WorldWideScience

Sample records for rio negro amazonas

  1. Growth of the Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821 (Perciformes: Cichlidae from the middle rio Negro, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Pereira Campos

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate age and growth of the peacock bass Cichla temensis from the rio Negro (Brazilian Amazonia by analyzing scale annuli. Specimens were captured between October 2011 and September 2012 in the main channel of the river and in adjacent lakes in the municipality of Barcelos, AM, Brazil. Six growth checks were identified on the scales of specimens. The annual variation in body condition observed suggests that fat is accumulated during the dry season. Results for the GSI (gonadosomatic index showed that peak reproduction occurred in the receding-water period, indicating that the fish had energy deficiencies as a result of reproductive activity. RMI (relative marginal increment analysis revealed that an annulus is formed once a year during the receding-water period. The population parameters estimated were L50 (length at sexual maturity = 31.11 cm, L∞ (asymptotic length = 68.05 cm, k (growth coefficient = 0.20.year-1 and A0.95 (longevity = 14 years. Our results corroborate the validity of using growth rings in scales as indicators to estimate the age and growth rate of Cichla temensis in the middle rio Negro.

  2. Animais medicinais: conhecimento e uso entre as populações ribeirinhas do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Leme da Silva

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo documentar o uso de animais na medicina caseira entre ribeirinhos do rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de 92 entrevistas e de observações sobre o conhecimento e as práticas cotidianas de uso de animais medicinais. Cerca de 60 espécies animais são conhecidas com propósitos medicinais. O conhecimento é bem distribuído entre os sexos (homens e mulheres e entre localidades (urbano e rural. O uso de animais medicinais está imerso em conceitos etiológicos e envolve uma complexa visão cosmológica do processo de cura. O êxodo rural e o acesso facilitado à medicina ocidental podem promover a perda dos conhecimentos tradicionais, o que pode ser mitigado através da valorização e da transmissão desses saberes às futuras gerações.

  3. Geochronologic study of sediments deposition of two lakes from the Rio Negro basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Ana Carla F.; Mozeto, Antonio A.; Cazotti, Raul I.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F.; Taddei, Maria Helena

    2000-01-01

    Since 1963 the radionuclide 210 Pb became an important tool for dating (geochronology) recent sediments (up to 120 years). In this work the sedimentary geochronology of two lakes from the Negro River Basin was determined, using different radiochemical separation methods for 210 Pb and 226 Ra. (author)

  4. Spawning areas, dispersion and microhabitats of fish larvae in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, rio Negro, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinbergh C. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of ichthyoplankton and their relationships to current velocity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity of the water in the Anavilhanas Ecological Station, Negro River, Amazonas State, Brazil, were analyzed. Preferred microhabitats for spawning, dispersion and nursery were also verified. Sampling was undertaken during the falling water period of 2001 and the rising water period of 2002, in a section of 100 km subdivided into 5 subsections, with a total of 20 stations (5 beaches, 5 ravines, 5 channels, and 5 lake channels at night and during the day at the surface and at the bottom. 647 eggs and 4,187 larvae were captured, belonging to 10 families and four orders: Characiformes (6, Siluriformes (2, Perciformes (1, and Clupeiformes (1. Engraulidae (55.39%, Pimelodidae (30.45%, Auchenipteridae (5.23% and Sciaenidae (5.13% were the dominant families. The hierarchical statistical model (ANOVA with three factors (microhabitat, depth and period was applied to the environmental variables and the larval abundance, showing greater abundances of sciaenids in the ravines and lower abundances of engraulids in the channels. The highest captures were obtained at lower temperature values, at the bottom during the day and at the surface at night, suggesting an active larval behavior. The presence of the four larval development stages in all subsection for pimelodids and sciaenids, and in three subsections for engraulids, indicates that the Anavilhanas Ecological Station is an important spawning and nursery area for species of these groups in the Negro River. Larvae abundance of all characiform families was extremely low (from 0.1 to 1.17%, suggesting that they do not spawn in this system.

  5. Perfil demográfico dos Hupd'äh, povo Maku da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Perfil demográfico de los Hupd'äh, pueblo Maku de la región del Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas (2000-2003 Demographic profile of the Hupd'äh, a Maku people living the Upper Rio Negro Region, State of Amazonas, Brazil (2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Machado

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Hupd'äh são um povo de língua Maku, habitante da região do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Lideranças indígenas, antropólogos, missionários e profissionais de saúde afirmam que eles estariam vivendo em condições de saúde precárias, com alta mortalidade geral e infantil. A partir de dados provenientes do Distrito Especial Indígena do Rio Negro - DSEI-RN, da Funasa/MS, para o período 2000-2003, foi realizado um estudo descritivo para avaliar o perfil demográfico e conhecer melhor essa população, contribuindo para a implementação de políticas públicas que lhe favoreçam e para os debates em antropologia, demografia e saúde indígena. A população de 1.487 indivíduos, em 2003, cresceu 8,4% ao ano no período estudado. Sua composição por idade e sexo indica concentração de jovens (44,9% com menos de 15 anos, além da predominância de população do sexo masculino. A taxa bruta de natalidade (TBN média do período foi de 33,4 nascimentos por mil habitantes, a de fecundidade total (TFT correspondeu a 3,4 filhos por mulher, a de mortalidade (TBM foi de 10 óbitos por mil habitantes e a de mortalidade infantil (TMI chegou a 116,3 óbitos por mil nascimentos. O aperfeiçoamento da coleta de informações, o elevado crescimento vegetativo e a intensa mobilidade espacial dos Hupd'äh poderiam explicar o alto ritmo de crescimento verificado entre 2000 e 2003.Los Hupd'äh son un pueblo de lengua Maku, habitante de la región del Alto Río Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. Liderazgos indígenas, antropólogos, misionarios y profesionales de la salud, afirman que estarían viviendo en condiciones de salud precarias, con alta mortalidad general e infantil. A partir de datos provenientes del Distrito Especial Indígena del Río Negro - DSEI-RN, de la Funasa/MS, para el período 2000-2003, fue realizado un estudio descriptivo para evaluar el perfil demográfico y conocer mejor esta población, contribuyendo con la implementación de pol

  6. Cárie dentária e necessidade de tratamento odontológico entre os índios Baniwa do Alto Rio Negro, Amazonas Dental caries and need for dental care among the Baniwa Indians, Rio Negro, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Clemente Gomes Carneiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas epidemiológicas em comunidades indígenas no Brasil têm evidenciado forte relação entre a deterioração da saúde bucal e o consumo de itens industrializados (e do açúcar refinado em particular, aliados à precariedade da atenção odontológica. Este estudo abordou a população Baniwa do pólo-base de Tunuí-Cachoeira, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil. Foi realizado inquérito transversal sobre as condições de saúde bucal, de acordo com critérios da OMS. Foram observadas as condições dentárias e a necessidade de tratamento, examinando-se 590 indivíduos (49,2% da população > 2 anos. A média de dentes atacados pela doença cárie foi 6,0, 8,2 e 22,1 nas faixas etárias 12-14, 15-19 e mais de 50 anos, respectivamente. O maior valor de ceo-d (5,3 foi encontrado na idade de 5 anos. Do total de pessoas examinadas, 73,6% apresentaram alguma necessidade de tratamento cirúrgico-restaurador. Os indivíduos entre 15-19 anos apresentam as mais elevadas freqüências de restaurações. O CPO-D da população Baniwa é elevado, o que deve estar relacionado a processos recentes de mudanças socioeconômicas, particularmente na dieta. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de ampliação da atenção à saúde bucal, considerando-se a complexidade da questão sociocultural dos povos indígenas.Epidemiologic research conducted with Indian communities in Brazil has shown strong correlation between the deterioration of their oral health and the consumption of industrial products, sugar in particular, added to the lack of structure of oral health care. This study was carried out among the Baniwa Indians from the Tunuí-Cachoeira region, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Northwestern Amazon, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted according to the criteria established by the WHO, focusing on dental caries and need for dental treatment. A total of 590 individuals were examined (49.2% of the population older than 2 years. The mean numbers

  7. An analysis of the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological factors affecting new malaria cases in riverine areas along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Paulo Eduardo Guzzo; Candido, Luiz Antonio; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; da Silva Junior, Urbano Lopes; Correa, Honorly Katia Mestre

    2018-04-26

    A study was conducted at three sampling regions along the Rio Negro and surrounding Puraquequara Lake, Amazonas, Brazil. The aim was to determine the influence of the local effects of climatic and hydrological variables on new malaria cases. Data was gathered on the river level, precipitation, air temperature, and the number of new cases of autochthonous malaria between January 2003 and December 2013. Monthly averages, time series decompositions, cross-correlations, and multiple regressions revealed different relationships at each location. The sampling region in the upper Rio Negro indicated no statistically significant results. However, monthly averages suggest that precipitation and air temperature correlate positively with the occurrence of new cases of malaria. In the mid Rio Negro and Puraquequara Lake, the river level positively correlated, and temperature negatively correlated with new transmissions, while precipitation correlated negatively in the mid Rio Negro and positively on the lake. Overall, the river level is a key variable affecting the formation of breeding sites, while precipitation may either develop or damage them. A negative temperature correlation is associated with the occurrence of new annual post-peak cases of malaria, when the monthly average exceeds 28.5 °C. This suggests that several factors contribute to the occurrence of new malaria cases as higher temperatures are reached at the same time as precipitation and the river levels are lowest. Differences between signals and correlation lags indicate that local characteristics have an impact on how different variables influence the disease vector's life cycle, pathogens, and consequently, new cases of malaria.

  8. Aspectos epidemiológicos, sociais e sanitários de uma área no Rio Negro, estado do Amazonas, com especial referência às parasitoses intestinais e à infecção chagásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coura José R.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo seccional foi realizado na população residente em um de cada quatro domicílios habitados na cidade de Barcelos (no norte do Estado do Amazonas, na margem direita do Rio Negro, a 490km de Manaus por via fluvial, visando a avaliar as condições sociais, sanitárias e os indicadores específicos para as parasitoses intestinais e para infecção chagásica. No inquérito, foram aplicados dois questionários, um domiciliar para avaliar os aspectos sociais e sanitários, e outro individual, para a avaliação das condições sociais e epidemiológicas da população. Uma amostra por conglomerado familiar de 171 domicílios foi estudada. De cada um dos 658 habitantes, foi requisitada uma amostra de fezes para exame parasitológico pelas técnicas de sedimentação de Lutz e de Baermann-Moraes-Coutinho, modificado por Willcox & Coura (1989, 1991 e coletada uma amostra de sangue em papel de filtro para a reação de imunofluorescência para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi pelo método de Fife & Muschel modificado por Camargo (1966 e Souza & Camargo (1966 e Petana & Willcox (1975. O exame de fezes mostrou 69,4% das amostras com um ou mais parasitos. O Ascaris lumbricoides foi predominante, com 51% de positividade, e o Entamoeba histolytica, embora com exame não específico, foi positivo em 19,7%. Surpreendentemente, 20,1% das 658 amostras de sangue foram reativas para anticorpos anti-T. cruzi na diluição de 1:20, e 13,7%, na diluição de 1:40. Houve forte correlação entre esses resultados e o nível de contato da população humana com triatomíneos silvestres, conhecidos localmente como piolho-da-piaçava, e conseguimos isolar por xenodiagnóstico uma cepa de T. cruzi de um paciente (nº 209-1 com sorologia positiva para infecção chagásica, natural da área e que havia trabalhado na agricultura, transportando piaçava, e que conhecia muito bem o piolho-da-piaçava.

  9. The implantation process of oral health services in indian communities of the rivers Tiquié and Uaupés – special indian sanitary district for the Alto Rio NegroAmazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Aparecida Chaves NUNES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reconstitutes the implantation process of oral health services in Indian communities of the rivers Tiquié and Uaupés – Special Indian Sanitary District for the Alto Rio Negro – Amazons. In the political, administrative, anthropological and socioeconomic context, it aims at identifying its contribution to the organization of basic attention in oral health and its reflexes in the assistance provided. The reality in the realm of contracts 439/99 and 2349/00 is established as a recut, celebrated between Fundação Nacional de Saúde and the Associação Saúde Sem Limites in the period of 2000 – 2001 which object is the organization of health services in the Tiquié and Uaupés rivers area, in the implantation process context at the Rio Negro’s Special Indian Sanitary District. It reveals the strategical dimension of establishing, in the field of organization and operation of the services, the guiding principles of Unique Health System. It points out, as fundamental in the oral health basic attention, the local planning, with emphasis in a greater visualization of life reality of the local population. Its daily practice reflects the restrictions regarding the political, technical and administrative sectors in order to define projects propose intervention mechanisms, allocate and manage the existing resources and the potential ones including human resources. It is necessary that the managers assume the challenges of power, work and knowledge relations between the population and the professionals and among different groups of these segments.

  10. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Amat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%. A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembrinella benoisti (Séguy 1925 and Hemilucilia sp., whose occurrence was observed only in a single locality. Apparently, Amazon rivers are not efficient geographical barriers to influence the current composition of necrophagous blowfly assemblages. Also, most of the blowfly species did not show a noticeable specificity for any specific forest among the interfluvial areas of the ombrophilous forest. Finally, an updated checklist of necrophagous blowfly species of the Amazonas state in Brazil is presented.

  11. Medicinal animals: knowledge and use among riverine populations from the Negro River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Leme da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article documents the use of animals in the home medicine among riverine populations from the Negro River, State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data were collected through interviews and observations concerning to the knowledge and everyday practices of the use of medicinal animals. About 60 animal species are known with medicinal purposes. The knowledge is well distributed between sexes (men and women and localities (urban and rural. The use of medicinal animals is embedded in etiological concepts and involves a complex cosmological vision of the cure process. The rural exodus and the facilitated access to the western medicine may be promoting the loss of the traditional knowledge, which can be mitigated through the valorization and transmission of this knowledge to the future generations.

  12. Abundância e distribuição das larvas de peixes no Lago Catalão e no encontro dos rios Solimões e Negro, Amazonas, Brasil Abundance and distribution of fish larvae in Catalão Lake and in the confluence of the Solimões and Negro River, Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosseval Galdino Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A abundância e a distribuição mensal de larvas de peixes no Lago Catalão, situado próximo ao encontro dos rios Solimões e Negro, foram avaliadas entre os meses de janeiro e maio de 2001. As amostras foram coletadas com uma rede de ictioplâncton cônico-cilíndrica (350 µm de malha, Ø 0,3 m e 2 m de comprimento, com um fluxômetro acoplado na boca da rede para a obtenção do volume de água filtrado pela mesma. As variáveis categóricas consideradas foram: posição no lago (margem e centro, profundidade (superfície e fundo e turno (diurno e noturno; tendo sido realizada a Análise Fatorial de Correspondência (AFC usando a densidade larval (larvas. m-3 como variável resposta e os meses como descritores. A AFC discriminou a ocorrência de larvas por unidade experimental entre o mês de janeiro e os demais meses, com 58,15% de inércia, e a densidade larval mudou conforme a posição no lago e o período do dia. A maior parte das larvas era protolarva e alimentava-se na margem, tanto na superfície quanto no fundo do lago. Concluiu-se que o Lago Catalão é um importante berçário para as larvas dos peixes que desovam no rio Solimões e também para as larvas dos peixes que desovam no próprio lago.The abundance and monthly distribution of fish larvae in Catalão Lake, situated near the confluence of the Solimões and Negro River was evaluated between January and May 2001. The samples were obtained using a conical plankton net (350 µm, Ø 0.3, 2 m long, with a flow meter attached to the opening of the net. The categorical variables were: position in the lake (margin and center, period of the day (day and night and depth (surface and bottom. The analysis was made with Fatorial Correspondence Analyses (FCA using the larval density (larvae.m-3 as answer variable and the months as descriptors. The feeding activity of larvae was also studied. Most of them were protolarvae feeding in the margin of the lake, on the surface as well as on

  13. O povo das águas pretas: o caboclo amazônico do rio Negro The people of the black waters: the Amazon caboclo of the Negro river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sergio Dumas dos Santos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta uma descrição historicamente contextualizada do povo que vive ao longo do rio Negro, afluente brasileiro da bacia do Amazonas. Processos de constituição da população e das comunidades são identificados, nas fontes, a partir da experiência social cotidiana dos partícipes do processo histórico estudado, o qual percorre o século XX até a metade de sua última década. No rio Negro, o contato entre a sociedade brasileira e os diversos grupos indígenas que ali viviam, autóctones e catequizados, foi determinante para a constituição da identidade cabocla do território. A partir do último quartel do século XIX, a nomenclatura consolidou-se e vulgarizou-se, tendo na empresa extrativista um forte elemento propagador, em um contexto em que predominam as relações sociais constituintes da cultura do barracão.The article constructs a historically contextualized description of the people who live along the Negro river, a Brazilian affluent in the Amazon basin. Drawing on information about the daily social experience of the participants from the dawn of the twentieth century through the mid-1990s, the processes by which the population and communities took shape are identified. On the Negro river, contact between Brazilian society and the autochthonous, catechized indigenous groups living there was determinant in shaping the territory's caboclo identity. Starting in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, this nomenclature took root and entered the popular lexicon. Extractivist activities played a major role in spreading the term, within a context where the predominant social relations derived from the 'cultura do barracão'.

  14. Morbidity of Chagas heart disease in the microregion of Rio Negro, Amazonian Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rodrigues Coura

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study on the morbidity of Chagas heart disease was carried out in the municipality of Barcelos in the microregion of the Rio Negro, state of Amazonas. One hundred and six individuals, who were serologically positive for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, as confirmed by at least two techniques with different principles, were matched according to age and sex with an equal number of seronegative individuals. The cases and controls were evaluated using an epidemiological questionnaire and clinical, electrocardiograph and echocardiograph examinations. In the seroepidemiological evaluation, 62% of the interviewees recognised triatomines and most of them confirmed that they had seen these insects in the piassava plantations of the riverside communities of the Negro River tributaries. Of the seropositive patients, 25.8% affirmed that they had been stung by the triatomines and 11.7% denied having been stung. The principal clinical manifestations of the seropositive individuals were palpitations, chest pain and dyspnoea upon effort. Cardiac auscultation revealed extrasystoles, bradycardia and systolic murmurs. The electrocardiographic alterations were ventricular extrasystoles, left and right bundle branch block, atrioventricular block and primary T wave alterations. The echocardiogram was altered in 22.6% of the seropositive individuals and in 8.5% of the seronegative individuals.

  15. Omnivory and resource - sharing in nutrient - deficient Rio Negro waters: stabilization of biodiversity? Omnivoria e repartição de recursos em águas pobres em nutrientes da Bacia do Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Walker

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Amazonian biodiversity is notorious, this is also valid for the fauna of the mineral-deficient waters of the Rio Negro System. Some 25 years of research on the benthic fauna of Central Amazonian streams resulted in species-rich foodwebs with a high degree of omnivory within dense animal communities. To exemplify the taxonomic range of omnivorous consumers, the detailed resource spectra of 18 consumer species, including Protozoa (2 species, Platyhelminthes (1 species, insects (2 species, fish (6 species and shrimps (Decapoda, 7 species, associated primarily with the benthic habitats of Rio Negro tributaries, are presented. Special features of omnivory are characterized, and the importance of litter-decomposing fungi as essential energy input into the foodwebs is documented. It is shown that general omnivory -diverse omnivore consumers sharing most of the resource types- is a prevalent feature. The relevance of this general omnivory for the maintenance of biodiversity is discussed.A biodiversidade do Amazonas é notório e isto também é válido para as águas pobres em nutrientes da bacia do Rio Negro. Uma pesquisa de 25 anos da fauna béntica de igarapés da Amazônia Central resultou em redes alimentares caraterizadas por alta diversidade de espécies, por intensa omnivoria e por alta densidade populacional. Para demonstrar a generalidade taxonômica de omnivoria no bentos dos igarapés, são apresentados as listas de presas / recursos de 18 espécies de consumidores, sendo Protozoa (2 epécies, Platyhelminthes (1 espécie, insetos (2 espécies, peixes (6 espécies e camarões (Decapoda, 7 espécies. Diferentes categorias de omnivoria são apresentados, e a importância de fungos decompositores da liteira submersa como input básico de energia nas redes alimentares é demonstrada. É prevalente a omnivoria geral, sendo que as diferentes espécies omnívoros estão utilizando os mesmos recursos. Considera- se a relevância desta omnivoria geral

  16. O estado nutricional de crianças Yanomami do Médio Rio Negro, Amazônia Yanomami children's nutritional status in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Istria

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O estado nutricional de 290 crianças, desde o nascimento até a idade de uns seis anos, da população Yanomami do Médio Rio Negro, Amazonas, foi observado em 1998 e 1999. Essa população tem um modo de viver tradicional e dispõe de um largo espaço para as atividades de caça e de colheita. O índice peso/altura foi comparado aos valores de referência do National Center for Health Statistics. Todas essas crianças são de pequena morfologia. Uma desnutrição (índice The nutritional status of 290 Yanomami Amerindians children, from birth to about six year-olds, living in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazonia, has been studied in 1998 and 1999 using the weight-for-height. All of them were of low stature. Twenty malnourished (7%, defined as below two standard deviations of NCHS' data, have been observed. Five of them showed a severe malnutrition (<= -3 SD. Differences appeared between the communities, however without evident connection with the practices of these groups and their contacts with the outside. These data indicate a lack of scarcity in this population who preserves a traditional way of life and disposes of a large space for gathering and hunting. The cases of malnutrition are probably a conjoined consequence of infectious attacks in children and of a special bad status in their group.

  17. Saúde reprodutiva e mulheres indígenas do Alto Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Azevedo

    Full Text Available O presente artigo descreve e analisa as concepções próprias das mulheres indígenas do Alto Rio Negro sobre saúde reprodutiva, relacionando-as a indicadores de fecundidade. As informações qualitativas apontam para um conhecimento detalhado e complexo que as mulheres indígenas dessa região possuem sobre seu corpo e os cuidados com sua saúde. Os níveis e padrões etários da fecundidade estão relacionados com a etnia das mulheres, portanto, aos sistemas tradicionais de cuidados com a saúde desses povos. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida entre 1997 e 2003, na região de Iauaretê, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro (AM, e teve como primeira fonte de dados o Censo Indígena Autônomo do Rio Negro - CIARN-, levado a efeito pela Federação das Organizações Indígenas do Rio Negro - FOIRN - em 1992.

  18. Metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil Metazoários endoparasitos de Serrasalmus marginatus (Characiformes: Serrasalminae no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vicentin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to inventory the metazoan endoparasites of Serrasalmus marginatus, 91 specimens were examined. They were captured in the Negro River in Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-Western Brazil, from October 2007 to August 2008. Parasites of six taxa were recovered: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercarial type Diplostomulum (Digenea, Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda and Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 and Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. The latter five species are reported for the first time in S. marginatus.Com o objetivo de inventariar os metazoários endoparasitos em Serrasalmus marginatus, no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram examinados 91 espécimes capturados no período de outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Foram registrados seis táxons parasitos: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, metacercária do tipo Diplostomulum (Digenea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda; e Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 e Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. As últimas cinco espécies citadas são registradas pela primeira vez em S. marginatus.

  19. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAUJO-LIMA C. A. R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  20. Diel variation of larval fish abundance in the Amazon and Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. R. M. ARAUJO-LIMA

    Full Text Available Many streams and large rivers present higher ichthyoplankton densities at night. However, in some rivers this does not occur and larvae are equally abundant during the day. Larval drift diel variation is an important information for planning sampling programs for evaluating larval distribution and production. The aim of this study was to test whether the abundance of larval fish was different at either period. We tested it by comparing day and night densities of characiform, clupeiform and siluriform larvae during five years in the Amazon and one year in Rio Negro. We found that larvae of three species of characiform and larvae of siluriform were equally abundant during day and night in the Amazon. Conversely, the catch of Pellona spp. larvae was significantly higher during the day. In Rio Negro, however, larval abundance was higher during the night. These results imply that day samplings estimate adequately the abundance of these characiform and siluriform larvae in the Amazon, but not Pellona larvae. Evaluations of larved densities of Rio Negro will have to consider night sampling.

  1. Two new species of the Hypostomus cochliodon group (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from the rio Negro basin in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hollanda Carvalho

    Full Text Available Two new species of Hypostomus are described from the middle and upper rio Negro in Brazil. They are assigned to the Hypostomus cochliodon group (sensu Armbruster, 2003 by possessing few spoon-shaped teeth, and dentary angle averaging less than 80º. Hypostomus kopeyaka is described from the rio Tiquié, a tributary of the rio Uaupés, upper rio Negro basin, presents a unique color pattern among the Hypostomus species belonging to the Hypostomus cochliodon group, consisting of conspicuously horizontally elongated, closely-set black spots over the entire dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body. Hypostomus weberi is described from the middle rio Negro and can be distinguished from all remaining Hypostomus species belonging to the Hypostomus cochliodon group by possessing a unique color pattern consisting in large, rounded, widelyspaced black spots over body and fins.

  2. Itinerário dos usuários de medicamentos via judicial no estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marselle Nobre de Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve como objetivo analisar o itinerário dos usuários que tiveram acesso a medicamentos via judicial no estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Trata-se de estudo qualitativo, prospectivo, baseado em dados coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com usuários que receberam medicamentos via mandado judicial. A judicialização na saúde mostrou-se um fator agregador ao reconhecimento dos direitos e da cidadania pelos usuários que, na sua trajetória de vida, acabaram adquirindo um grande aprendizado sobre formas de enfrentar a falta de acesso aos medicamentos. Conclui-se que a relação entre o sujeito e o Estado permanece desigual, e o direito à saúde se deu na dimensão individual e restritiva, desconsiderando a dimensão coletiva e a concepção de cidadania.

  3. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America

  4. Forest succession in the Upper Rio Negro of Colombia and Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldarriaga, J.G.; West, D.C.; Tharp, M.L.

    1986-11-01

    Woody vegetation from 23 forest stands along the Upper Rio Negro of Venezuela and Colombia was sampled in 1982 to examine the hypothesis that the Amazon forest has been largely undisturbed since the Pleistocene, to quantify vegetation development during different stages of succession following agricultural development, and to determine the time required for a successional stand to become a mature forest. The ubiquitousness of charcoal in the tierra firme forest indicated the presence of fire associated with extreme dry periods and human disturbances. Changes in species composition, vegetation structure, and woody biomass were studied on 19 abandoned farms and four mature forest stands. Living and dead biomass for the tress and their components was determined by regression equations developed from measurements of harvested trees. The rate of recovery of floristic composition, structure, and biomass following disturbance is relatively slow. Aboveground dead biomass remained high 14 years after the forest was disturbed by the agricultural practices. The lowest dead biomass is reached 20 years after abandonment, and the largest values are found in mature forests. Data analysis of 80-year-old stands showed that the species composition approached that of a mature forest. Approximately 140 to 200 years was required for an abandoned farm to attain the basal area and biomass values comparable to those of a mature forest. The results of this study indicate that recovery is five to seven times longer in the Upper Rio Negro than it is in other tropical areas in South America.

  5. Food, feeding, and refuelling of Red Knots during northward migration at San Antonio Oeste, Rio Negro, Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Verkuil, Y; González, Patricia M.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the food and feeding ecology of Red Knots Calidris canutus rufa on an area of rocky flat, or restinga, near San Antonio Oeste in the northwest of Golfo San Matias, Provincia de Rio Negro, Argentina in March 1992. These Red Knots are on their way north, from ''wintering'' areas in Tierra

  6. [Yanomami children's nutritional status in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazônia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istria, Jacques; Gazin, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The nutritional status of 290 Yanomami Amerindians children, from birth to about six year-olds, living in the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazonia, has been studied in 1998 and 1999 using the weight-for-height. All of them were of low stature. Twenty malnourished (7%), defined as below two standard deviations of NCHS' data, have been observed. Five of them showed a severe malnutrition (

  7. Application of a simulation model of water quality in the improvement of high basin of Rio Negro - Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina Perez, Francisco; Wills Toro, Alvaro; Ramirez Cardona, Juan F

    1995-01-01

    The present article consigns the application of a model of water quality: QUAL2E, of the high basin of the Rio Negro in the East Antioquia. The system Rio Negro was divided in 16 homogeneous tracts, in which 15 seating capacity stations and sampling were located, this way 5 in the Rio Negro and 10 in the main flowing gulches. In the period October of 1993 to May of 1994, they were carried out 10 samplings of quality of the water, coupling this way, the basic data for the hydrological scenarios of summer, intermission and winter. Later on it was carried out the calibration of the pattern for the summer and the validation for winter; the parameters were refined especially suspended solids, dissolved oxygen and DBO5. The use of the pattern allows carrying out the prospective for the quality of the water in the region facilitating a better one taking of decisions in the related with the use of the resource and actions of prevention and control

  8. [Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Laura Cristina; Longo, Magnolia; John Jairo, Ramirez; Guillermo, Chalar

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic Ecological Index based on freshwater (ICE(RN-MAE)) for the Rio Negro watershed, Colombia. Available indices to assess the ecological status of rivers in Colombia are mostly based on subjective hypotheses about macroinvertebrate tolerance to pollution, which have important limitations. Here we present the application of a method to establish an index of ecological quality for lotic systems in Colombia. The index, based on macroinvertebrate abundance and physicochemical variables, was developed as an alternative to the BMWP-Col index. The method consists on determining an environmental gradient from correlations between physicochemical variables and abundance. The scores obtained in each sampling point are used in a standardized correlation for a model of weighted averages (WA). In the WA model abundances are also weighted to estimate the optimum and tolerance values of each taxon; using this information we estimated the index of ecological quality based also on macroinvertebrate (ICE(RN-MAE)) abundance in each sampling site. Subsequently, we classified all sites using the index and concentrations of total phosphorus (TP) in a cluster analysis. Using TP and ICE(RN-MAE), mean, maximum, minimum and standard deviation, we defined threshold values corresponding to three categories of ecological status: good, fair and critical.

  9. Tree communities of white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro Comunidades de árvores em florestas de campinarana e de terra-firme do alto Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Stropp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The high tree diversity and vast extent of Amazonian forests challenge our understanding of how tree species abundance and composition varies across this region. Information about these parameters, usually obtained from tree inventories plots, is essential for revealing patterns of tree diversity. Numerous tree inventories plots have been established in Amazonia, yet, tree species composition and diversity of white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro still remain poorly understood. Here, we present data from eight new one-hectare tree inventories plots established in the upper Rio Negro; four of which were located in white-sand forests and four in terra-firme forests. Overall, we registered 4703 trees > 10 cm of diameter at breast height. These trees belong to 49 families, 215 genera, and 603 species. We found that tree communities of terra-firme and white-sand forests in the upper Rio Negro significantly differ from each other in their species composition. Tree communities of white-sand forests show a higher floristic similarity and lower diversity than those of terra-firme forests. We argue that mechanisms driving differences between tree communities of white-sand and terra-firme forests are related to habitat size, which ultimately influences large-scale and long-term evolutionary processes.A vasta extensão e a alta diversidade de árvores das florestas na Amazônia desafiam a nossa compreensão sobre como variam a composição e abundância de espécies arbóreas ao longo desta região. Informações sobre estes parâmetros, geralmente obtidas a partir de inventários florísticos, são fundamentais para análises sobre padrões de diversidade. Embora inúmeros inventários florísticos tenham sido estabelecidos na Amazônia, a composição de espécies e a diversidade de árvores das florestas de campinarana e de terra-firme, na região do alto Rio Negro, permanecem ainda pouco conhecidas. Aqui, apresentamos dados de inventários

  10. Mudanças no padrão epidemiológico da malária em área rural do médio Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira: análise retrospectiva Changes in the epidemiological pattern of malaria in a rural area of the middle Rio Negro, Brazilian Amazon: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo dos casos de malária ocorridos entre 1992 e 2004 no Município de Barcelos, Amazonas, Brasil, aprofundando as informações existentes na área altamente endêmica do Rio Padauri, afluente do Rio Negro. Foram identificados 16.795 casos de malária, sendo 61,4% (10.318 da área rural e 38,6% (6.477 da área urbana, com uma incidência parasitária anual média de 136,7 por mil habitantes na área urbana e 613,6 na área rural. A incidência parasitária anual média no Rio Padauri foi de 708,9/1.000. Nesse rio, foram diferenciados dois períodos epidemiológicos, sendo um denominado epidêmico (1992-1998 e outro pós-epidêmico (1999-2004. Comparando os dois períodos, a proporção homem/mulher mudou de 1,8 para 1,14, a média de idade dos pacientes passou de 17,9 para 14,8, o percentual de casos por Plasmodium falciparum reduziu-se de 51,9% para 23,7, e o percentual de lâminas com baixa densidade parasitária de P. falciparum passou de 35,3% para 44,9%, e as de P. vivax de 24% para 35%. Todas essas diferenças foram estatisticamente significativas (p A retrospective study on reported malaria cases in the municipality (county of Barcelos, Amazonas State, Brazil, was performed from 1992 to 2004, emphasizing the high endemic area along the Padauiri, an affluent of the Rio Negro. 16,795 cases were reported, 10,318 (61.4% from the rural area and 6,477 (38.6% from the urban area. Mean annual parasite index for the period was 136.7 per 1,000 inhabitants in the urban area and 613.6 per 1,000 in the rural area of Barcelos and 708.9 per 1,000 in the Padauiri area. In the latter area, two periods were considered: one epidemic, from 1992 to 1998, and the other post-epidemic, from 1999 to 2004. Comparing the two periods, the male/female ratio changed from 1.8 to 1.14, mean patient age from 17.9 to 14.8, proportion of Plasmodium falciparum cases from 51.9% to 23.7%, proportion of slides with low P. falciparum parasite

  11. Tornar-se negro: trajetÃrias de vida de professores universitÃrios no CearÃ

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Auxiliadora de Paula GonÃalves Holanda

    2009-01-01

    A pesquisa trata dos processos de construÃÃo de subjetividades dos professores universitÃrios negros da Universidade Federal do Cearà (UFC) ao longo de suas trajetÃrias de vida. O caminho percorrido rumo ao objeto de anÃlise foi conhecer e analisar as construÃÃes identitÃrias de professores dessa universidade nas experiÃncias do tornar-se negro, vivenciadas desde a infÃncia atà o ingresso no mundo do trabalho, no contÃnuo processo de identificaÃÃo e negociaÃÃo prÃprio da formaÃÃo humana. O fo...

  12. Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in the Amazonian freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (cururu stingray) in different hydrological phases of the Rio Negro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A T; Araújo, M L G; Pantoja-Lima, J; Aride, P H R; Tavares-Dias, M; Brinn, R P; Marcon, J L

    2017-01-01

    Intraerythrocytic parasites are frequently found in fish, including elasmobranchs. The Amazonian rivers present well defined annual hydrological cycles that results in drastic modifications of the environmental conditions with deep implications in the life cycle of the whole associated biota in those fluvial systems. The freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (stingray cururu) is a new species restricted to the Middle Rio Negro basin and it is subject to strong alterations in their natural habitats (igapós) a result of the constant variations in the water level of Rio Negro. This work demonstrates the occurrence of intraerythrocytic parasite Cyrilia sp. in this stingray species. Additionally, the prevalence and quantification of hemoparasites in different phases of Rio Negro were also established. Field sampling was carried in the Archipelago of Mariuá, Middle Rio Negro, involving different stages of the water cycle. The intraerythrocytic parasites were quantified by direct counting in blood smears using a total counting of 2000 erythrocytes in each blood smear. The presence of parasites intraerythrocytic generates changes in the morphology of blood cell. The largest amount of the hemoparasites was recorded in the drought period. We observed a decreasing tendency in the number of parasites in the blood between the drought periods and inundation. We concluded that the level of Negro River influences the incidence of intraerythrocytic parasites in the cururu stingray and the drought represents the period of larger susceptibility to the infestation.

  13. Cyrilia sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae in the Amazonian freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (cururu stingray in different hydrological phases of the Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Intraerythrocytic parasites are frequently found in fish, including elasmobranchs. The Amazonian rivers present well defined annual hydrological cycles that results in drastic modifications of the environmental conditions with deep implications in the life cycle of the whole associated biota in those fluvial systems. The freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (stingray cururu is a new species restricted to the Middle Rio Negro basin and it is subject to strong alterations in their natural habitats (igapós a result of the constant variations in the water level of Rio Negro. This work demonstrates the occurrence of intraerythrocytic parasite Cyrilia sp. in this stingray species. Additionally, the prevalence and quantification of hemoparasites in different phases of Rio Negro were also established. Field sampling was carried in the Archipelago of Mariuá, Middle Rio Negro, involving different stages of the water cycle. The intraerythrocytic parasites were quantified by direct counting in blood smears using a total counting of 2000 erythrocytes in each blood smear. The presence of parasites intraerythrocytic generates changes in the morphology of blood cell. The largest amount of the hemoparasites was recorded in the drought period. We observed a decreasing tendency in the number of parasites in the blood between the drought periods and inundation. We concluded that the level of Negro River influences the incidence of intraerythrocytic parasites in the cururu stingray and the drought represents the period of larger susceptibility to the infestation.

  14. Restriction enzyme analysis of the chloroplast DNA of Phaseolus vulgaris L. vr. Rio Negro Análise de restrição do DNA cloroplástico de Phaseolus vulgaris vr. Rio Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Echeverrigaray

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The chloroplast DNA of Phaseolus vulgaris L. vr. Rio Negro was isola ted from chloroplasts obtained by descontiuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. The restriction analysis with the enzymes HindIII, EcoRI and BamHI and their combination, allowed to identified more than 20 fragments of 18 to 0.65kb. The size of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cp DNA was estimated in 140kb with the presence of a repeat sequence of about 22kb.O DNA cloroplástico do cultivar Rio Negro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. foi isolado a partir de cloroplastos obtidos por gradiente descontínuo de sacarose. A análise de restrição com as enzimas HindIII, EcoRI e BamHI e a combinação destas, permitiu a identificação de mais de 20 fragmentos na faixa de 18 a 0.65kb. O tamanho do cp DNA de Phaseolus vulgaris L. foi estimado em 140kb com a existência de sequências repetidas de aproximadamente 22kb.

  15. Intoxicación alimentaria por consumo de carne de caimán negro (Melanosuchus niger en el internado indígena de Nazareth, Amazonas, abril de 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Suárez

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones alimentarias son ocasionadas por consumo de alimentos en malas condiciones de preparación o de conservación o que han sufrido contaminación con agentes quimicos, fisicos o biológicos. La reciente incorporación de la vigilancia de este evento en el sistema de vigilancia intensificado de la Secretaria de Salud del Amazonas, ha permitido identificar la presencia de brotes de intoxicación alimentaria en el departamento. En abril de 1997, se informó a la Oficina de Epidemiologia de la Secretaria de Salud del Amazonas, la llegada de 30 pacientes al Hospital Empresa Social del Estado San Rafael de Leticia, con un cuadro clinico de dolor abdominal, vómito y cefalea. Las pacientes eran estudiantes adolescentes del internado indígena femenino de Nazareth, que presentaban como antecedente común la ingestión de pescado recalentado el día anterior a su consulta. En la investigación del presente brote de intoxicación alimentaria se comprobó por laboratorio que el alimento implicado era la carne de caimán negro, Melanosuchusniger, contaminada con Bacillus cereus. Esta carne iba a ser vendida como 'pescado seco' en Bogotá, por la gran demanda que tiene este alimento en la época de Semana Santa.

  16. Gut transport characteristics in herbivorous and carnivorous serrasalmid fish from ion-poor Rio Negro water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, Bernd; Wood, Chris M; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Driedzic, William R; Almeida-Val, Vera; Val, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Three closely related characids, Tambaqui (omnivore), black Piranha (carnivore), and Pacu (herbivore), all Serrasalmidae, inhabit the ion-poor, acidic Rio Negro. We compared O2-consumption and N excretion rates in vivo, and sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia transport characteristics of gut sac preparations in vitro. The Pacu had a significantly higher weight-specific oxygen consumption, and a lower N/Q ratio than the omnivorous Tambaqui, and a significantly lower urea-N excretion rate than the carnivorous black Piranha, suggesting N-limitation in the herbivorous Pacu. With a value of 2.62 ± 0.15, gut to fork length ratio in the Pacu was about 2.5 times higher than in the black Piranha, and 2.0 times higher than in the Tambaqui. Anterior intestinal activities of three enzymes involved in N-fixation for amino acid synthesis (glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transferase, and glutamate-pyruvate transferase) were generally greatest in the carnivore and lowest in the herbivore species. In all three species, sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia were taken up at high rates from the intestine, resulting in an isosmotic fluid flux. Comparing the area-specific fluid flux of the anterior, mid, and posterior gut sections, no difference was detected between the three sections of the Pacu, while in the Tambaqui, it was highest in the anterior section, and in the black Piranha highest in the middle section. Overall, the area-specific uptake rates for sodium, chloride, glucose, and ammonia of anterior, mid, and posterior sections were similar in all three species, indicating that there is no difference in the area-specific transport rates associated with trophic position. The net ammonia uptake flux from gut interior was not significantly different from the net ammonia efflux to the serosal fluid, so that the ammonia removed from the intestine by the mucosal epithelium was quantitatively transferred through the tissue to the serosal side in all three

  17. Differential resilience of Amazonian otters along the Rio Negro in the aftermath of the 20th century international fur trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Natalia C; Antunes, André P; Barnett, Adrian A; Macedo, Valêncio W; Shepard, Glenn H

    2018-01-01

    Commercial hunting for the international trade in animal hides in the 20th century decimated many populations of aquatic wildlife in Amazonia. However, impacts varied significantly between different species and regions, depending upon hunting intensity, accessibility of habitat, and the inherent resilience of various species and their habitats. We investigated the differential responses of two Amazonian Mustelid species, the neotropical otter and giant otter, to commercial hunting pressure along the upper Rio Negro in Brazil, and examined historical factors that influenced spatial and temporal variation in commercial exploitation. We analyzed previously unanalyzed data from historical records of hide shipments to track changes in hide sales and prices for the two species in the late 20th century. We also gathered oral histories from older Baniwa people who had witnessed or participated in commercial otter hunting. These complimentary data sources reveal how intrinsic biological and social characteristics of the two otter species interacted with market forces and regional history. Whereas giant otter populations were driven to local or regional extinction during the late 20th century by commercial hunting, neotropical otters persisted. In recent decades, giant otter populations have returned to some parts of the upper Rio Negro, a development which local people welcome as part of a generalized recovery of the ecosystems in their territory as a result of the banning of animal pelt exports and indigenous land demarcation. This paper expands the scope of the field historical ecology and reflects on the role of local knowledge in biodiversity conservation.

  18. Cen?rio das Pol?ticas P?blicas de fixa??o e provimento de profissionais de sa?de no Amazonas, 1970 - 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Erica Lima

    2016-01-01

    A presente Disserta??o ? resultado da pesquisa de cunho hist?rico, que teve como objetivo analisar o cen?rio das pol?ticas p?blicas de fixa??o e provimento de profissionais de Sa?de no Amazonas no per?odo de 1970 a 1990. A problematiza??o est? desmembrada nas seguintes quest?es: Quais as estrat?gias de fixa??o e provimentos de profissionais de sa?de foram desenvolvidas no Amazonas no per?odo entre 1970 a 1990? Como as pol?ticas de desenvolvimento de recursos humanos foram articuladas com as p...

  19. Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in dogs, sheep farms and humans in the Rio Negro Province

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Alicia; Costa, María T.; Gustavo, Cantoni; Mancini, Sergio; Mercapide, Carlos; Herrero, Eduardo; Volpe, Marcela; Araya, Daniel; Talmon, Gabriel; Chiosso, Carlos; Vázquez, Gabriela; Del Carpio, Mario; Santillán, Graciela; Larrieu, Edmundo

    2006-01-01

    La vigilancia de la equinococcosis quística para detectar infestación por Echinococcus granulosus en la Provincia de Río Negro en el período 1980-2002 fue efectuada en el hombre mediante encuestas serológicas y ultrasonográficas en población joven, y en el perro por el test de arecolina. Dadas las limitaciones de esta técnica, se planteó suplantarla por el complejo copro ELISA Western Blot en heces caninas recolectadas del suelo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue comparar las ventajas y li...

  20. Biosurfactants produced by Microbacterium sp., isolated from aquatic macrophytes in hydrocarbon-contaminated area in the Rio Negro, Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva Lima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria isolated from Eichhornia crassipes (Mart Solms., collected in oil contaminated wastewater of effluent generated by Petrobras refinery in Manaus were investigated to determine their potential for producing biosurfactants. Assay with 2.6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP indicator to verify hydrocarbon biodegradation activity; oil emulsification test; drop-collapse method; surface tension and growth curve of biosurfactant production. The M87 Microbacterium sp. strain chosen for this work was identified by the sequencing of the rDNA region and the chemical characterization was performed by FTIR, UFLC/MS and 1H RMN techniques. The selected bacterial isolate provided 3g L-1 of biosurfactant, using diesel oil as sole carbon source, being efficient in biodegrading oil as demonstrated by the DCPIP test. Fractions obtained by column chromatography were efficient in reducing water surface tension around 40 mN m-1, especially fraction 1, which reduced it to 34.17 mN m-1. The different techniques of chemical analysis used for the identification of the biosurfactant isolate indicated that this is probably a long - chain fatty acid lipid type, which may be used in the future as both biosurfactant in decontamination processes of hydrocarbon-polluted areas or as bioemulsifier in countless processes, since it exhibited no toxicity as determined by Alamar Blue assay.

  1. The paleozoic of Amazonas basin south edge: Tapajos river, Para state; O paleozoico da borda sul da bacia do Amazonas: rio Tapajos, estado do Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Nilo Siguehiko [Petrobras E e P, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Estratigrafia e Sedimentologia Geologia Aplicada a Exploracao], E-mail: nilo@petrobras.com.br; Winter, Wilson Rubem [Petrobras, Campoas dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao. Sedimentologia e Estratigrafia], E-mail: winter@petrobras.com.br; Wanderley Filho, Joaquim Ribeiro; Cacela, Alessandra Suzely Moda [Petrobras, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Exploracao. Unidade de Operacoes de Exploracao e Producao da Amazonia], Emails: jwand@petrobras.com.br, alessandra.suzely@petrobras.com.br

    2009-11-15

    The intracratonic Amazonas Basin covers an area close to 500.000km{sup 2} shared between the Amazonas and Para states. The phanerozoic stratigraphic framework is up to 6.000m thick and may be subdivided into two, first order depositional sequences: the Paleozoic sequence, intruded by diabase dikes and sills and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence. Analyzing the stratigraphic framework, the great tectonic influence on the basin development can be appreciated. The mainly NW-SE structural directions of the basement, which mark the boundaries of the geochronological provinces of the Amazonas, are clearly identified along the Tapajos River. The Paleozoic sequence outcrops on the southern border of the Amazonas Basin embraces potential source rocks, reservoirs and seal rocks. They can be subdivided in three, second order sequences, limited by regional unconformities, as: the Ordovician/Devonian, which corresponds to the Pitinga lithostratigraphic formation; the Devonian-Tournaisian, which corresponds to the Maecuru, Erere, Barreirinha and Curiri formations and, the Pensylvanian-Permian that are represented by the Monte Alegre and Itaituba formations. This field trip guide presents these classic lithostratigraphic outcrop units, together with a brief sedimentological description and an analysis of their positioning related to sequence stratigraphical concepts. (author)

  2. Caracterização da Frota Pesqueira de Coari, Médio Rio Solimões (Amazonas-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrelly Oliveira Inomata

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Os aspectos físicos, operacionais e econômicos da frota pesqueira no município de Coari, situado na região do Médio Rio Solimões (Estado do Amazonas, foram analisados por meio de dados coletados diretamente no porto de desembarque e dados secundários no período de setembro de 2008 a outubro de 2009 obtidos junto às entidades de classe ligadas à atividade pesqueira. A frota pesqueira do município de Coari foi composta, em sua maioria, por canoas motorizadas (7,6 m ±1,29, e por barcos pesqueiros com média de comprimento de 12,8 m (±1,94. Os lagos Coari e Juçara foram os principais locais de captura do pescado. A malhadeira foi o apetrecho de pesca mais utilizado durante as expedições. As principais espécies capturadas foram as da ordem Characiforme, jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, Myleus sp., sardinha (Triportheus spp. e curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans. O componente dos custos mais oneroso durante as pescarias de canoas motorizadas foi o combustível. Estes resultados podem subsidiar a elaboração de políticas de investimento e medidas adequadas de manejo para melhoria da atividade pesqueira na região de Coari.

  3. Parasitic fauna of eight species of ornamental freshwater fish species from the middle Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon Region Fauna parasitária de oito espécies de peixes ornamentais de água doce do médio Rio Negro na Amazônia brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    2010-06-01

    (Lebiasinidae e 13 acará-bandeira Pterophyllum scalare (Cichlidae foram coletados no médio Rio Negro, estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Em um total de 223 peixes examinados, 143 (64,1% estavam parasitados por pelo menos uma espécie de parasito. A maior taxa de prevalência foi de Monogenea (36,7%, seguida de Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora (20,6%, Trichodina spp. (Ciliophora (4,0%, Piscinoodinium pillulare (Dinoflagellida (1,3%, Tetrahymena sp. (Ciliophora (0,89% e Procamallanus sp. (Nematoda (0,4%. Todas as oito espécies de peixes mostraram Monogenea (Gyrodactylidae and Dactylogyridae nas brânquias, mas a maior prevalência ocorreu em P. scalare e menor em P. axelrodi e C. strigata. Porém, maior intensidade média de Monogenea foi encontrada em P. scalare e A. hoplogenys. O protozoário I. multifiliis ocorreu nas seis espécies de peixes ornamentais examinadas, porém C. strigata e C. martae tiveram a maior prevalência e intensidade média. Trichodina spp. foram encontradas somente nas brânquias de C. strigata, C. martae e N. eques, mas a maior intensidade média foi em C. strigata. Por outro lado, o protozoário P. pilullare foi encontrado somente nas brânquias de C. martae. No Brasil, este é o primeiro relato de Tetrahymena sp. e ocorreu nas brânquias de C. strigata.

  4. MACROALGAS E QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA NA BACIA DO ALTO RIO NEGRO - MUNICÍPIO DE SÃO GABRIEL DA CACHOEIRA (AM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domitila Pascoaloto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram investigadas as comunidades de macroalgas do rio Negro, no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira. Em setembro/2007 foram visitados cinco sítios amostrais, próximos à sede da cidade; em Março/2008 foram investigados oito sítios amostrais, entre a comunidade Amium (hemisfério norte e a sede da cidade (hemisfério sul; em agosto de 2008 foram investigadas as comunidades de macroalgas e a qualidade da água do rio Negro e onze afluentes, entre os rios Içana (hemisfério norte e Marie, no hemisfério sul; em abril/2009 foram coletadas macroalgas e água no rio Negro e em igarapés de água com tonalidade vermelha, na sede da cidade; em maio/2009 foram feitas coletas de água no rio Negro entre a comunidade de Cucuí, onde o rio Negro entra no Brasil e a sede do município. As águas dos locais apresentaram características típicas de rio de “água preta”: pH ácido ( 6,0 mgO2/L. As entidades ecológicas de macroalgas observadas pertenceram aos gêneros Batrachospermum Roth (Batrachospermaceae, Rhodophyta; Microspora Thuret (Microsporaceae, Chorophyta, Oedogonium Link ex Hirn (Oedogoniaceae, Chorophyta; Oscillatoria Vaucher ex Gomont (Oscillatoriaceae, Cyanophyta; Phormidium Kützing ex Gomont (Phormidiaceae, Cyanophyta; Spirogyra Link (Zygnemaceae, Chlorophyta; Tabellaria Ehrenberge ex Kützing (Fragilariophyceae, Bacillariophyta. Na sede da cidade, a macroalga mais freqüente (50% dos registros foi Spirogyra spp.. Foram encontradas macroalgas com hábitos eplilíticos e efíticos Gametófitos de Batrachospermum spp. foram observados em três sítios amostrais (em troncos ou rochas em setembro/2007, período de águas mais baixas, porém não foram encontradas macroalgas nesses locais em março/2008, quando o rio estava mais cheio. No entanto, em agosto de 2008, quando o rio também estava em período de águas altas, foram observados, em fragmentos rochosos na orla da sede do município, filamentos férteis de Batrachospermum sp

  5. Proyecto MeCIN: Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina MeCIN Project: alto Valle of Rio negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto L Flores

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados obtenidos durante el experimento de campo MeCIN (Mediciones de la Capa de Inversión Nocturna cuyo objetivo fue estudiar el comportamiento del viento, la temperatura del aire y la evolución del enfriamiento en los valles de los ríos Neuquén, Limay y Negro en noches con inversión térmica en las primaveras de los años 1992 al 1997. Las situaciones sinópticas que propiciaron los intensos efectos radiativos nocturnos fueron asociadas con un anticiclón migratorio postfrontal en 1000 hPa y un eje de vaguada en 500 hPa. Los gradientes verticales de temperatura alcanzaron valores medios entre 0,26 °C/m en el valle del río Neuquén y 0,14 °C/m en el del Negro. El tope de la inversión térmica, en promedio, se ubicó a más de 30 m. Las mediciones de los perfiles de velocidad del viento mostraron un patrón de dos capas: una capa inferior sin movimiento y otra superior con velocidades en promedio entre 2,9 m/s y 4,0 m/s. El enfriamiento nocturno fue superior en la zona de chacras y menor en cercanías del río y sobre la meseta. La temperatura del aire durante la noche fue menor en el valle que en la meseta, dependiendo de su altura.This paper presents the results of field experience MeCIN (Measurements of the Nocturnal Inversion Layer. The project was performed to study the characteristics of wind, air temperature and the evolution of nocturnal cooling in the Neuquén, Limay, and Negro river valleys during nighttime with thermal inversion in the layer near ground, between 1992 and 1997 spring seasons. The mean synoptic situations that favored the nocturnal radiative effects were associated with migratory postfrontal 1000 hPa anticyclones and a though axis in 500 hPa. The mean vertical gradient of air temperature was 0,26 °C/m in the Neuquén river valley and 0,14 °C/m in the Negro river valley. The top of the thermal inversion, on the average, was located above 30 m. The wind speed profile presented two

  6. Composição da comunidade de diatomáceas periféricas do rio Jaú, Amazonas, Brasil Composition of the periphytic diatom community of the Jaú river, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gerley Díaz-Castro

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo da flora perifítica de diatomáceas (Bacillariophyceae existente no Rio Jaú, tributário do Rio Negro, Amazônia (2º57'S e 61º49'W. As coletas foram realizadas manualmente nas cheias de 1995, 1996 e 1997, e as lâminas permanentes encontram-se depositadas no Herbário FLOR, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Foram identificados 60 táxons específicos e infra-específicos, distribuidos em 16 gêneros e 13 famílias. Eunotiaceae foi a família melhor representada, com 43,3% do total dos táxons inventariados, seguida de Pinnulariaceae com 21,6% e Surirellaceae com 11,6%. O gênero Eunotia destacou-se dentre os demais com 20 táxons. Eunotia e Pinnularia foram os gêneros mais abundantes da flora diatomológica e os que apresentaram maior variação morfológica. Para cada táxon identificado foi feita uma revisão de literatura que incluem diversos aspectos ecológicos.The periphytic diatom flora of the Jaú River, a tributary of the Negro River, in Amazonia (2º 57' S; 61º49' W was studied. Algae were collected manually during the high water periods of 1995, 1996 and 1997 and permanent slides prepared from this material were deposited in the FLOR Herbarium of the Federal University of Santa Catarina. Sixty specific and infra-specific taxa were identified, distributed among 16 genuses and 13 families. Eunotiaceae was the best represented family, with 43.3% of all taxa inventoried, followed by Pinnulariaceae with 21.6% and Surirellaceae with 11.6%. Accounting for 20 taxa. Eunotia and Pinnularia were the dominant genuses and showed the broadest morphological variation. Eunotia was the best. The relevant literature for each taxon was reveiwed and discussed.

  7. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  8. Coleoptera (Insecta as forest fragmentation indicators in the Rio Negro sub-region of the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Favero

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the integrity of two forest fragments in Rio Negro Pantanal sub-region, using coleopterans as environmental indicators. The study was carried out at Santa Emilia Farm in the Rio Negro sub-region, municipality of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul (19º 30' 18'' S and 55° 36' 45'' W. Two sites were selected, locally denominated as "cordilheiras" (narrow and elongated strands of elevated soil, one with low degree of anthropic disturbance (CL and the other, currently undergoing restoration process (TD. The sampling sites were determined using a GPS device. Ten pit-fall traps containing water and detergent were used for the specimens sampling, which were screened and identified. Abundance, richness, diversity and similarity were determined. Abundance was higher for CL (n = 277 than for TD (n = 251. The same was observed for the diversity indices, CL showed H' = 2.83 bit.individual-1 and TD = 2.48 bit.individual-1, confirming the interferences made for abundance. Specimens of ten families were captured in CL area and seven families in TD area, indicating higher richness in CL, when compared to TD. The linear correlation coefficient (p > 0.05 indicates that both areas are significantly different, showing similarity value of 66.7%. The data show that the structure and disturbance degree in the environment integrity influence the composition of beetles fauna, causing the increase of abundance, richness and diversity in anthropogenic environments undergoing the early stage of regeneration.

  9. Análise biogeográfica da avifauna da região oeste do baixo Rio Negro, amazônia brasileira Biogeographical analysis of the avifauna in the lower western Rio Negro region in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio H. Borges

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo é realizada uma análise biogeográfica detalhada da avifauna da Amazônia Central a oeste do Rio Negro, região onde está localizado o Parque Nacional do Jaú (PNJ. As distribuições geográficas de 383 táxons (espécies e subespécies de aves registradas no PNJ foram analisadas através de métodos biogeográficos qualitativos e quantitativos (análise de agrupamento e análise de parcimônia de endemismo. A avifauna do PNJ é fortemente influenciada pelas regiões noroeste e oeste da bacia amazônica. Foram identificadas três unidades biogeográficas e o PNJ se agrupa com sítios localizados no alto Rio Orinoco e na Guiana. De modo similar, o PNJ se agrupa com o sítio do alto Rio Orinoco tendo a Guiana como grupo-irmão no cladograma de área com maior suporte. Diferentes sub-grupos de espécies revelaram cladogramas de áreas com variadas topologias, sugerindo complexos cenários de diversificação da avifauna amazônica. Estes cenários biogeográficos podem ter sido influenciados por eventos geológicos ocorridos durante o Mioceno e Pleistoceno. Neste estudo foi identificada uma área de endemismo não descrita para a Amazônia - a área de endemismo Rio Negro. A avifauna da região do PNJ, além de ser representativa dos setores noroeste e oeste da Amazônia, possui táxons de distribuição restrita à região central da Amazônia, reforçando ainda mais sua importância na proteção da biodiversidade amazônica.This study makes a detailed biogeographical analysis of Central Amazon avifauna west of the Rio Negro, where Parque Nacional do Jaú (PNJ is located. The geographical distribution of 383 bird taxa (species or subspecies recorded in PNJ was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative biogeographic methods (cluster analysis and parsimony analysis of endemicity. Results showed that the avifauna of PNJ is strongly influenced by the northwestern and western regions of the Amazon Basin. Three biogeographic units

  10. Fontes autotróficas de energia para peixes do canal principal e quelônios ao longo da bacia do médio rio Negro, Amazônia Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Mario Jose Fonseca Thome de

    2005-01-01

    O canal principal do médio rio Negro é caracterizado por alta concentração de matéria orgânica dissolvida, baixo nível de nutrientes e produtividade primária. Os principais organismos autotróficos encontrados nesse sistema são fitoplânctons, perifítons e árvores das florestas de igapó. Folhas, frutos e sementes que caem do igapó são responsáveis por 99% da produção primária total regional. O canal principal do rio Negro possui uma diversa assembléia de pequenos e médios peixes bentônicos d...

  11. Vigilancia epidemiológica de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, 1993-2001 Surveillance of foodborne diseases in the Province of Rio Negro, Argentina, 1993 - 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Di Pietro

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 39 brotes de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos que afectaron a 958 personas en la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina, en el período 1993- 2001. Se identifican los agentes causales, los alimentos involucrados, los sitios de ocurrencia, los factores de riesgo involucrados y los mecanismos de notificación empleados. Salmonella spp (38%, Trichinella spiralis (15%, Escherichia coli (13% y Staphylococcus aureus (15% resultaron los agentes más frecuentes en los brotes. Salmonella spp. también produjo el mayor número de casos (52%. Los principales alimentos involucrados resultaron cárneos (36%, quesos (10%, fiambres y sándwiches (10%, postres (10% y helados (8%. El mayor número de casos, por su parte, fue causado por la ingestión de helados (37%. Con relación al origen de los alimentos, 41% de los brotes fueron causados por comidas elaboradas en los domicilios, 23% en establecimientos comerciales, 13% en fiestas familiares, 8% en fiestas comunitarias y 8% en restaurantes de hoteles. En el 28% de los brotes fue identificado el agente etiológico por análisis epidemiológico exclusivamente, en el 64% se logró el aislamiento del agente, mientras que en el 8% de los casos no se logró el diagnóstico definitivo. Se analiza el valor de la encuesta epidemiológica en los estudios de enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos, la necesidad de fortalecer el sistema de notificación médica de casos y brotes y la importancia de las buenas prácticas en la manipulación de alimentos.A total of 39 outbreaks of foodborne diseases affecting 958 people in the province of Rio Negro, Argentina between 1993 and 2001 are described and evaluated. The main causal agents were identified involving food, sites of occurrence, risk factors and notification system used. Salmonella spp (38%, Trichinella spiralis (15%, Escherichia coli (13% and Staphylococcus aureus (15% were the most frequent agents present in outbreaks. Salmonella spp produced the

  12. Composição florística de plantas daninhas em um lago do Rio Solimões, Amazonas Floristic composition of weeds in a lake of Solimoes River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.F. Albertino

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As áreas inundáveis localizadas na bacia dos rios Amazonas e Solimões são denominadas várzeas. A inundação é um evento natural que promove mudanças na estrutura e composição florística dessas comunidades. O conhecimento da diversidade de espécies é de fundamental importância para o entendimento da dinâmica da regeneração natural de espécies nos ecossistemas amazônicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo levantar a composição florística do solo do fundo do lago do Manaquiri-AM, em um período de seca excepcional, ocorrida em 2005, na Amazônia. Foram realizadas coletas de material botânico em duas áreas do lago, em novembro de 2005; para a amostragem, utilizou-se um quadrado de madeira de 0,36 m², atirado aleatoriamente por 20 vezes em cada local de estudo. A vegetação emergente foi de 5.958 indivíduos, distribuídos em sete famílias e nove espécies. As famílias mais representativas em número de espécies foram Poaceae e Cyperaceae. Cyperus esculentus e Luziola spruceana foram as mais frequentes, e Mimosa pudica e Alternanthera sessilis, as de maior abundância. C. esculentus e M. pudica apresentaram maior número de indivíduos, de densidade e de valor de importância. As espécies de plantas encontradas neste estudo mantiveram sua capacidade de crescer e se desenvolver mesmo após longo período submersas.The swamps located at the basins of the Amazonas and Solimões rivers are denominated "várzeas". In these areas, flooding is a natural event that changes the structure and composition of the local plants. Thus, knowing the species diversity in these Amazon region areas is extremely important to understand the dynamics of the natural regeneration of the Amazon ecosystem species. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to survey the soil floristic composition at the bottom of the Manaquiri Lake, Amazon, during an exceptional dry period in 2005. Plants were collected in two areas of the lake in November 2005. Flora

  13. Taxonomias das doenças entre os índios Baniwa (arawak e desana (tukano oriental do alto rio negro (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Garnelo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo estuda as taxonomias de doenças de dois povos indígenas da região do Alto Rio Negro, Noroeste amazônico (Brasil: os Baniwa, da família lingüística arawak, e os Desana, da família lingüística tukano oriental. Tomando como base explicativa a produção mítica dessas etnias, as autoras comparam seus sistemas de doença e cura e demonstram que as circunstâncias ligadas ao surgimento de uma doença particular, as representações de pessoa e do mundo natural, e as modalidades de relação entre os grupos humanos, a natureza e o cosmos, participam da interpretação da doença. Essa ênfase na causalidade social e/ou com a ordem do mundo traduz-se na terminologia vernacular e na classificação das doenças em ambos os grupos estudados. A produção do processo patogênico liga-se a uma "economia simbólica da alteridade" (Viveiros de Castro, 2002. Promover a saúde e evitar a doença exigem cooperação, reciprocidade, diligência, controle das ações predatórias e do apetite alimentar e sexual.The present paper studies the disease taxonomies on two indigenous peoples from the upper Negro River region, in the Amazonian northwest (Brazil, the Baniwa, from the Arawak, and the Desana, from the oriental Tukano linguistic families. Taking these ethnies' mythic production as an explicative basis, the authors make comparisons between their disease and cure systems and demonstrate that the circumstances linked to the outbreak of a particular disease, the representation of people and of the natural world, and the modalities of relations between human groups, nature and the cosmos, participate on the disease's interpretation. Both studied groups translate this emphasis on social causality and/or world order into the vernacular terminology and disease classification. The pathogenic process production is linked to an "alteration symbolic economy" (Viveiros de Castro, 2002. Promoting good health and preventing disease, requires

  14. Práticas de uso e manejo tradicional de Carapa spp. (andiroba na Reserva Extrativista do Rio Jutaí, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Cardona Calle

    Full Text Available Na Reserva Extrativista (RESEX do Rio Jutaí, Amazonas, os moradores têm manifestado expectativas e aspiram mudanças quanto ao manejo da andiroba (Carapa spp.. Na presente pesquisa, foram formuladas perguntas sobre as razões dessas mudanças e como elas estão acontecendo. Aspectos socioeconômicos e de manejo foram estudados em 31 unidades familiares de dez comunidades da RESEX. Utilizaram-se entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação participante e avaliação de tempo e esforço de trabalho. A população local atribuiu relevante significado para a espécie em razão do valor de uso, destacando-se as aplicações medicinais, na pesca de matrinxã (Brycon spp. e de outras quatro espécies de peixe. O manejo da andiroba é realizado, principalmente, em áreas de floresta primária e é complementado pela maioria das famílias na forma de plantios, comercializando parte da produção no interior da RESEX. Análises multivariadas discriminaram um grupo que investe maior tempo e número de pessoas na coleta, tendo maior produção, no entanto com menor rendimento. Não existe tendência à especialização das atividades, pois as famílias são pluriativas. O fenômeno estudado se encaixa na proposta conceitual do neoextrativismo, na medida em que as práticas estão em transformação e incluem cultivo e beneficiamento.

