Conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff using riparian plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prabodh; Singh, Shipra

    2012-01-01

    Three riparian plant species viz. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Saccharum bengalensis Retz. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. were selected from the riparian zone of Kali river at Aligarh to conduct the surface runoff experiment to compare their conservation efficiencies for soil, water and nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen). Experimental plots were prepared on artificial slopes in botanical garden and on natural slopes on study site. Selected riparian plant species showed the range of conservation values for soil and water from 47.11 to 95.22% and 44.06 to 72.50%, respectively on artificial slope and from 44.53 to 95.33% and 48.36 to 73.15%, respectively on natural slope. Conservation values for phosphorus and nitrogen ranged from 40.83 to 88.89% and 59.78 to 82.22%, respectively on artificial slope and from 50.01 to 90.16% and 68.07 to 85.62%, respectively on natural slope. It was observed that Cynodon dactylon was the most efficient riparian species in conservation of soil, water and nutrients in surface runoff.

  18. The SVT Hit Buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belforte, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Hit Buffer is part of the Silicon Vertex Tracker, a trigger processor dedicated to the reconstruction of particle trajectories in the Silicon Vertex Detector and the Central Tracking Chamber of the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The Hit Buffer is a high speed data-traffic node, where thousands of words are received in arbitrary order and simultaneously organized in an internal structured data base, to be later promptly retrieved and delivered in response to specific requests. The Hit Buffer is capable of processing data at a rate of 25 MHz, thanks to the use of special fast devices like Cache-Tag RAMs and high performance Erasable Programmable Logic Devices from the XILINX XC7300 family

  19. A parallel buffer tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitchinava, Nodar; Zeh, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    We present the parallel buffer tree, a parallel external memory (PEM) data structure for batched search problems. This data structure is a non-trivial extension of Arge's sequential buffer tree to a private-cache multiprocessor environment and reduces the number of I/O operations by the number of...... in the optimal OhOf(psortN + K/PB) parallel I/O complexity, where K is the size of the output reported in the process and psortN is the parallel I/O complexity of sorting N elements using P processors....

  20. Tribal experiences and lessons learned in riparian ecosystem restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald K. Miller; James E. Enote; Cameron L. Martinez

    1996-01-01

    Riparian ecosystems have been part of the culture of land use of native peoples in the Southwest United States for thousands of years. The experiences of tribal riparian initiatives to incorporate modern elements of environment and development with cultural needs are relatively few. This paper describes tribal case examples and approaches in riparian management which...

  1. Implications of groundwater hydrology to buffer design in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; James M. Vose; Devendra M. Amatya; Carl Trettin; Steven G. McNulty

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the hydrologic processes of shallow groundwater to better define and design forest riparian management zones in headwater streams of two contrasting terrains in the southeastern U.S. We employed two long-term experimental watersheds, WS80 (206 ha) and WS77 (151 ha) at the Santee Experimental Forests in South Carolina, and WS2...

  2. Evapotranspiration Rates of Riparian Forests, Platte River, Nebraska, 2002-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Matthew K.; Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Eggemeyer, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) in riparian areas is a poorly understood component of the regional water balance in the Platte River Basin, where competing demands have resulted in water shortages in the ground-water/surface-water system. From April 2002 through March 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Platte River Cooperative Hydrology Study Group, and Central Platte Natural Resources District conducted a micrometeorological study of water and energy balances at two sites in central Nebraska near Odessa and Gothenburg to improve understanding of ET rates and factors affecting them in Platte River riparian forests. A secondary objective of the study was to constrain estimates of ground-water use by riparian vegetation to satisfy ET consumptive demands, a useful input to regional ground-water flow models. Both study sites are located on large islands within the Platte River characterized by a cottonwood-dominated forest canopy on primarily sandy alluvium. Although both sites are typical of riparian forests along the Platte River in Nebraska, the Odessa understory is dominated by deciduous shrubs, whereas the Gothenburg understory is dominated by eastern redcedars. Additionally, seasonal ground-water levels fluctuated more at Odessa than at Gothenburg. The study period of April 2002 through March 2006 encompassed precipitation conditions ranging from dry to wet. This study characterized the components of the water balance in the riparian zone of each site. ET was evaluated from eddy-covariance sensors installed on towers above the forest canopy at a height of 26.1 meters. Precipitation was measured both above and below the forest canopy. A series of sensors measured soil-moisture availability within the unsaturated zone in two different vertical profiles at each site. Changes in ground-water altitude were evaluated from piezometers. The areal footprint represented in the water balance extended up to 800 meters from each tower. During the study, ET was less variable

  3. Denitrification potential of riparian soils in relation to multiscale spatial environmental factors: a case study of a typical watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianbing; Feng, Hao; Cheng, Quanguo; Gao, Shiqian; Liu, Haiyan

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that environmental regulators of riparian zone soil denitrification potential differ according to spatial scale within a watershed; consequently, a second objective was to provide spatial strategies for conserving and restoring the purification function of runoff in riparian ecosystems. The results show that soil denitrification in riparian zones was more heterogeneous at the profile scale than at the cross-section and landscape scales. At the profile scale, biogeochemical factors (including soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen) were the major direct regulators of the spatial distribution of soil denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). At the cross-section scale, factors included distance from river bank and vegetation density, while landscape-scale factors, including topographic index, elevation, and land use types, indirectly regulated the spatial distribution of DEA. At the profile scale, soil DEA was greatest in the upper soil layers. At the cross-section scale, maximum soil DEA occurred in the mid-part of the riparian zone. At the landscape scale, soil DEA showed an increasing trend towards downstream sites, except for those in urbanized areas.

  4. Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audet, Joachim; Johansen, Jan Ravn; Andersen, Peter Mejlhede

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating the spat......The present study was conducted to (i) investigate parameters influencing the fluxes of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in Danish riparian wetlands with contrasting vegetation characteristics and (ii) develop models relating CH4 emissions to soil and/or vegetation parameters integrating...

  5. Methods for evaluating riparian habitats with applications to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, William S.; Armour, C.L.; Booth, G.D.; Bryant, M.; Bufford, J.L.; Cuplin, P.; Jensen, S.; Lienkaemper, G.W.; Minshall, G.W.; Monsen, S.T.; Nelson, R.L.; Sedell, J.R.; Tuhy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Riparian area planning and management is a major national issues today--something that should have been the case a century ago. A century of additive effects of land use has resulted in major impacts on many riparian stream habitats and their fisheries, wildlife, and domestic livestock use. Before scientists can evaluate the influences of various land and water uses on riparian environments, they must first understand these environments. This means being able to detect and measure with confidence the natural and artificial variation and instantaneous conditions of the riparian habitat. These conditions must then be related to the production capability of riparian habitat and any extraneous factors affecting this production potential.

  6. Investigating riparian groundwater flow close to a losing river using diurnal temperature oscillations at high vertical resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vogt

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available River-water infiltration is of high relevance for hyporheic and riparian groundwater ecology as well as for drinking water supply by river-bank filtration. Heat has become a popular natural tracer to estimate exchange rates between rivers and groundwater. However, quantifying flow patterns and velocities is impeded by spatial and temporal variations of exchange fluxes, insufficient sensors spacing during field investigations, or simplifying assumptions for analysis or modeling such as uniform flow. The objective of this study is to investigate lateral shallow groundwater flow upon river-water infiltration at the shoreline of the riverbed and in the adjacent riparian zone of the River Thur in northeast Switzerland. Here we have applied distributed temperature sensing (DTS along optical fibers wrapped around tubes to measure high-resolution vertical temperature profiles of the unsaturated zone and shallow riparian groundwater. Diurnal temperature oscillations were tracked in the subsurface and analyzed by means of dynamic harmonic regression to extract amplitudes and phase angles. Subsequent calculations of amplitude attenuation and time shift relative to the river signal show in detail vertical and temporal variations of heat transport in shallow riparian groundwater. In addition, we apply a numerical two-dimensional heat transport model for the unsaturated zone and shallow groundwater to obtain a better understanding of the observed heat transport processes in shallow riparian groundwater and to estimate the groundwater flow velocity. Our results show that the observed riparian groundwater temperature distribution cannot be described by uniform flow, but rather by horizontal groundwater flow velocities varying over depth. In addition, heat transfer of diurnal temperature oscillations from the losing river through shallow groundwater is influenced by thermal exchange with the unsaturated zone. Neglecting the influence of the unsaturated zone

  7. Evaluating the quality of riparian forest vegetation: the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Magdaleno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: This paper presents a novel index, the Riparian Forest Evaluation (RFV index, for assessing the ecological condition of riparian forests. The status of riparian ecosystems has global importance due to the ecological and social benefits and services they provide. The initiation of the European Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE requires the assessment of the hydromorphological quality of natural channels. The Directive describes riparian forests as one of the fundamental components that determine the structure of riverine areas. The RFV index was developed to meet the aim of the Directive and to complement the existing methodologies for the evaluation of riparian forests.Area of study: The RFV index was applied to a wide range of streams and rivers (170 water bodies inSpain.Materials and methods: The calculation of the RFV index is based on the assessment of both the spatial continuity of the forest (in its three core dimensions: longitudinal, transversal and vertical and the regeneration capacity of the forest, in a sampling area related to the river hydromorphological pattern. This index enables an evaluation of the quality and degree of alteration of riparian forests. In addition, it helps to determine the scenarios that are necessary to improve the status of riparian forests and to develop processes for restoring their structure and composition.Main results: The results were compared with some previous tools for the assessment of riparian vegetation. The RFV index got the highest average scores in the basins of northernSpain, which suffer lower human influence. The forests in central and southern rivers got worse scores. The bigger differences with other tools were found in complex and partially altered streams and rivers.Research highlights: The study showed the index’s applicability under diverse hydromorphological and ecological conditions and the main advantages of its application. The utilization of the index allows a

  8. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  9. Buffers for biomass production in temperate European agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christen, Benjamin; Dalgaard, Tommy

    2013-01-01

    , environmental pressures from intensive agriculture and policy developments. Use of conservation buffers by farmers outside of designated schemes is limited to date, but the increasing demand for bioenergy and the combination of agricultural production with conservation calls for a much wider implementation....... This paper reviews the biophysical knowledge on buffer functioning and associated ecosystem services. It describes how a three-zone buffer design, with arable fields buffered in combination by grassland, short rotation forestry (SRF) or coppice (SRC) and undisturbed vegetation along water courses, can...... be incorporated into farming landscapes as productive conservation elements and reflects on the potential for successful implementation. Land use plays a much greater role in determining catchment hydrology than soil type: shelterbelts or buffer strips have markedly higher infiltration capacity than arable...

  10. Best management practices for riparian areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Phillips; Lloyd W. Swift; Charles R. Blinn

    2000-01-01

    Forest streams, lakes, and other water bodies create unique conditions along their margins that control and influence transfers of energy, nutrients, and sediments between aquatic and terrestrial systems. These riparian areas are among the most critical features of the landscape because they contain a rich diversity of plants and animals and help to maintain water...

  11. Developing management strategies for riparian areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Hibbs; S. Chan

    2001-01-01

    This talk outlines four principles that are critical to successful management of a riparian area. First, given problems both with defining historic conditions and with returning to them, attaining management goals based on restoration of ecological processes and functions will be far more successful. Second, the management goals for any stream reach must be placed in a...

  12. Simulation of Soil Quality with Riparian Forests and Cultivated with Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Gabriel; Colato, Alexandre; Casagrande, José Carlos; Soares, Marcio Roberto; Perissatto Meneghin, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Riparian forests are entrusted with important hydrological functions, such as riparian zone protection, filtering sediments and nutrients and mitigation of the amount of nutrients and xenobiotic molecules from the surrounding agro ecosystems. The soil was sampled in the depths of 0-0,2 and 0.2-0.4 m and its chemical (nutrient content and organic matter, cationic exchange capacity - CEC, sum of bases-SB, bases saturation, V%, and aluminum saturation, m%); physical (particle size distribution, density and porosity) and microbiological attributes (basal respiration and microbial biomass) were determined. This work aimed to study the liner method of combining data, figures of merit (FoM), weighing process and the scoring functions developed by Wymore and asses the quality of the soil (SQI) by means of chemical, physical and microbiological soil attributes, employing the additive pondered model for two areas of riparian forest at different stages of ecological succession and an adjacent area cultivated with sugar cane, located on the dam shores of Sugar Mill Saint Lucia-Araras/SP. Some hierarchical functions containing FoMs and their parameters were constructed, and from them weights were assigned to each FoM and parameter, in a way that cluster of structures with the same FoMs and parameters with different weights were formed. These clusters were used to calculate the SQI for all vegetal formations considering two types of soil (Oxisol and Podzol), in that way, the SQI was calculated for each combination of vegetation and soil. The SQIs values were usually higher in the oldest riparian forest, while the recent riparian forest showed the smallest SQI values, for both types of soil. The variation of values within a combination vegetation/soil was also different between all combinations, being that the set of values from the oldest riparian forest presented the lowest amplitude. It was also observed that the Oxisols, regardless of the vegetation, presented higher SQIs

  13. Creep in buffer clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Adey, R.

    1999-12-01

    The study involved characterization of the microstructural arrangement and molecular forcefields in the buffer clay for getting a basis for selecting suitable creep models. It is concluded that the number of particles and wide range of the particle bond spectrum require that stochastical mechanics and thermodynamics will be considered and they are basic to the creep model proposed for predicting creep settlement of the canisters. The influence of the stress level on creep strain of MX-80 clay is not well known but for the buffer creep is approximately proportional to stress. Theoretical considerations suggest a moderate impact for temperatures up to 90 deg C and this is supported by model experiments. It is believed that the assumption of strain being proportional to temperature is conservative. The general performance of the stochastic model can be illustrated in principle by use of visco-elastic rheological models implying a time-related increase in viscosity. The shear-induced creep settlement under constant volume conditions calculated by using the proposed creep model is on the order of 1 mm in ten thousand years and up to a couple of millimeters in one million years. It is much smaller than the consolidation settlement, which is believed to be on the order of 10 mm. The general conclusion is that creep settlement of the canisters is very small and of no significance to the integrity of the buffer itself or of the canisters

  14. Revisiting restored river reaches - Assessing change of aquatic and riparian communities after five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Armin W; Haase, Peter; Januschke, Kathrin; Sundermann, Andrea; Hering, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Hydromorphological restructuring of river sections, i.e. river restoration measures, often has little effects on aquatic biota, even in case of strong habitat alterations. It is often supposed that the biotic response is simply delayed as species require additional time to recolonize the newly generated habitats and to establish populations. To identify and specify the supposed lag time between restoration and biotic response, we investigated 19 restored river reaches twice in a five-year interval. The sites were restored one to ten years prior to the first sampling. We sampled three aquatic (fish, benthic invertebrates, macrophytes) and two riparian organism groups (ground beetles and riparian vegetation) and analyzed changes in assemblage composition and biotic metrics. With the exception of ground beetle assemblages, we observed no significant changes in richness and abundance metrics or metrics used for biological assessment. However, indicator taxa for near-natural habitat conditions in the riparian zone (indicators for regular inundation in plants and river bank specialists in beetles) improved significantly in the five-year interval. Contrary to general expectations in river restoration planning, we neither observed a distinct succession of aquatic communities nor a general trend towards "good ecological status" over time. Furthermore, multiple linear regression models revealed that neither the time since restoration nor the morphological status had a significant effect on the biological metrics and the assessment results. Thus, the stability of aquatic assemblages is strong, slowing down restoration effects in the aquatic zone, while riparian assemblages improve more rapidly. When defining restoration targets, the different timelines for ecological recovery after restoration should be taken into account. Furthermore, restoration measures should not solely focus on local habitat conditions but also target stressors acting on larger spatial scales and take

  15. Riparian landscapes: Linking geodiversity with habitat and biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmieleski, Jana; Danzeisen, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Keywords: Oder valley, biodiversity, geodiversity River landscapes of all scales originally showed a high diversity of structures and habitats at a small spatial entity, such as the stream beds, terrasses, sand and gravel banks. This variety, with a lot of different elements, patches and patterns, represents not only a variety of geoelements or geomorhological features but also a large biodiversity, both of habitats and species. Riparian landscapes are both, a natural as well as a geoheritage, often even a cultural heritage (sustainabe land use practices). Embankments, utilization for agriculture, constructions for navigation, management measures lead to a strong loss of these structures. This impacts the value of the landscape as well ecosystem functions, not only the biodiversity and the geodiversity but also the recreation function or the aesthetic values. A case study from the National Park Lower Oder Valley in the Northeastern part of Germany, wich is also part of a Geopark („Eiszeitland am Oderrand") presents the connections of the diversity of geomorphological features with biodiversity and shows the loss of features (loss of values) due to intensive utilisation by using GIS-analysis and landscape-metrics. The Northern part of the Oder valley (National Park, transnational protection area of Germany and Poland) have been modified by man since centuries but even so remained in near-natural state that allows semi-(natural) stream dynamics. While the Oder's reparian zone is marked by the stream itself, by its bayous, reed beds, periodically flooded wet meadows and by its natural riparian forest the mineral morainic plateaus are marked by semi-natural forests and dry grasslands. Two areas of different degradation states, a) near-natural and wilderness area and b) grassland area will be compared in order to identify: quantity and extent of features, relation of measure and coverage, connectivity with other features, quantity and types of habitats (with