  15. Fronteiras étnicas nos repertórios musicais das 'festas de santo' em São Gabriel da Cachoeira (alto Rio Negro, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Líliam Cristina da Silva Barros

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo demonstrar os mecanismos através dos quais índios em situação de contato, na zona urbana de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, manifestam sua pertença étnica. Em meio ao contexto das festas de santo, repertórios musicais evidenciam as fronteiras étnicas valendo-se da língua como principal sinal diacrítico de identidade.

  16. Conhecimento e utilização da floresta pelos índios Waimiri-Atroari do Rio Camanau - Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Miller

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Os índios Waimiri Atroari têm hábitos e costumes bastantes intactos e retiram da floresta, roça e rio os materiais necessários para a alimentação, utensílios e moradia. Este trabalho objetivou fazer um levantamento preliminar do conheciamento e utilização da floresta pelos índios. Foram inventariados todas as árvores com DAP > 6cm em cinco parcelas de 10 x 20m, localizadas 0,5km da aldeia, ao longo de um transecto abrangendo um gradiente de terra firme - baixio. Foram coletadas amostras para herbário e anotadas informações sobre uso e nome indígena. Em 0.1 hectare foram encontradas 135 árvores de 60 espécies, sendo as famílias mais comuns: Lecythidaceae, Leguminosae sensu latu, Burseraceae, Bombacaceae e Lauraceae. Noventa e cinco por cento dessas espécies eram identificadas com um nome específico na língua Waimiri Atroari e as demais receberam um nome genérico ("wiwe ' que quer dizer árvore. De uma amostra de 34 espécies sessenta e cinco por cento tinham algum uso específico. Estes dados demonstram um alto grau de conhecimento e utilização da floresta pelos Waimiri Atroari.The Waimiri Atroari retain much of their original culture and take from the forest, river, and plantations their food and most of the materials necessary fpr construction, craft, and medicines. This study attempted to quantify their knowledge and use of forest. Five quadrats of 10 x 20m (total = 0,1 hectare were located along a transition from "terra firme" (upland to "baixio" (stream valley. Herbarium specimens were collected from trees above 6cm DBH, and Indian names and uses were recorded. In 0,1 hectare, 135 trees belonging to 60 species were found. Lecythidaceae, Leguminosae (sensu latu, Burseraceae, Lauraceae and Bombacaceae were the commonest families. Ninety-five percent of the species received a Waimiri Atroari name, and in a smller sample (n = 34, sixty-five percent of the species had some specific use. These results show a high degree of

  17. Antiescravismo e epidemia: "O tráfico dos negros considerado como a causa da febre amarela", de Mathieu François Maxime Audouard, e o Rio de Janeiro em 1850 Antislavery and epidemic Mathieu François Maxime Audouard's "O tráfico dos negros considerado como a causa da febre amarela" and the city of Rio de Janeiro in 1850

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kodama

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo "O tráfico dos negros considerado como a causa da febre amarela", de Mathieu François Maxime Audouard (1776-1856, foi publicado em 1850 no jornal O Philantropo, periódico de propaganda contra o tráfico que circulou no Rio de Janeiro entre 1849 e 1852, e contava com diversos médicos entre seus membros. O texto, traduzido do original do médico francês e publicado no contexto da epidemia de febre amarela na cidade, oferece elementos para refletir sobre a atuação dos médicos brasileiros na questão da escravidão, no momento em que era promulgada a cessação do tráfico no país.The article "O tráfico de negros considerado como a causa da febre amarela" [The Negro slave trade considered as the cause of yellow fever] , by French physician Mathieu François Maxime Audouard (1776-1856, was published in 1850 in the newspaper O Philantropo, an organ of anti-slave trade propaganda that circulated in Rio de Janeiro from 1849 to 1852, with a number of physicians as members. Translated from the original and published during the yellow fever epidemic that hit Rio de Janeiro, the text affords an opportunity to reflect on the positions about slavery that were held by Brazilian physicians at the time the law against the slave trade was promulgated in Brazil.

  18. As traduções de Bates: dois naturalistas no Rio Amazonas Bates's translations: two naturalists in the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carneiro Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisam-se duas traduções do relato da viagem do naturalista Henry Walter Bates pela Amazônia, uma publicada em 1944 na Coleção Brasiliana feita pelo naturalista Candido de Mello-Leitão, outra editada em 1979 na Coleção Reconquista do Brasil, assinada por Regina Regis Junqueira. O objetivo do artigo é problematizar a demarcação de limites nítidos entre uma ética da diferença e uma ética da igualdade, pois, em ambos os textos, tanto ocorre um movimento no sentido de preservar a alteridade do texto e do autor, quanto no de domesticar o texto. A análise busca também evidenciar que cada tradução, realizada a partir de diferentes projetos editoriais e tradutórios, acaba por suscitar diferentes imagens do naturalista e dos lugares por ele visitados.Two translations of the travel writing by the naturalist Henry Walter Bates in the Amazon are analyzed in this work: one published in 1944 in the Brasiliana Collection by the naturalist Candido de Mello-Leitão, and another edited in 1979 in the Reconquista do Brasil Collection, signed by Regina Regis Junqueira. The purpose of this study is to examine the delimitation of clear boundaries between an ethics of difference and an ethics of equality, since the two texts present a movement that both preserves the otherness of the text and the author and domesticates the text. The analysis also aims to evidence that each translation, carried out from different editorial and translational projects, ultimately projects different images of naturalist and the places visited by him.

  19. Mortality by suicide: a focus on municipalities with a high proportion of self-reported indigenous people in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesem Douglas Yamall Orellana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze mortality rates and to describe the demographic and epidemiological characteristics of suicides recorded in the state of Amazonas. Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study has been carried out with emphasis on municipalities, which have shown, simultaneously, a high mortality rates and a high proportion of self-reported indigenous population, based on 2005 - 2009 data as provided by the Informatics Department of the Unified National Health System. Results: Among the general population of the state of Amazonas, the mortality rate, by suicide, of 4.2/100.000 inhabitants has been reported, similar to that of Manaus (4.6/100.000 inhabitants. In contrast, at Tabatinga (25.2/100.000 inhabitants, at São Gabriel da Cachoeira (27.6/100.000 inhabitants and at Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (36.4/100.000 inhabitants, municipalities, where the proportion of self-reported indigenous population is high, besides the taxes being notably higher, it was observed that most of the suicides has occurred among men; among young men aged between 15 - 24 years; at home; by hanging; during "weekend" and among the indigenous population. Discussion: Our findings have unveiled that suicide comes forth as a serious public health issue in some municipalities in the state of Amazonas, further indicating that the event occurs within very specific contexts, and that the dimension and the magnitude of the problem can be even more serious among populations or in territories exclusively inhabited by indigenous people.

  20. Reassessment of the geologic evolution of selected precambrian terranes in Brazil, based on new SHRIMP U-Pb data, part 3: Borborema, Southern Mantiqueira and Rio Negro-Juruena provinces; Reavaliacao da evolucao geologica em terrenos pre-cambrianos brasileiros com base em novos dados U-Pb SHRIMP, parte 3: Provincias Borborema, Mantiqueira Meridional e Rio Negro-Juruena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Pimentel, Marcio [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail: luizcarlos@aneel.gov.br; Scandolara, Jaime; Ramgrab, Gilberto [Centro de Pesquisas e Recursos Minerais, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Wildner, Wilson; Sander, Andrea [Centro de Pesquisas e Recursos Minerais, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Angelim, Luiz Alberto de Aquino [Centro de Pesquisas e Recursos Minerais, Recife, PE (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Antonio Maurilio [Centro de Pesquisas e Recursos Minerais, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rizzoto, Gilmar; Quadros, Marcio Luiz do Espirito Santo [Centro de Pesquisas e Recursos Minerais, Porto Veolho, RO (Brazil); Armstrong, Richard [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences; Rosa, Ana Lucia Zucatti da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2002-12-15

    This paper discusses new SHRIMP U-Pb data for 17 key-exposures (mostly granites and ortho gneisses) from the Borborema, Southern Mantiqueira (Pelotas Orogen) and Rio Negro-Juruena provinces. In the Borborema Province (Ceara state) two samples from the Cruzeta Complex TTG ortho gneisses, ascribed to the Paleoproterozoic basement, were studied. One revealed Paleoarchean crystallization minimum age of ca. 3270 Ma. Accordingly, the gneiss is interpreted as the oldest continental crustal remnant already recognised in Ceara. The other sample, from the Saboeiro-Aiuaba Granite gave a crystallization age of ca. 625 Ma, suggesting the correlation of this syn-orogenic pluton with the Brasiliano II orogenic system (climax at 630 Ma). In the Paraiba state the granodioritic gneiss pluton ascribed to the Mesoproterozoic Sume Complex showed a crystallization age of ca. 640 Ma, also indicating that its evolution is associated with the Brasiliano II orogenic system. In the Pernambuco state one widespread ortho gneissic unit within the Pernambuco-Alagoas Massif (Belem do Sao Francisco Complex), mapped as a component of the Meso proterozoic Cariris Velho Orogen, yielded a crystallization age of ca. 2079 Ma and metamorphic overprinting at ca. 655 Ma (1{sigma}), without evidence of a Mesoproterozoic (Cariris Velhos) reworking. In the southern part of the province, near the northern margin of the Sao Francisco Craton, the Santa Maria da Boa Vista (S-type) orthogneiss yielded a crystallisation age of ca. 3070 Ma. In the southern Mantiqueira Province/Pelotas Orogen a foliated granitic pluton (mylonitic) from the Florianopolis Batholith showed Paleoproterozoic protolithic age of ca. 2175 Ma and imprecise Brasiliano age on reprecipitated overgrowths. Both results match previous ages obtained on the orthogneisses protoliths from the Aguas Mornas complex, the main exposure of reworked basement within the batholith. The large, zoned calc-alkaline pluton of the Maruim Suite, confirmed its

  1. Territórios de distribuição da artéria coroídea anterior em hemisférios cerebrais humanos de brancos e negros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Furlani

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a distribuição da a. coroídea anterior em 10 hemisférios cerebrais humanos de brancos e negros. Todas as peças foram injetadas a fresco, com massa corada e fixadas em formol. Nelas, a a. coroídea anterior foi dissecada desde a sua origem até a sua incorporação ao plexo coróide do corno inferior do ventrículo lateral. Em seguida à dissecção, as peças foram cortadas em fatias horizontais, de aproximadamente 0,5 cm de espessura. Constatou-se que a a. coroídea anterior se origina da a. carótida interna, e que ela não apresenta diferenças étnicas e sexuais, estatisticamente significantes, no que diz respeito ao seu território de distribuição. Este compreende, segundo nossas observações, as seguintes estruturas: úncus, hipocampo, tracto óptico, plexo coróide do corno inferior do ventrículo lateral e braço posterior da cápsula interna (100%; cauda do núcleo caudado (99% ± 0,99; 3/5 intermédios da porção cranial da base do pedúnculo cerebral, corpo amigdalóide e zona incerta (98% ± 1,40; 1/5 lateral da porção cranial da base do pedúnculo cerebral (92% ± 2,71; porção anterior do corpo geniculado lateral (89% ± 3,13; segmento medial do globo pálido (88% ± 3,25; núcleo subtalâmico (39% ± 4,88; grupamento nuclear lateral do tálamo (26% ± 4,39; segmento lateral do globo pálido (17% ± 3,76; grupamento nuclear posterior do tálamo (13% ± 3,36; porção posterior do putamen (9% ± 2,86; 1/5 medial da porção cranial da base do pedúnculo cerebral (7% ± 2,55 e substância negra (3% ± 1,71.

  2. Tuberculose em indígenas da Amazônia brasileira: estudo epidemiológico na região do Alto Rio Negro Tuberculosis in indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon: an epidemiological study in the Upper Rio Negro region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patrícia Giraldo Rios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características sociodemográficas e clínico-epidemiológicas dos casos de tuberculose notificados na população indígena do Município de São Gabriel de Cachoeira, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, e identificar fatores associados ao óbito durante o tratamento; e estimar a prevalência de infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB e fatores associados e obter informações sobre o itinerário terapêutico e a percepção acerca do adoecimento dos indígenas do Distrito de Iauaretê. MÉTODOS: Primeiramente, realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo (1997 a 2007 com base nos dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Posteriormente, realizou-se um estudo transversal (2010 em sintomáticos respiratórios e contatos no Distrito Indígena de Iauaretê. RESULTADOS: Registraram-se 723 casos novos, com incidência de 273,4/100 000 e mortalidade de 13,2/100 000. Houve predomínio em homens (57%, idade > 45 anos (37,6%, pessoas sem escolaridade (42,7% e na área rural (76,9%. Doentes de 0 a 20 anos apresentaram menor chance de óbito quando comparados à idade > 45 anos (OR = 0,3; IC95%: 0,1 a 0,9. Em Iauaretê, que concentrou 15,3% das notificações, foram entrevistados 184 indígenas. Revelou-se prevalência de ILTB de 76,1%. Prova tuberculínica > 5 mm associou-se com idade > 15 anos, história de tuberculose ativa e alterações radiológicas. Tuberculose anterior foi citada por 54 indígenas (29,3%. A principal explicação para o adoecimento foi sopro/envenenamento (24,1%. O itinerário terapêutico incluiu medicamentos industrializados (42,6%, plantas medicinais/raízes, pajelança/xamanismo e reza (42,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção tuberculosa e doença ativa nessa população foi elevada. As estratégias de controle tiveram resultados positivos, com redução na incidência em tempos recentes. Entretanto, para controlar a tuberculose é necessário intensificar a vigilância dos

  3. Functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7822

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sabino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the structure of functional groups of entomofauna associated to aquatic macrophytes in Correntoso river, Rio Negro sub-region, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Six samples were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using D net (300 m mesh, sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample session. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, close using data from six collection sites, through which were analyzed absolute abundance, observed richness of families and the sampled specimens were also separated in functional groups. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta were registered, totaling 19,773 sampled insects. The largest number of families was categorized into predators functional group, with 34 families collected, followed by the collectors with 17, shredders-herbivores ten and scrapers eight.

  4. Proyecto Vidas paralelas indígena: revelando el pueblo Piratapuia / Waíkhana del Amazonas, Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn NERY

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este relato de experiencia se refiere al grupo étnico Piratapuia o Waíkhana, que habita el noroccidente del Estado del Amazonas en el Brasil. En este caso, se aborda más especificamente el componente de ese grupo étnico residiendo en el municipio de Santa Isabel do Rio Negro. Se relata la historia del pueblo Saúde Indígena Tempus - Actas de Saúde Coletiva Revista Tempus Actas de Saúde Coletiva 80 Piratapuia más especificamente al componente de ese grupo étnico, en el municipio de Santa Isabel do Rio Negro. Se relata la historia del grupo étnico haciendo énfasis en su migración a partir del Alto Rio Negro para el curso medio del mismo, la influência de la misión saleciana y de la invasión de los buscadores de oro (garimpeiros, así como la convivencia con otras etnias (tukano y yanomami, entre otras. Son mostrados también detalles de la organización social que incluye la estrutura de clanes con sus jerarquías. Se describen las distintas asociaciones indígenas de la región que consiguieron forjar una conciencia en la población del municipío, en donde actualmente 90,0% se asume como perteneciente a grupos étnicos indígenas. Con respecto a la cultura, se detacan las prácticas de cura y auto-cuidado proporcionadas por los “benzederos”. La estructura de sanidad pertenece al polo de Sta. Isabel, con un hospital y una unidad básica de salud, siendo que el Distrito Especial Indígena de Salud fue ampliado para garantizar la cobertura al medio Rio Negro. Sin embargo, se señalan las dificultades generadas por las enormes distancias de desplazamiento.

  5. Estado da Arte nos Quitinozoários: Designação da Ordem, Afinidades Biológicas, Paleoambiente e Breve Histórico no Âmbito das Bacias do Amazonas e do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Leonor Coevas de Azevedo-Soares

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretados sob diversas óticas variando conforme o pensamento científico dos pesquisadores, os quitinozoários constituem um grupo enigmático tanto no que diz respeito ao seu significado como as suas afinidades biológicas. Distribuídos desde o Ordoviciano (Tremadociano até o final Devoniano, estes organismos são hoje ferramentas primordiais na datação desses estratos assim como na prospecção de depósitos de combustíveis fósseis. O presente trabalho levantará, portanto, aspectos da atualidade sobre o estado da arte dos quitinozoários tendo como base à designação da ordem Chitinozoa criada por A. Eisenack em 1931 e posteriormente reformulada pelo mesmo em 1972, com a divisão nas ordens Prosomatifera e Operculifera. Além de suas possíveis afinidades biológicas (filogenia com outros grupos fósseis e viventes como rotíferos e cnidários. No Brasil estes ocorrem desde o final do Ordoviciano? ao Devoniano, desta feita traçaremos um breve histórico sobre os trabalhos desenvolvidos nos últimos cinqüenta anos em duas de suas principais bacias paleozóicas: Amazonas e Paraná.

  6. Por um lugar no império: inglesidade, pertencimento negro e memória nacional em dois contos de Andrea Levy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Denise Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho objetiva examinar a interrogação da inglesidade (Englishness) pela ficcionista britânica negra Andrea Levy a partir do lugar ocupado por ela como cidadã britânica, descendente de imigrantes caribenhos negros. O questionamento é situado no quadro da construção identitária que segue ao contato dos ingleses com seus outros, especialmente no contexto da geração Windrush. Entrevistas e, sobretudo, o ensaio “Back to my own country” ajudam a dimensionar a influência da prática ...

  7. Por um lugar no império: inglesidade, pertencimento negro e memória nacional em dois contos de Andrea Levy

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Almeida Silva

    2017-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p17 Este trabalho objetiva examinar a interrogação da inglesidade (Englishness) pela  ficcionista britânica negra Andrea Levy a partir do lugar ocupado por ela como cidadã britânica, descendente de migrantes caribenhos negros.  O questionamento é situado no quadro da construção identitária que segue ao contato dos ingleses com seus outros, especialmente no contexto da geração Windrush. Entrevistas e, sobretudo, o ensaio “Back to my own country”...

  8. Por um lugar no império: inglesidade, pertencimento negro e memória nacional em dois contos de Andrea Levy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Almeida Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p17 Este trabalho objetiva examinar a interrogação da inglesidade (Englishness pela  ficcionista britânica negra Andrea Levy a partir do lugar ocupado por ela como cidadã britânica, descendente de migrantes caribenhos negros.  O questionamento é situado no quadro da construção identitária que segue ao contato dos ingleses com seus outros, especialmente no contexto da geração Windrush. Entrevistas e, sobretudo, o ensaio “Back to my own country” ajudam a dimensionar a influência da prática e pensamento racista tanto nas relações sociais e culturais quanto na invisibilização da escravidão negra na história oficial da Inglaterra. Considera-se a escrita como a forma escolhida por Levy para posicionar-se frente a essa omissão histórica, e  analisam-se, como forma de exemplificar tal práxis ficcional,  dois contos que visibilizam as relações entre os coloniais negros e a população hegemônica inglesa, “The polite way that English people have” e “The empty pram”.

  9. La presencia de Negros en la Nordpatagonia. 1779-1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Noemí Martínez de Gorla

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the juridical and social effects created by the individual assimilation of the slave and freeperson in the Rio Negro and the massive entrance of blacks during the war with Brazil, a historic moment when differences were established between African blacks and American blacks. This distinction was modified with the decree of September 12, 1827, when such distinctions were abolished.//Este trabajo estudia los efectos jurídicos y sociales creados por la asimilación individual del esclavo y de la persona libre en el Rio Negro y la entrada masiva de africanos durante la guerra con Brasil, momento histórico en el que las diferencias entre africanos negros y americanos negros fueron establecidas. Esta distinción fue modificada con el decreto 12 de 1827, cuando se abolieron tales diferencias.

  10. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  11. OS SOLOS E GEOAMBIENTES DAS CAMPINARANAS AMAZÔNICAS: RELAÇÃO GENÉTICA ENTRE OS GEOAMBIENTES E A EVOLUÇÃO DA PAISAGEM EM UM TRANSECTO NA BACIA DO ALTO RIO NEGRO, AMAZÔNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora de Sena Oliveira Mendes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As Campinaranas Amazônicas da bacia do alto Rio Negro constituem ecossistemas singulares, que têm como substrato material arenoso, principalmente solos do tipo Espodossolos. Ocorrem em diferentes posições topográficas, como em zonas deprimidas sobre interflúvios tabulares, bases de vertentes, terraços fluviais e paleocanais e envolvidos pela floresta tropical amazônica, da qual diferem principalmente pelo porte dos indivíduos. Há variações fisionômicas importantes diretamente ligadas às condições edáficas (textura, teor de nutrientes e matéria orgânica, topográficas e à influência do nível freático. Embora ocupem áreas significativas da bacia do Rio Negro e constituam ambientes de grande fragilidade, ainda são poucos os estudos sobre a ecologia das Campinaranas na região. O Objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar uma área de campinaranas além compreender relações genéticas entre o solo e a vegetação na escala da paisagem. Em campo foi feito um transecto abrangendo quatro geoambientes distintos. Em cada um deles o foram feitas análises do solo de complexo sortivo, teor de matéria orgânica, nitrogênio e textura. Constatou-se que os padrões florísticos, estruturais e de diversidade das Campinaranas estão fortemente relacionados à profundidade do lençol freático, à variação de textura e do teor de macro e micronutrientes. Dois geoambientes foram interpretados como mais antigos e dois como mais jovens a diversidade da vegetação e dos solos ao longo do transecto está intimamente ligada ao desenvolvimento e evolução da podzolização e ao processo de instalação e incisão da rede de drenagem na área. Conclui-se que a vegetação e sua variação no espaço se mostraram importante indicador da transformação.

  12. Ocorrência da Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Município de Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda, Onchocercidae in riverine communities of the Purus river, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o objetivo de estimar as prevalências de Mansonella ozzardi e calcular taxa de infecção parasitária nos simulídeos. O trabalho foi realizado em comunidades ribeirinhas do rio Purus, Boca do Acre, Amazonas, Brasil. As prevalências foram obtidas por meio do método de gota espessa de sangue obtido por porção digital. Os simulídeos coletados foram dissecados para estimar a taxa de infecção parasitária. A prevalência de M. ozzardi foi de 27,3% (282/77. Foram observadas maiores prevalências nos homens (31,97% que nas mulheres (22,22%, nos agricultores (48% e nos indivíduos entre: 38-47 (60%, 48-57 (66,66% e 58-67 (75%. A microfilaremia foi maior nos indivíduos entre 58-67 anos (média = 58,41mf/40µL, sexo masculino (41,44mf/40µL e nos agricultores (49,94mf/40µL. Somente o simulídeo Cerqueirellum amazonicum foi encontrado infectado com taxa de infecção parasitária de 0,98%.The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi and calculate the parasitic infection rate in simuliid blackflies. The research was conducted in communities on the Purus River, Boca do Acre municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Prevalence was measured using the thick smear method. Captured blackflies were dissected to verify the parasitic infection rate. M. ozzardi prevalence was 27.30% (77/282. The study showed higher prevalence in men (31.97% than women (22.22%, farmers (48.99%, and individuals in the 38-47 (60.00%, 48-57 (66.66%, and 58-67-year age brackets (75.00%. Microfilaremia was higher in individuals 58 to 67 years of age (average= 58.41mf/40µl, men (41.44mf/40µl, and farmers (49.94mf/40µl. Only the simuliid Cerqueirellum amazonicum was found infected with a parasitic infection rate of 0.98%.

  13. Índices bióticos para avaliação da qualidade ambiental em trechos do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil = Biotic indexes for the evaluation of environmental quality in stretches of the Correntoso river, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo pesquisar a estrutura da comunidade de insetos aquaticos, utilizando esta comunidade como indicadora da qualidade ambiental de um trecho do rio Correntoso, Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Foram realizadas seis campanhas de coleta em diferentes periodos sazonais: vazante, seca e cheia. Os organismos foram coletados utilizando rede D com malha de 300 ƒÝm eesforco amostral de cinco lances de rede nas raizes dos bancos de macrofitas. Foram comparados tres ambientes (aberto, intermediario e fechado, por juncao dos dados obtidos de seis sitios de coleta. Foi analisada a riqueza, abundancia absoluta e relativa das familias de insetos amostrados e a avaliacao da qualidade da agua usando o indiceBMWP, indice BMWP-ASPT, indice IBF e indice de diversidade de Shannon-Wienner, com log2. Foram registradas 60 familias pertencentes a 12 ordens da Classe Insecta, totalizando 19.773 individuos coletados. Entre os indices aplicados, o indice BMWP foi o que melhor representou as condicoes do ambiente estudado.This work aimed to research the aquatic insect community structure using this community as a bioindicator of the environmental quality in a stretch of the Correntoso river, in Pantanal do Negro, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Six collections were taken in different seasonal periods; ebb, dry and wet. The organisms were collected using a 300 ƒÝm mesh D net sweeping five times through the roots of macrophyte banks at each sample. Three environments were compared (open, intermediary, closed by adding the information from six collection sites. Family richness, absolute and relative abundance ofinsect samples and an evaluation of water quality were analyzed by using the BMWP index, BMWP-ASPT index, IBF index and Shannon diversity index, with log2. A total of 60 families from 12 orders of Insecta Class were recorded, totaling 19,773 individuals. Among the indexes applied, the BMWP index was the one that best

  14. Radio carbonic dates (14C) from Dolores Fm. (Santa Lucia River,Canelones Department and Gutierrez chico Creek,Rio Negro Department)and comments about the vertebrate fauna associated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubilla, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radiometric dates(14C)were performed based on fossil woods coming from late Pleistocene levels and assigned to dolores Fm.(Rio Negro Department, Gutierrez Chico Creek: Canelones Department, Danta Lucia basin).The 14C ages date the fossiliferous levels near the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary: 10.480+/-100 y B.P.(LP-1110,wood in det.), 10.500+/-110 y B.P. (LP-1143.wood in det.)and 11.650+/130 y B.P.(LP-509, Prosopis?sp.).Several ta xa of mammals recorded in the Dolores Fm.characterise the late Pleistocene of South Am erica( L ujunian f auna).Accordingly with the 14 dates, the most recent record of mega fauna of Uruguay is here reported.Archaeological sites with mega fauna have been described from other localities of South America with similar radiometric dates.In spite of the current controversy about the regional finipleistocenic climatic oscillation,the scarcely fossiliferous evidences suggest arid to semiarid and cold climatic condition.These evidences must be improved to test accurately the regional climatic hypothesis

  15. Chagas disease in the State of Amazonas: history, epidemiological evolution, risks of endemicity and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease (CD is a parasitic infection that originated in the Americas and is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. In the last few years, the disease has spread to countries in North America, Asia and Europe due to the migration of Latin Americans. In the Brazilian Amazon, CD has an endemic transmission, especially in the Rio Negro region, where an occupational hazard was described for piaçaveiros (piassaba gatherers. In the State of Amazonas, the first chagasic infection was reported in 1977, and the first acute CD case was recorded in 1980. After initiatives to integrate acute CD diagnostics with the malaria laboratories network, reports of acute CD cases have increased. Most of these cases are associated with oral transmission by the consumption of contaminated food. Chronic cases have also been diagnosed, mostly in the indeterminate form. These cases were detected by serological surveys in cardiologic outpatient clinics and during blood donor screening. Considering that the control mechanisms adopted in Brazil's classic transmission areas are not fully applicable in the Amazon, it is important to understand the disease behavior in this region, both in the acute and chronic cases. Therefore, the pursuit of control measures for the Amazon region should be a priority given that CD represents a challenge to preserving the way of life of the Amazon's inhabitants.

  16. The Negro Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Dunham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Katherine Dunham’s The Negro Dance (1941 focuses on dances in the West Indies and on their similarities with North American dance forms rooted in African culture. Though backed up by the New Negro arguments of the time, it shows Dunham’s prominent elaboration of a dignified African-American art based on syncretic bodily practices, which anticipated theorizations in dance and cultural studies. By uniting a theoretical approach and performance ability, she also made methodological choices which, decades later, became standard practices in the field of dance anthropology. Moreover, she is now considered an ante litteram exponent of public or applied anthropology due to the fact that, by using various strategies, she managed to take anthropological knowledge out of the academic world and use it as an instrument for social transformation. The Negro Dance is introduced by Rossella Mazzaglia and followed by an afterword by Cristiana Natali and a biographical note by Marie-Christine Dunham Pratt.

  17. Aves de la ribera colombiana del Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1946-08-01

    Full Text Available Las 106 especies y subespecies que se mencionan en este trabajo constituyen una lista preliminar de la fauna ornitológica de la región más meridional de Colombia, esto es, la ribera izquierda del rio Amazonas entre la boca del Atacuari y la población de Leticia, capital de la Intendencia del Amazonas, en el extrema sur del territorio que en Colombia llamamos comúnmente "Trapecio Amazónico". La lista esta compuesta principalmente por las colecciones hechas en Leticia y la Isla Ronda par el senor Carlos Lehmann en octubre y noviembre de 1939 y par uno de nosotros -José I. Borrero- en Leticia, Isla Mocagua, Hamacayacu y Loretoyacu en marzo y abril del presente año. Los ejemplares que mencionamos en dicha lista se hallan en la colección ornitológica del Instituto de Ciencias Naturales.

  18. Uso de psicotrópicos entre universitários da área da saúde da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Brasil Use of psychoactive drugs by health sciences undergraduate students at the Federal University in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cyra dos Santos Lucas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento sobre uso de psicotrópicos entre estudantes da Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, Brasil, em uma amostra de 521 alunos. O "uso na vida" de álcool foi relatado por 87,7% dos estudantes (IC95%: 85,34-90,06 e o de tabaco por 30,7% (IC 95%: 27,39-34,01, sendo o último maior entre estudantes do sexo masculino (39,7%; IC95%: 33,33-46,01. As substâncias ilegais mais usadas foram: solventes (11,9%; IC95%: 9,57-14,23, maconha (9,4%; IC95%: 7,30-11,50, anfetamínicos e ansiolíticos (ambos com 9,2%; IC95%: 7,12-11,28, cocaína (2,1%; IC95%: 1,07- 3,13 e alucinógenos (1,2%; IC95%: 0,42-1,98. O principal motivo relatado para o uso de drogas ilegais foi a curiosidade. O "uso na vida" de esteróides anabolizantes foi citado por 2,1% dos estudantes. O uso abusivo de álcool nos últimos 30 dias foi relatado por 12,4% dos universitários. Entre os eventos ocorridos após a ingestão de bebidas alcoólicas, os estudantes citaram envolvimento em briga (4,7%, acidentes (2,4%, faltaà escola (33,7%, falta ao trabalho (11,8% e condução de veículos (47,3%. A opinião sobre as drogas e o padrão de uso dos estudantes não diferem muito dos estudos semelhantes em outras regiões do Brasil.A survey was conducted with 521 undergraduate health sciences students from the Federal University in Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil. Lifetime alcohol consumption was reported by 87.7% students, as compared to 30.7% for tobacco, with the latter reported more frequently by males (39.7%. The most common illicit drugs were solvents (11.9%, marijuana (9.4%, amphetamines and anxiolytics (9.2% each, cocaine (2.1%, and hallucinogens (1.2%. The main reason for illicit drug use was curiosity. Lifetime use of anabolic steroids was reported by 2.1% of the students. Alcohol abuse in the previous 30 days was reported by 12.4% of the students. Events following drinking included: fights (4.7%, accidents (2.4%, classroom

  19. Caracterização e classificação de gleissolos da várzea do rio Solimões (Manacapuru e Iranduba, Amazonas, Brasil Characterization and classification of gleysoils on the floodplain of the Solimões river (Iranduba and Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Tavares Guimarães

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As várzeas do rio Solimões são áreas inundáveis com predomínio de Gleissolos, onde se estabeleceu grande parte da população rural do Estado do Amazonas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram caracterizar e classificar cinco perfis de Gleissolos, distribuídos em três áreas da bacia do Médio Amazonas, localizados nas várzeas dos municípios de Manacapuru e Iranduba. Após a descrição morfológica dos solos, coletaram-se amostras dos seus horizontes para caracterização física, química e mineralógica. Similarmente, todos os perfis apresentaram expressiva gleização na matriz do solo, com cores cinzenta a cinzenta-esverdeada, nos horizontes mais superficiais, e cinzenta-clara a cinzenta-escura, nos subsuperficiais, denotando a redução do ferro. Os teores mais elevados da fração areia em horizontes de subsuperfície indicaram presença de diferentes camadas de deposição fluvial, enquanto os elevados teores de silte evidenciaram a natureza sedimentar recente e o baixo grau de desenvolvimento pedogenético desses solos. Os cátions predominantes nos solos foram Ca2+ e Mg2+, que apresentaram porcentagens de sódio trocável (PST, com amplitude de variação entre 0,70 e 2,09. Os valores de carbono orgânico encontrados foram menores de 80 g kg-1, apresentando a natureza mineral dos sedimentos recém-depositados. A composição mineralógica da fração argila revelou presença significativa de argilominerais 2:1, mas sem grande variabilidade entre os perfis. Esses resultados refletiram-se em elevada soma e saturação por bases, caracterizando solos eutróficos e com argila de atividade alta.The floodplains of the Solimões River are areas periodically flooded with predominance of Gleisols,where have lived a large number of small farmers of the region. The purpose of this study was to characterize and classify five profiles of Gleysoils distributed in three floodplain areas of the Middle Amazon basin, located in the municipalities

  20. Rb/Sr and U/Pb isotopic ages in basement rocks of Mina Gonzalito and Arroyo Salado, Atlantic North-Patagonian Massif, Rio Negro, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Sato, Ana M.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Isotopic ages from metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Atlantic area of North Patagonian basement indicate that the main crustal tectonic events occurred during the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic times. Rb/Sr and U/Pb data in the 550-470 Ma interval suggest an old tecto-thermal activity during the upper Brazilian Cycle (Rio Doce Orogeny). At regional scale, the comparable Neo proterozoic basement of Ventania and sedimentary for eland cover of Tandilia continues to the Northeast, in the Dom Feliciano Belt. A possible correlation of the North Patagonian basement with igneous-metamorphic relics of Central Argentina (Pampean Ranges of San Luis-Cordoba and at La Pampa province) is also indicated. (author)

  1. Vigilancia epidemiológica de la equinococcosis quística en perros, establecimientos ganaderos y poblaciones humanas en la provincia de Río Negro Epidemiological surveillance of cystic echinococcosis in dogs, sheep farms and humans in the Rio Negro Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Pérez

    2006-06-01

    ó información de la prevalencia individual mientras que la detección de coproantigenos permitió mejorar la calidad de la información identificándose establecimientos donde concentrar acciones de control. El estudio permitió identificar nuevas áreas de transmisión.The surveillance of infection for Echinococcus granulosus in the Province of Rio Negro during 1980-2002 included serological and ultrasonographic screening in humans and arecoline test in dogs. In lieu of the limitations of the arecoline test the proposal was to supplant that test for the copro Elisa-copro/Western Blot complex applied to feces collected from the environment. The objective was to compare the pros and cons of the two tests and to evaluate the human and the canine infection prevalence. The working area encompassed 7 Departments with systematic canine parasiticide activities (Program Area and 4 Departments, not endemic, as Control Area. The arecoline test was applied to the dogs in assembled groups with the voluntary participation of their owners (not randomized sampling. Samples for the detection of coproantigens were obtained from sheep farms selected at random and analyzed by the complex copro-Elisa /Western Blot. Prevalence in man was determined by screening the school population (6 to 14 years old by ultrasound, and by means of the compulsory notification of cases from the official system. Dogs (416 were tested with arecoline, 365 of which belonged to the Program Area. Of these 19 (5.2% resulted positive, while none of 51 dogs from the Control Area were positive. Samples (748 of feces were tested to detect coproantigens, obtaining 37 positive samples within the Program Area and 4 within the Control Area. Farms (271 from the livestock estate unit were evaluated, out of which 236 belonged to the Program Area, gave 32 (13.6% positive results, while 4 (11.4% of 35 from the Control Area resulted positive. Sonography tests (7421 were done in the Program Area detecting 40 (0.5% carriers, while in

  2. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique; Caracterizacao dos sedimentos depositados nas planicies de inundacao do Rio Solimoes/Amazonas, utilizando a tecnica de fluorescencia de raios-X por dispersao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]|[Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    1997-10-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z {>=} 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs.

  3. Variabilidad morfológica craneofacial en el valle inferior del Rio Negro: implicaciones para el análisis de la dinámica poblacional en nordpatagonia y en el sudeste de la Región Pampeana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez, Sergio Iván

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se propuso, en base a distintas líneas de evidencia arqueológica y bioarqueológica, que los grupos humanos que habitaron el Sudeste de la Región Pampeana en distintos momentos del Holoceno fueron poblaciones locales pertenecientes a metapoblaciones alocrónicas, con un rango de distribución geográfica desconocido, pero que probablemente abarcó regiones vecinas como el norte de la Pampa Húmeda, Pampa Seca, Sierras Centrales y el norte de Patagonia. Con el fin de poner a prueba tales hipótesis, se diseñó una investigación orientada a establecer, en cada caso, el grado de similitud morfológica a nivel craneofacial (tamaño y forma, mediante análisis discriminante aplicado a variables Howellianas. En una primera etapa se analizaron muestras masculinas y femeninas provenientes del valle inferior del Río Negro (colección del Museo de La Plata; n= 133, de cronología desconocida, y muestras diacrónicas del Sudeste de la Región Pampeana, con cronología determinada radiocarbónicamente (n= 36. Los resultados preliminares muestran que: a gran parte de la variabilidad registrada en la muestra de Río Negro tiene su correlato en la registrada en la Región Pampeana, lo que sugiere una estrecha relación biológica entre los habitantes prehispánicos de estas dos regiones, y b la muestra del valle del Río Negro está probablemente integrada por individuos correspondientes a distintos momentos del Holoceno.

  4. Professor Camillo Negro's Neuropathological Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, Adriano; Gianetto, Claudia; Dagna, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Camillo Negro, Professor in Neurology at the University of Torino, was a pioneer of scientific film. From 1906 to 1908, with the help of his assistant Giuseppe Roasenda and in collaboration with Roberto Omegna, one of the most experienced cinematographers in Italy, he filmed some of his patients for scientific and educational purposes. During the war years, he continued his scientific film project at the Military Hospital in Torino, filming shell-shocked soldiers. In autumn 2011, the Museo Nazionale del Cinema, in partnership with the Faculty of Neurosciences of the University of Torino, presented a new critical edition of the neuropathological films directed by Negro. The Museum's collection also includes 16 mm footage probably filmed in 1930 by Doctor Fedele Negro, Camillo's son. One of these films is devoted to celebrating the effects of the so-called "Bulgarian cure" on Parkinson's disease.

  5. Quantificação de fluxos de mercúrio gasoso na interface solo/atmosfera utilizando câmara de fluxo dinâmica: aplicação na bacia do Rio Negro Quantification of atmosphere - soil mercury fluxes by using a dynamic flux chamber: application at the Negro River basin, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Magarelli

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury sampling conditions were optimized and a dynamic flux chamber was used to measure the air/surface exchange of mercury in some areas of the Negro river basin with different vegetal coverings. At the two forest sites (flooding and non-flooding, low mercury fluxes were observed: maximum of 3 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and minimum of -1 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. At the deforested site, the mercury fluxes were higher and always positive: maximum of 26 pmol m-2 h-1 - day and 17 pmol m-2 h-1 - night. Our results showed that deforestation could be responsible for significantly increasing soil Hg emissions, mainly because of the high soil temperatures reached at deforested sites.

  6. A LA SOMBRA DEL ESTADO: COMUNALIZACIÓN INDÍGENA EN PARAJES DE LA PRE CORDILLERA DE RÍO NEGRO, ARGENTINA / In the shadow of the state: Indian communalization in sites from the Rio Negro province pre Cordillera, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Cañuqueo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos proponemos analizar un proceso de comunalización situado en parajes rurales de la cuenca del arroyo Comallo, provincia de Río Negro. En agosto de 2011 se conformó formalmente allí la comunidad mapuche Newen Ñuke Mapu que pasó a integrarse a las comunidades denominadas “nuevas” en la provincia, por contraste con aquellas consideradas “tradicionales”. Nuestro argumento es que esa novedad no es tal, sino que subyace un proceso de comunalización de larga duración que ha estado en permanente disputa con políticas estatales atomizadoras. En este sentido, se trata de un colectivo que se ha desarrollado a la sombra del estado argentino. Comenzaremos con un recorrido histórico en función de ubicar este caso en el proceso de incorporación del pueblo mapuche al estado nacional. A continuación analizamos el proceso de comunalización en tres escenarios históricos anclados en crisis de diferente tipo. 1 El presente que retoma la conformación de la comunidad mapuche. A partir de este aparecen como instancias de referencia consideradas fundantes de lo colectivo dos momentos históricos anteriores. 2 1984, periodo en el que se conforman las cooperativas laneras, entre otras formas de organización indígena. 3 1930, crisis que marcó el avance de la propiedad privada en la zona y que implicó estrategias de visibilización y demanda dirigidas al estado.  AbstractIn this article we intend to analyze a process of communalization located in the rural areas of the province of Río Negro. In August 2011 the Mapuche community Newen Ñuke Mapu came formally into existence. Since then on it became one more of the “new” indigenous communities in contrast to those acknowledge as “traditional”. Our argument is that there is no such novelty but there is an underlying long term process of communalization that has been in constant dispute with state policies. In this sense, we describe it as a grouping that has developed at the shadow of

  7. Associativismo negro em terras sulinas: das irmandades aos clubes para negros em Pelotas (1820-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Oliveira da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa as associações negras pelotenses que permitiram a constituição de uma identidade negra positiva percebida em relação direta com o contexto relacional vivenciado em âmbito nacional e internacional. Destacamos ainda a busca por um entrelaçamento entre diferentes associações tendo como ponto em comum a identificação racial mediada pela busca por uma posição social diferenciada. Diretamente vinculado ao período do pós-Abolição almejava-se a cidadania em uma sociedade ainda muito preconceituosa racialmente. A delimitação espacial focaliza o estudo na cidade de Pelotas, localizada no extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, entre os anos de 1820 a 1943. Tem inicio com a criação da primeira irmandade negra em 1820. Dentre as associações destacamos o surgimento dos clubes sociais negros (1917-1931 e suas atividades em conjunto, com ênfase para o surgimento da Frente Negra Pelotense (1933 e a busca por uma identidade racial que fosse comungada por todo o grupo negro local.

  8. A poesia ‘é-sou’ negra = Negro poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pires Laranjeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os diversos cânones da poesia brasileira não contemplam a poesia negrobrasileira como deveria ser. Sendo o poeta Luiz Gama ainda hoje menosprezado, em comparação com Castro Alves, é necessário, pois, colocá-lo no seu verdadeiro lugar de significação. Porém, esse esforço deve servir também para compreender que Gama, na sua poesia, ainda mostra alguma conformidade com certos preconceitos rácicos próprios do século XIX e que se encontram, por exemplo, em poetas angolanos. Já o poeta Solano Trindade, devido à sua formação ideologicamente comprometida com os pobres e miseráveis da sociedade, trata o negro como um ser social, econômico e cultural de corpointeiro, concepção aprofundada por Cuti, que, finalmente, deixa de apelidar o mestiço de mulato, segundo a conformidade com o Movimento Negro. Por outro lado, é um poeta da modernidade mais avançada, quer formalmente, quer atingindo o âmago do subconsciente negro, ao versar o seu sofrimento íntimo, de modo inédito. Brazilian poetry’s several literary canons fail to fully investigate Brazilian Black Poetry as it should be. In spite of the fact that the poet Luiz Gama is currently not in the limelight when compared to Castro Alves, the replacing of his real place of significance is actually worthwhile. This effort should also be needed to understand that Gama in his poetry shows a type of conformity with certain racial bias common in the 19th century as, for example, in the poetry of Angola. On the other hand, due to his ideologically committed ideology with the poor and destitute in society, the poet Solano Trindade deals with the Negro as a social, economical and cultural person. This concept is partook by Cuti who, at long last, do not call the half-breed as ‘mulato’, following orientations of the Negro Movement. On the other hand, he is formally poet featuring themost advanced modernity as he reaches the heart of the Negro subconscious in his singing of deep

  9. Mineralogia e química dos sedimentos de fundo do médio e baixo Madeira e de seus principais tributários: Amazonas - Brasil Mineralogy and chemistry of bottom sediments of the middle and lower Madeira River and its main tributaries: Amazonas - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mireide Andrade Queiroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a variação composicional e mineralógica dos sedimentos de fundo transportados pelos grandes rios da Amazônia, com nascentes nos Andes provenientes de rochas cratônicas. O estudo foi realizado com base em análises granulométricas, mineralógicas e químicas, incluindo isótopos de Pb, no rio Madeira e seus tributários. O conjunto de dados mostra que os sedimentos de fundo do rio Madeira são granulométrica, mineralógica e quimicamente distintos de seus principais tributários. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são mais arenosos; têm maior quantidade de quartzo; menor conteúdo de Al2O3, Fe2O3, K2O, MgO, Na2O, PF, TiO2, P2O5, MnO e elementos-traço; e a maturidade aumenta de montante para jusante. Dentre os sedimentos dos tributários, os rios Machado e secundariamente o rio Marmelos são os que mais se aproximam da composição dos sedimentos do rio Madeira, enquanto que o Jamari com sedimentos com maior proporção de TiO2, Zr, Y, Nb, Ga, Hf, U, Ta e ETR, é o mais distinto. Apesar do ambiente de intenso intemperismo e erosão, em condições tropicais úmidas, a que estão submetidas as rochas drenadas pela bacia do rio Madeira, os valores das razões Th/Co, Th/Pb, Th/Yb, Al/Pb, Zr/Co e a composição isotópica de Pb indicam fontes distintas para os sedimentos de fundo estudados. Os sedimentos do rio Madeira são provenientes, principalmente, de rochas máficas, enquanto que os sedimentos de seus tributários têm como fonte essencialmente rochas félsicas.This study reports the granulometric, mineralogic and chemical analyses, including Pb isotope, carried out on the bottom sediments of the Madeira River, whose headwaters are in the Andes Mountain, and its tributaries that come from the cratonic region, in order to investigate the compositional variation of the sediments transported by the major rivers of the Amazon. The analytical data show that the bottom sediments of the Madeira River have

  10. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF NEGROES IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    BY 1960, NEGROES CONSTITUTED 10.5 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. THE RECENT GREATER RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH AMONG NEGROES THAN AMONG WHITES RESULTS LARGELY FROM A DROP IN THE NEGRO DEATH RATE. IN 1900, ABOUT 90 PERCENT OF NEGROES LIVED IN THE SOUTH. ONLY 60 PERCENT WERE STILL IN THE SOUTH BY 1960, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM WERE…

  11. Raízes e rotas da terra: Formação de um território negro no sul do Brasil Roots and routs of the land: The formation of a black territory in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moura Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amparado em fontes escritas e orais, o texto trata da trajetória histórica da comunidade negra rural de Cambará, que se localiza no Rio Grande do Sul, estado situado no extremo sul do Brasil que possuí fronteiras com a Argentina e com o Uruguai. Longe de remeter a um processo homogêneo, a formação histórica desse grupo cobre um longo período temporal, envolvendo a interação de indivíduos provenientes de distin- tos grupos étnicos. A partir deste caso, objetiva-se fazer confluir a análise das estratégias acionadas pelos antecessores dessa comunidade para garantirem o acesso à terra em distintos contextos com dois conjuntos de discussões: aqueles suscitados pela historiografia brasileira acerca da escravidão e aqueles decorrentes da emergência de novos sujeitos de direito no Brasil, os remanescentes de quilombos.The text deals with the historical trajectory of the black rural community of Cambará, in Rio Grande do Sul, a state located in southern Brazil, which shares borders with Argentina and Uruguay and it is based upon written and oral sources Far from referring to a homogeneous process, the historical formation of this group covers a long period of time, involving the interaction of individuals from different ethnic groups. From this case, the objective is to conflate the analysis of strategies used by the predecessors of the community to ensure access to land in different contexts with two sets of discussions: those posed by the Brazilian historiography about slavery and those arising from the emergence of new subjects of rights in Brazil, the maroons - remanescents of quilombos.

  12. Desembarque e esforço de pesca da frota pesqueira comercial de Manicoré (Médio Rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brasil Landing and fishing effort of commercial fishing fleet of Manicoré city (Medium Madeira River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A adequação das estratégias do pescador à sazonalidade existente na Amazônia atesta o nível de conhecimento tradicional em relação à ecologia dos peixes e às variações da pesca nesse ambiente, como ocorre em outras regiões do Brasil. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a utilização dos ambientes de captura e a distribuição do esforço de pesca pela frota comercial em função do ciclo hidrológico. Foram coletados diariamente, entre junho de 2003 e maio de 2004, dados de desembarque e das expedições de pesca que ocorreram na região do Médio rio Madeira e submetidos à estatística descritiva. Os resultados mostraram que existiu uma tendência de aumento no esforço de pesca durante o período da enchente pelas embarcações da frota local, para compensar a queda na produção capturada. Os barcos de pesca e canoas motorizadas apresentaram valores médios de CPUE de 22,9 e 20,6 kg/pescador*dia, respectivamente. Ficou evidenciada também a maior utilização dos ambientes igarapés e lagos pelos pescadores de canoas motorizadas e do rio pelos pescadores dos barcos.The adaptation of the strategies of the fisherman to the seasonality in the Amazonian attests the level of traditional ecological knowledge in relation to the fish and to the variations of the fishing in that environment, as it happens in other regions of Brazil. In that sense the present work aimed to analyze the use of the fishing grounds and the distribution of the fishing effort by the commercial fleet in relation to the hydrological cycle. Data of fishing landings and fishing expeditions of the Medium Madeira River region were collected daily, from June of 2003 until May of 2004, and submitted to the descriptive statistics. The results showed that there was a tendency towards an increase in the fishing effort during the rising water season for the vessels of the local fleet, to compensate for the decrease in the captured production. The

  13. A pesca de pequena escala no rio Madeira pelos desembarques ocorridos em Manicoré (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Small-scale fishery at Madeira River by fish landings in Manicoré city (Amazon State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o desembarque da pesca comercial na região do Médio rio Madeira, tendo como área focal o município de Manicoré, buscando identificar as espécies explotadas, os locais de pesca e sua contribuição para o abastecimento local de pescado. O desembarque foi amostrado diariamente, utilizando questionários aplicados aos pescadores após a comercialização do pescado. Foram desembarcadas no ano de 2002 aproximadamente 225,4 toneladas de pescado. Canoas motorizadas efetuaram mais expedições de pesca, entretanto os barcos de pesca desembarcaram uma maior produção. Os valores médios de desembarque foram de 11,2; 5,4 e 2,4 toneladas por mês para barcos, canoas e compradores de pescado respectivamente, sendo as capturas compostas por 32 espécies ou grupo de espécies, sendo jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana (Brycon spp, responsáveis por 75% do pescado desembarcado. Foram identificados 32 locais de pesca, sendo os mais explotados os rios Madeira e Manicoré, os lagos Acará e Boquerão e o igarapé Matupiri.The study aimed to analyze the landing of commercial fishing in Middle Madeira River, near Manicoré city, identifying the exploited species, fishing grounds and the contribution for the local supplying of fish. Fish landings were sampled daily, using questionnaires, given to fishermen after the fish sale. In 2002, 225.4 tons of fish were landed in Manicoré city. Motorized canoes undertook more fishing trips, but the higher fish landings were accomplished by boats. Mean values of fish landings were 11.2 tons/month, 5.4 tons/month and 2.4 tons/month for boats, motorized canoes and fish purchasers, respectively. 32 species or group of species were landed, with a predominance of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana

  14. Language planning for "Mundurukú do Amazonas" Planejamento Linguístico para "Mundurukú do Amazonas"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessiane Picanço

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mundurukú, a Tupian language of Brazil, exhibits two opposite scenarios. On one extreme, there is Mundurukú do Pará, the language of daily communication in the Mundurukú Indigenous Land, with fluent speakers found across all generations and still acquired by children as a mother tongue. On the other extreme, there is Mundurukú do Amazonas, formerly spoken in the Kwatá-Laranjal Indigenous Land, but whose inhabitants have shifted to Portuguese. A group of Mundurukú students from Amazonas decided to initiate a process of language revitalisation as a way to strengthen the community's ethnic and cultural identity. This paper reports the initial stages of language planning, and includes future actions to promote language use in the homes and communities, assessement of language proficiency, and definition of educational programs to teach Mundurukú in local schools.Mundurukú, uma língua Tupí do Brasil, apresenta dois cenários opostos. Em um extremo, há o Mundurukú do Pará, a língua de comunicação diária na Terra Indígena Mundurukú, com falantes fluentes de todas as idades e adquirida pelas crianças como língua materna. No outro extremo encontra-se o Mundurukú do Amazonas, Terra Indígena Kwatá-Laranjal, que foi substituída pelo Português. Um grupo de estudantes Mundurukú do Amazonas decidiu iniciar um processo de revitalização de sua língua, como uma forma de fortalecer a identidade étnica e cultural da comunidade. Este trabalho relata os estágios iniciais do planejamento linguístico, incluindo as ações futuras para promover o uso da língua em casa e na comunidade, avaliação da proficiência na língua e definição de programas educacionais para ensinar Mundurukú nas escolas locais.

  15. Avaliação do gasto e Consumo voluntário de rações balanceadas e semente de girassol para papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Voluntary intake of commercial foods and sunflower seed for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se de 12 papagaios adultos, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em seis tratamentos (Ração extrusada para psitacídeos, Ração peletizada para psitacídeos, Ração comercial extrusada para psitacídeos, Ração extrusada para cães linha prêmio; Ração extrusada para cães linha econômica e Semente de Girassol, durante três períodos de cinco dias de colheita, com 7 dias de adaptação entre colheitas, totalizando seis repetições por tratamento, em que foram avaliados o gasto total (matéria seca - MS e matéria natural - MN e o consumo total de MN, MS, proteína bruta (PB, energia metabolizável aparente e verdadeira corrigidas pelo N (EMAn e EMVn, cálcio (Ca e fósforo (P, por ave e por quilograma de peso metabólico. As médias obtidas foram comparadas pelo teste SNK. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1- os consumos médios de MS foram influenciados negativamente pelo teor de energia metabolizável da dieta; 2- o alto consumo das aves recebendo semente de girassol sugere que, além da densidade energética, a palatabilidade da dieta tem grande influência no consumo voluntário; 3- todas as dietas testadas atenderam as necessidades diárias de proteína bruta; 4- o consumo de cálcio da semente de girassol não atendeu a necessidade diária do elemento. 5- o tamanho do grânulo parece interferir no gasto e desperdício de ração pelas aves.Were used 12 adult parrots, distributed in blocks in six treatments (Extruded food for psittacines, Pelleted food for psittacines, Extruded commercial food for psittacines, Extruded dogs food premium line; Extruded dogs food economic line and Sunflower Seed. during three periods, in six repetitions for treatment. The total expense (dry matter evaporates - DM and natural matter - NM and intake of NM, DM, crude protein (CP apparent and true metabolizable energy N corrected (AME n and TMEn, calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P, was evaluated for bird and for kilogram of metabolic size

  16. Sedimentology and Palynostratigraphy of a Pliocene-Pleistocene (Piacenzian to Gelasian) deposit in the lower Negro River: Implications for the establishment of large rivers in Central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Emílio Alberto Amaral; D'Apolito, Carlos; Jaramillo, Carlos; Harrington, Guy; Caputo, Mario Vicente; Barbosa, Rogério Oliveira; Bonora dos Santos, Eneas; Dino, Rodolfo; Gonçalves, Alexandra Dias

    2017-11-01

    The Amazonas fluvial system originates in the Andes and runs ca. 6700 km to the Atlantic Ocean, having as the main affluent the Negro River (second largest in water volume). The Amazonas transcontinental system has been dated to the late Miocene, but the timing of origin and evolutionary processes of its tributaries are still poorly understood. Negro River alluvial deposits have been dated to the middle to late Pleistocene. Recently, we studied a number of boreholes drilled for the building of a bridge at the lower course of the Negro River. A thin (centimetric) sedimentary deposit was found, laterally continuous for about 1800 m, unconformably overlaying middle Miocene strata and unconformably overlain by younger Quaternary deposits. This deposit consists predominantly of brownish-gray sandstones cemented by siderite and with subordinate mudstone and conglomerate beds. Palynological, granulometric, textural and mineralogical data suggest that the initial Negro River aggradation took place in the deep incised valley under anoxic conditions and subsequently along the floodplain, with efficient transport of mixed origin particles (Andean and Amazonic). Angiosperm leaves, wood and pollen are indicative of a tropical continental palaeoenvironment. A well preserved palynoflora that includes Alnipollenites verus, Grimsdalea magnaclavata and Paleosantalaceaepites cingulatus suggests a late Pliocene to early Pleistocene (Piacenzian to Gelasian) age for this unit, which was an age yet unrecorded in the Amazon Basin. These results indicate that by the late Pliocene-early Pleistocene, large scale river activity was occurring in Central Amazonia linking this region with the Andean headwaters, and therefore incompatible with Central Amazonia barriers like the Purus arch.

  17. Aspectos ecológicos e epidemiológicos de acidentes ofídicos em comunidades ribeirinhas do baixo rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil Ecological and epidemiological aspects of snakebites in riverside communities of the lower Purus River, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Waldez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Acidentes ofídicos foram registrados em dez comunidades ribeirinhas do baixo rio Purus através de entrevista às vítimas. Os ribeirinhos responderam perguntas sobre a percepção ambiental da ecologia das serpentes envolvidas nos acidentes. O tamanho das serpentes e a altura da mordida no corpo foram estimados com fita métrica. A correspondência entre os nomes locais e científicos das serpentes foi levantada utilizando descrições e imagens das espécies. Para outras 17 comunidades dados adicionais do número de famílias com vítimas de acidentes ofídicos foram avaliados através do diagnóstico sócio-ambiental da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Piagaçu-Purus. Foram entrevistados 18 ribeirinhos e registrados 28 acidentes ofídicos em cinco comunidades. O número de vítimas por comunidade não teve relação com o tamanho da população. O número de famílias com vítimas foi maior em comunidades maiores (r²= 0,444; p= 0,003. Aproximadamente 88% das mordidas foram nos membros inferiores. Não houve relação do tamanho estimado da serpente com a altura da mordida. A maioria dos acidentes ocorreu de dia (82,14% e no período de cheia (64,28% na época de exploração da castanha-da-Amazônia e da madeira pelos ribeirinhos, atividades que despendem maior tempo na floresta. Um único caso de morte por acidente ofídico foi registrado. A serpente Bothrops atrox foi à espécie mais relacionada com acidentes na região. O reconhecimento das serpentes pelos ribeirinhos revelou várias sinonímias, com 20 nomes locais atribuídos a 33 espécies. Na percepção dos ribeirinhos as serpentes B. atrox e Lachesis muta foram às espécies mais temidas e diferem no comportamento de ataque.Snakebites were registered in 10 riverside communities of the lower Purus River through interviews with the victims. Local inhabitants answered questions about their perception on ecological aspects of snakes species involved in snakebites. Snake size

  18. Natureza e civilização: os painéis decorativos do Salão Nobre do Teatro Amazonas Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Lima Daou

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis decorativos do salão nobre do Teatro Amazonas singularizam-se em relação ao restante da iconografia que decora o edifício, inaugurado em 1896. Na ocasião, as capitais do Pará e do Amazonas, enriquecidas pela economia gomífera, passaram por significativas transformações no tecido urbano e nas formas de sociabilidade, projetando-se nacional e internacionalmente. O artigo procura identificar paralelos entre as representações paisagísticas da natureza amazônica que decoram o salão nobre do edifício, a construção da cidade moderna e os usos sociais do Teatro Amazonas, símbolo do período e emblema da elite enriquecida que se afirmava no cenário regional e nacional. O Teatro Amazonas ocupou o centro da vida social da época, e em seu salão nobre ocorreram verdadeiros rituais de 'civilização' em que os convidados - brasileiros ou estrangeiros - tinham como cenário privilegiado a natureza amazônica representada nos painéis parietais decorativos.The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  19. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  20. SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE NEGRO PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, ARNOLD

    A FEW OF THE DYNAMIC FORCES OF CHANGE THAT HAVE BROUGHT ABOUT A NEW SITUATION FOR THE AMERICAN NEGRO ARE PRESENTED. THESE FORCES HAVE OCCURRED WITHOUT A VIOLENT REVOLUTION AND WITHIN MANY INSTITUTIONS, THE FORCES WERE MOST COMPLETE IN THE ECONOMIC SPHERES, LESS SO IN THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL SPHERES, AND LEAST IN THE SPHERE OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP.…

  1. O negro e a universidade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delcele Mascarenhas Queiroz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación sobre la participación de los segmentos raciales en la universidad brasileña, realizada en distintas regiones de Brasil, se busca reflejar sobre las razones de la persistencia de desiguladades entre negros y blancos en la sociedad brasileña, mismo después de más de un siglo del fin de la esclavitud. La investigación envolvió universidades públicas en estados con variados porcentajes de negros en su población. La conclusión que se hace es que la desigualdad entre blancos y negros resulta de un modo racista de actuar que incluye la discriminación hacia el negro como un mecanismo de diferenciación en la sociedad.__________________ABSTRACT:Through the research on the racial segments participation in the Brazilian university, done in different regions of Brazil, the article intends to show the reasons of the persisting inequality between black people and white people in the Brazilian society, even after more than a century since the slavery abolition. The research involved public universities in states with diverse percentages of black people within the population. The conclusion is that inequality between black people and white people is a consequence of a racist way of acting that includes the discrimination towards black people as a mechanism of differentiation in the society.

  2. Santos negros nas Américas na crise do Antigo Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline dos Santos Guedes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetos de estudo deste ensaio são a irmandade de São Baltasar em Buenos Aires e a irmandade de São Elesbão e Santa Efigênia no Rio de Janeiro de fins do século XVIII até princípios do século XIX. Ambas as instituições têm majoritariamente associados negros e contam também com santos negros como patronos. Observe-se a importância da apropriação da religião católica por estes afrodescendentes e o papel que esses “santos de cor” exercem no cotidiano desta população restrita de direitos devido à sua ascendência africana. As irmandades são instituições de suma importância na dinâmica colonial, então os negros se inserem nessas instituições ou criam suas próprias, muitas vezes na tentativa de penetrar no mundo social das colônias, ganhando maior visibilidade.

  3. A composição dos custos de armação e a renda das expedições de pesca da frota pesqueira artesanal da região do Médio rio Madeira, Amazonas, Brasil The composition of cost and income of fishing expedictions of small-scale fishing fleet in the Medium Madeira River region, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos buscando identificar as características físicas, operacionais e econômicas da frota pesqueira sediada na Amazônia Central foram efetuados, deixando lacunas sobre as características da frota nas regiões periféricas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os custos necessários para a entrada de novas embarcações na atividade pesqueira e fornecer informações relativas ao custo das expedições e da renda econômica da atividade. O estudo foi realizado na região do Médio rio Madeira e foram coletadas por intermédio de questionários, informações sobre os custos de manutenção, armação e a renda das viagens de pesca, no período de junho de 2003 a maio de 2004, junto aos proprietários ou encarregados de barcos de pesca e pescadores de canoas motorizadas. O maior investimento dos proprietários de embarcações foi para a aquisição dos apetrechos, sendo os próprios pescadores os principais financiadores. As expedições de pesca das embarcações foram financiadas por seis agentes, sendo os principais financiadores os pescadores e o frigorífico. O combustível foi o principal item dos custos a encarecer as expedições dos barcos e, combustível e gelo, como custo encarecedor para as canoas. Os armadores e encarregados de barcos de pesca ganharam em média 0,6 e 0,5 salário mínimo, respectivamente, por expedição, e os pescadores 0,3 salário mínimo, enquanto pescadores de canoas motorizadas ganharam em média 0,5 salário mínimo.Studies emphasizing the physical, operational and economics characteristics of the fishing fleet were realized, focusing the fleet based in Central Amazon but with gaps about the characteristics in peripheral regions. In this sense the work aimed to analyze the necessary costs to entry of new vessel on activity and to provide information in relation to the costs of fishing expeditions and economic revenue of fishing activity. The study was realized in the Medium Madeira River region

  4. Being Negro in Recife Brazil: A Political Aesthetics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerzem, van L.; Nuijten, M.C.M.; Vries, de P.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we explore the role of cultura negra and what it means to be negro for a particular segment of the population of Recife, Brazil. We zoom in on participants in Terça Negra (negro Tuesday), one of the foremost weekly events in the city. For these participants, self-identifying as

  5. Medellín Negro 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Forero Quintero, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Medellín Negro es un proyecto académico, editorial, cultural y social desarrollado por el Grupo de Estudios Literarios (GEL) de la Universidad de Antioquia y auspiciado por la Alcaldía de Medellín en el marco de su Fiesta del Libro y la Cultura ; tiene el objetivo de propiciar un espacio urbano de discusión interdisciplinaria y abierto al público en torno al tema del crimen en las sociedades contemporáneas, tomando como eje la literatura negra o, como proponen sus organizadores, la literatura...