  16. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  17. Legal ecotones: A comparative analysis of riparian policy protection in the Oregon Coast Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie, Brett A; Santelmann, Mary V; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Duncan, Sally L

    2017-07-15

    Waterways of the USA are protected under the public trust doctrine, placing responsibility on the state to safeguard public resources for the benefit of current and future generations. This responsibility has led to the development of management standards for lands adjacent to streams. In the state of Oregon, policy protection for riparian areas varies by ownership (e.g., federal, state, or private), land use (e.g., forest, agriculture, rural residential, or urban) and stream attributes, creating varying standards for riparian land-management practices along the stream corridor. Here, we compare state and federal riparian land-management standards in four major policies that apply to private and public lands in the Oregon Coast Range. We use a standard template to categorize elements of policy protection: (1) the regulatory approach, (2) policy goals, (3) stream attributes, and (4) management standards. All four policies have similar goals for achieving water-quality standards, but differ in their regulatory approach. Plans for agricultural lands rely on outcome-based standards to treat pollution, in contrast with the prescriptive policy approaches for federal, state, and private forest lands, which set specific standards with the intent of preventing pollution. Policies also differ regarding the stream attributes considered when specifying management standards. Across all policies, 25 categories of unique standards are identified. Buffer widths vary from 0 to ∼152 m, with no buffer requirements for streams in agricultural areas or small, non-fish-bearing, seasonal streams on private forest land; narrow buffer requirements for small, non-fish-bearing perennial streams on private forest land (3 m); and the widest buffer requirements for fish-bearing streams on federal land (two site-potential tree-heights, up to an estimated 152 m). Results provide insight into how ecosystem concerns are addressed by variable policy approaches in multi-ownership landscapes, an

  18. Buffered or under Scrutiny?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopf, Patricia; Nell, Phillip C.; Puck, Jonas

    – they are to a stronger extent buffered from the external environment than small firms. Thus, this paper adds to previous research by disentangling the complex effects of size on the use of political strategies – a strand of literature which has been characterized by inconsistent findings in the past.......This paper investigates political strategies of MNE subsidiaries operating in emerging markets. Our findings support previous findings of more intense political strategies in the presence of stronger institutional pressures from public and private stakeholders. Furthermore, we hypothesize...

  19. Using a conceptual model to assess the role of flow regulation in the hydromorphological evolution of riparian corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, Vanesa; Gonzalez del Tánago, Marta; García de Jalón, diego

    2017-04-01

    Riparian corridors result from active vegetation-fluvial interactions, which are highly dependent on flow regime conditions and sediment dynamics. Colonization, establishment and survival of species are constrained by fluvial processes which vary according to topographic and sedimentological complexity of the corridor. In order to manage these dynamic and complex riparian systems there is a need for practical tools based on conceptual models. The objective of this study was to apply the conceptual model of riparian corridors lateral zonation in response to the dominant fluvial processes established by Gurnell et al. (2015) and verify its usefulness as a tool for assessing the effect of flow regulation. Two gravel rivers have been selected for this purpose from the north of Spain, the Porma River regulated by Boñar large dam and the unregulated Curueño River. The historical series of flows and the aerial photographs of 1956 and 2011 on which the river corridor has been delimited have been analyzed and identified the permanent inundated zone (1) and four areas of riparian vegetation dominated respectively by fluvial disturbance with coarse sediment erosion and deposition (zone 2), fluvial disturbance with finer sediment deposition (zone 3), inundation (zone 4) and soil moisture regime (zone 5). Likewise, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation was performed with avenues of different return periods and calculated the prevailing hydraulic conditions (depths, velocities and drag forces) to characterize each of the vegetation zones mentioned in both rivers. The results show that the most active zone 2 (fluvial disturbance dominated showing coarse sediment erosion and deposition) disappears due to the regulation of flows and vegetation encroachment, while the riparian corridor is dominated by the less active zone where the vegetation is maintained by the humidity of sporadic floods and underground runoff. Moreover, by means of the hydraulic simulation we have found a

  20. Development and application of multi-proxy indices of land use change for riparian soils in southern New England, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, M C; Donohue, S W; Stolt, M H; Zavada, M S

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the effects of land use on riparian systems is dependent upon the development of methodologies to recognize changes in sedimentation related to shifts in land use. Land use trends in southern New England consist of shifts from forested precolonial conditions, to colonial and agrarian land uses, and toward modern industrial-urban landscapes. The goals of this study were to develop a set of stratigraphic indices that reflect these land use periods and to illustrate their applications. Twenty-four riparian sites from first- and second-order watersheds were chosen for study. Soil morphological features, such as buried surface horizons (layers), were useful to identify periods of watershed instability. The presence of human artifacts and increases in heavy metal concentration above background levels, were also effective indicators of industrial-urban land use periods. Increases and peak abundance of non-arboreal weed pollen (Ambrosia) were identified as stratigraphic markers indicative of agricultural land uses. Twelve 14C dates from riparian soils indicated that the rise in non-arboreal pollen corresponds to the start of regional deforestation (AD 1749 +/- 56 cal yr; mean +/- 2 SD) and peak non-arboreal pollen concentration corresponds to maximum agricultural land use (AD 1820 +/- 51 cal yr). These indices were applied to elucidate the impact of land use on riparian sedimentation and soil carbon (C) dynamics. This analysis indicated that the majority of sediment and soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in regional riparian soils is of postcolonial origins. Mean net sedimentation rates increased -100-fold during postcolonial time periods, and net SOC sequestration rates showed an approximate 200-fold increase since precolonial times. These results suggest that headwater riparian zones have acted as an effective sink for alluvial sediment and SOC associated with postcolonial land use.

  1. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Yong; Chan, Zhulong

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ). Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora) might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress and recover well

  2. Perspectives on screening winter-flood-tolerant woody species in the riparian protection forests of the three gorges reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    Full Text Available The establishment of riparian protection forests in the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR is an ideal measure to cope with the eco-environmental problems of the water-level fluctuation zone (WLFZ. Thus, the information for screening winter-flood-tolerant woody plant species is useful for the recovery and re-establishment of the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ. Therefore, we discussed the possibilities of constructing and popularizing riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ from several aspects, including the woody plant species distribution in the WLFZ, the survival rate analyses of suitable candidate woody species under controlled flooding conditions, the survival rate investigation of some woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, and the physiological responses of some woody plant species during the recovery stage after winter floods. The results of woody species investigation showed that most woody plant species that existed as annual seedlings in the TGR WLFZ are not suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests. However, arbor species (e.g., Salix matsudana, Populus×canadensis, Morus alba, Pterocarya stenoptera, Taxodium ascendens, and Metasequoia glyptostroboides and shrub species (e.g., Salix variegata, Distylium chinensis, Lycium chinense, Myricaria laxiflora, and Rosa multiflora might be considered suitable candidates for the riparian protection forests in the TGR WLFZ by survival rate analyses under controlled winter flooding conditions, and survival rate investigations of woody plant species planted in the TGR WLFZ, respectively. Physiological analyses showed that P.×canadensis, M. alba, L. chinense, and S. variegata could develop specific self-repairing mechanisms to stimulate biomass accumulation and carbohydrate synthesis via the increases in chlorophyll pigments and photosynthesis during recovery after winter floods. Our results suggested these woody plant species could endure the winter flooding stress

  3. Investigating the episodic buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Baddeley

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is presented of the three-component working memory model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch. This is followed by an account of some of the problems it encountered in explaining how information from different subsystems with different codes could be combined, and how it was capable of communicating with long-term memory. In order to account for these, a fourth component was proposed, the episodic buffer. This was assumed to be a multidimensional store of limited capacity that can be accessed through conscious awareness. In an attempt to test and develop the concept, a series of experiments have explored the role of working memory in the binding of visual features into objects and verbal sequences into remembered sentences. The experiments use a dual task paradigm to investigate the role of the various subcomponents of working memory in binding. In contrast to our initial assumption, the episodic buffer appears to be a passive store, capable of storing bound features and making them available to conscious awareness, but not itself responsible for the process of binding.

  4. Riparian Forest Buffers - Function for Protection and Enhancement of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Welsch

    1991-01-01

    Streamside forests are crucial to the protection and enhancement of the water resources of the Eastern United States. They are extremely complex ecosystems that help provide optimum food and habitat for stream communities as well as being useful in mitigating or controlling nonpoint source pollution (NPS). Used as a component of an integrated management system...

  5. Multi-objective optimization of riparian buffer networks; valuing present and future benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-objective optimization has emerged as a popular approach to support water resources planning and management. This approach provides decision-makers with a suite of management options which are generated based on metrics that represent different social, economic, and environ...

  6. EnviroAtlas 15m Riparian Buffer Forest Cover Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Des Moines, IA - Riparian Buffer Land Cover by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of forested, vegetated, and impervious land within 15- and 50-meters of hydrologically connected streams, rivers,...

  8. Headwater stream temperature: interpreting response after logging, with and without riparian buffers, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack E. Janisch; Steven M. Wondzell; William J. Ehinger

    2012-01-01

    We examined stream temperature response to forest harvest in small forested headwater catchments in western Washington, USA over a seven year period (2002-2008). These streams have very low discharge in late summer and many become spatially intermittent. We used a before-after, control-impact (BACl) study design to contrast the effect of clearcut logging with two...

  9. EnviroAtlas 51m Riparian Buffer Vegetated Cover Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). This EnviroAtlas dataset...

  10. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Riparian Buffer Land Cover by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of forested, vegetated, and impervious land within 15- and 50-meters of hydrologically connected streams, rivers,...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Riparian Buffer Land Cover by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of different land cover types within 15- and 50-meters of hydrologically connected streams, rivers, and other water...

  12. EnviroAtlas - New Bedford, MA - Riparian Buffer Land Cover by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of different land cover types within 15- and 50-meters of hydrologically connected streams, rivers, and other water...

  13. Riparian microclimate and stream temperature: thinning and buffer-width influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Th inning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands in Washington and Oregon west of the Cascade Range crest. Decreases in forest cover lead to alterations of site energy balances resulting in changes to understory and stream channel microclimates. Uncut vegetative...

  14. Biogeomorphic feedbacks within riparian corridors: the role of positive interactions between riparian plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblit, Dov; Steiger, Johannes; Till-Bottraud, Irène

    2017-04-01

    Riparian vegetation affects hydrogeomorphic processes and leads to the construction of wooded fluvial landforms within riparian corridors. Multiple plants form dense multi- and mono-specific stands that enhance plant resistance as grouped plants are less prone to be uprooted than free-standing individuals. Riparian plants which grow in dense stands also enhance their role as ecosystem engineers through the trapping of sediment, organic matter and nutrients. The wooded biogeomorphic landforms which originate from the effect of vegetation on geomorphology lead in return to an improved capacity of the plants to survive, exploit resources, and reach sexual maturity in the intervals between destructive floods. Thus, these vegetated biogeomorphic landforms likely represent a positive niche construction of riparian plants. The nature and intensity of biotic interactions between riparian plants of different species (inter-specific) or the same species (intra-specific) which form dense stands and construct together the niche remain unclear. We strongly suspect that indirect inter-specific positive interactions (facilitation) occur between plants but that more direct intra-specific interactions, such as cooperation and altruism, also operate during the niche construction process. Our aim is to propose an original theoretical framework of inter and intra-specific positive interactions between riparian plants. We suggest that positive interactions between riparian plants are maximized in river reaches with an intermediate level of hydrogeomorphic disturbance. During establishment, plants that grow within dense stands improve their survival and growth because individuals protect each other from shear stress. In addition to the improved capacity to trap mineral and organic matter, individuals which constitute the dense stand can cooperate to mutually support a mycorrhizal fungi network that will connect plants, soil and ground water and influence nutrient transfer, cycling and

  15. Early Response of Soil Properties and Function to Riparian Rainforest Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gageler, Rose; Bonner, Mark; Kirchhof, Gunnar; Amos, Mark; Robinson, Nicole; Schmidt, Susanne; Shoo, Luke P.

    2014-01-01

    Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2–20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates), only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives. PMID:25117589

  16. Floodplain forest succession reveals fluvial processes: A hydrogeomorphic model for temperate riparian woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Gregory; Politti, Emilio; Lautsch, Erwin; Benjankar, Rohan; Gill, Karen M; Rood, Stewart B

    2015-09-15

    River valley floodplains are physically-dynamic environments where fluvial processes determine habitat gradients for riparian vegetation. These zones support trees and shrubs whose life stages are adapted to specific habitat types and consequently forest composition and successional stage reflect the underlying hydrogeomorphic processes and history. In this study we investigated woodland vegetation composition, successional stage and habitat properties, and compared these with physically-based indicators of hydraulic processes. We thus sought to develop a hydrogeomorphic model to evaluate riparian woodland condition based on the spatial mosaic of successional phases of the floodplain forest. The study investigated free-flowing and dam-impacted reaches of the Kootenai and Flathead Rivers, in Idaho and Montana, USA and British Columbia, Canada. The analyses revealed strong correspondence between vegetation assessments and metrics of fluvial processes indicating morphodynamics (erosion and shear stress), inundation and depth to groundwater. The results indicated that common successional stages generally occupied similar hydraulic environments along the different river segments. Comparison of the spatial patterns between the free-flowing and regulated reaches revealed greater deviation from the natural condition for the braided channel segment than for the meandering segment. This demonstrates the utility of the hydrogeomorphic approach and suggests that riparian woodlands along braided channels could have lower resilience than those along meandering channels and might be more vulnerable to influences such as from river damming or climate change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early response of soil properties and function to riparian rainforest restoration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Gageler

    Full Text Available Reforestation of riparian zones is increasingly practiced in many regions for purposes of biodiversity conservation, bank stabilisation, and improvement in water quality. This is in spite of the actual benefits of reforestation for recovering underlying soil properties and function remaining poorly understood. Here we compare remnant riparian rainforest, pasture and reforestation plantings aged 2-20 years in an Australian subtropical catchment on ferrosols to determine the extent to which reforestation restores key soil properties. Of the nine soil attributes measured (total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, net nitrification and ammonification rates, organic carbon, bulk density, fine root biomass and water infiltration rates, only infiltration rates were significantly lower in pasture than remnant riparian rainforest. Within reforestation plantings, bulk density decreased up to 1.4-fold and infiltration rates increased up to 60-fold with time post-reforestation. Our results suggest that the main outcome of belowground processes of early reforestation is the recovery of the soils' physical structure, with potential beneficial ecosystem services including reduced runoff, erosion and associated sediment and nutrient loads in waterways. We also demonstrate differential impacts of two commonly planted tree species on a subset of soil properties suggesting that preferential planting of select species could accelerate progress on specific restoration objectives.

  18. Buffer moisture protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Peura, J.

    2013-11-01

    With the present knowledge, bentonite blocks have to be protected from the air relative humidity and from any moisture leakages in the environment that might cause swelling of the bentonite blocks during the 'open' installation phase before backfilling. The purpose of this work was to design the structural reference solution both for the bottom of the deposition hole and for the buffer moisture protection and dewatering system with their integrated equipment needed in the deposition hole. This report describes the Posiva's reference solution for the buffer moisture protection system and the bottom plate on basis of the demands and functional requirements set by long-term safety. The reference solution with structural details has been developed in research work made 2010-2011. The structural solution of the moisture protection system has not yet been tested in practice. On the bottom of the deposition hole a copper plate which protects the lowest bentonite block from the gathered water is installed straight to machined and even rock surface. The moisture protection sheet made of EPDM rubber is attached to the copper plate with an inflatable seal. The upper part of the moisture protection sheet is fixed to the collar structures of the lid which protects the deposition hole in the disposal tunnel. The main function of the moisture protection sheet is to protect bentonite blocks from the leaking water and from the influence of the air humidity at their installation stage. The leaking water is controlled by the dewatering and alarm system which has been integrated into the moisture protection liner. (orig.)