  6. A historical overview of leprosy epidemiology and control activities in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cunha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is an ancient infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to comparative genomics studies, this disease originated in Eastern Africa or the Near East and spread with successive human migrations. The Europeans and North Africans introduced leprosy into West Africa and the Americas within the past 500 years. In Brazil, this disease arrived with the colonizers who disembarked at the first colonies, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and Recife, at the end of the sixteenth century, after which it was spread to the other states. In 1854, the first leprosy cases were identified in State of Amazonas in the north of Brazil. The increasing number of leprosy cases and the need for treatment and disease control led to the creation of places to isolate patients, known as leprosaria. One of them, Colonia Antônio Aleixo was built in Amazonas in 1956 according to the most advanced recommendations for isolation at that time and was deactivated in 1979. The history of the Alfredo da Matta Center (AMC, which was the first leprosy dispensary created in 1955, parallels the history of leprosy in the state. Over the years, the AMC has become one of the best training centers for leprosy, general dermatology and sexually transmitted diseases in Brazil. In addition to being responsible for leprosy control programs in the state, the AMC has carried out training programs on leprosy diagnosis and treatment for health professionals in Manaus and other municipalities of the state, aiming to increase the coverage of leprosy control activities. This paper provides a historical overview of leprosy in State of Amazonas, which is an endemic state in Brazil.

  7. Report on the radioactive mineral development project in Negros Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1981-12-01

    A reconnaissance radiometric and stream sediment survey was conducted in Negros Island from April to May 1980. An area in Mabinay, Negros Oriental with significant above-background uranium in stream sediment was delineated in Upper Miocene to Pliocene continental clastic associated with silty limestone. In general, Negros has low radioactivity except for isolated points which have 2-3 times above-the-background radioactivity. Other areas in the western part of the island with high radioactivity and above-normal uranium in stream sediments were delineated. However, these above-normal observations were noted in areas underlain by recent volcanic sediments which were probably derived from Mt. Kanlaon. (author)

  8. Los agujeros negros y las ondas del Doctor Einstein

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Alberto Rodríguez-Meza

    2017-01-01

    Se describen los principales desarrollos científicos que llevaron a la detección de las ondas gravitacionales por el proyecto ligo: la relatividad general, sus predicciones de agujeros negros y ondas gravitacionales, la relatividad numérica y las simulaciones de la colisión y coalescencia de dos agujeros negros y los desarrollos de diversos detectores de ondas gravitacionales. Finalmente la detección de las ondas gravitacionales confirma la existencia de los enigmáticos agujeros negros.

  9. Los agujeros negros y las ondas del Doctor Einstein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Rodríguez-Meza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los principales desarrollos científicos que llevaron a la detección de las ondas gravitacionales por el proyecto ligo: la relatividad general, sus predicciones de agujeros negros y ondas gravitacionales, la relatividad numérica y las simulaciones de la colisión y coalescencia de dos agujeros negros y los desarrollos de diversos detectores de ondas gravitacionales. Finalmente la detección de las ondas gravitacionales confirma la existencia de los enigmáticos agujeros negros.

  10. Parasitism of two zoonotic reservoirs Dasyprocta leporina and D. fuliginosa (Rodentia from Amazonas, with Trichostrongylina nematodes (Heligmonellidae: description of a new genus and a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and a new species of Heligmonellidae nematodes are described parasiting the stomach of three agoutis (two Dasyprocta fuliginosa and one D. leporina captured in the middle and high Negro river microregion, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The new genus, as well as its type-species, are closely related to the trichostrongylids included in Fuellebornema, particularly on what concerns the pattern of the caudal bursa, but differing from them by the characteristics of the synlophe, that presents a poorly developed carene, when compared to the referred number of body ridges in Freitastrongylus n. gen. and consequently in F. angelae n. sp.,in which the ridges are well developed and the carene at mid-body has a similar size when compared to the ridge situated in front of the right field (ridge no. 5. Caudal bursa is of the type 1-4, with rays 9 shorter than rays 10, with a very long genital cone.

  11. Archimboldi: El agujero negro de 2666

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ríos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo busca demostrar una hipótesis: que en la obra de Roberto Bolaño el tiempo será asumido como un viaje hacia el caos y la percepción de "desfases" en la estructura cronológica. Dicho enfoque se aplicará concretamente a 2666, la novela donde Bolaño expuso su mayor preocupación por la cuestión temporal, y en especial a "La parte de Archimboldi", donde se evidencia que el escritor alemán no sólo actuaría como un personaje que, debido al hechizo de sus novelas, provoca su ulterior persecución, sino que opera como un verdadero "agujero negro", capaz de fagocitar toda circunstancia estética y vivencial que gire a su alrededor.

  12. Health regionalization in Amazonas: progress and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnelo, Luiza; Sousa, Amandia Braga Lima; Silva, Clayton de Oliveira da

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the health services regionalization process in the State of Amazonas through a case study covering the health sub-region Manaus Surroundings. This is a qualitative, descriptive and analytical research, which data were collected using interviews, documents and Internet reviews, oriented by the guiding concept of health regionalization. Study findings revealed a social setting dominated by asymmetry, verticality, competitiveness and fragile multilateral relations among municipalities, associated to a bureaucratic profile of local institutions operating in the region under study. The political agents have limited acknowledgement of the sociopolitical and institutional conditions in which they operate. They usually impute healthcare networks' management and operational issues to the natural and geographical characteristics of the Amazon region, but their financing, governance and technical capacity are insufficient to overcome them.

  13. The costs of REDD: lessons from Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Virgilio M.; Ribenboim, Gabriel [Amazonas Sustainable Foundation (Brazil); Mea, Rosana Della [Rainforest Concern (Brazil); Grieg-Gran, Maryanne

    2009-11-15

    Reducing tropical deforestation is a major climate and development issue: forest clearing is responsible for roughly a fifth of greenhouse gas emissions, and the forest-dependent poor number over a billion. In the runup to the Copenhagen climate summit, REDD – reducing emissions from deforestation and (forest) degradation by providing incentives to tropical forest countries – has been touted as one of the most cost-effective mitigation mechanisms on the table. But the benefits would be only temporary if forests saved today are cleared once incentives cease. Would the expense of maintaining such incentives over decades raise the price to uncompetitive levels? A forest reserve in Amazonas, Brazil, offers some of the first real-world data on the costs of REDD. Even with pessimistic assumptions about future pressures, the project's carbon cuts look highly affordable.

  14. O MOVIMENTO NEGRO BRASILEIRO E A LEI 10.639/03: DA CRIAÇÃO AOS DESAFIOS PARA A IMPLEMENTAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o processo de criação da Lei 10.639/2003, que tornou obrigatório no Brasil o ensino de histórias e culturas africanas e afro-brasileiras, como resultado da ação do movimento negro brasileiro, bem como refletir sobre os desafios presentes que se impõem ao processo de implementação desta legislação, a partir das perspectivas de lideranças do movimento negro brasileiro por mim entrevistadas nos últimos anos. O processo histórico que resultou na criação da referida lei é bastante longo e complexo, mas indubitavelmente teve como protagonista o movimento social negro. Uma vez criada a legislação, o passo seguinte, e ainda mais complexo, é o processo de sua implementação em um país tão desigual e diverso como o Brasil. O que dizem, nesse sentido, as lideranças do movimento negro?

  15. Negros e indígenas ocupam o templo branco: ações afirmativas na UFRGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabela Campos Oliven

    Full Text Available Resumo: Na maioria dos países do mundo ocidental, universidades que formam a elite costumam ser redutos da branquidade refratários a grupos socialmente excluídos. No Brasil, com mais da metade da população formada por pretos e pardos, as universidades públicas sempre foram um território quase exclusivamente branco. O Rio Grande do Sul, estado brasileiro com a segunda maior percentagem de população branca do país, reflete esse quadro. Ele enaltece o legado dos grupos imigrantes de origem europeia em contraste com a pequena visibilidade atribuída à contribuição da população negra e indígena. No período 2008 a 2012, a Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, a mais importante do estado, implementou uma política de ação afirmativa que aumentou as oportunidades de alunos pretos, pardos e indígenas entrarem em seus cursos de graduação. O artigo discute essa política - sua aprovação, características, implantação, avaliação e reformulação, assim como seus resultados. Analisa a experiência de um grupo de universitários negros e indígenas, que foram dos primeiros a ingressar na UFRGS através da reserva de vagas. Ao final, aponta os significados das políticas de inclusão de negros e indígenas nas universidades públicas brasileiras e os desafios que elas representam para essas instituições.

  16. Molecular taxonomy of Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae and evidence from mtDNA RFLP markers for an invasive species in the Paraná river, Southern Brazil Taxonomia molecular de Plagioscion Heckel (Perciformes, Sciaenidae e evidências de marcadores moleculares RFLPs de mtDNA para uma espécie invasora no rio Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Torres

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial RFLP markers were developed to examine whether Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 is invasive in natural environments of the congener P. ternetzi in the Paraná river, in southern Brazil. Specimens of P. squamosissimus and of the putative P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 were obtained from the Negro river (Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil and from Paraná river, respectively. Fragments of the cytochrome b gene (900bp were amplified by PCR and four restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI and Alu I yielded the mitochondrial markers. An additional RFLP analysis with a cytochrome b gene sequence of Plagioncion sp. from GeneBank was carried out to validate the prior analysis. No genetic differentiation was found among either sample. While molecular variation in the cytochrome b analysis was no substantial among individuals, the combined analysis was important for demonstrating that there is no evidence for differentiation of the putative sample P. ternetzi from that of P. squamosissimus. The ecological implications of the introduced occurrence of P. squamosissimus, as well as the role of molecular taxonomic approaches for biodiversity studies are discussed.Marcadores RFLPs mitocondriais foram desenvolvidos para verificar se Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 é invasora nos ambientes naturais da espécie congênere P. ternetzi no rio Paraná, no sul do Brasil. Exemplares de Plagioscion squamosissimus e supostamente de P. ternetzi (Boulenger, 1895 foram obtidos, respectivamente, do rio Negro (Manaus, AM, Brasil e rio Paraná (Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil. Foram amplificados, via PCR, fragmentos de cerca de 900pb do Citocromo b e foram utilizadas quatro enzimas de restrição (Eco RI, Mbo I, Bam HI e Alu I para os fins de geração dos marcadores moleculares. Foi desenvolvida, a partir de uma seqüência de Citocromo b de Plagioscion sp. (genebank, uma análise de RFLP adicional, objetivando validar a primeira análise acima mencionada

  17. YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS, SEROGROUP O:1A, INFECTION IN TWO AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA AESTIVA AND AMAZONA ORATRIX) WITH HEPATIC HEMOSIDEROSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galosi, Livio; Farneti, Silvana; Rossi, Giacomo; Cork, Susan Catherine; Ferraro, Stefano; Magi, Gian Enrico; Petrini, Stefano; Valiani, Andrea; Cuteri, Vincenzo; Attili, Anna-Rita

    2015-09-01

    Necropsies were conducted on a female blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and a female yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) that died after depression, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and biliverdin in the urine. Gross and microscopic examinations revealed multifocal necrosis in the liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, intestines, and heart caused by acute bacteremia. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, serogroup O:1a, was isolated by culturing from the visceral lesions in the liver, intestines, and spleen. Virulence gene analysis showed the presence of the inv gene and the complete pathogenicity island: IS100, psn, yptE, irp1, irp2 ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and int asnT-Int. Histopathologic findings and chemical analysis also demonstrated hepatic hemosiderosis. As has been demonstrated in other species, hemosiderosis may predispose Amazona spp. to systemic infection with Y. pseudotuberculosis after enteric disease.

  18. Situação das indústrias madeireiras do Estado do Amazonas em 2000 Lumber industries situation in 2000 in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Araújo Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da baixa atividade de usos do solo no Estado, a produção de madeira não é sustentável. Isso é causado, principalmente, pela falta de infra-estrutura dos órgãos responsáveis para monitorar os planos de manejo florestal e de corte raso para agricultura e pecuária. Este estudo apresenta análise de alguns fatores de produção, industrialização e comercialização da indústria madeireira do Estado do Amazonas, visando viabilizar diagnóstico do setor florestal. Essas informações possibilitam o estabelecimento de políticas florestais para a região. Fez-se a definição das zonas de produção, onde os principais municípios produtores de serrados foram Manaus, Itacoatiara, Manacapuru e Parintins; e de compensados e laminados foram Manaus e Itacoatiara. Após essa definição os dados foram coletados diretamente nas indústrias, através de questionários e entrevistas para coletar as seguintes informações: principais espécies consumidas, produtividade das indústrias, origem da matéria-prima, transporte, qualificação de pessoal e treinamento, principais problemas tecnológicos e exportação. Em 2000, a produção estadual foi de 323.400m³ de madeira em toras. Mais de 50 espécies diferentes são usadas nas serrarias, das quais 16 representaram 80% do volume total, sendo as 5 espécies (louro inhamui,angelim pedra,amapá,assacu e maçaranduba contribuíram com 49,34% do consumo total; quanto as indústrias de compensado e laminado estas usaram, 17 espécies onde as 5 principais (muiratinga, sumaúma, copaíba, assacu e amapá representaram 62,71% do consumo total.Também foram coletados dados complementares junto ao IBAMA, SUFRAMA, SEFAZ e IBGE.Despite low land activities, hardwood production is not sustainable. This is caused mainly by the lack of infrastructure on the part of the responsible organs that monitor forest management plans and clear cutting for pasture and agriculture. This study dealt with forest

  19. NEGROS EM MOVIMENTO: ETIÓPIA, RESISTÊNCIA CULTURAL E AFIRMAÇÃO ÉTNICA NA PÓS-EMANCIPAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Graciela Germano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo parte da Etiópia no imaginário afro-brasileiro pós-emancipação através da análise da imprensa negra e de alguns pensadores negros. Busca-se entender como circulavam idéias de afirmação de identidade étnica que chegaram ao Brasil vindas dos Estados Unidos, Caribe, Europa e África, ou seja, como dialogavam diferentes descendentes de africanos espalhados em vários pontos do Atlântico negro que viveram conjuntamente, embora de formas diferenciadas, a experiência da escravidão, da diáspora e do racismo. O contexto internacional que viu emergir o Pan-Africanismo, o Négritude e a descolonização da África e do Caribe, entrecruza, dialoga e se relaciona com negros em movimento no Brasil, influenciando a construção étnica afro-brasileira em deslocamentos que são de idas e vindas. Mesmo reconhecendo as diversidades e fragmentações presentes na realidade afro-diaspórica entende-se ser possível encontrar laços de solidariedade e trocas transnacionais. Palavras-chave: Etiópia – identidade negra – diáspora africana – pan-africanismo - etnicidade

  20. Use of the flooded forest by fish assemblages in lakes of the National Park of Anavilhanas (Amazonas, Brazil Uso do igapó por assembléias de peixes nos lagos no Parque Nacional das Anavilhanas (Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Noveras

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated diversity and distribution of fish species in two habitats: flooded forest and open water of lakes of Rio Negro. Each of four lakes within the Anavilhanas Archipelago was sampled three times from 2009-2010. Species diversity generally was higher in flooded forests and at night, according to correspondence analysis. Predators were most active at night, but showed no preference between the flooded forest and open water habitats. Omnivores, filter feeders, and detritivores were most active during the day.Avaliamos a diversidade e a distribuição de espécies de peixes em dois habitats: floresta alagada e água aberta de lagos do rio Negro. Três amostragens foram realizadas em quatro lagos do Arquipélago de Anavilhanas, em 2009 e 2010. Em geral, a diversidade de espécies foi maior na floresta alagada e durante a noite. A análise de correspondência indicou que predadores estavam mais ativos a noite nos dois habitats. Onívoros, filtradores e detritívoros foram mais capturados durante o dia.

  1. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas: what have we learned and what do we need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the occurrence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, in the last 30 years with emphasis on the last 10 years (2001 to 2010. The disease was predominantly observed in males (76.2%, in the 21- to 30-year-old age group (26.6% and in extractive workers (43.7%; 3.3% of the cases were the mucosal form. The endemic channel shows the disease seasonality, with a predominance of cases at the beginning and end of each year. The number of cases by municipality in the period of 2001-2010 shows the maintenance of the endemic in the localities where the highest numbers of cases have always been registered, namely, Manaus, Rio Preto da Eva, Itacoatiara and Presidente Figueiredo. The comparison of data from 2001 to 2005 and from 2006 to 2010 showed the emergence of this disease in municipalities that had been previously unaffected. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the activities of control, diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis in the State of Amazonas. In conclusion, the historical series of ATL analyzed in this study suggests that the transmission foci remain and are even expanding, though without continuous transmission in the intra- or peridomicile settings. Moreover, the disease will persist in the Amazon while the factors associated with infection acquisition relative to forest exploitation continue to have economic appeal. There is a real expectation of wide variations in disease incidence that can be influenced by climate and economic aspects.

  2. Background and Training Needs of Persistently Unemployed Negroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Herbert C.

    1971-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to describe the home, educational and occupational back grounds, econmic status, frequency and duration of unemployment of persistently unemployed Negroes in Tampa, Florida, and their expressed opinions about training, retraining, and relocation of their residences to obtain employment after training. (Author)

  3. Guerreiro Ramos: o personalismo negro Guerreiro Ramos: black personalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muryatan Santana Barbosa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Baseando-se em pesquisa recém-finalizada sobre a trajetória intelectual do sociólogo Alberto Guerreiro Ramos (1915-1982 (cf. Barbosa, 2004, este ensaio apresenta a filosofia política do personalismo negro, cerne do pensamento de Guerreiro Ramos acerca do negro brasileiro e mundial. Ademais, tratar-se-á de estabelecer, sucintamente, a proximidade de tal visão humanista do negro com recentes perspectivas multiculturalistas e pós-coloniais, a fim de mostrar a contemporaneidade desta contribuição de Guerreiro Ramos à teoria social e à práxis dos movimentos negros.As a result of nearly a finished research about the intellectual performance of the sociologist Alberto Guerreiro Ramos (1915-1982, this paper envisages the political philosophy of black personalism. This was the kern of Guerreiro Ramos thought about Brazilian and World-dimensioned Black. An attempt is made to connect this humanistic vision of Blackmen with recent multiculturalist and postcolonial visions, in order to point out the present day contribution of Guerreiro Ramos to social theory and praxis of Black movements.

  4. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  5. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. RESULTS: Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species...

  6. Avaliação da eficiência nutricional e economica de dietas para papagaios verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva) em cativeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Lucio de Oliveira e [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    O papagaio-verdadeiro (Amazona aestiva), pertencente à família Psittacidae, é uma ave que ocorre em toda a América do Sul, sendo considerado uma das aves mais comuns do Brasil. Pouco se conhece sobre a nutrição dos psitacídeos, e no caso dos papagaios a alimentação em cativeiro tem sido feita de maneira empírica, baseando na sua preferência e nos hábitos alimentares na natureza. O estudo envolveu ensaio de metabolismo com o objetivo de determinar o consumo voluntário e o aproveitamento dos nu...

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos-Ciminera, Patricia D

    2005-01-01

    .... In Manaus, the capital of Amazonas, atypical cases of Plasmodium vivax infections, including patients presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding, led to the hypothesis that severe disease...

  8. Negros em movimento: etiópia, resistência cultural e afirmação étnica na pós-emancipação / Negros en movimiento: etiopía, resistencia cultural y afirmación étnica después de la emancipación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Graciela Germano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo parte da Etiópia no imaginário afro-brasileiro pós-emancipação através da análise da imprensa negra e de alguns pensadores negros. Busca-se entender como circulavam idéias de afirmação de identidade étnica que chegaram ao Brasil vindas dos Estados Unidos, Caribe, Europa e África, ou seja, como dialogavam diferentes descendentes de africanos espalhados emvários pontos do Atlântico negro que viveram conjuntamente, embora de formas diferenciadas, a experiência da escravidão, da diáspora e do racismo. O contexto internacional que viu emergir o Pan-Africanismo, o Négritude e a descolonização da África e do Caribe, entrecruza, dialoga e se relaciona com negros em movimento no Brasil, influenciando a construção étnica afro-brasileira em deslocamentos que são de idas e vindas. Mesmo reconhecendo as diversidades e fragmentações presentes na realidade afro-diaspórica entende-se ser possível encontrar laços de solidariedade e trocas transnacionais.Resumen Este estudio parte de Etiopía en el imaginario afrobrasileño, después de la emancipación y a través del análisis de la prensa negra y de algunos pensadores negros. Investiga cómo circulaban las ideas de afirmación de identidad étnica que llegaron a Brasil provenientes de Estados Unidos, Caribe, Europa y África, o sea, cómo dialogaban los diferentes descendientes de africanosdiseminados por los varios puntos del Atlántico negro, que vivieron de diferentes formas, la experiencia de esclavitud, diáspora y racismo. El contexto internacional que vio emerger elPanafricanismo, Négritude y la descolonización de África y Caribe, entrecruza, dialoga y se relaciona con negros en movimiento en Brasil, influenciando la construcción étnica afrobrasileña endesplazamientos que son de idas y vueltas. Aunque se reconozcan las diversidades y fragmentaciones presentes en la realidad afrodiaspórica es posible encontrar lazos de solidaridad e intercambios

  9. Buracos negros primordiais e astrofísica observacional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, P. S.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-02-01

    A história da física contemporânea é pródiga em grandes descobertas (a Relatividade e a Mecânica Quântica entre as mais importantes) até meados dos anos '30. O peso destes desenvolvimentos é tão grande que outros feitos de grande porte (por exemplo, a teoria da nucleossíntese nas estrelas) são geralmente considerados como "filhotes" dos primeiros, ao menos na imaginação popular. Porém, algumas exceções à regra não-escrita são dignas de menção. Entre estas últimas está a descoberta por S.W.Hawking e colaboradores das propriedades de emissão dos buracos negros, trabalho que iniciou uma disciplina com vida própria denominada Termodinâmica de Buracos Negros.

  10. Negros y pardos en Buenos Aires, 1811-1860

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosal, Miguel Ángel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    El presente es un sucinto estudio sobre diversos aspectos relacionados con la esclavitud en Buenos Aires durante el período independiente y hasta su total extinción. En ese sentido analizaremos: 1 Los hitos del proceso abolicionista (y los retrocesos que sufrió el mismo. 2 La compraventa de esclavos y las cartas de libertad. 3 Los afroporteños propietarios (tanto de inmuebles como de esclavos. 4 Las "naciones africanas". 5 La esclavitud en la secesionista Buenos Aires de 1853 a 1860. El análisis de algunos de estos temas nos permitirá hacer comparaciones con la situación del negro porteño durante la época hispánica, sobre la cual hemos realizado una tesis doctoral titulada "Negros y pardos en Buenos Aires (1750-1820" y publicado algunos artículos en diversas revistas especializadas.

  11. Geophysical investigations of magma plumbing systems at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    2013-01-01

    Cerro Negro near Léon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6-7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive d...

  12. Caracterização da estratégia saúde da família no estado do Amazonas, Brasil: análise da implantação e impacto Characterization of the family health strategy in Amazonas state, Brazil: an analysis of implementation and impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadelândia Milon de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a implantação do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF em municípios do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, analisando indicadores de cobertura populacional potencial, indícios de mudança do modelo assistencial e indício de impacto (2004 e 2008. A classificação de implantação foi intermediária e insatisfatória. Os resultados mostram aumento no número de municípios com PSF implantado, assim como na cobertura do programa, porém ainda abaixo de 50% da cobertura populacional. Para a dimensão de mudança no modelo assistencial, não foram observados municípios com alto índice de mudança. No indício de impacto houve diminuição no baixo impacto e aumento do alto impacto. O teste estatístico indica que a classificação final não apresentou mudança estatisticamente significante entre um ano e outro, prevalecendo nos municípios do Estado do Amazonas a classificação de implantação insatisfatória. A avaliação do PSF não é algo simples, pois há vários fatores que contribuem para essa problemática. Outros estudos poderão revelar os fatores para sua classificação insatisfatória no Estado do Amazonas.This article focuses on the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP in municipalities (counties in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, analyzing potential population coverage, evidence of change in the health care model, and impact (2004 and 2008. Implementation was classified as fair versus unsatisfactory. The findings showed an increase in the number of municipalities with the FHP implemented, as well as in the program's coverage (which nevertheless was less than 50% of the population. Concerning change in the health care model, no municipalities were observed with a high rate of change. As for impact, there was a decrease in low impact and an increase in high impact. The final classification did not show a statistically significant change from one year to the next, and unsatisfactory implementation prevailed

  13. La Pachahuara de Acolla: una danza de los esclavos negros en el valle de Yanamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available La danse 'Pachahuara' se pratique pendant la Noël dans la vallée du rio Mantaro (Pérou central et son origine remonte à l'arrivée d'esclaves noirs dans la sierra péruvienne (Jauja, 1533. La danse décrite est celle de la communauté d'Acolla (N de Huancayo}. Une description des costumes des différents personnages est donnée avant de passer à la chorégraphie proprement dite. Deux phases caractérisent le pachahuara, avec une musique bien différenciée. Une tentative d'interprétation suit la description, s'appuyant sur des données historiques concernant l'établissement d'esclaves noirs dans la vallée du Mantaro la danse symboliserait l'esclavitude puis la liberté retrouvée. El baile 'Pachahuara' se practica durante la Navidad en el valle del río Mantaro (Perú Central y su origen se remonta a la llegada de esclavos negros en la sierra peruana (Jauja, 1533. La danza descrita es la de la comunidad de Acolla (N de Huancayo. Una descripción de los trajes de los distintos personajes ha sido dada antes de pasar a la coreografía propiamente dicha. Dos fases caracterizan la pachahuara, con una música bien diferenciada. Una tentativa de interpretación sigue a la descripción, basándose en datos históricos referentes al establecimiento de esclavos negros en el valle del Mantaro la danza simbolizaría la esclavitud y después la libertad recuperada. The dance 'Pachahuara' is practiced during the Christmas times in the valley of the Rio Mantaro (Central Peru and its origin dates back to the coming of the black slaves in the peruvian sierra (Jauja, 1533. The dance described is that of the Acolla community (North of Huancayo. A description of the different personnages'clothes is given before analyzing the choreography itself. Two phases characterize the pachahuara, with a well differenced music. An attempt of interpretation is following the description, basing it upon historical referring concerning the establishment of the black slaves

  14. El ciclo inmobiliario: La experiencia argentina y el caso de las provincias de Neuquén y Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Bilder

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents data examining the effect that the economic cycles have on the building industry. The article has three sections: The first looks into the relationship between the real estate market fluctuations and the stock market. The second examines the building industry in Argentina as influenced by the plan de convertibilidad, with its 1994-1995 economic recession. The third analyzes she housing conditions in the southern provinces of Neuquen and Rio Negro and their effects on the quality of life

  15. ¿Qué pasa con el Pacífico Negro en el Atlántico Negro?. El Atlántico Negro de Paul Gilroy frente a los acontecimientos (afrocolombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioba Rossbach de Olmos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta una critica al Atlántico Negro ("The Black Atlantic" y a Paul Gilroy como representante de los estudios culturales desde un punto de vista antropológico y empírico usando como ejemplo la reciente dinámica política de Colombia. Especialmente en el "Pacífico Negro" colombiano se están constituyendo (nuevas identidades étnicas negras. La nueva constitución de 1991 y una serie de disposiciones legales favorables contribuyen a que el "Pacifico Negro" se presenta como antítesis del Atlántico Negro de Gilroy.

  16. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  17. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais e aspectos socioambientais em comunidade indígena no Distrito de Iauaretê, Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM, Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites and social-environmental aspects in an indigenous Community in the Iauaretê District, Municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira (State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rios

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Situado em Terra Indígena do Alto Rio Negro, Iauaretê é o segundo maior pólo de concentração humana no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM e agrega dez vilas, com 15 etnias. Esse distrito indígena vem sofrendo processo de transformação progressiva de padrão de ocupação disperso e ribeirinho para núcleo com feições urbanas, com aproximadamente 2700 habitantes, desencadeando problemas de saúde pública. Com objetivo de investigar a distribuição de prevalências de parasitos intestinais na população local e discutir a relação desse indicador de saúde com aspectos socioambientais no distrito de Iauaretê, foram realizadas análises da qualidade da água de abastecimento e exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes e solo. Do total de amostras de água analisadas, 89,2% apresentaram resultado positivo para coliformes termotolerantes. Identificou-se que a vila Dom Bosco foi a que apresentou maior índice de prevalência em amostras fecais com 76% dos indivíduos parasitados. A vila São José apresentou o menor índice com 56%. Os parasitos mais prevalentes em amostras fecais positivas foram, em ordem decrescente, Ascaris lumbricoides (64,84%, Entamoeba coli (32,58%, Endolimax nana (14,84% e Blastoyistis hominis (13,39%. Em amostras de solo as prevalências mais significativas foram de ovos de Ascaris sp (52,6%, cistos de Entamoeba coli (52,6% e larvas de ancilostomídeos (52,6%. Concluiu-se que os altos índices de parasitoses intestinais na população, aliados à falta de saneamento básico e à manutenção de práticas sanitárias tradicionais constituem um quadro preocupante em saúde pública.The Iauaretê District is the second largest human concentration centre in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, state of Amazonas. Situated in Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Land, on the border between Brazil and Colombia, Iauaretê aggregates ten villages, encompassing 15 ethnic cultures. This indigenous district has

  18. Increasing incidence of malaria in the Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, A C; Fé, N F; Suárez-Mutis, M C; Bóia, M N; Carvalho-Costa, F A

    2010-08-01

    Malaria in Brazil is virtually restricted to the Amazon Region, where it has a heterogeneous geographic distribution. We reviewed secondary data in order to describe the regional and temporal distribution of 8018 malaria cases seen between 2003 and 2007 in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro, a municipality in the northwest Brazilian Amazon. A significant rise in malaria incidence, mainly in the Yanomami Indian reservation, was observed during this time. Anopheline breeding sites were also mapped and entomological data were obtained through the capture of larval and adult mosquitoes. Thirty-three potential breeding sites were identified in the urban and periurban areas, 28 of which were positive for anopheline larvae. Anopheles darlingi specimens were captured in both intra- and peridomicile locations in the urban areas. Demographic data were also assessed via a sectional survey, revealing that the majority of dwellings were vulnerable to mosquitoes. This study suggests that urban and periurban areas of this municipality are highly susceptible to epidemic malaria, which is endemic in the Yanomami Indian reservation near the city. In addition, transmission can be perpetuated autochthonously in the urban area, drawing attention to the continuous need for preventative measures such as controlling adult and aquatic stages of mosquitoes and improving housing.

  19. Parental Influence, Youth Contra-Culture and Rural Adolescent Attitudes Toward Negroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Richard L.; And Others

    High school students and heads of households in rural areas of Illinois were studied with respect to their attitudes toward Negroes. The hypothesis used was that a youth subculture or "contra-culture" did serve as an important socializing agent in forming the attitudes of students toward Negroes. Results indicated that there was only…

  20. The Image of the Negro in Deep South Public School State History Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaurin, Melton

    This report reviews the image portrayed of the Negro, in textbooks used in the deep South. Slavery is painted as a cordial, humane system under kindly masters and the Negro as docile and childlike. Although the treatment of the modern era is relatively more objective, the texts, on the whole, evade treatment of the Civil Rights struggle, violence,…

  1. Geophysical Investigations of Magma Plumbing Systems at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia Grace

    Cerro Negro near Leon, Nicaragua is a very young (163 years), relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan (recurrence interval 6--7 years), presenting a significant hazard to nearby communities. Previous studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcano. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data collected at Cerro Negro has revealed connected positive density anomalies beneath Cerro Negro and Las Pilas-El Hoyo. These findings suggest that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping a large magma reservoir beneath Las Pilas-El Hoyo, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest vent on the Las Pilas-El Hoyo volcanic complex. As such, it is possible that the intensity of volcanic hazards at Cerro Negro may eventually increase in the future to resemble those pertaining to a stratovolcano. Keywords: Cerro Negro; Las Pilas-El Hoyo; Bouguer gravity; magmatic plumbing systems; potential fields; volcano.

  2. Nineteenth-Century Racism: The Anthropologist Who First Defined the Negro's Place in Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an 1863 address by British anthropologist James Hunt to the Anthropological Society of London. Hunt's paper, "The Negro's Place in Nature," has been called the most important document in an era that laid the foundation for scientific racism. In it, Hunt suggested that physical characteristics of the Negro race were related…

  3. On-the-Job Orientation of Unemployed Negro Skill Center Trainees and Their Supervisors. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Hjalmar

    The problems inherent in employing hard-core unemployed Negroes and the optimal locus of on-the-job orientation to integrate such employees into thework force were subjects of this study. It focused on young Negro females who, because of their inability to meet selections minimums for job entry, had a high potential for chronic unemployment. Among…

  4. Metalogénesis de la veta Farallón Negro rama norte, Farallón Negro, provincia de Catamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Facundo; Fogliata, Ana; Montenegro, Nicolás; Hagemann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    La veta Farallón Negro Rama Norte forma parte del yacimiento Farallón Negro ubicado en Hualfín, Departamento Belén, Catamarca. Este yacimiento se encuentra dentro del Complejo Volcánico Farallón Negro de edad terciaria, que constituye la roca de caja de un sistema de vetas rico en oro. La veta Farallón Negro Rama Norte tiene rumbo general N40°O e inclinación de 65° NE, tiene una corrida de 600 m, y se extiende desde la superficie hasta unos 400 m en profundidad. La roca de caja es una monzoni...

  5. Presencia de Aedes albopictus en Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Vélez

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available La especie Aedes albopictus es un eficiente vector del dengue en Asia y, posiblemente, de otros arbovirus incluyendo la fiebre amarilla y la encefalitis. En la ultima década se ha extendido la distribución de A. albopictus a las Américas. En la ciudad de Tabatinga, Brasil, muy cerceide la frontera con Colombia, se ha informado la presencia de esta especie en 1996 y, posteriormente, en octubre de 1997. En marzo de 1998, en desarrollo de un e&udio sobre enfermedades tropicales realizado por el Programa de Estudio y Cotítrol de Enfermedades Tropicales, PECET, de la Universidad de Antioquia y la secretaría de Salud del Amazonas, se capturaron 8 ejemplares adultos de A. albopictus en la ciudad de Leticia, departamento del Amazonas, siendo éste el primer hallazgo de esta especie en Colombia. La presencia en Colombia de A. albopictus vuelve más complejo el problema del dengue por la mayor adaptación de este vector a climas más fríos, la capacidad de transmisión transovariana, la buena capacidad vectorial para transmitir los cuatro serotipos del virus y la mayor dificultad para su control dado que sus criaderos están en áreas peridomésticas y rurales. La distribución de esta especie tanto en zonas selváticas como rurales y urbanas presenta un peligro potencial de urbanizar la transmisión de la fiebre amarilla. Se presenta el plan de contingencia que se debe implementar por parte de la Secretaría de Salud del Amazonas con miras a evitar la propagación de este vector a otras regiones del país.

  6. El Amazonas en el camino de la sostenibilidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pinilla, Nelson

    2003-01-01

    La Amazonia es en la conciencia colectiva del planeta el espacio natural y cultural más conservado y donde es posible el desarrollo sostenible. Pero la realidad es otra: factores históricos y económicos, aunados a la codicia, la ignorancia y las erradas políticas andinas para las selvas han llevado a esta región a soportar intensos procesos de deforestación y extracción de sus recursos naturales y culturales. Al analizar la encrucijada del sin modelo económico actual del Amazonas, se encuentr...

  7. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Daniel M.; O'Neill, John P.; Foster, Mercedes S.; Mark, Todd; Dauphine, Nico; Franke, Irma J.

    2009-01-01

    We provide an inventory of the avifauna of the Pongos Basin, northern Amazonas Department, Peru based on museum specimens collected during expeditions spanning >60 years within the 20th century. Four hundred and thirty-eight species representing 52 families are reported. Differences between lowland and higher elevation avifaunas were apparent. Species accounts with overviews of specimen data are provided for four species representing distributional records, two threatened species, and 26 species of Nearctic and Austral migrants, of which six are considered probable migrants.

  8. Cloacolith in a blue-fronted amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-06-01

    A 4-year-old blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was admitted for vocalization secondary to constipation. Saline infusion cloacoscopy revealed the presence of a 2-cm-diameter cloacolith within the coprodeum that was obstructing the rectal opening. The cloacolith was fragmented with a pair of biopsy forceps and the pieces removed. The cloacolith was subsequently analyzed and was composed of 100% uric acid salts. The bird improved completely and was able to defecate normally after the procedure. Cloacoliths are relative uncommon cloacal conditions, and this case documents cloacoscopic findings, rectal obstruction, and confirmation of its uric acid composition by urolith analysis.

  9. Osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João Felipe Rito; Levy, Marcelo Guilherme Bezerra; Liparisi, Flavia; Romão, Mario Antonio Pinto

    2013-09-01

    Osteoma is an uncommon bone formation documented in avian species and other animals. A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) with clinical respiratory symptoms was examined because of a hard mass present on the left nostril. Radiographs suggested a bone tumor, and the mass was surgically excised. Histopathologic examination revealed features of an osteoma. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an osteoma in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot. Osteoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with respiratory distress and swelling of the nostril.

  10. Avaliação da condutividade hidraulica do solo saturada utilizando dois métodos de laboratório numa topossequência com diferentes coberturas vegetais no Baixo Amazonas Evaluation of the saturated hydraulic conductivity using two laboratory methods in a topossequence with different vegetation cover in the lower Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dalmo de Oliveira Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar dois métodos de laboratório para a determinação da condutividade hidráulica do solo saturada (Ko conhecidos como Permeâmetro de carga constante (PCC e Permeâmetro de carga decrescente (PCD, com o intuito de verificar sua aplicabilidade e variabilidade em solos amazônicos. Coletaram-se 125 amostras de solo com estrutura indeformada, através de amostrador tipo Uhland, com anéis volumétricos, de 0,072 m de altura e 0,069 m de diâmetro, devido à variabilidade apresentada pelas determinações de tal parâmetro. Nos mesmos pontos de amostragens da Ko, procedeu-se coleta de anéis volumétricos para a determinação da porosidade do solo. Ainda nesses pontos foram coletadas amostras com estrutura deformada para análises físicas e químicas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram que o método do PCC foi o mais apropriado para a classe dos Latossolos estudados, apresentando os menores coeficientes de variação e desvio padrão ao longo da topossequência. Os valores de Ko estiveram distribuídos entre P1(2,65 à 3,34 cm dia-1, P2(2,85 à 3,38 cm dia-1, P3(2,86 à 3,63 cm dia-1, P4(2,75 à 3,49 cm dia-1, P5(2,38 à 3,83 cm dia-1 e P6 (2,47 à 3,52 cm dia-1; havendo uma tendência para maiores valores de Ko na superficie. A utilização de Ko como parâmetro de análise hídrica em solos porosos na superfície e muito argilosos em profundidade, como os amazônicos, necessita ser realizada com precaução, evitando a interrupção da continuidade dos poros e compactação da amostra. Mudanças na condutividade hidráulica saturada estiveram mais relacionadas a alterações nas propriedades físicas do solo e posição no relevo do que nas alterações das coberturas vegetais ao longo da topossequência.The objective of this work was to evaluate two different laboratory methods for determining the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ko, namely, the constant head permeameter method (PCC and the falling

  11. A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russello, Michael A; Amato, George

    2004-02-01

    Amazon parrots (Genus Amazona) are among the most recognizable and imperiled of all birds. Several hypotheses regarding the evolutionary history of Amazona are investigated using a combined phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from six partitions including mitochondrial (COI, 12S, and 16S) and nuclear (beta-fibint7, RP40, and TROP) regions. The results demonstrate that Amazona is not monophyletic with respect to the placement of the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops), as first implied by. In addition, the analysis corroborates previous studies suggesting a Neotropical short-tailed parrot genus as sister to Amazona. At a finer level, the phylogeny resolves the Greater Antillean endemic species as constituting a monophyletic group, including the Central American Amazona albifrons, while further revealing a paraphyletic history for the extant Amazon species of the Lesser Antilles. The reconstructed phylogeny provides further insights into the mainland sources of the Antillean Amazona, reveals areas of taxonomic uncertainty within the genus, and presents historical information that may be included in conservation priority-setting for Amazon parrots.

  12. Characterization and genesis of waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo region, Northeast State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFONSO C. R. NOGUEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The waterfalls of the Presidente Figueiredo municipality represent a fascinating natural scenery of northeast state of Amazonas, northern Brazil. The falls, generally less than 10m high, are developed on siliciclastic rocks of the Nhamundá (Lower Silurian, and Manacapuru (Upper Silurian - Lower Devonian formations. Morphological and structural analyses of these features indicate that most of them originated through Quaternary neotectonics and are installed in NE-trending normal fault escarpments. Waterfalls also developed within pseudokarstic features, but are less frequent. The origin of the Presidente Figueiredo waterfalls probably goes back to the Neogene, when the region was submitted to laterization processes associated with a humid climate and a dense rainforest. These conditions favored the development of caves in quartzarenites of the Nhamundá Formation. During the Quaternary, the region was subjected to NE-trending normal faulting which displaced laterite layers, rivers and streams giving rise to waterfalls. These climatic and tectonic phenomena promoted intense relief dissection, as indicated by fault escarpment retreat and cave dismantlement, responsible for the present-day morphologic configuration.As cachoeiras da região de Presidente Figueiredo constituem um dos mais fascinantes cenários naturais do nordeste do Estado do Amazonas, norte do Brasil. As quedas, geralmente com menos de 10m de altura, são desenvolvidas em rochas siliciclásticas das formações Nhamundá (Siluriano inferior e Manacapuru (Siluriano superior-Devoniano inferior. Os estudos morfológico e estrutural dessas feições indicam que a maioria dessas quedas de água originaram-se por neotectônica quaternária e encontram-se instaladas em escarpas de falhas normais NE-SW. Ocorrem, ainda, com menor freqüência, cachoeiras evoluídas a partir de feições pseudocársticas. A origem das cachoeiras de Presidente Figueiredo provavelmente remonta ao Ne

  13. Branchial cysts in two Amazon parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Castillo-Alcala, Fernanda; Holmberg, David L; Boston, Sarah; Smith, Dale A; Taylor, W Michael

    2010-03-01

    A 37-year-old yellow-crowned Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala) and a 20-year-old red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis) each presented with a large mass localized on the lateral neck. With the first bird, there was no evidence of signs of pain or discomfort, and the bird prehended and swallowed food normally. The second bird showed signs of mild upper-gastrointestinal discomfort. Results of an ultrasound examination and aspiration of the mass on each bird revealed a cystic structure. A computed tomography performed on the second bird revealed a large polycystic mass connected to the pharynx by a lateral tract. During surgical resection, both masses were found to originate from the subpharyngeal area. Based on topography and the histopathologic and immunohistochemical results, the masses were determined to be a second branchial cleft cyst for the first case and a second branchial pouch cyst for the second case. In addition, a carcinoma was present in situ within the epithelium of case 1, and the cyst in case 2 was secondarily infected. Branchial cysts are uncommonly diagnosed in veterinary and human medicine. These 2 cases are the first documented in parrots and appear similar to second branchial cysts reported in adult humans.

  14. Along the Rio Negro: Rural and Urban Brazilian Children's Environmental Views and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated how urban and rural children who lived along a major river in Brazil understand and value their relationship with the natural environment. Forty-four Brazilian children in fifth grade were interviewed, and background of the city and village they lived in was ascertained. Each child was individually administered a…

  15. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  16. O negro no cinema brasileiro: O período silencioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel dos Santos Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da participação do negro no cinema brasileiro no período de 1898 até os anos 1920. Seu objetivo é: 1 contextualizar o cinema no Brasil em relação à problemática vivida pela população negra no período pós-abolicionista; 2 descrever, ainda que sucintamente, os filmes que trazem representações sobre o negro brasileiro, 3 discutir as representações do negro em cinco filmes.

  17. [Nature and civilization: the decorative panels of the Teatro Amazonas foyer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ana Maria Lima

    2007-12-01

    The decorative panels in the foyer of the Teatro Amazonas, inaugurated in 1896, stand out from the rest of the building's ornamental iconography. The rubber trade brought great wealth to the capitals of Pará and Amazonas and as these cities gained national and international fame, their urban fabric and forms of sociability underwent significant changes. The article looks for parallels between the landscape representations of Amazonian nature adorning the building's foyer, the construction of the modern city, and social uses of the Teatro Amazonas, symbol of the era and emblem of the newly rich elite, who were then taking their place on the regional and national stages. The Teatro Amazonas formed the center of the era's social life and its foyer played host to veritable rituals of 'civilization', in which Brazilian and foreign guests enjoyed the fine setting of Amazon's nature as represented in the decorative wall panels.

  18. Pyomyositis in the upper Negro river basin, Brazilian Amazonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Faragher, Brian; Lalloo, David G

    2012-01-01

    Pyomyositis remains poorly documented in tropical Latin America. We therefore performed a retrospective review of cases admitted to a hospital in the upper Negro river basin during 2002-2006. Seasonality was assessed by the cosinor model and independent predictors of outcome were identified...... lesions). Staphylococcus aureus was the only identified infecting organism (18 of 20 culture results, 90%). Complications occurred in 17 patients (20.7%) and the case fatality rate was 2.4%. Children were more likely to present with eosinophilia than adults (OR= 4.20, 95% CI 1.08-16.32, p=0.......048), but no other significant differences regarding clinical presentation and outcomes were observed. The time-to-fever resolution was the only independent determinant of poor outcome (OR=1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.92, p...

  19. Rio+20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Horn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This reflection on Rio+20 examines many of the major social institutions and how they fulfilled their functions during the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at Rio. The institutions are: 1. Nation-states as a collective. 2. Individual nation-states. 3. Vanguard institutions (some NGOs. 4. Action and convening NGOs. 5. Global media. 6. Governments of nation-states acting domestically 7. Individual governments in bilateral and multilateral situations. 8. Similar institutions in different countries acting together. 9. Businesses. 10. Global science. Each is considered within the assumptions of what the society expects them to deliver (in general, what is possible for them to deliver, and what they did deliver at Rio. In approaching Rio+20, our account differs considerably from much of the reportage by the mainstream media.

  20. The study of untreated syphilis in the Negro male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brawley, Otis W.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The participation of minorities in clinical studies is the subject of much discussion and has even become the subject of Federal law. The project known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and officially titled 'The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male', is one of the great debacles of American medicine and a national shame. Despite the fact that its existence is well known, many do not know the historical facts of the study nor the context of the study. My purpose here is to recount the facts of the study and its historical context. Methods: The history recounted here is taken from documents gathered during a U.S. Senate investigation of the study, original papers located in National Library of Medicine, and books about the trial. Results: The trial began in 1931 as a survey of the natural history of untreated tertiary syphilis in Black men. This study enrolled 399 men with syphilis and 201 uninfected men to serve as controls. All were at least 25 years old at enrollment. The men were told they were in a study, but never educated about the implications. Later, men were not informed that there was a treatment for effective treatment for their disease - a treatment that was being withheld from them. This trial continued till 1972. Conclusion: Many of the issues that led to the study and caused it to continue for 40 years still exist. The lessons of the Public Health Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Untreated Negro include the dangers of paternalism, arrogance, blind loyalty, and misuse of science. 'Those who do not appreciate history are condemned to repeat it' (Alfred North Whitehead)

  1. Seleção de ideótipos de espécies florestais de múltiplo uso em planícies fluviais do Baixo Amazonas, Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez,Gladys Beatriz; Mourão Junior,Moisés; Brienza Junior,Silvio

    2010-01-01

    A pesquisa objetivou selecionar ideótipos arbóreos de múltiplo uso, baseado em informações etnobotânicas de comunidades ribeirinhas de planícies fluviais do Baixo Amazonas, Pará, para uso em sistemas silvipastoris. Como essas áreas foram antropizadas pela agricultura seguida da pecuária, esses sistemas são considerados alternativas viáveis para sua recuperação. Por meio de pesquisa participativa junto aos ribeirinhos, foi utilizado um questionário semi-estruturado para determinar as espécies ...

  2. El Amazonas en el camino de la sostenibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pinilla

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Amazonia es en la conciencia colectiva del planeta el espacio natural y cultural más conservado y donde es posible el desarrollo sostenible. Pero la realidad es otra: factores históricos y económicos, aunados a la codicia, la ignorancia y las erradas políticas andinas para las selvas han llevado a esta región a soportar intensos procesos de deforestación y extracción de sus recursos naturales y culturales. Al analizar la encrucijada del sin modelo económico actual del Amazonas, se encuentra que la salida está en apoyar técnica y decididamente a los productores indígenas y campesinos para estructurar participativamente encadenamientos comerciales entre diferentes sectores productivos, como una gran red asociativa de "empresas" e iniciativas sostenibles locales.

  3. Lipid Panel Reference Intervals for Amazon Parrots (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravich, Michelle; Cray, Carolyn; Hess, Laurie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2014-09-01

    The lipoprotein panel is a useful diagnostic tool that allows clinicians to evaluate blood lipoprotein fractions. It is a standard diagnostic test in human medicine but is poorly understood in avian medicine. Amazon parrots (Amazona species) are popular pets that frequently lead a sedentary lifestyle and are customarily fed high-fat diets. Similar to people with comparable diets and lifestyles, Amazon parrots are prone to obesity and atherosclerosis. In human medicine, these conditions are typically correlated with abnormalities in the lipoprotein panel. To establish reference intervals for the lipoprotein panel in Amazon parrots, plasma samples from 31 captive Amazon parrots were analyzed for concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). The data were also grouped according to sex, diet, body condition score, and age. Aside from HDL levels, which were significantly different between male and female parrots, no intergroup differences were found for any of the lipoprotein fractions.

  4. Epidemiologia da leishmaniose tegumentar na Comunidade São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Epidemiology of tegumentary leishmaniasis in São João, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto de Oliveira Guerra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, o grau de exposição dos indivíduos à leishmaniose está relacionado aos processos de ocupação desordenada. Para avaliar fatores predisponentes à gênese do surto, confirmar o diagnóstico parasitológico, tratar os doentes, avaliar agentes etiológicos, reservatórios e transmissores, realizou-se um estudo em Manaus, numa comunidade localizada no Km 4 da BR-174, durante 12 meses. Atendeu-se 451 indivíduos, dos quais foram diagnosticados 17 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Seis pacientes eram mulheres e 11 homens. A idade variou de um a 64 anos. Onze pacientes tinham entre uma e três lesões. Em relação aos reservatórios, três marsupiais foram capturados. Não foram encontrados hemoflagelados nos exames realizados. Dentre os insetos capturados, Lutzomyia umbratilis foi a espécie predominante. Grande parte dos pacientes de leishmaniose tegumentar americana tem atividades que os expõem aos vetores da Leishmania. Um grupo de pacientes foi infectado possivelmente no intra/peridomicílio. O perfil epidemiológico da leishmaniose tegumentar americana nessa comunidade é semelhante àquele observado em outros focos na região. Com essa casuística, a leishmaniose tegumentar americana é caracterizada como endêmica e como um problema de saúde pública local.In Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil, the degree of individual exposure to leishmaniasis is related to disorganized land occupation. In order to evaluate predisposing factors for an outbreak, confirm the parasitological diagnosis, treat patients, and assess etiological agents, reservoirs, and vectors, a 12-month study was conducted in Manaus in a community located along the BR-174 federal highway. Some 451 individuals were studied, among whom 17 cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL were diagnosed (six women and 11 men. Age varied from one to 64 years. Eleven patients had from one to three lesions. As for reservoirs, three opossums were

  5. Entre Selva y ciudad: estrategias de producción en el Río Negro medio (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ENTRE LA FORÊT ET LA VILLE: STRATÉGIE DE PRODUCTION SUR LE MOYEN RIO NEGRO (BRÉSIL. Cet article s’intéresse à l’évolution des systèmes de production en Amazonie du nord-ouest, sur le moyen Rio Negro. Il montre comment les activités extractivistes et agricoles se sont articulées lors des différents cycles économiques régionaux de ce siècle. Le faible impact de ces activités sur le milieu est souligné. Avec le déclin de l’extractivisme dans les années 1980-1990, les populations locales, à la recherche d’autres revenus, intensifient la production de farine de manioc. Mais les prix sont extrêmement bas et le marché n’est pas organisé pour les producteurs ruraux, ce qui rend cette activité peu rémunératrice. Le manque de revenus et d’autres éléments comme l’accès aux soins et à l’éducation, poussent bon nombre de familles à s’installer dans les petites villes. Elles continuent à pratiquer une agriculture en périphérie urbaine. Toutefois le système agricole, remodelé par les conditions locales, ne constitue plus qu’une forme appauvrie du système traditionnel. En este artículo se analiza desde el punto de vista ecológico, la evolución de los sistemas productivos del noroeste amazónico brasileño. Se muestra cómo las actividades extractivistas y agrícolas se combinaron durante los diversos ciclos económicos regionales del último siglo, y se se destaca el bajo impacto de estas actividades sobre la selva. Con la declinación del extractivismo en los años 80-90, la población local, en busca de nuevos ingresos económicos, se vuelca hacia la producción de harina de yuca. Pero los precios muy bajos y un mercado que es estructurado para los productores rurales, no estimula esa producción. La escasez de recursos económicos y otros elementos, como la falta de servicios de base en salud y educación, llevan a muchas familias a emigrar hacia las pequeñas ciudades de las márgenes del río Negro all

  6. Gêneros digitais: expandindo a comunicação no Movimento Negro da Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Mirian de Albuquerque Aquino Aquino

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Investigar como o Movimento Negro do Estado da Paraíba se apropria dos gêneros digitais (e-mail, blog, redes sociais e etc. e usa-os na perspectiva de disseminar a informação étnico-racial é o objetivo deste trabalho. Entendemos que os gêneros digitais podem ser utilizados como um canal de comunicação e disseminação dessa informação para os grupos negros sociais e racialmente invisibilizados na atual sociedade da informação-conhecimento-aprendizagem, onde o preconceito, a discriminação e o racismo fazem parte do seu cotidiano. A abordagem qualitativa caracteriza-se como pesquisa interpretativa com potencial descritivo e exploratório. A pesquisa bibliográfica serviu para discutirmos sobre os conceitos, a construção das categorias teóricas e o discurso do sujeito coletivo. O universo da pesquisa foi o Movimento Negro Organizado da Paraíba e os sujeitos/participantes foram quatro integrantes vinculados ao Núcleo de Estudantes Negras e Negros da UFPB e a Organização de Mulheres Negras na Paraíba. Utilizamos a entrevista semiestruturada como instrumento para a coleta dos dados cuja análise recorremos a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC que tem por base a Semiótica de Pierce e a Teoria das Representações Sociais. Os resultados mostraram que a ferramenta mais utilizada pelo MNOPB para veicular as informações é o e-mail. O uso do blog está associado à comunicação da informação étnico-racial apreendida pelo grupo. DIGITAL GENRES: EXPANDING COMMUNICATION IN THE BLACK MOVEMENT OF PARAIBA Abstract: Investigate how the Black Movement of Paraiba State appropriates gender digital (email, blog, social networks and so on. And uses them in view of disseminating information étnico-raciais is the goal of this work. It is understood that these digital genres can be used as a channel of communication and dissemination of such information to the socially invisible, in the current information society

  7. A INTERSEÇÃO ENTRE RAÇA E POBREZA NA TRAJETÓRIA ESCOLAR DE JOVENS NEGROS / The intersection of race and poverty in educational trajectories among young blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Sant'Anna Guimarães

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A narrativa dos caminhos percorridos por jovens no processo de escolarização fornece elementos importantes para a compreensão dos fatores intervenientes e/ou determinantes do sucesso ou fracasso escolar entre estudantes negros. Estudos indicam que, mesmo controlando as variáveis de origem social, ainda há diferenciais significativos no processo de escolarização formal entre brancos e negros. Assim, o artigo analisou quais fatores explicam trajetórias educacionais marcadas pelas desigualdades sociorraciais. Os conceitos de habitus, capital social, cultural e simbólico forneceram balizas analíticas para a investigação. Todos os agentes, de um modo geral, pertencem a famílias com baixo capital econômico, cultural e social. O estudo evidenciou similitudes e dessemelhanças nos caminhos percorridos no interior do sistema escolar pelos jovens negros das camadas populares. O texto sugere que aspectos intrafamiliares e sociocomunitários são relevantes para entender diferentes percursos trilhados pelos indivíduos no sistema educacional. Palavras-chave: Trajetórias escolares. Capital cultural. Capital social. Sucesso escolar.

  8. El vacío iluminado del negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Sánchez Ortiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Negación y suma de todos los colores, el negro posee una enorme potencialidad que a lo largo de los siglos se ha visto plasmada a través de diversas manifestaciones artísticas, en un lento transcurrir que le ha posibilitado asumir un puesto relevante en el ámbito contemporáneo. La negrura tiene un inmenso abanico de asociaciones negativas y espantosas. Nos remite a los rincones más oscuros de nuestra memoria. Algo lógico teniendo en cuenta su vinculación con la oscuridad y el miedo a lo oculto, a diferencia de lo luminoso, que se relaciona preferentemente con cualidades muy positivas. Cosmogónicamente, la negrura es el caos; ontogénicamente, es el signo de la muerte y la tumba, o del ambivalente útero; es también el color del no ser, del vacío; físicamente connota la ceguera; psicológicamente significa la temible tierra de los sueños y el inconsciente. El negro nos exhorta a mirar la oscuridad, a reconocer la belleza en la ausencia del color y de la luz.Black (disclaimer and sum of all colours has a large potential that, over the centuries, has been reflected through various art forms which has enabled him to assume an important place in the contemporary scene. The blackness has a huge range of negative and appalling associations. It refers us to the darkest corners of our memory; which makes sense considering its link with the darkness and fear of the occult (in contrast to light, which is associated preferentially with very positive qualities. Cosmogonically, the darkness is chaos. Ontogenetically, is the sign of death and the grave, or ambivalent uterus. It is also the colour of non-being, emptiness and physically it connotes blindness. Psychologically it signifies the dreaded land of dreams and the unconscious. The black exhorts us to look at the darkness and to recognize beauty in the absence of colour and light.

  9. Investigating the subsurface connection beneath Cerro Negro volcano and the El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Swetha; Moune, Séverine; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-10-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano along the Central American Volcanic Belt (CAVB), is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent basaltic eruptions. The neighbouring El Hoyo complex, of which Las Pilas is the dominant edifice, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Previous studies have suggested a deep link beneath these two closely spaced volcanoes (McKnight, 1995; MacQueen, 2013). Melt inclusions were collected from various tephra samples in order to determine whether a connection exists and to delineate the features of this link. Major, volatile, and trace elemental compositions reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive endmember and El Hoyo representing the evolved endmember. Magmatic conditions at the time of melt inclusion entrapment were estimated with major and volatile contents: 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for El Hoyo melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. Trace element contents are distinct and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallise while El Hoyo magmas are a mix between primitive Cerro Negro melts and residual and evolved El Hoyo magma. Modelling of end member compositions with alphaMELTS confirms the unique nature of El Hoyo magmas as resulting from incremental mixing between Cerro Negro and residual evolved magma at 4 km depth. Combining all available literature data, this study presents a model of the interconnected subsurface plumbing system. This model considers the modern day analogue of the Lemptégy cinder cones in Massif Central, France and incorporates structurally controlled dykes. The main implications of this study are the classification of Cerro Negro as the newest conduit within the El Hoyo Complex as well as the potential re-activation of the El Hoyo edifice.

  10. The Socioeconomic Factors and the Indigenous Component of Tuberculosis in Amazonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of tuberculosis prevention and control services throughout Amazonas, high rates of morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis remain in the region. Knowledge of the social determinants of tuberculosis in Amazonas is important for the establishment of public policies and the planning of effective preventive and control measures for the disease. To analyze the relationship of the spatial distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in municipalities and regions of Amazonas to the socioeconomic factors and indigenous tuberculosis component, from 2007 to 2013. An ecological study was conducted based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis. A linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship of the annual incidence of tuberculosis to the socioeconomic factors, performance indicators of health services, and indigenous tuberculosis component. The distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in the municipalities of Amazonas was positively associated with the Gini index and the population attributable fraction of tuberculosis in the indigenous peoples, but negatively associated with the proportion of the poor and the unemployment rate. The spatial distribution of tuberculosis in the different regions of Amazonas was heterogeneous and closely related with the socioeconomic factors and indigenous component of tuberculosis. PMID:27362428

  11. Copepod parasites of Curimatella lepidura (Characiformes, Curimatidae from the Três Marias Reservoir, Brazil Copépodes parasitos de Curimatella lepidura (Characiformes, Curimatidae do reservatório de Três Marias, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Albuquerque

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Copépodes ergasilídeos coletados nas brânquias de Curimatella lepidura do reservatório de Três Marias, alto rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil e identificados como Miracetyma etimaruya e Ergasilus sp., constituem o primeiro registro de parasitos nesse peixe forrageiro e endêmico. A ocorrência foi independente do sexo e do tamanho dos peixes. A distribuição geográfica conhecida das espécies de Miracetyma Malta, 1993, restrita à bacia do rio Amazonas, é ampliada neste estudo para a bacia do rio São Francisco.

  12. Antecipação do período de diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra' no Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rafael Machado Dias

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de se antecipar o período de realização da diagnose foliar em laranjeira 'Pêra'. Vinte e sete pomares representativos da região produtora de laranja do Estado do Amazonas foram monitorados durante o ano agrícola de 2011/2012. Foram realizadas diagnoses da composição nutricional (CND em amostras foliares retiradas durante a floração e quando a árvore apresentava frutos com três e seis meses de idade (época tradicional para o monitoramento nutricional. Pomares com produtividade superior a 25 Mg ha‑1 foram selecionados para o estabelecimento dos padrões de referência. O estado nutricional da laranja variou com o estádio fenológico no qual se realizou a amostragem foliar, o que fez com que fosse necessário estabelecer normas CND para cada período. Com a antecipação da diagnose para o período de floração, observou-se aumento nas concentrações foliares de N, P, K e Cu diminuição e nas de Ca. A antecipação da diagnose foliar em laranja 'Pêra' depende da geração de padrões nutricionais CND específicos para cada época de amostragem.

  13. Violência contra crianças e adolescentes no Amazonas: análise dos registros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Costa Maia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A violência contra crianças e adolescentes é um fenômeno frequente, mas pouco se conhece sobre o contexto em que ocorre e sobre suas consequências. O objetivo deste estudo é caracterizar esta violência no Interior do Estado do Amazonas. Foram analisados 193 registros do Relatório Txain sobre a Violência contra Crianças e Adolescentes. Como resultado, verificou-se que grande parte dos registros oficiais omitem informações. A agressão física é o tipo de violência mais relatado, e a maior parte das vítimas é constituída de adolescentes do sexo feminino de idades entre 12 e 15 anos. Os agressores são predominantemente desconhecidos das vítimas e são do sexo masculino. Em termos de consequências para a saúde, há referência a algumas lesões físicas, mas os dados são bastante omissos em relação à saúde mental. Estes dados sugerem a necessidade de integralização e aprimoramento dos sistemas de registro, informação e atendimento a vítimas fora das grandes cidades.

  14. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji, E-mail: vandermoura@gmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: amartins@mtaboca.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Mineracao Taboca S.A., Presidente Figueiredo, AM (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y{sup -1}. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  15. Protein requirements for Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofi, A C; Sanfilippo, L F; de-Oliveira, L D; do Amaral, P P; Prada, F

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein requirements for hand-rearing Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva). Forty hatchlings were fed semi-purified diets containing one of four (as-fed basis) protein levels: 13%, 18%, 23% and 28%. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with the initial weight of the nestling as the blocking factor and 10 parrots per protein level. Regression analysis was used to determine relationships between protein level and biometric measurements. The data indicated that 13% crude protein supported nestling growth with 18% being the minimum tested level required for maximum development. The optimal protein concentration for maximum weight gain was 24.4% (p = 0.08; r(2) = 0.25), tail length 23.7% (p = 0.09; r(2) = 0.19), wing length 23.0% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.17), tarsus length 21.3% (p = 0.06; r(2) = 0.10) and tarsus width 21.4% (p = 0.07; r(2) = 0.09). Tarsus measurements were larger in males (p < 0.05), indicating that sex must be considered when studying developing psittacines. These results were obtained using a highly digestible protein and a diet with moderate metabolizable energy levels.