  19. Buffer capacity of biologics--from buffer salts to buffering by antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, Anne R; Bahrenburg, Sven; Garidel, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Controlling pH is essential for a variety of biopharmaceutical process steps. The chemical stability of biologics such as monoclonal antibodies is pH-dependent and slightly acidic conditions are favorable for stability in a number of cases. Since control of pH is widely provided by added buffer salts, the current study summarizes the buffer characteristics of acetate, citrate, histidine, succinate, and phosphate buffers. Experimentally derived values largely coincide with values calculated from a model that had been proposed in 1922 by van Slyke. As high concentrated protein formulations become more and more prevalent for biologics, the self-buffering potential of proteins becomes of relevance. The current study provides information on buffer characteristics for pH ranges down to 4.0 and up to 8.0 and shows that a monoclonal antibody at 50 mg/mL exhibits similar buffer capacity as 6 mM citrate or 14 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). Buffer capacity of antibody solutions scales linearly with protein concentration up to more than 200 mg/mL. At a protein concentration of 220 mg/mL, the buffer capacity resembles the buffer capacity of 30 mM citrate or 50 mM histidine (pH 5.0-6.0). The buffer capacity of monoclonal antibodies is practically identical at the process relevant temperatures 5, 25, and 40°C. Changes in ionic strength of ΔI=0.15, in contrast, can alter the buffer capacity up to 35%. In conclusion, due to efficient self-buffering by antibodies in the pH range of favored chemical stability, conventional buffer excipients could be dispensable for pH stabilization of high concentrated protein solutions. Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Two-Buffer Simulation Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka Hutagalung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider simulation games played between Spoiler and Duplicator on two Büchi automata in which the choices made by Spoiler can be buffered by Duplicator in two different buffers before she executes them on her structure. Previous work on such games using a single buffer has shown that they are useful to approximate language inclusion problems. We study the decidability and complexity and show that games with two buffers can be used to approximate corresponding problems on finite transducers, i.e. the inclusion problem for rational relations over infinite words.

  1. Hot Spots and Hot Moments of Nitrogen in a Riparian Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Dipankar; Arora, Bhavna; Steefel, Carl I.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Versteeg, Roelof

    2018-01-01

    We use 3-D high-resolution reactive transport modeling to investigate whether the spatial distribution of organic-carbon-rich and chemically reduced sediments located in the riparian zone and temporal variability in groundwater flow direction impact the formation and distribution of nitrogen hot spots (regions that exhibit higher reaction rates when compared to other locations nearby) and hot moments (times that exhibit high reaction rates as compared to longer intervening time periods) within the Rifle floodplain in Colorado. Groundwater flows primarily toward the Colorado River from the floodplain but changes direction at times of high river stage. The result is that oxic river water infiltrates the Rifle floodplain during these relatively short-term events. Simulation results indicate that episodic rainfall in the summer season leads to the formation of nitrogen hot moments associated with Colorado River rise and resulting river infiltration into the floodplain. The results further demonstrate that the naturally reduced zones (NRZs) present in sediments of the Rifle floodplain have a higher potential for nitrate removal, approximately 70% greater than non-NRZs for typical hydrological conditions. During river water infiltration, nitrate reduction capacity remains the same within the NRZs, however, these conditions impact non-NRZs to a greater extent (approximately 95% less nitrate removal). Model simulations indicate chemolithoautotrophs are primarily responsible for the removal of nitrate in the Rifle floodplain. These nitrogen hot spots and hot moments are sustained by microbial respiration and the chemolithoautotrophic oxidation of reduced minerals in the riparian zone.

  2. Restoration ecology and invasive riparian plants: An introduction to the special section on Tamarix spp. in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Briggs, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    River systems around the world are subject to various perturbations, including the colonization and spread of non-native species in riparian zones. Riparian resource managers are commonly engaged in efforts to control problematic non-native species and restore native habitats. In western North America, small Eurasian trees or shrubs in the genus Tamarixoccupy hundreds of thousands of hectares of riparian lands, and are the targets of substantial and costly control efforts and associated restoration activities. Still, significant information gaps exist regarding approaches used in control and restoration efforts and their effects on riparian ecosystems. In this special section of papers, eight articles address various aspects of control and restoration associated with Tamarix spp. These include articles focused on planning restoration and revegetation; a synthetic analysis of past restoration efforts; and several specific research endeavors examining plant responses, water use, and various wildlife responses (including birds, butterflies, and lizards). These articles represent important additions to the Tamarix spp. literature and contain many lessons and insights that should be transferable to other analogous situations in river systems globally.

  3. SHRUBBY TREE COMPONENT OF RIPARIAN CORRIDORS IN RESTORATION AND NATURAL REMAINING AREAS OF MATRIX FORESTRY, RIO NEGRINHO, SC STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliziane Carla Scariot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814578The aim of this study was to analyze the shrubby tree component in riparian corridors in restoration process and natural remainders in a matrix forestry. We identified the richness, diversity, dispersal and pollination syndromes of the individuals and estimate the floristic similarity. The study was conducted at the producing farm of Pinus spp. wood Santa Alice, located in Rio Negrinho city, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. We adopted the center-quarter method for survey the shrubby tree component in four sample groups: CA (advanced stage of riparian corridors vegetation, CR (riparian corridors in restoration, MA (advanced stage of natural remaining, MI (intermediate stage of natural remaining. We found the highest richness and diversity index in MA and CR. Regarding the number of individuals, the dispersal and pollination syndromes predominant in all sample groups were zoochory and zoophilia. CR and CA had the highest percentage of floristic similarity while MA and MI did not form clusters. The sample group CR has composition, richness and diversity more similar to CA. This indicates that the restoration of riparian zones has conditions to rescue the components and the interactions of an ecological community.

  4. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Yuki; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2012-12-28

    Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian populations. The two sets of riparian/non-riparian

  5. A framework for profiling a lake's riparian area development potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Ciara Schlichting; Dorothy H. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    Some of the greatest challenges for managing residential development occur at the interface between the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems -in a lake`s riparian area. Land use planners need a framework they can use to identify development hotspots, areas were the next push for development will most likely occur. Lake riparian development profiles provide a framework...

  6. SNAG AND LARGE WOODY DEBRIS DYNAMICS IN RIPARIAN FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Important components of riparian forests are snags and streamside large woody debris (LWD) because they are functional in maintaining water quality and providing habitat for numerous plants and animals. To effectively manage riparian forests, it is important to understand the dy...

  7. Riparian adaptive management symposium: a conversation between scientists and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas F. Ryan; John M. Calhoun

    2010-01-01

    Scientists, land managers and policy makers discussed whether riparian (stream side) forest management and policy for state, federal and private lands in western Washington are consistent with current science. Answers were mixed: some aspects of riparian policy and management have a strong basis in current science, while other aspects may not. Participants agreed that...

  8. Metal concentrations in urban riparian sediments along an urbanization gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Bain; Ian D. Yesilonis; Richard V. Pouyat

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization impacts fluvial systems via a combination of changes in sediment chemistry and basin hydrology. While chemical changes in urban soils have been well characterized, similar surveys of riparian sediments in urbanized areas are rare. Metal concentrations were measured in sediments collected from riparian areas across the urbanization gradient in Baltimore, MD...

  9. Riparian forests, a unique but endangered ecosystem in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natta, A.K.; Sinsin, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Riparian forests are often small in area, but are of extreme ecological and economic value for local people. The interest of riparian forests lies in their resources: basically fertile and moist soils, water, wood and non-timber forest products that are utilised by neighbouring populations to

  10. A eficácia do licenciamento ambiental na contenção de atividades impactantes na Zona de Amortecimento da Estação Ecológica de Assis, SP (Nota Científica. The environmental licensing’s effectiveness in constraining environmental impacts in the Buffer Zone of Assis Ecological Station, São Paulo, Brazil (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia De Luca VITALLI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O reconhecimento jurídico da Zona de Amortecimento – ZA de unidades deconservação tem sido considerado o mais forte instrumento para impedir que atividades impactantessobre os ecossistemas sejam desenvolvidas junto às áreas protegidas. Com o objetivo de analisar ademanda de informação de processos, a natureza das atividades cujo licenciamento foi solicitadoe a eficácia das políticas públicas na aplicação da legislação vigente, consultamos 155 processosque tratavam de empreendimentos ao redor da Estação Ecológica de Assis, SP, tomando comobase o raio de 10 km a partir do perímetro da UC, estabelecido pela Resolução CONAMA nº 13/90.No período considerado (1990-2006, que antecedeu a delimitação da ZA e estabelecimentode suas normas em Plano de Manejo, a demanda potencial de análise de pedidos de licença ouautorização ambiental foi, em média, de 10 processos por ano, o que corresponde a um processopara cada 6.000 ha por ano, relacionados, em sua maioria, com a conversão do uso da terra, depecuária para agricultura, o que requer o corte de árvores isoladas e a recuperação de áreas depreservação permanente. Uma vez que apenas 8% dos processos foram encaminhados ao órgãogestor, a demanda real foi inferior a um décimo da demanda potencial. Nos raros casos em queo órgão gestor foi ouvido, o parecer contrário do gestor nem sempre foi suficiente para impediro licenciamento solicitado. Com base no estudo de caso da Estação Ecológica de Assis, concluiu-se quea legislação correlata ao licenciamento ambiental ao redor de unidades de conservação não foi aplicadade modo a impedir a instalação de atividades potencialmente impactantes aos ecossistemas naturais.Legal recognition of the buffer zone of protected areas has been considered themost powerful tool to prevent environmental impacts to the natural ecosystems coming from thesurrounding areas. In order to analyze the demand for process analysis, the nature

  11. Using fractional order method to generalize strengthening generating operator buffer operator and weakening buffer operator

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, L.; Liu, S.; Yang, Yingjie

    2016-01-01

    Traditional integer order buffer operator is extended to fractional order buffer operator, the corresponding relationship between the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator is revealed. Fractional order buffer operator not only can generalize the weakening buffer operator and the strengthening buffer operator, but also realize tiny adjustment of buffer effect. The effectiveness of GM(1,1) with the fractional order buffer operator is validated by six cases.

  12. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kate M; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W; Cornnell, Heather H; Ribeiro, Maria C; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Flood risk reduction and flow buffering as ecosystem services - Part 2: Land use and rainfall intensity effects in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noordwijk, Meine; Tanika, Lisa; Lusiana, Betha

    2017-05-01

    Watersheds buffer the temporal pattern of river flow relative to the temporal pattern of rainfall. This ecosystem service is inherent to geology and climate, but buffering also responds to human use and misuse of the landscape. Buffering can be part of management feedback loops if salient, credible and legitimate indicators are used. The flow persistence parameter Fp in a parsimonious recursive model of river flow (Part 1, van Noordwijk et al., 2017) couples the transmission of extreme rainfall events (1 - Fp), to the annual base-flow fraction of a watershed (Fp). Here we compare Fp estimates from four meso-scale watersheds in Indonesia (Cidanau, Way Besai and Bialo) and Thailand (Mae Chaem), with varying climate, geology and land cover history, at a decadal timescale. The likely response in each of these four to variation in rainfall properties (including the maximum hourly rainfall intensity) and land cover (comparing scenarios with either more or less forest and tree cover than the current situation) was explored through a basic daily water-balance model, GenRiver. This model was calibrated for each site on existing data, before being used for alternative land cover and rainfall parameter settings. In both data and model runs, the wet-season (3-monthly) Fp values were consistently lower than dry-season values for all four sites. Across the four catchments Fp values decreased with increasing annual rainfall, but specific aspects of watersheds, such as the riparian swamp (peat soils) in Cidanau reduced effects of land use change in the upper watershed. Increasing the mean rainfall intensity (at constant monthly totals for rainfall) around the values considered typical for each landscape was predicted to cause a decrease in Fp values by between 0.047 (Bialo) and 0.261 (Mae Chaem). Sensitivity of Fp to changes in land use change plus changes in rainfall intensity depends on other characteristics of the watersheds, and generalisations made on the basis of one or two

  14. Analysis of carbon and nitrogen dynamics in riparian soils: model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovelli, A; Batlle-Aguilar, J; Barry, D A

    2012-07-01

    The quality of riparian soils and their ability to buffer contaminant releases to aquifers and streams are connected intimately to moisture content and nutrient dynamics, in particular of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). A multi-compartment model-named the Riparian Soil Model (RSM)-was developed to help investigate the influence and importance of environmental parameters, climatic factors and management practices on soil ecosystem functioning in riparian areas. The model improves existing tools, in particular regarding its capability to simulate a wide range of temporal scales, from days to centuries, along with its ability to predict the concentration and vertical distribution of dissolved organic matter (DOM). It was found that DOM concentration controls the amount of soil organic matter (SOM) stored in the soil as well as the respiration rate. The moisture content was computed using a detailed water budget approach, assuming that within each time step all the water above field capacity drains to the layer underneath, until it becomes fully saturated. A mass balance approach was also used for nutrient transport, whereas the biogeochemical reaction network was developed as an extension of an existing C and N turnover model. Temperature changes across the soil profile were simulated analytically, assuming periodic temperature changes in the topsoil. To verify the consistency of model predictions and to illustrate its capabilities, a synthetic but realistic soil profile in a deciduous forest was simulated. Model parameters were taken from the literature, and model predictions were consistent with experimental observations for a similar scenario. Modelling results stressed the importance of environmental conditions on SOM cycling in soils. The mineral and organic C and N stocks fluctuate at different time scales in response to oscillations in climatic conditions and vegetation inputs/uptake. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An Application of BLM's Riparian Inventory Procedure to Rangeland Riparian Resources in the Kern and Kaweah River Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gradek; Lawrence Saslaw; Steven Nelson

    1989-01-01

    The Bakersfield District of the Bureau of Land Management conducted an inventory of rangeland riparian systems using a new method developed by a Bureau-wide task force to inventory, monitor and classify riparian areas. Data on vegetation composition were collected for 65 miles of streams and entered into a hierarchical vegetation classification system. Ratings of...

  16. Post-wildfire natural restoration of riparian vegetation under stable hydro-geomorphic conditions: Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozi, Roey

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires are common to the Mediterranean region due to its defined dry season and long historical anthropogenic activities. Most of post-wildfire studies focus on mountains areas and thus refer to the hill-slope and its physical characteristics, e.g. morphology, length, angles, and aspect; its soil characteristics, e.g. type, infiltration rate, repellency; and its vegetative covers, e.g. planted trees vs. natural forest or native vs. exotic vegetation. In contrary there is very limited literature focusing on ecological and hydro-geomorphic aspects of post-wildfire of riparian vegetation / zone probably because of its negligible burned area relative to the spread of the fire, sometimes, over the whole watershed area. The limited literature on the topic is surprising given the fact that riparian vegetation zone has been acknowledged as a unique and important habitat supporting rich biodiversity. Herein we report on a wildfire event occurred on October 14th 2009 in a river section of Nahal Grar, Northern Negev Desert, Israel. The wildfire although was limited in its area (only 3 hectare) extended over the channel alone from bank to bank and thus provide a unique case study of completely burn down of riparian vegetation, mainly dense stands of Common Red (Australis Phragmites. Therefore a detailed study of this event provides an opportunity to tackle one of the basics questions which is determining the rate of natural restoration process that act at the immediate time after the wildfire event occurred. This type of information is most valuable to professional and stakeholders for better management of post-fire riparian zones. The results of the study suggest that under stable conditions, i.e. no major flood events occurred; disturbance time was short and ranged over 200 days due to, almost, immediate recovery of the riparian vegetation. However the re-growth of the riparian vegetation was not even but rather deferential and more complex then reported in the literature

  17. From microbes to water districts: Linking observations across scales to uncover the implications of riparian and channel management on water quality in an irrigated agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A.; Cadenasso, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    , turbidity conveyance was most associated with reach-scale factors. These findings suggest that, in the absence of other regulations, a decentralized management approach to riparian zones and waterways allows reach-scale complexity to arise, which in turn promotes ecosystem function and improved water quality.