  16. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz da Silva, Márcio; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes 238 U and 234 U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01–1.4 µg L −1 and 1.0–3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW–NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. - Highlights: • U-isotopes data in important aquifer systems in Amazon area. • Application of the U-isotopes data to investigate the groundwater flow direction. • Evaluation of the drinking-water quality in terms of dissolved uranium

  17. Intermittent bradyarrhythmia in a Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Melanie S; Smith, Julie A; Strickland, Keith N; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-03-01

    A clinically normal 2-year-old Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) was found to have periodic second-degree atrioventricular (AV) block with variable nodal conductions while anesthetized with isoflurane during a thermal-support research project. Arrhythmias were observed on 5 successive weekly electrocardiograms. A complete cardiac evaluation, including a diagnostic electrocardiogram, revealed intermittent bradyarrhythmias ranging from a 2:1 to a 7:1 second-degree AV block, with concurrent hypotensive episodes during the nodal blocks. Results of a complete blood cell count, plasma biochemical profile, blood gas analysis, and atropine-response test, as well as radiography and auscultation, revealed no obvious cause for the arrhythmias. Echocardiography demonstrated cardiac wall thickness, chamber size, and systolic function similar to other psittacine birds. On return to the colony, the parrot continued to be outwardly asymptomatic despite the dramatic conduction disturbances. Although cardiac arrhythmias, including second-degree AV block, have been widely reported in birds, the wide variation of nodal conductions, the intermittent nature, and an arrhythmia with a 7:1 second-degree AV block that spontaneously reverts to normal as seen in this case have not been well documented in parrots.

  18. Multifragment alleles in DNA fingerprints of the parrot, Amazona ventralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Human DNA probes that identify variable numbers of tandem repeat loci are being used to generate DNA fingerprints in many animal and plant species. In most species the majority of the sc rable autoradiographic bands of the DNA fingerprint represent alleles from numerous unlinked loci. This study was initiated to use DNA fingerprints to determine the amount of band-sharing among captive Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with known genetic relationships. This would form the data base to examine DNA fingerprints of the closely related and endangered Puerto Rican parrot (A. vittata) and to estimate the degree of inbreeding in the relic population. We found by segregation analysis of the bands scored in the DNA fingerprints of the Hispaniolan parrots that there may be as few as two to five loci identified by the human 33.15 probe. Furthermore, at one locus we identified seven alleles, one of which is represented by as many as 19 cosegregating bands. It is unknown how common multiband alleles might be in natural populations, and their existence will cause problems in the assessment of relatedness by band-sharing analysis. We believe, therefore, that a pedigree analysis should be included in all DNA fingerprinting studies, where possible, in order to estimate the number of loci identified by a minisatellite DNA probe and to examine the nature of their alleles.

  19. Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2013-03-01

    Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma.

  20. Radioactive background of Granito Madeira, north Amazonas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Vanderlei; Pereira, Claubia; Martins, Agnaldo Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides, such as the uranium and thorium decay chains, are present in rocks and soils. But its distribution is not homogeneous: it depends on the type of rock being that those of volcanic origin have higher concentrations of uranium and thorium. These are NORM. Locations with NORM present higher dose rates than the world average. Thus, the determination of the natural radioactivity of a NORM region is of extreme importance since it provides data for the estimation of human exposure to natural radiation. In addition, if there is a mining company exploring NORM, the background radiation estimation should be considered in the decommissioning and future planning. There are places in Brazil, such as Granito Madeira in the state of Amazonas, in the north of Brazil, where NORM is present. It is an extremely remote area located within the Amazon Forest currently in the process of open cast mining. In this study, the iodide scintillator detector was used to measure and map the natural background radiation of the Granito Madeira using a scintillator detector of sodium iodide that was transported in tracks within the forest. The data obtained were georeferenced, classified and used to obtain the annual dose related to gamma radiation. The results are presented in frequency histograms and maps. The annual average was (6.0 ± 3.0) mSv.y"-"1. These data were compared to those available from other regions with NORM in Brazil and the 2010 UNSCEAR report. (author)

  1. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brasil: I. famílias Annonaceae e Gnetaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas. Brazil: I. families Annonaceae and Gnetaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, no Estado do Amazonas, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos, de 1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de se obter amostras botânicas da área, para estudos no Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas" com a finalidade de se elaborar uma Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas neste período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida foram identificadas 39 espécies distribuídas em 15 gêneros. Destes, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries e Xylopia L.destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo os dois primeiros representados por oito e seis espécies, respectivamente, e os três últimos, com quatro espécies. A família Gnetaceae Lindl. (Gimnospermae está representada no Município apenas pelo gênero Gnetum L., com a espécie G. leyboldii Tul.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies in the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" SubProject, for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Thirty nine (39 species distributed into 15 genera were identified for the family Annonaceae Juss. (Magnoliopsida. Of these, Duguetia A. St. Hill., Guatteria Ruiz & Pavon, Annona L., Unonopsis R.E.Fries and Xylopia L. stood out on account of their species diversity, the former two were represented by eight and six species

  2. Estudos florísticos no município de Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brasil - II: famílias Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae e Monimiaceae Floristic studies in township of Presidente Figueiredo, Amazonas, Brazil - II: families Myristicaceae, Siparunaceae and Monimiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coelho da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Presidente Figueiredo, do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, foi visitado durante três anos consecutivos (1996 a 1999, com o objetivo de obter-se amostras botânicas da área para estudos do Subprojeto "Elaboração de Revisões e Monografias Taxonômicas", com a finalidade de elaborar-se a Flórula para o Município. As coleções feitas nesse período encontram-se depositadas no acervo do Herbário do INPA e as informações gerais sobre os taxa aqui estudados foram complementadas com as obtidas das coleções feitas anteriormente por outros pesquisadores. Para a família Myristicaceae Br. R. foram identificadas 23 espécies e duas variedades, distribuídas em quatro gêneros. Destes, Iryanthera Warb. e Virola Aubl. destacaram-se pela diversidade em espécies, sendo Iryanthera ulei Warb. e Virola calophylla (Spruce Warb. var. calophylla as espécies mais coletadas. A família Monimiaceae Juss. está representada apenas pelo gênero Mollinedia Ruiz & Pavón, pela espécie M. ovata Ruiz & Pavón; já a família Siparunaceae (A. DC. Schodde encontra-se representada pelo gênero Siparuna Aubl. com oito espécies, sendo S. cristata (Poepp. & Endl. A. DC. a espécie mais coletada.The Township of Presidente Figueiredo, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, was visited for three consecutive years, from 1996 to 1999, with the aim of acquiring botanical samples from the area, in order to carry out studies on the "Taxonomic Monographies and Revisions Preparation" Subproject for the purpose of preparing a survey of the flora. Collections pertaining to the present work are deposited at INPA's herbarium and, general information on the taxa studied here were complemented with those obtained from earlier collections conducted by other researchers. Twenty three (23 species and two varieties, distributed in four genera were identified for family Myristicaceae Br. R. Of these Iryanthera Warb. and Virola Aubl. stood out on account of their species diversity

  3. Pseudoescorpiões (Arachnida da vegetação de sub-bosque da floresta primária tropical de terra firme (Coari, Amazonas, Brasil Pseudoscorpions (Aracnida in the undergrowth vegetetion in dryland forest in Coari, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Otaviano Aguiar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi encontrada uma riqueza de 15 espécies de pseudoscorpiões, de 12 gêneros e 5 famílias (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae e Chernetidae, habitando diferentes plantas da vegetação do sub-bosque, em floresta primária de terra firme, no alto rio Urucu, Coari, Amazonas, no período de 1991 a 1996. As plantas foram examinadas pelo método de "bateção". Apolpium aff. vastum foi à espécie mais freqüente e abundante sobre as plantas. Dentre os tipos de plantas avaliados, as maiores diversidades de espécies de pseudoscorpiões foram registradas nas pequenas palmeiras, tanto com fronde junto ao chão, como elevada acima do chão. A análise da composição das espécies que ocorreram sobre os diferentes tipos de plantas avaliadas foi realizada pelo "modo-Q", tendo como base a matriz de coeficientes de similaridade de "Jaccard", o que demonstrou maior similaridade entre a fauna das palmeiras e outras plantas que acumulam detritos acima do chão, entre as bromélias e entre aráceas de chão e outras plantas que acumulam detritos junto ao chão.A richness of 15 pseudoscorpion species, 12 genera belonging to 5 families (Chthoniidae, Geogarypidae, Olpiidae, Atemnidae and Chernetidae were found in the undergrowth vegetation of the dryland forest, at the upper Urucu river, Coari, Amazonas, from 1991 to 1996, and was collected by the "beating tray" method. Apolpium aff. vastum was the most frequent and abundant species in the undergrowth forest vegetation. Among the various types of plants examined, the majority of the pseudoscorpions occurred in small palms (in the ground-trenched palms as much as the erect stemmed palms. To appraise the specie's composition of these arachnids found in the different kinds of plants, the Q-mode analysis was used based on Jaccard's similarity coefficients. The coefficients that showed the greatest similarity were between the fauna of the palms and other plants that accumulate litter on top of the

  4. Quality characterization and evaluation of bentonites from the provinces of San Juan and Río Negro (Argentina) for their use in the oil and ceramics industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, N.; Senese, A.; Cano, E.; Sarquis, P.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research work is to characterize bentonites, both physically and chemically, as well as mineralogically, from deposits located in the Argentine provinces of San Juan and Rio Negro. The study is completed with technological assays to evaluate the quality of the samples under study so as to determine possible industrial uses and/or applications for this material. To carry out this work, four samples of bentonite, identified as M1, M3, and M4, from the province of San Juan, and another, identified as M2, from the province of Rio Negro were used. Physical characterization consisted of determining: swelling, density, moisture, pH and specific gravity of the bentonite samples through application of a number of techniques. Chemical characterization of major components was carried out by using wet methods through acid attack, whilst ICP was used to characterize minor components. Mineralogical characterization was carried out by using an infrared spectrometer. The technological assays for evaluating the quality of the bentonite were carried out following the method indicated by the API and SEGEMAR standards, among others, in order to determine possible uses and/or applications, mainly in the oil and ceramics industries It was found that the M2 bentonite is the most suitable to be used as a drilling mud as it meets the requirements specified by the API standards. The M3 bentonite, due to its physico-chemical characteristics such as low rheology, swelling, low iron content, amongst others, is the most suitable for the ceramics industry. (Author)

  5. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction.

  6. Ecoturismo no Rio Puraquequara: suporte para inclusão social e proteção ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Fagno Tavares de; Silva,Ivan Crespo; Matos,Jackson Fernando Rego; Hara,Francisco Adilson dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Este artigo enfoca uma breve análise do potencial ecoturístico no rio puraquequara, localizado na área de transição da cidade de Manaus no estado do Amazonas, como suporte para a inclusão social e proteção ambiental nas comunidades residentes no entorno deste rio. Foram avaliadas três comunidades: Igarapé da Floresta, Santa Luzia e São Francisco do Mainã, para coleta de informações foi utilizada a entrevista e a observações do ambiente local (observação direta intensiva). Foram realizadas ses...

  7. New records of Mansonella ozzardi: a parasite that is spreading from the state of Amazonas to previously uninfected areas of the state of Acre in the Purus River region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Leite Adami

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mansonella ozzardi infections are common in the riverside communities along the Solimões, Negro and Purus Rivers in the state of Amazonas (AM. However, little is known about the presence of this parasite in communities located in regions bordering AM and the state of Acre. The prevalence rate of M. ozzardi infections was determined in blood samples from volunteers according to the Knott method. A total of 355 volunteers from six riverine communities were enrolled in the study and 65 (18.3% were found to be infected with M. ozzardi. As expected, most of the infections (25% occurred in individuals involved in agriculture, cattle rearing and fishing and an age/sex group analysis revealed that the prevalence increased beginning in the 40-50-years-of-age group and reached 33% in both sexes in individuals over 50 years of age. Based on the described symptomatology, articular pain and headache were found to be significantly higher among infected individuals (56 and 65% prevalence, respectively, p < 0.05. Sera from volunteers were subjected to ELISA using a cocktail of recombinant proteins from Onchocerca volvulus to evaluate the specificity of the test in an endemic M. ozzardi region. No cross-reactions between M. ozzardi-infected individuals and recombinant O. volvulus proteins were detected, thus providing information on the secure use of this particular cocktail in areas where these parasites are sympatric.

  8. Filmografía y bibliografía del cine negro americano (1930-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. José Luis Sánchez Noriega

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available La actualidad del cine negro queda patente con el éxito de crítica y de público de obras recientes como Casino (Martin Scorsese, 1995, La brigada del sombrero (Lee Tamahori, 1996, Al caer el sol (Robert Benton, 1996 o Donnie Brasco (Mike Newell, 1996. Hace unos meses han aparecido dos libros que se ocupan de este género y ofrecen una selección de un centenar de películas: El cine negro en 100 películas de Antonio Santamarina (Alianza, Madrid, 1999 y Obras maestras del cine negro (Mensajero, Bilbao, 1998, de quien firma estas líneas.

  9. Phylogenetic stratigraphy in the Guerrero Negro hypersaline microbial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J Kirk; Caporaso, J Gregory; Walker, Jeffrey J; Spear, John R; Gold, Nicholas J; Robertson, Charles E; Hugenholtz, Philip; Goodrich, Julia; McDonald, Daniel; Knights, Dan; Marshall, Paul; Tufo, Henry; Knight, Rob; Pace, Norman R

    2013-01-01

    The microbial mats of Guerrero Negro (GN), Baja California Sur, Mexico historically were considered a simple environment, dominated by cyanobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria. Culture-independent rRNA community profiling instead revealed these microbial mats as among the most phylogenetically diverse environments known. A preliminary molecular survey of the GN mat based on only ∼1500 small subunit rRNA gene sequences discovered several new phylum-level groups in the bacterial phylogenetic domain and many previously undetected lower-level taxa. We determined an additional ∼119,000 nearly full-length sequences and 28,000 >200 nucleotide 454 reads from a 10-layer depth profile of the GN mat. With this unprecedented coverage of long sequences from one environment, we confirm the mat is phylogenetically stratified, presumably corresponding to light and geochemical gradients throughout the depth of the mat. Previous shotgun metagenomic data from the same depth profile show the same stratified pattern and suggest that metagenome properties may be predictable from rRNA gene sequences. We verify previously identified novel lineages and identify new phylogenetic diversity at lower taxonomic levels, for example, thousands of operational taxonomic units at the family-genus levels differ considerably from known sequences. The new sequences populate parts of the bacterial phylogenetic tree that previously were poorly described, but indicate that any comprehensive survey of GN diversity has only begun. Finally, we show that taxonomic conclusions are generally congruent between Sanger and 454 sequencing technologies, with the taxonomic resolution achieved dependent on the abundance of reference sequences in the relevant region of the rRNA tree of life.

  10. Repertórios discursivos de estudantes universitários sobre cotas raciais nas universidades públicas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoncio Camino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga os repertórios discursivos de estudantes universitários sobre as ações afirmativas. Os participantes (N= 105 responderam por escrito a uma pergunta sobre a implantação de cotas raciais nas universidades públicas. As análises feitas a partir do software Alceste evidenciaram quatro classes discursivas, que compartilham uma forte oposição às cotas raciais, diferenciando-se apenas em relação ao argumento utilizado. A primeira classe enfatiza a inexistência de diferenças intelectuais entre negros e brancos e, na segunda classe, vem a ideia de que as desigualdades sociais entre negros e brancos seriam produto do preconceito contra pobres, assim as cotas deveriam ser sociais. As duas últimas classes compartilham a preocupação com a qualidade do ensino, defendendo que o sistema de cotas poderia baixar o nível intelectual das universidades e que o correto seria investir na melhoria do ensino fundamental e médio.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of endangered Yellow-shouldered Amazon (Amazona barbadensis): two control region copies in parrot species of the Amazona genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urantowka, Adam Dawid; Hajduk, Kacper; Kosowska, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Amazona barbadensis is an endangered species of parrot living in northern coastal Venezuela and in several Caribbean islands. In this study, we sequenced full mitochondrial genome of the considered species. The total length of the mitogenome was 18,983 bp and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, duplicated control region, and degenerate copies of ND6 and tRNA (Glu) genes. High degree of identity between two copies of control region suggests their coincident evolution and functionality. Comparative analysis of both the control region sequences from four Amazona species revealed their 89.1% identity over a region of 1300 bp and indicates the presence of distinctive parts of two control region copies.

  12. Eolic central Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, performance first year operation; Central eolica Guerrero Negro, BCS, Mexico, resultados del primer ano de operacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadenas Tovar, Roberto; Sanchez Cornejo, Carlos; Lopez Rios, Serafin [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Ley Romero, Jose R [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad installed a 600 kW wind turbine in the Guerrero Negro isolated electrical grid to evaluate, under actual operation conditions, the contribution of wind energy in the generation of electricity. This paper describes the performance of the wind turbine in terms of its availability, power curve and electricity produced. The results have been satisfactory, electricity was supplied with a lesser fuel consumption than before. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad instalo en Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico un aerogenerador de 600 kW para evaluar en condiciones reales de operacion la integracion de la energia del viento a sistemas electricos aislados basados en diesel. En este trabajo se describen los resultados del primer ano de operacion del aerogenerador en terminos de su disponibilidad, curva de potencia y generacion obtenida. Los resultados han sido satisfactorios, registrandose una reduccion en el consumo de combustible fosil en el sistema.

  13. Sideropenia sem anemia em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro do Amazonas - Hemoam Sideropenia without anemia in blood donors of the Amazon Blood Bank - Hemoam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny N. M. Passos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma doaç��o de aproximadamente 475mL de sangue depleta em média 242 ± 17 mg de ferro do doador, o que pode ter conseqüências variáveis em suas reservas e na sua saúde. Tivemos por objetivo avaliar se doadores de sangue do Hemocentro do Amazonas - Hemoam desenvolvem sideropenia sem anemia após doações consecutivas. A ferritina sérica foi medida em 528 doadores de sangue, do sexo masculino, com idade entre 18 a 61 anos, divididos em 313 doadores de repetição, com 4 ou mais doações regulares, e 215 primodoadores, que compareceram ao Hemocentro do Amazonas no período de setembro de 2001 a junho de 2002. Depleção do depósito de ferro, definida por níveis de ferritina menores de 20 ng/L, foi encontrada em 7,4% [16/215] dos primodoadores e em 48,6% [152/313] dos doadores de repetição. Utilizando-se de um critério mais rigoroso, como valores de ferritina A blood donation of 475 mL could deplete 242 ± 17 mg of iron from blood donors. The objective of this report is to evaluate if blood donors could develop sideropenia without anemia after several donations. Serum levels of ferritin were measured in 528 male blood donors, with ages ranging from 18 to 61 years old. A total of 313 of them had made 4 or more donations and 215 of them were first time donors. They donated blood in the Hemocentro do Amazonas - Hemoam, from September 2001 to June 2002. Deletion of iron stores characterized by serum ferritin levels of less than 20 ng/L was found in 7.4% (16/215 of first time donors, and in 48.6% (152/313 of multiple donors. With more stringent criteria of ferritin values less than 12 ng/L, 3.7% (8/215 of first-time donors as opposed to 24.9% (78/313 of multiple donors showed severe depletions. We concluded that multiple donors, after more than 5 repeated donations, are at risk of depleted iron and ferritin levels. It is important to implant protocols of iron supplementation for these donors to avoid damage to their health and

  14. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Chaves, Bárbara Aparecida; Murta, Felipe Leão Gomes; Sachett, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Silva, Vanessa Costa; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015). RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrate...

  15. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis )

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly

  16. The Making of the New Negro : Black Authorship, Masculinity, and Sexuality in the Harlem Renaissance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pochmara, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The Making of the New Negro onderzoekt zwarte mannelijkheid in de periode van de Harlem Renaissance, die lange tijd weinig wetenschappelijke aandacht trok, totdat in de jaren negentig veel geleerden ontdekten hoe complex, belangrijk en boeiend deze tijd was. Anna Pochmara maakt gebruik van

  17. Native Sons: A Critical Study of Twentieth-Century Negro American Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Edward

    This analysis of 20th-century Negro literature contains chapters discussing 16 authors: (1) "The First Forty Years: 1900-1940," including W. E. B. DuBois, Charles W. Chesnutt, James W. Johnson, Paul L. Dunbar, Langston Hughes, Jean Toomer, Claude McKay, and Countee Cullen; (2) "Migration: William Attaway and 'Blood on the Forge'"; (3) "Richard…

  18. Jobs and Income for Negroes. Policy Papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    In spite of increasingly effective anti-discrimination laws and a reduction in the educational differential between blacks and whites, the rapid economic progress made by Negroes in the 1940's and early 1950's has not continued. This study finds evidence that labor market adjustments and population changes are major factors. The labor market…

  19. Self-Esteem and Achievement Expectation for White and Negro Children. Curriculum Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Fred

    The relationship between self-esteem, academic expectations, and ethnic group membership was studied in a New York City elementary school which had an approximately equal enrollment of Negro, white, and Spanish-background pupils. Subjects were 162 sixth-grade students who were tested with two projective tests and one specifically designed…

  20. Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of Lomo Negro volcanic eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante-Marcos, Víctor; Pavón-Carrasco, Francisco Javier

    2014-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out in 29 cores drilled at six different sites from the volcanic products of Lomo Negro eruption (El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain). Systematic thermal and alternating field demagnetization of the samples' natural remanent magnetization revealed a northward, stable palaeomagnetic direction similar in all the samples. Rock magnetic experiments indicate that this palaeomagnetic component is carried by a mixture of high-Ti and low-Ti titanomagnetite crystals typical of basaltic lithologies that have experienced a significant degree of oxyexsolution during subaerial cooling. The well constrained palaeomagnetic direction of Lomo Negro lavas was used to perform a palaeomagnetic dating of the volcanic event, using the SHA.DIF.14k global geomagnetic model restricted for the last 3000 yr. It can be unambiguously concluded that Lomo Negro eruption occurred well before the previously proposed date of 1793 AD, with three different age ranges being statistically possible during the last 3 ka: 115 BC-7 AD, 410-626 AD and 1499-1602 AD. The calibration of a previously published non-calibrated 14C dating suggests a XVI c. date for Lomo Negro eruption. This conclusion leaves open the possibility that the seismic crisis occurred at El Hierro in 1793 AD was related to an intrusive magmatic event that either did not reach the surface or either culminated in an unregistered submarine eruption similar to the one occurred in 2011-2012 at the southern off-shore ridge of the island.

  1. El Negro, el Niño, witchcraft and the absence of rain in Botswana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    In October 2000, the remains of 'El Negro', a Tswana man who had died 170 years before and who, as a stuffed specimen, had been on display in Europe for over 160 years, were flown from Spain to Botswana and given a State funeral in the capital Gaborone. In early 2001, as it became clear that the

  2. The Negro in the Furniture Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, William E.

    This is the twenty-eighth of a series of studies conducted to determine variances in industrial employment practices of Negroes and to develop appropriate hiring policies. This particular study sought to examine current racial employment policies in the furniture industry within the context of the industry's structure and history. Interviews with…

  3. Food Consumption Patterns in Relation to Life Styles of In-migrant Negro Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Norge W.

    This paper discusses the relevance of sociocultural characterization to an understanding of the food consumption patterns of families headed by inmigrant Negro manual workers in the central city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Field techniques employed in ethnological studies and in dietary surveys were followed in this study. The original population…

  4. An American Dilemma. The Negro problem and Modern Democracy. Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal, Gunnar

    This study, originally commissioned by the Carnegie Corporation in 1938, makes it clear that the root of the "Negro problem" is the conflict between American moral valuations preserved in the American ideal and the valuations existing on specific planes of individual and group living. There is a jarring discrepancy between the professed…

  5. Utilização do "soro caseiro" nas doenças diarréicas: um programa de promotores de saúde do Baixo Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Anne Karen Hilfinger Messias

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Reidratação oral, iniciado do princípio da diarréia, pode combater efetivamente a desidratação, eliminar uma dependência de recursos e tecnologia de tratamento parenteral e prevenir uma resultante desnutrição. O êxito desta terapia é um avanço importante na fea de doenças diarréicas. A sua base científica se encontra na fisiologia da absorção de água e eletrólitos pela mucosa do intestino delgado. Num programa de assistência primária, é necessário criar uma tecnologia apropriada que facilite a transferência dos conhecimentos científicos à realidade das condições locais. A autora atua na zona rural do Baixo Amazonas, uma região onde a diarréia figura entre as causas principais de morbidade e mortalidade infantil. Este trabalho descreve os métodos utilizados para a divulgação e implementação do "Soro Caseiro" através de elementos comunitários treinados para serem Promotores de Saúde.

  6. The environmental and social impact of electric energy generation in villages and states of the interior of Amazonas state, Brazil; O impacto socio-ambiental da geracao de energia eletrica nas vilas e municipios do interior do estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Andre Frazao; Cavaliero, Carla Kazue Nakao [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos

    2004-07-01

    The interior of the State of Amazonas is nowadays socio and economically stagnant in consequence of various structural problems. The lack of a reliable source of electricity in these areas is one of these problems, and it has been causing several environment and social problems for the local population. To show, in a historic context, the consequences of this scenario to the country side of the State of Amazonas, is the goal of this article. (author)

  7. Diversidade de Agaricales (Basidiomycota na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brasil Diversity of Agaricales (Basidiomycota in the Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenires Queiroz de Souza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo dos representantes da Ordem Agaricales Clements (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycotina, ocorrentes na Reserva Biológica Walter Egler, situada na Estrada AM-010, Manaus-Itacoatiara, Km 64, Latitude 02° 43' S e Longitude 59° 47' W, Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas. A área abrange 709 ha de floresta de terra firme primária. As coletas foram realizadas no período de dezembro de 2000 a junho de 2001 e seguiu-se a metodologia usual para identificação de Agaricales. Foram estudadas um total de 39 espécies, distribuídas em 13 gêneros e seis famílias: Polyporaceae: Pleurotus sp.; Hygrophoraceae: Hygrocybe cf. megistospora, Hygrocybe aff. miniceps, Hygrocybe occidentalis var. scarletina, e mais oito espécies de Hygrocybe indeterminadas; Tricholomataceae: Clitocybe sp., Hydropus sp.1 e Hydropus sp.2, Macrocystidia sp., Marasmiellus sp., Marasmius bellus, Marasmius haedinus var. haedinus,Marasmius cf. leoninus, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. ruber,Marasmius cf. setulosifolius, Marasmius tageticolor, Marasmius cf. variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, Marasmius sp.1, Marasmius sp.2, Marasmius sp.3 e Marasmius sp.4, Tricholoma sp.; Agaricaceae: Agaricus sp.1 e Agaricus sp.2, Lepiota sp., Cystoderma sp.; Entolomataceae: Entoloma cf. azureoviride, Entoloma cf. cystidiophorum, Entoloma strigosissima, Entoloma sp.; Russulaceae: Lactarius panuoides. Destas, Entoloma azureoviride, Hygrocybe miniceps, Lactarius panuoides, Marasmius cf. mazatecus, Marasmius cf. setulosifolius e Marasmius variabiliceps var. variabiliceps, provavelmente, estão sendo aqui citadas pela primeira vez, para o Brasil. Com exceção de Marasmius tageticolor, as demais espécies são citadas pela primeira vez, para a Reserva Egler. São fornecidas tabelas com a ocorrência das espécies de acordo com o gradiente topográfico (baixio, vertente, platô e seus respectivos habitats.A study of the order Agaricales Clements (Hymenomycetes, Basidiomycotina, occurring in

  8. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos [Coordenacao de Cursos Tecnicos e Superiores. Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easores@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Geociencias. Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  9. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose O. dos; Munita, Casimiro S.; Soares, Emilio A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  10. Consumo de morera (Morus alba y sorgo negro forrajero (Sorghum almum en ganado Jersey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cosecharon ramas de morera de 84 días y forraje de sorgo negro forrajero de 77 días de rebrote. El forraje fue suministrado a seis toretes Jersey con un peso vivo promedio de 337 (±24,27 kg, distribuidos en un diseño de cuadrado latino 3 x 3, repetido. Los tratamientos experimentales fueron: a.- suministro único de morera, b.- 50% de morera y 50% de sorgo negro forrajero en base verde tal como fue cosechada y c.- suministro único de sorgo negro forrajero. Ambos forrajes se ofrecieron a los animales en forma picada (hojas y tallos. La mezcla de morera y sorgo se realizó en partes iguales en base al peso fresco. Cada animal recibió 50 kg/día de forraje verde. La relación promedio de hoja:tallo en la morera fue de 1,3 (±0,39 y de 0,84 (±0,26 en el sorgo negro. Se recolectaron muestras del material ofrecido y rechazado para el análisis de materia seca, proteína cruda, fibra neutro detergente y cenizas totales. No se observaron diferencias (p>0,05 en el consumo de materia fresca y de materia seca (kg/animal/día entre los tratamientos. La ingesta de materia seca por cada 100 kg de peso vivo de los animales fue de 1,94% para la dieta de morera, 1,82% para la mezcla morera/sorgo y 1,67% para la dieta de sorgo negro, lo cual fue inferior al 2% esperado

  11. Vale (também o que está escrito: o pensamento negro contemporâneo como parte do pensamento social brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Mendes Pereira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    O texto procura dar visibilidade a noticiário, artigos e outros documentos publicados na Imprensa Negra paulista entre as décadas iniciais e os anos 40 do século XX. E argumenta que, por sua diversidade, escopo e complexidade, o pensamento que ali se expressa constitui parte do chamado pensamento social brasileiro. Busca, também, visibilizar o racialismo predominante nas idéias e práticas sociais da intelectualidade brasileira, responsável pela reestruturação “republicana” de mecanismos capazes de perpetuar desigualdades sociais: as diferenças “raciais”, óbvias antes da abolição, precisavam de novos “jeitos” face aos desejos manifestos de branquear a população e ao incremento da imigração, e devido, também, à nova situação jurídica de igualdade formal entre todos os cidadãos. O pensamento social no meio negro se esforça por ser porta-voz das condições extremamente adversas vivenciadas nos meios negros, e de suas demandas de reconhecimento e inclusão social.

  12. Vale (também o que está escrito: o Pensamento Negro Contemporâneo como parte do Pensamento Social no Brasil (2ª parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amauri Mendes Pereira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O texto procura dar visibilidade a noticiário, artigos e outros documentos publicados na Imprensa Negra paulista entre as décadas iniciais e os anos 40 do século XX. E argumenta que, por sua diversidade, escopo e complexidade, o pensamento que ali se expressa constitui parte do chamado pensamento social brasileiro. Busca, também, visibilizar o racialismo predominante nas idéias e práticas sociais da intelectualidade brasileira, responsável pela reestruturação “republicana” de mecanismos capazes de perpetuar desigualdades sociais: as diferenças “raciais”, óbvias antes da abolição, precisavam de novos “jeitos” face aos desejos manifestos de branquear a população e ao incremento da imigração, e devido, também, à nova situação jurídica de igualdade formal entre todos os cidadãos. O pensamento social no meio negro se esforça por ser porta-voz das condições extremamente adversas vivenciadas nos meios negros, e de suas demandas de reconhecimento e inclusão social.

  13. Coletar ou Cultivar: as escolhas dos produtores de açaí-da-mata (Euterpe precatoria do Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Feldmann Martinot

    Full Text Available Resumo: A crescente demanda de mercado por produtos florestais não madeireiros oferece uma oportunidade de desenvolvimento econômico que poderia aliar a inclusão social produtiva de agricultores familiares com a conservação dos ecossistemas florestais. No entanto, o aumento da produção poderá significar a substituição do manejo extrativo das florestas pelo monocultivo, anulando seus efeitos positivos quanto à conservação das florestas. Buscou-se identificar os fatores determinantes que levam os agricultores familiares tradicionais do baixo rio Manacapuru a se engajarem na atividade extrativista ou de cultivo do açaí-da-mata (Euterpe precatória, a espécie nativa do estado do Amazonas. Dado que a coleta extrativa dos frutos é feita mediante a escala das árvores, a decisão de produção parece depender principalmente da oferta de mão de obra masculina jovem, de trabalhadores com a habilidade e força física para realizar essa tarefa. Já a decisão de cultivo pode estar associada à maior disponibilidade de capital financeiro que as famílias obtêm da renda das atividades agrícolas. As famílias que cultivam o açaí mantiveram a prática de coleta extrativa, indicando que o plantio de pequenas áreas de cultivos consorciados representa uma estratégia de aumento da produção sem que necessariamente haja a completa substituição do extrativismo pelo cultivo da espécie.

  14. Rio report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxe, D

    1992-08-01

    At the world-wide Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, two new legally binding documents were signed by over 140 countries: the Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. These conventions will come into force when ratified by 50 and 30 countries respectively. The objectives of these conventions, the steps to be taken toward their compliance, and their implications for Canada are discussed. Since climatic change could bring about adverse effects such as water shortages and loss of permafrost, Canada has committed itself to a quick start toward compliance with preparation of a detailed national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. The biodiversity convention could make it harder to develop hydropower in Canada at the same time that the climate change convention makes hydropower more attractive. Other documents from the Earth Summit included declarations on forestry management, sustainable development, and future conventions on desertification and fishing. Notable features of the summit included a refocusing of the environmental agenda to the priorities of the poorer countries, a recognition that environmental issues are linked to poverty and economic development, and an attack on the consumption patterns of the richer countries.

  15. Rio report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, D.

    1992-01-01

    At the world-wide Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, two new legally binding documents were signed by over 140 countries: the Convention on Climate Change and the Convention on Biological Diversity. These conventions will come into force when ratified by 50 and 30 countries respectively. The objectives of these conventions, the steps to be taken toward their compliance, and their implications for Canada are discussed. Since climatic change could bring about adverse effects such as water shortages and loss of permafrost, Canada has committed itself to a quick start toward compliance with preparation of a detailed national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. The biodiversity convention could make it harder to develop hydropower in Canada at the same time that the climate change convention makes hydropower more attractive. Other documents from the Earth Summit included declarations on forestry management, sustainable development, and future conventions on desertification and fishing. Notable features of the summit included a refocusing of the environmental agenda to the priorities of the poorer countries, a recognition that environmental issues are linked to poverty and economic development, and an attack on the consumption patterns of the richer countries

  16. Uma jornada pela América Meridional e de volta à Europa: Charles Marie de La Condamine e o relato de sua expedição pelo Amazonas = A journey to the countryside of South America: Charles Marie de La Condamine and the diary of his expedition through the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins, Maria Cristina Bohn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A primeira “viagem científica” ao Novo Mundo produziu um conjunto de relatos que a registraram sob diversos aspectos. Um deles é a “Relation abrége”, texto de um de seus protagonistas sobre a etapa que se fez cursando o rio Amazonas. Nosso objetivo aqui é propor uma reflexão sobre as condições de produção das observações que geraram a “Relação abreviada”, bem como sobre recepção que tal escrito mereceu na Europa

  17. RESISTENCIA A SEQUÍA DE LINEAS Y VARIEDADES DE FRIJOL NEGRO TROPICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez Salinas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron: clasificar genotipos de frijol negro por su tolerancia a sequía e identificar los de mayor eficiencia en el rendimiento en condiciones de riego y sequía. Para ello, en invierno-primavera 2008 se condujeron dos experimentos en Medellín de Bravo, Veracruz; uno con riego todo el ciclo y el otro sin riego, a partir del inicio de floración. Se evaluaron nueve líneas, seis variedades y Criollo Arbolito (testigo local en diseño bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se cuantificó días a madurez fisiológica, producción de materia seca sin grano, vainas por planta, peso de 100 semillas y rendimiento de grano. Se hicieron análisis de varianza por condición de humedad y uno combinado. Como estimadores de eficiencia se utilizaron el índice de susceptibilidad a sequía (ISS y el índice de eficiencia relativa del rendimiento (IER. Con riego, Negro INIFAP, 82L-17-80, Negro Tacaná y Negro Veracruz, fueron los genotipos más productivos con más de 1,0 t ha-1. Con sequía sobresalieron los dos últimos genotipos, más la línea DOR 448, con rendimientos superiores a 400 kg ha-1. El rendimiento bajo sequía en promedio representó el 37,7% con respecto al de riego. Con ISS de 0,71, 0,85 y 0,87, las líneas DOR-448, NGO 17-99 e Icta Ju-97-1, respectivamente, fueron clasificadas como resistentes a sequía. Las variedades Negro Tacaná y Negro Veracruz con valores de IER de 1,67 y 1,47, mostraron la mayor eficiencia en el rendimiento en ambas condiciones de humedad.

  18. Seismotectonics of the 6 February 2012 Mw 6.7 Negros Earthquake, central Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurelio, M. A.; Dianala, J. D. B.; Taguibao, K. J. L.; Pastoriza, L. R.; Reyes, K.; Sarande, R.; Lucero, A.

    2017-07-01

    At 03:49 UTC on the 6th of February 2012, Negros Island in the Visayan region of central Philippines was struck by a magnitude Mw 6.7 earthquake causing deaths of over 50 people and tremendous infrastructure damage leaving hundreds of families homeless. The epicenter was located in the vicinity of the eastern coastal towns of La Libertad and Tayasan of the Province of Negros Oriental. Earthquake-induced surface deformation was mostly in the form of landslides, liquefaction, ground settlement, subsidence and lateral spread. There were no clear indications of a fault surface rupture. The earthquake was triggered by a fault that has not been previously recognized. Earthquake data, including epicentral and hypocentral distributions of main shock and aftershocks, and focal mechanism solutions of the main shock and major aftershocks, indicate a northeast striking, northwest dipping nodal plane with a reverse fault mechanism. Offshore seismic profiles in the Tañon Strait between the islands of Negros and Cebu show a northwest dipping reverse fault consistent in location, geometry and mechanism with the nodal plane calculated from earthquake data. The earthquake generator is here proposed to be named the Negros Oriental Thrust (NOT). Geologic transects established from structural traverses across the earthquake region reveal an east-verging fold-thrust system. In the latitude of Guihulngan, this fold-thrust system is represented by the Razor Back Anticline - Negros Oriental Thrust pair, and by the Pamplona Anticline - Yupisan Thrust pair in the latitude of Dumaguete to the south. Together, these active fold-thrust systems are causing active deformation of the western section of the Visayan Sea Basin under a compressional tectonic regime. This finding contradicts previous tectonic models that interpret the Tañon Strait as a graben, bounded on both sides by normal faults supposedly operating under an extensional regime. The Negros Earthquake and the active fold

  19. Hot and steamy fractures in the Philippines: the characterisation and permeability evaluation of fractures of the Southern Negros Geothermal Field, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoriza, Loraine; Holdsworth, Robert; McCaffrey, Kenneth; Dempsey, Eddie; Walker, Richard; Gluyas, Jon; Reyes, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Fluid flow pathway characterisation is critical to geothermal exploration and exploitation. It requires a good understanding of the structural evolution, fault distribution and fluid flow properties. A dominantly fieldwork-based approach has been used to evaluate the potential fracture permeability characteristics of a typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir in the Southern Negros Geothermal Field, Philippines. This is a liquid-dominated geothermal resource hosted in the andesitic to dacitic Quaternary Cuernos de Negros Volcano in Negros Island. Fieldwork reveals two main fracture groups based on fault rock characteristics, alteration type, relative age of deformation, and associated thermal manifestation, with the younger fractures mainly related to the development of the modern geothermal system. Palaeostress analyses of cross-cutting fault and fracture arrays reveal a progressive counterclockwise rotation of stress axes from the (?)Pliocene up to the present-day, which is consistent with the regional tectonic models. A combined slip and dilation tendency analysis of the mapped faults indicates that NW-SE structures should be particularly promising drilling targets. Frequency versus length and aperture plots of fractures across six to eight orders of magnitude show power-law relationships with a change in scaling exponent in the region of 100 to 500m length-scales. Finally, evaluation of the topology of the fracture branches shows the dominance of Y-nodes that are mostly doubly connected suggesting good connectivity and permeability within the fracture networks. The results obtained in this study illustrate the value of methods that can be globally applied during exploration to better characterize fracture systems in geothermal reservoirs using multiscale datasets.

  20. Cosmología e Intermedicalidade: el campo religioso y la autoatención de los padecimientos de los indios Munduruku del Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel SCOPEL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo fundamenta-se em uma etnografia sobre práticas de saúde na aldeia Kwatá, dos Índios Munduruku, localizados no Rio Canumã, no município de Borba, Amazonas, Brasil. Essas práticas de saúde extrapolam o circuito biomédico de atenção e abrangem redes de atores sociais que podem ser descritos como participantes de um “campo religioso” de atenção às enfermidades. Verificou-se que o papel da autoatenção nos processos de saúde e doença é fundamental para a constituição desse campo, no qual se destacam forças convergentes e antagônicas do xamanismo, do cristianismo, da umbanda, do espiritismo kardecista e da biomedicina. Os dados levantados apontam que essas redes de relações sociais projetam-se para além dos limites da terra indígena, para espaços rurais e urbanos, e frequentemente estabelecem diálogos interétnicos. Os itinerários terapêuticos acompanhados indicam a heterogeneidade das práticas de saúde desenvolvidas pelos Munduruku com destaque à autoatenção, à atuação política e à inserção econômica no cenário local e regional.

  1. Paleoambientes lacustres en la sección inferior de la Formación Río Negro, (Mioceno - Plioceno, Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Schillizzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian paleoambientes lacustres aflorantes en un sector de la plataforma marina ubicadas en la localidad de La Lobería, Provincia de Río Negro. Los medios lagunares son buenos indicadores de las modificaciones climáticas soportadas por el ambiente. La metodología aplicada para la investigación consistió en tamizados por vía seca de las psamítas, análisis con difractometría de rayos "X" de las arcillas y observaciones paleontológicas. En la plataforma intermareal se determino la presencia de tres secciones que componen el miembro inferior de la Formación Río Negro. La sección basal esta formada por areniscas finas, gris verdoso, de origen eólico y depositadas en un medio de dunas con influencia ácuea. La sección media esta constituida por limolitas arcillosas a arenosas finas, color pardo rosado, con estratificación, moldes de bivalvos dulceacuícolas e icnitas de vertebrados. Esta sección se asocia a lagunas someras y restringidas, ambiente que se habría extendido en dirección NE. Este nivel esta cubierto por la sección superior formada por areniscas gris azuladas claras, con estratificación cruzada a horizontal, depositadas en un medio eólico. En la actualidad los ambientes lagunares descriptos soportan una fuerte erosión marina.This paper describes pond paleoenvironments from a marine platform sited in La Lobería, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Ponds are good indicators of paleoenvironmental evolution because they are very sensitive to changes in climatic conditions. The methodology used for this research consisted in dry sieving, X-ray diffractometry analysis and paleontological observations. Three sections belonging to the lower section of the Río Negro formation were determined in the intertidal platform. The lower section is composed of fine-grained greenish gray sandstones deposited in an aeolian dune environment with acueos influence. The middle section consists of stratifield pinkish brown clayey to

  2. [Culicidae insect fauna from rural zone in Amazonas State with incidence of sylvatic yellow fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Barbosa Md, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Flávio Augusto Andrade; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte

    2003-01-01

    After the occurrence of 14 sylvatic yellow fever cases in 10 cities in the State of Amazonas during 1996, an investigation into the presence of sylvatic yellow fever vectors was carried out. The material of larvae and adult insects was collected around residences and canopy trees within forests, using a light trap (CDC) and human bait. A total of 424 insects was collected. Thirty seven species were identified, some of which were sylvatic yellow fever vectors: Haemagogus janthinomys, Ha. leucocelaenus, Aedes fulvus.

  3. IMPACT OF THE INVASION FROM NILE TILAPIA ON NATIVES CICHLIDAE SPECIES IN TRIBUTARY OF AMAZONAS RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva Bittencourt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo providenciou a primeira investigação sobre impacto causado pela invasão da Oreochromis niloticus sobre a população de Cichlidae nativos da bacia hidrográfica Igarapé Fortaleza, um tributário do Rio Amazonas no estado do Amapá, no Norte do Brasil. Como uma consequência de escapes e/ou liberações intencionais de O. niloticus de pisciculturas, houve a invasão e estabelecimento dessa espécie de peixe exótico no ecossistema natural, especialmente em área de refúgio, alimentação e reprodução das espécies de ciclídeos nativos.  Os fatores que contribuíram para essa invasão e estabelecimento foram aqui discutidos. A invasão de O. niloticus está causando pressão sobre as populações de ciclídeos nativos, os quais encontram-se em baixa densidade populacional, pois 72,7% da biomassa dos ciclídeos (nativos e não nativos está constituída por O. niloticus. Consequentemente, a CPUE (2,489 kg.h-1 para essa tilápia invasora é muito superior aos valores da CPUE (0,641 kg.h-1 de todas as 16 espécies de ciclídeos nativos juntos. Os resultados indicam uma necessidade de plano de manejo para controle desse peixe invasor, evitando assim a extinção de espécies de ciclídeos nativos. Além disso, serão úteis também para a tomada de decisão crítica de instituições governamentais (estadual e federal quanto à aprovação da introdução de peixes não nativos na Amazônia ou qualquer outra região do país. Palavras-chaves: Amazônia, peixe exótico, Oreochromis niloticus, crescimento. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p88-94

  4. Impactos ambientais decorrentes do lixão da cidade de Humaitá, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benone Otávio Souza de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente a problemática relacionada aos resíduos sólidos vem ganhando destaque no tocante à necessidade de gerenciamento integrado e aos impactos ambientais e os problemas de saúde pública. Nesse sentido torna-se necessário a implementação de medidas de gestão para a extinção de lixões à céu aberto. Com base nesse contexto, objetivou-se avaliar os impactos ambientais causados pela prática inadequada de disposição de resíduos sólidos a céu aberto da cidade de Humaitá-AM. A metodologia utilizada baseou-se na realização de visitas de campo e aplicação do método de avaliação de impactos ambientais conhecido por “Índice de Impacto” e o índice da qualidade de aterros de resíduos (IQAR que permite avaliar as condições gerais da destinação final de resíduos sólidos urbanos, classificando os sistemas em condições adequadas, controladas e inadequadas. O lixão encontra-se em funcionamento inadequado, sem atender as regras de proteção ao meio ambiente, ocasionando assim inúmeros impactos ambientais, tais como: aumento dos processos erosivos do solo, compactação do solo, poluição do ar, poluição dos recursos hídricos, proliferação de micro e macrovetores, redução da biota do solo, stress da fauna local, poluição visual, contaminação dos catadores, entre outros. O valor do IQAR foi de 1,53, mostrando que as condições da área são inadequadas. Desta forma, é evidente a ação negativa do lixão devido à falta de manejo adequado, disposição final e políticas públicas voltadas ao gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos gerados na cidade. Environmental impacts of landfill of the city of Humaitá, AmazonasAbstract: Currently the problems related to solid waste has been gaining attention on the need for integrated management and environmental impacts and public health problems. In this sense it is necessary to implement management measures for putting out garbage dumps in the open air. Within

  5. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  6. [The people of the black waters: the Amazon caboclo of the Negro river].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Fernando Sergio Dumas

    2007-12-01

    The article constructs a historically contextualized description of the people who live along the Negro river, a Brazilian affluent in the Amazon basin. Drawing on information about the daily social experience of the participants from the dawn of the twentieth century through the mid-1990s, the processes by which the population and communities took shape are identified. On the Negro river, contact between Brazilian society and the autochthonous, catechized indigenous groups living there was determinant in shaping the territory's caboclo identity. Starting in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, this nomenclature took root and entered the popular lexicon. Extractivist activities played a major role in spreading the term, within a context where the predominant social relations derived from the 'cultura do barracão'.

  7. Ocorrência de enteroparasitas na população geronte de Nova Olinda do Norte Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of enteroparasites in the elderly population of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Felisa Hurtado-Guerrero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo para avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitas em um grupo de idosos ribeirinhos, moradores do Município de Nova Olinda do Norte, Estado do Amazonas Brasil, no período de abril e agosto de 1999. Por meio de um estudo de corte transversal foram analisados 81 exames, através do método de Sedimentação Espontânea (Método de Hoffman et al., 1934. Foi constatada positividade em 72,8% dos idosos, predominando o monoparasitismo (43,2%. Os helmintos foram os mais freqüentes (70,4%, destacando-se: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16,0%, Ancylostoma duodenale (9,0% e Strongyloides stercoralis (9,0%. Dentre os protozoários (29,5%, a ocorrência de Entamoeba coli foi de 18,2%, Giárdia lamblia de 7,0% e Entamoeba histolytica 4,5%. Não houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre sexo e grau de parasitismo e entre faixas etárias e condição parasitária. Estes resultados evidenciam um quadro de alta prevalência de parasitas intestinais nesta população e discordam dos reportados por outros pesquisadores quando afirmam que a intensidade da infestação por parasitas diminui na idade avançada. Os achados anteriores exigem das autoridades governamentais medidas de controle e educação para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses idosos, considerando a grave repercussão que esses parasitas tem no estado nutricional dos gerontes de baixa renda.A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of enteroparasites attacking elderly people living in a riverside city of the Municipal district of Nova Olinda do Norte, Amazonas State Brazil. In this cross sectional study were examined the faecal material from 81 elderly people using the method of spontaneous sedimentation (Hoffman et al., 1934. It was found a positiveness in 72,8% of the elderly people examined, predominating the mono parasitism (43,2%. The helminths were more frequents (70,3%: Ascaris lumbricoides (35,2%, Trichuris trichiura (16

  8. Mining or Tourism: The Development Preference of Settlers Along Pagatban River in Negros Oriental, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique G. Oracion

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the development preference of settlers surveyed along the upstream, midstream, and downstream sections of Pagatban River in Negros Oriental in central Philippines. The majority of 120 respondents, equally distributed along the three sections of the river, are against the restoration of mining but are in favor of tourism development considering the ecological costs and economic benefits they have to bear with and enjoy, respectively. Specif ically, the data show that the nu...

  9. Fora do jogo: a experiência dos negros na classe média brasileira Out of the game: brazilian black middle class experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Figueiredo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abordo neste texto o significado da mobilidade social para empresários negros que fazem parte da classe média, a partir do relato das trajetórias de mobilidade e do significado da cor nesse processo. Ao contrário da maioria dos estudos clássicos sobre o tema, que viam na mobilidade social dos negros um exemplo contundente da não existência do preconceito de cor no Brasil, destaco na análise a forma como o preconceito e a discriminação são percebidos pelos entrevistados. Mas ainda que a maioria deles tenha relatado terem sido vítimas do preconceito racial, as respostas variam muito e nenhum deles relatou ter recorrido à justiça. Por este motivo, tenho insistido no fato de que o reconhecimento ou a percepção que o próprio indivíduo tem acerca de ser alvo do preconceito racial não se traduz, necessariamente, na tomada de uma atitude que consideremos eficaz ou politicamente relevante no combate ao racismo.The article deals with the meaning of social mobility for black entrepreneurs and businessmen that can be considered as part of a middle class. The metodology consists of the study of life careers and the place of colour therein. In spite of most canonical studies pointing out to the simple fact of social mobility for Black Brazilians as the best piece of evidence of the absence of a colour bar in Brazil, I single out the way in which such bar is perceived by the informants. However, even though most of them have experienced racial discrimination, their response to it varies a lot and none ever lodged a legal complaint. My argument is that individual recognition or perception of racial discrimination do not conflate straightforwardly with an actual and effective political stance in the struggle against racism.

  10. OSL dating of sediments from Negro and Solimões rivers – Amazon, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, M.; Soares, E.A.A.; Mittani, J.C.R.; Yee, M.; Tatumi, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the OSL dating results of Quaternary fluvial deposits from the confluence of Negro and Solimões rivers were studied. The equivalent doses (D e ) of sediments were obtained using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol. Statistic studies were made using frequency histogram, weighted histogram and Radial plot in order to analyze the D e fluctuations. Ages from 74.5 to 205 thousand of years (Pleistocene) were recorded. The gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to evaluate the natural radioisotopes concentrations of the samples and low concentrations were found with values between 0.64 and 3.71 ppm for 235 U and 238 U; 2.01–9.77 ppm for 232 Th; already, for 40 K, the concentration was negligible. The OSL dating of sediments has contributed to a better understanding of the evolution of Negro and Solimões rivers, in Amazon, Brazil. - Highlights: ► OSL dating of fluvial terraces from Amazon. ► SAR protocols applied to Amazon sediments dating. ► OSL dating of Solimão and Negro rivers sediments

  11. Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.

    2003-08-01

    Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

  12. Estudo da demanda ambulatorial da clínica de odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas The study of de ambulatory demand of de dental clinic of State University of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Carlos Sponchiado Júnior

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a demanda ambulatorial da Clínica de Odontologia da Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA. Foram entrevistados cem pacientes em tratamento na disciplina de semiologia; por meio de um questionário, foram coletados os dados demográficos e o perfil socioeconômico e por meio de exame clínico foram obtidos o perfil nosológico e o perfil da pressão arterial e das perdas dentais. Os resultados evidenciaram que 52% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com idade predominante entre 20 e 29 anos; 48,3% com o segundo grau incompleto e 60,8% com renda mensal maior que cinco salários mínimos. Quanto à perda dental, os dentes mais acometidos foram os primeiros molares; 29% perderam o primeiro molar superior e 45%, o inferior. O perfil nosológico mais encontrado foi de 31,3% para tratamentos na área de dentística restauradora, seguida de 21% de periodontia e 19% de cirurgia. Apenas um paciente apresentava hipertensão. Concluí-se que a população predominantemente atendida foi de mulheres de classe média baixa, com nível médio de instrução e quadro odontológico precário, evidenciando muitas perdas dentais e necessitando mais de tratamentos reabilitadores do que os preventivos. Com a maior compreensão da realidade dos usuários da clínica odontológica da UEA, será possível melhorar o planejamento do atendimento e das ações para promoção de saúde.The objective of this study was to evaluate the demand of the clinic of Dentistry of UEA. One hundred patients who were being treated in the discipline of Semiology answered a questionnaire that collected data on demographic and socio-economic profile. The clinical examination showed the nosologic profile, the blood pressure and dental losses profile. Results showed that 52% of patients were female, aged between 20 and 29 years, 48.3% with the incomplete high school and 60.8% with monthly income greater than five minimum wages. As for dental loss

  13. Alimentary insecurity determinants and consequences at Amazonas: ecosystems influences

    OpenAIRE

    Alencar, Fernando Hélio; Yuyama, Lúcia K. O.; Varejão, Maria de Jesus C.; Marinho, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Nesta revisão foram investigados os principais determinantes da transição epidemiológica, nutricional e do padrão de atividade física vivenciados pelos brasileiros nas últimas três décadas. Constata-se nestas pesquisas a exclusão sistemática da região Norte-rural do novo cenário epidemiológico nacional, atualmente caracterizado pelo declínio da desnutrição infantil e elevação concomitante da obesidade, além da ausência de informações científicas a respeito das condições de saúde, nutrição e s...

  14. EDIÇÃO ESPECIAL: 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cândido André da Silva Neto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Prezados leitores e autores, a Revista Geonorte, do Departamento de Geografia e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, apresenta sua nova edição, de 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

  15. EDIÇÃO ESPECIAL: 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

    OpenAIRE

    João Cândido André da Silva Neto

    2018-01-01

    Prezados leitores e autores, a Revista Geonorte, do Departamento de Geografia e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia da Universidade Federal do Amazonas – UFAM, apresenta sua nova edição, de 10 ANOS DO PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOGRAFIA DA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO AMAZONAS.

  16. An ethnobotanical study of anti-malarial plants among indigenous people on the upper Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausin, Gina; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Lima, Renata Braga Souza; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Ming, Lin Chau; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Milliken, William

    2015-11-04

    In this article we present the plants used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. The region has important biological and cultural diversities including more than twenty indigenous ethnic groups and a strong history in traditional medicine. The aims of this study are to survey information in the Baniwa, Baré, Desana, Piratapuia, Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca and Yanomami ethnic communities and among caboclos (mixed-ethnicity) on (a) plant species used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms, (b) dosage forms and (c) distribution of these anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. Information was obtained through classical ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological methods from interviews with 146 informants in Santa Isabel municipality on the upper Negro River, Brazil. Fifty-five mainly native neotropical plant species from 34 families were in use. The detailed uses of these plants were documented. The result was 187 records (64.5%) of plants for the specific treatment of malaria, 51 records (17.6%) of plants used in the treatment of liver problems and 29 records (10.0%) of plants used in the control of fevers associated with malaria. Other uses described were blood fortification ('dar sangue'), headache and prophylaxis. Most of the therapeutic preparations were decoctions and infusions based on stem bark, root bark and leaves. These were administered by mouth. In some cases, remedies were prepared with up to three different plant species. Also, plants were used together with other ingredients such as insects, mammals, gunpowder and milk. This is the first study on the anti-malarial plants from this region of the Amazon. Aspidosperma spp. and Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke were the most cited species in the communities surveyed. These species have experimental proof supporting their anti-malarial efficacy. The dosage of the therapeutic preparations depends on the kind of plant, quantity of plant

  17. EXPLICITAÇÃO DOS DISCURSOS DE CRIMES COM SUSPEITA DE MOTIVAÇÃO HOMOFÓBICA EM JORNAIS DO ESTADO DO AMAZONAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Guidão Toscano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetiva-se analisar os discursos sobre homicídios a pessoas não heterossexuais, noticiados nos Estado do amazonas no período de 2010 á 2012. A pesquisa ancorou-se no método de análise do discurso a partir da arqueogenealogia foucaultiana em diálogo com a produção de pesquisadores brasileiros e estrangeiros filiados à Teoria Queer.  Evidenciou-se a propalação do discurso jornalístico presente nos crimes suspeitos de motivação homofóbica através dos jornais: A crítica e Diário 24 horas, em versões impressas e on line. Dentre os resultados destaca-se a sutil reiteração de enunciados estigmatizantes das sexualidades não heterossexuais, tais como a repatologização e a moralização da conduta sexual presentes no discurso dos jornais amazonenses. Evidenciam-se ainda, as estratégias jornalísticas de reiteração de verdades dos seres abjetos à heteronormatividade.

  18. A (in)constitucionalidade do modelo de cotas para negros : quem somos nós, os brasileiros? : Horizonte da questão da desigualdade racial no Brasil, depois do entendimento proclamado pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra Júnior, João Alberto Mendes

    2017-01-01

    presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar o modelo de cotas para negros no Brasil, à luz do princípio da igualdade insculpido na Constituição da República, passando em revista a evolução do instituto da ação afirmativa, em matéria racial, oriundo da Índia –, mas plenamente desenvolvido nos Estados Unidos da América, o que serviu de inspiração para que fosse aqui praticado –, e discutindo a questão precípua sobre ser juridicamente possível a adoção de critério exclusivamente étnico-racial pa...

  19. TURISMO RURAL Y CREATIVO COMO ALTERNATIVA DE DESARROLLO LOCAL DE UNA ECONOMÍA OBSOLETA: EL CASO DE LA LÍNEA SUR. PROVINCIA DE RÍO NEGRO. PATAGONIA-ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen González Viaña

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar a aplicação de conceitos teóricos do desenvolvimento turísitico da Linea Sur (provincia de Rio Negro, uma zona rural tradicional na produção pecuária, fortemente castigada pelas mudanças ocorridas na economia global e pela escassa visão estatégica de longo prazo de seus atores, que a tem levado a um estado de prostação, pauperização e de falta de perspectivas. Ao mesmo tempo, trata-se de uma zona que apresenta um rico patrimônio humano, material e cultural, que a faz propicia para o desenvolvimento turísitico. Palavras-chave: Desenvolvimento local. Turismo rural. Turismo criativo.

  20. Primeiro registro de Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini no Amazonas, Brasil First record of Eufriesea laniventris (Ducke, 1902 (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Euglossini in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Fernandez Storti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available É registrada pela primeira vez a ocorrência de Eufriesea laniventris no Amazonas. No ano 2000, foram coletados seis exemplares na região de Manaus (2º 36' S e 60º 02' W atraídos pelas substâncias odoríferas 1,8 cineol e salicilato de metila.The first record of Eufriesea laniventris in the state of Amazonas is here reported. Attracted to 1.8 cineole and methyl salicylate fragrances, six specimens were colected in the region of Manaus (2º 36' S 60º 02' W during the year 2000.

  1. Etnobotânica das variedades locais do cará (Dioscorea spp. cultivados em comunidades no município de Caapiranga, estado do Amazonas Ethnobotany of local varieties of yams (Dioscorea spp. cultivated in the municipality of Caapiranga, AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo trata da investigação das práticas de conservação da agrodiversidade do cará (Dioscorea spp. mantidas por comunidades produtoras no município de Caapiranga, Amazonas, usando ferramentas metodológicas da etnobotânica, em busca de associar o saber científico com o conhecimento perceptivo e cultural dos agricultores locais sobre a cultura do cará. Foi empregado o método das quatro-células, levantamento e coletas botânicas, aplicação de formulário, entrevistas, observação participativa com os agricultores sobre as peculiaridades de cada espécie e variedades locais. Os materiais coletados foram identificados por especialista do Herbário do Instituto Federal de Educação Ciência, e Tecnologia do Amazonas (EAFM e do Instituto de Botânica-IBt, São Paulo e acondicionados no Herbário da Universidade Federal do Amazonas (HUAM, além de serem multiplicadas no campo de produção vegetal da UFAM, para posterior identificação das demais espécies e/ou variedades não identificadas. Dentre as 15 variedades locais pesquisadas, 10 pertencem à espécie D. trifida, uma à D. bulbifera. Quanto às quatro restantes, por não serem mais cultivadas nas roças, não foi possível sua identificação botânica. Verificou-se que os agricultores tradicionais pesquisados possuem grande conhecimento sobre as roças, bem como sobre as variedades locais cultivadas, e possuem formas de manejo e conservação que são fundamentais para a manutenção da agrodiversidade das suas roças. Os sistemas produtivos de Caapiranga constituem verdadeiras coleções de germoplasma de cará e representam a principal estratégia local de conservação in situ/on farm do recurso genético e, portanto, devem ser mantidos e incentivados.This study employed methodological tools of ethnobotany to better understand agrobiodiversity conservation practices used for yams (Dioscorea spp. cultivated by farming communities in the municipality of Caapiranga

  2. Atividade pesqueira dos índios Mura no Lago Ayapuá, Baixo Rio Purus, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Bicelli Coimbra, M.Sc.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The artisanal fisheries has great importance forthe Amazonian indigenous communities, as a form of subsistence, and for the cultural and tradition of these communities. In this study, we analyzed the fishery developed in four indigenous communities of the Mura people indigenous of the Lake Ayapuá Land,in the lower Purus River. The fishes were classified according to the composition and importance of the species in weight and number of DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20873/uft.2359-3652.2017v4n1p115Revista Desafios –v. 04, n. 1, 2017116individuals, structure and size of the individuals captured, and total weight of the catches, between October and December of 2008. The most commercialized species were the Aruanã (Osteoglossumbicirrhosum, the pescada (Plagioscionsquamosissimus, the "feras" or big catfish (dourada, Brachyplatystomarousseauxiiand the filhote Brachyplatystomafilamentosum and the tucunaré (Cichlamonoculus. The most commonly consumed species were aruanã, tucunaré, piranha-caju (Pygocentrusnattereri and acará-açu (Astronotuscrassipinni. Species such as tucunaré and pescada have catch sizes within the standards permitted by legislation. However, acará-açu, aruanã, tambaqui (Colossomamacropomum, surubim (Pseudoplatystomapunctifer, caparari (Pseudoplatystomatigrinum, filhote and dourada do not have the same legal standard. Most of the production (87% was destined for commercialization with Fish buyer. Preventive and mitigating measures are proposed to ensure the permanence of fish stocks and consequently the sustainability of fishing and the maintenance of the local population.

  3. Feeding ecology of immature Lithodoras dorsalis (Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Doradidae in a tidal environment, estuary of the rio Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Augusto Pedroso Barbosa

    Full Text Available Studies of feeding ecology are important for the evaluation of interactive processes in fish communities. This study evaluated the feeding ecology of Lithodoras dorsalis (Doradidae from streams within the Amazon estuary delta (Brazil, a macro-tidal area, on different pluviometric periods. A total of 371 young specimens was collected during 12 months of sampling (July 2010 to June 2011. The species diet was composed of 28 food items analyzed by Repletion Index, Alimentary Index and Niche Breadth. Young L. dorsalis was classified as herbivore with a frugivory tendency due to the high importance of fruit and seeds in its diet. Food intake varied among sampled months, with the lowest intake being recorded during the rainy-dry season transition period, and the highest at the beginning of the dry season. The importance of food items and the composition of the diet were different throughout the year, probably due to the daily tides that allow fish to access new environments and the pluviometric periods. These results provide important data on the feeding ecology of Amazonian doradids. The study also emphasized the importance of allochthonous resources, derived from the riparian forest, which reinforces the importance of this habitat for the conservation of Neotropical freshwater fishes.

  4. Caracterização hidrodinâmica e do transporte de sedimentos na região fluvio-estuarina do rio Paracauari, Ilha de Marajó, Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Gabriela Padilha

    2013-01-01

    O Rio Paracauari é o principal rio que drena a porção nordeste da Ilha de Marajó, estado do Pará, maior ilha fluvio‐estuarina do mundo, e que integra a rede fluvial da foz da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Amazonas. O presente trabalho visou caracterizar o funcionamento hidrodinâmico do baixo‐estuário rio Paracauari e quantificar o aporte de sedimentos do mesmo para a baía de Marajó em função do regime sazonal das chuvas na região, com amostragens durante os períodos de maior volume...

  5. Historical analysis of the records of sylvan yellow fever in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, from 1996 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Yellow fever is a non-contagious infectious disease, highly lethal, transmitted by the Aedes, Haemagogus and Sabethes. Methods Descriptive retrospective study of the yellow fever cases in Amazonas, between 1996 and 2009. Results Forty two cases of yellow fever were confirmed, with 30 deaths, 10% of which were foreigners. Conclusions The presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in both rural Amazonas and its capital demonstrates the dispersion of these vectors and underscores the need for better and continuous epidemiological and entomological control.

  6. Efeitos sedativos da associação de Cetamina e Midazolam administrados pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaio (Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda H. Bitencourt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A falta de protocolos de sedação seguros para uso em papagaios na literatura demonstra a necessidade de conhecer os anestésicos que são eficazes nestes animais. Devido a pouca massa muscular desta espécie, notou-se a necessidade de estudar outra via de administração, menos invasiva e dolorosa ao animal, como a via intranasal. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos sedativos e a viabilidade da administração intranasal, em comparação à via intramuscular, de 15mg/kg de Cetamina e 1mg/kg de Midazolam. Foram utilizados 14 papagaios das espécies Amazona aestiva e Amazona vinacea, de ambos os sexos, adultos, peso médio de 388,5±29,1g. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: intramuscular (IM, n=7 e intranasal (IN, n=7. No grupo intramuscular, a administração dos anestésicos foi realizada nos músculos peitorais, utilizando seringas de insulina e no grupo intranasal, com auxílio de uma micropipeta. Avaliou-se o período de latência, tempo de duração, qualidade de sedação, e o tempo de recuperação total. A média para o período de latência no grupo IM foi de 6,13±2,02 minutos e no grupo IN de 4,84±2,37 minutos. Já para o tempo de duração da sedação no grupo IM a média foi de 35,81±29,56 e no grupo IN de 24,52±14,83 minutos. Ambas as vias promoveram sedação adequada, pois a média do escore da qualidade de sedação obtida pelo grupo IM foi 2±1,5 e pelo grupo IN 1,28±1,1. O tempo de recuperação total no grupo IM foi de 27,04±11,69 e no grupo IN de 17,67±11,64 minutos. Apesar do grupo IN ter apresentado os menores tempos de período de latência, duração e de recuperação total e ter obtido melhor escore na qualidade de sedação, não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os grupos. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo indicam que a administração de 15 mg/kg de cetamina e 1mg/kg de midazolam pela via intranasal ou intramuscular em papagaios (Amazona aestiva e

  7. Sedative Effects of Intranasal Midazolam Administration in Wild Caught Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva) and Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Débora P H; de Araújo, Nayone L L C; Raposo, Ana Cláudia S; Filho, Emanoel F Martins; Vieira, João Victor R; Oriá, Arianne P

    2017-09-01

    Safe and effective sedation protocols are important for chemical restraint of birds in clinical and diagnostic procedures, such as clinical evaluations, radiographic positioning, and blood collection. These protocols may reduce stress and ease the management of wild-caught birds, which are susceptible to injury or death when exposed to stressful situations. We compare the sedative effect of intranasal midazolam in wild-caught blue-fronted (Amazona aestiva) and orange-winged (Amazona amazonica) Amazon parrots. Ten adult parrots of each species (n = 20), of unknown sex, weighing 0.337 ± 0.04 (blue-fronted) and 0.390 ± 0.03 kg (orange-winged), kg were used. Midazolam (2 mg/kg) was administered intranasally and the total volume of the drug was divided equally between the 2 nostrils. Onset time and total sedation time were assessed. Satisfactory sedation for clinical evaluation was induced in all birds. Onset time and total sedation times were similar in both species: 5.36 ± 1.16 and 25.40 ± 5.72 minutes, respectively, for blue-fronted Amazons and 5.09 ± 0.89 and 27.10 ± 3.73 minutes, respectively, for orange-winged Amazons. A total of 15 animals showed absence of vocalization, with moderate muscle relaxation and wing movement upon handling, and 2 animals presented with lateral recumbence, with intense muscle relaxation and no wing movement, requiring no restraint. Three blue-fronted Amazons had no effective sedation. Intranasally administered midazolam at a dose of 2 mg/kg effectively promoted sedative effects with a short latency time and fast recovery in wild-caught parrots.

  8. Cotas para negros no Ensino Superior e formas de classificação racial Quotas for blacks in higher education and forms of racial classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Brandão

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta e discute dados referentes à aplicação de um questionário voltado para variáveis de classificação racial e opinião sobre a política de cotas para negros em uma amostra de 476 alunos do último ano do Ensino Médio da rede pública de um município periférico da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro. Buscamos compreender os elementos que informam as classificações de cor ou raça, bem como o posicionamento que esses alunos tomavam frente à política de cotas que poderia beneficiá-los no acesso a uma universidade pública. Deve-se ressaltar que os alunos entrevistados estariam em breve frente à possibilidade de disputar uma vaga no Ensino Superior em um vestibular com cotas raciais numa universidade pública que mantém um campus no próprio município onde estudam e residem. Essa problemática e esse tipo de investigação nos parecem fundamentais na atualidade, pois as cotas para negros que vêm sendo implantadas desde 2003 em várias instituições de Ensino Superior têm sofrido críticas e atravessado controvérsias jurídicas também por conta das formas de classificação propostas. Na pesquisa realizada, foi possível avançar na discussão de como as opções de classificação racial até o momento utilizadas nessas políticas se relacionam com os formatos de auto-identificação e de identificação do outro, comumente presentes no cotidiano das escolas pesquisadas, bem como verificar como a idéia de cota racial é avaliada pelos seus possíveis beneficiários.This article presents and discusses data obtained with the application of a questionnaire focused on variables for racial classification and opinion about the policy of quotas for blacks; the questionnaire was applied to a sample of 476 pupils from the last year of secondary education of the public school system of a peripheral town in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro. We have tried to understand the elements that shape the

  9. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilaine Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed.

  10. Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988, a host of Leishmania amazonensis, sympatric with two other members of the Flaviscutellata complex in southern Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae Lutzomyia reducta Feliciangeli et al., 1988 um hospedeiro de Leishmania amazonensis, simpátrico com duas outras espécies do complexo flaviscutellata no sul do Amazonas e Rondônica, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Freitas

    1989-09-01

    ídas. Leishmania amazonensis foi isolada em um exemplar de L. reducta altamente infectado, tornando esta espécie a terceira a ser implicada como vetor desta leishmania no Brasil. A abundância relativa das três espécies simpátricas do complexo flaviscutellata varia em escala local e aparenta ter relação com a drenagem do solo. L. reducta constituiu cerca de 25% dos flebotomíneos capturados em armadilhas Disney em locais mal e bem drenados, porém não foi encontrada em locais sujeitos a inundações. L. olmeca nociva era restrita às áreas mal drenadas não sujeitas a inundações, enquanto L. flaviscutellata foi capturada neste dois ambientes e também numa área periodicamente inundada. L. reducta não tem sido assinalada ao norte do Rio Amazonas no Brasil, porém a ausência de registros do oeste e noroeste do Estado do Amazonas possa refletri a falta de levantamento nestas áreas.

  11. Formas de tierra y clases de pendiente del departamento de Amazonas: informe ejecutivo

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales. Dirección General de Estudios y Proyectos

    2000-01-01

    Muestra la evaluación de las formas de tierra y clases de pendiente de la región sierra del departamento de Amazonas. El objetivo principal es presentar de manera esquemática el conjunto de formas de tierra, clases de pendiente dominante, sus diferencias morfoclimáticas y evolutivas, así como la identificación de las principales acciones erosivas que actualmente puedan significar riesgos a las actividades humanas, o a coadyuvar al deterioro generalizado del medio. El documento ha sido elabora...

  12. Hymenoptera stings in Brazil: a neglected health threat in Amazonas State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hymenoptera injuries are commonly caused by stinging insects. In Amazonas state, Brazil, there is no information regarding distribution, profile, and systemic manifestations associated with Hymenoptera injuries. METHODS: This study aimed to identify risk factors for systemic manifestation using the Brazilian Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (2007 to 2015. RESULTS: Half of Hymenoptera injuries were caused by bee stings. Hymenoptera injuries were concentrated in Manaus, and 13.36% of cases displayed systemic signs. Delayed medical assistance (4 to 12 hours presented four times more risk for systemic manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Simple clinical observations and history of injury are critical information for prognostic improvement.

  13. Report about star fruit fruits damaged by Amazona albifrons Sparman, in Tabasco, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Sánchez-Soto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine, the animal species causing damage to inmature fruits of Averrhoa carambola, in a home garden. The study was conducted in a home garden with two star fruit trees in Cardenas, Tabasco, Mexico (18°00’10.9’’ N, 93°25’52.2’’ W. The loss of fruits was registered from June 21st to August 2nd, 2015 based on weekly evaluations. 12 637 fruits were toppled by the bird Amazona albifrons Sparman (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae, which is distributed from Mexico to Costa Rica.

  14. Curvas de car?ncias nutricionais em adultos quilombolas de ?reas ribeirinhas do baixo Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Lu?sa Margareth Carneiro da

    2013-01-01

    INTRODU??O: A Pol?tica Nacional de Alimenta??o e Nutri??o 2012 assegura: A alimenta??o e nutri??o constituem requisitos b?sicos para a promo??o e a prote??o da sa?de, possibilitando a afirma??o plena do potencial de crescimento e desenvolvimento humano, com qualidade de vida e cidadania . OBJETIVO: Elaborar curvas de car?ncias nutricionais atrav?s da investiga??o das tend?ncias de consumo, padr?o alimentar e nutricional de adultos quilombolas de ?reas ribeirinhas do Baixo Amazonas no Munic?p...

  15. Diagnóstico da realidade nutricional no estado do Amazonas, Brasil. I - hipovitaminose A

    OpenAIRE

    ALENCAR,Fernando Hélio; CASTRO,Janete Seixas; YUYAMA,Lúcia Kioko O.; MARINHO,Helyde Albuquerque; NAGAHAMA,Dionísia

    2002-01-01

    Procedeu-se uma revisão de toda produção científica do Amazonas, da área da nutrição nas últimas décadas. A análise deste material, consubstanciada com as últimas pesquisas realizadas pelo grupo da Nutrição do INPA viabilizou a composição do diagnóstico da hipovitaminose A na região Amazônica. A investigação clínico-oftalmológica, envolveu 487 crianças de 2 a 5 anos, de ambos os ...

  16. Combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma in a Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Anusha Hemamali; Izawa, Takeshi; Fujita, Daisuke; Denda, Yuki; Seto, Eiko; Sasai, Hiroshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2013-11-01

    A 9-year-old male Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix) with a history of anorexia and vomiting died of a liver tumor. The tumor consisted of neoplastic cells with hepatocellular and cholangiocellular differentiations and their intermingled areas. Neoplastic hepatocytes showed islands or trabecular growth with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm. Cells showing biliary differentiation formed ducts or tubules lined by cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive epithelia, accompanied by desmoplasia consisting of myofibroblasts reacting to α-smooth muscle actin and desmin. The tumor was diagnosed as a combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, which is very rare in the avian.

  17. Mycobacterium marinum infection in a blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, David E; Bemis, David A; Garner, Michael M

    2012-12-01

    A blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) was presented with a granuloma involving the proximal rhinotheca and extending into the rostral sinuses. Mycobacterium marinum was diagnosed based on results of biopsy and culture. Treatment was initiated with clarithromycin, rifampin, and ethambutol, but the bird died 4 months after the onset of antimicrobial therapy. Additional granulomas were found in the left lung and liver on postmortem examination. Mycobacterial isolation on postmortem samples was unsuccessful. This is the first report of Mycobacterium marinum in a bird.

  18. Organobentonita como sustituto de negro de carbono en formulaciones de caucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Manchado, M. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Rubber compounds based on natural rubber reinforced with ammonium salt modified bentonite have been prepared and characterized. It pretends to evaluate the possibility of using these white fillers as substitute of carbon black in natural rubber compounds. Vulcametric curves show that the organoclay and carbon black accelerate the vulcanization reaction and, furthermore, give rise to a marked increase in the torque. However, it is of interest to point out that these effects are more marked in the case of the organoclay. In addition, the mechanical characterization show the strong reinforcing effect of both fillers, but this effect is newly more sensible when the organoclay is added to the NR. It is worthy to note that the mechanical properties of 10% organoclay-NR nanocomposite are comparable to the 40 phr carbon black filled compound.

    Se han preparado y caracterizado nanocomposites de caucho natural reforzados con bentonita modificada orgánicamente con una sal de amonio. Se pretende evaluar la posibilidad de utilizar estas cargas claras como sustitutos del negro de carbono en las formulaciones de caucho natural. Las curvas de vulcanización muestran que tanto la bentonita organofilizada como el negro de carbono aceleran la reacción de vulcanización y además, dan lugar a un considerable incremento en el torque. No obstante, es interesante destacar que estos efectos son más marcados en el caso de la organobentonita. Por su parte, la caracterización mecánica muestra el fuerte efecto reforzante de ambas cargas, si bien este efecto es nuevamente más acusado en presencia de la organobentonita. Es importante señalar que las propiedades mecánicas del nanocomposite reforzado con 10 partes de organobentonita son similares a las del composite con 40 partes de negro de carbono.

  19. El impacto de la crisis fiscal en el trabajo en negro: las provincias de noroeste argentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Panaia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se enmarca dentro de los estudios de génesis, crecimiento y dinamismo del sector informal y aumento o disminución de la propensión a trabajar en condiciones de informalidad, ya sea por la forma de contrato (precariedad; por la falta de pago (evasión previsional o comunmente llamado «en gris» o « en negro» por su característica de clandestinidad (ilegalidad o por realizarse en unidades económicas informales. En el contexto económico de la década del '90, en la Argentina, con las nuevas medidas que construyen un nuevo perfil del mercado de trabajo, se analizan los determinantes del mercado de trabajo sin aportes utilizando los datos de la construcción de un mapa de propensión al trabajo en negro, en base a un método de análisis de inobservables de fenómenos de multiples causas y múltiples consecuencias. El mapa construido para todo el país, en una investigación anterior, sirve de base para un análisis más profundo de la zona del Noroeste Argentino, una de las regiones más desfavorecidas del país y donde la propensión al aumento del trabajo en negro es más intensa, contrastándolo con los del total del país.

  20. Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del Estado de Veracruz, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ugalde Acosta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Validación de genotipos de frijol negro en la zona central del estado de Veracruz, México. El objetivo del presentetrabajo, fue validar genotipos de frijol con el paquete tecnológico del INIFAP, en parcelas de productores. Durante los ciclosde humedad residual de 1998 a 2001 se establecieron nueveparcelas de validación. Los genotipos utilizados fueron: las lí-neas II-307 y DOR-500 y las variedades Negro Huasteco 81,Negro Cotaxtla 91 y Negro INIFAPy como testigo del productor la variedad Jamapa. En las parcelas se realizaron las laboresde manejo agronómico recomendadas por el INIFAPpara esazona de producción. Cada parcela ocupó una superficie total de3000 m2. Se realizaron análisis de varianza individuales por localidad, considerando como repetición los rendimientos obtenidos por cada genotipo (500 m2 por ciclo de evaluación; también se efectuaron análisis combinado con prueba deseparación de medias (DMS 5% y un análisis económico mediante la Tasa de Retorno Marginal. Los resultados indicaronque las variedades y líneas mejoradas fueron superiores en másdel 100% en rendimiento al testigo. El análisis económicomostró que el mayor beneficio económico se obtuvo al sembrarlas variedades Negro INIFAPy Negro Cotaxtla 91, con utilidades superiores a los US $ 286/ha y una relación beneficio/costo de 1,52 y 1,51, respectivamente.

  1. La teoría de la radiación del cuerpo negro

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Se expondrán las ideas fundamentales que permitieron a Planck encontrar la teoría correcta para explicar el espectro de energía radiada por un cuerpo negro al calentarse como una función de la temperatura e independientemente de la naturaleza y la forma de éste; las dificultades que tuvo Planck para aceptar la teoría atómica y los desarrollos de Ludwing Boltzmann de la segunda ley de la termodinámica, la ley de la entropía, los cuales fueron los pilares para desarrollar la teoría de los cuant...

  2. Metazoan endoparasites of Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes: Serrasalminae in the Negro River, Pantanal, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Vicentin

    Full Text Available In the period of October 2007 to August 2008, 152 specimens ofPygocentrus nattereri were caught in the Negro River in the Nhecolândia region, central Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The specimens were necropsied and a total of 4,212 metazoan endoparasites were recovered, belonging to 10 taxons:Procamallanus (Spirocamallanusinopinatus, Philometridae gen. sp.,Eustrongylides sp., Brevimulticaecum sp.,Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda, Echinorhynchus paranensis (Acanthocephala, Leiperia gracile,Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 andSubtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida. This is the first record of two parasite species from P. nattereri: E. paranensis and L. gracile.

  3. El proyecto de cuotas raciales y la afirmación del negro en Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Igreja, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    El debate sobre el establecimiento de cuotas raciales en los exámenes de selección para el ingreso en las universidades brasileñas sigue polarizado. Posiciones a favor y en contra se confrontan en el mundo académico. De un lado, están principalmente los datos estadísticos divulgados que evalúan la diferencia social entre negros y blancos, con el objetivo de mesurar el impacto del racismo en la sociedad. Estos datos se han vuelto la “prueba irrefutable” de los efectos perversos del racismo en ...

  4. Óleo de andiroba: processo tradicional da extração, uso e aspectos sociais no estado do Amazonas, Brasil Crapwood oil: traditional extraction, use and social aspects in the state of Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza P. Mendonça

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O processo tradicional de extração do óleo das sementes de andiroba foi levantado em três municípios (Anamã, Manacapuru e Silves no Estado do Amazonas. Em 1992 e 2004, foi aplicado um questionário a 38 extratoras. Sementes das duas espécies de andiroba (Carapa procera D.C. e Carapa guianensis Aubl. foram utilizadas como matéria prima. O processo tradicional é complexo, demora cerca de dois meses e pode ser dividido em três etapas: 1. A coleta, seleção de sementes boas e um primeiro armazenamento (3-15 dias. 2. O preparo da massa pelo cozimento das sementes em água (1-3 horas, um segundo período de armazenamento (até 20 dias e finalizada pela retirada da casca e o amassamento das amêndoas. 3. A extração do óleo (até 30 dias, pelo gotejamento colocando a massa sobre uma superfície inclinada. Óleo extraído na sombra foi considerado de melhor qualidade do que no sol, porém o processo é mais demorado. Uma segunda extração com a prensa ("tipiti", usada na fabricação de farinha, foi raramente empregada. Verificaram-se pequenas variações entre os procedimentos das extratoras, aparentemente com conseqüências na rentabilidade e na qualidade do óleo. Na primeira e segunda etapa da extração participaram membros da família e/ou vizinhos, ao contrário da etapa final, realizada por uma única mulher. Enquanto, transmissão do conhecimento tradicional, em geral, costuma passar de geração por geração pela oralidade e observação, este estudo revelou, que os jovens não participam mais da extração. Fato, que no futuro próximo, pode causar a perda de conhecimento em relação à extração do óleo de andiroba pelo método tradicional.The traditional method of oil extraction from crabwood seeds was observed in three municipalities (Anamã, Manacapuru e Silves in the state of Amazonas. In 1992 and 2004 a total of 38 producers were interviewed. Seeds of two species (Carapa procera D.C. and Carapa guianensis Aubl. were

  5. Lymnaea columella: two new Brazilian localities in the states of Amazonas and Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lobato Paraense

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Lymnaea columella is recorded in Tefé, Amazonas state, where it was found together with Drepanotrema anatinum, Physa marmorata and pomacea sp. L. columella was also collected in Salvador, Bahia state, at the dique do Tororó, an urban lake formely mentioned (as "lac Baril" by Moricand (1853 as a breeding-place of Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata and Ancylus moricandi. The four first-mentioned species, as well as physa cubensis and Hemisinus brasiliensis, were also collected now. This is the first record of a lymnaeid in the Northeastern region of Brazil.É registrada a ocorrência de Lymnaea columella em Tefé, Estado do Amazonas, onde foi encontrada juntamente com Physa marmorata e Pomacea sp. L. columella foi também coletada em Salvador, Estado da Bahia, no Dique do Tororó, lago urbano antes mencionado por Moricand (1853 como criadouro de Biomphalaria glabrata, Drepanotrema cimex, D. depressissimum, Pomacea lineata, P. decussata e Ancylus moricandi. As quatro primeiras espécies mencionadas, assim como Physa cubensis e Hemisinus brasiliensis, também foram agora coletadas. Este é o primeiro registro de um limneídeo na região Nordeste do Brasil

  6. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  7. As Organizações da Sociedade Civil no enfrentamento à AIDS no Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rocha Kadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou analisar a percepção que as Organizações da Sociedade Civil fazem de sua contribuição na história do enfrentamento à AIDS, no Amazonas. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa com uso de fontes documentais e orais. Os dados foram coletados entre junho e setembro de 2013. Utilizou-se técnica de entrevistas com roteiro semiestruturado com as lideranças de oito organizações que trabalham/trabalharam com grupos mais vulneráveis. A partir da análise do discurso, concluiu-se que com a descentralização de recursos do Departamento de DST, AIDS e Hepatites Virais para as Coordenações locais, as Organizações reconhecem dois momentos distintos: um primeiro momento de fortalecimento organizacional, engajamento coletivo e participação política ativa; e um momento atual de distanciamento entre as Organizações e desarticulação política e, consequentemente, enfraquecimento do movimento social na luta contra AIDS no Amazonas.

  8. The Paleozoic ichthyofauna of the Amazonas and Parnaíba basins, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rodrigo Tinoco; Machado, Deusana Maria da Costa

    2018-03-01

    The Brazilian Paleozoic ichthyofauna from the Parnaíba and Amazonas basins regard a sparsely known diversity, including chondrichthyans and acanthodians, besides some osteichthyan remains. This work proposes a revision of the fossil material from these two sedimentary basins and synthesizes the morphological aspect of such material trying to understand the influences of those fossils to the paleontology of the region, comparing the Brazilian fossils with other gondwanan faunas. The Brazilian Paleozoic fish fauna shows great resemblance to those of Bolivia, especially during the Devonian. Many of the Acanthodian spines from the Manacapuru Formation (Amazonas Basin), and the Pimenteira Formation (Parnaíba Basin), are comparable to the taxa found in Bolivia. The lack of more Placoderm remains in the Brazilian outcrops is similar to the low diversity of this group in Bolivia, when compared to other South American and Euramerican localities. The most diverse Brazilian ichthyofauna is encountered in the Permian Pedra de Fogo Formation where numerous chondrichthyans and 'paleopterygians' remains are found, together with dipnoans and actinistians. Despite the apparent lack of more representative Paleozoic ichthyofaunas in Brazil, the available material that ranges from Lower Devonian to early Permian from Brazil bears important taxa that could address valuable taxonomic and biogeographic informations.

  9. O vermelho e o negro: um experimento para pensar o ritual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houseman Michael

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da performance de um rito de iniciação inventado pelo autor, realizado como um experimento para pensar certos traços recorrentes da ação ritual e, em particular, da iniciação (masculina. O ritual em questão, O Vermelho e o Negro, foi planejado para consistir essencialmente, se não exclusivamente, em um padrão específico de interação: O Vermelho e o Negro não pertence a nenhuma tradição cultural reconhecível, não envolve quase nenhum simbolismo explícito, suas "crenças" subjacentes são abertamente despropositadas, suas qualidades cênicas mínimas e não se pode atribuir a ele praticamente nenhuma função social. Um dos objetivos do exercício é explorar e fundamentar uma abordagem relacional da análise do ritual na qual este é visto como atuação de relações específicas. Entre os temas discutidos estão os do enquadramento, da simulação, do sigilo, da imposição de sofrimento, da eficácia cerimonial, da condensação ritual e do complexo jogo de perspectivas internas e externas ao grupo.

  10. Ancient remains and the first peopling of the Americas: Reassessing the Hoyo Negro skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Soledad; Bortolini, Maria C; Bonatto, Sandro L; Hünemeier, Tábita; Santos, Fabrício R; González-José, Rolando

    2015-11-01

    A noticeably well-preserved ∼12.500 years-old skeleton from the Hoyo Negro cave, Yucatán, México, was recently reported, along with its archaeological, genetic and skeletal characteristics. Based exclusively on an anatomical description of the skull (HN5/48), Chatters and colleagues stated that this specimen can be assigned to a set of ancient remains that differ from modern Native Americans, the so called "Paleoamericans". Here, we aim to further explore the morphological affinities of this specimen with a set of comparative cranial samples covering ancient and modern periods from Asia and the Americas. Images published in the original article were analyzed using geometric morphometrics methods. Shape variables were used to perform Principal Component and Discriminant analysis against the reference samples. Even thought the Principal Component Analysis suggests that the Hoyo Negro skull falls in a subregion of the morphospace occupied by both "Paleoamericans" and some modern Native Americans, the Discriminant analyses suggest greater affinity with a modern Native American sample. These results reinforce the idea that the original population that first occupied the New World carried high levels of within-group variation, which we have suggested previously on a synthetic model for the settlement of the Americas. Our results also highlight the importance of developing formal classificatory test before deriving settlement hypothesis purely based on macroscopic descriptions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt. The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degrees} C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3--5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  12. Analysis of heavy oils: Method development and application to Cerro Negro heavy petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbognani, L.; Hazos, M.; Sanchez, V. (INTEVEP, Filial de Petroleos de Venezuela, SA, Caracas (Venezuela)); Green, J.A.; Green, J.B.; Grigsby, R.D.; Pearson, C.D.; Reynolds, J.W.; Shay, J.Y.; Sturm, G.P. Jr.; Thomson, J.S.; Vogh, J.W.; Vrana, R.P.; Yu, S.K.T.; Diehl, B.H.; Grizzle, P.L.; Hirsch, D.E; Hornung, K.W.; Tang, S.Y.

    1989-12-01

    On March 6, 1980, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ministry of Energy and Mines of Venezuela (MEMV) entered into a joint agreement which included analysis of heavy crude oils from the Venezuelan Orinoco oil belt.The purpose of this report is to present compositional data and describe new analytical methods obtained from work on the Cerro Negro Orinoco belt crude oil since 1980. Most of the chapters focus on the methods rather than the resulting data on Cerro Negro oil, and results from other oils obtained during the verification of the method are included. In addition, published work on analysis of heavy oils, tar sand bitumens, and like materials is reviewed, and the overall state of the art in analytical methodology for heavy fossil liquids is assessed. The various phases of the work included: distillation and determination of routine'' physical/chemical properties (Chapter 1); preliminary separation of >200{degree}C distillates and the residue into acid, base, neutral, saturated hydrocarbon and neutral-aromatic concentrates (Chapter 2); further separation of acid, base, and neutral concentrates into subtypes (Chapters 3-5); and determination of the distribution of metal-containing compounds in all fractions (Chapter 6).

  13. Turismo religioso en la Basílica del Cristo Negro de Esquipulas, Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Daniel Rosas Paz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Los santuarios religiosos representan, en la actualidad, espacios de atracción de turistas, creyentes o no, y de devotos; sobresalen algunos que, por su magnetismo espiritual, exhiben áreas extendidas de adherencia devocional y turística. Guatemala se inserta en el escenario anterior a través del caso de la Basílica de Esquipulas que resguarda a la venerada imagen del Cristo Negro; ubicada en la Ciudad-Santuario homónima al suroriente del arribo cíclico de miles de turistas y peregrinos que incentivan la economía local. El contexto territorial referido motivó la realización de este trabajo que tiene como objetivo revelar características geográficas del turismo religioso en el Santuario del Cristo Negro de Esquipulas; en una primera parte, se precisan los postulados teórico-conceptuales examinados que atañen al turismo religioso; posteriormente, se describen particularidades geográficas del contexto regional y local; finalmente, se detallan los hallazgos que comprueban la importancia geográfica del turismo religioso en el Santuario a partir de la investigación en gabinete y el trabajo realizado en campo.

  14. THE NEGRO IN AMERICAN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS, A REPORT OF A STUDY OF THE TREAMENT OF NEGROES IN AMERICAN HISTORY TEXTBOOKS USED IN GRADES FIVE AND EIGHT AND IN THE HIGH SCHOOLS OF CALIFORNIA'S PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    THIS REPORT PRESENTS THE FINDINGS OF A PANEL OF SIX AMERICAN HISTORIANS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA WHO REVIEWED SEVEN HISTORY TEXTS WIDELY USED IN THE STATE TO ASSESS THEIR TREATMENT OF THE AMERICAN NEGRO. THEY FOUND THAT MOST OF THE TEXTS REFLECTED VIEWS REJECTED OR DRASTICALLY MODIFIED BY GOOD CURRENT HISTORICAL SCHOLARSHIP. MANY OF THESE…

  15. APORTES TEÓRICO-FILOSÓFICOS DE TRABALHOS SOBRE RIOS BRASILEIROS NA ABORDAGEM DA GEOGRAFIA HUMANISTA CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Jaqueline Nogueira Chiapetti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é analisar os aportes teórico-filosóficos que orientaram as abordagens de trabalhos resultantes de pesquisas teóricas e empíricas sobre rios ou que tenham rios brasileiros envolvidos, desenvolvidos na perspectiva humanista cultural. Os procedimentos metodológicos constaram de levantamento dos trabalhos a serem estudados, seguido de leitura apurada de cada um para constatar sua orientação na abordagem da Geografia Humanista Cultural. Na sequência foram realizadas a seleção, leituras e a caracterização desses trabalhos, como também a elaboração do mapa de localização dos rios pesquisados e, por fim, a interpretação e análise dos aportes teórico-filosóficos desses trabalhos. Como resultado, os trabalhos selecionados foram dissertações e teses desenvolvidas no período de 1990 a 2012, em programas de pós-graduação de universidades brasileiras, tendo como rios brasileiros pesquisados: Nhundiaquara (PR, Amazonas (AM, Araguaia (GO, MT, TO e PA, Jacaré-Pepira (SP, São Francisco (MG, AL e SE, Capibaribe (PE, Rio das Contas (BA e Rio de Ondas (BA; e os aportes teórico-filosóficos desses trabalhos foram, principalmente, a percepção e a fenomenologia.

  16. TEST BIAS--VALIDITY OF THE SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST FOR NEGRO AND WHITE STUDENTS IN INTEGRATED COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLEARY, T. ANNE

    FOR THIS RESEARCH, A TEST WAS SAID TO BE BIASED FOR MEMBERS OF A SUBGROUP OF THE POPULATION IF, IN THE PREDICTION OF A CRITERION FOR WHICH THE TEST WAS DESIGNED, CONSISTENT NONZERO ERRORS OF PREDICTION ARE MADE FOR MEMBERS OF THE SUBGROUP. SAMPLES OF NEGRO AND WHITE STUDENTS FROM THREE INTEGRATED COLLEGES WERE STUDIED. IN THE TWO EASTERN COLLEGES,…

  17. Resenha de 1976: Movimento Black Rio, de Luiz Felipe de Lima Peixoto e Zé Otávio Sabadelhe (Rio de Janeiro: José Olympio, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Palombini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lançado em 10 de novembro de 2016, o livro 1976: Movimento Black Rio, dos jornalistas Luiz Felipe de Lima Peixoto e Zé Otávio Sabadelhe, celebra os quarenta anos da manchete de Lena Frias, Black Rio: o orgulho (importado de ser negro no Brasil, publicada em 17 de julho de 1976 no Caderno B do Jornal do Brasil. Em 28 reportagens, os autores recorrem a entrevistas e material previamente publicado para contar a história da cultura de bailes que, alimentados por soul, funk e disco afro-norte-americanos, espalharam-se pela Zona Norte carioca nos anos 1970, bem como a história do conjunto das apropriações desses gêneros por Tim Maia, Toni Tornado, Hyldon, Carlos Dafé, Cassiano, Gerson King Combo, Dom Salvador e Abolição, União Black, e Banda Black Rio. O livro tenciona constituir “uma contribuição à construção discursiva de uma memória social positiva da população negra brasileira” e oferece elementos para um trabalho necessário de revisão historiográfica que transcende o âmbito do tema tratado, apesar de erros fatuais que poderiam ter sido corrigidos por cruzamento de dados.

  18. Identidad y escenificación de estereotipos en Los negros de Jean Genet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario León Pinto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available En la obra Los negros del dramaturgo francés Jean Genet nos enfrentamos, de manera muy compleja y evidentemente polémica, al problema de la identidad cultural y racial, del dominio ideológico, de la colonización y el proceso de descolonización, particularmente desde el problema de “lo negro” en el ámbito cultural del colonialismo, centrándose la obra en la problemática en torno a la identidad del ser negro, como una identidad construida por el blanco. Este conflicto identitario es presentado en escena evidenciando y tensionando el artificio teatral. De este modo, en este artículo veremos cómo se escenifica dicho conflicto mediante un uso extremo de los recursos teatrales y del motivo del teatro dentro del teatro, particularmente a partir de personajes que muestran una identidad engañosa, explicitando que son actores representando un rol (reflejo perfecto de la realidad del hombre negro que constantemente representa un papel dado por el blanco, y gestando un espacio posible para la rebelión y liberación de sus propias subjetividades detrás de los diferentes niveles de la representación. Palabra clave: Jean Genet, identidad, colonialismo, postcolonialismo, teatro dentro del teatro.   In the play The Blacks by French dramatist Jean Genet we are faced, in both a complex and controversial manner, with the issues of cultural and racial identity, ideological dominion, colonialism and the process of decolonization as seen from the perspective of “the blackness” issue against the backdrop of colonialism. The play revolves around the problem of identity of being black as one built by the white man. This conflict is staged by overtly showing and exaggerating theatrical artifices. Thus, in this paper we shall discuss how such a conflict is brought onto the stage by heightening theatrical resources, as well as the theme of a play within the play. This theme shows characters bearing an ill-defined identity, revealing them as actors

  19. VIERNES NEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR ANDRÉS ROA MARTÍNEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente caso tiene como objetivo presentar la situación compleja que se genera en una gran empresa manufacturera de materia prima para el sector de la construcción, cuando el sistema integrado de información que dispone Sufre un colapso (o ¿se cae el sistema¿, como se denomina comúnmente en la fecha de cierre. Esta falla genera un constreñimiento en las actividades logísticas relacionadas con el centro de distribución, unidad que despacha los pedidos a nivel nacional; impidiendo la facturación de pedidos y, por consiguiente, generando incumplimiento en las entregas, insatisfacción del cliente y posible pérdida de pedidos y no cumplimiento de la cuota de ventas de la empresa afectando los estados de resultados.

  20. Viernes Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Andrés Roa Martínez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente caso tiene como objetivo presentar la situación compleja que se genera en una gran empresa manufacturera de materia prima para el sector de la construcción, cuando el sistema integrado de información que dispone Sufre un colapso (o “se cae el sistema”, como se denomina comúnmente en la fecha de cierre. Esta falla genera un constreñimiento en las actividades logísticas relacionadas con el centro de distribución, unidad que despacha los pedidos a nivel nacional; impidiendo la facturación de pedidos y, por consiguiente, generando incumplimiento en las entregas, insatisfacción del cliente y posible pérdida de pedidos y no cumplimiento de la cuota de ventas de la empresa afectando los estados de resultados.

  1. Sand Negro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    2016-01-01

    . The discussion centers around how persons in a shared context, who are racialized differently and have differing vantage points and perspectives, must navigate within a particular, asymmetric power relationship. I implement Gayatri Spivak’s notion of the sovereign subject to come to an understanding of some...

  2. Avaliação de danos por insetos em toras estocadas em indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Raimunda Liége Souza de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em seis indústrias madeireiras de Manaus, Amazonas, foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa, com a utilização de um questionário,para averiguar as condições de uso e processamento da madeira e as medidas preventivas contra o ataque de insetos. Foram realizados, também,um levantamento da ocorrência de insetos em 19 espécies de madeiras utilizadas por essas indústrias e a avaliação do dano provocado pelas principais espécies de Coleoptera (besouros e Isoptera (cupins. Das respostas apuradas, constatou-se que nenhuma das empresas visitadas emprega qualquer produto para prevenir o ataque de insetos às toras, assim como a secagem e a estocagem das toras são feitas de forma incorreta, contribuindo para aumentar a intensidade de ataque de insetos. Foram encontradas uma família de cupins e 16 de besouros, ressaltando que destas apenas cinco causam danos à madeira. Do total de 13 espécies de insetos coletados, destacam-se Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff e Platypus parallelus (Fabricius, encontradas em 18 espécies madeireiras, sendo conseqüentemente responsáveis pela maioria dos danos nas toras X. volvulus (Fabricius e Platypus sp. foram encontradas em cinco espécies; X. ferrugineus (Fabricius em três espécies; Minthea rugicolis Walk, Minthea sp. e Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky em duas, e Dinoderus bifoveolatus Wollaston, Anoplotermes sp.; e Cnesinus sp. em uma. As espécies de madeiras que sofreram maior grau de deterioração, causada principalmente por coleópteros, foram Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaertn. e Copaifera multijuga Hayne, seguidas por Couroupitaguianensis Aubl., Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess., Cedrela odorata L., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg., Hura crepitans L., Hymenolobium sp., Maquira coriacea (Karsten C.C. Berg, Nectandra sp., Virolasurinamensis Warb. e Vochysia sp.

  3. Determinantes e conseqüências da insegurança alimentar no Amazonas: a influência dos ecossistemas Alimentary insecurity determinants and consequences at Amazonas: ecosystems influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hélio Alencar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta revisão foram investigados os principais determinantes da transição epidemiológica, nutricional e do padrão de atividade física vivenciados pelos brasileiros nas últimas três décadas. Constata-se nestas pesquisas a exclusão sistemática da região Norte-rural do novo cenário epidemiológico nacional, atualmente caracterizado pelo declínio da desnutrição infantil e elevação concomitante da obesidade, além da ausência de informações científicas a respeito das condições de saúde, nutrição e sobrevivência das populações de praticamente todos os estados da região Norte. Especificamente para o estado do Amazonas é referida a menor estatura entre as crianças brasileiras, o que evidencia exposição à carências nutricionais de longa duração. Do mesmo modo, a análise evolutiva das pesquisas regionais caracteriza a persistência de um quadro grave de insegurança alimentar. Entretanto, sabe-se que a Amazônia é detentora de uma grande diversidade em peixes e frutos, o que deveria representar uma abundante oferta e utilização de proteína de boa qualidade biológica, calorias, vitaminas, minerais, e assim, viabilizar um adequado padrão de saúde, nutrição e qualidade de vida para sua população. A realidade social e econômica, bem como o quadro de precariedade da saúde e da nutrição da Região contrastam com a sua riqueza em recursos naturais. Para o entendimento deste evidente paradoxo foram investigados os componentes do bioma amazônico quanto à: heterogeneidade, complexidade, fragilidade, interatividade e suas relações com o potencial alimentar da região, bem como seu poder de influência na determinação do binômio saúde versus nutrição para os habitantes dos seus diferentes ecossistemas.In this review were investigated the principal determinants of the epidemic transition, nutritional and of the pattern of physical activity lived on by Brazilians in the last three decades. It is verified

  4. Vila amazonas: antes um espaço "acionado" hoje um passado esquecido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ferreira de Lima Brito

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Um projeto inovador situado no município de Santana no Estado do Amapá, Vila Amazonas se destacou como um centro autônomo, dotado de uma perfeita infra-estrutura, que fugia dos padrões vividos no município. Um trabalho conciso de exemplar aplicação dos princípios modernistas, bem como do urbanismo progressista especificamente no que concerne a cidade industrial, onde a razão determinante de tal estabelecimento é a presença próxima de matéria-prima, existência de uma força natural suscetível e a comodidade dos meios de transportes. O estudo coloca em discussão aspectos importantes da preservação do patrimônio que no momento se encontra na eminência de ser destruído e esquecido.

  5. [Community-based organizations and the aids epidemic in Amazonas state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Julio Cesar

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perception of community-based organizations and their contributions to the history of tackling Aids in Amazonas State. It involved qualitative research with the use of oral and documental sources. Data were collected between June and September 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with the leaders of eight organizations that work or worked with more vulnerable communities. Based on Discourse Analysis the conclusion drawn is that that the organizations perceive two distinct phases since the decentralization of funds from the Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Aids and Viral Hepatitis Department to the local leaders. The first phase was marked by the strengthening of organizations, collective empowerment and active political participation. The current phase has seen the distancing between organizations, a loss of political momentum and weakening of common response and organization.

  6. Characterization of the family health strategy in Amazonas state, Brazil: an analysis of implementation and impact

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hadelândia Milon de; Gonçalves, Maria Jacirema Ferreira; Pires, Rodrigo Otávio Moretti

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo aborda a implantação do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF) em municípios do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, analisando indicadores de cobertura populacional potencial, indícios de mudança do modelo assistencial e indício de impacto (2004 e 2008). A classificação de implantação foi intermediária e insatisfatória. Os resultados mostram aumento no número de municípios com PSF implantado, assim como na cobertura do programa, porém ainda abaixo de 50% da cobertura populacional. Para a dimensã...

  7. Evaluation of cryolite from pitinga (Amazonas-Brazil as a source of hydrogen fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica F. Paulino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the use of cryolite from the Pitinga Mine (Amazonas state, Brazil as raw material in hydrogen fluoride production. Samples were initially characterized by chemical and mineralogical analyses. They presented low silica content (< 4 wt.%. After milling, cryolite samples were digested with concentrated sulfuric acid under stirring (200 rpm and variable temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio conditions. Under the best experimental conditions (140 °C, 3-5 h, 96 wt.% of fluorine was recovered as hydrogen fluoride. The application of a 23 full factorial design showed that temperature and reaction time were relevant parameters during leaching, whereas liquid to solid ratio was not statistically significant.

  8. Gêneros Textuais e formação de professores (PARFOR para o interior do Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vinícius Ávila Nóbrega

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O intuito deste artigo é mostrar duas propostas de produção de gêneros textuais escritos elaboradas por professores cursistas de uma disciplina do Plano Nacional de Formação de Professores de Educação Básica, da Universidade Federal do Amazonas. Os dados correspondem a projetos de aula com produção textual com gênero escrito ou oral entregues pelos cursistas como requisito de conclusão da disciplina. Estes projetos procuram ser baseados nas postulações da sequência didática de Schneuwly e Dolz (2007 e no método dos descritores do SAEB para a Prova Brasil. Percebeu-se que alguns proponentes compreenderam o funcionamento produtivo das aulas de língua portuguesa quando usadas as produções de gêneros de texto presentes no cotidiano dos alunos.

  9. Potencial hortícola de los zapotes negros, Diospyros spp. (Ebenaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    García Díaz, Roger Fabián; Cuevas Sánchez,Jesús Axayacatl; Colinas León, María Teresa; Basurto Peña,Francisco; Zizumbo Villarreal,Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Se exploró el potencial hortícola del género Diospyros (Ebenaceae) mediante análisis biogeográficos, climáticos, morfológicos y etnobotánicos. Los análisis geográficos permitieron identificar las áreas óptimas para la conservación y el aprovechamiento de 20 especies. Con aquellas conocidas como Zapotes Negros, D. nigra y D. Conzattii, se aplicó un análisis climático. Por último se estudió la variabilidad morfológica asociada al nivel de manejo en tres zonas de México. Veracruz y Península de ...

  10. Argentina against the Allende government, the look of daily Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Azcoitia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we address the news about the Argentine-Chilean ties that circulated through the most influential newspaper of Argentine Norpatagonia during the years of the government of Salvador Allende (1970-1973. Through the tools of discourse analysis we realize the multiple dimensions that conditioned the discourses as well as the meanings acquired by binational relations within the framework of the discourses. We consider that this type of studies contributes to deconstruct the essential glances over the other, giving account of the several edges contained in the representations that circulate through the press. This acquires greater relevance in the case of the Northern Patagonia, it is in a region whose links with Chile set up an as historical as everyday experience In this sense, the discourses that prevailed in the Río Negro built a Chile Its past and present intimately linked it to the future of Argentina and the region.

  11. Volcanic hazard map for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, T.; Navarro, M.; Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    A volcano hazard study was conducted for Telica, Cerro Negro and El Hoyo volcanoes, Nicaragua, based on geological and volcanological field investigations, air photo analyses, and numerical eruption simulation. These volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes of the country. This study was realized 2004-2006 through technical cooperation of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with INETER, upon the request of the Government of Nicaragua. The resulting volcanic hazard map on 1:50,000 scale displays the hazards of lava flow, pyroclastic flows, lahars, tephra fall, volcanic bombs for an area of 1,300 square kilometers. The map and corresponding GIS coverage was handed out to Central, Departmental and Municipal authorities for their use and is included in a National GIS on Georisks developed and maintained by INETER.

  12. Jovens negros em conflito com a lei: escola e trajetórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Aparecida de Pinho Pinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho busca investigar as trajetórias de vida e de escolarização de jovens negros em processo de “ressocializacao", visando averiguar os fatores sociais que os levaram a ser considerados em conflito com alei. As analises foram realizadas a luz doaporte teórico das relações etnico-raciais,com ênfase nos enfoques teorico-metodologicos da dialética e da fenomenologia. Os resultados indicam que as condições de pobreza material e não material herdadas de gerações anteriores e o contexto escolar contribuem fortemente para a construção da situação atual desses jovens, que enfrentam a naturalização do racismo, evidenciada em diferentes momentos das narrativas produzidas pelos componentes do universo empírico desta pesquisa.

  13. Queering I Am Not Your Negro: or Why We Need James Baldwin More Than Ever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Corber

    2017-10-01

    similar effect on audiences. However, even as it succeeds in reanimating Baldwin’s voice for a new political era, I Am Not Your Negro inadvertently exposes the difficulty of fully capturing or honoring the writer’s complex legacy. As scholars have long noted, interest in Baldwin’s life and work tends to divide along racial and sexual lines, and Peck’s documentary is no exception. The filmmaker privileges Baldwin’s blackness over his queerness by overlooking the parts of The Devil Finds Work and No Name in the Street in which the writer’s queerness figures prominently.

  14. Das bruxas, dos índios, dos negros e dos jovens da Febem

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Leser de Mello

    2001-01-01

    Este artigo visa discutir os temas Pesquisa e Direitos Humanos, partindo da definição do que pretende a Ciência, suas limitações e momentos seus a serviço de condenações de bruxas e ateus. Trata-se de levantar a questão da 'parcialidade' da Ciência e das formas de exclusão que ela ajudou a gerar e manter face aos criminosos, aos loucos, aos negros e, sem dúvida, aos jovens das camadas populares que são institucionalizados na FEBEM. E, na tentativa de resistência a se deixar levar pelo que de ...

  15. Das bruxas, dos índios, dos negros e dos jovens da Febem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Leser de Mello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa discutir os temas Pesquisa e Direitos Humanos, partindo da definição do que pretende a Ciência, suas limitações e momentos seus a serviço de condenações de bruxas e ateus. Trata-se de levantar a questão da 'parcialidade' da Ciência e das formas de exclusão que ela ajudou a gerar e manter face aos criminosos, aos loucos, aos negros e, sem dúvida, aos jovens das camadas populares que são institucionalizados na FEBEM. E, na tentativa de resistência a se deixar levar pelo que de nefasto existe na mercantilização da Ciência hoje, buscar radicalizar a exigência de defesa dos Direitos Humanos.

  16. Race, Apology, and Public Memory at Maryland's Hospital for the 'Negro' Insane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zosha Stuckey

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To respond to a recent demand of the ACLU of Maryland, and to augment theories from Disability Incarcerated (2014 about the convergence of race, disability, and due process (or lack thereof, this essay analyzes the extent to which racism informed the creation of Maryland's Hospital for the 'Negro' Insane (Crownsville Hospital. In order to understand the extent of racism in Crownsville's earlier years, I will take into account 14 categories within conditions of confinement from 1921-1928 and compare them to the nearby, white asylum. Ultimately, the hospital joins the ranks of separate and unequal (Plessy vs. Ferguson institutions founded alongside a rhetoric of fear that the Baltimore Sun daily paper deemed "a Black invasion" of the city of Baltimore. Even more, I add to public memory of this racialized space invoking the rhetorical frame, as Kendall Phillips advises, of responsibility and apology (versus absolution within the context of present-day racial justice movements.

  17. Characterization of hepatitis B virus in Amerindian children and mothers from Amazonas State, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia.Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA. The partial region containing the S ORF was amplified by nested PCR, and amplicons were sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis was performed using the MEGA 5.05 software.Forty-six children (46/1275, 3.6% and one hundred and seventy-seven mothers (177/572, 30.9% were tested positive for the anti-HBc serological marker. Among them, 190 samples were tested for viral genome detection; 8.3% (2/31 serum samples obtained from children and 3.1% (5/159 from mothers were positive for the ORF S PCR. The predominant HBV genotype in the study population was F, subgenotype F1b; in addition, subgenotype F1a and genotype A were also characterized. Two HBV escape mutants were identified, G145R, reported worldwide, and W156*; this stop codon was identified in a child with occult HBV infection. Other mutations were found, L109R and G130E, located in critical positions of the HBsAg sequence.This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotype F, subgenotypes F1b and F1a, and genotype A in Amerindian communities and for the first time escape mutants in Colombia. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the frequency and the epidemiological impact of the escape mutants in the country.

  18. Clinical and virological descriptive study in the 2011 outbreak of dengue in the Amazonas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria do Carmo Alves Martins

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease in the tropical and subtropical region of the world and is transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. In the state of Amazonas, Brazil during the 2011 outbreak of dengue all the four Dengue virus (DENV serotypes circulating simultaneously were observed. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical epidemiology of dengue in Manaus, the capital city of the state of the Amazonas, where all the four DENV serotypes were co-circulating simultaneously.Patients with acute febrile illness during the 2011 outbreak of dengue, enrolled at the Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Viera Dourado (FMT-HVD, a referral centre for tropical and infectious diseases in Manaus, were invited to participate in a clinical and virological descriptive study. Sera from 677 patients were analyzed by RT-nested-PCRs for flaviviruses (DENV 1-4, Saint Louis encephalitis virus-SLEV, Bussuquara virus-BSQV and Ilheus virus-ILHV, alphavirus (Mayaro virus-MAYV and orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus-OROV.Only dengue viruses were detected in 260 patients (38.4%. Thirteen patients were co-infected with more than one DENV serotype and six (46.1% of them had a more severe clinical presentation of the disease. Nucleotide sequencing showed that DENV-1 belonged to genotype V, DENV-2 to the Asian/American genotype, DENV-3 to genotype III and DENV-4 to genotype II.Co-infection with more than one DENV serotype was observed. This finding should be warning signs to health authorities in situations of the large dispersal of serotypes that are occurring in the world.

  19. La novelística feminista de Carmen Laforet y el género negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, Roberta

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In her five long novels, Carmen Laforet consistently attempted to find new narrative means of framing a feminist message. There exist studies of her use of the Bildungsroman, the Gothic, and Expressionism in Nada. This essay focuses on elements of detective fiction, especially the noir subgenre, in Laforet’s novelistic production, concentrating on Al volver la esquina published posthumously in 2004. The masculine protagonistnarrator moves in a world that is akin to those of North American noir films and novels in order to reveal his dilemma as a man of traditional Spanish masculinist values in a Spain that is beginning to experience the influence of other countries where gender roles are changing.En sus cinco novelas largas, Carmen Laforet intentaba consistentemente encontrar nuevos modos narrativos para enmarcar un mensaje feminista. Ya se ha estudiado su incorporación de la Bildungsroman, lo gótico y lo expresionista en Nada. Este ensayo se enfoca en los elementos de la novela detectivesca, sobre todo el subgénero negro, en la novelística de Laforet. Se concentra en Al volver la esquina publicada póstumamente en 2004, y en la que el protagonista- narrador masculino se mueve en un mundo que se asemeja a los del cine y novela negros norteamericanos, para revelar su dilema de hombre de valores tradicionales masculinistas en una España que está empezando a sentir la influencia de otros países donde los papeles de los géneros sexuales están cambiando.

  20. Photosynthesis within Mars' volcanic craters?: Insights from Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. L.; Hynek, B. M.; McCollom, T. M.

    2011-12-01

    Discrete locales of sulfate-rich bedrocks exist on Mars and in many cases represent the products of acid-sulfate alteration of martian basalt. In some places, the products have been attributed to hydrothermal processes from local volcanism. In order to evaluate the habitability of such an environment, we are investigating the geochemical and biological composition of active fumaroles at Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua, where fresh basaltic cinders similar in composition to martian basalts are altered by acidic, sulfur-bearing gases. Temperatures at active fumaroles can reach as high as 400°C and the pH of the steam ranges from Cyanobacteria and Ktedonobacteria, however Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria were also identified. Many of the cyanobacterial sequences were similar to those of the eukaryotic Cyanidiales, red algae that inhabit acidic, geothermal environments. Many of sequences related to Ktedonobacteria and Actinobacteria have also been found in acid mine drainage environments. The Archaeal community was far less diverse, with sequences matching those of unclassified Desulfurococcales and unclassified Thermoprotei. These sequences were more distant from isolated species than the bacterial sequences. Similar bacterial and archaeal communities have been found in hot spring environments in Yellowstone National Park, Greenland, Iceland, New Zealand and Costa Rica. Some of Mars' volcanoes were active for billions of years and by analogy to Cerro Negro, may have hosted photosynthetic organisms that could have been preserved in alteration mineral assemblages. Even on a generally cold and dry Mars, volcanic craters likely provided long-lived warm and wet conditions and should be a key target for future exploration assessing habitability.

  1. Negros e indios en el obraje de San Ildefonso. Real Audiencia de Quito. 1665-1666

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The concentration space of the textile mills in the colonial Andean world aggravated the tension between the indigenous workers and the black slaves. Ignoring the protective legislation issued in favor of the natives, the owners took advantage of the inversion of social values that was widely accepted and the thirst for compensation brought about by the frustrations of slavery, that turned the Indians into «slaves of the slaves», thus turning the blacks of the mill into true servile thugs. We will study the mechanisms of the system and its consequences in the second half of the 17th century through the case of the San Ildefonso mill, located near Ambato, in modern-day Ecuador.

    El espacio concentracionario de los obrajes textiles del mundo andino colonial exacerbó las tensiones entre los trabajadores indígenas y los esclavos negros. Haciendo caso omiso de la legislación protectora emitida a favor de los naturales, los dueños se valieron de la inversión de los valores sociales admitida por muchos y de la sed de compensación suscitada por las frustraciones de la esclavitud, que hacían de los indios los «esclavos de los esclavos», para transformar a los negros de los obrajes en verdaderos matones serviles. Estudiaremos los mecanismos del sistema y sus consecuencias en la segunda mitad del siglo XVII a través del caso del obraje de San Ildefonso, situado cerca de Ambato, en el Ecuador actual.

  2. ELEMENTOS METODOLOGICOS INICIALES EN UN PROCESO DE INVESTIGACION - EXTENSION. EL CASO DE CAÑO NEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Martín José Francisco Miranda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aprovechando la realización de este seminario, hemos querido presentar ante los extensionistas de nuestra Facultad, unas primeras notas acerca del "Proyecto Piloto para la Gestión Productiva-Ambiental con los Pobladores de Caño Negro, Refugio de Vida Silvestre". El propósito de este trabajo inicial, es poner en discusión algunos de los elementos metodológicos que hemos ubicado, al momento de arrancar con un proyecto de investigación-extensión, que pretende recurrir a los procedimientos desarrollados y utilizados en los procesos de INVESTIGACION PARTICIPATIVA, INVESTIGACION ACCION. Además y haciendo eco de las intensiones de este seminario, se espera sirva de elemento para la reflexión conjunta de aspectos de esta naturaleza, que a la postre resultan ser problemas comunes o al menos semejantes, y que además, están en el tapete de la discusión y el análisis. Como la mayoría de ustedes saben, se trata del proyecto de extensión que las escuelas de Sociología, Ambientales, Planificación y Promoción Social y Geografía, iniciaron en marzo de este año en Caño Negro, distrito del cantón de Los Chiles, Alajuela, el cual describiremos con más detalle a continuación.

  3. Artigo: Movimento negro: das denúncias do racismo à prática de políticas públicas

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, João Carlos; NUCLEO DE ESTUDOS NEGROS

    2004-01-01

    Analyzing the role of the Negro Movement in the process of democratization and bringing to light the structural and institutional racism in Brazil, this paper shows that the 1990s were central for the constitution of a more articulated identity of the Negro Movement at the national level. This has a positive impact for public visibility of the racial question in the country. In response to popular pressure, the State has initiated policies against racism and in favor of the ...

  4. Small scale production of vegetal coal in the state of Amazonas, Brazil: legal and social-economical aspects; Producao de carvao vegetal em pequena escala no Amazonas: aspectos legais e socio-ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Roberto Ferreira de; Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues de [Amazonas Univ., Manaus, AM (Brazil). Nucleo de Eficiencia Energetica (NEFEN)]. E-mail: nefen_ua@objetivomao.br

    2000-07-01

    Being a form of cheap energy, abundant and accessible, the vegetable coal is quite often used generally in the urban and rural areas in the Amazonas state, domestic and commercial use as well. Several families live of the production activity and commercialization of vegetable coal inside the State of Amazonas. However, actions of government organs of the environment area turn more and more difficult the exercise of those activities, creating a situation of clandestine production and in some cases making unfeasible the only form of subsistence of several families. Besides the legal aspect there exist the low technological level, being the production of vegetable coal done in ovens of the type 'hot tail', which cause problems for the users health. The mentioned subjects are discussed in that work based on the study accomplished at three places producing the vegetable coal in the the State of Amazonas hinter side, in the proximities of Manaus. Through the information obtained in the communities a proposal is presented for the small scale production of vegetable coal in a economical, social and environmentally self sustainable way. (author)

  5. Simulium (Psaroniocompsa tergospinosum new species (Diptera: Simuliidae in siolii group from the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Hamada

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The larva, pupa, male and female of Simulium tergospinosum n. sp. are described and illustrated. The adults of this new species share many characters with species in the subgenus Psaroniocompsa, where it is placed. The larva of this species bears dorsal and lateral triangular tubercles on the abdomen and multiply branched scale-like setae on the body, suggesting that it belongs to the S. siolii species group. S. tergospinosum n.sp. was collected along the Juma River, Apuí county, in the southern part of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The Juma, a black-water river, is a tributary of the Aripuanã River in the Madeira River hydrographic basin, on the southern part of Amazonas. Females were collected biting humans along the water courses during the sampling period (in the dry season.

  6. The construction of environmental governance in the RDS Igapó-Açu (Amazonas, Brazil: organization, complexity and interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabriela Rezende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present text is to analyze environmental governance in the Sustainable Development Reserve Igapó-Açu, located in the municipalities of Manicoré, Borba and Beruri, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The study area was chosen because the RDS is the only Amazonas state protected area crossed by a federal interstate highway. This highway provides a specific territorial arrangement of governance elements in the studied area. Different methodological tools were used in this research, such as close-ended questionnaires and open-ended interviews. Data were systematized using Excel software and they were graphically represented in the form of organizational charts drawn with Websphere Analysis Software. Results indicate that environmental governance of the RDS Igapó-Açu involves multiple factors, while the central node of the local political articulation is held by a Management Council that is in charge of materializing the governability of the RDSt, as well as its ramifications.

  7. Isolation of Bacillus thuringiensis from the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, and screening against Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Soares-da-Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the use of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated in the state of Amazonas, in Brazil, for the biological control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. From 25 soil samples collected in nine municipalities, 484 bacterial colonies were obtained, 57 (11.78% of which were identified as B. thuringiensis. Six isolates, IBt-03, IBt-06, IBt-07, IBt-28, IBt-30, and BtAM-27 showed insecticidal activity, and only BtAM-27 presents the five genes investigated cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry10Aa, cry11Aa, and cry11Ba. The IBt-07 and IBt- 28, with lower LC50 values, showed equal toxicity compared to the standards. The isolates of B. thuringiensis from Amazonas constitute potential new means of biological control for A. aegypti, because of their larvicidal activity and the possibility that they may also contain new combinations of toxins.

  8. Snakebites as a largely neglected problem in the Brazilian Amazon: highlights of the epidemiological trends in the State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esaú Samuel Feitosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Envenoming snakebites are thought to be a particularly important threat to public health worldwide, especially in rural areas of tropical and subtropical countries. The true magnitude of the public health threat posed by snakebites is unknown, making it difficult for public health officials to optimize prevention and treatment. The objective of this work was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to gather data on snakebite epidemiology in the Amazon region and describe a case series of snakebites from epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas (1974-2012. Only 11 articles regarding snakebites were found. In the State of Amazonas, information regarding incidents involving snakes is scarce. Historical trends show an increasing number of cases after the second half of the 1980s. Snakebites predominated among adults (20-39 years old; 38%, in the male gender (78.9% and in those living in rural areas (85.6%. The predominant snake envenomation type was bothropic. The incidence reported by the epidemiological surveillance in the State of Amazonas, reaching up to 200 cases/100,000 inhabitants in some areas, is among the highest annual snakebite incidence rates of any region in the world. The majority of the cases were reported in the rainy season with a case-fatality rate of 0.6%. Snakebite envenomation is a great disease burden in the State of Amazonas, representing a challenge for future investigations, including approaches to estimating incidence under-notification and case-fatality rates as well as the factors related to severity and disabilities.

  9. Propagação in vitro de tucumã do Amazonas In vitro propagation of Astrocarium aculeatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hercílio Viegas Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Astrocaryum possui um grande número de espécies com potencial alimentício e produtoras de óleos. A espécie mais utilizada, o tucumã do Amazonas, é consumida em larga escala nos estados da região norte do Brasil e originado do extrativismo vegetal. Embriões zigóticos de sementes maduras e imaturas de tucumã do Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey foram inoculados em meio de cultivo semi-sólido de Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com vitaminas. Os embriões sobreviventes foram transferidos para o mesmo meio MS suplementado com 0,0; 1,0; 3,0 e 5,0mg L-1 de BAP, obtendo-se taxa crescente de brotação, sendo as mais eficientes as doses de 3,0 a 5,0mg L-1There is a large number of species within the genus Astrocaryum with the potential for use as food and for oil production. The most used species, tucumã do Amazonas, is consumed on a large scale in the States in the northern region of Brazil, originating from extractivism. Zygotic embryos of mature and immature tucumã do Amazonas (Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey. seeds were inoculated in a semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS culture medium supplemented with vitamins. The surviving embryos were transferred to the same MS medium supplemented with 0.0; 1.0; 3.0 and 5.0mg L-1 of BAP, obtaining an increasing rate of shoot formation.

  10. Variabilité hydrologique et vulnérabilité des populations du Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, Brésil Variabilidade hidrológica e vulnerabilidade das populações do Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, BrasilHydrological variability and human vulnerability in Lago Janauaca (Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josyane Ronchail

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Étroitement liées à la pulsation saisonnière des crues de l’Amazone, les activités des petits paysans et pêcheurs des várzeas sont particulièrement sensibles aux manifestations plus extrêmes de la variabilité hydrologique. Ce travail propose d’appréhender la vulnérabilité de ces communautés riveraines aux crues et étiages extrêmes autour du Lago Janauaca, près de Manaus, dans un contexte climatique d’intensification du cycle hydrologique. Dans un premier temps nous proposons de caractériser la variabilité hydrologique du Rio Solimões et son impact spatial sur le Lago. Si l’extension du phénomène est frappante, les dynamiques anthropiques sur les rives du lac sont elles aussi importantes. Celles-ci s’expliquent plus par l’ouverture de pistes entre le lac et la BR319, que par l’expansion des cultures traditionnelles qui restent modérée. Enfin, une série d’entretiens menés auprès des riverains dévoile une relation complexe entre les différentes activités des populations et les extrêmes hydrologiques. Les sécheresses y apparaissent comme les perturbations majeures, non seulement à cause de leurs impacts sur les cultures, mais surtout en raison des difficultés qu’elles entraînent pour les mobilités locale et régionale.Intimamente relacionado com o pulso de inundação sazonal do rio Amazonas, as atividades dos agricultores e pescadores das várzeas são particularmente sensíveis aos eventos mais extremos da variabilidade hidrológica. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a vulnerabilidade das comunidades ribeirinhas às cheias e às estiagens extremas ao redor do Lago Janauaca, próximo de Manaus, em um contexto de intensificação do ciclo hidrológico. Inicialmente, propomos uma caracterização da variabilidade hidrológica do Rio Solimões e do seu impacto espacial sobre o lago. As dinâmicas antrópicas às margens do lago são importantes também. Elas são mais decorrentes pela abertura

  11. Identidades en movimiento: familias chilenas en la fruticultura del Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina Identities in movement: chilean families in the fruit production of the Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Trpin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo, basado en el trabajo de campo realizado en áreas rurales del Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina, desde el año 1999, tiene como propósito presentar las relaciones en las cuales se insertan hombres y mujeres chilenas que residen y trabajan en "chacras" destinadas a la producción frutícola. Las diferentes actividades en las chacras se organizan según el sexo y la edad, definiéndose una segmentación del mercado de trabajo en la que se ven involucrados los diferentes miembros de la familia. Como desarrollaré, ser trabajadores chilenos en la fruticultura del Alto Valle de Río Negro reproduce una identidad étnica y nacional en el seno de la cotidianeidad familiar y laboral.This article, based on field work conducted in rural areas of the Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina, from 1999 on, analyzes the relations in which Chilean men and women who reside and work in small farms destined to fruit production are inserted. The different activities in the small farms are organized according to sex and age, circumscribing a segment of the labor market in which different members of the family are involved. As I will demonstrate, to be a Chilean worker in the fruit growing region of the Alto Valle is to reproduce an ethnic and national identity through work routines mediated by family relations.