  18. Bank storage buffers rivers from saline regional groundwater: an example from the Avon River Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfedder, Benjamin; Hofmann, Harald; Cartwrighta, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater-surface water interactions are often conceptually and numerically modeled as a two component system: a groundwater system connected to a stream, river or lake. However, transient storage zones such as hyporheic exchange, bank storage, parafluvial flow and flood plain storage complicate the two component model by delaying the release of flood water from the catchment. Bank storage occurs when high river levels associated with flood water reverses the hydraulic gradient between surface water and groundwater. River water flows into the riparian zone, where it is stored until the flood water recede. The water held in the banks then drains back into the river over time scales ranging from days to months as the hydraulic gradient returns to pre-flood levels. If the frequency and amplitude of flood events is high enough, water held in bank storage can potentially perpetually remain between the regional groundwater system and the river. In this work we focus on the role of bank storage in buffering river salinity levels against saline regional groundwater on lowland sections of the Avon River, Victoria, Australia. We hypothesize that the frequency and magnitude of floods will strongly influence the salinity of the stream water as banks fill and drain. A bore transect (5 bores) was installed perpendicular to the river and were instrumented with head and electrical conductivity loggers measuring for two years. We also installed a continuous 222Rn system in one bore. This data was augmented with long-term monthly EC from the river. During high rainfall events very fresh flood waters from the headwaters infiltrated into the gravel river banks leading to a dilution in EC and 222Rn in the bores. Following the events the fresh water drained back into the river as head gradients reversed. However the bank water salinities remained ~10x lower than regional groundwater levels during most of the time series, and only slightly above river water. During 2012 SE Australia

  19. Riparian Vegetation Response to the March 2008 Short-Duration, High-Flow Experiment-Implications of Timing and Frequency of Flood Disturbance on Nonnative Plant Establishment Along the Colorado River Below Glen Canyon Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Barbara E.

    2010-01-01

    Riparian plant communities exhibit various levels of diversity and richness. These communities are affected by flooding and are vulnerable to colonization by nonnative species. Since 1996, a series of three high-flow experiments (HFE), or water releases designed to mimic natural seasonal flooding, have been conducted at Glen Canyon Dam, Ariz., primarily to determine the effectiveness of using high flows to conserve sediment, a limited resource. These experiments also provide opportunities to examine the susceptibility of riparian plant communities to nonnative species invasions. The third and most recent HFE was conducted from March 5 to 9, 2008, and scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center examined the effects of high flows on riparian vegetation as part of the overall experiment. Total plant species richness, nonnative species richness, percent plant cover, percent organic matter, and total carbon measured from sediment samples were compared for Grand Canyon riparian vegetation zones immediately following the HFE and 6 months later. These comparisons were used to determine if susceptibility to nonnative species establishment varied among riparian vegetation zones and if the timing of the HFE affected nonnative plant establishment success. The 2008 HFE primarily buried vegetation rather than scouring it. Percent nonnative cover did not differ among riparian vegetation zones; however, in the river corridor affected by Glen Canyon Dam operations, nonnative species richness showed significant variation. For example, species richness was significantly greater immediately after and 6 months following the HFE in the hydrologic zone farthest away from the shoreline, the area that represents the oldest riparian zone within the post-dam riparian area. In areas closer to the river channel, tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima X chinensis) seedling establishment occurred (tamarisk seed production, or in 1986, a year following several

  20. Adaptation of the QBR index for use in riparian forests of central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie R. Colwell; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Although high quality riparian forests are an endangered ecosystem type throughout the world, there has been no ecological index to measure the habitat quality of riparian forests in Ohio. The QBR (qualitat del bosc de ribera, or riparian forest quality) index was developed to assess the quality of habitat in Mediterranean forested riparian areas, and we have modified...

  1. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryn, John N [Naperville, IL; Daniels, Edward J [Orland Park, IL; Krumdick, Greg K [Crete, IL

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  2. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, Anders; Johannesson, L.E.

    1994-11-01

    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  3. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  4. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  5. Main principles of the Chernobyl' NPP zone development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is suggested to divide the Chernobyl' NPP zone into two parts, which are the alienation and evacuation (buffer) zones. The alienation zone includes the areas with greatest contamination around the Chernobyl' NPP. The population residence in this zone is forbidden. The watching method of working with short-time personnel residence is suggested to be used in this zone. The buffer zone is the territory out of the alienation zone boundaries including all settlements, from which the population is evacuated. Constant residence is permitted in the buffer zone for persons 50 and more years old with introduction of restrictions for diet and residence organization. The production activity in this zone includes operation of three units of the Chernobyl' NPP, works with the Ukrytie object and researches. Operations connected with radioactive waste processing and redisposal from places of storage is not recommended to be done. It is suggested to develop methods for local radioactive waste processing

  6. Soil water content drives spatiotemporal patterns of CO2 and N2O emissions from a Mediterranean riparian forest soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poblador

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Riparian zones play a fundamental role in regulating the amount of carbon (C and nitrogen (N that is exported from catchments. However, C and N removal via soil gaseous pathways can influence local budgets of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and contribute to climate change. Over a year, we quantified soil effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 and nitrous oxide (N2O from a Mediterranean riparian forest in order to understand the role of these ecosystems on catchment GHG emissions. In addition, we evaluated the main soil microbial processes that produce GHG (mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification and how changes in soil properties can modify the GHG production over time and space. Riparian soils emitted larger amounts of CO2 (1.2–10 g C m−2 d−1 than N2O (0.001–0.2 mg N m−2 d−1 to the atmosphere attributed to high respiration and low denitrification rates. Both CO2 and N2O emissions showed a marked (but antagonistic spatial gradient as a result of variations in soil water content across the riparian zone. Deep groundwater tables fueled large soil CO2 effluxes near the hillslope, while N2O emissions were higher in the wet zones adjacent to the stream channel. However, both CO2 and N2O emissions peaked after spring rewetting events, when optimal conditions of soil water content, temperature, and N availability favor microbial respiration, nitrification, and denitrification. Overall, our results highlight the role of water availability on riparian soil biogeochemistry and GHG emissions and suggest that climate change alterations in hydrologic regimes can affect the microbial processes that produce GHG as well as the contribution of these systems to regional and global biogeochemical cycles.

  7. Assessing the impact of changes in landuse and management practices on the diffuse pollution and retention of nitrate in a riparian floodplain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Stefan; Jacobs, Joerg; Voss, Anja; Bronstert, Axel; Zehe, Erwin

    2008-01-15

    In many European lowland rivers and riparian floodplains diffuse nutrient pollution is causing a major risk for the surface waters and groundwater to not achieve a good status as demanded by the European Water Framework Directive. In order to delimit the impact of diffuse nutrient pollution substantial and often controversial changes in landuse and management are under discussion. In this study we investigate the impact of two complex scenarios considering changes in landuse and land management practices on the nitrate loads of a typical lowland stream and the riparian groundwater in the North German Plains. Therefore the impacts of both scenarios on the nitrate dynamics, the attenuation efficiency and the nitrate exchange between groundwater and surface water were investigated for a 998.1 km(2) riparian floodplain of the Lower and Central Havel River and compared with the current conditions. Both scenarios target a substantial improvement of the ecological conditions and the water quality in the research area but promote different typical riparian landscape functions and consider a different grade of economical and legal feasibility of the proposed measures. Scenario 1 focuses on the optimisation of conservation measures for all natural resources of the riparian floodplain, scenario 2 considers measures in order to restore a good status of the water bodies mainly. The IWAN model was setup for the simulation of water balance and nitrate dynamics of the floodplain for a perennial simulation period of the current landuse and management conditions and of the scenario assumptions. The proposed landuse and management changes result in reduced rates of nitrate leaching from the root zone into the riparian groundwater (85% for scenario 1, 43% for scenario 2). The net contributions of nitrate from the floodplain can be reduced substantially for both scenarios. In case of scenario 2 a decrease by 70% can be obtained. For scenario 1 the nitrate exfiltration rates to the

  8. Flood-controlled excess-air formation favors aerobic respiration and limits denitrification activity in riparian groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone ePeter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The saturated riparian zones of rivers act as spatially and temporally variable biogeochemical reactors. This complicates the assessment of biogeochemical transport and transformation processes. During a flood event, excess-air formation, i.e. the inclusion and dissolution of air bubbles into groundwater, can introduce high amounts of dissolved O2 and thereby affect biogeochemical processes in groundwater. With the help of a field-installed membrane-inlet mass-spectrometer we resolved the effects of flood induced excess-air formationon organic carbon and nitrogen transformations in groundwater of different riparian zones of a restored section of the River Thur, Switzerland. The results show that the flood event triggered high aerobic respiration activity in the groundwater below a zone densely populated with willow plants. The flood introduced high concentrations of O2 (230 µmol L–1 to the groundwater through the formation of excess air and transported up to ~400 µmol L 1 organic carbon from the soil/root layer into groundwater during the movement of the water table. A rapid respiration process, quantified via the measurements of O2, CO2 and noble-gas concentrations, led to fast depletion of the introduced O2 and organic carbon and to high CO2 concentration (590 µmol L–1 in the groundwater shortly after the flood. The synchronous analysis of different nitrogen species allowed studying the importance of denitrification activity. The results indicate that in the willow zone excess-air formation inhibited denitrification through high O2 concentration input. Instead, the observed decrease in nitrate concentration (~50 µmol N L 1 may be related to fostered nitrate uptake by plants. In the other riparian zones closer to the river, no significant excess-air formation and corresponding respiration activity was observed. Overall, analyzing the dissolved gases in the groundwater significantly contributed to deciphering biogeochemical processes in

  9. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography (ECOSERV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  10. Improved Mapping of Riparian Wetlands Using Reach Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wetlands provide a suite of ecosystems services including floodwater retention, biogeochemical processing, and habitat provisioning. However in one mid-Atlantic watershed the National Wetlands Inventory was shown to underrepresent these systems by greater than 50%. These...

  11. Advances on Modelling Riparian Vegetation-Hydromorphology Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solari, L.; Van Oorschot, M.; Belletti, B.; Hendriks, D.; Rinaldi, M.; Vargas-Luna, A.

    2016-01-01

    Riparian vegetation actively interacts with fluvial systems affecting river hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and groundwater. These interactions can be coupled because both vegetation and hydromorphology (i.e. the combined scientific study of hydrology and fluvial geomorphology) involve dynamic

  12. Riparian trees as common denominators across the river flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Riparian tree species, growing under different conditions of water availability, can ... leaf area and increasing wood density correlating with deeper groundwater levels. ... and Sanddrifskloof Rivers (South Africa) under reduced flow conditions.

  13. Buffer zones for biodiversity of plants and arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Nimgaard, Rasmus Bak

    Rapporten beskriver resultaterne af en et-årig undersøgelse af virkning af forskellige bredder pesticid- og gødningsfrie bufferzone langs levende hegn med planter og leddyr, især insekter, som måleorganismer. En review-undersøgelse af bufferzoner i marker (Sigsgaard et al. 2007) afslørede et stær...

  14. Assessment of buffer zones in a world heritage site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Algreen-Ussing, Gregers

    2005-01-01

    Paper presented at International conference on traditional Tibetan architecture and murals conservation. From year to year, the nimber of historical areas designated as World Heritage Sites is increasing. The result is not only, that monuments and outstanding phenomenon's are due to restrictions...... the second assessment seeks to establish a systematic anticipatory approach to future plans, programmes and projects in an area. The relation of these two approaches to the referred Principles will be the issue of my deliberations, which take the procedure and survey shown in The Lhasa Atlas as a background...

  15. Capillary zone electrophoresis in phosphate buffer - known or unknown?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gebauer, Petr; Pantůčková, Pavla; Boček, Petr

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 894, 1+2 (2000), s. 89-93 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031703; GA ČR GA203/99/0044; GA MŠk VS96021; GA MŠk VS97014 Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2000

  16. Risk reduction by use of a buffer zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnant-Timmerman, S.L.; Wiersma, T.

    2008-01-01

    In situations where chemical industries and residential areas are situated close to each other, the population runs a safety risk associated with the accidental release of toxic gases. TNO has investigated the possibilities to reduce this risk by integrating safety measures in the area between the

  17. Assessing the Effects of Periodic Flooding on the Population Structure and Recruitment Rates of Riparian Tree Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Berthelot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forest stands are subjected to a variety of hydrological stresses as a result of annual fluctuations in water levels during the growing season. Spring floods create additional water-related stress as a result of a major inflow of water that floods riverside land. This exploratory study assesses the impacts of successive floods on tree dynamics and regeneration in an active sedimentation area, while determining the age of the stands using the recruitment rates, tree structure and tree rings based on dendrochronological analysis. Environmental data were also recorded for each vegetation quadrat. In total, 2633 tree stems were tallied throughout the quadrats (200 m2, and tree specimens were analyzed based on the various flood zones. A total of 720 specimens were counted (100 m2 strip to measure natural regeneration. Higher recruitment rates are noted for the no-flood zones and lower rates in active floodplains. During the period of the establishment of tree species, the survival rates are comparable between the flood zones and the no-flood zones. Tree diameter distribution reveals a strong predominance of young trees in flooded areas. Different factors appear to come into play in the dynamics of riparian forest stands, including the disruptions associated with successive flooding.

  18. Incorporating climate change projections into riparian restoration planning and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Laura G.; Reynolds, Lindsay V.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Collins, Mathias J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and associated changes in streamflow may alter riparian habitats substantially in coming decades. Riparian restoration provides opportunities to respond proactively to projected climate change effects, increase riparian ecosystem resilience to climate change, and simultaneously address effects of both climate change and other human disturbances. However, climate change may alter which restoration methods are most effective and which restoration goals can be achieved. Incorporating climate change into riparian restoration planning and design is critical to long-term restoration of desired community composition and ecosystem services. In this review, we discuss and provide examples of how climate change might be incorporated into restoration planning at the key stages of assessing the project context, establishing restoration goals and design criteria, evaluating design alternatives, and monitoring restoration outcomes. Restoration planners have access to numerous tools to predict future climate, streamflow, and riparian ecology at restoration sites. Planners can use those predictions to assess which species or ecosystem services will be most vulnerable under future conditions, and which sites will be most suitable for restoration. To accommodate future climate and streamflow change, planners may need to adjust methods for planting, invasive species control, channel and floodplain reconstruction, and water management. Given the considerable uncertainty in future climate and streamflow projections, riparian ecological responses, and effects on restoration outcomes, planners will need to consider multiple potential future scenarios, implement a variety of restoration methods, design projects with flexibility to adjust to future conditions, and plan to respond adaptively to unexpected change.

  19. Monitoring riparian-vegetation composition and cover along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara E.; Sarr, Daniel A.; Johnson, Taylor C.

    2018-06-05

    Vegetation in the riparian zone (the area immediately adjacent to streams, such as stream banks) along the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, supports many ecosystem and societal functions. In both Glen Canyon and Grand Canyon, this ecosystem has changed over time in response to flow alterations, invasive species, and recreational use. Riparian-vegetation cover and composition are likely to continue to change as these pressures persist and new ones emerge. Because this system is a valuable resource that is known to change in response to flow regime and other disturbances, a long-term monitoring protocol has been designed with three primary objectives:Annually measure and summarize the status (composition and cover) of native and non-native vascular-plant species within the riparian zone of the Colorado River between Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Mead.At 5-year intervals, assess change in vegetation composition and cover in the riparian zone, as related to geomorphic setting and dam operations, particularly flow regime.Collect data in a manner that can be used by multiple stakeholders, particularly the basinwide monitoring program overseen by the National Park Service’s Northern Colorado Plateau Network Inventory and Monitoring program.A protocol for the long-term monitoring of riparian vegetation is described in detail and standard operating procedures are included herein for all tasks. Visual estimates of foliar and ground covers are collected in conjunction with environmental measurements to assess correlations of foliar cover with abiotic and flow variables. Sample quadrats are stratified by frequency of inundation, geomorphic feature, and by river segment to account for differences in vegetation type. Photographs of sites are also taken to illustrate qualitative characteristics of the site at the time of sampling. Procedures for field preparation, generating random samples, data collection, data management, collecting and managing unknown

  20. Integrated assessment of groundwater - surface water exchange in the hillslope - riparian interface of a montane catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheliga, Bernhard; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Nuetzmann, Gunnar; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater-surface water dynamics play an important role in runoff generation and the hydrologic connectivity between hillslopes and streams. Here, we present findings from a suite of integrated, empirical approaches to increase our understanding of groundwater-surface water interlinkages in a 3.2 km ^ 2 experimental catchment in the Scottish Highlands. The montane catchment is mainly underlain by granite and has extensive (70%) cover of glacial drift deposits which are up to 40 m deep and form the main aquifer in the catchment. Flat valley bottom areas fringe the stream channel and are characterised by peaty soils (0.5-4 m deep) which cover about 10% of the catchment and receive drainage from upslope areas. The transition between the hillslopes and riparian zone forms a critical interface for groundwater-surface water interactions that controls both the dynamics of riparian saturation and stream flow generation. We nested observations using wells to assess the groundwater - surface water transition, LiDAR surveys to explore the influence of micro-topography on shallow groundwater efflux and riparian wells to examine the magnitude and flux rates of deeper groundwater sources. We also used electrical resistivity surveys to assess the architecture and storage properties of drift aquifers. Finally, we used isotopic tracers to differentiate recharge sources and associated residence times as well as quantifying how groundwater dynamics affect stream flow. These new data have provided a novel conceptual framework for local groundwater - surface water exchange that is informing the development of new deterministic models for the site.