  12. A field study of the confluence between Negro and Solimões Rivers. Part 1: Hydrodynamics and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Carlo; Filizola, Naziano; de Oliveira, Marco; Santos, Andrè Martinelli; Ianniruberto, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Confluences are a common feature of riverine systems, where are located converging flow streamlines and potential mixing of separate flows. The confluence of the Negro and Solimões Rivers ranks among the largest on Earth and its study may provide some general insights into large confluence dynamics and processes. An investigation was recently conducted about that confluence in both low and high-flow conditions using acoustic Doppler velocity profiling (ADCP), water quality sampling and high-resolution seismic data. First, the study gained insights into the characterization of the basic hydrodynamics parameters about the confluence as well as of those affecting sediments transport. Second, the analysis of the results showed that common hydrodynamic features noted in previous confluence studies were herein observed. Finally, some differences between low-flow and relatively high-flow conditions about the transfer of momentum from the Solimões to the Negro side of the Amazon Channel were identified.

  13. The use of renewable alternative sources for the isolated electric generation: proposal of agroenergy system implantation based on the palm oil from the Amazonas state, Brazil; O uso de fontes alternativas renovaveis para a geracao eletrica isolada: proposta de implantacao de sistemas agroenergeticos com base na palma africana no Estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Anamelia Medeiros [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introduction potential of agroenergetic systems in the state of Amazonas, BR, by giving priority to the plantation of the palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) in deforested areas od the state of Amazonas, BR, which presents the edaphoclimatic conditions necessary for the plantation of this palm tree. The palm oil can be used in natura in stationary engines and cas basic raw material for the production of biodiesel, both through transesterification and cracking as well.

  14. As irmandades de negros: resistência e repressão (The black brotherhoods: resistance and repression DOI 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n21p202

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Eduardo Farah Valente

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A Igreja Católica legitimou prática e teoricamente o sistema colonial brasileiro e teve um caráter predominantemente leigo, por força da instituição do padroado. Pouco foi escrito sobre as irmandades de negros. As análises têm se restringido a observar que desempenharam um importante papel na manutenção das crenças religiosas africanas. Com a República, o processo de romanização empreendido pela Igreja teve por objetivo a desvalorização do catolicismo laico, com o desmantelamento das antigas irmandades e sua substituição por novas organizações leigas. Impõe-se caracterizar o papel desempenhado pela resistência, sem o quê seria difícil entender a existência atual da Irmandade Nossa Senhora do Rosário dos Homens Pretos de São Paulo, fundada em 1711, na região central da cidade. Sua história se confunde com a história das irmandades de negros em geral, mas oferece exemplo de como continuou a ser repositório da tradição popular, calcada em prática religiosa católica 'branca' e prática religiosa 'negra', pensada a partir do patamar da escravidão.Palavras-chave: religião; poder; laicidade. AbstractThe Catholic Church legitimized practical and theoretically the Brazilian colonial system and had a predominantly lay character by virtue of the institution of patronage. Little has been written about the brotherhoods among black people. The analysis have been restricted to noting that they have played an important role in maintaining the religious African beliefs. With the Republic, the romanization process undertaken by the Church  has aimed the devaluation of the laic Catholicism, with the dismantling of old brotherhoods and their replacement by new lay organizations. It is necessary to characterize the role played by resistance, without which it would be difficult to understand the actual existence of the Irmandade Nossa Senhora dos Homens Pretos de São Paulo, founded in 1711, in the central region of the city

  15. Futuros educadores ou professores? Um estudo sobre as representações sociais dos acadêmicos de letras da Universidade Federal do Amazonas/Humaitá sobre a carreira docente Future educators or teachers? A study on the social representations of the language course academics from Universidade Federal do Amazonas/Humaitá on teaching career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Soares Fernandes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta o resultado de uma pesquisa realizada na Universidade Federal do Amazonas, no Campus Vale do Rio Madeira, localizado no município de Humaitá/AM. Este estudo teve por objetivo investigar quais são as representações sociais sobre a "Carreira Docente", dos acadêmicos da Licenciatura dupla em Letras - Língua e Literatura Brasileira e Inglesa, levando em consideração o professor como sujeito do conhecimento e importante ator social no contexto escolar. A metodologia utilizada foi quali-quantitativa. O instrumento, uma entrevista semiestruturada composta por duas partes: na primeira parte foi feita a identificação e os discentes puderam elencar seus motivos e influencias em sua escolha pelo curso em questão; (esses aspectos foram tabulados quantitativamente. Na segunda parte fez-se uso da "palavra indutora" que permitiu aos atores expressarem suas representações sobre a Carreira Docente (esses dados foram analisados de forma qualitativa, uma vez que o objetivo era conhecer a subjetividade envolvida no discurso. A análise dos dados coletados nos permitiu conhecer variadas motivações para o ingresso no curso, além de constatar que muitos alunos não desejavam estar cursando essa Licenciatura o que nos leva a uma preocupante reflexão sobre o futuro comprometimento desses indivíduos com a educação.This article presents the results of a research accomplished at the Federal University of Amazonas, Campus Vale do Rio Madeira, located in the city of Humaitá/AM. This study aimed to investigate what the social representations on the Teaching Career of the academics of the double degree in Portuguese and English Language and Literature are, taking into consideration the teacher as the subject of knowledge and as an important social actor in the school context. The methodology that we used was both qualitative and quantitative. The instrument was a semi-structured interview consisting of two parts: the first part

  16. Fazer História, Fazer Sentido: Associação Cultural do Negro (1954-1964 Make History, Make Sense: Associação Cultural do Negro (1954-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Augusto Medeiros da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discutir-se-ão os anos iniciais de atuação da Associação Cultural do Negro, criada por antigos ativistas e intelectuais da imprensa negra paulistana. Naquele perío­do, ela conseguiu promover ações, jornais, livros e atos públicos visando debater o papel do negro na formação da sociedade brasileira, situando-o num lugar alternativo ao da subalternidade imposta pelo fim da escravidão. Foi apoiada por intelectuais, escritores, sociólogos, ativistas (nacionais e estrangeiros interessados pelos problemas do grupo negro no Brasil e no continente africano, como Florestan Fernandes, Sérgio Milliet, José Mindlin, Henrique Losinkas Alves, Léon Gontran Damas e os intelec­tuais da revista Présence Africaine, entre outros. O interesse do artigo é pensar os alcances e limites dessa associação e suas atividades, pouco refletida pela bibliografia conhecida sobre relações raciais e história de movimentos negros no Brasil.It will be discussed the initials years of Associação Cultural do Negro, created by olders activists and intelectuals of black press in São Paulo. During that period, it was able to promote actions, newspapers, books and public events aimed at discussing the role of blacks in the Brazilian society formation, placing it in an alternative place of subordination imposed by the end of slavery. It was supported by intellectuals, writers, sociologists, activists interested in the problems of the black group in Brazil and Africa, as Florestan Fernandes, Sergio Millet, José Mindlin, Henrique Losinkas Alves, Léon Gontran Damas and intellectuals of the journal Présence Africaine, among others. The interest of the paper is to discuss the scope and limits of this association and its activities, not discussed by the literature on race relations and history of black movements in Brazil.

  17. Degradabilidad ruminal de la planta de sorgo negro forrajero (sorghum almum en diferentes etapas de crecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradabilidad ruminal de la planta de sorgo negro forrajero (Sorghum almum en diferentes etapas de crecimiento. El trabajo se llevó a cabo con el propósito de conocer la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca del sorgo negro forrajero, cultivado en una zona alta de Costa Rica. Se tomaron muestras en diferentes etapas de crecimiento de la planta. El estudio se realizó en la Estación Experimental "Alfredo Volio Mata" de la Universidad de Costa Rica. El cultivo fue sembrado con 18 kg/ha de semilla (88% semilla pura germinable, distribuida a chorro continuo en surcos distanciados a 70 cm. Se fertilizó con 244 kg de la fórmula comercial 10-30-10 (N2, P2O5, K2O y a las seis semanas se aplicaron 45,5 kg/ha de nitrógeno. El primer muestreo se realizó a los 24 días de edad y los siguientes, cada 14 días, hasta los 150 días. Se determinó la degradabilidad potencial de la materia seca en las hojas, tallos, panojas. La degradabilidad potencial de la planta entera disminuyó de 90 a 75% conforme aumentó la edad durante los primeros 94 días. En el tallo, la fracción soluble disminuyó de 32 a 23%, mientras que la hoja bajó de 30 a 16%. La fracción degradable en el tallo disminuy ó de 57 a 46% con el desarrollo de la planta, en tanto que en la hoja aumentó de 56 a 69%. La velocidad de degradaci ón del tallo fue de 4,7 %/h a los 52 días y en la hoja de 8,6 %/h. De 66 a 94 días fue de 2,6%/h en el tallo y en la hoja de 5,4 %/h, 3,3 %/h y 3,8 %/h a los 66, 80 y 94 días, respectivamente

  18. Intense Seismic Activity at Chiles and Cerro Negro Volcanoes on the Colombia-Ecuador Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R. A.; Cadena, O.; Gomez, D.; Ruiz, M. C.; Prejean, S. G.; Lyons, J. J.; White, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The region of Chiles and Cerro Negro volcanoes, located on the Colombian-Ecuadorian border, has experienced an ongoing seismic swarm beginning in Aug. 2013. Based on concern for local residents and authorities, a cooperative broadband monitoring network was installed by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano in Colombia and the Instituto Geofísico of the Escuela Politécnica Nacional in Ecuador. Since November 2013 more than 538,000 earthquakes were recorded; although since May 2015 the seismicity has decreased significantly to an average of 70 events per day. Three large earthquake swarms with increasing energy occurred in Aug.-Oct. 2013, March-May 2014, and Sept.-Dec. 2014. By the end of 2014, roughly 400 earthquakes greater than M 3 had occurred with a maximum rate of 8000 earthquakes per day. The largest earthquake was a 5.6 ML on Oct. 20, 2014. This event produced an InSAR coseismic deformation of ~23 cm (S. Ebmeier, personal communication). Most events are typical brittle failure volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes that are located in a cluster beneath the southern flank of Chiles volcano, with depths between 1.5 and 10 km. Although the great majority of earthquakes are VT, some low-frequency (LF, ~0.5 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF) events have occurred. Particle motion analysis suggests that the VLF source migrated with time. While a VLF on Oct. 15, 2014 was located south of Chiles volcano, near the InSAR source, the VLF registered on Feb. 14, 2015 was likely located very close to Chiles Volcano. We infer that magma intrusion and resulting fluid exsolution at depths greater than 5 km are driving seismicity in the Chiles-Cerro Negro region. However earthquakes are failing in a manner consistent with regional tectonics. Relative relocations reveal a structure consistent with mapped regional faults. Thus seismicity is likely controlled by an interaction of magmatic and tectonic processes. Because the regional stress field is highly compressional and the volcanoes

  19. Subsurface Connections and Magma Mixing as revealed by Olivine- and Pyroxene-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Cerro Negro Volcano and the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, S.; Moune, S.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2015-12-01

    Cerro Negro, the youngest volcano in the Central American Volcanic Belt, is a polygenetic cinder cone with relatively frequent explosive basaltic eruptions. Las Pilas, on the other hand, is a much larger and older complex with milder and less frequent eruptions. Based on historical data, these two closely spaced volcanoes have shown concurrent eruptive behavior, suggesting a subsurface connection. To further investigate this link, melt inclusions, which are blebs of melt trapped in growing crystals, were the obvious choice for optimal comparison of sources and determination of pre-eruptive volatile contents and magmatic conditions. Olivine-hosted inclusions were chosen for both volcanoes and pyroxene-hosted inclusions were also sampled from Las Pilas to represent the evolved melt. Major, volatile and trace elements reveal a distinct geochemical continuum with Cerro Negro defining the primitive end member and Las Pilas representing the evolved end member. Volatile contents are high for Cerro Negro (up to 1260 ppm CO2, 4.27 wt% H2O and 1700 ppm S) suggesting that volatile exsolution is likely the trigger for Cerro Negro's explosive eruptions. Las Pilas volatile contents are lower but consistent with degassing and evolutionary trends shown by major oxides. Trace element contents are rather unique and suggest Cerro Negro magmas fractionally crystallize while Las Pilas magmas are the products of mixing. Magmatic conditions were estimated with major and volatile contents: at least 2.4 kbar and 1170 °C for Cerro Negro melts and 1.3 kbar and 1130 °C for Las Pilas melts with an overall oxygen fugacity at the NNO buffer. In combination with available literature data, this study suggests an interconnected subsurface plumbing system and thus Cerro Negro should be considered as the newest vent within the Las Pilas-El Hoyo Complex.

  20. El descubrimiento de la ruta terrestre entre Buenos Aires y el Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorla, Carlos María

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    A raíz de los grandes malones de I780, Vértiz activó los trabajos destinados a la defensa del territorio, al mismo tiempo que procuró establecer relaciones pacificas con las parcialidades indígenas que merodeaban la frontera bonaerense. La expedición de Zizur tuvo como objeto negociar la paz con el cacique Lorenzo y, a su vez. "inspeccionar la campaña''. Como resultado de esta empresa tuvo lugar un prolijo reconocimiento de la ruta terrestre entre la capital del Virreinato y el Río Negro, la que pudo ser reconstruida mediante el estudio crítico del diario de la expedición, realizado con la información que aporta la documentación édita e inédita, con el auxilio de la cartografía histórica y las mensura de los terrenos por los que tramitara la misma, practicadas a partir del siglo pasado. Como síntesis final, se ha volcado el camino seguido por Zizur en la cartografía actual.

  1. Mining or Tourism: The Development Preference of Settlers Along Pagatban River in Negros Oriental, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Oracion

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development preference of settlers surveyed along the upstream, midstream, and downstream sections of Pagatban River in Negros Oriental in central Philippines. The majority of 120 respondents, equally distributed along the three sections of the river, are against the restoration of mining but are in favor of tourism development considering the ecological costs and economic benefits they have to bear with and enjoy, respectively. Specif ically, the data show that the number of respondents who do not prefer the restoration of mining is highest among downstream households while the number of those who do not prefer tourism development is highest among upstream households. The midstream respondents generally prefer both development projects. The chi-square test proves signif icant differences in the development preferences of respondents across settlements along the river. There are also significant differences in tourism preference according to the sex of the respondents, and in mining preference according to farm access, and monthly income of their households. The significant differences in household farm access and income relative to their locations further explain why economic and geographic variations result in divided preference for mining. Given that tourism development is preferred over restoration of mining, how the former’s benefits can be enjoyed across settlements should be looked into and planned with genuine community participation.

  2. Cerro Negro bitumen degradation by a consortium of marine benthic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, T.L.; Duval, B. [USDA-ARA, Tifton, GA (USA). Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    Cerro Negro bitumen, separated from an Orimulsion sample, was incubated for up to 120 days with sediments collected at a petroleum-impacted site in Tampa Bay, Florida. Biodegradation conditions were optimized by increasing bitumen surface area, continuous agitation on a shaker apparatus, use of a complete growth medium, and maintenance at 37{degree}C. Aerobic degradation conditions were promoted by maintaining sediment contact with the laboratory atmosphere. Bitumen recovered in solvent extracts when compared to autoclaved controls decreased by up to 40% during the first 56 days. There was no detectable change after this. Molasses addition and use of a culture enriched from the sediments did not change the extent or rate of decrease in bitumen recovery. Chemical fractionation of bitumen control and degraded bitumen showed that aromatic and aliphatic fractions were depleted by {approx} 50%. Accumulation of polars was observed; however, the apparent increase was relatively small when compared to the mass loss of the other fractions. Selected biomarker ratios were not affected by incubation indicating their utility for fingerprinting the source bitumen in environmental samples. PAH distribution in the aromatic fraction favored the higher alkyl-homologues with the relative degree of alkylation increasing as the mass of bitumen recovered decreased with degradation. The study showed that up to 40% of the bitumen was bioaccessible and that bioremediation may be a treatment option for sediments contaminated with bitumen by an Orimulsion spill. 36 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. O Sol Laranja e Negro de João Cabral de Melo Neto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tiscoski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O poeta pernambucano João Cabral de Melo Neto publica Sevilha andando em 1990, já aposentado da carreira diplomática que lhe possibilitou o contato com a cidade e o povo sevilhano, desde 1956, quando trabalha em pesquisas históricas no Arquivo das Índias de Sevilha. Após ter morado em cidades como Londres, Marselha e Barcelona, é transferido para a andaluza Cadiz, e novamente reside em Sevilha em 1962. Tendo ainda passado no decorrer de sua carreira diplomática por Berna, Senegal e Honduras, é a Andaluzia que se estabelece como lugar da linguagem poética e concreta, eleita Sevilha a cidade onde os elementos de sua poesia se realizam em lâmina, pedra, o sol laranja e negro, a mulher que anda. Sevilha andando e Andando Sevilha finalizam sua produção poética e reproduzem em serena e bruta semelhança o homem da terra que lhe remete ao sertanejo, a Pernambuco, a Recife.

  4. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  5. Fishery of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata in Southern Negros Occidental, Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Villarta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study documents the fishery of the short-necked clam Paphia undulata in coastal waters of southern Negros Occidental. Catch and effort estimates were determined based on daily records of compressor divers gathered between February-July 2008 in Himamaylan City and July 2008-May 2009 in the town of Hinigaran. Fishing and marketing practices in both areas were also documented and population biology information noted.Compared to earlier conditions, present fishing patterns show a worsened stage of overexploitation primarily characterized by collection of predominantly small and immature (mostly <45 mm shell lengths sizes. Intensity/duration and location of fishing also varied due to both abundance and demand factors.The difference in sizes of clams and the varying fishing durations in each area suggest a non-uniform pattern of settlement resulting most likely from differential larval recruitment, the likely factors causing the local boom and bust fishery. The larger and long term extent of the effect of these factors can only be further investigated by parallel 2-3 year fishery-dependent and -independent surveys

  6. RIO Country Report 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Mitchell, Jessica

    The 2015 series of RIO Country Reports analyse and assess the policy and the national research and innovation system developments in relation to national policy priorities and the EU policy agenda with special focus on ERA and Innovation Union. The executive summaries of these reports put forward...

  7. Serological evidence of hantavirus infection in rural and urban regions in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Bosco Lima Gimaque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus disease is caused by the hantavirus, which is an RNA virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Hantavirus disease is an anthropozoonotic infection transmitted through the inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of hantavirus-infected rodents. In the county of Itacoatiara in the state of Amazonas (AM, Brazil, the first human cases of hantavirus pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome were described in July 2004. These first cases were followed by two fatal cases, one in the municipality of Maués in 2005 and another in Itacoatiara in 2007. In this study, we investigated the antibody levels to hantavirus in a population of 1,731 individuals from four different counties of AM. Sera were tested by IgG/IgM- enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of the Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. Ten sera were IgG positive to hantavirus (0.6%. Among the positive sera, 0.8% (1/122, 0.4% (1/256, 0.2% (1/556 and 0.9% (7/797 were from Atalaia do Norte, Careiro Castanho, Itacoatiara and Lábrea, respectively. None of the sera in this survey were IgM-positive. Because these counties are distributed in different areas of AM, we can assume that infected individuals are found throughout the entire state, which suggests that hantavirus disease could be a local emerging health problem.

  8. Mujeres y poder: Amazonas en el cine contemporáneo para adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Menéndez Menéndez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Las amazonas son un símbolo femenino que aparece en obras artísticas y textos literarios, construyendo un imaginario de mujeres míticas y guerreras del que se han alimentado múltiples obras de cultura popular, casi siempre desde un punto de vista patriarcal y/o fálico. Sin embargo, es posible descubrir la existencia de algunos productos mainstream que subvierten esta representación, configurando un perfil heroico positivo y emancipador. El presente texto ofrece un análisis de dos obras recientes dirigidas a público juvenil: la película de animación Brave (Mark Andrews y Brenda Chapman, 2012 y la saga cinematográfica The Hunger Games (Gary Ross, 2012; Francis Lawrence, 2013, 2014 y 2015. En ambos casos existe un protagonismo femenino incuestionable que, desde un análisis feminista, ofrece una alternativa a la mayoría de personajes de la industria audiovisual, caracterizados por el sexismo y la subordinación a lo masculino pues, tanto Mérida como Katniss, son descritas como heroínas independientes, con personalidad y capacidad de decisión.

  9. Acetylcholinesterase concentrations in heparinized blood of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Thomas N; Osofsky, Anna; Jowett, Peter L H; Hosgood, Giselle

    2003-12-01

    Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at nerve synapses. Blood samples from 22 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) were assayed for cholinesterase levels by two different techniques. Using the modified Michel method, the whole-blood cholinesterase activity levels ranged from 0.082 to 0.616 deltapH/hr with a mean value of 0.35 deltapH/hr. A reference range (0.08-0.62 deltapH/hr) for cholinesterase was established in birds. The modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was used to measure AChE activity by adding acetylthiocholine or pseudocholinesterase (plasma cholinesterase) activity by adding butyrylthiocholine. The reference range of the AChE activity using the modified Ellman spectrophotometric method was 0-1.12 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.48 micromol/ml/min, and for pseudocholinesterase the range was 0.09-0.98 micromol/ml/min with a mean of 0.53 micromol/ml/min.

  10. Analgesic effects of intramuscular administration of meloxicam in Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) with experimentally induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gretchen A; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Klauer, Julia M; Medlin, Scott E; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam in parrots with experimentally induced arthritis, with extent of weight bearing and rotational perch walking used as outcome measures. ANIMALS-15 adult Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis). PROCEDURES-Arthritis was experimentally induced via intra-articular injection of microcrystalline sodium urate suspension (MSU) into 1 intertarsal joint. Parrots were treated in a crossover design. Five treatments were compared as follows: meloxicam (4 dosages) at 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg (IM, q 12 h, 3 times) and 0.03 mL of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (IM, q 12 h, 3 times). The first treatment was given 6 hours following MSU administration. Lameness was assessed by use of a biomechanical perch to record weight-bearing load and a rotational perch to determine dexterity. Feces were collected to assay for occult blood. RESULTS-Parrots treated with meloxicam at 1.0 mg/kg had significantly better return to normal (baseline) weight bearing on the arthritic pelvic limb, compared with control parrots or parrots treated with meloxicam at 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg. All fecal samples collected from parrots following induction of arthritis and treatment with meloxicam had negative results for occult blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Meloxicam administered at 1.0 mg/kg, IM, every 12 hours effectively relieved arthritic pain in parrots.

  11. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M.; Ribeiro, C. M.; Borba, A. J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  12. USE OF SCALED SEMIVARIOGRAMS IN THE PLANNING SAMPLE OF SOIL CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOUTHERN AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Amorim de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information concerning the variability of soil properties has been a major concern of researchers in the Amazon region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability of soil chemical properties and determine minimal sampling density to characterize the variability of these properties in five environments located in the south of the State of Amazonas, Brazil. The five environments were archaeological dark earth (ADE, forest, pasture land, agroforestry operation, and sugarcane crop. Regular 70 × 70 m mesh grids were set up in these areas, with 64 sample points spaced at 10 m distance. Soil samples were collected at the 0.0-0.1 m depth. The chemical properties of pH in water, OM, P, K, Ca, Mg, H+Al, SB, CEC, and V were determined at these points. Data were analyzed by descriptive and geostatistical analyses. A large part of the data analyzed showed spatial dependence. Chemical properties were best fitted to the spherical model in almost all the environments evaluated, except for the sugarcane field with a better fit to the exponential model. ADE and sugarcane areas had greater heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, showing a greater range and higher sampling density; however, forest and agroforestry areas had less variability of chemical properties.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE BRACHIAL PLEXUS IN BLUE-FRONTED PARROT (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayssa Marley Nóbrega da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local anesthetic procedures are commonly used in domestic and wild birds, because of its low cost and fast induction, as long as applied with great precision, which requires specific anatomical knowledge of the site of incision. This study aimed to establish the origin and distribution of the brachial plexus of the Blue-fronted Parrot (Amazona aestiva by anatomic dissection of the skin and musculature of 22 specimens (17 males and 5 females from the Wild Animals Screening Center of the Federal District after death by natural causes. The dissection work promoted the isolation of the forming roots of the brachial plexus, as well as its ramifications. The brachial plexus was formed by four trunks, including the ventral spinal cord rami segments from C9 to C10, C10 to C11, C11 to T1 and T1 to T2, which joined into a short common trunk, branched into dorsal and ventral cords. The thin nerves subcoracoideus and subscapularis and the branch to the scapulohumeralis muscle originated from the common trunk. The dorsal cord originated the anconeal, axillaris and radialis nerves, while the ventral cord gave origin for the pectoralis cranialis, pectoralis caudalis, coracobrachialis and medianoulnaris. These branches innervated the muscles of the extensor and flexor compartments of the forelimb, pectoral muscles and overlying skin.

  14. Nota sobre la dieta de la Lechucita Bigotona, Xenoglaux loweryi en Yambrasbamba, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alarcón

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los resultados del análisis de heces de la Lechucita Bigotona (Xenoglaux loweryi, especie endémica de Perú y en peligro de extinción según IUCN, que habita los bosques montanos húmedos de la cordillera Oriental de los Andes. Entre enero y setiembre de 2014, durante evaluaciones sobre la ecología de este búho en el área de bosque montano conocido como “La Jalca”, en la comunidad de Yambrasbamba, Amazonas; se colectaron cuatro muestras de heces de diferentes individuos, en los meses de mayo, julio, agosto y setiembre correspondientemente. Estos fueron analizados, encontrándose fragmentos característicos del orden Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Ortoptera y Lepidoptera. Confirmándose que parte de su dieta son pequeños insectos; al igual que otros pequeños estrígidos.

  15. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  16. [Use of psychoactive drugs by health sciences undergraduate students at the Federal University in Amazonas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ana Cyra dos Santos; Parente, Rosana Cristina Pereira; Picanço, Neila Soares; Conceição, Denis Alvaci; Costa, Karen Regina Carim da; Magalhães, Igor Rafael dos Santos; Siqueira, João Cladirson Alves

    2006-03-01

    A survey was conducted with 521 undergraduate health sciences students from the Federal University in Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil. Lifetime alcohol consumption was reported by 87.7% students, as compared to 30.7% for tobacco, with the latter reported more frequently by males (39.7%). The most common illicit drugs were solvents (11.9%), marijuana (9.4%), amphetamines and anxiolytics (9.2% each), cocaine (2.1%), and hallucinogens (1.2%). The main reason for illicit drug use was curiosity. Lifetime use of anabolic steroids was reported by 2.1% of the students. Alcohol abuse in the previous 30 days was reported by 12.4% of the students. Events following drinking included: fights (4.7%), accidents (2.4%), classroom absenteeism (33.7%), and job absenteeism (11.8%). Another important finding was that 47.3% of students drove after drinking. Opinions on drug abuse and patterns agree with those from similar studies in other regions of Brazil.

  17. [Record of epidemiologically important Culicidae in the rural area of Manaus, Amazonas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Marcião, Alexandre Herculano Ribera; Silva, Ana Paula Thomé da; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The biodiversity of the Amazon region includes many species of arthropod vectors in different ecotopes, thus enabling occurrences of diseases like malaria, filariasis and arbovirosis. From August 2001 to July 2002, we gathered culicids from inside homes, from areas surrounding these homes and from forested areas of the São João Community, in the rural zone of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 1240 specimens were collected, belonging to the Culicinae (99%) and Anophelinae (1%) subfamilies, with 50 species. The Culicini tribe clearly predominated, with 904 specimens (72.9%), and the species Culex usquatus (22.6%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (17.7%) were prominent. Out of the total number of culicids, 1,077 (86.9%) were caught in the forests, 101 (8.1%) in the areas surrounding homes and 62 (5%) inside homes. Forests were the ecotope that presented the highest species diversity. The presence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus janthinomys and other proven or potential vectors was recorded.

  18. Hydrocephalus in a yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Muthuswamy, Anantharaman; Forrest, Lisa J; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt; Petersen, Sophie

    2011-09-01

    A 37-year-old female yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was presented after a 4-month-period behavior change and intermittent episodes of obtunded mentation. Clinical findings on physical examination included ataxia, a weak grasp, and reluctance to move. Results of magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with severe hydrocephalus without evidence of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. The bird was treated with tapering dosages of prednisolone over a 4-month period, during which time the episodes did not occur. Discontinuation of treatment was attempted several times but resulted in relapse. After 3.5 years of maintenance treatment with prednisolone, the bird was presented subsequent to a 5-hour episode of obtunded mentation and worsening neurologic signs. Despite increasing the dose of prednisolone and providing additional supportive care, the bird's condition worsened, and euthanasia was elected. Necropsy findings included severe hydrocephalus with significant loss of right cerebral parenchyma and no evidence of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction. Histologic examination of the remaining cerebral parenchyma revealed a moderate, multifocal, cellular infiltrate; encephalomalacia; fibrosis; and hemosiderosis in tissue adjacent to the distended ventricles. Other findings included hepatic vacuolar degeneration. Diagnostic imaging and postmortem findings were consistent with a diagnosis of hydrocephalus ex vacuo. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hydrocephalus in an Amazon parrot as well as the first report of hydrocephalus in any avian species associated with long-term follow-up and prolonged corticosteroid treatment.

  19. Renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects of oral administration of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Bas; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Gustavsen, Kate; Owens, Sean D; Hass, Carlyle; Kass, Philip H; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2015-04-01

    To investigate renal, gastrointestinal, and hemostatic effects associated with oral administration of multiple doses of meloxicam to healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 12 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Birds were assigned to receive meloxicam oral suspension (1.6 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and 2.5 mL of tap water inserted into the crop by use of a gavage tube (n = 8) or the equivalent volume of tap water only (control group; 4) for 15 days. Urine and feces were collected 2 hours after treatment administration each day. Feces were evaluated for occult blood. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical analysis and measured N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity and whole blood clotting time were evaluated before, during, and after completion of treatments. Results of urinalysis and measured urine NAG activity were also evaluated. Birds treated with meloxicam had a significant increase in number of WBCs and decrease in PCV from before to after treatment. The PCV also decreased significantly, compared with results for the control group; however, WBC count and PCV for all birds remained within reference ranges throughout the study. One parrot treated with meloxicam had a single high value for urine NAG activity. Meloxicam administered orally at the dosage used in this study caused no apparent negative changes in several renal, gastrointestinal, or hemostatic variables in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Additional studies to evaluate adverse effects of NSAIDs in birds will be needed.

  20. A presumptive case of Baylisascaris procyonis in a feral green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazona viridigenalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Lisa B; Tamura, Yoko

    2014-03-01

    A feral green-cheeked Amazon parrot (Amazona viridigenalis), also known as the red-crowned Amazon, with generalized neurologic symptoms was found in Pasadena in Southern California and brought in for treatment. The bird was refractory to a wide variety of medications and supportive treatment. Tests for polyoma virus, psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and West Nile virus as well as Chlamydophila psittaci were negative. Hospitalized and home care continued for a total of 69 days. The bird was rehospitalized on day 66 for increasing severity of clinical signs and found 3 days later hanging with its head down, in respiratory arrest. Resuscitation was unsuccessful. There were no gross pathologic lesions. Histopathology showed a focal subcutaneous fungal caseous granuloma under the skin of the dorsum. Many sarcocysts morphologically consistent with Sarcocystis falcatula were found in the cytoplasm of the skeletal myofibers from skeletal muscles of different locations of this bird, a finding that was considered an incidental, clinically nonsignificant finding in this case. Necrosis with microscopic lesions typical of Baylisascaris spp. neural larva migrans was in the brain. Although multiple histologic serial sections of the brain were examined and a brain squash performed and analyzed, no Baylisascaris larvae were found. This is the first presumptive case of Baylisascaris in a feral psittacine.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Heath, Timothy D; Krugner-Higby, Lisa A; Barker, Steven A; Brown, Carolyn S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine hydrochloride after intravenous and intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Dominique L; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Klauer, Julia M; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Rodríguez-Ramos Fernández, Julia; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To assess the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine HCl after IV and IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Nalbuphine HCl (12.5 mg/kg) was administered IV and IM to all birds in a complete randomized crossover study design; there was a washout period of 21 days between subsequent administrations. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected at predetermined time points for measurement of nalbuphine concentration by use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by use of computer software. Nalbuphine was rapidly eliminated with a terminal half-life of 0.33 hours and clearance of 69.95 mL/min/kg after IV administration and a half-life of 0.35 hours after IM administration. Volume of distribution was 2.01 L/kg after IV administration. The fraction of the dose absorbed was high (1.03) after IM administration. No adverse effects were detected in the parrots during the study. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, nalbuphine appeared to have good bioavailability after IM administration and was rapidly cleared after IV and IM administration. Safety and analgesic efficacy of various nalbuphine treatment regimens in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical palliation of signs of pain in psittacine species.

  3. Antinociceptive effects of tramadol hydrochloride after intravenous administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Saskia; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Cox, Sherry; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2013-02-01

    To determine the antinociceptive and sedative effects of tramadol in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) following IV administration. 11 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) and an equivalent volume (≤ 0.34 mL) of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were administered to parrots in a complete crossover study design. Foot withdrawal response to a thermal stimulus was determined 30 to 60 minutes before (baseline) and 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after treatment administration; agitation-sedation scores were determined for parrots at each of those times. The estimated mean changes in temperature from the baseline value that elicited a foot withdrawal response were 1.65° and -1.08°C after administration of tramadol and saline solution, respectively. Temperatures at which a foot withdrawal response was elicited were significantly higher than baseline values at all 5 evaluation times after administration of tramadol and were significantly lower than baseline values at 30, 120, and 240 minutes after administration of saline solution. No sedation, agitation, or other adverse effects were observed in any of the parrots after administration of tramadol. Tramadol hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, IV) significantly increased the thermal nociception threshold for Hispaniolan Amazon parrots in the present study. Sedation and adverse effects were not observed. These results are consistent with results of other studies in which the antinociceptive effects of tramadol after oral administration to parrots were determined.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of Compounded Intravenous and Oral Gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, Katherine; Jones, Michael P; Cox, Sherry; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2015-09-01

    Neuropathic pain is a manifestation of chronic pain that arises with damage to the somatosensory system. Pharmacologic treatment recommendations for alleviation of neuropathic pain are often multimodal, and the few reports communicating treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in avian patients describe the use of gabapentin as part of the therapeutic regimen. To determine the pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), compounded gabapentin suspensions were administered at 30 mg/kg IV to 2 birds, 10 mg/kg PO to 3 birds, and 30 mg/kg PO to 3 birds. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at 9 different time points after drug administration. Plasma samples were analyzed for gabapentin concentration, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with both a nonlinear mixed-effect approach and a noncompartmental analysis. The best compartmental, oral model was used to simulate the concentration-time profiles resulting from different dosing scenarios. Mild sedation was observed in both study birds after intravenous injection. Computer simulation of different dosing scenarios with the mean parameter estimates showed that 15 mg/kg every 8 hours would be a starting point for oral dosing in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots based on effective plasma concentrations reported for human patients; however, additional studies need to be performed to establish a therapeutic dose.

  5. Attempted semen collection using the massage technique in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Volpe, Angelique; Volker, Schmidt; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a technique for collecting semen from blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and to evaluate the samples that were collected. The massage method is the most common technique used to collect semen in birds and has been proven successful in several psittacine species; however, collection attempts in larger parrots have been unsatisfactory. Six blue-fronted Amazon parrot males, 3 paired with hens and 3 unpaired, were used in this study. The semen collection technique was revised to allow collection from individual birds by a single person. Semen collection was attempted from the 6 parrots on 52-56 occasions, which totaled 330 single attempts. Nineteen ejaculates were collected, and each bird produced at least 1 ejaculate that contained spermatozoa. Large ranges of sample volume (1-15.4 microL), sperm quality (motility = 2%-60%; live:dead ratio = 2:198 to 185:15), sperm concentration (0.79-3.3 x 10(6) sperm/mL), and contamination rate (0%-100%) were observed. Measured parameters did not appear to be significantly impacted by birds being paired or kept singly. Because of the relatively short acclimation period, the birds appeared to be sexually inactive for the majority of the study. Further research using sexually active birds will be necessary to determine standard spermatological parameters and verify the success of the methodology used here.

  6. Ovarian hemangiosarcoma in an orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Kimberly; Buote, Melanie; Kiupel, Matti; Graham, Jennifer; Orcutt, Connie

    2009-03-01

    A 25-year-old intact female orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a 2-week history of straining to defecate, lethargy, open-beak breathing, decreased vocalization, and ruffled feathers. On physical examination, the parrot had a heart murmur, increased air sac and lung sounds, open-beak breathing, increased respiratory rate and effort, and coelomic distension. An ultrasound revealed intracoelomic fluid, and hemorrhagic fluid was aspirated from the coelom. Cytologic analysis indicated hemocoelom. Pericardial effusion was observed during the sonogram, and pericardiocentesis was performed. The bird was euthanatized upon the owner's request because of a poor prognosis. At necropsy, several masses that involved the ovary and oviduct were observed, as well as a thickened pericardium and a thickened, fibrinous epicardium. Results of a histopathologic examination of the masses that involved the reproductive tract revealed ovarian hemangiosarcoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining. To our knowledge, ovarian hemangiosarcoma has not been reported in a psittacine species, nor has immunohistochemistry confirmed ovarian hemangiosarcoma in avian species, specifically in an orange-winged Amazon parrot.

  7. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  8. Granulomatous encephalomyelitis and intestinal ganglionitis in a spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) infected with Mycobacterium genavense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, G; Saggese, M D; Weeks, B R; Hoppes, S M; Porter, B F

    2011-01-01

    An approximately 30-year-old male spectacled Amazon parrot (Amazona albifrons) was presented with a 2-week history of ataxia, head shaking, weight loss and seizures. Gross findings on necropsy examination included atrophy of the musculature, ruffled feathers and minimal epicardial and abdominal fat. Microscopically, there were perivascular cuffs of macrophages with fewer lymphocytes in the grey and white matter of the brain and spinal cord. These lesions were accompanied by gliosis and mild vacuolation of the white matter. In the small intestine, up to 70% of the intestinal ganglia were effaced by infiltrates of macrophages and fewer lymphocytes. The intestinal lamina propria contained multiple inflammatory aggregates of a similar nature. Ziehl-Neelsen staining revealed the presence of numerous bacilli within the cytoplasm of macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric ganglia. Amplification of the DNAJ gene confirmed a mycobacterial infection and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a species-specific primer confirmed the aetiology as Mycobacterium genavense. Infection of the CNS with Mycobacterium spp. is uncommon and has not been previously reported in a parrot. This case is unusual in that the organism exhibited tropism for neural tissue. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Erika E; Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2013-06-01

    To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

  10. Thromboelastography Values in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J; Beaufrère, Hugues; Sinclair, Kristin M; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of TEG in psittacine birds. Kaolin-activated TEG was used to analyze citrated whole blood collected routinely from 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). The minimum and maximum TEG values obtained included time to clot initiation (2.6-15 minutes), clot formation time (4.3-20.8 minutes), α angle (12.7°-47.9°), maximum amplitude of clot strength (26.3-46.2 mm), and percentage of lysis 30 minutes after achievement of maximum amplitude (0%-5.3%). The TEG values demonstrated comparative hypocoagulability relative to published values in canine and feline species. Differences may be explained by either the in vitro temperature at which TEG is standardly performed or the method of activation used in this study. Although TEG may have significant advantages over traditional coagulation tests, including lack of need for species-specific reagents, further evaluation is required in a variety of avian species and while exploring various TEG methodologies before this technology can be recommended for use in clinical cases.

  11. Fluoroscopic study of the normal gastrointestinal motility and measurements in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Nevarez, Javier; Taylor, W Michael; Jankowski, Gwendolyn; Rademacher, Nathalie; Gaschen, Lorrie; Pariaut, Romain; Tully, Thomas N

    2010-01-01

    Contrast fluoroscopy is a valuable tool to examine avian gastrointestinal motility. However, the lack of a standardized examination protocol and reference ranges prevents the objective interpretation of motility disorders and other gastrointestinal abnormalities. Our goals were to evaluate gastrointestinal motility in 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by contrast fluoroscopy. Each parrot was crop-fed an equal part mixture of barium sulfate and hand-feeding formula and placed in a cardboard box for fluoroscopy. Over a 3-h period, 1.5 minute segments of lateral and ventrodorsal fluoroscopy were recorded every 30 min. The gastric cycle and patterns of intestinal motility were described. The frequency of crop contractions, esophageal boluses, and gastric cycles were determined in lateral and ventrodorsal views. A range of 3.4-6.6 gastric cycles/min was noted on the lateral view and 3.0-6.6 gastric cycles/min on the ventrodorsal view. Circular measurements of the proventriculus diameter, ventriculus width, and length were obtained using the midshaft femoral diameter as a standard reference unit. The upper limits of the reference ranges were 3.6 and 4.7 femoral units for the proventriculus diameter in the lateral and ventrodorsal view, respectively. Two consecutive measurements were obtained and the measurement technique was found to have high reproducibility. In this study, we established a standardized protocol for contrast fluoroscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract and a reliable measurement method of the proventriculus and ventriculus using femoral units in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot.

  12. Pericardial Mesothelioma in a Yellow-naped Amazon Parrot (Amazona auropalliata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Brynn; Jones, Michael P; Manasse, Jorden; Johns, Sara; Gompf, Rebecca E; Newman, Shelley

    2015-03-01

    A 37-year-old female yellow-naped Amazon parrot (Amazona auropalliata) was presented with a history of lethargy, inappetence, and decreased vocalizations. On examination, the coelom was moderately distended and palpated fluctuant, and the heart was muffled on auscultation. Coelomic ultrasound, coelomocentesis, and radiographs were performed and revealed an enlarged cardiac silhouette and marked coelomic effusion. Pericardial effusion was confirmed by echocardiography. A well-circumscribed, hyperechoic soft tissue density was observed at the level of the right atrium on initial echocardiography; however, a cardiac mass was not identified by computed tomography scan or repeat echocardiograms. Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis was performed under anesthesia, and cytology results were consistent with hemorrhage; no neoplastic cells were identified. A repeat echocardiogram 4 days after pericardiocentesis revealed recurrence of the pericardial effusion. Due to the grave prognosis, the owners declined endoscopic pericardiectomy, and the patient died the following day. On postmortem examination, the pericardial surface of the heart was covered in a white to yellow, multinodular mass layer. Histologic analysis revealed a multinodular mass extending from the atria, running along the epicardium distally, and often extending into the myocardium. Neoplastic cells present in the heart mass and pericardium did not stain with a Churukian-Schenk stain, and thyroglobulin immunohistochemistry was negative. Cytokeratin and vimentin stains showed positive expression in the neoplastic cells within the mass. These results are consistent with a diagnosis of mesothelioma. This is the first report of mesothelioma in a psittacine bird.

  13. Static and dynamic (18) FDG-PET in normal hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Wall, Jonathan S; Stuckey, Alan; Daniel, Gregory B

    2011-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is often used to stage and monitor human cancer and has recently been used in a similar fashion in veterinary medicine. The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical is 2-Deoxy-2-[(18) F]-Fluoro-d-glucose ((18) F-FDG), which is concentrated and trapped within cells that use glucose as their energy substrate. We characterized the normal distribution of (18) F-FDG in 10 healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) by performing whole body PET scans at steady state, 60min after injection. Significant variability was found in the intestinal activity. Avian species are known to reflux fluid and electrolytes from their cloaca into their colon. To evaluate reflux as the cause of variability in intestinal distribution of (18) F-FDG, dynamic PET scans were performed on the coelomic cavity of six Hispaniolan Amazon parrots from time 0 to 60min postinjection of radiotracer. Reflux of radioactive material from the cloaca into the colon occurred in all birds to varying degrees and occurred before 60min. To evaluate the intestinal tract of clinical avian patients, dynamic scans must be performed starting immediately after injection so that increased radioactivity due to metabolism or hypermetabolic lesions such as cancer can be differentiated from increased radioactivity due to reflux of fluid from the cloaca. © 2010 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  14. Endocarditis due to Lactobacillus jensenii in a Salvin's Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis salvini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldenauer, Ulrike; Rusch, Martina; Simova-Curd, Stefka; Nitzl, Dagmar; Hoop, Richard K; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2009-02-01

    A 30-year-old Salvin's Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis salvini) with a history of a lifelong poor diet and inappropriate housing was presented in lateral recumbency to a veterinary teaching hospital for further evaluation. Radiological and ultrasonographic examination revealed a mild proventricular dilatation, mild hepatomegaly, signs of enteritis and airsacculitis. The main laboratory findings included a mild macrocytic hyperchromic anaemia, hypoglobulinaemia, decreased bile acids and increased alkaline phosphatase. In this bird a liver pathology was suspected because of the clinical, laboratory and ultrasonographic findings. The bird was treated with supportive care and metabolic aids. After initial improvement of the clinical signs, the bird's condition deteriorated and it died. Pathological findings revealed an endocarditis and myocarditis due to Lactobacillus jensenii and a bacteraemia. Endocarditis due to Lactobacillus sp. is a rare phenomenon in humans not yet described in animals. It is associated with severe underlying illnesses leading to translocation of otherwise non-pathogenic bacteria in the bloodstream. A similar pattern might be assumed in animals with compromised immunity.

  15. Successful Treatment of Suspected Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in a Mealy Amazon Parrot (Amazona farinose).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sean M; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Silverman, Sarah; Wack, Raymund F

    2016-12-01

    A 25-year-old, male mealy Amazon parrot (Amazona farinose) with a history of polycythemia, hepatomegaly, and epistaxis was evaluated for progressive lethargy and anorexia. Clinical laboratory testing revealed severe polycythemia (71%), hypophosphatemia (1.6 mg/dL), and mild hypokalemia (2.8 mEq/L). Radiographs showed marked hepatomegaly and loss of air sac space. Despite supportive treatments, the bird's condition deteriorated, and it developed ataxia, was unable to fly, and became oxygen dependent. An echocardiogram, including an air bubble study, revealed a right-to-left atrial shunt and presumed pulmonary arterial hypertension. The bird was started on periodic phlebotomy (5-10 mL/kg q6wk) to reduce packed cell volume and sildenafil citrate (2.5 mg/kg PO q8h) for treatment of suspected pulmonary arterial hypertension. One week later, the patient was weaned off oxygen, and 24 days after initial presentation, the parrot was returned to its outdoor exhibit. Intermittent periods of increased respiratory rate and effort have been reported but have resolved without additional treatments. Epistaxis, once common in this bird, has not been noted since initiating treatment with sildenafil citrate 15 months ago.

  16. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in a yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, J W; Degernes, L A; Brown, T T

    1997-01-01

    This report describes exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in a yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) with complete effacement of the pancreas by a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The bird presented with a 3-month history of weight loss and voluminous, foul-smelling droppings. Clinically, routine hematologic findings were normal and fecal tests were performed to evaluate exocrine pancreatic function. The fecal function tests were positive for neutral and split fats and negative for trypsin. Oral administration of corn oil did not result in elevation of blood triglyceride levels. Two days later, the triglyceride tolerance test was repeated using corn oil mixed with pancreatic enzymes. This time, there was a 70% elevation of blood triglyceride levels. Because of a poor prognosis, the bird was euthanatized. At necropsy, the pancreas was diffusely enlarged, white, nodular, and firm. The liver contained multiple, 1-2-mm-diameter, randomly located, tan nodules. Microscopically, the pancreas was effaced by numerous lobules of neoplastic ductular structures surrounded by abundant fibrous connective tissue. In the liver, the hepatic parenchyma was replaced by multiple, well-demarcated, nonencapsulated foci of neoplastic tissue similar to that in the pancreas.

  17. The hybrid generation systems of Campinas-Amazonas and Joanes-Para

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszkowicz, M; Ribeiro, C M; Borba, A J. V. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Electrica (CEPEL), (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Brazilian Amazon region is an ideal location for isolated mini-grid systems. Thousands of Diesel systems have been installed to supply electricity to this sparsely populated region. However, the availability of renewable resources makes the Amazon well-suited to renewable energy systems. This paper describes the technical characteristics and touches economic aspects of two hybrid systems being installed in this region through the cooperative effort of multiple partners: Brazilian CEPEL/ELETROBRAS and State Electric Utilities and U.S. Department of Energy, through NREL. It focuses on the market potential for hybrid systems in Northern Brazil and discusses the configuration of the two prototypes, the effort to implement both systems and the preliminary results of these projects. [Espanol] La region Brasilena del Amazonas es un lugar ideal para los sistemas aislados de mini-red. Se han instalado miles de sistemas Diesel para proporcionar electricidad a esta region escasamente poblada. Sin embargo, la disponibilidad de fuentes renovables hacen la Amazonia muy adecuada para sistemas renovables de energia. Este articulo describe las caracteristicas tecnicas y toca aspectos economicos de dos sistemas hibridos que se estan instalando en esta region mediante el esfuerzo cooperativo de multiples participantes: La brasilena CEPEL/ELECTROBRAS y las Empresas Electrica Estatales, el U.S. Departament of Energy, a traves de NREL. Se enfoca al mercado potencial de sistemas hibridos en Brasil del Norte y analiza la configuracion de los dos prototipos, el esfuerzo de instaurar ambos sistemas y los resultados preliminares de estos proyectos.

  18. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages. The following genera of Leptohyphidae occur in the Amazonas state: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer and Tricorythopsis Traver. Distribution of Leptohyphidae species in Amazonas state is presented. A new species, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., is described and can be distinguished from other Tricorythodes by: (1 tarsal claws with pair of submarginal denticles and no marginal denticles; (2 bi-articulated maxillary palp; (3 opercular gill black except on apical margin; (4 gill formula 2/3/3/3/2; and (5 expanded lateral abdominal margin of segments III_VI. The new combination, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., is proposed

  19. Uso e gestão do território em áreas de livre acesso no Amazonas, Brasil Use and management of territory in areas with open acess in Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Aquino Pereira

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As comunidades tradicionais da várzea amazônica ocupam uma variedade de ambientes adaptadas às variações sazonais impostas pelo pulso de inundação, o que reflete no desenvolvimento de estratégias de uso e manejo dos recursos naturais. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a territorialidade dessas comunidades, observando a relação custo-beneficio da exploração pesqueira, madeireira e agrícola e sua relação com os conflitos sócioambientais oriundos da exploração de recursos naturais de uso comum em áreas de livre acesso. As entrevistas foram realizadas entre agosto de 2003 e novembro de 2004, atingindo 50% de cada comunidade estudada, na Costa do Canabuoca, município de Manacapuru. As variáveis utilizadas para avaliar a territorialidade foram: rendimento produtivo, econômico e distância percorrida para a exploração. Foram espacializados os ambientes usados para a exploração por meio do Sistema de Informação Geográfica (SIG. Os resultados indicam que a pesca é a atividade geradora de conflitos e territorialidade, produto da interação entre distribuição, disponibilidade, produtividade dos pesqueiros e organização político-institucional dos moradores, que se reflete na relação custo-beneficio.The traditional communities of the Amazon floodplain occupy a large variety of seasonal environments and have adapted to the variations determined by the flood pulse, which is reflected in the development of their resource managment strategies. In this work the territoriality of these communities was evaluated by observing the cost-benefit relationship for fisheries, forests and agricultural exploration to social and environmental conflicts originating from the explotation of natural resources of common property in areas of open access. Interviews were conducted between August of 2003 and November of 2004, with the head of family in 50% of each community studied, on the coat of Canabouca, district of Manacapuru. The variables used to evaluate territoriality were: production, revenue and distance traveled. The areas of exploitation were analyzed using Global Information System (GIS. The results indicated that fishing activities generate conflicts and territoriality, which is the product of the interaction between distribution, avaliability and productivity of fishing areas and the political organization of the communities, that is reflected in the cost-benefit relationship.

  20. A luta do negro brasileiro por justiça e inclusão e os desafios interpretativos das teorias sociais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Theodoro Cassoli

    2012-12-01

    O presente estudo tem como objetivo mapear as principais colaborações do pensamento social brasileiro acerca da luta organizada do negro ao longo da Primeira República, momento em que o povo negro se viu liberto da antiga sociedade de castas que o escravizava, mas no entanto estava fora do projeto da nova sociedade de classe que se formava. Daremos destaque à densa e original interpretação proposta por Florestan Fernandes em seu A integração do negro na sociedade de classes, elencando os principais fatores que diferenciam essa obra de todo o que já havia sido escrito sobre o negro até aquela época. Procuraremos demonstrar que não constitui exagero colocar o trabalho de Florestan entre os primeiros estudos de caráter pós-colonial sobre a luta pela emancipação do negro brasileiro, uma vez que desenvolve suas análises a partir da dimensão simbólica e psicossocial revelada pelo discurso dos próprios sujeitos do movimento, metodologia que ainda estava em desenvolvimento pela nascente Teoria dos Novos Movimentos Sociais. Para tanto, nos guiaremos pelos trabalhos de analistas como Octavio Ianni (2004, Jessé Sousa (2000, Sérgio Tavolaro (2005 e Ilse Scherer-Warren (2010.

  1. A hist?ria da Pol?tica de Sa?de Mental do Amazonas: a reforma psiqui?trica e sua estrutura??o

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Raquel Maria

    2015-01-01

    O trabalho tem como objetivo analisar historicamente a estrutura??o da Pol?tica de Sa?de Mental no Amazonas, tendo como foco a Reforma Psiqui?trica ocorrida principalmente em Manaus. O Movimento da Reforma Psiqui?trica no Amazonas iniciou no final da d?cada de 1970, por um grupo de psiquiatras e profissionais do Hospital Col?nia Eduardo Ribeiro, que se inspiraram nas ideias da Reforma Psiqui?trica. Ideias que possibilitaram o surgimento de uma Pol?tica de Sa?de Mental no Brasil...

  2. The major floods in the Amazonas river and tributaries (Western Amazon Basin) during the 1970-2012 period : a focus on the 2012 flood

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, J. C.; Ronchail, J.; Frappart, F.; Lavado, W.; Santini, William; Guyot, Jean-Loup

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the authors analyze the origin of the extreme floods in the Peruvian Amazonas River during the 1970-2012 period, focusing on the recent April 2012 flooding (55 400 m(3) s(-1)). Several hydrological variables, such as rainfall, terrestrial water storage, and discharge, point out that the unprecedented 2012 flood is mainly related to an early and abundant wet season over the north of the basin. Thus, the peak of the Maranon River, the northern contributor of the Amazonas, occurred...

  3. Relações do trágico em Combate de Negro e de Cães de Bernard-Marie Koltès: da teoria à prática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ribeiro Galho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar e discutir o texto Combate de negro e de cães (1979, de Bernard-Marie Koltès, buscando entendê-lo como um exemplar trágico no fim do século XX. A partir da investigação acerca dos componentes dramáticos que conferem tragicidade à peça, bem como dos elementos propulsores do trágico na atualidade, tentar-se-á estabelecer um diálogo breve e inicial entre o texto (objeto de estudo do autor no trabalho de conclusão do curso de Teatro-Licenciatura da Universidade Federal de Pelotas e a montagem do espetáculo Combate: corpos mortos, vivos e por vir, realizado pelo “Laboratório de Dramaturgismo e Direção Rotativa de Cenas” da referida instituição, coordenado pelas professoras Dra. Fernanda Vieira Fernandes e Ma. Maria Amélia Gimmler Netto. Apoiada na obra de Koltès e abordando temas pertinentes para a sociedade contemporânea, a encenação institui o racismo e o machismo como seus motores dramáticos, estabelecendo-os como importante pauta de debate.

  4. The Black-White Achievement Gap Revisited Revisitando la brecha en el rendimiento de estudiantes negros y blancos Revisitando a defasagem de rendimento academico dos estudantes negros e brancos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines trends in Black student achievement and in the Black-White achievement gap over the period 2000 to 2007, employing data from ten states drawn from the NAEP Grade 8 mathematics assessments. Results are obtained for three levels of aggregation: the state, school poverty stratum within the state, and schools within poverty stratum. In addition, information on the ten states’ education policies for the period 1998 to 2005 was compiled. States relative ranks on the overall strength of their reform efforts were compared to their relative ranks with respect to their success in improving Black student achievement and in reducing the Black- White achievement gap. This study constitutes an extension of earlier work that considered the same issues for the period 1992 to 2000 and, thus, offers a unique comparison between the pre-NCLB era and the present one. Although the ten states certainly differed in their outcomes, the general picture at all three levels of aggregation is quite clear: The achievement gaps are substantial and the introduction of federally mandated high stakes test-based accountability through No Child Left Behind has had a very modest impact on the rates of improvement for Black students and on the pace of reductions in the achievement gaps between Black students and White students. Moreover, there was only a weak association between states’ policy rankings and their rankings related to test results. It appears there is a need for both fresh thinking on education reform and a more concerted effort to collect comprehensive longitudinal information on states' education policies.
    Este estudio examina las tendencias en el rendimiento académico de estudiantes negros y la brecha en el rendimiento de los estudiantes negros y blancos en el período 2000 a 2007, utilizando datos de las evaluaciones NAEP de Matemáticas para el octavo grado en diez estados. Se obtuvieron resultados para tres niveles de agregacio

  5. Genetic differentiation in red-bellied piranha populations (Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner, 1858) from the Solimões-Amazonas River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos A; de Sá Leitão, Carolina S; Paula-Silva, Maria de N; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria F

    2016-06-01

    Red-bellied piranhas (Pygocentrus nattereri) are widely caught with different intensities throughout the region of Solimões-Amazonas River by local fishermen. Thus, the management of this resource is performed in the absence of any information on its genetic stock. P. nattereri is a voracious predator and widely distributed in the Neotropical region, and it is found in other regions of American continent. However, information about genetic variability and structure of wild populations of red-bellied piranha is unavailable. Here, we describe the levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure of red-bellied piranha populations collected at different locations of Solimões-Amazonas River system. We collected 234 red-bellied piranhas and analyzed throughout eight microsatellite markers. We identified high genetic diversity within populations, although the populations of lakes ANA, ARA, and MAR have shown some decrease in their genetic variability, indicating overfishing at these communities. Was identified the existence of two biological populations when the analysis was taken altogether at the lakes of Solimões-Amazonas River system, with significant genetic differentiation between them. The red-bellied piranha populations presented limited gene flow between two groups of populations, which were explained by geographical distance between these lakes. However, high level of gene flow was observed between the lakes within of the biological populations. We have identified high divergence between the Catalão subpopulation and all other subpopulations. We suggest the creation of sustainable reserve for lakes near the city of Manaus to better manage and protect this species, whose populations suffer from both extractive and sport fishing.

  6. Paca (Agouti paca and Agouti (Dasyprocta spp. - Minili-vestock Production in the Amazonas State of Venezuela : 1. Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govoni, G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increasing human population pressure in the Amazonas State of Venezuela greater attention is being given to the "minilivestock" production of the wild rodents paca (Agouti paca, and agouti (Dasyprocta spp as sources of food and income and to reduce the risk of their possible extinction. In preparation for the increased farming of these rodents, this paper reviews published material on their characteristics, distribution, habitat, conservation status, behaviour, reproductive parameters and nutrition. It is concluded that the two rodents paca and agouti, have characteristics that justify greater investment in their domestication and farmed production, although and behavioural issues and reproductive limits need further research.

  7. Characterization of sediments laid on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains, using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Ana E.V.; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. do

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes sediment analysis with high light elements fraction using dispersive energy X-ray fluorescence technique with radioisotopic excitation, The proposed procedure is based on the Fundamental Parameters for analytical elements (Z ≥ 13) evaluation, and coherent and incoherent scattered radiation for quantification of the light fraction of the matrix (Z < 13). Laid sediments samples on Solimoes/Amazonas river flood plains were analyzed, determining simultaneously the Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sc, V, Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Zr element concentrations, thus allowing chemical characterization and spatial variability, and some mineralogical and weathering sediments aspects. (author). 15 refs., 11 tabs

  8. La geotecnia en el impacto al medio ambiente de la construcción del puente Amazonas, Huancayo

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado Carhuancho, Saturnino

    2011-01-01

    El estudio Geotécnico como condicionante de la construcción del PUENTE AMAZONAS y su implicancia ambiental, permite conocer las características delvsubsuelo de cimentación para garantizar un diseño seguro preservando elvmedio ambiente. Para cumplir con el objetivo se ejecutaron trabajos de campo a través devexcavaciones, como calicatas, pozas, ensayo STP según Norma ASTM D1586v y pruebas de Refracción Sísmica. Ensayos de laboratorio y labores de gabinete, en base a ellos se desarrollaron l...

  9. Comportamento de cultivares de milho verde em ecossistema de v?rzea e terra firme no estado do Amazonas.

    OpenAIRE

    Di?genes, Haroldo Cunha

    2011-01-01

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar o comportamento de oito cultivares de milho com caracter?sticas para consumo no est?dio verde de matura??o e verificar a adaptabilidade aos ecossistemas de terra firme e v?rzea nas condi??es edafoclim?ticas dos munic?pios de Manaus e Iranduba no Estado do Amazonas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com arranjo fatorial 8 x 2 x 5 e quatro repeti??es. Os tratamentos foram definidos por oito cultivares de milho, em d...

  10. T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia in a double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Anna; Hawkins, Michelle G; Foreman, Oded; Kent, Michael S; Vernau, William; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2011-12-01

    An adult, male double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona ochrocephala oratrix) was diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia based on results of a complete blood cell count and cytologic examination of a bone marrow aspirate. Treatment with oral chlorambucil was attempted, but no response was evident after 40 days. The bird was euthanatized, and the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was confirmed on gross and microscopic examination of tissues. Neoplastic lymphocytes were found in the bone marrow, liver, kidney, testes, and blood vessels. Based on CD3-positive immunocytochemical and immunohistochemical immunophenotyping, the chronic lymphocytic leukemia was determined to be of T-cell origin.

  11. Hematology of the Red-capped parrot (Pionopsitta pileata) and Vinaceous Amazon parrot (Amazona vinacea) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth Moreira dos Santos; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Ribas, Janaciara Moreira; Daciuk, Bárbara Maria; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Paulillo, Antonio Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary reference intervals for hematologic and total plasma protein profiles were determined for nine adult Red-capped parrots (Pionopsitta pileata) (six males and three females) and six Vinaceous Amazon parrots (Amazona vinacea) (two adult males, two adult females, one juvenile, and one nonsexed) from the Curitiba Zoo, Paraná, Brazil. For both Red-capped parrots and Vinaceous Amazon parrots, adult males had higher red blood cell counts than adult females. Regarding white blood cell distribution, differences due to gender were also found for both species of parrots.

  12. Caracteriza??o da frota e do desembarque da pesca comercial no munic?pio de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Laredo, Maria Ang?lica Corr?a

    2009-01-01

    Neste estudo, foi avaliado o potencial da pesca comercial no munic?pio de Coari, Amazonas, Brasil, por meio da caracteriza??o da frota que atua na regi?o e do desembarque pesqueiro realizado no per?odo de 1 de Dezembro de 2007 a 30 de Novembro de 2008. A frota foi caracterizada com base nas entrevistas de 217 pescadores e donos de embarca??o, os quais identificaram a atua??o de 41 barcos e 176 canoas motorizadas. Estas embarca??es apresentaram um padr?o com rela??o ao comprimen...

  13. Isotopic evidence for identifying the mechanism of salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City,Negros Occidental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalinda V.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Desengano, Daisy; Lim, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    Saline water is easily identified by measurement of the conductivity of the ionic species in the water. In groundwater, it is important to identify the mechanism of salinization for proper management of the resource. Salinization may come from: a) leaching of salts by percolating water, b) intrusion of modern saltwater bodies of connate water, and c) concentration of dissolved salts due to evaporation. The salinity and isotopic concentrations of 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H of the water sources were used to assess the processes which lead to the salinization of groundwater in Bacolod City, Negros Occidental. The isotopic composition of deep groundwater, river water, and springs cluster along the LMWL with δ 18 O ranging from -7.9 ''promille'' to -6.5 ''promille'' and δ 2 H ranging from -52.6 ''promille'' to -39.1''promille''. Two isotopically distinct groups of deep groundwater were deleated; the higher elevation wells yielding isotopically depleted waters while the lowland wells yielding relatively enriched water with higher conductivity. The shallow coastal wells exhibited more enriched isotope values with δ 18 O values from 6.10 ''promille''-5.61''promille'' and δ 2 H from -43.1''promille'' to -38.8''promille'' and highest conductivity. The relative enrichment in the isotopic composition of the deep groundwater in the lowland and the shallow groundwater along the coast is attributed to saltwater intrusion. The process of salinization in these waters is differentiated based on the relationship between their isotopic compositions and the chlorine concentrations. The high salinity of the isotopically enriched and old deep groundwater inland is attributed to mixing with connate water. On the other hand , mixing with modern sea water is evident in the deep and shallow coastal wells. (author)

  14. Reconstructing water level in Hoyo Negro, Quintana Roo, Mexico, implications for early Paleoamerican and faunal access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S. V.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Rissolo, D.; Chatters, J. C.; Nava Blank, A.; Luna Erreguerena, P.

    2015-09-01

    The skeletal remains of a Paleoamerican (Naia; HN5/48) and extinct megafauna were found at -40 to -43 mbsl in a submerged dissolution chamber named Hoyo Negro (HN) in the Sac Actun Cave System, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The human remains were dated to between 12 and 13 Ka, making these remains the oldest securely dated in the Yucatan. Twelve sediment cores were used to reconstruct the Holocene flooding history of the now phreatic cave passages and cenotes (Ich Balam, Oasis) that connect to HN. Four facies were found: 1. bat guano and Seed (SF), 2. lime Mud (MF), 3. Calcite Rafts (CRF) and 4. Organic Matter/Calcite Rafts (OM/CRF) which were defined by their lithologic characteristics and ostracod, foraminifera and testate amoebae content. Basal radiocarbon ages (AMS) of aquatic sediments (SF) combined with cave bottom and ceiling height profiles determined the history of flooding in HN and when access was restricted for human and animal entry. Our results show that the bottom of HN was flooded at least by 9850 cal yr BP but likely earlier. We also found, that the pit became inaccessible for human and animal entry at ≈8100 cal yr BP, when water reaching the cave ceiling effectively prevented entry. Water level continued to rise between ≈6000 and 8100 cal yr BP, filling the cave passages and entry points to HN (Cenotes Ich Balam and Oasis). Analysis of cave facies revealed that both Holocene sea-level rise and cave ceiling height determined the configuration of airways and the deposition of floating and bat derived OM (guano and seeds). Calcite rafts, which form on the water surface, are also dependent on the presence of airways but can also form in isolated air domes in the cave ceiling that affect their loci of deposition on the cave bottom. These results indicated that aquatic cave sedimentation is transient in time and space, necessitating extraction of multiple cores to determine a limit after which flooding occurred.

  15. Efectos del control del picudo negro (Cosmopolites sordidus en el plátano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Armendáriz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprobar el efecto en el plátano de las capturas masivas de adultos con feromonas y de la aplicación de hongos entomopatógenos sobre Cosmopolites sordidus. La investigación se realizó en el Carmen, Manabí, Ecuador, de diciembre 2013 a octubre 2014 en una parcela de nueva plantación de plátano Barraganete y se valoró el efecto de la eliminación de restos vegetales de las parcelas. El diseño experimental fue al azar con tres repeticiones. En laboratorio se comprobó la infectividad de la cepa de Beauveria bassiana sobre adultos del picudo negro y del picudo café (Metamasius hemipterus (92,80 y 100% en M. hemipterus frente a 46,70 y 16,20% en C. sordidus. Las capturas de adultos fueron continuas a lo largo del ensayo, con una media de 0,37 adultos/trampa/día. Los datos agronómicos indicaron una diferencia positiva y significativa (análisis de la varianza de los tratamientos frente al control en el perímetro del pseudotallo (F de 4,982 y en el peso de los racimos entre las parcelas limpias con feromonas y con hongos limpias frente al control (F= 3,994. Al comparar los tratamientos el peso del racimo y la longitud de los dedos fueron significativamente mayores en las parcelas de feromonas frente a las de hongos (F = 4,508. Las capturas de adultos con feromonas no estuvieron condicionadas por la limpieza de las parcelas, aunque esta sí incidió en la altura de las plantas (F= 4,245.

  16. The igapó of the Negro River in central Amazonia: Linking late-successional inundation forest with fluvial geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Juan Carlos; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2013-10-01

    Despite important progress on Amazonian floodplain research, the flooded forest of the Negro River "igapó" has been little investigated. In particular, no study has previously focused the linkage between fluvial geomorphology and the floristic variation across the course of the river. In this paper we describe and interpret relations between igapó forest, fluvial geomorphology and the spatial evolution of the igapó forest through the Holocene. Therefore, we investigate the effect of geomorphological units of the floodplain and channel patterns on tree diversity, composition and structural parameters of the late-successional igapó forest. Our results show that sites sharing almost identical flooding regime, exhibit variable tree assemblages, species richness and structural parameters such as basal area, tree density and tree heights, indicating a trend in which the geomorphologic styles seem to partially control the organization of igapó's tree communities. This can be also explained by the high variability of well-developed geomorphologic units in short distances and concentrated in small areas. In this dynamic the inputs from the species pool of tributary rivers play a crucial role, but also the depositional and erosional processes associated with the evolution of the floodplain during the Holocene may control floristic and structural components of the igapó forests. These results suggest that a comprehensive approach integrating floristic and geomorphologic methods is needed to understand the distribution of the complex vegetation patterns in complex floodplains such as the igapó of the Negro River. This combination of approaches may introduce a better comprehension of the temporal and spatial evolutionary analysis and a logic rationale to understand the vegetation distribution and variability in function of major landforms, soil distributions and hydrology. Thus, by integrating the past into macroecological analyses will sharpen our understanding of the

  17. Anemia e marcadores séricos da deficiência de ferro em grávidas atendidas na rede pública municipal de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil Anemia and serum markers of iron deficiency in pregnant women attended by Public Health Service in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marinho da Costa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a anemia em grávidas, associando os resultados da dosagem de hemoglobina e hematócrito com a análise de marcadores do perfil sérico do ferro. Participaram do estudo 92 grávidas que estavam realizando pré-natal em unidades de atendimento à saúde no Município de Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Foi aplicado um formulário para obtenção dos dados antropométricos e informações sobre estilo de vida, além de serem realizadas dosagens dos níveis séricos de ferro, capacidade latente de ligação do ferro (CLLF, capacidade total de ligação do ferro (CTLF, índice de saturação da transferrina (IST, transferrina, ferritina e níveis sanguíneos de hemoglobina e hematócrito por metodologia automatizada utilizando kits comerciais disponíveis. Foram encontradas 26,1% de grávidas com níveis de hemoglobina abaixo de 11 g/dL. Observou-se que 17,4% das grávidas com níveis normais de hemoglobina apresentavam níveis inadequados de ferro sérico e 9,8% apresentavam níveis baixos de ferritina sérica. Os níveis de ferritina e de hemoglobina apresentaram diferença significativa entre os trimestres de gestação (p This study aimed to evaluate anemia in pregnant women, comparing results of hemoglobin and hemotocrit dosages with analysis of iron serum status markers. 92 pregnant women, in pre-natal attendance in Public Health Service of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, participated in this study. A questionnaire was used to access anthropometric data and life style information. Serum levels of iron, latent iron binding capacity (LIBC, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, transferrin saturation (TS, transferrin, ferritin, and blood levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured by automated methods, using commercially available kits. The study showed that 26.1% of the pregnant women had hemoglobin levels below 11 g/dL. Also, of the pregnant women with normal levels of hemoglobin, 17.4% showed inadequate iron

  18. Magma-Tectonic Interactions along the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from the August 1999 Magmatic and Tectonic Event at Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Femina, P.; Connor, C.; Strauch, W.

    2002-12-01

    Volcanic vent alignments form parallel to the direction of maximum horizontal stress, accommodating extensional strain via dike injection. Roughly east-west extension within the Central America Volcanic Arc is accommodated along north-northwest-trending basaltic vent alignments. In Nicaragua, these alignments are located in a northwest-trending zone of dextral shear, with shear accommodated along northeast trending bookshelf faults. The recent eruption of Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua and Marabios Range seismic swarm revealed the interaction of these fault systems. A low energy (VEI 1), small volume (0.001 km3 DRE) eruption of highly crystalline basalt occurred at Cerro Negro volcano, Nicaragua, August 5-7, 1999. This eruption followed three tectonic earthquakes (each Mw 5.2) in the vicinity of Cerro Negro hours before the onset of eruptive activity. The temporal and spatial pattern of microseismicity and focal mechanisms of the Mw 5.2 earthquakes suggests the activation of northeast-trending faults northwest and southeast of Cerro Negro within the Marabios Range. The eruption was confined to three new vents formed on the southern flank of Cerro Negro along a preexisting north-northwest trending alignment; the El Hoyo alignment of cinder cones, maars and explosion craters. Surface ruptures formed > 1 km south and southeast of the new vents suggest dike injection. Numerical simulations of conduit flow illustrate that the observed effusion rates (up to 65 ms-1) and fountain heights (50-300 m) can be achieved by eruption of magma with little or no excess fluid pressure, in response to tectonic strain. These observations and models suggest that 1999 Cerro Negro activity is an excellent example of tectonically induced small-volume eruptions in an arc setting.

  19. Papel del frijol negro Phaseolus vulgaris en el estado nutricional de la población guatemalteca

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    RESUMEN. En Guatemala existe un fenómeno de superposición epidemiológica, en el que coexisten problemas de salud propios de países desarrollados con otros característicos de poblaciones en vías de desarrollo. Se observan deficiencias marcadas en algunos macronutrientes tales como hierro y vitamina A. en simultaneidad con enfermedades crónicas como diabetes tipo II o enfermedades cardiovasculares. Se conoce muy bien la importancia del frijol negro (Phaseolus vulgaris) en la dieta habitual de G...

  20. New sedimentological and palynological data from surface Miocene strata in the central Amazonas Basin area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Alberto Amaral Soares

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The scarcity of stratigraphic data has hindered the demarcation of the outcropping area of Miocene deposits of the Amazon Basin, represented informally by the Novo Remanso Formation. Moreover, this unit is characterized by a sparse and irregular geographic distribution due to its sedimentological features and rare fossil content. Miocene deposits cropping out in central Amazonas Basin area were described in sedimentological terms and analyzed palynologically. All analyses were undertaken in samples collected at the Uatumã River banks (Itapiranga and São Sebastião do Uatumã cities. Lithostratigraphic data shows that Novo Remanso Formation consists of sandstones, with subordinate conglomerates and pelites, characteristic of a meandering fluvial paleosystem, with fluvial channel, point bar, floodplain and crevasse splay facies. The palynoflora retrieved from five samples consists exclusively of continental-origin palynomorphs dominated by angiosperms species. Trilete spores are well represented, while gymnosperms pollen grains are minor components. The presence of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus, Syncolporites poricostatus, Jandufouria seamrogiformis and Polypodiaceoisporites potoniei ensure these deposits fits into the Grimsdalea magnaclavata palynozone (Regali et al. 1974a, b, and the Grimsdalea magnaclavata/Crassoretitriletes vanraadshooveni palynozones of Jaramillo et al. (2011 considered Middle Miocene age. This age is confirmed by the zonation of Jaramillo et al. (2011, based on the LADs of Bombacacidites baumfalki (11.57Ma and Crototricolpites annemariae (12.91Ma; and the FAD of Psilastephanoporites tesseroporus (14.00Ma. With these new data presented herein, it is possible to assume that the Miocene strata represented by the Novo Remanso Formation covers a larger area in the basin than previously considered, and that it may be extended for about 300 km until the Manacapuru village, indicating a Miocene subsidence phase.

  1. Atrofia nutricional e nanismo nutricional em escolares de Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Enrique Gainette-Prates

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tuvo como propósito evaluar la prevalencia de atrofia nutricional y enanismo nutricional en estudiantes, de 6 a 11 años de edad, de escuelas públicas de Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brasil. Fue realizado un estudio transversal en que fueron evaluados 340 estudiantes a través de datos antropométricos (peso y altura. Se utilizó los índices altura/edad y peso/edad basados en el score-z. Los estudiantes con altura/edad inferior a -2 desviación estándar fueron clasificados con atrofia nutricional y aquellas con peso/edad inferior a -2 desviación estándar con nanismo nutricional. El Consumo Energético-Proteico fue evaluado por medio de Cuestionario de Frecuencia Alimentaria. El ingreso familiar clasificado en clases económicas se basó en criterios de la Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisa. Se verificó que 18 estudiantes (5,3% presentaron altura/edad abajo de -2 desviación estándar. Sin embargo, no hubo estudiantes con peso/edad abajo de desviación estándar. Se percibe que ni todos los estudiantes con déficit nutricional eran de clases económicamente vulnerables (C, D, E. El consumo alimentario evidenció carencia de proteínas y de calorías saludables en la dieta de los estudiantes, siendo el principal determinante de la desnutrición en esa población. No hubo correlación entre el nanismo nutricional y el rendimiento escolar de los estudiantes.

  2. Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma in the Skull of an Orange-winged Amazon Parrot (Amazona amazonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Melissa R; Carpenter, James W; Lin, Denise; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Hallman, Mackenzie

    2017-09-01

    A 33-year-old female intact orange-winged Amazon parrot (Amazona amazonica) presented for a slowly growing mass over the right eye. A computed tomography scan performed with and without intravenous contrast revealed a heterogeneous mixed soft tissue and mineral-dense mass with a small area of non-contrast-enhancing fluid density located between the orbits at the caudal aspect of the nasal passages, with associated lysis of the right caudal nasal passage and the right frontal bone. Following euthanasia, the mass was found to consist of soft tissue between the right eye and nostril over the right frontal bone. Lysis of the underlying bone resulted in a bony defect leading into the infraorbital sinus along the dorsorostral aspect of the right eye. Histopathology revealed an unencapsulated, poorly demarcated, highly cellular neoplasm composed of islands and trabeculae of neoplastic cells embedded in abundant loose fibrovascular stroma which completely obliterated the cortical bone and sinuses of the rostral skull and infiltrated the surrounding muscle and soft tissue. Histologically, the tumor was consistent with a high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, characterized by the presence of epidermoid, intermediate, and mucous-producing cell types. No evidence of metastasis was identified. The tissue of origin was suspected to be salivary or nasal mucous glands, but was difficult to confirm due to distortion of normal tissue architecture as a result of the tumor. Although mucoepidermoid carcinomas are a common salivary gland tumor in human medicine, they are not well recognized in avian species, and no specific case reports exist describing this pathology in an Amazon parrot. Despite the lack of distinct salivary glands in most avian species, mucoepidermoid carcinomas can occur, can cause significant clinical disease, and should be included as a differential diagnosis for avian patients presenting with similar lesions.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of repeated oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Gerhardt, Lillian; Cox, Sherry

    2013-07-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degree of sedation was evaluated in each parrot throughout the study. No changes in the parrots' behavior were observed. Twelve hours after the first dose was administered, mean ± SD concentrations of tramadol and its only active metabolite M1 (O-desmethyltramadol) were 53 ± 57 ng/mL and 6 ± 6 ng/mL, respectively. At steady state following 4.5 days of twice-daily administration, the mean half-lives for plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were 2.92 ± 0.78 hours and 2.14 ± 0.07 hours, respectively. On day 5 of tramadol administration, plasma concentrations remained in the therapeutic range for approximately 6 hours. Other tramadol metabolites (M2, M4, and M5) were also present. On the basis of these results and modeling of the data, tramadol at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, will likely need to be administered every 6 to 8 hours to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

  4. Antinociceptive effects of nalbuphine hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; KuKanich, Butch; Keuler, Nicholas S; Klauer, Julia M; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the antinociceptive effects and duration of action of nalbuphine HCl administered IM on thermal thresholds in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 14 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. 3 doses of nalbuphine (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg, IM) and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) were evaluated in a blinded complete crossover experimental design by use of foot withdrawal threshold to a noxious thermal stimulus. Baseline data on thermal threshold were generated 1 hour before administration of nalbuphine or saline solution; thermal threshold measurements were obtained 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours after administration. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the thermal threshold (mean change, 2.4°C), compared with results for the control treatment, and significantly changed thermal threshold for up to 3 hours, compared with baseline results (mean change, 2.6° to 3.8°C). Higher doses of nalbuphine did not significantly change thermal thresholds, compared with results for the control treatment, but had a significant effect, compared with baseline results, for up to 3 and 1.5 hours after administration, respectively. Nalbuphine administered IM at 12.5 mg/kg significantly increased the foot withdrawal threshold to a thermal noxious stimulus in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Higher doses of nalbuphine did not result in significantly increased thermal thresholds or a longer duration of action and would be expected to result in less analgesic effect than lower doses. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of nalbuphine in psittacine species.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Beaufrère, Hugues; KuKanich, Butch; Barker, Steven A; Brandão, João; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-06-01

    Pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The mechanism of action is by inhibition of PDE III and V and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. Pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical dosage of 0.25 mg/kg q12h. To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 3 pilot studies with 2 birds, each receiving 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg PO, provided the basis for the pivotal trials with 6 birds, each receiving 10 mg/kg PO using 2 different suspensions. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 18 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) by use of electrospray ionization. Because of the erratic and low concentrations of pimobendan, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using naive averaged analysis. Plasma concentrations after commercial pimobendan tablet suspension at 10 mg/kg reached a Cmax of 8.26 ng/mL at 3 hours with a terminal half-life of 2.1 hours, while concentrations after the bulk chemical suspension reached a Cmax of 1.28 ng/mL at 12 hours and had a terminal half-life of 2.3 hours. Further studies evaluating the effect of oral pimobendan in parrots are needed.

  6. B-mode ultrasonography biometry of the Amazon Parrot (Amazona aestiva) eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmkuhl, Ricardo C; Almeida, Mariana F; Mamprim, Maria J; Vulcano, Luiz C

    2010-09-01

    Ultrasonographic evaluation of the eye is a relatively recent addition to routine ophthalmic diagnostics in small animal ophthalmology. Some parameters for ophthalmic biometry have been established. There are few studies in clinical avian ophthalmology that describe ultrasound images of eye in some nocturnal avian species and in other birds that do not belong to the Brazilian fauna, but the psittacine family is not represented. The purpose of this study was to describe the following measurements: the distances between cornea and anterior lens capsule (D1) between the anterior and posterior lens capsule (D2), between posterior lens capsule and optic papilla (D3) and the axial length. Sixty four transpalpebral ocular ultrasound examinations were performed on 32 Blue fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) with no history of previous ophthalmic disease. The measurements were taken in sagital planes using a 10 MHz linear probe without a standoff pad. The mean values for the left eye were; D1 0.17 ± 0.03 cm, D2 0.35 ± 0.02 cm, D3 0.73 ± 0.04 cm and the axial length 1.26 ± 0.06 cm. In the right eye D1 0.17 ± 0.02 cm, D2 0.34 ± 0.02 cm, D3 0.74 ± 0.03 cm and the axial length 1.25 ± 0.05 cm. No significant statistical difference was observed among the birds or between the left and right eye. The description of these parameters will allow the veterinary practitioner to evaluate the structural changes that specific diseases may cause in these animals.

  7. Antinociceptive effects after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Souza, Marcy J; Braun, Jana M; Cox, Sherry K; Keuler, Nicholas S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate antinociceptive effects on thermal thresholds after oral administration of tramadol hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-15 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. 2 crossover experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, 15 parrots received 3 treatments (tramadol at 2 doses [10 and 20 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. In the second experiment, 11 parrots received 2 treatments (tramadol hydrochloride [30 mg/kg] and a control suspension) administered orally. Baseline thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured 1 hour before drug or control suspension administration; thermal foot withdrawal threshold was measured after administration at 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 6 hours (both experiments) and also at 9 hours (second experiment only). For the first experiment, there were no overall effects of treatment, hour, period, or any interactions. For the second experiment, there was an overall effect of treatment, with a significant difference between tramadol hydrochloride and control suspension (mean change from baseline, 2.00° and -0.09°C, respectively). There also was a significant change from baseline for tramadol hydrochloride at 0.5, 1.5, and 6 hours after administration but not at 3 or 9 hours after administration. Tramadol at a dose of 30 mg/kg, PO, induced thermal antinociception in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. This dose was necessary for induction of significant and sustained analgesic effects, with duration of action up to 6 hours. Further studies with other types of noxious stimulation, dosages, and intervals are needed to fully evaluate the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in psittacines.

  8. Effects of dopamine and dobutamine on isoflurane-induced hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; da Cunha, Anderson F; Beaufrère, Hugues; Queiroz, Patricia; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N

    2012-07-01

    To assess the effects of dopamine and dobutamine on the blood pressure of isoflurane-anesthetized Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 8 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A randomized crossover study was conducted. Each bird was anesthetized (anesthesia maintained by administration of 2.5% isoflurane in oxygen) and received 3 doses of each drug during a treatment period of 20 min/dose. Treatments were constant rate infusions (CRIs) of dobutamine (5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min) and dopamine (5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min). Direct systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measurements, heart rate, esophageal temperature, and end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) were recorded throughout the treatment periods. Mean ± SD of the systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures at time 0 (initiation of a CRI) were 132.9 ± 22.1 mm Hg, 116.9 ± 20.5 mm Hg, and 101.9 ± 22.0 mm Hg, respectively. Dopamine resulted in significantly higher values than did dobutamine for the measured variables, except for end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2). Post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that the changes in arterial blood pressure were significantly different 4 to 7 minutes after initiation of a CRI. Overall, dopamine at rates of 7 and 10 μg/kg/min and dobutamine at a rate of 15 μg/kg/min caused the greatest increases in arterial blood pressure. Dobutamine CRI at 5, 10, and 15 μg/kg/min and dopamine CRI at 5, 7, and 10 μg/kg/min may be useful in correcting severe hypotension in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots caused by anesthesia maintained with 2.5% isoflurane.

  9. Morpho structural interpretation with SRTM data for helping the oil exploration: an example of Amazonas-Brazil sedimentary basin; Interpretacao morfoestrutural com dados SRTM no auxilio a exploracao petrolifera: um exemplo na bacia sedimentar do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Filho, Raimundo; Ibanez, Delano M. [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mails: rai@ltid.inpe.br, dmi77@uol.com.br; Miranda, Fernando P. de [Petrobras-CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: fmiranda@petrobras.com.br

    2010-01-15

    The availability of digital elevation models produced by the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission) opened new possibilities for studies of geological remote sensing in the Amazonia, since these models enhance subtle details of the terrain and drainage system, usually masked in conventional orbital images. Using as a case study an area located in the Amazonas sedimentary basin, this article discusses an approach to use these data as an aid to oil exploration in that region. The analysis of the drainage network automatically extracted from that product, combined with altitude information provided by the digital elevation model, revealed a number of drainage anomalies, which may indicate surface expression of buried geological features. One of these drainage anomalies is located exactly within the limits of the Azulao Gas Field, and may correspond to the surface expression of the hydrocarbon trapping structures in that area. The methodological approach discussed in this study can be replicated elsewhere in the Amazonas and Solimoes sedimentary basins, which together comprise about 1,000,000 km{sup 2} covered by rainforest. (author)

  10. "Paladinos da liberdade": A experiência do Clube Negro de Cultura Social em São Paulo (1932-1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrônio Domingues

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse artigo é romper com o relativo silêncio historiográfico que envolve a luta organizada do negro no combate ao racismo neste país, em particular, nas primeiras décadas do período republicano. Por isso, resolvemos oferecer subsídios para se fazer, pioneiramente, um resgate histórico da entidade Clube Negro de Cultura Social (1932-1938 e, centralmente, analisar seus dois veículos informativos oficiais: a revista Cultura, na primeira fase, e o jornal O Clarim, na segunda fase da organização.

  11. Limnological characterization of floodplain lakes in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, Central Amazon (Amazonas State, Brazil Caracterização limnológica dos lagos da planície de inundação na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, Amazônia Central (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gomes Affonso

    2011-03-01

    em 2009, e água baixa em 2008, 2009 e 2010; RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que as variáveis medidas possuem uma alta variabilidade nos corpos d'água na região de estudo: a entre as fases da hidrógrafas; b entre os rios principais; e c entre as margens opostas do Rio Japurá, mostrando a importância do pulso de inundação na variação dos parâmetros físicos e químicos e ainda a em relação ao rio principal de alimentação; CONCLUSÕES: O monitoramento dos parâmetros físicos e químicos em Mamirauá servirá como futura referência para comparação com outras regiões menos preservadas, como o Baixo Amazonas, e ainda como linha de base para modelos sobre efeitos das mudanças climáticas e influências antropogênicas no ecossistema aquático Amazônico.

  12. Papagaio-de-peito-roxo Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae no norte do Espírito Santo: redescoberta e conservação Vinaceous Amazon Amazona vinacea (Kuhl (Aves: Psittacidae in the northern region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil: rediscovery and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. Carrara

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 é uma espécie endêmica da Mata Atlântica e ameaçada de extinção no Brasil e no mundo. Não existem relatos recentes de sua presença na porção setentrional de sua distribuição ao norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro. O último é datado provavelmente de 1991, tendo sido considerado extinto ao norte do Espírito Santo. O presente trabalho noticia a redescoberta da espécie em Alto Rio Novo, noroeste do Espírito Santo, divisa com Minas Gerais. Foram registrados bandos em duas localidades em dezembro de 2005, sendo o maior deles composto por 28 indivíduos. Durante os registros foi observado A. vinacea se alimentando de Anadenanthera sp. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae, uma nova fonte alimentar para a espécie. Os registros históricos mais recentes para a região citam localidades com distância inferior a 35 km dos atuais registros, reforçando a importância local. No entanto, a degradação ambiental e a captura ilegal representam obstáculos à conservação da espécie nesta região. Em dezembro de 2002 foi criado o Parque Nacional dos Pontões Capixabas, primeira Unidade de Conservação na porção serrana do norte do Espírito Santo. Uma das áreas históricas da espécie está incluída em seus limites e um dos locais onde foi agora redescoberto fica a cerca de 10 km de distância da borda do parque. Essa Unidade de Conservação é essencial à proteção de trechos nativos da Mata Atlântica e conseqüentemente do papagaio-de-peito-roxo. Além de medidas conservacionistas, a aquisição de informações sobre as populações de A. vinacea no noroeste do Espírito Santo e leste de Minas Gerais torna-se indispensável para a proposição de medidas de manejo capazes de reverter o grave quadro atual, objetivando viabilizar a permanência de populações na região mais setentrional da distribuição conhecida atualmente para a espécie.Endemic of the Atlantic Forest, Amazona vinacea (Kuhl, 1820 is listed as

  13. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010-11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Espinoza, Jhan; Ronchail, Josyane; Loup Guyot, Jean; Junquas, Clementine; Drapeau, Guillaume; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio; Espinoza, Raúl

    2012-06-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010-11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m3 s-1) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m3 s-1) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010-11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific.

  14. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  15. Geochronology of the basement rocks, Amazonas Territory, Venezuela and the tectonic evolution of the western Guiana Shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudette, H E; Olszewski, Jr, W J

    1985-01-01

    The Amazonas Territory of Venezuela is a large area of Precambrian basement rocks overlain in some locales by the supracrustal sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation. The basement rocks are medium to high grade gneisses with both igneous and sedimentary protoliths, plutonic rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite, and meta-volcanic rocks. Rb-Sr whole rock, and U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircons indicate a period of medium to high grade metamorphism and intrusion from 1860 to 1760 Ma. Post-tectonic plutonic activity continued to 1550 Ma. The volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in Venezuela give an age of 1746 Ma comparable to volcanic rocks of the Roraima Formation in other parts of the Guiana Shield. The ages and distribution of the basement rocks suggest the presence of a tectonic zone, approximately coincident with the Venezuelan-Colombian border, representing an active orogenic boundary between distinct tectonic provinces. The rocks to the northeast of this zone are part of the Trans-Amazonian of the Guiana Shield, while to the southwest and in adjacent Brazil and Colombia, new younger continental crust has been developed and cratonized. We suggest a model of collision and subduction followed by a chan0140n tectonic style to extensional-vertical to produce the basement rocks of the western Guiana Shield in the Amazonas Territory. (Auth.). 20 refs.; 13 figs.; 2 tabs.

  16. Frequencies of Blood Group Systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and Clinical Phases of Carrion’s Disease in Amazonas, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acosta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrion’s disease (CD, is a human bartonellosis, that is, endemic in the Andes of Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia. Bartonella bacilliformis, a native hemotrophic bacteria, is the causative agent of CD, and the interaction with the host could have produced changes in the gene frequencies of erythrocyte antigens. The goal here is to investigate the relationship between allele frequencies of blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the clinical phases of CD, within a genetic context. In this associative and analytical study, 76 individuals from Bagua Grande, the province of Utcubamba, and the department of Amazonas in Peru, were enrolled. Forty of them resided in Tomocho-Collicate-Vista Hermosa area (high prevalence of cases in chronic phase, verrucous, or eruptive phase, without previous acute phase. Thirty-six individuals were from the area of Miraflores (high prevalence of cases in acute phase only and were evaluated for blood group systems MNS, Diego, and Duffy. This study constitutes one of the first attempts at evaluating the genetic factors and clinical phases of CD. No significant statistical differences (P>0.05 between allele frequencies of blood groups MNS, Diego, and Duffy and the prevalence of chronic and acute phases were detected in the two areas of Amazonas, Peru.

  17. From drought to flooding: understanding the abrupt 2010–11 hydrological annual cycle in the Amazonas River and tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinoza, Jhan Carlo; Ronchail, Josyane; Drapeau, Guillaume; Guyot, Jean Loup; Martinez, Jean Michel; Santini, William; Vauchel, Philippe; Espinoza, Raúl; Junquas, Clementine; Lavado, Waldo; Ordoñez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    In this work we document and analyze the hydrological annual cycles characterized by a rapid transition between low and high flows in the Amazonas River (Peruvian Amazon) and we show how these events, which may impact vulnerable riverside residents, are related to regional climate variability. Our analysis is based on comprehensive discharge, rainfall and average suspended sediment data sets. Particular attention is paid to the 2010–11 hydrological year, when an unprecedented abrupt transition from the extreme September 2010 drought (8300 m 3 s −1 ) to one of the four highest discharges in April 2011 (49 500 m 3 s −1 ) was recorded at Tamshiyacu (Amazonas River). This unusual transition is also observed in average suspended sediments. Years with a rapid increase in discharge are characterized by negative sea surface temperature anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific during austral summer, corresponding to a La Niña-like mode. It originates a geopotential height wave train over the subtropical South Pacific and southeastern South America, with a negative anomaly along the southern Amazon and the southeastern South Atlantic convergence zone region. As a consequence, the monsoon flux is retained over the Amazon and a strong convergence of humidity occurs in the Peruvian Amazon basin, favoring high rainfall and discharge. These features are also reported during the 2010–11 austral summer, when an intense La Niña event characterized the equatorial Pacific. (letter)

  18. A new eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the blue-fronted Amazon parrot Amazona aestiva L. (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Guaraldo, A M A

    2011-12-01

    The Neotropical psittacine species Amazona aestiva, commonly known as the blue-fronted Amazon, is one of the most common and best-known psittacine birds kept as a pet worldwide. However, very little is known about the diseases or parasites of these birds. In this study, we describe a new species, Eimeria aestivae, associated with these parrots. The new species is characterized by: ovoid smooth oocysts (n  =  60), 36.8 (33.2-41.5) × 23.7 (21.7-25.7) µm, length/width ratio  =  1.55; polar granule present; ellipsoidal sporocysts (n  =  25), 19.8 (17.5-21.6) × 9.3 (8.3-9.9) µm; Stieda, sub-Stieda body, and sporocyst residuum present. Sporozoites (n  =  20), 2 per sporocyst, elongate and curved, 17.6 (15.8-19.2) × 3.8 (3.2-4.8) µm; each with 2 refractile bodies. The oocysts of the other 2 eimerian species described for Amazona are larger than those of the presented species, but they all seem to be closely related because of some similarities among them.

  19. Two new Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstatter, P G; Kawazoe, U

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we describe 2 new species of Eimeria associated with the yellow-crowned Amazon Amazona ochrocephala. Eimeria amazonae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 48.9 × 36.2 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.35. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are both absent, but the polar granule is present. Ovoidal sporocysts are 22.2 × 11.9 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present. The 2 elongate sporozoites are curved and measure 18.1 × 3.4 µm; both have 2 refractile bodies. Eimeria ochrocephalae n. sp. has bilayered, ellipsoidal, and smooth oocysts that measure 43.8 × 27.7 µm; the length/width ratio is 1.58. The micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent, but the polar granule is present; ovoidal sporocysts are 20.6 × 10.1 µm. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies and sporocyst residuum are present; 2 elongate and curved sporozoites are 15.8 × 3.4 µm, each of which has 2 refractile bodies.

  20. The passage from Rio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, M F

    1992-01-01

    The Secretary-General of the UN Conference on Environment and Development notes that after the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro discussions about the environment and development will differ from those prior to the Summit. These discussions must now incorporate problems of developing countries, poverty, inequalities, flow of resources to developing countries, and terms of trade. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development consists of important tenets, but it must evolve into an Earth Charter to be endorsed on the 50th anniversary of the UN in 1965. The Summit's Plan of Action, Agenda 21, must also continue to evolve and, despite its shortcomings, is the most extensive and, if implemented, most effective international action ever approved by the international community. Financing the Agenda 21 initiatives remains to be decided. New possible sources of funding must be based n the polluter pays principle and may include new taxes, user charges, emission permits, and citizen funding. Even though the most serious problem in the 1990s is stabilization of atmospheric gases, the Rio agreement does not include targets or timetables. Governments must take united action immediately to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by at least 60%. 1 nation has not yet approved the convention on biological diversity. Governments also need to move forward on conventions on decertification and deforestation. They need to incorporate the global objectives of Agenda 21 into their own national policies and practices. This must also be done at the global, regional, organizational, local, and individual levels. The global community must also begin technology capacity building. The participatory process should also include nongovernmental organizations. Population growth must also slow dramatically to achieve sustainable development. The various participatory levels must consider elimination of poverty.

  1. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa.

  2. PREFERÊNCIA DE SAÚVA LIMÃO, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (HYMENOPTERA, FORMICIDAE A DIFERENTES ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS, EM CONDIÇÕES DE LABORATÓRIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa .

  3. Modelos culturales en conflicto: grupos negros y misioneros agustinos en el Pacífico sur colombiano (1896-1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Almario García

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las relaciones entre los grupos negros del Pacífico sur colombiano y los misioneros agustinos recoletos en términos de tensiones entre dos «modelos culturales» diferentes, durante un período de transición para las identidades étnicas y el nacionalismo de Estado. El modelo de los grupos negros se relaciona con su proceso de etnogénesis, que se incuba como resistencia a la esclavitud en el siglo XVIII, se extiende en libertad durante el XIX y persiste como como identidad territorializada, poblamientos ribereños dispersos y sentidos comunitarios en el siglo XX. Mientras que el modelo de los misioneros se explica por la compleja interacción entre la modernidad tardía, el sistema mundo, el nacionalismo de Estado y la tradición católica en Colombia, con el cual se pretendía transformar los sujetos étnicos y las condiciones regionales, encauzándolos en los ideales de Dios, Patria y Progreso, y concentrándolos en poblaciones.

  4. Characterisation of an enamelled metallic object found in Guerrero Negro (Baja California) by PIXE and RBS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo del Castillo, H.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Calderon, T.; Salinas Nolasco, M.F.; Mejia, L.M.; Perdigon, K.

    2008-01-01

    The coast of Guerrero Negro (Baja California) has been known for a long time by archaeologists for its shipwrecks. Archaeologists are recovering objects that come from sunken Spanish galleons in the colonial period, and reach the American coast in the frontier of the USA with Mexico. An enamelled metallic object was found next to the beach in Guerrero Negro. We have analysed the piece with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in an attempt to establish whether the object could come from one of the colonial shipwrecks and to valuate its cleaning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) have been also performed in three samples taken from the object in order to observe the heterogeneity of the material. The materials found revealed the presence of typical lead-glass enamels from with pigments such as cuprite (red), or lead-tin yellow used in colonial times. The metallic part consisted of brass. As for the cleaning process, the average efficiency considered as the weight% of chlorine removed, was of 83.4% for brass and 100% for enamels

  5. Evaluación de líneas de frijol negro, en Veracruz y Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluación de líneas de frijol negro, en Veracruz y Chiapas, México. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo durante los ciclos agrícolas de 1999-2000 y 2000-2001; se evaluó la adaptación y rendimiento de 15 líneas avanzadas de frijol negro, así como un testigo local. Dichos genotipos forman parte al Ensayo Centroamericano de Adaptación y Rendimiento (ECAR. La evaluación se realizó en 11 localidades, cinco en el estado de Chiapas y seis en Veracruz, los experimentos se establecieron bajo condiciones de riego, temporal y humedad residual. Las líneas ICTA-Ju 97-1, ICTA-Ju II- 307, DOR-678 y Cut-45, resultaron sobresalientes por su rendimiento, amplia adaptación y estabilidad. En el ciclo agrícola de otoño-invierno 1999-2000, se evaluó la respuesta de las líneas a las siguientes enfermedades: mosaico dorado (BGMV, mancha angular (Phaseoisariopsis griseola, roya (Uromyces appendiculatus y la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Las líneas que resultaron tolerantes fueron ICTA Ju 97-1 y Cut-45. Ambas serán validadas en campos de agricultores para su posible liberación como nuevas variedades para algunas regiones productoras de Veracruz y Chiapas, México

  6. El polen de las mieles del valle de Río Negro, provincia fitogeográfica del monte (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C. Tellería

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Tellería, M. C. & Forcone, A. 2000. El polen de las mieles del valle de Río Negro, provinciafitogeográfica del monte (Argentina. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 273-277.Se realizó el análisis palinológico de 41 muestras de miel del valle de Río Negro. El contenido polínicode las muestras fue acetolizado e identificado por comparación con una colección de polen de referencia.Del total de muestras examinadas, 26 fueron mixtas y las restantes monoflorales de: Tamarix gallica (8muestras, Eucalyptus sp. (2 muestras, Melilotus sp. (1 muestra, Centaurea sp. (1 muestra, Prosopissp. (1 muestra, Brassicaceae (1 muestra y Monttea aphylla (1 muestra. Estas mieles pueden diferenciar-se de aquellas que se producen en el valle inferior del río Chubut, en la misma región fitogeográfica

  7. Negro é o inferno! Um ensaio sobre as cores dos homens, dos demônios e dos deuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Douglas Pincerati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2016v17n2p46 Problematiza-se o par negro.branco na formação social brasileira, trabalhando a hipótese de que ‘negro’ não é cor, mas a metáfora do corpo do ser infernal. Estatísticas oficiais, a história da formação do Brasil, um enunciado de um Deputado Federal Pastor, o quadro A libertação dos Escravos de Pedro Américo (1889 e a história da construção das catedrais góticas medievais são evocadas para analisá-lo, desde o ponto de vista linguístico-discursivo. Nota-se, destarte, uma longa história do alinhamento dos significantes branco-luz-deuses-céu-liberdade... e negro-escuridão-demônios-inferno-escravidão... atuando ainda no nosso país.

  8. Characterisation of an enamelled metallic object found in Guerrero Negro (Baja California) by PIXE and RBS techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo del Castillo, H. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Centre Europeen d' Archeometrie - I.P.N.A.S., Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 10 Bat-15, Sart Tilman, 4000-Liege 1 (Belgium)], E-mail: hcalvo@ulg.ac.be; Ruvalcaba, J.L. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Calderon, T. [Departamento de Geologia y Geoquimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Salinas Nolasco, M.F. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Mejia, L.M. [Direccion de Arqueologia Subacuatica, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico); Perdigon, K. [Coordinacion de Conservacion del Patrimonio Cultural, Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    The coast of Guerrero Negro (Baja California) has been known for a long time by archaeologists for its shipwrecks. Archaeologists are recovering objects that come from sunken Spanish galleons in the colonial period, and reach the American coast in the frontier of the USA with Mexico. An enamelled metallic object was found next to the beach in Guerrero Negro. We have analysed the piece with proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) in an attempt to establish whether the object could come from one of the colonial shipwrecks and to valuate its cleaning process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) have been also performed in three samples taken from the object in order to observe the heterogeneity of the material. The materials found revealed the presence of typical lead-glass enamels from with pigments such as cuprite (red), or lead-tin yellow used in colonial times. The metallic part consisted of brass. As for the cleaning process, the average efficiency considered as the weight% of chlorine removed, was of 83.4% for brass and 100% for ename0008.

  9. El racismo y la representación social de lo negro entre niños de pueblos afromexicanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Masferrer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la representación social que construyen niños de pueblos afromexicanos sobre lo negro o las personas “negras” y examina de qué manera se asocia al racismo. Los resultados se basan en el trabajo de campo realizado en la región con la mayor concentración de localidades afrodescendientes en México, la Costa Chica de Guerrero y Oaxaca, en la cual se desarrollaron diversas estrategias etnográficas con niños de cuatro a catorce años de edad, como entrevistas grupales, talleres de radio y pintura, entre otras. Después de la introducción, se presenta una explicación sobre el contexto en que se realizó la investigación. Posteriormente se exponen los principales elementos de la representación social de niños de localidades afromexicanas sobre lo negro, mostrando en qué medida se vincula al racismo, aunque sin dejar de lado otros aspectos fundamentales como su relación con la construcción social de lugar. Finalmente, se presentan pautas metodológicas para combatir el racismo. Este trabajo busca contribuir a las discusiones antropológicas sobre el racismo a partir de perspectivas teóricas y propuestas metodológicas interdisciplinarias.

  10. Rio responses in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Three of the five agreements reached in Rio - the Rio Declaration, Agenda 21 and the Framework Convention on Climate Change - are briefly summarised from and energy perspective. The state of the art in the two national policy areas that are crucial for sustainable development, environmental policy and development cooperation, are then described. Some conclusions are drawn regarding the major bottlenecks and challenges for Dutch policies in the wake of Rio. 2 figs

  11. Contenido de catequinas en cultivares argentinos de té elaborados como té negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAT KRICUN, S. D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto tuvo como objetivo determinar el contenido de materia seca de las siguientes catequinas, epigalocatequina-3-galato (EGCG, epigalocatequina (EGC, epicatequina (EC, catequina (C y catequina galato (CG, en los cultivares de té CH 14 INTA, CH 112 INTA, CH 318 INTA, CH 410 INTA y CH 732 INTA elaborados como té negro, durante tres épocas de zafra. Se empleó un sistema de extracción acuosa y la determinación de los compuestos se efectuó por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC, con elución isocrática.Los contenidos de catequinas se analizaron por análisis de variancia (P<0,05, se estudiaron las diferencias entre cultivares y la población control, épocas e interacciones. Se compararon las medias entre cultivares y la población control por medio de la prueba de Comparación Múltiple (P<0,05. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer que el contenido total promedio de todas las catequinas analizadas, alcanzó a 1,53 de materia seca (%. EGCG fue la catequina con más alta concentración, alcanzado un promedio 1,10% ± 0,13, no registrando diferencias significativas entre cultivares. EGC alcanzó un segundo nivel con una concentración de 0,16%±0,03. Para EC, C y CG las concentraciones fueron de 0,16% ± 0,06; 0,06%± 0,016 y 0,04%± 0,009, respectivamente.Entre los cultivares se presentaron diferencias significativas respecto al resto, el cultivar CH 410 INTA presento los mayores contenidos de EGCG, EGC, EC y C, con 1,30; 0,19; 0,29 y 0,11% respectivamente; para CG el cultivar CH 318 INTA presenta el mayor contenido con 0,068%.Entre las épocas de zafra, se registraron diferencias significativas, con los mayores contenidos promedio al inicio de zafra para todas las catequinas analizadas. Sus contenidos para CGCG, EGC, EC, C y CG, fueron 1,47; 0,22; 0,27; 0,13 y 0,063% respectivamente.

  12. Lanthanide behavior in hypersaline evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico - an environment with halophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumiline, K.; López-Cortés, A.; Grajeda-Muñoz, M.; Shumilin, E.; Sapozhnikov, D.

    2013-12-01

    Lanthanides are known, in some cases, to be sensitive to changes in water column or sediment chemistry, a fact that allows them to be used as environmental fingerprints. Nevertheless, the behavior of these elements in hypersaline environments is insufficiently understood, especially in those colonized by bacteria, archaea and eukarya halophiles. Extreme environments like the mentioned exist in the artificially-controlled ponds of the 'Exportadora de Sal' salt-producing enterprise located in Guerrero Negro (Baja California, Mexico). Sediment cores from various ponds were collected, subsampled and measured by ICP-MS and INAA. This allowed differencing the behavior of lanthanides and trace elements under a water column salinity gradient along the evaporation sequence of ponds. Sediment profiles (30 mm long), obtained in Pond 5, dominated by Ca and Mg precipitation and at the same time rich in organic matter due to bacterial mat presence, showed highs and lows of the shale-normalized patterns along different in-core depths. Two groups of elements could be distinguished with similar trends: set A (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) and set B (Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu). The first 'group A' had two prominent peaks at 15 mm and around 22 mm, whereas the 'group B' showed only slight increase at 15 mm and none at 22 mm. Microscopic analyses of prokaryotic cells of a stratified mat in Pond 5 (collected in 2004) showed filamentous bacteria and cyanobacteria with a cell abundance and morphotype richness maxima of prokaryotic cells in a chemocline from 3 mm to 7 mm depth which co-exists nine morphotypes of aerobic and anaerobic prokaryotes Microcoleus chthonoplastes, Leptolyngbya, Cyanothece, Geitlerinema, Spirulina, Chloroflexus, Beggiatoa, Chromatium and Thioploca. Below the 7 mm depth, oxygenic photosynthesis depletes and sulfur reducing compounds increase. The highs of the shale-normalized lanthanide contents of the 'group A' (at 15 mm depth) seem to correlate with the

  13. Condiciones para la transmision del hantavirus en zona andina de Río negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Talmon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus (SPH es una enfermedad de etiología viral que causa en el hombre un cuadro respiratorio grave. En Patagonia, la enfermedad es causada por el virus Andes Sur (AND, transmitido por el roedor Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue identificar las actividades del hombre que favorecen su exposición a roedores, denominados escenarios de contagio. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo a partir de información recolectada en investigaciones de casos ocurridos en Río Negro, mediante Fichas Clínico-Epidemiológicas e informes de evaluación ecológico/ambiental. Se definieron como variables a ser consideradas: edad, sexo, época del año, grado de urbanización, localización geográfica, integración del hombre al hábitat de roedores, fuente probable de exposición, actividad humana y nivel de saneamiento. Se estudiaron 32 casos. La exposición rural se verificó en 18 (56.2% de los casos y 10 (31.3% en paraje rural (grupo de viviendas en zona rural. En relación al ambiente antropogénico 24 (75% resultaron en ambientes modificados por el hombre y 8 (25% en áreas poco modificadas. El sitio de exposición de mayor importancia en El Bolsón fue el interior de edificaciones en 8 de los 18 casos allí registrados (44.5%, mientras que en Bariloche fueron ambientes de exterior con 8/14 (57.1% casos. La actividad de riesgo fue laboral en 23 (71.9% de los casos y recreacional en 7 (28.1%. Determinar los escenarios de contagio a nivel local ha aportado información para aplicar todos los recursos disponibles en materia de prevención y educación sanitaria.

  14. A descrição histórica, geográfica e etnográfica do rio Capim feita por João Barbosa Rodrigues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Ximenes

    Full Text Available Resumo Em 1871, o botânico João Barbosa Rodrigues (1842-1909 foi comissionado pelo Governo Imperial para explorar alguns rios do vale amazônico, a fim de completar a parte das palmeiras da grandiosa “Flora Brasiliensis”, de Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius (1794-1868. Foi assim que Barbosa Rodrigues explorou o rio Capim. Os resultados dessa viagem estão no Relatório “Exploração e estudo do valle do Amazonas: rio Capim”, no qual o botânico registrou não apenas minuciosa descrição geográfica e hidrográfica deste rio, como também aspectos botânicos, zoológicos e de ocupação humana da localidade por meio de observações arqueológicas e etnográficas. O objetivo deste artigo é estabelecer como os estudos realizados por Barbosa Rodrigues no rio Capim contribuíram para a elaboração de um conhecimento científico da Amazônia paraense, construído dentro do contexto político-científico brasileiro do século XIX, dominado pelo Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro.

  15. Caracterização Estrutural de Materiais de Carbono com Recurso a Vários Adsortivos

    OpenAIRE

    Cansado, Isabel Pestana da Paixão

    2003-01-01

    O trabalho apresentado nesta tese consiste na obtenção, validação e disponibilização de dados padrão para a adsorção de benzeno, metanol e diclorometano a 298 K e de neopentano a 273 K em materiais de carbono. Os dados padrão foram obtidos em negros de fumo e utilizados para analisar as isotérmicas obtidas em materiais microporos. A adsorção dos vários adsortivos põe em evidência a presença de efeito de peneiro molecular, que alguns adsorventes exibem, face à adsorção dos mesmos. A identifica...

  16. Resistance to Temptation in Young Negro Children in Relation to Sex of the Subject, Sex of the Experimenter and Father Absence or Presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumbauer, Corinne C.; Gray, Susan W.

    1969-01-01

    One of the differences in child development caused by the mother-dominant, father-absent structure of disadvantaged Negro families might be the differential development of resistance to temptation in male and female children. It would be expected that girls would be more resistant than boys, that girls would show no difference whether their father…

  17. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Origen and development of the highly diverse Amazon tropical forest has mostly been inferred from continental sites. However, sediment records in the marine Foz do Amazonas Basin can provide important information to better understand the influence of the Andes uplift and climate change on its plant biomes evolution since the Neogene. Sediment analyses of samples from BP-Petrobras well 1 and 2, drilled in the Amazon Fan, allowed to infer the onset of the transcontinental Amazon river and the fan phase during the middle to late Miocene (c. 10.5 Ma). As part of the CLIMAMAZON research programme we performed pollen analysis on the 10.5 to 0.4 Ma time interval. 76 ditch cutting samples of the upper 4165 m sediments of well 2 permitted us to infer changes in floral composition in the Amazon Basin. The palynological spectra across this interval (nannofossil based age model) include pollen, fern spores, dinocysts and foram lignings. When possible pollen and fern spores were grouped in four vegetation types: estuarine, tropical, mountain forest and high mountain open treeless vegetation. Pollen is generally corroded and reflects the effects of sediment transportation while reworked material is also common. Good pollen producers such as Poaceae, Asteraceae and Cyperaceae are common and reflect indistinctive vegetation types particularly those associated to riverine systems. Rhizophora/Zonocostites spp. indicate "close-distance" mangrove development. Tropical forest biomes are represented by pollen that resemble Moraceae-Urticaceae, Melastomataceae-Combretaceae, Sapotaceae, Alchornea, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Mauritia and Arecaceae. Myrica, and particularly sporadic occurrences of fossil fern spores like Lophosoria, and Cyathea suggest the development of a moist Andean forest in areas above 1000 m. First indicators of high altitudes appear in the last part of late Miocene with taxa associated to current Valeriana and particularly Polylepis, a neotropical taxon

  18. Palpation- and ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Anderson F; Strain, George M; Rademacher, Nathalie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    To compare palpation-guided with ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Prospective randomized experimental trial. Eighteen adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) weighing 252-295 g. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, parrots received an injection of lidocaine (2 mg kg(-1)) in a total volume of 0.3 mL at the axillary region. The birds were randomly assigned to equal groups using either palpation or ultrasound as a guide for the brachial plexus block. Nerve evoked muscle potentials (NEMP) were used to monitor effectiveness of brachial plexus block. The palpation-guided group received the local anesthetic at the space between the pectoral muscle, triceps, and supracoracoideus aticimus muscle, at the insertion of the tendons of the caudal coracobrachial muscle, and the caudal scapulohumeral muscle. For the ultrasound-guided group, the brachial plexus and the adjacent vessels were located with B-mode ultrasonography using a 7-15 MHz linear probe. After location, an 8-5 MHz convex transducer was used to guide injections. General anesthesia was discontinued 20 minutes after lidocaine injection and the birds recovered in a padded cage. Both techniques decreased the amplitude of NEMP. Statistically significant differences in NEMP amplitudes, were observed within the ultrasound-guided group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection and within the palpation-guided group at 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. No effect on motor function, muscle relaxation or wing droop was observed after brachial plexus block. The onset of the brachial plexus block tended to be faster when ultrasonography was used. Brachial plexus injection can be performed in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and nerve evoked muscle potentials were useful to monitor the effects on nerve conduction in this avian species. Neither technique produced an effective block at the

  19. Pharmacokinetics of butorphanol after intravenous, intramuscular, and oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Flammer, Keven; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Barker, Steven A; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have validated the clinical use of opioids with kaap-receptor affinities for pain management in birds. Butorphanol, a kappa opioid receptor agonist and a mu opioid receptor antagonist, is currently considered by many clinicians to be the opioid of choice for this use. However, despite studies reporting the analgesic properties of butorphanol in psittacine birds, dosing intervals have not been established for any psittacine species. The goals of this study in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) were to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of butorphanol tartrate after intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and oral (PO) administration and to determine the bioavailability of butorphanol tartrate after oral administration. Twelve Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used in the study, with a complete-crossover experimental design and a 3-month period separating each part of the study. The birds were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 4) for each stage. Butorphanol tartrate was administered once at a dose of 5 mg/kg in the basilic vein or pectoral muscles or as an oral solution delivered via feeding tube into the crop for the IV, IM, and PO studies, respectively. After butorphanol administration, blood samples were collected at 1, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes for the IV and IM studies and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, and 300 minutes for the PO study. Because of the size limitation of the birds, naive pooling of datum points was used to generate a mean plasma butorphanol concentration at each time point. For each study, birds in each group (n = 4) were bled 3 times after dosing. Plasma butorphanol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Butorphanol tartrate was found to have high bioavailability and rapid elimination following IM administration. In contrast, oral administration resulted in low bioavailability (Amazon

  20. Adaptación y rendimiento de la variedad de frijol “Negro Medellín” en el sureste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto L\\u00F3pez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo de 1994 a 1997 con el objetivo de evaluar la adaptación y rendimiento de la nueva variedad de frijol “Negro Medellín” en la región del Trópico Húmedo del sureste de México. Se condujeron diez ensayos de rendimiento, cinco en el estado de Veracruz, cuatro en Chiapas y uno en Guerrero. Los ensayos incluyeron 16 genotipos y se realizaron, de acuerdo a las facilidades disponibles en los sitios de prueba, bajo condiciones de humedad residual o de temporal. En las evaluaciones se utilizó un diseño de Bloques Completos al Azar con tres repeticiones. La variedad Negro Medellín resultó sobresaliente por su rendimiento, amplia adaptación, con respuesta superior en ambientes favorables y consistente (1226 kg/ha, bi >1,0, S2di = 0. Durante las evaluaciones, la variedad Negro Medellín resultó tolerante a las enfermedades: virus del mosaico dorado (BGMV, mancha angular (Phaoisariopsis griseola y roya (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus, enfermedades de amplia distribución en la región tropical. Sin embargo, en una localidad de Veracruz Negro Medellín resultó susceptible a la antracnosis (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. Además, la variedad Negro Medellín se validó en parcelas comerciales en campos de agricultores en diez localidades del sureste de México, localidades con clima tropical. En éstas parcelas comerciales, Negro Medellín resultó superior en rendimiento a diversos testigos, variedades criollas y mejoradas, de un 10 a 25%, obteniendo un rendimiento promedio de 1300 kg/ha. La variedad Negro Medellín está en trámite para su registro como nueva variedad para las regiones productoras del sureste de México

  1. Rio Grande Floodway, Truth or Consequences Unit, NM, Cuchillo Negro Dam Foundation Report. Volume 3. Appendix E, Appendix F and Appendix G

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    a 50 per cent reduction in explosives load. The explosives should be well distributed in the hole using decks and detonating cord do- nlines . Line...8217 Handbook Describing Practical Methods of Using Explosives for Various Purposes 0 Prepared by TECHNICAL MARKETING SERVICES - EXPLOSIVES Sixth Edition

  2. Segurança/insegurança alimentar em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas: I. validação de metodologia e de instrumento de coleta de informação Nutritional security/insecurity in urban and rural families of Amazonas state: validation of methodology and of information collecting instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia K. O. Yuyama

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo validou a metodologia e o instrumento de coleta de informação para análise da segurança/insegurança alimentar, em famílias urbanas e rurais no estado do Amazonas conforme o proposto pelo USDA (Departamento de Agricultura dos Estados Unidos. Valendo-se de amostra intencional de domicílios, selecionadas para representar estratos sociais diferentes foram computadas 194 famílias sendo 174 com crianças na área urbana de Manaus, envolvendo os seguintes bairros: Jesus me Deu, Novo Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado e Conjunto Petro. Na área rural foram entrevistadas 209 famílias ribeirinhas e destas 131 com crianças, distribuídas entre os Municípios de Iranduba e Manacapuru. A validação final do questionário (Consistência interna global deu-se por meio da comparação dos níveis de segurança e insegurança alimentar, com os estratos definidos dos indicadores sociais e de consumo. Pode-se concluir que os grupos com maior insegurança alimentar foram os situados em estratos sociais mais baixos e de baixo consumo de alimentos sensíveis a estas condições. O instrumento de coleta apresentou alta validade e consistência interna.The present study validates the methodology and the information collecting instrument for analysis of nutritional security/insecurity on the urban and rural family level, proposed by the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture. An intentional sample of domiciles was selected to represent different social strata, 194 families were enrolled in urban Manaus, of which 174 had children, in the following neighborhoods: Jesus me Deu, Nova Israel, Cidade Nova, Coroado and Conj. Petro. In the rural area between the municipalities of Iranduba and Manacapuru, 209 riparian families were interviewed, and of these 131 had children. The final validation of the questionnaire (global internal consistency was made by comparing, the levels of nutritional security/insecurity, with the defined social strata and

  3. Estimation of electric power generation using coal from the fruit peel of cupuassu in Amazonas State, Brazil; Estimativa de geracao de energia eletrica utilizando o carvao da casca do fruto do cupuacuzeiro no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Cleuder Lima da [Manaus Energia S/A., Manaus, AM (Brazil); Santos, Eyde Cristiane Saraiva dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos], e-mail: eyde_cristianne@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of the charcoal of agroforestry residue for the generation of electric energy, for being renewable power plant and possessing technology for application, comes being evidenced. In this research the potential of generation of electric energy was estimated, in the main producing cities of the State of Amazonas of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Wild. Ex. Spreng. Shum.), using the rind carbonized in technology of gasification, substitution of diesel. The charcoal of the rind of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro presents to be able calorific next to the one to the deriving coal of the wood. Known the annual production of each one the cities, the amount and the cost of production of the generated electric energy, determined in this research, it justifies the exploitation of this residue, for having economic advantages, when comparative with the tariff of the adopted electric energy in the region for the concessionaire. (author)

  4. Negociando com a adversidade: reflexões sobre "raça", (homossexualidade e desigualdade social no Rio de Janeiro Negotiating with adversity: discussion on "race", (homosexuality and social inequality in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moutinho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir como a dinâmica dos afetos e prazeres se cruza com a desigualdade social no circuito GLS carioca. Mais especificamente, será abordada parte da trajetória de vida de dois jovens homossexuais negros que vivem no subúrbio carioca e de um que vive na favela da Maré. O trabalho de campo evidenciou que nesse contexto os homossexuais masculinos mais escuros que moram nos subúrbios e nas favelas do Rio de Janeiro possuem um campo de manobra mais amplo do que aqueles nos quais se inserem rapazes e moças heterossexuais da região e, mesmo, as lésbicas e travestis de diferentes cores que habitam essas áreas.The aim of this article is to discuss how the affection and pleasure dynamics intersect with the social inequality in the gay and lesbian circuit in Rio de Janeiro city. Part of the life trajectory of two young black homosexuals living in the carioca suburbs, and one living in Maré slum, will be more particularly approached. The field work emphasized that, in this context, the darker male homosexuals living in suburbs and slums in Rio de Janeiro have a broader range of action than those in which young heterosexual male and female and even lesbians and transvestites of different color living in these areas are inserted.

  5. [Pilot study of echocardiographic studies using color- and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler methods in blue-crowned amazons (Amazona ventralis) and blue-fronted amazons (Amazona a. aestiva)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pees, M; Straub, J; Schumacher, J; Gompf, R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    2005-02-01

    Colour-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography was performed on 6 healthy, adult Hispaniolan amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 6 blue-fronted amazon parrots (Amazona a. aestiva) to establish normal reference values. Birds were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen and placed in dorsal recumbency. An electrocardiogram was recorded continuously and birds were imaged with a micro-phased-array scanner with a frequency of 7.0 MHz. After assessment of cardiac function in 2-D-echocardiography, blood flow across the left and the right atrioventricular valve and across the aortic valve was determined using color-flow and pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography. Diastolic inflow (mean value +/- standard deviation) into the left ventricle was 0.17 +/- 0.02 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.18 +/- 0.03 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Diastolic inflow into the right ventricle was 0.22 +/- 0.05 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.22 +/- 0.04 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Velocity across the aortic valve was 0.84 +/- 0.07 m/s (Hispaniolan amazons) and 0.83 +/- 0.08 m/s (Blue fronted amazons). Systolic pulmonary flow could not be detected in any of the birds in this study. No significant differences were evident between the two species examined. Results of this study indicate that Doppler echocardiography is a promising technique to determine blood flow in the avian heart. Further studies in other avian species are needed to establish reference values for assessment of cardiac function in diseased birds.

  6. The unsustainability of the implantation of the 'Luz para todos' programme in the Amazonas state; A (in)sustentabilidade da implantacao do programa Luz para Todos no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Andreia Santos; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This article brings to discuss the policy of universalization of the supply of electrical energy 'Luz para todos' showing the significance of this proposal of the government, in a short time, bring electricity to more than 10 million people who still live in the darkness. It features the efficiency of this action of the government from the reality experienced in the context Amazon, which show a framework for various characteristics and natural, cultural and focused on the issue geospatial. This involves understanding the multitude of climates and geographical characteristics, cultural and social constitute major obstacles for the implementation of policies homogeneous, demonstrating that the potential for development of each region has different dynamics, which should influence in the formulation of policies. While electricity is essential for the economic progress of a country, the expansion of its services to society must be viewed with great discretion, in order to prevent the exploitation and consumption exacerbated of natural resources and waste of energy. With this reading, the work he proposes to show the inconsistencies of the program in the state of Amazonas, on presentation of data from the Companhia Energetica do Amazonas (CEAM), showing thus obstacles to the achievement of the goals outlined in the State. Considering the environmental importance that the Amazon represents for Brazil and for the world, emerges is the need for a differentiated look for the region, taking into account their unique reality. It is believed that is the acceptance of their characteristics that we can really promote a development that is sustainable for the Amazon. (author)

  7. Fungos isolados da água de consumo de uma comunidade ribeirinha do médio Rio Solimões, Amazonas-Brasil: potencial patogênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Kelle Serrão de Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos passaram a receber maior atenção como contaminantes de água potável, devido algumas doenças estarem relacionadas a esses microrganismos e ao abastecimento inadequado, principalmente em populações ribeirinhas. Este trabalho verificou a presença de fungos na água de consumo da comunidade ribeirinha, Lago do Limão, Iranduba – AM, e avaliou o perfil de patogenicidade dos fungos isolados. As espécies fúngicas isoladas foram identificadas fenotipicamente e geneticamente. A avaliação dos fungos, quanto ao seu potencial de patogenicidade, incluiu: Crescimento a 37°C, Produção de Ureases e Proteases. Como resultados, foram isoladas 101 culturas de diferentes gêneros da subdivisão Deuteromycotina. Os gêneros isolados de maior frequência foram Aspergillus spp (41,6%, Penicillium spp (19,8% e Trichoderma spp. (27,7%. Quanto aos parâmetros de patogenicidade, verificou-se que 95% das amostras apresentaram positividade quando incubadas a 37ºC; 66,3% em meio Ágar Christensen e 58,4% no teste de Proteases. Há escassez de trabalhos que abordam a patogenicidade dos fungos presentes na água, principalmente, em água consumida pelas comunidades ribeirinhas. Espera-se que os resultados deste trabalho possam subsidiar a legislação brasileira estabelecer limites de fungos presentes em água potável.

  8. Sistemas de cultivo e conserva??o da diversidade da mandioca em duas comunidades ribeirinhas do Rio Solim?es, Amazonas, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Janaina de

    2010-01-01

    Pode-se ponderar que a pr?tica de cultivos agr?colas tradicionais voltados para a produ??o de alimentos pode contribuir para a conserva??o da agrobiodiversidade na Amaz?nia brasileira, uma vez que os agroecossistemas locais tendem a ser mais diversificados do que os cultivos convencionais e s?o compostos de esp?cies e variedades de consider?vel import?ncia para o homem. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo geral comparar a din?mica produtiva e os diferentes sistemas de cultivo d...

  9. Mobilidade urbana no rio: o ir e vir das catraias do bairro do Abial ao centro da cidade de Tefé- Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nágila dos Santos Situba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand the daily life of the catraieiros who work in the river urban mobility of the catraias, in the Xidarini Basin, in the city of Tefé - AM. In this sense, the catraia is the main modal used in the crossing of people and vehicles in the city of Tefé, mainly in the coming and going of the center of the city to the district of the Abial and vice versa. The study starts with analyzing the daily life, the mobility of the catraias and the labor relations, adopting bibliographical research and field research as methodological procedures that will lead to an understanding of reality and the world of work. In the first moment of this study, we will approach the dynamics of the coming and going, positivities, negativities and difficulties of this modal. Soon after, we will describe the daily routine of the catraieiros. Finally, we will deal with trade union problems and the precariousness of labor.

  10. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Henrique Monteiro Gomes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM. A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1. A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM.

  11. DOSAGEM DE METABÓLITOS DE GLUCOCORTICOIDES E PROGESTERONA EM FEZES DE PAPAGAIO-VERDADEIRO (AMAZONA AESTIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Junko Fujihara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to evaluate fecal concentrations of metabolites of glucocorticoids, measured by enzyme immunoassay with a cortisol antibody and by radioimmunoassay with a corticosterone antibody, and progesterone by radioimmunoassay with a progesterone antibody in blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva after ACTH challenge. The adrenal stimulation with ACTH (25 UI/animal resulted in an increase of fecal glucocorticoids metabolites concentration, but it did not affect the concentrations of fecal progesterone metabolites. Although there were no synchronized peaks of glucocorticoid metabolites excretion measured by enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, there were two peaks of excretion, one at 2-4 hours and other at 8-10 hours. Despite the occurrence of peaks, the analysis of fecal glucocorticoids metabolites and progesterone metabolites showed no effect of group (control and treatment, moment (hours of sampling and sex.

  12. Nuevo registro del loro frente blanca (Amazona albifrons para la Isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Herminio Plasencia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reportamos, por primera vez en la literatura científica, al loro frente blanca (Amazona albifrons como especie introducida en áreas urbanas de la Isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, durante el trabajo de campo realizado en el mes de abril de 2011. Su presencia sólo en áreas urbanas de la isla, la capacidad de la especie para poder vivir con éxito en áreas urbanas, la abundancia de árboles frutales y su uso como mascota por los isleños nos permite sugerir que los individuos registrados son resultado de escapes o fueron liberados por sus dueños. Es probable que las condiciones sean favorables para el establecimiento de una población dentro del poblado de San Miguel de Cozumel, lo que debe monitorearse en el futuro.

  13. Characterization of atherosclerosis by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Cornelia; Schmidt, Volker; Cramer, Kerstin; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize atherosclerotic changes in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Amazon parrots (Amazona spp.) by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Samples of the aorta ascendens and trunci brachiocephalici from 62 African grey parrots and 35 Amazon parrots were stained by hematoxylin and eosin and Elastica van Gieson for grading of atherosclerosis in these birds. Four different stages were differentiated. The incidence of atherosclerosis in the examined parrots was 91.9% in African grey parrots and 91.4% in Amazon parrots. To evaluate the pathogenesis in birds, immunohistochemical methods were performed to demonstrate lymphocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and chondroitin sulfate. According to the missing lymphocytes and macrophages and the absence of invasion and proliferation of smooth muscle cells in each atherosclerotic stage, "response-to-injury hypothesis" seems inapplicable in parrots. Additionally, we found alterations of vitally important organs (heart, lungs) significantly correlated with atherosclerosis of the aorta ascendens.

  14. Diversity and distribution of sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a military area in the state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Luís Henrique Monteiro; Albuquerque, Maria Ivonei Carvalho; da Rocha, Liliane Coelho; Pinheiro, Francimeire Gomes; Franco, Antonia Maria Ramos

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the distribution, ecotopes and fauna diversity of sandflies captured in five training bases on a military reserve in Manaus, state of Amazonas (AM). A total of 10,762 specimens were collected, which were distributed among 58 species, with the highest number recorded at Base Instruction 1 (BI1). A higher rate of species richness was found at the Base Instruction Boina Rajada and low levels of diversity associated with a high abundance index with the clear dominance of Lutzomyia umbratilis, Lutzomyia ruii and Lutzomyia anduzei were found at BI1. The abundance of Lu. umbratilis raises the possibility of outbreaks of American cutaneous leishmaniasis by the main vector of the disease in AM. PMID:23903983

  15. A locally funded Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata genome sequencing project increases avian data and advances young researcher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksyk Taras K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amazona vittata is a critically endangered Puerto Rican endemic bird, the only surviving native parrot species in the United States territory, and the first parrot in the large Neotropical genus Amazona, to be studied on a genomic scale. Findings In a unique community-based funded project, DNA from an A. vittata female was sequenced using a HiSeq Illumina platform, resulting in a total of ~42.5 billion nucleotide bases. This provided approximately 26.89x average coverage depth at the completion of this funding phase. Filtering followed by assembly resulted in 259,423 contigs (N50 = 6,983 bp, longest = 75,003 bp, which was further scaffolded into 148,255 fragments (N50 = 19,470, longest = 206,462 bp. This provided ~76% coverage of the genome based on an estimated size of 1.58 Gb. The assembled scaffolds allowed basic genomic annotation and comparative analyses with other available avian whole-genome sequences. Conclusions The current data represents the first genomic information from and work carried out with a unique source of funding. This analysis further provides a means for directed training of young researchers in genetic and bioinformatics analyses and will facilitate progress towards a full assembly and annotation of the Puerto Rican parrot genome. It also adds extensive genomic data to a new branch of the avian tree, making it useful for comparative analyses with other avian species. Ultimately, the knowledge acquired from these data will contribute to an improved understanding of the overall population health of this species and aid in ongoing and future conservation efforts.

  16. Effects of Hurricane Georges on habitat use by captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) released in the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T.H.; Collazo, J.A.; Vilella, F.J.; Guerrero, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    We radio-tagged and released 49 captive-reared Hispaniolan Parrots (Amazona ventralis) in Parque Nacional del Este (PNE), Dominican Republic, during 1997 and 1998. Our primary objective was to develop a restoration program centered on using aviary-reared birds to further the recovery of the critically endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (A. vittata). Hurricane Georges made landfall over the release area on 22 September 1998 with sustained winds of 224 km/h, providing us with a unique opportunity to quantify responses of parrots to such disturbances. Quantitative data on such responses by any avian species are scarce, particularly for Amazona species, many of which are in peril and occur in hurricane-prone areas throughout the Caribbean. Mean home ranges of 18 parrots monitored both before and after the hurricane increased (P = 0.08) from 864 ha (CI = 689-1039 ha) pre-hurricane to 1690 ha (CI = 1003-2377 ha) post-hurricane. The total area traversed by all parrots increased > 300%, from 4884 ha pre-hurricane to 15,490 ha post-hurricane. Before Hurricane Georges, parrot activity was concentrated in coastal scrub, tall broadleaf forest, and abandoned agriculture (conucos). After the hurricane, parrots concentrated their activities in areas of tall broadleaf forest and abandoned conucos. Topographic relief, primarily in the form of large sinkholes, resulted in "resource refugia" where parrots and other frugivores foraged after the hurricane. Habitat use and movement patterns exhibited by released birds highlight the importance of carefully considering effects of season, topography, and overall size of release areas when planning psittacine restorations in hurricane-prone areas. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  17. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE ON THE PLASMA LIPID PROFILE IN HISPANIOLAN AMAZON PARROTS (AMAZONA VENTRALIS) WITH NATURALLY OCCURRING HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsen, Kate A; Stanhope, Kimber L; Lin, Amy S; Graham, James L; Havel, Peter J; Paul-Murphy, Joanne R

    2016-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is common in psittacines, and Amazon parrots ( Amazona spp.) are particularly susceptible. Associations have been demonstrated between naturally occurring and experimentally induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis in psittacines. Daily exercise improves lipid metabolism in humans and other mammals, as well as pigeons and chickens, under varying experimental conditions. Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) with naturally occurring hypercholesterolemia (343-576 mg/dl) were divided into two groups. An exercised group (n = 8) was housed as a flock and exercised daily with 30 min of aviary flight and 30 min walking on a rotating perch. A sedentary control group (n = 4) was housed in individual cages with no exercise regime. A plasma lipid panel, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides, was validated for this species. Body weight, chest girth, and the lipid panel were measured at 0, 61, and 105 days. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were measured at 0 and 105 days. Weight and girth were significantly lower in exercised than sedentary parrots at 61 and 105 days. HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in exercised parrots at 61 days but returned to near baseline by 105 days. There were no significant changes in hematology, biochemistry, or other lipid panel parameters. Results were similar to studies in humans and animal models, in which increased HDL-C was the most consistent effect of exercise on circulating lipid and lipoprotein parameters. The return toward baseline HDL-C may have resulted from decreased participation in aviary flight. Additional investigation will be required to determine the amount of exercise and change in circulating lipid-related parameters necessary to improve long-term wellness in psittacine species predisposed to hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  19. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, L.K.H.; Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S.; Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G.; Covas, D.T.; Malheiro, A.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization

  20. Distribution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes in the State of Amazonas, Brazil, and subtype C identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, L.K.H. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Kashima, S.; Amarante, M.F.C.; Haddad, R.; Rodrigues, E.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, K.L.T.; Lima, T.A.; Castro, D.B.; Brito, F.C.; Almeida, E.G. [Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Covas, D.T. [Laboratório de Biologia Molecular, Hemocentro de Ribeirão Preto, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Malheiro, A. [Departamento de Parasitologia, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil); Diretoria de Ensino e Pesquisa,Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2012-01-20

    Few studies have reported the molecular epidemiological characterization of HIV-1 in the Northern region of Brazil. The present study reports the molecular and epidemiological characterization of 31 HIV-1 isolates from blood donors from the State of Amazonas who donated blood between April 2006 and March 2007. Serum/plasma samples from all donors were screened for HIV antibodies by ELISA and the results confirmed by Western blot analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buffy coat using the Super Quik-Gene-DNA Isolation kit. Nested PCR was performed on the env, gag, and pol regions of HIV-1 using the Gene Amp PCR System 9700. Sequencing reactions were performed using the inner PCR primers and the DYEnamic™ ET Dye Terminator Kit, and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the gag, pol, and env gene sequences. We collected samples from 31 blood donors who tested positive for HIV-1 in confirmatory experiments. The male:female ratio of blood donors was 3.4:1, and the mean age was 32.4 years (range: 19 to 61 years). Phylogenetic analysis showed that subtype B is the most prevalent among Northern Brazilian HIV-1-seropositive blood donors. One HIV-1 subtype C and one circulating recombinant form (CRF-BF) of HIV-1 were identified in the State of Amazonas. This is the first study showing the occurrence of a possible “homogenous” subtype C in this region of Brazil. This finding could contribute to a better characterization of the HIV-1 strains that circulate in the country. Key words: HIV-1; Subtypes; Phylogenetic analysis; Blood donors; Molecular and epidemiological characterization.

  1. Poética da rua : estética do meio ambiente urbano em imagens de cineastas negros

    OpenAIRE

    Feitosa, Aida Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    O presente trabalho é um esforço de elaboração de uma poética da rua a partir de imagens de filmes de cineastas negros. O objetivo é construir uma experiência visual poética singular, destacando a centralidade do espaço rua, como parte de um caminho de abertura poética às imagens fílmicas em sua relação com diferentes estéticas. Para tal investida, o referencial teórico é a fenomenologia, principalmente, a partir de estudos de Gaston Bachelard (2008) e Michel Maffesoli (2008). O recorte metod...

  2. Rescate y germinación in vitro de embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Darío Quintero-García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica (Juglandaceae con 16 y 20 semanas de desarrollo fueron removidos asépticamente de los frutos y sembrados durante 60 días en los medios de cultivo MS (Murashige y Skoog, 1962, WPM (Lloyd y McCown, 1980 y DKW (Driver y Kuniyuki, 1984, sin reguladores de crecimiento. Se observó que embriones con 16 semanas de desarrollo no germinaron en los tres medios de cultivo; por el contrario, los embriones con 20 semanas de desarrollo presentaron una germinación de 100%. Se encontró un marcado efecto del medio en el crecimiento de los embriones, siendo el medio MS mejor (P < 0.05 que los medios DKW y WPM, debido a que en él los embriones presentaron mayor altura y proporción tallo/raíz para la obtención de plántulas completas.

  3. Negro é o inferno! Um ensaio sobre as cores dos homens, dos demônios e dos deuses

    OpenAIRE

    Walker Douglas Pincerati

    2016-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-8420.2016v17n2p46 Problematiza-se o par negro.branco na formação social brasileira, trabalhando a hipótese de que ‘negro’ não é cor, mas a metáfora do corpo do ser infernal. Estatísticas oficiais, a história da formação do Brasil, um enunciado de um Deputado Federal Pastor, o quadro A libertação dos Escravos de Pedro Américo (1889) e a história da construção das catedrais góticas medievais são evocadas para analisá-lo, desde o ponto de vista linguístico-disc...

  4. TIPIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA DE CURSOS PRINCIPALES. CUENCA DEL ARROYO EL NEGRO, SISTEMA DE VENTANIA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Campo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rivers are natural, dynamic and complex systems. Its main function is the transportation of water, sediments and nutrients, conforming areas of great ecological and territorial value. Morphology varies according to the structure and the drainage network. Fluvial systems typification classifies and characterize rivers in order to provide substantial information about every section. Although there are several classifications and characterizations, Rosgen’s combines hydrological, geomorphological and ecological aspects that serves as important indicators towards this study. River classifications are relevant to understanding natural systems and their function, being an instrument of major importance in territorial planning, which provides a significant benefit to environment and society. The area encloses the lower basin of El Negro stream in Sierra de la Ventana, Argentina. Thehomonym village occupies part of the floodplain of the main channel. In recent years, the real estate pressure in these areas led to the opening of new subdivisions for the construction of resorts, changing the stream morphology. The aim of this work is to morphologically characterize and typify a section located in the lower basin of El Negro stream to generate a methodology applicable to other courses in the sector. Before typification, sectioning was implemented following criteria by Ollero Ojeda y otros (2003 and utilizing aerial photographs. The corresponding portion of the lower basin was selected for morphological characterization as the one showing major changes due to being in the urbanized area. The investigation was done based on Thorne’s methodology (1998, and afterwards typified following Rosgen’s criteria (1994. The typification resulted in a A3 stream category based on its morphological characteristics. The methodology allows to comprehend fluvial dynamics and gather data from a sector where scarces or nonexists, in order to generate representative

  5. Indicadores de sustentabilidade na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável do Piranha, Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Indicators of sustainable of the Piranha Development Reserve, Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Menezes de Andrade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os indicadores são informações qualitativas e quantitativas, usadas nos processos decisórios em todos os níveis da sociedade. Neste sentido o propósito deste trabalho é avaliar comparativamente os meios de vida das populações tradicionais da área estudada a partir dos capitais: humano, social, natural, físico e financeiro e propor indicadores de avaliação e monitoramento para áreas protegidas da Amazônia. A base empírica para o trabalho foram nove comunidades rurais da Reserva de Desenvolvimento do Piranha, sendo três da zona de uso sustentável e seis da zona de amortecimento norte e sul em Manacapuru-AM. O procedimento metodológico adotado na investigação é quantitativo. Os dados foram coletados, através da pesquisa ação, relatos, observação participante, entrevistas estruturadas, conversas informais e dados secundários. Os dados coletados foram organizados por capitais e posteriormente utilizados na comparação dos indicadores e construção do Índice de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Local-IDSL. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram um melhor desenvolvimento das comunidades da zona de uso sustentável, com destaque para o capital financeiro. O IDSL construído mostrou-se representativo da realidade local, de fácil aplicação, eficiente e eficaz para medir o desempenho dos indicadores integrantes dos capitais. Neste sentido apontam-se direções para os tomadores de decisões em concordância com os princípios da sustentabilidade e recomendações da Agenda 21 global.The indicators are qualitative and quantitative information, used to decide processes in all the levels of the society. In this direction the intention of this study is to comparatively evaluate the ways of life of the traditional populations of the studied area from capitals: human, social, natural, physical and financial, and to consider indicators of evaluation and monitoring to protected areas of the Amazon. The empirical base for the work were nine

  6. Etnografia e manejo de recursos naturais pelos índios Deni, Amazonas, Brasil Ethnography and natural resources management by the Deni Indians, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Pezzuti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available São raros os estudos envolvendo o uso múltiplo de recursos naturais por populações amazônicas. Este trabalho apresenta um panorama de como os índios Deni, habitantes da região de interflúvio entre dois dos maiores afluentes de água branca da bacia amazônica, os rios Juruá e Purus, utilizam dos recursos disponíveis em seu território. Os Deni são, atualmente, índios que vivem da exploração de recursos da terra firme e de regiões alagadas. São um misto de horticultores e caçadores/coletores, que utilizam toda a sua área para a obtenção de recursos para subsistência. Como regra, deslocam periodicamente seus assentamentos, evitando o esgotamento local de recursos, e provocando a modificação local do ambiente. Esta alteração aumenta temporariamente a disponibilidade de alimento. Áreas com aldeias, pomares e roçados abandonados, por sua vez, tornam-se locais onde se concentram inúmeros recursos da flora e da fauna, posteriormente explorados. O impacto provocado por este sistema é aparentemente mínimo. Os Deni estão contextualizados na periferia de um sistema capitalista, onde a única fonte de renda para adquirir bens que são hoje considerados pelos índios como indispensáveis para sua sobrevivência são os recursos naturais. Estes são e continuarão sendo explorados de maneira a produzir um excedente a ser comercializado para a obtenção de uma série de produtos industrializados, independentemente das opiniões externas. É sobre este patamar que devemos avaliar a sustentabilidade do atual manejo da área.Studies concerning the use of multiple natural resources by Amazonian indians are scarce. This work presents a portrait of how the Deni Indians, inhabitants of an area between two of the most important white-water rivers of the Amazon basin (Juruá and Purus Rivers, exploit natural resources in their territory. The Deni exploit both the upland and floodplain forests. They are a mix of horticulturalists and

  7. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  8. [Nesting habitat characterization for Amazona oratrix (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Central Pacific, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrubio-Rico, Tiberio C; Álvarez-Jara, Margarito; Tellez-Garcia, Loreno; Tena-Morelos, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The nesting requirements of the Yellow-headed Parrot (Amazona oratrix) are poorly understood, despite their broad historical distribution, high demand for pet trade and current endangered status. Information concerning their nesting requirements is required in order to design specific restoration and conser- vation actions. To assess this, we studied their nesting ecology in the Central Pacific, Michoacan, Mexico during a ten year period. The analyzed variables ranged from local scale nest site characteristics such as nesting tree species, dimensions, geographic positions, diet and nesting forest patches structure, to large scale features such as vegetation use and climatic variables associated to the nesting tree distributions by an ecological niche model using Maxent. We also evaluated the parrot tolerance to land management regimes, and compared the Pacific nest trees with 18 nest trees recorded in an intensively managed private ranch in Tamaulipas, Gulf of Mexico. Parrots nested in tall trees with canopy level cavities in 92 nest-trees recorded from 11 tree species. The 72.8% of nesting occurred in trees of Astronium graveolens, and Enterolobium cyclocarpum which qualified as key- stone trees. The forests where the parrots nested, presented a maximum of 54 tree species, 50% of which were identified as food source; besides, these areas also had a high abundance of trees used as food supply. The lowest number of tree species and trees to forage occurred in an active cattle ranch, whereas the highest species rich- ness was observed in areas with natural recovery. The nesting cavity entrance height from above ground of the Pacific nesting trees resulted higher than those found in the Gulf of Mexico. We hypothesize that the differences may be attributed to Parrot behavioral differences adapting to differential poaching pressure and cavity avail- ability. Nesting trees were found in six vegetation types; however the parrots preferred conserved and riparian semi

  9. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin/Tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, James W; Tully, Thomas N; Gehring, Ronette; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2017-06-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of piperacillin/tazobactam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ), 8 healthy adult parrots of both sexes were used in a 2-part study. In a pilot study, piperacillin (87 mg/kg) in combination with tazobactam (11 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (IM) to 2 birds, and blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 hours after administration. Based on the results obtained, a main study was done in which piperacillin/tazobactam was administered at 2 different doses. In 3 birds, the initial dose of piperacillin (87 mg/kg)/tazobactam (11 mg/kg) IM was administered, and in 3 birds, the dose was doubled to piperacillin (174 mg/kg)/tazobactam (22 mg/kg) IM. In all 6 birds, blood samples were obtained at 0, 5, 15, and 30 minutes and at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 4 hours after administration. Quantification of plasma piperacillin and tazobactam concentrations was determined by validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental analysis. After intramuscular administration, the mean ± standard error values of T 1/2 (h) was 0.52 ± 0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.07, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.09 and 0.25 ± 0.10, C max (μg/mL) was 86.34 ± 20.62 and 9.03 ± 2.88, and C max /dose was 0.99 ± 0.24 and 0.83 ± 0.26 for piperacillin (87 mg/kg) and tazobactam (11 mg/kg), respectively. When the doses were doubled, the T 1/2 (h) was 0.65 ± 0.08 and 0.34 ± 0.02, T max (h) was 0.28 ± 0.12 and 0.14 ± 0.06, C max (μg/mL) was 233.0 ± 6.08 and 22.13 ± 2.35, and C max /dose was 1.34 ± 0.03 and 1.02 ± 0.11 for piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively. Results indicate that piperacillin is rapidly absorbed and reaches high initial concentrations; however, it is also rapidly eliminated in the Hispaniolan Amazon parrot, and tazobactam has similar pharmacokinetics as piperacillin. Administration of piperacillin at 87 mg/kg IM q3-4h is recommended for this species

  10. Moving mountains in Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, D.

    1992-01-01

    The June 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro has been planned more as a discussion of environment and development, rather than sustainable development as suggested by the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development (the Brundtland Commission). The Canadian agenda for UNCED is like that of most of the developed countries, and focuses mainly on climatic change, deforestation, loss of biodiversity in the tropics, and health of the oceans. The agenda of the developing countries is based on the knowledge that most of these global problems have been caused or aggravated by the industrialized countries. The developing countries fear that actions imposed to solve environmental problems will threaten their economic development. A key demand from the developing countries is a commitment by developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, leaving space for the developing countries to increase their emissions as they develop. There is little or no pressure on governments in the developed world to come to such a comprehensive deal. For Canada, much remains to be done in setting national priorities, and many of the issues to be discussed at UNCED are under provincial jurisdiction

  11. A Revolução Haitiana e o Atlântico Negro: o Constitucionalismo em face do Lado Oculto da Modernidade / The Haitian Revolution and the Black Atlantic: Constitutionalism in face of the Dark Side of Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Charles Piza Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo pretende ser um duplo movimento de reflexão sobre as categorias utilizadas para tratar da história do constitucionalismo moderno. Primeiramente, apresentará a categoria de “Atlântico Negro” e suas respectivas contribuições para uma “reperiodização” da modernidade, especificamente quanto aos movimentos sociais de reivindicação de direitos. Em seguida toma um evento particular desse Atlântico Negro, a Revolução Haitiana, como prisma hermenêutico e metodológico para pensar as disputas constitucionais. Busca-se, desse modo, adotar o ponto de vista de uma filosofia da história que lide, de maneira integrada, com a modernidade e o colonialismo. Por fim, tecerá breves comentários sobre como esse duplo movimento poderá contribuir para a reflexão sobre o direito constitucional contemporâneo. Abstract: The present paper aims to be a double movement of reflection about the history of modern constitutionalism. Firstly, it introduces the “Black Atlantic” category and its respective contributions to perform a “re-periodization” of modernity, specifically in relation to social movements of human rights. Then, it takes one particular event of this Black Atlantic, the Haitian Revolution, to be a methodological and hermeneutical prism to think the constitutional struggles. Thereby, the paper intends to embrace a point of view of the philosophy of history that deals with modernity and colonialism in an integrated manner. Lastly, it shows how this double displacement can contribute to the contemporary constitutional thought.

  12. A Revolução Haitiana e o Atlântico Negro: o Constitucionalismo em face do Lado Oculto da Modernidade / The Haitian Revolution and the Black Atlantic: Constitutionalism in face of the Dark Side of Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Charles Piza Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo pretende ser um duplo movimento de reflexão sobre as categorias utilizadas para tratar da história do constitucionalismo moderno. Primeiramente, apresentará a categoria de “Atlântico Negro” e suas respectivas contribuições para uma “reperiodização” da modernidade, especificamente quanto aos movimentos sociais de reivindicação de direitos. Em seguida toma um evento particular desse Atlântico Negro, a Revolução Haitiana, como prisma hermenêutico e metodológico para pensar as disputas constitucionais. Busca-se, desse modo, adotar o ponto de vista de uma filosofia da história que lide, de maneira integrada, com a modernidade e o colonialismo. Por fim, tecerá breves comentários sobre como esse duplo movimento poderá contribuir para a reflexão sobre o direito constitucional contemporâneo.   Abstract: The present paper aims to be a double movement of reflection about the history of modern constitutionalism. Firstly, it introduces the “Black Atlantic” category and its respective contributions to perform a “re-periodization” of modernity, specifically in relation to social movements of human rights. Then, it takes one particular event of this Black Atlantic, the Haitian Revolution, to be a methodological and hermeneutical prism to think the constitutional struggles. Thereby, the paper intends to embrace a point of view of the philosophy of history that deals with modernity and colonialism in an integrated manner. Lastly, it shows how this double displacement can contribute to the contemporary constitutional thought.

  13. Rio Chama Floodplain Management Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Village of Chama requested the Soil Conservation Service, through the Upper Chama Soil and Water Conservation District, to conduct a study of the Rio Chama and...

  14. Avaliação do desembarque pesqueiro efetuado em Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Evaluation of the Manacapuru fishing landings, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade comercial pesqueira na Amazônia Central é predominantemente direcionada para Manaus, porém o perfil das atividades pesqueiras efetuadas nos demais centros também é fundamental para o planejamento do setor. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa caracterizar o perfil da produção pesqueira que abastece a cidade de Manacapuru, um dos principais centros urbanos da Amazônia Central. Os desembarques ocorreram a partir de canoas a remo, canoas motorizadas, barcos de pesca e recreios. A média mensal de pescado desembarcado foi de 175,36 ± 39,50 t em 2001 e de 172,13 ± 18,88 t em 2002, não apresentando diferença significativa entre anos (P>0,05. Dos 35 nomes específicos comuns registrados, observa-se que curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., e tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram os itens mais importantes nos dois anos, e piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii em 2002. Sete sub-regiões foram visitadas pela frota pesqueira, destacando-se Baixo-Solimões e o rio Purus.The fishing commercial activity in Central Amazonia is mainly addressed for Manaus, even so the characteristics of the fishing activities directed to other important urban centers in the region are also fundamental for the planning of the sector. In this context, the present work seeks to characterize the profile of the fishing production that lands in the city of Manacapuru, one of the main urban centers of Central Amazon. Fish landings were done from non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes, fishing ships and pleasure boats. The monthly average of landed fish was of 175,36 ± 39,50 ton in 2001 and of 172,13 ± 18,88 ton in 2002, not presenting significant difference among years (P>0,05. Of the 35 registered common species names, it is observed that curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., and tambaqui (Colossoma

  15. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR E. PAULIV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian, Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  16. A new Xenacanthiformes shark (Chondrichthyes, Elasmobranchii) from the Late Paleozoic Rio do Rasto Formation (Paraná Basin), Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliv, Victor E; Dias, Eliseu V; Sedor, Fernando A; Ribeiro, Ana Maria

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian records on Xenacanthiformes include teeth and cephalic spines from the Parnaíba, Amazonas and Paraná basins. This work describes a new species of Xenacanthidae, collected in an outcrop of Serrinha Member of Rio do Rasto Formation (Wordian to Wuchiapingian), Paraná Basin, municipality of Jacarezinho, State of Paraná. The teeth of the new species are two or three-cuspidated and the aboral surface show a smooth concavity and one rounded basal tubercle. The coronal surface presents one semi-spherical and subcircular coronal button, and also two lateral main cusps and one central (when present) with less than one fifth of the size of the lateral cusps in the labial portion. The lateral cusps are asymmetric or symmetric, rounded in transversal section, lanceolate in longitudinal section, devoid of lateral carinae and lateral serrations, and with few smooth cristae of enameloid. In optical microscope the teeth show a trabecular dentine (osteodentine) base, while the cusps are composed by orthodentine, and the pulp cavities are non-obliterated by trabecular dentine. The fossil assemblage in the same stratigraphical level and in the whole Rio do Rasto Formation indicates another freshwater record for xenacanthid sharks.

  17. Tuberculose na população indígena de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brasil Tuberculosis among the indian population in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Levino

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo descreve a situação da tuberculose no Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, no período de 1997 a 2002. Este município de população predominantemente indígena constitui uma importante noso-área da Amazônia para o problema da tuberculose, cuja magnitude se expressa por intermédio do coeficiente 2,4 vezes mais elevado que a média estadual e até quatro vezes mais que a média nacional. Análises estatísticas utilizadas para avaliar a tendência em relação à associação com a idade, o sexo e a forma clínica revelaram diferenças no comportamento da endemia, quando comparados os coeficientes de incidência entre os casos de procedência urbana e rural. As taxas padronizadas mostraram a população masculina com uma incidência mais elevada que a feminina nas duas áreas de residência. A faixa etária mais atingida foi acima de 50 anos, porém a proporção de menores de 15 anos se mostrou acima dos valores esperados na população geral do país, além de apresentar diferentes níveis de gravidade nas subáreas rurais estudadas. Os achados indicam que esta situação pode ser explicada pelas desigualdades, sobretudo, relativas à acessibilidade aos serviços de saúde que, contraditoriamente, parecem menos resolutivos na área urbana.This study describes the tuberculosis situation in São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas State, Brazil, from 1997 to 2002. The county, which has a predominantly Indian population, is a relevant tuberculosis area in Amazonas, since the infection rate is 2.4 to 4 times that of the overall State and national rates. The statistical analyses used to assess its association with age, gender, and clinical form showed differences in the endemic behavior, comparing the urban and rural incidence rates. Males had higher standardized incidence rates than females in both the urban and rural areas. The most heavily affected age group was greater than 50 years, but the rate among

  18. Os sistemas agroflorestais como alternativa de sustentabilidade em ecossistemas de várzea no Amazonas The Agroforestry systems as an alternative of sustainable land use in várzea (floodplain ecosystems in Amazon State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albejamere Pereira de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas agroflorestais (SAFs representam uma alternativa agroecológica de produção, sob regime sustentável, para os agricultores familiares na várzea dos Rios Solimões/Amazonas, principalmente no que se refere ao manejo florestal, à diversidade de produtos e à geração de renda. Diante disso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi compreender as diferentes formas de apropriação e de manejo dos recursos naturais através dos SAFs, nos subsistemas roça, sítio e lagos, como componente para a sustentabilidade dos agricultores familiares da localidade Costa da Terra Nova, município do Careiro da Várzea, Amazonas. O método empregado foi o Estudo de Caso com aplicação de questionários, entrevistas e observação participante. A produção familiar na Costa da Terra Nova é representada pelos SAFs, constituído pelos os subsistemas: roça quintal e lago, que proporcionam produtos tanto para subsistência quanto para comercialização local, e estabelecendo a agricultura como fundamental atividade na localidade. O principal produto para comercialização é obtido das hortaliças cultivadas na época da vazante no subsistema roça nas comunidades São Francisco e Nossa Senhora da Conceição; e do extrativismo pesqueiro no subsistema lago, na época da cheia, principalmente na comunidade São José. A criação de animal se dá no subsistema sítio e é apenas para subsistência, sendo as aves e os suínos os principais animais domésticos criados nas três comunidades. Portanto os SAFs tradicionais, constituídos pelos subsistemas, roça, sitio e lago, são responsáveis pela sustentabilidade socioeconômica da localidade pesquisada, servindo, como alternativa agrícola melhor adaptada às condições locais das áreas de várzea na Amazônia.The Agroforest Systems (SAF's presents an agro ecological alternative of production under sustainable basis for the families farmers, in the várzea (floodplain of the Solimões/Amazonas Rivers

  19. Frantz Fanon y la Enajenación del Negro y del Blanco en el Sistema Colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Zema de Resende

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen A partir de la lectura de Piel negra, máscaras blancas, propongo en este artículo reflexionar sobre las ideas de Frantz Fanon a cerca de la enajenación del negro y del blanco en el sistema colonial. El objetivo es recuperar algunos de los principales aportes de Fanon para la comprensión del racismo colonial desde su teoría de la enajenación. Fanon presenta la enajenación como un paso previo a la esclavitud y al colonialismo, necesario para el mantenimiento de la explotación económica y analiza las conductas identitarias de "vergüenza de sí" como el resultado de la dominación colonial. Él describe con precisión el impacto del racismo y del colonialismo y sus efectos destructivos mostrando cómo los mecanismos de enajenación determinan la relación entre el blanco y el negro y cómo se reproducen las jerarquías que rigen estas relaciones. Retomar el pensamiento de Fanon y reconocer la pertinencia y actualidad de sus contribuciones es esencial para poder reubicar la lucha contra todas las formas de dominación en la continuación de la lucha contra el colonialismo en una época en que la identidad racial y el racismo han más que probado su capacidad de persistir en el tiempo y el espacio. Palabras clave: Frantz Fanon; Enajenación; Racismo; Sistema Colonial. Frantz Fanon and the Alienation of Black and White in the Colonial System Abstract From the reading of Black Skin, White Masks, in this article I propose to reflect on Frantz Fanon's ideas about alienation of black and white in the colonial system. The goal is to recover some of his most important contributions to the understanding of colonial racism from his theory of alienation. Fanon presents alienation as a prior step to slavery and colonialism, necessary for the maintenance of economic exploitation and analyzes the identity conducts of self shame as a result of colonial domination. Fanon accurately describes the impact of racism and colonialism and its destructive

  20. Calidad nutricional y consumo de morera (Morus alba, ramio (Bohemeria nivea (L Gaud y sorgo negro forrajero (Sorghum almum en cabras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Elizondo Salazar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Calidad y consumo de morera (Morus alba, ramio (Bohemeria nivea (L Gaud y sorgo negro forrajero (Sorghum almum en cabras. El experimento se llevó a cabo en la Estación Experimental Alfredo Volio Mata de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Se evaluó y comparó el consumo de morera, ramio y sorgo negro forrajero en nueve cabras raza La Mancha, con un peso promedio de 38 (±1 kg, distribuidas en un diseño de cuadrado latino 3 x 3 repetido. Los tratamientos experimentales fueron: a dieta única de morera, b dieta única de ramio y c dieta única de sorgo negro. La morera con una edad de rebrote de 90 días, el ramio con 56 días y el sorgo negro con 70 días. El forraje se suministró en forma fresca picada (tallos y hojas. Se recolectaron muestras del material ofrecido y rechazado para el análisis de materia seca, proteína cruda y fibra neutro detergente. Se observaron diferencias altamente significativas (P≤0,01 para el consumo de forraje fresco, materia seca, proteína cruda y fibra neutro detergente. La ingesta de materia seca para los diferentes tratamientos se encontró dentro del rango reportado en la literatura, siendo de 1,94, 0,97 y 0,90 del peso vivo respectivamente. Con los consumos de proteína cruda obtenidos con la dieta de morera y ramio, los animales cubrieron sus necesidades de mantenimiento y suplieron el nutrimento de forma extra para alcanzar ganancias de peso diarias superiores a los 50 gramos. La dieta que presentó los mayores niveles de consumo de forraje verde, forraje seco, proteína cruda y fibra neutro detergente fue la correspondiente a morera, seguida de la dieta de ramio.

  1. Doença de Tay-Sachs em criança de raça negra Tay-Sachs disease in a Negro child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rosemberg

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de doença de Tay-Sachs em criança da raça negra. O encontro desta entidade em indivíduos não judeus é bastante raro, sendo este o quinto caso descrito em criança negra. Os autores estudam alguns aspectos genéticos, chegando à conclusão de que o cálculo da freqüência do gene mutante é impossível devido ao pequeno número de casos e ao fato de que não há estimativas seguras quanto à taxa de nascimento de indivíduos negros na população, Em que pese o fato de o diagnóstico se assentar em bases puramente clínicas e anatômicas, prescindindo os autores de exames bioquímicos específicos, os dados apresentados são congruentes com os casos clássicos descritos na literatura.A case of Tay-Sachs diseases in a Negro child is reported. The occurrence of this disease in non-Jewish individuals is very rare and this is the fifth case of a Negro-child reported in the litterature. Some genetical aspects are studied and the authors conclude that the frequency calculation of the mutant gene is impossible due to the small number of cases and to the fact that there is reliable information regarding the rate of birth of Negro individuals in the general population. The diagnosis was based on ophtalmological and clinical data. No specific biochemical tests were performed but the data obtained are congruent with other cases reported in the litterature.

  2. Registro de Culicidae de importância epidemiológica na área rural de Manaus, Amazonas Record of epidemiologically important Culicidae in the rural area of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Vale Barbosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A biodiversidade da Região Amazônica inclui diversas espécies de vetores artrópodes em seus diferentes ecótopos, possibilitando o surgimento de doenças como malária, filarioses e arboviroses. De agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, realizou-se coletas de culicídeos no domicílio, peridomicílio e nas matas da Comunidade São João, área rural de Manaus, Amazonas. Foram capturados 1.240 culicídeos, pertencentes às subfamílias Culicinae (99% e Anophelinae (1%, somando 50 espécies. O predomínio entre as tribos foi nitidamente de Culicini, com 904 (72,9% exemplares, destacando-se as espécies Culex usquatus (22,6% e Culex quinquefasciatus (17,7%. Do total de culicídeos, 1.077 (86,9% exemplares foram capturados no interior das matas, 101 (8,1% no peridomicílio e 62 (5% no intradomicílio. O ecótopo com maior diversidade de espécies foi a mata. Assinalou-se a presença de Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus janthinomys e outros vetores comprovados ou potenciais.The biodiversity of the Amazon region includes many species of arthropod vectors in different ecotopes, thus enabling occurrences of diseases like malaria, filariasis and arbovirosis. From August 2001 to July 2002, we gathered culicids from inside homes, from areas surrounding these homes and from forested areas of the São João Community, in the rural zone of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 1240 specimens were collected, belonging to the Culicinae (99% and Anophelinae (1% subfamilies, with 50 species. The Culicini tribe clearly predominated, with 904 specimens (72.9%, and the species Culex usquatus (22.6% and Culex quinquefasciatus (17.7% were prominent. Out of the total number of culicids, 1,077 (86.9% were caught in the forests, 101 (8.1% in the areas surrounding homes and 62 (5% inside homes. Forests were the ecotope that presented the highest species diversity. The presence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus

  3. Fontes de resistência à murcha bacteriana em germoplasma de Capsicum spp. do estado do Amazonas Sources of resistance against bacterial wilt in Capsicum spp. germoplasm of the Amazonas state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Cristine Rebouças Demosthenes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A murcha bacteriana, causada por Ralstonia solanacearum, é uma das doenças mais importantes do gênero Capsicum no Brasil. No Amazonas, as condições de elevada temperatura e umidade favorecem o desenvolvimento da doença. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência à murcha bacteriana de germoplasma, selvagem e comercial, de Capsicum spp. Foram avaliados 22 acessos de Capsicum em casa de vegetação. A inoculação foi feita mediante ferimento das raízes, seguido de adição no solo, ao redor das plantas, de suspensão bacteriana na concentração de 10(8 ufc mL-1. A avaliação foi feita diariamente a partir do quarto dia após a inoculação, em função desenvolvimento dos sintomas. A partir das médias de progresso dos sintomas foi construída a área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença (AACPD, e os dados submetidos ao teste de Scott-Knott ao nível de 5% de probabilidade, utilizando o programa estatístico SAEG 9.1. Foram selecionados os acessos 30, 20 e 17, da espécie C. chinense, como resistentes à murcha bacteriana para ensaios futuros em programas de melhoramento genético.The bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is one of the most important in the genus Capsicum in Brazil. In the state of Amazonas, high temperatures and humidity favor the development of the disease. The objective of this work was to evaluate resistance in germoplasm of wild and commercial Capsicum spp. to bacterial wilt. Twenty two accesses of Capsicum spp. were evaluated in greenhouse conditions. The inoculation was made by means of wounds in the roots, followed by addition of bacterial suspension in the concentration of 10(8 ufc ml-1 in the soil, around the plants. Plant evaluation was made daily after the fourth day of the inoculation (DAI considering the symptoms progress. From the average progress of symptoms was constructed the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, and the data submitted to the Scott-Knott test at 5% of

  4. Enfermedad de chagas en la Región Nororiental del Perú. I. Triatominos (Hemiptera, Reduviidae presentes en Cajamarca y Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham G Cáceres

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Conocer la diversidad de triatominos presentes en las provincias de San Ignacio y Jaén (Cajamarca y en Bagua, Condorcanqui y Utcubamba (Amazonas. Materiales y métodos: los triatominos fueron capturados de mayo 1995 a diciembre 2000 en el intra y peridomicilios de las viviendas de las provincias de San Ignacio (5 distritos y Jaén (10 distritos del departamento de Cajamarca, y en 5 distritos de Bagua, un distrito de Condorcanqui y en seis de Utcubamba (Amazonas. El muestreo fue de 08:00 a 19:00 horas con alambre de 30 cm de largo, pinzas largas y linterna de mano. Resultados: se capturaron 5567 triatominos pertenecientes a cinco especies. Panstrongylus herreri fue la especie más predominante (94%. 90% del total de triatominos fueron capturados en ambientes intradomiciliarios. Se reporta Rhodnius robustus por primera vez para Amazonas. Ejemplares de R. ecuadoriensis y R. robustus, fueron colectados en intradomicilios en porcentajes mínimos en Sallique, provincia de Jaén (Cajamarca y Nieva, provincia de Condorcanqui (Amazonas. Panstrongylus geniculatus fue colectado en intradomicilios. Se reporta en ciertas localidades de La Coipa, Huarango y Namballe (San Ignacio; así como en Bellavista y Santa Rosa (Jaén y en Aramango, Copallín e Imaza (Bagua; además, en Jamalca, Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. Panstrongylus chinai, especie silvestre con tendencia a domesticarse, se encontró en Santa Rosa, Bellavista, Chontalí y San José del Alto (Jaén y en Namballe, San Ignacio, La Coipa y Chirinos (San Ignacio. También se encontró en Cajaruro y Bagua Grande (Utcubamba. 90% de P. herreri fueron colectados en el interior de las viviendas. Para Cajamarca se ha colectado en Pomahuaca, Pucará, San José del Alto, Pirias, Bellavista, Santa Rosa, La Coipa y Huarango; mientras que para Amazonas en Aramango, Parco, Bagua Grande, Cajaruro y El Milagro.

  5. Influência de Negro de Fumo Modificado com Polianilina na Estrutura de Compósitos com Poli(Fluoreto de Vinilideno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucolotto Valtencir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Compósitos condutores elétricos a base de poli(fluoreto de vinilideno (PVDF e negro de fumo modificado com polianilina (Eeonomer® foram preparados através do processamento por fusão. Resultados de reometria de torque indicaram que a presença de polianilina no negro de fumo é vantajosa ao processamento por fusão, reduzindo a viscosidade do fundido em comparação com a aditivação com negro de fumo puro. Compósitos contendo acima de 5% em peso de Eeonomer® apresentaram condutividade da ordem de 10-2 S/cm. Esse valor se manteve estável mesmo após tratamento térmico a 150degreesC por 170 h em atmosfera ambiente. Análises por calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC e difração de Raios-X mostraram que o tipo e a quantidade de Eeonomer®, assim como a taxa de resfriamento da amostra, podem afetar a temperatura de fusão, o grau de cristalinidade e a fase cristalina do PVDF presente no compósito.

  6. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.

  7. Paleoambientes sedimentarios de la Formación Toro Negro (Neógeno, antepaís fracturado andino, noroeste argentino Sedimentary paleoenvironments of the Toro Negro Formation (Neogene, Andean broken foreland, northwest Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Ciccioli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La Formación Toro Negro (Neógeno registra parte de la sedimentación de la cuenca de antepaís fracturado de Vinchina (Orogenia Andina en el NW argentino. Esta unidad está compuesta por conglomerados, areniscas y pelitas junto con algunos niveles de brechas y tobas depositados principalmente en ambientes continentales. Once asociaciones de facies (AF fueron reconocidas: ocho corresponden al miembro inferior y tres al superior. La AFI está compuesta por megabrechas intraformacionales y conglomerados depositados en ríos entrelazados gravosos que rellenaron el paleovalle fluvial en el norte del área. La AFII, formada por brechas intraformacionales y areniscas integrando fajas de canales fuertemente incisas dentro una planicie aluvial, fue identificada en las posiciones marginales del mencionado paleovalle. La AFIII, integrada por fajas de canales gravosos con planicies arenosas, corresponde a ríos anastomosados de clima semiárido que evolucionó a un sistema con espesas planicies fangosas con delgados desbordamientos arenosos y canales simples gravosos (AFIV. Por su parte, la AFV consiste de complejos de canales arenosos encapsulados con ciclos grano-crecientes. La AFVI está compuesta por conglomerados y areniscas guijarrosas depositadas en una planicie entrelazada que evoluciona a un sistema fluvial de menor energía (AFVII caracterizado por un aumento de depósitos fangosos con lóbulos arenosos y lentes gravosas. La AFVIII está dominada por sedimentos finos depositados en un lago somero. En el miembro superior, la AFIX corresponde a un sistema fluvial entrelazado profundo gravoso. La AFX está compuesta por facies finas acumuladas en una planicie aluvial fuertemente agradante sobre la que progradan depósitos gruesos correspondiente a un piedemonte dominado por flujos canalizados (AFXI. En la evolución paleoambiental de la Formación Toro Negro se reconocen 3 etapas. La etapa I (Mioceno Temprano corresponde a la formación de un

  8. Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking 'herring bone' deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Brancois the capital of the Brazilian state of Acre and is situated near the border with northeastern Bolivia. The town is a center for the distribution of goods, including rubber, metals, medicinal plants, Brazil nuts and timber. Colonization projects in the region are supported by farming, logging activities, and extensive cattle ranching. Much of the surrounding terrain is of a poorly-draining clay hardpan soil, and heavy rainfall periodically converts parts of the forested region to swamp.The large overview image was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on July 28, 2000, and covers an area of 336 kilometers x 333 kilometers. A plume of smoke is visible north of the Rio Branco road, which roughly parallels the slender, twisting Rio Abuna. Most of the major rivers in the image provide reference points for state or international (Bolivia-Brazil) boundaries, and flow northeast to the Rio Madeira (east of the smoke plume). The border between Acre and the Bolivian department of Pando is marked by the Rio Abuna. Pando's southern boundary with the department of Beni is marked by the Rio Madre de Dios, the large river in the lower half of the image.The two higher-resolution inset images highlight a settled area north of the town of Rio Branco. These nadir views cover an area of 60 kilometers x 67 kilometers, and were acquired eleven months apart during Terra orbits 3251 and 8144. In the later image, more haze is present, possibly due to smoke from fires on that day. Comparing the two images provides a method of measuring the changes and expansion in the area of cleared land. One newly cleared patch is apparent near the middle of the later image, slightly off to the right. This polygon represents an area of about 16 square kilometers, or 4000

  9. O predomínio dos negros nas escolas de Minas Gerais do século XIX The majority of blacks in schools of 19th-century Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Fonseca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O período que compreende os anos de 1820 a 1850 marca o início da construção e da estruturação de uma política de instrução pública com objetivo de educar o povo da província de Minas Gerais. Este artigo procura analisar o nível de relação entre esse processo e o segmento mais expressivo dentro da estrutura demográfica de Minas Gerais, ou seja, a população negra livre. Para realizar a análise, utilizamos como referência uma documentação censitária que tentou contabilizar a população de todos os distritos mineiros e registrou as crianças que estavam nas escolas. A partir do registro censitário, construímos um perfil racial das escolas, confrontando-o com informações fornecidas por outros documentos (listas de professores, relatos de viajantes, memórias que revelaram uma presença majoritária dos negros nas escolas de instrução elementar. A interpretação que produzimos em relação à presença dos negros nas escolas mineira indica que essa instituição era um dos elementos acionados por esse grupo com objetivo de afirmação no espaço social. Em relação a isso, destaca-se o fato de que a escolarização adquiriu significados específicos em meio à população negra, ou seja, representava a sua inserção na cultura letrada, mas também uma forma de demarcar um distanciamento do mundo da escravidão e uma demonstração de domínio dos códigos de conduta das pessoas livres.The period between 1820 and 1850 marks the beginning of the construction and structuring of a public education policy that aimed at educating the people of the province of Minas Gerais. The present article analyzes the relationship between this process and the most expressive segment within the demographic structure of the province at that time, namely, the population of free blacks. In order to conduct this analysis, we have sought reference in a census documentation that attempted to cover the whole population of Minas Gerais districts

  10. “Edificando um Patrimônio Sentimental”: O Clube Social 24 de Agosto e seu reconhecimento cultural pelo Estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Nunes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Essa pesquisa tem a finalidade mostrar o processo de tombamento que resultou no reconhecimento patrimonial, pelo Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, do Clube Social Negro 24 de Agosto, fundado em 1918, na cidade de Jaguarão, fronteira sul do Brasil com o Uruguai. Esta associação mostra a resistência negra no pós-abolição, onde o preconceito e o pouco acesso aos espaços de sociabilidade era uma realidade vivida pela maioria dos negros do município. Apesar da preocupação de órgãos de preservação patrimonial, que o incluíram na categoria de “clubes sociais negros”, esta agremiação étnica encontrava-se, ameaçada de extinção por conta de uma ação judicial que culminou no leilão de sua sede social, o que mobilizou sobremaneira a comunidade local para a participação nesta pesquisa. O aporte teórico-metodológico desse estudo procurou o diálogo entre a antropologia e a história, realizando, concomitantemente, uma etnografia “da duração” e levantamentos em jornais de circulação local que abarcam o período compreendido entre 1918 a 1960, além da consulta nas atas do Círculo Operário Jaguarense, sociedade que mantinha intensa atividade junto à comunidade negra.

  11. Indios, blancos y negros. Relaciones interétnicas en la frontera de Chiquitos con Mato Grosso, siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Martínez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe la situación de la frontera entre los imperios español y portugués en el alto río Paraguay en las épocas jesuítica y colonial tardía (siglo XVIII. Señala las transformaciones en la cartografía étnica que tuvieron lugar a partir de la tardía conquista y colonización de la región. Se tienen en cuenta procesos sociohistóricos como las incursiones esclavistas de los bandeirantes portugueses, la guerra chiquito-guaycurú, la disputa territorial entre ambas coronas ibéricas, y los cambios en la administración de la provincia de Chiquitos después de la expulsión de los jesuitas. Se analizan los cambios socioculturales y en las relaciones interétnicas, provocados por esos procesos históricos, prestando especial atención en la incidencia que tuvieron entre los grupos indígenas que poblaban las zonas aledañas al río, así como también en la vinculación de éstos con otros actores sociales blancos y negros, provenientes del reino de Portugal.

  12. Rescate y germinación in vitro de embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica Diels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintero García Oscar Darío

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Embriones inmaduros de cedro negro (Juglans neotropica (Juglandaceae con 16 y 20 semanas de desarrollo fueron removidos asépticamente de los frutos y sembrados durante 60 días en los medios de culti+o M- (Muras3ige 4 -koog, 99<=, WPM (Blo4d 4 McCoFn, 9980 4 GHW (Gri+er 4 Huni4uki,

    9984, sin reguladores de crecimiento. -e  obser+ó que embriones con 9< semanas de desarrollo no germinaron en los tres medios de cultivo; por el contrario, los embriones con 20 semanas de desarrollo presentaron una germinación de 100%. Se encontró un marcado efecto del medio en el crecimiento de los embriones, siendo el medio M- meOor (P P 0.05 que los medios GHW 4 WPM, debido a que en él los embriones Wresentaron ma4or altura 4 WroWorción talloXraiY Wara la obtención de WlZntulas comWletas

  13. Morfologia de frutos, sementes e desenvolvimento pós-seminal de cabelo-de-negro - Connarus suberosus Planch. (Connaraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele Tallon Matheus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describe and illustrate the morphological aspects of cabelo-de-negro (Connarus suberosus Planch. fruits, seeds and post-seminal development. The fruits were characterized externally, the seeds internally and externally, and the germination and initial development of the seedlings were also analyzed and described. A stereoscope microscope was used for the observations whereas the measurements were made with a pachimeter. Fruits are ovoid and dehiscent follicles, of ferruginous-yellow color, containing one or two seeds. The seed has a reniform shape, showing dark coat and a circular hilum, which is recovered by the yellow-orange arilum. Seeds have axial and invaginated embryo, with green cotyledons that show various specks of ferruginous-reddish pigmentation, and a short, straight and cylindrical hypocotil-radicle axis. Seed germination was hypogeous and criptocotylar. The primary root emerges after 3 to 10 days, followed by the emergence of the protophyll, which occurs from around 10 to 20 days after sowing.

  14. Quem é negro, quem é branco: desempenho escolar e classificação racial de alunos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research undertaken with classes from the 1st to 4th grades of primary education in a public school in the municipality of São Paulo and discusses the differences between the racial classification of school children carried out by teachers and that made by the children themselves. The concept of race adopted is that of “social race”, that is, a social construct based on an erroneous biological idea but which has proved efficient for maintaining privileges. Concludes that the fact that the difference in school performance between white and black children in the school is greater when the teachers’ classification is employed in place of self-classification results as much from teachers ‘whitening’ children with good performance as from their evaluating children, chiefly boys, they perceive as Negroes with greater rigour. It further emphasises that it is not a case of accusing the teachers of deliberate racial discrimination but of investigating the ways in which racism, present in Brazilian society as a whole, also penetrates school relations.

  15. Perlas y piel de azabache. El negro en las pesquerías de las Indias Occidentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tardieu, Jean Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not very long after the Discovery, the pearls from the West Indies competed with those from the Orient for the full regalia of the ladies of the gentry, or that of the most revered virgins, while raising the curiosity of the best known chroniclers and creating an excruciating tax system. Considering the legislation passed for the benefit of Indians, those were to a large extent replaced in the “pearl fisheries” by black slaves submitted by the covetousness of their masters and the interests of the Crown to horrendous living and working conditions which most of the time relentlessly led them to death.

    Poco después del Descubrimiento, las perlas de las Indias occidentales rivalizaron con las de Oriente para el adorno de las damas de la alta sociedad o de las Vírgenes más veneradas, suscitando la curiosidad científica de los cronistas más conocidos y una exigente legislación fiscal. Debido a las leyes emitidas a favor de los indios, éstos se sustituyeron en gran parte, en las pesquerías de perlas, por esclavos negros sometidos —por la codicia de los amos y el interés de la Corona— a despiadadas condiciones de vida y de trabajo que desembocaban las más veces en una muerte inexorable.

  16. Reclutamiento político en Brasil. Mujeres, negros y partidos en las elecciones federales de 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Bolognesi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es presentar un abordaje sistemático de la influencia de las ocupaciones profesionales sobre el reclutamiento político parlamentario. Se pone a prueba la hipótesis de Norris y Lovenduski (1997, según la cual ciertas ocupaciones son más propensas a generar éxito político que otras, a partir del análisis de 5 219 casos de candidatos que compitieron para un cargo en la Cámara de Diputados de Brasil en las elecciones de 2014. Agregamos las ocupaciones declaradas en categorías considerando la mayor o menor predisposición de las mismas para la política y evaluamos la influencia de esa variable societal sobre el resultado de la elección. Sumamos al tipo de ocupación otros atributos como el sexo, color de piel y tamaño del partido político por el cual presentó su candidatura. Nuestros resultados revelan una fuerte asociación entre las ocupaciones con alta disposición para la política y el éxito electoral, inclusive en el caso de las mujeres y de los candidatos de partidos pequeños, aunque no en el caso de los candidatos negros.

  17. Positivar a imagem do negro desde a educação infantil: uma experiência no nordeste goiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathas Vilas Boas de Sant'Ana

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente artigo é evidenciar a necessidade de estratégias para a positivação da imagem do negro desde a Educação Infantil. Para tanto, faz-se contextualização e problematização teórico-prática de um projeto em educação das relações étnico-raciais realizada pelo autor no nordeste goiano durante o período de Estágio Supervisionado no ano de 2014. Na análise desta experiência destacam-se potenciais e dificuldades, levando a repensar a educação escolar para que o trabalho com esta questão tenha centralidade no ato educativo e alinhe-se a uma pedagogia complexa e antirracista nesta região e na sociedade brasileira. Palavras-chave: Imagem; educação das relações étnico-raciais; nordeste goiano; estágio supervisionado; educação infantil; antirracismo.

  18. Influence of seasonality on the interaction of mercury with aquatic humic substances extracted from the Middle Negro River Basin (Amazon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana C. de, E-mail: lcamargo@ufscar.br [Federal University of Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Botero, Wander G. [Federal University of Alagoas (UFAL), Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Felipe A. [Institute of Biosciences, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Sargentini Junior, Ezio [National Amazon Research Institute (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Rocha, Julio C.; Santos, Ademir dos [Institute of Chemistry of Araraquara, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    High mercury concentrations in different environmental matrices in the Amazon have been attributed to mining activities. However, high concentrations of mercury are also present in the soil and water in places like in the middle of the Negro River Basin, which is far away from any anthropogenic emission sources. The Amazon region is characterized by two different regional seasons, with well-defined flood and low water periods. The objective of this work was to investigate the seasonal influences of the interaction between mercury and aquatic humic substances (AHS), which are the main agents of the natural organic complexation capacity. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed that the humic substances had different structural characteristics, depending on each season. The ability of humic substances to form complexes with Hg(II) is not directly related to their carbon content, but to the nature and availability of the functional groups present in its structure. The functional groups are carboxylic and aromatic directly related to the higher complexation capacity of AHS by mercury ions. (author)

  19. Influence of seasonality on the interaction of mercury with aquatic humic substances extracted from the Middle Negro River Basin (Amazon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luciana C. de; Botero, Wander G.; Santos, Felipe A.; Sargentini Junior, Ezio; Rocha, Julio C.; Santos, Ademir dos

    2012-01-01

    High mercury concentrations in different environmental matrices in the Amazon have been attributed to mining activities. However, high concentrations of mercury are also present in the soil and water in places like in the middle of the Negro River Basin, which is far away from any anthropogenic emission sources. The Amazon region is characterized by two different regional seasons, with well-defined flood and low water periods. The objective of this work was to investigate the seasonal influences of the interaction between mercury and aquatic humic substances (AHS), which are the main agents of the natural organic complexation capacity. The results of the multivariate statistical analysis of the data showed that the humic substances had different structural characteristics, depending on each season. The ability of humic substances to form complexes with Hg(II) is not directly related to their carbon content, but to the nature and availability of the functional groups present in its structure. The functional groups are carboxylic and aromatic directly related to the higher complexation capacity of AHS by mercury ions. (author)

  20. Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentation of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the tributaries Negro and Madeira, Central Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Senna Gonçalves Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In the scope of Solimões-Amazon fluvial system between the Negro and Madeira tributaries, three levels of Quaternary fluvial terraces overlie the Alter do Chão and Novo Remanso formations further than 100 km southward its current main channel. Smooth undulated topography presenting low drainages density formed by sparse secondary plain channels and rounded lakes characterizes these deposits. Internally, they show point bars morphology constituted by intercalated layers of mud (silt and clay and sand forming an inclined heterolithic stratification. The asymmetric distribution of fluvial terraces allied to the records of old scroll-bars features and paleochannels in many extensions of the Solimões River suggests the predominance of a meander pattern between 240 to 6 kyears. On the other hand, the development of the current anabranching pattern took place in the last six kyears due to the Holocene sea-level rise, besides the action of neotectonics and rainforest establishment related to the increase of humidity in Amazonia.

  1. Los comportamientos reproductivos de la población mapuche de la provincia de Río Negro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crognier, Emile

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Datos retrospectivos sobre la fecundidad de 200 mujeres de origen mapuche de la provincia de Río Negro (Argentina, son analizados con el fin de describir las características de su vida reproductiva. La pubertad relativamente precoz (en promedio la primera menstruación aparece a los 13 años, no es la señal de la entrada a la vida fecunda, ésta se produce en promedio 7 años más tarde. Luego, la natalidad es regular -intervalos de dos a tres años separan los nacimientos sucesivos- hasta su conclusión, que interviene en promedio alrededor de los 38 años, implicando que aún cerca de un 30% de las mujeres conciben después de 43 años. La lactancia materna se practica por un poco más de un año, lo que debe contribuir a aumentar la duración de los intervalos intergenésicos, a pesar de que por otro lado, el uso de contraceptivos parece regular. El ritmo de la vida reproductiva parece ser significativamente más rápido en la ciudad que en el campo e igualmente parece establecerse en esta dirección la evolución entre las generaciones.

  2. Prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi among riverine communities in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Fernandes Medeiros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Estimate the prevalence of Mansonella ozzardi infection and calculate the parasitic infection rate (PIR in simuliid black flies in the municipality of Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil. METHODS: Prevalence was measured using the thick blood smear method collected from the fingers and was related to age, sex and occupation. Simuliidae were collected with a suction apparatus, then stained with hematoxylin and dissected to verify the PIR. RESULTS: The average prevalence rate of M. ozzardi among the 694 individuals examined was 20.7%. Infection was higher in men (27.6% than in women (14.3% (p 58 (60.5%. The highest prevalence rates were observed in the retired (64%, followed by farm workers (47.1%. Infection by M. ozzardi was only identified in Cerqueirellum amazonicum (Simuliidae with a PIR of 0.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a high prevalence of M. ozzardi in the riverine communities of Lábrea due to the lack of policies regarding the treatment of microfilaremic individuals in the region and an abundance of competent vectors for M. ozzardi.

  3. Mansonella ozzardi in Amazonas, Brazil: prevalence and distribution in the municipality of Coari, in the middle Solimões River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilaine Martins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some epidemiological aspects of the Mansonella ozzardi in municipality of Coari, Amazonas. Clinical symptoms were correlated with the filarial infection and the parasitic infection rates (PIR were estimated in simuliid vectors. The general M. ozzardi human prevalence rate was 13.3% (231/1733, of which 10.2% (109/1069 were from the urban area and 18.4% (122/664 from the rural area. The prevalence rates were higher in men (14.5% urban and 19.7% rural than in women (6.7% urban and 17.2% rural and occurred in most age groups. The indices of microfilaremics were higher in people > 51 years old (26.9% urban and 61.5% rural. High prevalence rates were observed in retired people (27.1% urban area, housewives and farmer (41.6% and 25%, respectively, in rural area. The main clinical symptoms were joint pains and sensation of leg coldness. Only Cerqueirellum argentiscutum (Simuliidae transmits M. ozzardi in this municipality (PIR = 5.6% urban and 7.1% rural. M. ozzardi is a widely distributed parasitic disease in Coari. Thus, temporary residency in the region of people from other localities involved with the local gas exploitation might be a contributing factor in spreading the disease.

  4. Regionalização em Saúde no Amazonas: avanços e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Garnelo

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo analisa o processo de regionalização em saúde no estado do Amazonas por meio de estudo de caso da regional em Saúde Entorno de Manaus. Pesquisa qualitativa, descritivo-analítica, cujos dados foram coletados através de entrevistas, revisão de documentos e de páginas de internet, tomando como conceito guia a regionalização em saúde. Os achados do estudo mostram uma cena social onde predominam a assimetria, a verticalidade, a competitividade e a fragilidade das relações multilaterais entre municípios, associados a um perfil cartorial das instituições que atuam na região de saúde sob estudo. Os agentes políticos envolvidos no processo têm limitado reconhecimento das condições sociopolíticas e institucionais em que atuam. Tendem a atribuir os problemas de gestão e operacionalização das redes de assistência à configuração dos espaços naturais-geográficos amazônicos, mas seu financiamento, governança e capacidade técnica são insuficientes para superá-los.

  5. OPEN INNOVATION PROJECT: THE SYSTEM OF ONLINE INDICATORS IN SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION OF AMAZONAS (SiON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moises Andrade Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of an open innovation project in a public institution in the state of Amazonas. The theoretical and empirical background deals with science, technology and innovation indicators and open innovation. The study is characterized as a qualitative and descriptive research, with the case study as a methodological procedure. The delimitation of the universe was composed by a public institution in the area of science, technology and innovation (ST&I. In the case study, it was used an approach as tool to assess the implementation of open innovation projects. The results are shown several stages of open innovation project analyzed.  The study demonstrates the implications of open innovation project adoption to the strengthening of external networks and the maturing of the internal environment. The relevance of the study is based on the evaluation of an open innovation project in a public institution in order to foster the transition from traditional innovation processes to open innovation processes.

  6. Landscapes and ethno-knowledge in the Ticuna and Cocama agriculture at upper River Solimões, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra do Nascimento Noda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The units of landscape in the Cocama and Ticuna agriculture, in the upper River Solimões, are characterized by productionarrangements and management of natural resources. This paper aims to characterize these agro-ecological based practices,the landscaped results and its regional applicability. The survey was conducted in Novo Paraíso, at Bom Intento Island,and in Nova Aliança, both located in the munici